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Sample records for bovine placental villi

  1. Arrangement of collagen fibers in human placental stem villi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sati, Leyla; Demir, Ayse Yasemin; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Demir, Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the arrangements and related localization patterns of different collagen types in the stroma of placental stem villi by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. A total of 14 normal human term placental tissue samples were studied. Immunohistochemistry

  2. Arrangement of collagen fibers in human placental stem villi.

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    Sati, Leyla; Demir, Ayse Yasemin; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Demir, Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the arrangements and related localization patterns of different collagen types in the stroma of placental stem villi by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. A total of 14 normal human term placental tissue samples were studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed in order to localize collagen types I, III, IV, V and cytokeratin 7 on tissue sections. Parallel tissue samples were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Semi-quantitative analysis of immunolabeling intensities was also performed to determine the distribution of fibers in stem villi stroma. All collagen types, especially collagen type V, were strongly immunopositive in the triangular areas of the stem villi stroma. However, there was no collagen type I or type III immunolabeling in the sub-trophoblastic regions. Membrane collagen type IV immunolabeling was also observed in the stroma of stem villi. Ultrastructurally, collagen fibers showed different configurations in cross, longitudinal, circular, oblique and parallel directions compared to the villous axis. We conclude that the organization of collagen fiber bundles in stem villi shows a very specific arrangement: a compact coat formed by fibrillar bundles between the vascular wall and extravascular stroma of stem villi correlated with the functional activity.

  3. Modeling oxygen transport in human placental terminal villi.

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    Gill, J S; Salafia, C M; Grebenkov, D; Vvedensky, D D

    2011-12-21

    Oxygen transport from maternal blood to fetal blood is a primary function of the placenta. Quantifying the effectiveness of this exchange remains key in identifying healthy placentas because of the great variability in capillary number, caliber and position within the villus-even in placentas deemed clinically "normal". By considering villous membrane to capillary membrane transport, stationary oxygen diffusion can be numerically solved in terminal villi represented by digital photomicrographs. We aim to provide a method to determine whether and if so to what extent diffusional screening may operate in placental villi. Segmented digital photomicrographs of terminal villi from the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition study in North Carolina 2002 are used as a geometric basis for solving the stationary diffusion equation. Constant maternal villous oxygen concentration and perfect fetal capillary membrane absorption are assumed. System efficiency is defined as the ratio of oxygen flux into a villus and the sum of the capillary areas contained within. Diffusion screening is quantified by comparing numerical and theoretical maximum oxygen fluxes. A strong link between various measures of villous oxygen transport efficiency and the number of capillaries within a villus is established. The strength of diffusional screening is also related to the number of capillaries within a villus. Our measures of diffusional efficiency are shown to decrease as a function of the number of capillaries per villus. This low efficiency, high capillary number relationship supports our hypothesis that diffusional screening is present in this system. Oxygen transport per capillary is reduced when multiple capillaries compete for diffusing oxygen. A complete picture of oxygen fluxes, capillary and villus areas is obtainable and presents an opportunity for future work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells in human placental chorionic villi reside in a vascular Niche

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    Castrechini, N. M.; Murthi, P.; Gude, N. M.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Gronthos, S.; Zannettino, A.; Brennecke, S. R.; Kalionis, B.; Brennecke, S.P.

    The chorionic villi of human term placentae are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) The stem cell "niche" within the chorionic villi regulates how PMSCs participate in placental tissue generation, maintenance and repair, but the anatomic location of the niche has not been defined A

  5. Expressional regulation of genes linked to immunity & programmed development in human early placental villi

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    M A Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: During 6 to 8 wk of gestation, human placental villi show a complex pattern of morphogenesis. There is however, no large scale gene expression study exploring the temporal pattern of the developmental molecular networks in placental villi during the early weeks of gestation. We evaluated the transcriptome profiling of humn placental villus samples obtained from fertile women with voluntarily terminated normal pregnancies between 6-8 wk of gestation. Methods: Transcriptomic profiles of individual human placental villous samples from 25 women with normal pregnancies during 6 to 8 wk of gestation were examined using human whole genome expression arrays. Quantitative RT-PCR validation of copy numbers of transcripts for selected 15 genes and exploratory analysis of the microarray data revealed a high degree of quality assurance supportive of further clustering and differential analyses. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis of selected five candidate proteins (CAGE1, CD9, SLC6A2, TANK and VEGFC based on transcript profiles were done to assess the pattern of down stream informational flow. Results: A large number (~9K of genes with known functions were expressed in the experimental samples. The clustering analysis identified three major expression clusters with gestational age, and four co-expressional clusters. Differential analysis identified a highly discrete regulatory process involving only about 160 genes. Immunochemical analysis of selected candidate proteins based on transcript profiles revealed generally synchronous expression in human early placental villi. Interpretation & conclusions: Several signaling pathways linked to immunity (COL1, JAK2, JAK3, IL12, IL13, IL15, IL27, STAT3 and STAT5 were downregulated, while genes of the enriched category of antiviral immunity (ATF/AP1, IL10R and OAS were clearly over-expressed. Transcriptional integration supportive of programmed development was observed in first

  6. Regulation of progesterone receptor A and B expression in human preterm, term, and postterm placental villi.

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    Ziyan, Jiang; Huaibin, Ren; Xiaotian, Ma; Guangtong, She; Xiaoqing, Chen; Zijiang, Dong; Ziyue, Jiang; We, De; Lizhou, Sun

    2010-05-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR)-A/B ratio in the myometrium is reported to be closely related to labor onset. This might represent a potential target for therapeutic interventions for postterm and preterm deliveries, though the mechanisms currently remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation mechanism of PR-A and B expression in human preterm, term, and postterm placental villi. Experimental study. People's Hospital of Jiangsu Province, China. Singleton women of preterm (PRNIL, not in labor, n = 10), term (TNIL, not in labor, n = 10; TIL, in labor, n = 10), and postterm (PONIL, not in labor, n = 10) cesarean deliveries. The PR-A/PR-B mRNA and protein ratios were analyzed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blots in villi from preterm, term, postterm groups. PONIL and PRNIL villi were incubated with prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PG) and indomethacin for 72 hours, respectively, and the PR-A/PR-B mRNA and protein ratios and p38 signaling pathway were explored. The PR-A/PR-B ratio was highest in TIL, followed by PRNIL, PONIL and TNIL. Indomethacin significantly up-regulated PR-B expression, thereby decreasing the PR-A/PR-B ratio (p postterm deliveries.

  7. Placental Hypoxia Developed During Preeclampsia Induces Telocytes Apoptosis in Chorionic Villi Affecting The Maternal-Fetus Metabolic Exchange.

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    Bosco, Cleofina Becerra; Díaz, Eugenia Guerra; Gutierrez, Rodrigo Rojas; González, Jaime Montero; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Rodrigo, Ramón Salinas; Barja, Pilar Yañez

    2016-01-01

    Telocytes (TC) are a new type of stromal cells initially found and studied in digestive and extra- digestive organs. These cells have a small cell body with 2 to 5 thin and extremely long cytoplasmic prolongations named telopodes. In recent years, TC have also been described in placental chorionic villi, located in a strategical position between the smooth muscle cells from fetal vessels and the myofibroblasts in the stromal villi. Unlike other organs, the placenta is not innervated and considering the strategic location of TC is has been postulated that TC function would be related to signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of the fetal vessels blood flow, as well as in the shortening/lengthening of the chorionic villi, providing the necessary rhythmicity to the process of maternal/fetal metabolic exchange. Preeclampsia (PE) is a systemic syndrome that affects 4%-6% of pregnancies worldwide. It is characterized by a placental state of ischemia-hypoxia which triggers an oxidative stress stage with the concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to an increase in the degree of placental apoptosis. Placental vascular tone is regulated by the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and, in PE cases, NO is diverted towards the formation of peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidative agent whose activity leads to an increase of placental apoptosis degree that compromises TC and myofibroblasts, a key feature we would like to emphasize in this work.

  8. [Distribution of collagen types III and IV in human placental villi].

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    Nanaev, A K; Rukosuev, V S; Milovanov, A P; Fokin, E I; Shirinskiĭ, V P

    1989-02-01

    Immunofluorescent examination showed more significant accumulation of interstitial collagen type III in the stroma of mature placenta compared with immature one. Localization of membrane collagen type IV was found neither in basal membranes of epithelium and villous vessels of mature term placenta, nor in their stroma. The described patterns of distribution of collagen types III and IV in human placenta villi were proved by immunoelectronmicroscopic method.

  9. An integrative view on the physiology of human early placental villi.

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    Huppertz, Berthold; Ghosh, Debabrata; Sengupta, Jayasree

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is an indispensable organ for intrauterine protection, development and growth of the embryo and fetus. It provides tight contact between mother and conceptus, enabling the exchange of gas, nutrients and waste products. The human placenta is discoidal in shape, and bears a hemo-monochorial interface as well as villous materno-fetal interdigitations. Since Peter Medawar's astonishment to the paradoxical nature of the mother-fetus relationship in 1953, substantial knowledge in the domain of placental physiology has been gathered. In the present essay, an attempt has been made to build an integrated understanding of morphological dynamics, cell biology, and functional aspects of genomic and proteomic expression of human early placental villous trophoblast cells followed by a commentary on the future directions of research in this field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxic and therapeutic effects of Nifurtimox and Benznidazol on Trypanosoma cruzi ex vivo infection of human placental chorionic villi explants.

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    Rojo, Gemma; Castillo, Christian; Duaso, Juan; Liempi, Ana; Droguett, Daniel; Galanti, Norbel; Maya, Juan Diego; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2014-04-01

    Nifurtimox (Nfx) and Benznidazole (Bnz) are the only available drugs in use for the treatment of Chagas disease. These drugs are recommended but not fully validated in evidence-based medicine and reports about the differential toxicity of both drugs are controversial. Here, we evaluated the toxic and therapeutic effects of Nfx and Bnz on human placental chorionic villi explants (HPCVE) during ex vivo infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, performing histopathological, histochemical, immunohistochemical as well as immunofluorescence analysis of the tissue. Additionally, we determined the effect of both drugs on parasite load by real time PCR. Bnz prevents the parasite induced tissue damage in ex vivo infected HPCVE compared to Nfx, which is toxic per se. The presence of T. cruzi antigens and DNA in infected explants suggests that these drugs do not impair parasite invasion into the HPCVE. Additionally, our results confirm reports suggesting that Bnz is less toxic than Nfx and support the need for the development of more effective and better-tolerated drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human type 2 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA and protein distribution in placental villi at mid and term pregnancy

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    Plante Julie

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During human pregnancy, the placental villi produces high amounts of estradiol. This steroid is secreted by the syncytium, which is directly in contact with maternal blood. Estradiol has to cross placental foetal vessels to reach foetal circulation. The enzyme 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17beta-HSD2 was detected in placental endothelial cells of foetal vessels inside the villi. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of estradiol to estrone, and of testosterone to androstenedione. It was proposed that estradiol level into foetal circulation could be regulated by 17beta-HSD2. Methods We obtained placentas from 10 to 26 6/7 weeks of pregnancy from women undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy, term placentas were collected after normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries. We quantified 17beta-HSD2 mRNA levels in mid-gestation and term human placenta by RT-QPCR. We produced a new anti-17beta-HSD2 antibody to study its spatio-temporal expression by immunohistochemistry. We also compared steroid levels (testosterone, estrone and estradiol and 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels between term placenta and endometrium. Results High 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels were found in both mid-gestation and term placentas. However, we showed that 17beta-HSD2 mRNA levels increase by 2.27 fold between mid-gestation and term. This period coincides with a transitional phase in the development of the villous vasculature. In mid-gestation placenta, high levels of 17beta-HSD2 were found in mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi, more precisely in endothelial cells of the stromal channel. At term, high levels of 17beta-HSD2 were found in the numerous sinusoidal capillaries of terminal villi. 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels in term placentas were respectively 25.4 fold and 30 to 60 fold higher than in the endometrium. Steroid levels were also significantly higher in term placenta than in the endometrium. Conclusion

  12. The branching pattern of villous capillaries and structural changes of placental terminal villi in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirkovská, M.; Kučera, T.; Kaláb, J.; Jadrníček, M.; Niedobová, V.; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Moravcová, M.; Žižka, Z.; Krejčí, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2012), s. 343-351 ISSN 0143-4004 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/09/0733 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : angiogenesis * branching * capillaries * collagen * confocal microscopy * desmin * diabetes * placenta * structure * three-dimensional reconstruction * vascular topology * villi * vimentin Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.117, year: 2012

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMETRICAL CHANGES OF THE PLACENTAL TERMINAL VILLI IN NORMAL AND PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Sharmila Bhanu P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM & OBJECTIVES Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is escalating in Indian women amounting to 10% of the total pregnancies mainly due to the diet, obesity and sedentary life style. Placenta is a crucial organ of intrauterine life. The functional units of the placenta such as chorionic villi, foetal blood vessels, and the syncytial knots are altered histologically in gestational diabetic condition. The present study is undertaken to observe the morphological and micrometrical changes of the GDM and normal placenta. MATERIAL AND METHODS Total number of 96 placentas, out of which 48 are GDM and 48 from control were procured for the present study. The placentas were collected from our General Hospital, Nellore, AP. Morphology and micrometry of the placentas were studied. RESULTS The shape of placenta was similar in both groups, but the weight in GDM (537.27±131.97 g, diameter (168.2±13.23 mm and thickness (29.9±3.45 mm were significantly (P<0.005 increased when compared to control. The mean number (9.01±2.25 mm3 and diameter (0.08±0.03 mm of the terminal villi and number of foetal blood vessels (21.76±8.52 mm3 were found to be increased in GDM, but the diameter of the blood vessel (0.04±0.02 mm was decreased and highly significant (P<0.001. The syncytial knots and fibrinoid necrosis were also observed in GDM when compared to the normal placenta. CONCLUSION The placentas from GDM were observed with significant morphological and histological changes as compared to controls, which may alter the perinatal outcome resulting in macrosomia, congenital malformations and intrauterine growth retardation.

  14. In Vitro Infection of Trypanosoma cruzi Causes Decrease in Glucose Transporter Protein-1 (GLUT1 Expression in Explants of Human Placental Villi Cultured under Normal and High Glucose Concentrations

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    Luciana Mezzano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic Chagas' disease agent, induces changes in protein pattern of the human placenta syncytiotrophoblast. The glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1 is the primary isoform involved in transplacental glucose transport. We carried out in vitro assays to determine if T. cruzi infection would induce changes in placental GLUT1 protein expression under normal and high concentration of glucose. Using Western blot and immunohistological techniques, GLUT1 expression was determined in normal placental villi cultured under normal or high concentrations of glucose, with or without in vitro T. cruzi infection, for 24 and 48 hours. High glucose media or T. cruzi infection alone reduced GLUT1 expression. A yet more accentuated reduction was observed when infection and high glucose condition took place together. We inform, for the first time, that T. cruzi infection may induce reduction of GLUT1 expression under normal and high glucose concentrations, and this effect is synergic to high glucose concentrations.

  15. Heme Oxygenase-1 Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced sFlt-1 and Oxidative Stress in Placental Villi through Its Metabolic Products CO and Bilirubin

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    Eric M. George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prevalent complications of pregnancy is preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder which is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and premature birth with no effective pharmacological intervention. While the underlying cause is unclear, it is believed that placental ischemia/hypoxia induces the release of factors into the maternal vasculature and lead to widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction. Recently, HO-1 has been shown to downregulate two of these factors, reactive oxygen species and sFlt-1, and we have reported that HO-1 induction attenuates many of the pathological factors of placental ischemia experimentally. Here, we have examined the direct effect of HO-1 and its bioactive metabolites on hypoxia-induced changes in superoxide and sFlt-1 in placental vascular explants and showed that HO-1 and its metabolites attenuate the production of both factors in this system. These findings suggest that the HO-1 pathway may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of preeclampsia.

  16. EGF stimulates proliferation in the bovine placental trophoblast cell line F3 via Ras and MAPK.

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    Hambruch, N; Haeger, J-D; Dilly, M; Pfarrer, C

    2010-01-01

    In the bovine placenta, multinucleate trophoblast giant cells (TGC), evolving from uninucleate trophoblast cells, are crucial for feto-maternal interaction as they show endocrine activity and the ability to migrate and fuse with caruncular epithelial cells. In contrast to caruncular epithelial cells, the isolation and culture of bovine trophoblast cells is complicated because they cease to express their specific products, like placental lactogen (PL), during prolonged culture. In the present study, we aimed to establish a bovine cotyledonary trophoblast cell line targeting our long term goal to develop an in vitro model for the bovine placenta. Therefore, the functional activity of important signalling pathways was tested. Primary trophoblast cells were isolated from a bovine cotyledon of a male fetus and successfully subcultured and cryopreserved. The obtained cell line, termed F3, showed epithelial morphology and characteristic binuclear giant cells in small numbers through all passages. The trophoblastic origin of F3 cells was verified by amplification of a Y-chromosome specific DNA-sequence and the presence of PL mRNA. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that F3 cells were continuously positive for zonula occludens-2 (ZO-2), cytokeratin and vimentin, whereas they expressed the TGC specific marker PL only in the first two passages. F3 cell growth was accelerated in medium supplied with epidermal growth factor (EGF). EGF-stimulated proliferation was mediated through activation of Ras and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 42 and 44. In conclusion, the F3 cell line shows several in vivo characteristics of bovine cotyledonary trophoblast cells. The response to EGF stimulation indicates that EGF plays a role during bovine placentation, and illustrated that F3 cells may provide a valuable tool for further mechanistic studies elucidating the feto-maternal interplay.

  17. Review: Placental perturbations induce the developmental abnormalities often observed in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

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    Chavatte-Palmer, P; Camous, S; Jammes, H; Le Cleac'h, N; Guillomot, M; Lee, R S F

    2012-02-01

    Since the first success in cloning sheep, the production of viable animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has developed significantly. Cattle are by far the most successfully cloned species but, despite this, the technique is still associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure and accompanying placental and fetal pathologies. Pre- and early post-implantation losses can affect up to 70% of the pregnancies. In the surviving pregnancies, placentomegaly and fetal overgrowth are commonly observed, but the incidence varies widely, depending on the genotype of the nuclear donor cell and differences in SCNT procedures. In all cases, the placenta is central to the onset of the pathologies. Although cellular organisation of the SCNT placenta appears normal, placental vascularisation is modified and fetal-to-maternal tissue ratios are slightly increased in the SCNT placentomes. In terms of functionality, steroidogenesis is perturbed and abnormal estrogen production and metabolism probably play an important part in the increased gestation length and lack of preparation for parturition observed in SCNT recipients. Maternal plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins are increased, mostly due to a reduction in turnover rate rather than increased placental production. Placental glucose transport and fructose synthesis appear to be modified and hyperfructosemia has been observed in neonatal SCNT calves. Gene expression analyses of the bovine SCNT placenta show that multiple pathways and functions are affected. Abnormal epigenetic re-programming appears to be a key component of the observed pathologies, as shown by studies on the expression of imprinted genes in SCNT placenta. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Stimulation of mammogenesis and lactogenesis by recombinant bovine placental lactogen in steroid-primed dairy heifers.

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    Byatt, J C; Eppard, P J; Veenhuizen, J J; Curran, T L; Curran, D F; McGrath, M F; Collier, R J

    1994-01-01

    A model of induced lactation was modified to examine the effects of bovine prolactin (bPRL) and bovine placental lactogen (bPL) on mammary growth and differentiation. Thirty-two peripubertal, non-pregnant Holstein heifers were given daily s.c. injections of oestradiol (0.05 mg/kg) and progesterone (0.25 mg/kg) for 7 days to initiate mammary growth. Treatment with bromocriptine (40 mg/3 days) reduced serum PRL concentrations to approximately 25% of pretreatment levels, for the duration of the study. On the day following the last steroid injection, groups of eight heifers were given twice daily s.c. injections of either saline (negative control), recombinant bPRL (rbPRL; 80 mg/day) or recombinant bPL (rbPL; 80 and 160 mg/day) for 7 days. At the end of this period (day 15), growth and differentiation of the mammary glands were assessed. Treatment with rbPL increased total mammary DNA above control value by 50 and 60% for the 80 and 160 mg/day doses respectively. However, total DNA was not different for the control and rbPRL-treated groups. The blood serum concentration of alpha-lactalbumin was measured daily throughout the study and used as an index of mammary differentiation. Both rbPRL and rbPL stimulated mammary differentiation (i.e. induction of milk synthesis), although rbPRL appeared to be more potent than rbPL. These results indicate that rbPL is lactogenic in vivo and strongly suggest that bPL is a mammary mitogen.

  19. Assesment of porcine placental villi remodelling through tunel and PCNA

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    Sanchis, Gabriela; González, Silvina Lorena; Fiorimanti, Mariana Rita; Cristofolini, Andrea Lorena; Barbeito, Claudio Gustavo; Merkis, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    El mantenimiento de la integridad estructural y funcional del tejido placentario involucra un recambio celular altamente regulado que depende de un delicado balance entre proliferación, diferenciación y pérdida celular. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el porcentaje de células positivas al marcador de proliferación celular (%PCNA), y el índice apoptótico (IAp), a lo largo de la preñez, para evaluar la relación entre los procesos de proliferación y muerte celular. Se trabajó con muestras placen...

  20. Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants

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    Ricardo E. Fretes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

  1. Expression of VEGF receptors VEFGR-1 and VEGFR-2, angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 in chorionic villi tree during early pregnancy.

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    Ramazan Demir

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the expression of VEGF and its receptors in placentas from normal pregnancies between 22 days p.c. and 48 days p.c. of very early pregnancy. Placental tissues carried out from 19 pregnant women were examined. Immunohistochemical technique, electron microscopy were employed to evaluate the factors expression. In the new developing mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGF and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity was detected in all the placental components, while in the stem villi and in the chorionic plate with large vessels only in some components. In the mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGFR-1 and -2, and angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 immunoreactivity was dominantly observed in the heamangiogenic cells and cells cords, whereas the matured villi showed immunoreactivity only in other components. The ultrastructural findings were higher in respect to the all of the early pregnancy days. The placental samples from all of pregnancies, showed the VEGF and its receptors in optimal expression levels, whereas the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 showed a higher expression levels in respect to other study factors. The receptors protein levels increased from the early days to the advanced days of gestation, but this alteration was not significant. The intensity of the immunolabeling for these proteins were not significant compared to to each other of gestatin days were examined. These findings demonstrated that a dysregulation of the placental expression of the VEGF and its receptors related to the different degrees of the gestational periods. Probably, this event may be related to complete vasculugenesis and angiogenesis in placental villi.

  2. Placental Transmogrification of the lung

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    Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Il Hwan; Kwon, Woo Cheol; Eom, Min Seob; Kim, Young Ju; Hwan, Joong Hwan [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Placental transmogrification is a very rare lung disease, where the alveoli resemble the chorionic villi of placenta, and this change is a characteristic finding. A 31-year-old female patient presented with cough and dyspnea that had begun 2 weeks prior to admission. Along with giant bulla found in the left upper lung field, subsegmental consolidation was also identified in the lingular segment on plain chest radiograph and CT scan. Wedge resection was performed to remove the bulla. Pathologic examination of the resected bulla revealed destruction of the normal structures and characteristic villous and papillary changes. These changes led to a diagnosis of placental transmogrification. We made an encounter of an unusual placental transmogrification which had different image findings from other reported transmogrification cases. Thus, we report an atypical placental transmogrification case where both consolidation and giant bulla coexist.

  3. bovine

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    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  4. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

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    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5) a different pattern of fetal growth abnormalities in

  5. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth.Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile for gestational age at death (stillbirth or delivery (live birth using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate. Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1 stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2 fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3 fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4 fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5 a different pattern of fetal growth

  6. DNA Extraction from Chorionic Villi for Prenatal Diagnosis of Foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Extraction of DNA from the chorionic villi is the first major step in the molecular determination of foetal haemoglobin genotype. There are few reports on DNA extraction from the chorionic villi. A desired method should be simple to conduct, reliable and cost effective. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to ...

  7. Hyaluronate synthesis by synovial villi in organ culture. [Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S.L.; Christine, T.A.

    1983-06-01

    Individual canine synovial villi were used to establish short-term synovial organ cultures. These villi incorporated /sup 3/H-glucosamine into highly-polymerized /sup 3/H-hyaluronic acid (/sup 3/H-HA), which was the only /sup 3/H-glycosaminoglycan identified in the culture medium. Some /sup 3/H-HA, and larger amounts of other /sup 3/H-glycosaminoglycans, were recovered from cultured tissues. Culture medium /sup 3/H-HA content was proportional to the surface area of cultured villi. Organ cultures of nonvillous synovium were compared with villi; nonvillous cultures synthesized less /sup 3/H-HA per mm2 of their synovial intimal surface than villi. These cultures complement cell culture techniques for in vitro studies of synovial lining cell function.

  8. Villi Pogga ja Tarmo Prikk juhtisid ettevõtted disainiauhinnani

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Villi Pogga juhitud Aquator ja Tarmo Priki juhitud Thulema said Saksamaal Essenis toimunud rahvusvahelisel konkursil Design Management Europe eriauhinna. Auhinda annab välja Esseni Disainikeskus koostöös 16 Euroopa disainikeskusega

  9. Placental chorangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nonimmune fetal hydrops, fetal heart failure, cardiomegaly, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal anemia, thrombocytopenia, and fetal demise. Maternal complications such as preeclampsia, ... Key words: Kano; live birth; placental chorangioma; Pregnancy. Introduction. Placental chorangioma is a rare tumor of the placenta ...

  10. Placental villous stroma as a model system for myofibroblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, G; Kertschanska, S; Demir, R; Kaufmann, P

    1996-06-01

    Different subtypes of myofibroblasts have been described according to their cytoskeletal protein patterns. It is quite likely that these different subtypes represent distinct steps of differentiation. We propose the human placental stem villi as a particularly suitable model to study this differentiation process. During the course of pregnancy, different types of placental villi develop by differentiation of the mesenchymal stroma surrounding the fetal blood vessels. In order to characterise the differentiation of placental stromal cells in the human placenta, the expression patterns of the cytoskeletal proteins vimentin, desmin, alpha- and gamma-smooth muscle actin, pan-actin, smooth muscle myosin, and the monoclonal antibody GB 42, a marker of myofibroblasts, were investigated on placental tissue of different gestational age (7th-40th week of gestation). Proliferation patterns were assessed with the proliferation markers MIB 1 and PCNA. Additionally, dipeptidyl peptidase IV distribution was studied in term placenta and the ultrastructure of placental stromal cells was assessed by electron microscopy. Different subpopulations of extravascular stromal cells were distinguished according to typical co-expression patterns of cytoskeletal proteins. Around the fetal stem vessels in term placental villi they were arranged as concentric layers with increasing stage of differentiation. A variable layer of extravascular stromal cells lying beneath the trophoblast expressed vimentin (V) or vimentin and desmin (VD). They were mitotically active. The next layer co-expressed vimentin, desmin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (VDA). More centrally towards the fetal vessels, extravascular stromal cells co-expressed vimentin, desmin, alpha- and gamma-smooth muscle actin, and GB 42 (VDAG). Cells close to the fetal vessels additionally co-expressed smooth muscle myosin (VDAGM). Ultrastructurally, V cells resembled typical mesenchymal cells. VD cells corresponded to fibroblasts, while

  11. Human papillomavirus infects placental trophoblast and Hofbauer cells, but appears not to play a causal role in miscarriage and preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Leonhard, Anne Katrine; Zakhary, Carina Widen

    2017-01-01

    deliveries, 10.9% in spontaneous abortions, and 20.4% in elective abortions. 12 different HPV-types were detected and placental HPV infection was associated to a disease history of cervical cancer. HPV DNA was identified in trophoblast cells, cells of the placental villi mesenchyme including Hofbauer cells...

  12. Hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis: A model for studying vascular changes in placental hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweevisit, Mana; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2016-08-01

    Placental ischemia can be pre-placental (maternal), placental or post-placental (fetal), with corresponding changes in villous vasculature. Hydrops fetalis (HF) resulting from hemoglobin (Hb) Bart disease can serve as a model for intrauterine hypoxia, and placentas from such cases show a distinctive peripheral villous stromal myofibroblastic hypercellularity (PVSH). We hypothesized that Hb Bart disease, which results in profound fetal hypoxia, would lead to placental hypoxia on a post-placental basis. We assessed villous vasculature using computerized morphometry, comparing placentas in 14 Hb Bart HF cases to 18 non-Hb Bart HF cases. Morphometric parameters were matched as closely as possible to those reported in the literature for comparison purposes. Villous vessels of Hb Bart HF showed significantly increased numbers of vessels (p = 0.001), longer vascular perimeter (p = 0.002), thickening of vascular endothelial layer (p = 0.038) and higher shape coefficient (p = 0.042) indicating a more branching pattern of vessels. In addition, placental villi of Hb Bart HF containing PVSH showed a longer vascular perimeter (p = 0.008) and narrower lumen (p = 0.002), with a higher shape coefficient (p = 0.03), in comparison to villi lacking PVSH. Contrary to expectations, the overall pattern of vascular changes in Hb Bart HF suggested multifactorial hypoxia: pre-placental, on the basis of the marked placentomegaly, compromising blood flow from uterine distention; placental, from hydropic villi causing a generalized diminished intervillous space; and post-placental from the greatly reduced capacity of Hb Bart to extract oxygen from the intervillous space. Standardized vascular morphometry will facilitate comparison between different conditions, for a better understanding of placental hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mammalian Placentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    to consider animal models with longer gestations and well-developed neonates. Placentation in different orders of mammal is surveyed and their proximity to humans described in an evolutionary context. Animal models are then compared with the human in terms of the functional anatomy, physiology, and immunology......This guide to animal models of human placentation assesses the strengths and weaknesses of species in common use. We argue that structural differences from human placenta, though important in some contexts, are less of a drawback than differences in reproductive strategy. Many laboratory rodents...... have brief gestations resulting in the birth of poorly developed young. They can provide useful insights on placental development and function relevant to early human pregnancy. However, to model the events of a 9-month gestation, which imposes added requirements on the placenta, it is necessary...

  14. Placental economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2016-01-01

    Thinking with the vital materiality of placentas as it is evinced in a placental stem cell research lab in Korea, this article explores the relations and practices of care that are essential to the circulation of biological matters as infrastructure of tissue economies. I attend to the flows...... of care that sustain tissue economies with the notion of ‘placental economies’. Shifting attention from donor subjects and tissue objects to practices and relations of care as an infrastructure for the circulation of tissues, I explore how the vitality of biological matters is an achievement made...

  15. Mobiilside uustulnukad võtavad alles hoogu / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Uued mobiilsideoperaatorid Vertelson Mobiil, CityGSM ja Top Connect valmistuvad turuletulekut ette. Vt. samas: Villy Paimets. Mobiilsideturul tüli majas. OÜ Top Connect konflikti kavandatavate teenuste osutamise pärast läbi Radiolinja võrgu kommenteerivad Radiolinja Eesti juhatuse esimehelt Sami Seppänenilt ja OÜ Top Connect juhatuse liikmelt Vladislav Sobolevilt

  16. A Case of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Taga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD rarely complicates with pregnancy. A 30-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 3, presenting with placentomegaly, was referred to our department at 18 weeks of gestation. An ultrasonography revealed a normal fetus with a large multicystic placenta, measuring 125 × 42 × 80 mm. The border between the lesion and normal region was not clear. Color doppler revealed little blood flow in the lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed normal fetus and a large multicystic placenta. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin level was 20124.97 U/L, which was normal at 20 weeks of gestation. Thus, placental mesenchymal dysplasia rather than hydatidiform mole with coexistent fetus was suspected. Then, routine checkup was continued. Because she had the history of Cesarean section, an elective Cesarean section was performed at 37 weeks of gestation, and 2520 g female infant with apgar score 8/9 was delivered. The baby was normal with no evidence of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Placenta of 20 × 16 × 2 cm, weighing 720 g, was bulky with grape like vesicles involving whole placenta. Microscopic examination revealed dilated villi and vessels with thick wall which was lacking trophoblast proliferation. Large hydropic stem villi with myxomatous struma and cistern formation were seen. PMD was histopathologically confirmed.

  17. [Expression of contractile proteins alpha-actin and myosin of smooth muscle cells and collagen of IV type in human placenta at placental insufficiency in III trimester of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozhaĭ, L I; Otellin, V A; Pozharisskiĭ, K M; Pavlova, N G

    2010-01-01

    Changes of expression of contractile proteins (alpha-actin and myosin of smooth muscle cell) and of collagen of IV type in stroma of human placental villi were studied at the diagnosed placental insufficiency (PI) in III trimester of pregnancy. The study revealed pronounced disturbances of expression of contractile proteins and collagen of IV type at PI. It is shown that in perivascular envelopes of vessels of stem and intermediate villi there is present a much greater amount of cells expressing smooth muscle actin and myosin. These cells are arranged by the denser concentric layers and more compactly than in norm and fill the intervascular space inside the villi. The width of perivascular envelopes of vessels is higher, while vascular lumens are lower than in norm. In terminal villi the capillary walls are thickened and the number of pericytes immunopositive against the smooth muscle cell alpha-actin and myosin as well as collagen of IV type is increased. The change of synthesis of the cytoskeletal contractile proteins and collagen of IV type is shown to lead to structural disturbances of villi of different types and of perivascular areas and vessels, which doubtlessly indicates their participation in pathogenesis of placental dysfunction and of disturbance of placental hemodynamics.

  18. [Experiences with transcervical chorionic villi biopsy in 274 studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkut, G; Becker, R; Starzinski, K; Schulzke, I; Wegner, R D; Weitzel, H K

    1989-08-01

    In the years 1985-1987, 274 transcervical chorionic villi biopsy samples were taken at the Klinikum Steglitz Medical Center of the Free University of Berlin. We have information on the outcome of 264 pregnancies (96.3%). 229 cases (83.6%) yielded diagnostically usable results. Multiple biopsy samples were taken in 59 (21.5%) cases. Abnormal results were found in 14 patients. Pregnancy was terminated in 6 cases (2.2%) for proven chromosomal aberrations. In two others, spontaneous abortion occurred before the intended induced abortion. In 4 cases of mosaics, amniocentesis was performed subsequently in the 16th week of pregnancy; three of those pregnancies were carried to full term, and the children are healthy. In one case, we saw a spontaneous abortion in the 26th week of pregnancy. In two cases, we found balanced translocations. Miscarriage was observed in 16 CVS patients (5.8%). Abortion was febrile in two cases, septic in two others.

  19. Chromosomal Mosaicism in Human Feto-Placental Development: Implications for Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romana Grati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal mosaicism is one of the primary interpretative issues in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, the mechanisms underlying feto-placental chromosomal mosaicism are presented. Based on the substantial retrospective diagnostic experience with chorionic villi samples (CVS of a prenatal diagnosis laboratory the following items are discussed: (i The frequency of the different types of mosaicism (confined placental, CPM, and true fetal mosaicisms, TFM; (ii The risk of fetal confirmation after the detection of a mosaic in CVS stratified by chromosome abnormality and placental tissue involvement; (iii The frequency of uniparental disomy for imprinted chromosomes associated with CPM; (iv The incidence of false-positive and false-negative results in CVS samples analyzed by only (semi-direct preparation or long term culture; and (v The implications of the presence of a feto-placental mosaicism for microarray analysis of CVS and non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS.

  20. Pregnancy Complications: Placental Abruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... belly is harmed from a car accident or physical abuse . If you've had a placental abruption before, ... belly is harmed from a car accident or physical abuse . If you've had a placental abruption before, ...

  1. Relation of placental diagnosis in stillbirth to fetal maceration and gestational age at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Jerzy; Biesiada, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    To study the relation of retention of dead fetus resulting in its maceration and gestational age at delivery to placental diagnosis. Some 75 clinicoplacental phenotypes have been retrospectively analyzed in 520 consecutive stillbirths, 329 macerated and 191 nonmacerated, and at three gestational age interval cohorts (330 second trimester, 102 preterm third trimester, and 88 term). Chi-square and clustering methods (Ward dendrograms and multidimensional scaling) were used for statistical analysis. Maternal diabetes mellitus, induction of labor, fetal growth restriction, various umbilical cord abnormalities, and placental clusters of sclerotic/hemosiderotic chorionic villi were more common in macerated stillbirths, while clinicoplacental signs and symptoms of ascending infection and placental abruption, i.e., retroplacental hematoma, premature rupture of membranes, and acute chorioamnionitis in nonmacerated stillbirths. Placental abnormalities were less common in the second trimester, other than the acute chorioamnionitis. Patterns of chronic hypoxic placental injury were common in preterm third trimester, while signs of in-utero hypoxia (abnormal cardiotocography, meconium, and histological erythroblastosis of fetal blood) in term pregnancy. In addition to classical statistics, the clustering analyses added new information to placental investigation of cause of stillbirth. Macerated third trimester stillbirths have multifactorial etiology more likely than the second trimester stillbirths and the likely stasis-induced fetal thrombotic vasculopathy secondary to occult umbilical cord compromise should be sought in placental investigation in such cases. Nonmacerated stillbirths are associated with ascending infection and placental abruption.

  2. Modelling the effect of intervillous flow on solute transfer based on 3D imaging of the human placental microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzolo, S; Lewis, R M; Sengers, B G

    2017-12-01

    A healthy pregnancy depends on placental transfer from mother to fetus. Placental transfer takes place at the micro scale across the placental villi. Solutes from the maternal blood are taken up by placental villi and enter the fetal capillaries. This study investigated the effect of maternal blood flow on solute uptake at the micro scale. A 3D image based modelling approach of the placental microstructures was undertaken. Solute transport in the intervillous space was modelled explicitly and solute uptake with respect to different maternal blood flow rates was estimated. Fetal capillary flow was not modelled and treated as a perfect sink. For a freely diffusing small solute, the flow of maternal blood through the intervillous space was found to be limiting the transfer. Ignoring the effects of maternal flow resulted in a 2.4 ± 0.4 fold over-prediction of transfer by simple diffusion, in absence of binding. Villous morphology affected the efficiency of solute transfer due to concentration depleted zones. Interestingly, less dense microvilli had lower surface area available for uptake which was compensated by increased flow due to their higher permeability. At super-physiological pressures, maternal flow was not limiting, however the efficiency of uptake decreased. This study suggests that the interplay between maternal flow and villous structure affects the efficiency of placental transfer but predicted that flow rate will be the major determinant of transfer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential expression of human placental PAPP-A2 over gestation and in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Anita W; Lamale-Smith, Leah M; Winn, Virginia D

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A2 (PAPP-A2) is a pregnancy related insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) protease, known to be elevated in preeclampsia. As the insulin-like growth factors are important in human implantation and placentation, we sought to determine the expression pattern of PAPP-A2 over human gestation in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies to evaluate its role in placental development and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Placental basal plate and chorionic villi samples, maternal and fetal cord blood sera were obtained from preeclamptic and control pregnancies. Formalin-fixed tissue sections from across gestation were stained for cytokeratin-7, HLA-G, and PAPP-A2. PAPP-A2 immunoblot analysis was also performed on protein lysates and sera. PAPP-A2 expression is predominately expressed by differentiated trophoblasts and fetal endothelium. Chorionic villi show strong expression in the first trimester, followed by a progressive decrease in the second trimester, which returns in the third trimester. PAPP-A2 expression is not impacted by labor. PAPP-A2 is increased in the basal plate, chorionic villi and maternal sera in preeclampsia compared to controls, but is not detectable in cord blood. PAPP-A2 is differentially expressed in different trophoblast populations and shows strong down regulation in the mid second trimester in chorionic villous samples. Both maternal sera and placental tissue from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia show increased levels of PAPP-A2. PAPP-A2 levels are not altered by labor. Additionally, PAPP-A2 cannot be detected in cord blood demonstrating that the alterations in maternal and placental PAPP-A2 are not recapitulated in the fetal circulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Placental Chorangiosis: Increased Risk for Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariska S. Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with Class C diabetes who presented for nonstress testing at 36 weeks and 4 days of gestation with nonreassuring fetal heart tones (NRFHT and oligohydramnios. Upon delivery, thrombosis of the umbilical cord was grossly noted. Pathological analysis of the placenta revealed chorangiosis, vascular congestion, and 40% occlusion of the umbilical vein. Chorangiosis is a vascular change of the placenta that involves the terminal chorionic villi. It has been proposed to result from longstanding, low-grade hypoxia in the placental tissue and has been associated with such conditions such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, and hypertensive conditions in pregnancy. To characterize chorangiosis and its associated obstetric outcomes we identified 61 cases of “chorangiosis” on placental pathology at Henry Ford Hospital from 2010 to 2015. Five of these cases were omitted due to lack of complete records. Among the 56 cases, the cesarean section rate was 51%, indicated in most cases for nonreassuring fetal status. Thus, we suggest that chorangiosis, a marker of chronic hypoxia, is associated with increased rates of cesarean sections for nonreassuring fetal status because of long standing hypoxia coupled with the stress of labor.

  5. Placental vascularization and apoptosis in Type-1 and gestational DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Süleyman; Bagirzade, Mahmud; Omeroglu, Suna; Büke, Barıs

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the alteration in vascularization and apoptosis in the placentas of patients with Type 1 or gestational diabetes mellitus. Placental samples drawn from normal (n = 6), GDM (n = 6), and Type 1 DM (n = 6) pregnancies were rinsed in PBS and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. The obtained sections were examined by both light and electron microscopy. Subsequently, immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate apoptosis and vascularization with caspase-9 and VEGF antibodies. Capillary structures in various sizes, both in free and in stem villi, were observed to be denser in the GDM group than in the control and Type-1 DM groups, utilizing electron microscopy. Similarly, when compared with Type-1 DM and controls, a decreased amount of microvilli with more irregularity and blunting on the villus surface was detected. GDM group showed increased immunoreactivity in capillaries of stem villi, free villi, and endothelial cells when compared with Type-1 DM and control groups. Regarding the immunohistochemical staining with VEGF, Type-1 DM, and GDM groups showed stronger immunoreactivity than the control group, especially in syncytiotrophoblastic cell nuclei and stromal cell nuclei. However, there was no significant difference between Type-1 DM and GDM groups. Type-1 DM and GDM placentas showed increased villous stromal capillarization, increased immunoreactivity with VEGF and caspase-9, and increased syncytial nodes, which may develop secondary to placental hypoxia-ischemia. However, more participants are needed to confirm these conclusions.

  6. Modelling nutrient transfer based on 3D imaging of the human placental microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzolo, S; Lewis, R M; Sengers, B G

    2016-08-01

    Impaired transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus can affect pregnancy outcomes. The placenta has a complex microstructure, including the maternal intervillous space and fetal capillaries. Previous computational models of placental transfer either assumed a simplified idealized local geometry or were based on 2D imaging. In this study, we present a novel 3D computational model to assess the placental transfer of nutrients at the microscale in interaction with the maternal flow environment. A stack of confocal microscopy images of the placental terminal villi was collected and reconstructed. The 3D simulation framework was tested for the transport of oxygen. Preliminary results identified local stagnant zones, as well as areas of high nutrient transfer into the fetal capillaries in the most exposed branches of the villi as a result of better perfusion, combined with a smaller thickness of the tissue barrier. Overall, the current model may serve as a tool for assessing pregnancy conditions affected by inefficient nutrient transfer due to altered microscale placental morphology.

  7. High temperature requirement A1 and fibronectin: two possible players in placental tissue remodelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tossetta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1 is a secreted protease involved in placental development. Fibronectin (FN is involved in important process such as wound healing, cell adhesion and spreading, growth, migration, and differentiation. The purpose of this study was to analyse the expression patterns of HtrA1 in relationship to FN and to the key growth zones of placenta such as mesenchymal villi as well as cell islands and cell columns. We demonstrated that FN and HtrA1 are localized in the placental key growth zones suggesting a pivotal role in maintaining the balance among the molecules involved in the placental development and differentiation.

  8. Peripheral villous stromal hyperplasia: a distinctive placental lesion in hemoglobin bart hydrops fetalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweevisit, Mana; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2012-01-01

    In hydrops fetalis (HF) the placenta can be markedly enlarged and the villi show stromal edema, increased Hofbauer cells, and reduced numbers of capillaries. Hemoglobin (Hb) Bart is the most severe form of thalassemia, causing HF due to profound anemia. We report a previously undescribed histologic finding based on a review of Hb Bart HF cases, termed "peripheral villous stromal hypercellularity." This change was noted in 15 of 18 (83%) placentas with Hb Bart HF but not in placentas of 21 cases of HF due to other causes, including 11 cases involving anemia. The hyperplastic stromal cells were determined to be myofibroblastic by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, associated with a more complex capillary network in villi than is seen with other causes of HF. The authors hypothesize that this angiogenesis in villi is a response to fetal anemia from Hb Bart. In turn, there is increased villous blood flow, resulting in edematous villous stroma, leading to narrowing of the intervillous space in the placenta. Hyperplasia of myofibroblasts might then be a compensatory change, in that contraction by these cells would reduce the vascular lumina and the size of placental villi, thereby widening the intervillous space to improve capacity for maternal blood circulation. Curiously, this histologic change was restricted to cases of HF caused by Hb Bart. We speculate that in Hb Bart disease, the hypoxia and hydrops develop earlier in gestation, compared to other causes of HF, allowing the time for these adaptive changes to occur in the placenta.

  9. Placental pathology and hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Sun, Luming; Geng, Hongquan; Lei, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that hypospadias is associated with placenta-mediated pregnancy complication (PMPC). The role of placental lesions is still unclear. We aimed to examine the association between hyposadias and placental pathology, and the effect of PMPC. Using data from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project in 1959-1966, we identified 15,780 male subjects (167 hypospadias) for analysis. Detailed placental examinations were conducted following a standard protocol. Subjects were divided into two groups according to whether they had PMPC, including small-for-gestational-age, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia or placental abruption. Logistic regression models were used to explore the association. The prevalence of hypospadias was two times higher in subjects with PMPC than those without. Compared to pregnancies with PMPC but no hypospadias, those with both PMPC and hypospadias had significant higher prevalence of placental lesions, such as low placental weight, vascular lesions, villous lesions, and membranous insertion of cord (adjusted odds ratio (OR) ranging from 2.6 to 5.2) after adjusting for potential confounders. In subjects without PMPC, no significant difference of placental pathology was found between those with or without hypospadias. About one third of hypospadias cases were complicated with PMPC and had a higher risk of placental lesions, suggesting heterogeneity of hypospadias etiology and mechanisms.

  10. EXERCISE EFFECT ON PLACENTAL COMPONENTS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Krause Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise has been demonstrated a positive effect on many pregnancy outcomes. Placental components are important for exchanging oxygen and nutrients between mother and fetus. This study aimed to systematic review and meta-analysis whether physical exercise could induce a morphological adjustment on placenta components. We systematically searched PubMed database until October 30th, 2014. We included randomized and non-randomized studies with control group, which aimed to investigate the effect of the physical exercise (water, aerobic and resistance on placental components (placental weight and volume, villous volume and vascular volume, intervillous space and stem villi. Initially, we identified 222 articles, of which 9 articles were used for full text analysis. Finally, four articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta-analysis demonstrated that exercise appeared to affect placental weight (95% CI, 39.73g [4.66-74.80], placental volume (95% CI, 47.11 cm3 [37.99-56.23], intervillous space (95% CI, 16.76 cm3 [12.66-20.68], villous volume (95% CI, 46.01 cm3 [40.21-51.81], villous vascular volume (95% CI, 15.95 cm3 [7.83-24.07] and stem villi (95% CI, 6.00 cm3[4.25-7.75]. Apparently, physical exercise has a positive effect on placental components. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of studies. Clearly, it stands the necessity of larger samples and better methodology quality.

  11. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  12. Oxygen and placental development during the first trimester: implications for the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniggia, I; Winter, J; Lye, S J; Post, M

    2000-01-01

    During early pregnancy, placentation occurs in a relatively hypoxic environment which is essential for appropriate embryonic development. Intervillous blood flow increases at around 10-12 weeks of gestation and results in exposure of the trophoblast to increased oxygen tension (PO2). Prior to this time, low oxygen appears to prevent trophoblast differentiation towards an invasive phenotype. In other mammalian systems, oxygen tension effects are mediated by hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). We found that the ontogeny of HIF-1alpha subunit expression during the first trimester of gestation parallels that of transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGFbeta3), an inhibitor of early trophoblast differentiation. Expression of both molecules is high in early pregnancy and falls at around 10 weeks of gestation when placental PO2 levels are believed to increase. Antisense-induced inhibition of HIF-1alpha inhibited the expression of TGFbeta3, and stimulated extravillous trophoblast (EVT) outgrowth and invasion. Of clinical significance we found that TGFbeta3 expression was increased in pre-eclamptic placentae when compared to age-matched controls. Significantly, inhibition of TGFbeta3 by antisense oligonucleotides or antibodies restored the invasive capability to the trophoblast cells in pre-eclamptic explants. We speculate that if oxygen tension fails to increase, or trophoblasts do not detect this increase, HIF-1alpha and TGFbeta3 expression remain high, resulting in shallow trophoblast invasion and predisposing the pregnancy to pre-eclampsia. Effective fetal-maternal interactions during early placentation are critical for a successful pregnancy. Optimal placental perfusion requires the controlled invasion of trophoblast cells deep into the decidua to the spiral arteries. Trophoblast stem cells, also referred to as cytotrophoblast cells, reside in chorionic villi of two types, floating and anchoring villi. Floating villi, which represent the vast majority of chorionic villi

  13. Placental histopathological changes associated with Plasmodium vivax infection during pregnancy.

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    Rodrigo M Souza

    Full Text Available Histological evidence of Plasmodium in the placenta is indicative of placental malaria, a condition associated with severe outcomes for mother and child. Histological lesions found in placentas from Plasmodium-exposed women include syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, thickening of the placental barrier, necrosis of villous tissue and intervillositis. These histological changes have been associated with P. falciparum infections, but little is known about the contribution of P. vivax to such changes. We conducted a cross-sectional study with pregnant women at delivery and assigned them to three groups according to their Plasmodium exposure during pregnancy: no Plasmodium exposure (n = 41, P. vivax exposure (n = 59 or P. falciparum exposure (n = 19. We evaluated their placentas for signs of Plasmodium and placental lesions using ten histological parameters: syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, placental barrier thickness, villi necrosis, intervillous space area, intervillous leucocytes, intervillous mononucleates, intervillous polymorphonucleates, parasitized erythrocytes and hemozoin. Placentas from P. vivax-exposed women showed little evidence of Plasmodium or hemozoin but still exhibited more lesions than placentas from women not exposed to Plasmodium, especially when infections occurred twice or more during pregnancy. In the Brazilian state of Acre, where diagnosis and primary treatment are readily available and placental lesions occur in the absence of detected placental parasites, relying on the presence of Plasmodium in the placenta to evaluate Plasmodium-induced placental pathology is not feasible. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that syncytial knotting (odds ratio [OR], 4.21, P = 0.045, placental barrier thickness (OR, 25.59, P = 0.021 and mononuclear cells (OR, 4.02, P = 0.046 were increased in placentas from P. vivax-exposed women when compared to women not exposed to Plasmodium during pregnancy. A

  14. Risk factors of placental abruption

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaheh, Hooria Seyedhosseini; Feizi, Awat; Mousavi, Maryam; Sohrabi, Davood; Mesghari, Leila; Hosseini, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case ? control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected co...

  15. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more...... invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma...... into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion...

  16. Angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7 decrease sFlt1 release in normal but not preeclamptic chorionic villi: an in vitro study

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    Moorefield Cheryl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During preeclampsia, placental angiogenesis is impaired. Factors released from the placenta including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, placental growth factor (PLGF, soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt1, and soluble endoglin (sEng are regulatory molecules of placental development and function. While the renin angiotensin system has been shown to regulate angiogenic factors in other research fields, these mechanisms have not been extensively studied during pregnancy. Methods We evaluated the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II and angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] on the release of VEGF, PLGF, sFlt1, and sEng from placental chorionic villi (CV. CV were collected from nulliparous third-trimester normotensive and preeclamptic subjects. CV were incubated for 0, 2, 4, and 16 hours with or without Ang II (1 nM and 1 microM or Ang-(1-7 (1 nM and 1 microM. The release of VEGF, PLGF, sFlt1, sEng, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and human placenta lactogen (HPL was measured by ELISA. Results The release of sFlt1, PLGF, sEng from normal and preeclamptic CV increased over time. Release of sFlt1 and sEng was significantly higher from preeclamptic CV. VEGF was below the detectable level of the assay in normal and preeclamptic CV. After 2 hours, sFlt1 release from normal CV was significantly inhibited with Ang II (1 nM and 1 microM and Ang-(1-7 (1 nM and 1 microM. There was a time-dependent increase in HPL indicating that the CV were functioning normally. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a critical inhibitory role of angiotensin peptides on sFlt1 in normal pregnancy. Loss of this regulation in preeclampsia may allow sFlt1 to increase resulting in anti-angiogenesis and end organ damage in the mother.

  17. Activities for leptin in bovine trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C K; Xie, M M; McCoski, S R; Ealy, A D

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h. Transcript profiles were examined from extracted RNA. Leptin supplementation did not affect abundance of the maternal recognition of pregnancy factor, interferon-tau (IFNT), but leptin increased (P leptin. Transcript abundance of the remodeling factor, metalloprotease 2 (MMP2), was greater (P leptin-treated cells at 24 h but not at 6 h. The 24 h MMP2 response was greatest (P leptin treatment. In a separate set of studies, cell proliferation assays were completed. Leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell line proliferation at any dose tested. In conclusion, leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell proliferation or IFNT expression, but leptin increases CSH2 and MMP2 transcript abundance. Both of these factors are involved with peri-implantation and postimplantation placental development and function, and this implicates leptin as a potential mediator of early placental development and function in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Placentation in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-01-01

    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes...

  19. Evaluation of Placental Blood Flow in Patients with Placental Insufficiency

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    Julia E. Dobrokhotova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Placental insufficiency is a major problem of modern obstetrics due to its link to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Placental microcirculatory disorders play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of this condition. Thus, an evaluation of placental blood flow is of particular importance and crucial for appropriate diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate placental blood flow in patients with placental insufficiency. SMI (superb microvascular imaging was compared to color Doppler for that purpose. Materials and Methods: Primigravida patients (n=91 at 15 to 16 weeks of gestation were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were spontaneous singleton pregnancy, age from 18 to 45 years. All participants were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 – control group (n=27 and Group 2 – threatened miscarriage group (n=64. Transvaginal ultrasound and color Doppler were performed to assess uteroplacental circulation. Placental blood flow was evaluated using a Toshiba Aplio™ 500 machine equipped with an SMI tool. Results: Placental blood flow assessment in patients with normal pregnancy revealed homogenous placental tissue, normal distribution of vessels, and active blood flow; in patients with pregnancy complications, we found inhomogeneous placenta, decreased blood flow, sporadic vessels, and avascular areas. SMI demonstrated several benefits compared to color Doppler imaging. Color Doppler allows us to assess superficial vessels only, whereas SMI provides more comprehensive data on the overall vascularization of the placenta. Conclusion: SMI by Aplio™ 500 (Toshiba may be an effective tool in the assessment of placental blood flow and the diagnosis and prognosis of placental insufficiency.

  20. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Aimee; Maclaren, Oliver J; Fletcher, Alexander G; Muraro, Daniele; Kreuzaler, Peter A; Byrne, Helen M; Maini, Philip K; Watson, Alastair J M; Pin, Carmen

    2017-02-01

    The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation results in the synchronized response of cell migration on the villi. We conclude that cell proliferation within the crypt is the primary force that drives cell migration along the villus. This methodology can be applied to interrogate intestinal epithelial dynamics and characterize situations in which processes involved in cell turnover become uncoupled, including pharmacological treatments and disease models.-Parker, A., Maclaren, O. J., Fletcher, A. G., Muraro, D., Kreuzaler, P. A., Byrne, H. M., Maini, P. K., Watson, A. J. M., Pin, C. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi. © The Author(s).

  1. Placental steroids in cattle: hormones, placental growth factors or by-products of trophoblast giant cell differentiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, G; Greven, H; Kowalewski, M P; Döring, B; Ozalp, G R; Hoffmann, B

    2008-07-01

    The bovine placenta produces large amounts of steroids, mainly estrone (E1) and progesterone (P4). Specific features of bovine placental steroidogenesis are 1) the expression of all enzymes needed for the production of estrogens from cholesterol in the trophoblast 2) an only marginal and temporal contribution to peripheral maternal P4 levels restricted to a period between approx. days 150 - 240 of gestation 3) the predominance of sulfoconjugated over free E1 and 4) a complementary setting of steroidogenic enzymes in the two morphologically discriminable trophoblast cell types, the uninucleated trophoblast cells (UTC) and the trophoblast giant cells (TGC). In cattle so far no definite information is available on the specific biological roles of placental estrogens and P4. However, the detection of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors in the placentomes suggests a role primarily as local regulators of caruncular growth, differentiation and functions. Inconsistent with a function as a caruncular growth factor is the strong evidence that in cattle placental estrogens enter the maternal compartment almost completely as estrone sulfate (E1S), which is not active at classical nuclear receptors. On the other hand, E1S may be converted locally to free active estrogens via the action of steroid sulfatase (StS), which has been detected in specific parts of the bovine caruncular epithelium. Alternatively or in addition, StS expression in the caruncular epithelium may serve the utilization of sulfated neutral steroid precursors (e.g. pregnenolone sulfate or cholesterol sulfate) supplied with maternal blood, thus providing free substrates for further metabolization in the adjacent trophoblast. The down-regulation of P450scc and P450c17 and the up-regulation of 3beta-HSD and aromatase during the differentiation of TGC from UTC in parallel with the up-regulation of ER beta and estrogen sulfotransferase in maturing TGC suggests a function of placental estrogens primarily

  2. DREAM mediated regulation of GCM1 in the human placental trophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczyk, Dora; Kibschull, Mark; Mellstrom, Britt; Levytska, Khrystyna; Rivas, Marcos; Drewlo, Sascha; Lye, Stephen J; Naranjo, Jose R; Kingdom, John C P

    2013-01-01

    The trophoblast transcription factor glial cell missing-1 (GCM1) regulates differentiation of placental cytotrophoblasts into the syncytiotrophoblast layer in contact with maternal blood. Reduced placental expression of GCM1 and abnormal syncytiotrophoblast structure are features of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy--preeclampsia. In-silico techniques identified the calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor--DREAM (Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator)--as a candidate for GCM1 gene expression. Our objective was to determine if DREAM represses GCM1 regulated syncytiotrophoblast formation. EMSA and ChIP assays revealed a direct interaction between DREAM and the GCM1 promoter. siRNA-mediated DREAM silencing in cell culture and placental explant models significantly up-regulated GCM1 expression and reduced cytotrophoblast proliferation. DREAM calcium dependency was verified using ionomycin. Furthermore, the increased DREAM protein expression in preeclamptic placental villi was predominantly nuclear, coinciding with an overall increase in sumolylated DREAM and correlating inversely with GCM1 levels. In conclusion, our data reveal a calcium-regulated pathway whereby GCM1-directed villous trophoblast differentiation is repressed by DREAM. This pathway may be relevant to disease prevention via calcium-supplementation.

  3. DREAM mediated regulation of GCM1 in the human placental trophoblast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Baczyk

    Full Text Available The trophoblast transcription factor glial cell missing-1 (GCM1 regulates differentiation of placental cytotrophoblasts into the syncytiotrophoblast layer in contact with maternal blood. Reduced placental expression of GCM1 and abnormal syncytiotrophoblast structure are features of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy--preeclampsia. In-silico techniques identified the calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor--DREAM (Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator--as a candidate for GCM1 gene expression. Our objective was to determine if DREAM represses GCM1 regulated syncytiotrophoblast formation. EMSA and ChIP assays revealed a direct interaction between DREAM and the GCM1 promoter. siRNA-mediated DREAM silencing in cell culture and placental explant models significantly up-regulated GCM1 expression and reduced cytotrophoblast proliferation. DREAM calcium dependency was verified using ionomycin. Furthermore, the increased DREAM protein expression in preeclamptic placental villi was predominantly nuclear, coinciding with an overall increase in sumolylated DREAM and correlating inversely with GCM1 levels. In conclusion, our data reveal a calcium-regulated pathway whereby GCM1-directed villous trophoblast differentiation is repressed by DREAM. This pathway may be relevant to disease prevention via calcium-supplementation.

  4. Three-dimensional mechanisms of macro-to-micro-scale transport and absorption enhancement by gut villi motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxing; Brasseur, James G.

    2017-06-01

    We evaluate the potential for physiological control of intestinal absorption by the generation of "micromixing layers" (MMLs) induced by coordinated motions of mucosal villi coupled with lumen-scale "macro" eddying motions generated by gut motility. To this end, we apply a three-dimensional (3D) multigrid lattice-Boltzmann model of a lid-driven macroscale cavity flow with microscale fingerlike protuberances at the lower surface. Integrated with a previous 2D study of leaflike villi, we generalize to 3D the 2D mechanisms found there to enhance nutrient absorption by controlled villi motility. In three dimensions, increased lateral spacing within villi within groups that move axially with the macroeddy reduces MML strength and absorptive enhancement relative to two dimensions. However, lateral villi motions create helical 3D particle trajectories that enhance absorption rate to the level of axially moving 2D leaflike villi. The 3D enhancements are associated with interesting fundamental adjustments to 2D micro-macro-motility coordination mechanisms and imply a refined potential for physiological or pharmaceutical control of intestinal absorption.

  5. Placental site trophoblastic tumor

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    Jean eBouquet De Jolinière

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trophoblastic tumors of placental site (PSTT are rare. They represent a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease. (GTD. They occur mainly in women who have a history of miscarriage, termination of pregnancy, or even a normal or pathological ongoing pregnancy. The clinical course is unpredictable. This malignancy has different characteristics from other gestational trophoblastic tumors.Following a clinical case that we encountered and treated, we conducted a literary research and review, focusing primarily on prognostic factors and treatment.

  6. Human papillomavirus infects placental trophoblast and Hofbauer cells, but appears not to play a causal role in miscarriage and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Lea M M; Leonhard, Anne K; Widen Zakhary, Carina; Jørgensen, Annemette; Blaakaer, Jan; Dybkaer, Karen; Baandrup, Ulrik; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette

    2017-10-01

    Recently, an association between human papillomavirus infection and both spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery was suggested. However, the reported human papillomavirus prevalence in pregnant women varies considerably and reliable conclusions are difficult. We aimed to investigate human papillomavirus infection in placental tissue of a Danish study cohort. Furthermore, we studied the cellular localization of human papillomavirus. In this prospective case-control study, placental tissue was analyzed for human papillomavirus infection by nested PCR in the following four study groups: full-term delivery (n = 103), spontaneous preterm delivery (n = 69), elective abortion (n = 54), and spontaneous abortion (n = 44). Moreover, human papillomavirus cellular target was identified using in situ hybridization. Human papillomavirus prevalence in placental tissue was 8.7% in full-term deliveries, 8.8% in spontaneous preterm deliveries, 10.9% in spontaneous abortions, and 20.4% in elective abortions. Twelve different human papillomavirus types were detected, and placental human papillomavirus infection was associated to a disease history of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus DNA was identified in trophoblast cells, cells of the placental villi mesenchyme including Hofbauer cells, and in parts of the encasing endometrium. Placental human papillomavirus infections are not likely to constitute a risk factor for spontaneous preterm labor or spontaneous abortions in the Danish population, although an effect of human papillomavirus DNA in placental cells cannot be excluded. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Placental apoptosis in recurrent miscarriage

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    Tarek A. Atia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is an interactive and dynamic biological process involved in all phases of embryogenesis. We aimed to study the effect of placental apoptosis on recurrent miscarriage (RM. Placental tissue samples were collected from 40 women with RM (study group and 30 women with sporadic spontaneous abortion (control group. Samples were prepared and stained immunohistochemically with markers for both the apoptotic protein (p53 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 antibodies. Our results showed that expression of the apoptotic (p53 protein was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the RM group (p = 0.003. By contrast, the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2 antibodies was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the control group (p = 0.025. We concluded that placental apoptosis plays a crucial role in pregnancy continuation. However, increased p53 expression in placental tissue in early pregnancy could negatively affect pregnancy continuation.

  8. Placental Aromatase Is Deficient in Placental Ischemia and Preeclampsia.

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    Alejandra Perez-Sepulveda

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a maternal hypertensive disorder with uncertain etiology and a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide, causing nearly 40% of premature births delivered before 35 weeks of gestation. The first stage of preeclampsia is characterized by reduction of utero-placental blood flow which is reflected in high blood pressure and proteinuria during the second half of pregnancy. In human placenta androgens derived from the maternal and fetal adrenal glands are converted into estrogens by the enzymatic action of placental aromatase. This implies that alterations in placental steroidogenesis and, subsequently, in the functionality or bioavailability of placental aromatase may be mechanistically involved in the pathophysiology of PE.Serum samples were collected at 32-36 weeks of gestation and placenta biopsies were collected at time of delivery from PE patients (n = 16 and pregnant controls (n = 32. The effect of oxygen tension on placental cells was assessed by incubation JEG-3 cells under 1% and 8% O2 for different time periods, Timed-mated, pregnant New Zealand white rabbits (n = 6 were used to establish an in vivo model of placental ischemia (achieved by ligature of uteroplacental vessels. Aromatase content and estrogens and androgens concentrations were measured.The protein and mRNA content of placental aromatase significantly diminished in placentae obtained from preeclamptic patients compared to controls. Similarly, the circulating concentrations of 17-β-estradiol/testosterone and estrone/androstenedione were reduced in preeclamptic patients vs. controls. These data are consistent with a concomitant decrease in aromatase activity. Aromatase content was reduced in response to low oxygen tension in the choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cell line and in rabbit placentae in response to partial ligation of uterine spiral arteries, suggesting that reduced placental aromatase activity in preeclamptic patients may be associated with chronic

  9. Growth and maturation of villi in placentae from well-controlled diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G

    1994-01-01

    Placentae from controls and two groups of diabetic women (one White classes A, B, C and the other classes D, F/R) were collected at 37-42 weeks of gestation. Tissue sections were analysed using stereological methods in order to quantify the growth and maturational status of villi. Birth and place......Placentae from controls and two groups of diabetic women (one White classes A, B, C and the other classes D, F/R) were collected at 37-42 weeks of gestation. Tissue sections were analysed using stereological methods in order to quantify the growth and maturational status of villi. Birth...... with group, mode of delivery and sex of newborn as the principal effects. Mean weights were similar in controls and diabetic groups. Diabetic placentae had a more voluminous fetal capillary bed of greater length, diameter and surface area. In addition, the diffusion distances across fetal plasma (erythrocyte...... on the fetal side of the diabetic placenta. They show that changes can affect the placentae of appropriate-for-age as well as large-for-age babies and provide no evidence that they increase with the severity and duration of diabetes....

  10. Placental Pathology of Zika Virus: Viral Infection of the Placenta Induces Villous Stromal Macrophage (Hofbauer Cell) Proliferation and Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Avi Z; Yu, Weiying; Hill, D Ashley; Reyes, Christine A; Schwartz, David A

    2017-01-01

    -The placenta is an important component in understanding the fetal response to intrauterine Zika virus infection, but the pathologic changes in this organ remain largely unknown. Hofbauer cells are fetal-derived macrophages normally present in the chorionic villous stroma. They have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathologic processes, in particular involving infectious agents. -To characterize the fetal and maternal responses and viral localization in the placenta following Zika virus transmission to an 11 weeks' gestation fetus. The clinical course was notable for prolonged viremia in the mother and extensive neuronal necrosis in the fetus. The fetus was delivered at 21 weeks' gestation after pregnancy termination. -The placenta was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells (macrophages/monocytes [Hofbauer cells], B and T lymphocytes) and proliferating cells, and an RNA probe to Zika virus. The fetal brain and the placenta were previously found to be positive for Zika virus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. -The placenta demonstrated prominently enlarged, hydropic chorionic villi with hyperplasia and focal proliferation of Hofbauer cells. The degree of Hofbauer cell hyperplasia gave an exaggerated immature appearance to the villi. No acute or chronic villitis, villous necrosis, remote necroinflammatory abnormalities, chorioamnionitis, funisitis, or hemorrhages were present. An RNA probe to Zika virus was positive in villous stromal cells, presumably Hofbauer cells. -Zika virus placental infection induces proliferation and prominent hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells in the chorionic villi but does not elicit villous necrosis or a maternal or fetal lymphoplasmacellular or acute inflammatory cell reaction.

  11. Viral infection, proliferation, and hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells and absence of inflammation characterize the placental pathology of fetuses with congenital Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David A

    2017-06-01

    Attention is increasingly focused on the potential mechanism(s) for Zika virus infection to be transmitted from an infected mother to her fetus. This communication addresses current evidence for the role of the placenta in vertical transmission of the Zika virus. Placentas from second and third trimester fetuses with confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection were examined with routine staining to determine the spectrum of pathologic changes. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for macrophages and nuclear proliferation antigens was performed. Viral localization was identified using RNA hybridization. These observations were combined with the recent published results of placental pathology to increase the strength of the pathology data. Results were correlated with published data from experimental studies of Zika virus infection in placental cells and chorionic villous explants. Placentas from fetuses with congenital Zika virus infection are concordant in not having viral-induced placental inflammation. Special stains reveal proliferation and prominent hyperplasia of placental stromal macrophages, termed Hofbauer cells, in the chorionic villi of infected placentas. Zika virus infection is present in Hofbauer cells from second and third trimester placentas. Experimental studies and placentae from infected fetuses reveal that the spectrum of placental cell types infected with the Zika virus is broader during the first trimester than later in gestation. Inflammatory abnormalities of the placenta are not a component of vertical transmission of the Zika virus. The major placental response in second and third trimester transplacental Zika virus infection is proliferation and hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells, which also demonstrate viral infection.

  12. Risk factors of placental abruption

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    Hooria Seyedhosseini Ghaheh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case - control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected controls were investigated. Statistical analysis for comparing the studied risk factors between groups was performed using Pearson ′ s Chi-square test along with presenting relevant odds ratio (OR. Results: From 7301 deliveries included in the study, 78 (1% was complicated placental abruption. Women aged 35 or more likely for experiencing (OR = 3.650, 95% confidence interval [CL] = 1.57-6.83 and those who had a previous cesarean section (OR = 2.65, 95% CL = 3.91- 33.41 were in higher risk for placental abruption ([50 cases] 64% vs. [28 cases] 36% P < 0.01. Conclusion: The results indicate that among the placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during the pregnancy and one of the major obstetrical emergency.

  13. Reduced placental telomere length during pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction.

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    Jérôme Toutain

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that telomere length was significantly reduced in placentas collected at delivery from pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction secondary to placental insufficiency. Placental telomere length measurement during ongoing pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction has never been reported. This was the main objective of our study. METHODS: In our center, late chorionic villus samplings were performed between 18 and 37 weeks of amenorrhea in 24 subjects with severe intrauterine growth restriction (cases and in 28 subjects with other indications for prenatal diagnosis (controls. Placental insufficiency was assessed by histo-pathological examination. Relative measurement of telomere length was carried out prospectively by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using fluorescent Peptide Nucleic Acid probes on interphase nuclei obtained from long-term cultured villi and with an automated epifluorescent microscope. A quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction technique was performed to confirm the quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization results. The number of copies of gene loci encoding the RNA template (hTERC and the catalytic subunit (hTERT of the enzyme complex telomerase were also estimated in these placentas by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization. RESULTS: Mean fluorescence intensity of telomere probes estimated by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization was significantly less for cases compared to controls (p<0.001. This result indicated that mean telomere length was significantly reduced in placentas during pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. Reduced telomere length was confirmed by the quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. No copy number variation of the hTERC and hTERT loci was noticed for cases, or for controls. CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrates a reduction of placental telomere length in ongoing pregnancies

  14. Participation of collagen types I, III, IV, V, and fibronectin in the formation of villi fibrosis in human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukosuev, V S; Nanaev, A K; Milovanov, A P

    1990-01-01

    The indirect immunofluorescence method was used to study the human term placenta in pathological pregnancy for the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV, V, and fibronectin in fibrosis stromatis villi. All collagen types and fibronectin were shown to participate in fibrosis villorum formation. Fibronectin was also detected in the fibrinoid that surrounded villi at stroma. The presence of free cytotrophoblast cells in the fibrinoid was accompanied by a noticeable increase in fibronectin fluorescence. A significant amount of collagen types IV and V and a less amount of collagen types I and III were identified.

  15. The Placental Distal Villous Hypoplasia Pattern: Interobserver Agreement and Automated Fractal Dimension as an Objective Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anika; Chan, Adrian D C; Keating, Sarah; Redline, Raymond W; Fritsch, Michael K; Machin, Geoffrey A; Cornejo-Palma, Daniel; de Nanassy, Joseph; El-Demellawy, Dina; von Dadelszen, Peter; Benton, Samantha J; Grynspan, David

    2016-01-01

    The distal villous hypoplasia (DVH) pattern is a placental correlate of fetal growth restriction. Because the pattern seems to involve less complexity than do appropriately developed placental villi, we postulated that it may be associated with lower fractal dimension-a mathematical measure of complexity. Our study objectives were to evaluate interobserver agreement related to the DVH pattern among expert pathologists and to determine whether pathologist classification of DVH correlates with fractal dimension. A study set of 30 images of placental parenchyma at ×4 magnification was created by a single pathologist from a digital slide archive. The images were graded for the DVH pattern according to pre-specified definitions and included 10 images graded as "no DVH" (grade  =  0), 10 with mild to moderate DVH (grade  =  1), and 10 with severe DVH (grade  =  2). The images were randomly sorted and shown to a panel of 4 international experts who similarly graded the images for DVH. Weighted kappas were calculated. For each image, fractal dimension was calculated by the Box Counting method. The correlation coefficient between (1) the averaged DVH scores obtained by the 5 pathologists and (2) fractal dimension was calculated. The mean weighted kappa score among the observers was 0.59 (range: 0.42-0.70). The correlation coefficient between fractal dimension and the averaged DVH score was -0.915 (P dimension and represents an objective measure for DVH.

  16. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is associated with structural and vascular placental abnormalities and leptin dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen N; Olbrych, Stephanie K; Smith, Kathleen L; Cnota, James F; Habli, Mounira; Ramos-Gonzales, Osniel; Owens, Kathryn J; Hinton, Andrea C; Polzin, William J; Muglia, Louis J; Hinton, Robert B

    2015-10-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a severe cardiovascular malformation (CVM) associated with fetal growth abnormalities. Genetic and environmental factors have been identified that contribute to pathogenesis, but the role of the placenta is unknown. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the placenta in HLHS with and without growth abnormalities. HLHS term singleton births were identified from a larger cohort when placenta tissue was available. Clinical data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records, including anthropometrics and placental pathology reports. Placental tissues from cases and controls were analyzed to assess parenchymal morphology, vascular architecture and leptin signaling. HLHS cases (n = 16) and gestational age-matched controls (n = 18) were analyzed. Among cases, the average birth weight was 2993 g, including 31% that were small for gestational age. When compared with controls, gross pathology of HLHS cases demonstrated significantly reduced placental weight and increased fibrin deposition, while micropathology showed increased syncytial nuclear aggregates, decreased terminal villi, reduced vasculature and increased leptin expression in syncytiotrophoblast and endothelial cells. Placentas from pregnancies complicated by fetal HLHS are characterized by abnormal parenchymal morphology, suggesting immature structure may be due to vascular abnormalities. Increased leptin expression may indicate an attempt to compensate for these vascular abnormalities. Further investigation into the regulation of angiogenesis in the fetus and placenta may elucidate the causes of HLHS and associated growth abnormalities in some cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intermedin/adrenomedullin 2 is associated with implantation and placentation via trophoblast invasion in human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, Dara; Balakrishnan, Meena; Borahay, Mostafa; Theiler, Regan; Jennings, Kristofer; Endsley, Janice; Phelps, John; Hankins, Gary D V; Yallampalli, Chandra; Chauhan, Madhu

    2013-02-01

    Intermedin (IMD) is a novel peptide expressed in trophoblast cells in human placenta and enhances the invasion, migration, and human leukocyte antigen class I, G (HLA-G) expression in first-trimester HTR-8SV/neo cells. We recently reported that infusion of IMD antagonist in pregnant rats is detrimental to pregnancy outcome, resulting in impaired fetoplacental growth and deformed placental vasculature. This study was undertaken to assess expression of IMD and its involvement in human implantation and early placentation and assess whether its expression is altered in spontaneous abortion. We demonstrate for the first time that IMD is present in day 5 embryonic secretome; villous and decidual expression of IMD is higher at 6-8 weeks after a decline as gestation advances toward the second trimester; first-trimester spontaneous abortion is associated with a lower expression of IMD in serum, villi, and decidua; IMD stimulates the invasive capacity of first-trimester primary Extravillous cytotrophoblast cells; and IMD decreases elevated levels of tumor suppressor Kangia-1 in decidual explants from first-trimester spontaneous abortion. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate a potential involvement of IMD in human embryo implantation and placental development via regulation of trophoblast invasion at the maternal-fetal interface and suggests a physiological role for this novel peptide in establishment of human pregnancy.

  18. Selective reduction of the disulfide bonds of ovine placental lactogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, J J; Wolfenstein-Todel, C

    1988-01-01

    Reduction and carbamidomethylation of two of the three disulfide bridges of ovine placental lactogen was accomplished by the use of 20-fold molar excess of dithiothreitol over protein disulfide content. The derivative retained its binding capacity to somatogenic as well as lactogenic rat liver receptors, although the latter was somewhat diminished. The two disulfide bonds exposed to the reducing agent are those located near the carboxy- and amino-terminus, while the larger loop remained intact after reduction. This behaviour is similar to that of bovine growth hormone, where the larger loop was also more resistant to reduction.

  19. Growth and maturation of villi in placentae from well-controlled diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G

    1994-01-01

    Placentae from controls and two groups of diabetic women (one White classes A, B, C and the other classes D, F/R) were collected at 37-42 weeks of gestation. Tissue sections were analysed using stereological methods in order to quantify the growth and maturational status of villi. Birth...... with group, mode of delivery and sex of newborn as the principal effects. Mean weights were similar in controls and diabetic groups. Diabetic placentae had a more voluminous fetal capillary bed of greater length, diameter and surface area. In addition, the diffusion distances across fetal plasma (erythrocyte...... on the fetal side of the diabetic placenta. They show that changes can affect the placentae of appropriate-for-age as well as large-for-age babies and provide no evidence that they increase with the severity and duration of diabetes....

  20. Dietary protein during gestation affects circulating indicators of placental function and fetal development in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T M; Micke, G C; Magalhaes, R S; Martin, G B; Wallace, C R; Green, J A; Perry, V E A

    2009-04-01

    The influences of nutritional protein during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy on placental hormones and fetal growth were determined in composite beef heifers. At artificial insemination, heifers were stratified by weight within each composite genotype into 4 treatment groups: High High (HH=1.4kg crude protein (CP)/day for first and second trimesters of gestation; n=16), High Low (HL=1.4kg CP/day for first trimester and 0.4kg CP/day for second trimester; n=19), Low High (LH=0.4kg CP/day for first trimester and 1.4kg CP/day for second trimester; n=17) or Low Low (LL=0.4kg CP/day for first and second trimesters; n=19). Maternal plasma bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein (bPAG) and progesterone (P4) were determined at gestation day (gd) 28, 82, 179 and 271 (mean gestation length 286 days) in addition to P4 at term. Estrone sulphate (ES) and bovine placental lactogen (bPL) concentrations were measured at gd 124, 179, 236 and 271 and at term in addition to ES at gd 82. Low dietary protein increased placental function as indicated by increased bPAG (P<0.001) and ES (P=0.02) concentrations in first trimester and increased bPL concentrations (P=0.01) in the second trimester of gestation. In the third trimester, when dietary treatment had ceased, placental function was no longer associated with previous dietary treatments. Dam genotype affected placental function as measured by bPL (P<0.001) and ES concentrations (P=0.02). Calf gender, heifer age and maternal insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, -II and leptin did not affect hormonal indicators or circulating markers of placental function. Enhanced placental function during the third trimester, as measured by ES, was associated with increased calf birth weight (P=0.003).

  1. Imaging and assessment of placental function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Mary

    2011-09-01

    The placenta is the vital support organ for the developing fetus. This article reviews current ultrasound (US) methods of assessing placental function. The ability of ultrasound to detect placental pathology is discussed. Doppler technology to investigate the fetal, placental, and maternal circulations in both high-risk and uncomplicated pregnancies is discussed and the current literature on the value of three-dimensional power Doppler studies to assess placental volume and vascularization is also evaluated. The article highlights the need for further research into three-dimensional ultrasound and alternative methods of placental evaluation if progress is to be made in optimizing placental function assessment.

  2. Molecules consolidate the placental mammal tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springer, M.S.; Stanhope, M.J.; Madsen, O.; Jong, W.W.W. de

    2004-01-01

    Deciphering relationships among the orders of placental mammals remains an important problem in evolutionary biology and has implications for understanding patterns of morphological character evolution, reconstructing the ancestral placental genome, and evaluating the role of plate tectonics and

  3. Intrapritoneal Hemorrhage after Placental Abruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sakhavar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A placental abruption or abruptio placentae (where in the placental lining has separated from the uterus of the mother is one of the complications caused by trauma during pregnancy. It lets the blood flow to infiltrate in the uterine lining and to develop Couvelaire uterus (also known as uteroplacental apoplexy and uterine atony (a condition in which a woman's uterine muscles lose the ability to contract after childbirth; however, it rarely develops considerable hemoperitoneum which needs hysterectomy. In this report, a unique case of placental abruption caused by trauma in a 28-year-old Afghan woman is introduced in which severity and duration of trauma because of delay in reaching health equipped center led to developing massive hemoperitoneum (infiltration of great amount of blood into the abdominal cavity and its complications.

  4. Development of a simple, cost-effective, semi-correlative light and electron microscopy method to allow the immunoelectron localisation of non-uniformly distributed placental proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viall, C A; Holloway, H; Chen, Q; Stone, P R; Chamley, L W

    2014-03-01

    Immunoelectron microscopy is wrought with technical limitations that complicate its use. However, advances in correlative light and electron microscopy have recently lead to improvements in this field. We report the development of a semi-correlative approach to investigate the ultrastructural location of an antiphospholipid antibody within the syncytiotrophoblast. This method offers several advantages over existing methodologies, since it preserves antigenicity, shows good immunolabel penetrability and does not require specialized equipment. The use of a pre-embedding screen has also allowed us to target individual placental villi and overcome sampling limitations of the electron microscope. This simple, cost-effective method is likely to find widespread application in placental research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  6. Placental diversity in malagasy tenrecs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, A.C.; Blankenship, T.N.; Goodman, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Placentation in tenrecs of the subfamily Oryzorictinae, family Tenrecidae, has not been described previously. The structure of the placenta of this group and especially of the genus Microgale was investigated to determine its similarity or dissimilarity to previously described placentas of the te...

  7. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions.

  8. PLACENTAL SIZE AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The human placenta, a transient organ or pregnancy provides information about fetal well - being and pregnancy outcome . AIMS: To study the placental ultrasound characters in relation to perinatal outcomes . SETTINGS: Tertiary care hospital in southern India . METHODS AND MATERIAL S: The study sample comprised 500 consecutive women who presented to the Depart ment of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the King George Hospital who met the inclusion criteria. Ultrasonographic study was performed using a transabdominal 3.5 MHz volume transducer. Post natally the weight of the baby and of the placenta was recorded. Perina tal outcome was assessed by birth weight, APGAR score and the need for admission in neonatal intensive care unit. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Pearson’s correlation analysis and Chi square test was used. Statistical significance was considered at a p value <0.05 . RESULTS: The mean placental thickness was 3.10 cm; 76% (n:380 had normal thickness. Mean placental diameter was 21.306 cm, and its weight varied from 310 women 62% (n:310. Correlation of placental thickness (normal and abnormal, with birth weight, the difference was significant ( <0.001. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound forms a readily available, fairly safe, effective non - invasive method to identify and prevent fetal malnutrition in a cost - effective way.

  9. Prenatal depression and stress - risk factors for placental pathology and spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Ileana P; Foarfă, Maria Camelia; Pîrlog, Mihail Cristian; Turculeanu, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress and depression affects 10-25% of pregnant women and is associated with disruption of fetal neurodevelopment, higher rates of placental abnormalities, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion, or preterm birth. Markers of genetic vulnerability are catechol-O-methyltransferase, monoamine oxidase-A, variation of serotonin transporters, low levels of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, and brain derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met (BDNF), while hyperactivity of HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis and massive release of endogenous cortisol, regulated by metalloproteinase-1, -2, -3 and -9, and are involved both in depressive symptoms and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in fetus. In women with prenatal stress and depression which suffered spontaneous abortion were observed placental abnormalities as regular shape and necrotic villi, decidua with large areas of necrosis, acute inflammation and effusion areas correlated with increase in proinflammatory factors, immune deficit and infections, hyaline type fibrosis, intervilos and deciduous intense hemorrhage, associated with increase of vascular endothelial growth factor. Taking into account the important societal and economic costs becomes important for an interdisciplinary approach, in which pregnancy and its risks are a central point for women mental health.

  10. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-03-05

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma. In later stages of pregnancy, especially in Old World monkeys and apes, cytotrophoblast plays a greater role in the invasive process. Columns of trophoblast cells advance to the base of the implantation site where they spread out to form a cytotrophoblastic shell. In addition, cytotrophoblasts advance into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion that extends remodelling of the spiral arteries to segments in the inner myometrium evolved in the common ancestor of gorilla, chimp and human. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer...

  12. Clinical associations with a placental diagnosis of delayed villous maturation: a retrospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Delayed villous maturation (DVM) is a spectrum of placental disease characterized by decreased tertiary villus formation, reduced vasculosyncytial membrane formation, and, in its more severe forms, increased large bullous villi. In some series it has been associated with an increased risk of stillbirth in the late third trimester, but overall there are few data on its significance. The aim of this study was to assess perinatal factors associated with, and the clinical significance of, the finding of DVM on placental histology. This was a retrospective study investigating all pregnancies with DVM diagnosed on placental histology in a tertiary level unit between December 2001 and August 2006. Over a 6-year period, 2915 placentas were triaged for histopathological assessment, representing 6.1% of all 48 054 deliveries in this time period. One hundred ninety (6.3%) of these selected cases showed DVM. Fifteen placentas from infants with less than 34 completed weeks of gestation were excluded, leaving 175 for further analysis. When compared with controls matched for gestation and delivering within the same time period (n  =  175), DVM was significantly associated with pregestational diabetes (8% vs 2.8%, P < .05; relative risk 2.8 [95% confidence interval 1.03-7.6]), gestational diabetes (8.6% vs 3.4%, P < 0.05; relative risk 2.5 [95% confidence interval 0.99-6.3]), and prenatal or intrapartum intrauterine death (8.6% vs 0%, P < 0.05). Delayed villous maturation is associated with both gestational and pregestational diabetes mellitus and with perinatal death.

  13. Congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Kume, Ayako; Morikawa, Teppei; Ogawa, Makiko; Yamashita, Aki; Yamaguchi, Shunichi; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extremely rare case of congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement. A fetus with a left abdominal mass detected during ultrasonography at 23 weeks’ gestation developed hydrops fetalis by 26 weeks’ gestation. The mother developed hypertension at 26 5/7 weeks’ gestation. Based on a clinical diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension, labor was induced at 26 6/7 weeks. However, intrauterine fetal death was diagnosed during delivery. Postmortern examination revealed a soli...

  14. Neurorescue effects and stem properties of chorionic villi and amniotic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzarossa, C; Bossolasco, P; Besana, A; Manca, M P; De Grada, L; De Coppi, P; Giardino, D; Silani, V; Cova, L

    2013-03-27

    The capability to integrate into degenerative environment, release neurotrophic cytokines, contrast oxidative stress and an inherent differentiation potential towards siteappropriate phenotypes are considered crucial for the use of stem cells in tissue repair and regeneration. Naïve human chorial villi- (hCVCs) and amniotic fluid- (hAFCs) derived cells, whose properties and potentiality have not been extensively investigated, may represent two novel foetal cell sources for stem cell therapy. We previously described that long-term transplantation of hAFCs in the lateral ventricles of wobbler and healthy mice was feasible and safe. In the present study we examine the in vitro intrinsic stem potential of hCVCs and hAFCs for future therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders. Presence of stem lineages was evaluated assessing the expression pattern of relevant candidate markers by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry. Release of cytokines that may potentialy sustain endogenous neurogenesis and/or activate neuroprotective pathways was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). We also performed an in vitro neurorescue assay, wherein a neuroblastoma cell line damaged by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was treated with hCVC/hAFC-derived conditioned medium (CM). Naïve hCVCs/hAFCs show a neurogenic/angiogenic predisposition. Both cell types express several specific neural stem/progenitor markers, such as nestin and connexin 43, and release significant amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor. hCVC and hAFC populations comprise several interesting cell lineages, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cells with neural-like phenotypes. Moreover, although CMs obtained from both cell cultures actively sustained metabolic activity in a 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) cell model, only hCVC-derived CMs significantly reduced neurotoxin

  15. IFPA Senior Award Lecture: making sense of pre-eclampsia - two placental causes of preeclampsia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, C W; Sargent, I L; Staff, A C

    2014-02-01

    Incomplete spiral artery remodelling is the first of two stages of pre-eclampsia, typically of early onset. The second stage comprises dysregulated uteroplacental perfusion and placental oxidative stress. Oxidatively stressed syncytiotrophoblast (STB) over-secretes proteins that perturb maternal angiogenic balance and are considered to be pre-eclampsia biomarkers. We propose that, in addition and more fundamentally, these STB-derived proteins are biomarkers of a cellular (STB) stress response, which typically involves up-regulation of some proteins and down-regulation of others (positive and negative stress proteins respectively). Soluble vascular growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and reduced growth factor (PlGF) then exemplify positive and negative STB stress response proteins in the maternal circulation. Uncomplicated term pregnancy is associated with increasing sVEGFR-1 and decreasing PlGF, which can be interpreted as evidence of increasing STB stress. STB pathology, at or after term (for example focal STB necrosis) demonstrates this stress, with or without pre-eclampsia. We review the evidence that when placental growth reaches its limits at term, terminal villi become over-crowded with diminished intervillous pore size impeding intervillous perfusion with increasing intervillous hypoxia and STB stress. This type of STB stress has no antecedent pathology, so the fetuses are well-grown, as typifies late onset pre-eclampsia, and prediction is less effective than for the early onset syndrome because STB stress is a late event. In summary, abnormal placental perfusion and STB stress contribute to the pathogenesis of early and late onset pre-eclampsia. But the former has an extrinsic cause - poor placentation, whereas the latter has an intrinsic cause, 'microvillous overcrowding', as placental growth reaches its functional limits. This model explains important features of late pre-eclampsia and raises questions of how antecedent medical risk factors such as

  16. Animal Models of Human Placentation - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however...... and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial...

  17. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from chorionic villi of a Turner syndrome spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Parveen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of spontaneous abortions is chromosomal abnormality of foetal cells. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the fibroblasts isolated from chorionic villi of an early spontaneously aborted foetus with Turner syndrome. The Turner syndrome villus induced pluripotent stem cell line is transgene free, retains the original XO karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. This pluripotent stem cell model of Turner syndrome should serve as a tool to study the developmental abnormalities of foetus and placenta that lead to early embryo lethality and profound symptoms like infertility in 45 XO survivors.

  18. Immune tolerance induction using fetal directed placental injection in rodent models: a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Takahashi

    Full Text Available Induction of the immune response is a major problem in replacement therapies for inherited protein deficiencies. Tolerance created in utero can facilitate postnatal treatment. In this study, we aimed to induce immune tolerance towards a foreign protein with early gestational cell transplantation into the chorionic villi under ultrasound guidance in the murine model.Pregnant C57BL/6 (B6 mice on day 10 of gestation were anesthetized and imaged by high resolution ultrasound. Murine embryos and their placenta were positioned to get a clear view in B-mode with power mode of the labyrinth, which is the equivalent of chorionic villi in the human. Bone marrow cells (BMCs from B6-Green Fluorescence Protein (B6GFP transgenic mice were injected into the fetal side of the placenta which includes the labyrinth with glass microcapillary pipettes. Each fetal mouse received 2 x 105 viable GFP-BMCs. After birth, we evaluated the humoral and cell-mediated immune response against GFP.Bone marrow transfer into fetal side of placenta efficiently distributed donor cells to the fetal mice. The survival rate of this procedure was 13.5%(5 out of 37. Successful engraftment of the B6-GFP donor skin grafts was observed in all recipient (5 out of 5 mice 6 weeks after birth. Induction of anti-GFP antibodies was completely inhibited. Cytotoxic immune reactivity of thymic cells against cells harboring GFP was suppressed by ELISPOT assay.In this study, we utilized early gestational placental injection targeting the murine fetus, to transfer donor cells carrying a foreign protein into the fetal circulation. This approach is sufficient to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune tolerance against the foreign protein.

  19. Immune tolerance induction using fetal directed placental injection in rodent models: a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kei; Endo, Masayuki; Miyoshi, Takekazu; Tsuritani, Mitsuhiro; Shimazu, Yukiko; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Saga, Kotaro; Tamai, Katsuto; Flake, Alan W; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Induction of the immune response is a major problem in replacement therapies for inherited protein deficiencies. Tolerance created in utero can facilitate postnatal treatment. In this study, we aimed to induce immune tolerance towards a foreign protein with early gestational cell transplantation into the chorionic villi under ultrasound guidance in the murine model. Pregnant C57BL/6 (B6) mice on day 10 of gestation were anesthetized and imaged by high resolution ultrasound. Murine embryos and their placenta were positioned to get a clear view in B-mode with power mode of the labyrinth, which is the equivalent of chorionic villi in the human. Bone marrow cells (BMCs) from B6-Green Fluorescence Protein (B6GFP) transgenic mice were injected into the fetal side of the placenta which includes the labyrinth with glass microcapillary pipettes. Each fetal mouse received 2 x 105 viable GFP-BMCs. After birth, we evaluated the humoral and cell-mediated immune response against GFP. Bone marrow transfer into fetal side of placenta efficiently distributed donor cells to the fetal mice. The survival rate of this procedure was 13.5%(5 out of 37). Successful engraftment of the B6-GFP donor skin grafts was observed in all recipient (5 out of 5) mice 6 weeks after birth. Induction of anti-GFP antibodies was completely inhibited. Cytotoxic immune reactivity of thymic cells against cells harboring GFP was suppressed by ELISPOT assay. In this study, we utilized early gestational placental injection targeting the murine fetus, to transfer donor cells carrying a foreign protein into the fetal circulation. This approach is sufficient to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune tolerance against the foreign protein.

  20. Placentation in different mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tarrade, Anne

    2016-06-01

    The placenta is a complex, transient organ associated with viviparity, which is located at the interface of the dam and fetus during pregnancy. It is formed after attachment, or implantation, of the blastocyst on the uterine lining and derives from complex cellular and molecular interactions between uterine and embryonic tissues. In mammals, there are many forms of placentation but this organ has the same function in all species: it is responsible for orchestrating materno-fetal exchanges, together with endocrine and immunological functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Placental iron uptake and its regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bierings (Marc)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIron transport in pregnancy is an active one-way process, from mother to fetus. Early in gestation fetal iron needs are low, and so is trans-placental transport, but as erythropoiesis develops, rising fetal iron needs are met by trans-placental iron transport. Apparently, the fetus

  2. Hans Strahl's pioneering studies in comparative placentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2010-01-01

    Hans Strahl, a contemporary of Duval and Hubrecht, made many important contributions to comparative placentation. Despite this he is not well known and some of his original observations tend to be attributed to later authors. Strahl published a classification of placental types based on their sha...

  3. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Capellini

    Full Text Available Placental invasiveness-the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood-is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness.

  4. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... products to revise the conditions for the importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines...

  5. l-Methionine Placental Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, João R.; Correia-Branco, Ana; Ramalho, Carla; Gonçalves, Pedro; Pinho, Maria J.; Keating, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and GDM-associated conditions upon the placental uptake of 14C-l-methionine (14C-l-Met). The 14C-l-Met uptake by human trophoblasts (TBs) obtained from normal pregnancies (normal trophoblast [NTB] cells) is mainly system l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1 [L])-mediated, although a small contribution of system y+LAT2 is also present. Comparison of 14C-l-Met uptake by NTB and by human TBs obtained from GDM pregnancies (diabetic trophoblast [DTB] cells) reveals similar kinetics, but a contribution of systems A, LAT2, and b0+ and a greater contribution of system y+LAT1 appears to exist in DTB cells. Short-term exposure to insulin and long-term exposure to high glucose, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin decrease 14C-l-Met uptake in a human TB (Bewo) cell line. The effect of leptin was dependent upon phosphoinositide 3-kinase, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK/MEK 1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In conclusion, GDM does not quantitatively alter 14C-l-Met placental uptake, although it changes the nature of transporters involved in that process. PMID:23653387

  6. Placental histopathology of congenital syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Jeanne S; Sánchez, Pablo J; Wendel, George D; Fong, David W I; Margraf, Linda R; Zeray, Fiker; McIntire, Donald D; Barton Rogers, Beverly

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the contribution of placental histopathology to the diagnosis of congenital syphilis. From January 1, 1986, through December 31, 1998, all pregnant women presenting to a large, urban Dallas County labor and delivery unit with untreated syphilis at delivery and who had placental evaluation performed were identified. Women were clinically staged, and the infants were evaluated for congenital syphilis using a standard protocol. Each placenta was evaluated by two independent pathologists. Histologic characteristics of the placenta related to congenital syphilis in live-born and stillborn infants were then analyzed. Sixty-seven women met the study criteria: 33 (49%) stillborn and 18 (27%) live-born infants with congenital syphilis, 15 (22%) uninfected live-born infants, and one uninfected stillborn fetus diagnosed by current criteria. There were no differences between the groups with regard to demographic characteristics, prenatal care, or stage of syphilis. Stillborn infants were more likely to deliver preterm (P gestational age, histopathology revealed necrotizing funisitis, villous enlargement, and acute villitis associated with congenital syphilis. Erythroblastosis was more common in stillborn infants with congenital syphilis than all live-born infants (odds ratio 16, 95% confidence interval 1, 370). The addition of histologic evaluation to conventional diagnostic evaluations improved the detection rate for congenital syphilis from 67% to 89% in live-born infants, and 91% to 97% in stillborn infants. Our results show that histopathologic examination of the placenta is a valuable adjunct to the contemporary diagnostic criteria used to diagnose congenital syphilis.

  7. Placental Inflammatory Changes and Bacterial Infection in Premature Neonates with Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal a relationship of placental inflammatory changes to bacterial infection in premature neonates with respiratory failure. Material and methods. Bronchoalveolar aspirate was bacteriologically studied in 157 premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS; the total and differential leukocyte counts were measured in their peripheral blood. The levels of the cytokines IL-1^3, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-a were studied in different biological fluids of mothers and their babies; the placentas were also morphologically examined. Results. An analysis of bacterial cultures from the tracheobronchial tree revealed no growth of bacterial microflora in 61.8% of cases, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were isolated in 6.4 and 8.3% of the infants, respectively; Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Enterobacter agglomerans, and hemolytic group A Streptococcus were seen in 1.9% each; moreover, 1.3% of the newborn infants were found to have Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens. Other microorganisms and a microbial association were encountered in 8.9% of cases. Placental morphological examination revealed different inflammatory changes concurrent with chronic and acute placental insufficiency. The investigation demonstrated that the maternal peripheral plasma levels of IL-1^, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-a were within the physiological range at the end of the first period of delivery. The amniotic fluid displayed elevated IL-6 and TNF-a concentrations and normal IL-4 and IL-1e levels, suggesting that there was an intrauterine inflammatory process. Conclusion. Premature birth is associated with various placental inflammatory changes, which causes intrauterine stimulation of macrophages in the chorionic villi. Specific immune defense mechanisms that prevent the development of a fetal infectious process, i.e. the maternal infectious process, may induce

  8. Hyperemesis gravidarum and placental dysfunction disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudijs, Heleen M; Savitri, Ary I; Browne, Joyce L; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2016-11-25

    Evidence about the consequence of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) on pregnancy outcomes is still inconclusive. In this study, we evaluated if occurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with placental dysfunction disorders and neonatal outcomes. A prospective cohort study was conducted in a maternal and child health primary care referral center, Budi Kemuliaan Hospital and its branch, in Jakarta, Indonesia. 2252 pregnant women visiting the hospital for regular antenatal care visits from July 2012 until October 2014 were included at their first clinic visit. For women without, with mild and with severe hyperemesis, placental dysfunction disorders (gestational hypertension, preeclampsia (PE), stillbirth, miscarriage), neonatal outcomes (birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), Apgar score at 5 min, gestational age at delivery) and placental outcomes (placental weight and placental-weight-to-birth-weight ratio (PW/BW ratio)) were studied. Compared to newborns of women without hyperemesis, newborns of women with severe hyperemesis had a 172 g lower birth weight in adjusted analysis (95%CI -333.26; -10.18; p = 0.04). There were no statistically significant effects on placental dysfunction disorders or other neonatal outcome measures. The results of our study suggest that hyperemesis gravidarum does not seem to induce placental dysfunction disorders, but does, if severe lead to lower birth weight.

  9. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L

    2014-08-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  10. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  11. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...... that epitheliochorial placentation is a derived state and that the common ancestor of placental mammals probably had a placenta of the endotheliochorial type. Where evolutionary trends are implied for mammals as a whole or within orders such as primates they often accompany a switch in reproductive strategy...

  12. Characterization of VAR2CSA-deficient Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes selected for adhesion to the BeWo placental cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Graham V

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in pregnancy is characterized by accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IE in the placenta. The key ligand identified as mediating this process is a Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 family member, termed VAR2CSA. VAR2CSA appears to be the main ligand responsible for adhesion to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA. Whether other PfEMP1 molecules can also mediate placental adhesion, independent of CSA binding, is unclear. Methods The parasite line CS2 carrying a disrupted var2csa gene (CS2KO was selected for adhesion to the BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line, which has been proposed as a model for placental malaria. The selected and control IE were tested for adhesion to placental sections and flow cytometry was used to measure recognition of IE by three serum sets from malaria-exposed men and women. Results Wild-type CS2 adhere to BeWo and placental tissue via CSA. CS2KO IE were successfully selected for adhesion to BeWo, and adhered by a CSA-independent mechanism. They bound to immobilized ICAM-1 and CD36. BeWo-selected CS2KO bound at moderate levels to placental sections, but most binding was to placental villi rather than to the syncytiotrophoblast to which IE adherence occurs in vivo. This binding was inhibited by a blocking antibody to CD36 but not to ICAM-1. As expected, sera from malaria-exposed adults recognized CS2 IE in a gender and parity dependent manner. In one serum set, there was a similar but less pronounced pattern of antibody binding to selected CS2KO IE, but this was not seen in two others. One var gene, It4var19, was particularly abundant in the selected line and was detected as full length transcripts in BeWo-selected IE, but not unselected CS2KO. Conclusion This study suggests that IE with characteristics similar to the CS2KO have a limited role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. VAR2CSA appear to be the major ligand for placental adhesion, and could be the basis for a vaccine

  13. Placental genetic variations in circadian clock-related genes increase the risk of placental abruption

    OpenAIRE

    Chunfang, Qiu; GELAYE, Bizu; Denis, Marie; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Ananth, Cande V.; Pacora, Percy N; Salazar, Manuel; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of placental abruption (PA) remains poorly understood. We examined variations in SNPs of circadian clock-related genes in placenta with PA risk. We also explored placental and maternal genomic contributions to PA risk. Placental genomic DNA samples were isolated from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip. We examined 116 SNPs in 13 genes known to moderate circadian rhythms. Logistic regression models were fit to e...

  14. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from chorionic villi of a Turner syndrome spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shagufta; Panicker, M M; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

    2017-03-01

    A major cause of spontaneous abortions is chromosomal abnormality of foetal cells. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the fibroblasts isolated from chorionic villi of an early spontaneously aborted foetus with Turner syndrome. The Turner syndrome villus induced pluripotent stem cell line is transgene free, retains the original XO karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. This pluripotent stem cell model of Turner syndrome should serve as a tool to study the developmental abnormalities of foetus and placenta that lead to early embryo lethality and profound symptoms like infertility in 45 XO survivors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperemesis gravidarum and placental dysfunction disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudijs, Heleen M; Savitri, Ary I; Browne, Joyce L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413640671; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Grobbee, Diederick E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071889256; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/136603947

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence about the consequence of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) on pregnancy outcomes is still inconclusive. In this study, we evaluated if occurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with placental dysfunction disorders and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was

  16. Abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and placental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stromal fibrosis and calcification). The placental lesions were then compared with DV findings (at delivery) and prospectively with neonatal outcome. Statistical analysis. Statistical software SPSS version 20.0 (IBM Corp., USA) was used for statistical ...

  17. Pregnancy Complications: Placental Accreta, Increta and Percreta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If the bleeding is severe, go to the hospital right way. How are these placental conditions diagnosed? These conditions usually are diagnosed using ultrasound . In some cases, your provider may use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a medical test ...

  18. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enders Allen C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it

  19. The distinct proteome of placental malaria parasites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, Michal; Hixson, Kim K.; Anderson, Lori; Ogata, Yuko; Mutabingwa, Theonest K.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2007-09-01

    Malaria proteins expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) mediate adhesion and are targeted by protective immune responses. During pregnancy, IE sequester in the placenta. Placental IE bind to the molecule chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and preferentially transcribe the gene that encodes VAR2CSA, a member of the PfEMP1 variant surface antigen family. Over successive pregnancies women develop specific immunity to CSA-binding IE and antibodies to VAR2CSA. We used tandem mass spectrometry together with accurate mass and time tag technology to study IE membrane fractions of placental parasites. VAR2CSA peptides were detected in placental IE and in IE from children, but the MC variant of VAR2CSA was specifically associated with placental IE. We identified six conserved hypothetical proteins with putative TM or signal peptides that were exclusively expressed by the placental IE, and 11 such proteins that were significantly more abundant in placental IE. One of these hypothetical proteins, PFI1785w, is a 42kDa molecule detected by Western blot in parasites infecting pregnant women but not those infecting children.

  20. Ovulation, pregnancy, placentation and husbandry in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W.R

    2006-01-01

    The African elephant reproduces so efficiently in the wild that overpopulation is now a serious problem in some game parks in Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa. The female reaches puberty between 10 and 12 years of age in the wild and, when in captivity, shows oestrous cycles of 14–15 weeks duration. She readily conceives a singleton in the wild yet her uterus has the capacity for twins. She shows a gestation length of 22 months and, in the wild, shows a population density and feed dependent intercalving interval of 4–8 years. The trophoblast erodes the lumenal epithelium of the endometrium and stimulates upgrowths of blood vessel-containing stromal villi, which develop eventually into the broad, tightly folded lamellae of the zonary, endotheliochorial placenta. Significant quantities of leaked maternal erythrocytes and ferric iron are phagocytosed by specialized trophoblast cells in the haemophagous zones at the lateral edges of the placental band. Although the placenta itself is endocrinologically inert, the foetal gonads, which enlarge greatly during the second half of pregnancy can synthesize 5α-dihydryoprogesterone and other 5α pregnane derivatives from cholesterol and pregnenolone. These products may synergize with progestagens secreted by the 2–8 large corpora lutea which are always present in the maternal ovaries throughout gestation to maintain the pregnancy state. PMID:16627297

  1. Peripheral and placental biomarkers in women with placental malaria: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruizendaal, Esmée; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth; Mens, Petra F.

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria (PM) causes significant morbidity in mothers and infants. Diagnosis of PM during pregnancy is however problematic due to placental sequestration of parasites. Host biomarkers may therefore be used as a diagnostic method. In this systematic review most studies focused on

  2. Placental amino acid transport and placental leptin resistance in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, D M; Choi, J; Dudley, D J; Li, C; Jenkins, S L; Myatt, L; Nathanielsz, P W

    2010-08-01

    HYPOTHESIS AND STUDY OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that maternal obesity is associated with increased placental amino acid transport and hyperleptinemia. Our objectives were to study placental amino acid transport and the effect of leptin on placental amino acid transport in vitro in the setting of maternal obesity. Seven lean, BMI at entry 22.4, and seven obese, BMI at entry 31.5 (p leptin-stimulated placental system A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) activity, placental immunoreactive protein expression of SNAT, leptin and leptin receptor, and maternal and fetal plasma leptin concentrations, with significance set at p leptin receptor (p = 0.01) and SNAT-4 (p leptin in the lean group as compared to the obese group. Maternal weight gain and offspring birth weights were not different between groups. Maternal obesity was accompanied by decreased placental SNAT activity associated with maternal hyperleptinemia and placental leptin resistance in spite of appropriate maternal weight gain and normally grown neonates. These findings suggest altered placental function that may have clinical implications in obese pregnant women.

  3. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is caused by a number of Mycobacterium species, of which Mycobacterium bovis, causing 'bovine tuberculosis' is ... KEY WORDS: Mycobacterium bovis, Zoonosis, Holeta, Ethiopia causing 'bovine tuberculosis ..... isolation of infected animals in which communal grazing and watering practiced.

  4. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A M

    2009-03-01

    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic gene yielded HBG-T2, a gene that is expressed in the fetus and confers high oxygen affinity on its haemoglobin. A separate event in ruminants involved duplication of an adult gene, again resulting in a fetally expressed variant (HBB-T3) that conveys high oxygen affinity. In rodents and lagomorphs, where fetal and adult haemoglobin are not different, developmental regulation of 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate ensures the high oxygen affinity of fetal blood. Oxygen diffusing capacity is dependent on diffusion distance, which may vary with the type of interhaemal barrier. It has been shown that epitheliochorial placentation is a derived state and that the common ancestor of placental mammals probably had a placenta of the endotheliochorial type. Where evolutionary trends are implied for mammals as a whole or within orders such as primates they often accompany a switch in reproductive strategy that is manifested in a change of newborn state from poorly developed (altricial) to well developed (precocial).

  5. Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummins C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal. Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane. Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support. Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased.

  6. Human placental immunoglobulins show unique re-association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. Design: Laboratory based experimentation. Setting: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of ...

  7. Evolution of placental function in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2012-01-01

    gas exchange. They evolved following duplications within the beta-globin gene family with convergent evolution occurring in ruminants and primates. In primates there was also an interesting rearrangement of a cassette of genes in relation to an upstream locus control region. Substrate transfer from...... and placental lactogens from the growth hormone and prolactin genes. There has been a remarkable degree of convergent evolution with placental lactogens emerging separately in the ruminant, rodent, and primate lineages and chorionic gonadotropins evolving separately in equids and higher primates. Finally......, coevolution in the primate lineage of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens can be linked to the deep invasion of the uterus by trophoblast that is a characteristic feature of human placentation....

  8. Quality assessment of a placental perfusion protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Mose, Tina; Mørck, Thit Juul

    2010-01-01

    Validation of in vitro test systems using the modular approach with steps addressing reliability and relevance is an important aim when developing in vitro tests in e.g. reproductive toxicology. The ex vivo human placental perfusion system may be used for such validation, here presenting the plac......Validation of in vitro test systems using the modular approach with steps addressing reliability and relevance is an important aim when developing in vitro tests in e.g. reproductive toxicology. The ex vivo human placental perfusion system may be used for such validation, here presenting...... the placental perfusion model in Copenhagen including control substances. The positive control substance antipyrine shows no difference in transport regardless of perfusion media used or of terms of delivery (n=59, p

  9. [Antenatal diagnosis of placental acretism-percretism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Leis-Márquez, Teresa; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Juárez-García, Luz del Carmen; García-Moreno, Carla

    2013-05-01

    Placental acretism is an adherencial pathology associated with a high maternal morbidity and mortality rates. Antepartum diagnosis is essential to plan a proper management and reduce serious complications. Risk factors in these patients include prior cesarean sections, uterine scars and placenta previa. Second level ultrasonography may detect placental acretism with high sensitivity and specificity; magnetic resonance imaging may play a complimentary role in the diagnosis of placental acretism when ultrasonographic findings are non-conclusive, specially when determining miometrium invasion in placental acretism (incretism, percretism). This paper reports the case of a patient treated at the ABC Medical Center of Santa Fe, in her second gestation with the diagnosis of an arcuate uterus, previous cesarean section and placenta previa who presented a vaginal bleeding during pregnancy; ultrasound evaluation, in the second trimester, identified a probable placental acretism, in the third trimester, the same technology suggested placenta percreta, complimentary magnetic resonance imaging supported this diagnosis, with probable invasion to bladder, bowel and abdominal wall muscles. Imaging studies were performed at the Hospital Angeles Lomas (Maternal Fetal Clinic). A diagnosis of placenta acreta-percreta, called for a multidisciplinary surgical team, availability of blood products and other resources to face probable complications associated to the obstetrical resolution. Maternal results were optimal since histopathological evaluation reported miometrial incretism, with placental invasion millimeters away from the uterine serosa. Most ultrasonographic studies evaluating the invasion degree of the placenta have small sample sizes, generating a greater degree of false positive or false negative observations. Therefore, we agree with other authors that in all acretism cases (independent of their invasion degree), a multidisciplinary surgical team should be assembled in

  10. Cesarean Delivery for a Life‑threatening Preterm Placental Abruption

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Placental abruption is one of the major life‑threatening obstetric conditions. The fetomaternal outcome of a severe placental abruption depends largely on prompt maternal resuscitation and delivery. A case of severe preterm placental abruption with intrauterine fetal death. Following a failed induction of labor with a ...

  11. Immunoinformatics of Placental Malaria Vaccine Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Leon Eyrich

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium, which is transferred by female Anopheles mosquitos. WHO estimates that in 2012 there were 207 million cases of malaria, of which 627,000 were fatal. People living in malaria-endemic areas, gradually acquire...... immunity with multiple infections. Placental malaria (PM) is caused by P. falciparum sequestering in the placenta of pregnant women due to the presence of novel receptors in the placenta. An estimated 200,000 infants die a year as a result of PM. In 2004 the specific protein responsible...... and development in the field of placental malaria vaccine development....

  12. Culture and in vitro hepatogenic differentiation of placenta-derived stem cells, using placental extract as an alternative to serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K S; Lee, H J; Jung, J; Cha, D H; Kim, G J

    2010-10-01

    Translational research using adult stem cells derived from various tissues has been highlighted in cell-based therapy. However, there are many limitations to using conventional culture systems of adult stem cells for clinically applicability, including limited combinations of cytokines and use of nutrients derived from animals. Here, we have investigated the effects of placental extract (PE) for culture of placenta-derived stem cells (PDSCs) as well as their potential for hepatogenic differentiation. Placental extract, extracted using water-soluble methods, was used as a supplement for culture of PDSCs. Cell viability was determined using the MTT assay, and cytokine assay was performed using Luminex assay kit. Gene expression, indocyanine green (ICG) up-take, PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff) staining and urea production were also analysed. The placental extract contained several types of cytokine and chemokine essential for maintenance and differentiation of stem cells. Expression of stemness markers in PDSCs cultured with PE is no different from that of PDSCs cultured with foetal bovine serum (FBS). After hepatogenic differentiation, expression patterns for hepatocyte-specific markers in PDSCs cultured with PE were consistent and potential for hepatogenic differentiation of PDSCs cultured with PE was similar to that of PDSCs cultured with FBS, as shown by PAS staining and urea production assays. Our findings revealed that placental extract could be used as a new component for culture of adult stem cells, as well as for development of human-based medium, in translational research for regenerative medicine.

  13. Serum Biochemistry, Organ Weight, Carcass Characteristics, Organoleptic Properties and Villi Morphometry of Nera Black Cocks fed Varying Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Kayode Ojediran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A total number of sixty-four (28 weeks old matured Nera black cocks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary groups. Diet T1 (control had no Moringa Oleifera leaf meal (MOLM inclusion while diets T2, T3 and T4 contained graded levels of MOLM at 10%, 20% and 30% replacement for soya bean meal (w/w respectively  in a completely randomized design. All the serum biochemistry parameters evaluated differs significantly (P≤0.05 except albumin and cholesterol (P>0.05 among the dietary treatments. The weight of the kidney, heart, pancrease, proventriculus and spleen were influenced by the dietary treatments (P≤0.05. The weights of breast and empty gizzard increased (P≤0.05 linearly with MOLM inclusion while the wings, thigh and drum stick compared (P≤0.05 with those fed the control diet. The villi length and muscle thickness were significantly (P≤0.05 influenced by MOLM inclusion. The MOLM supplemented birds had longer villi than birds in the control group. The result of the this study showed that replacement of soybean meal with MOLM up to 30% inclusion in the diets of Nera black cocks was not detrimental to organ weights, carcass characteristics, sensory attributes and villi morphometrics. However, some serum parameters were adversely affected.

  14. False Negative NIPT Results: Risk Figures for Chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 Based on Chorionic Villi Results in 5967 Cases and Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Van Opstal

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT demonstrated a small chance for a false negative result. Since the "fetal" DNA in maternal blood originates from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV, some false negative results will have a biological origin. Based on our experience with cytogenetic studies of CV, we tried to estimate this risk. 5967 CV samples of pregnancies at high risk for common aneuplodies were cytogenetically investigated in our centre between January 2000 and December 2011. All cases of fetal trisomy 13, 18 and 21 were retrospectively studied for the presence of a normal karyotype or mosaicism < 30% in short-term cultured (STC- villi. 404 cases of trisomies 13, 18 and 21 were found amongst 5967 samples (6,8%. Of these 404 cases, 14 (3,7% had a normal or low mosaic karyotype in STC-villi and therefore would potentially be missed with NIPT. It involved 2% (5/242 of all trisomy 21 cases and 7.3% (9/123 of all trisomy 18 cases. In 1:426 (14/5967 NIPT samples of patients at high risk for common aneuploidies, a trisomy 18 or 21 will potentially be missed due to the biological phenomenon of absence of the chromosome aberration in the cytotrophoblast.

  15. Placental adaptation: what can we learn from birthweight:placental weight ratio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Elizabeth Hayward

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate fetal growth relies upon adequate placental nutrient transfer. Birthweight:placental weight ratio (BW:PW ratio is often used as a proxy for placental efficiency, defined as the grams of fetus produced per gram placenta. An elevated BW:PW ratio in an appropriately grown fetus (small placenta is assumed to be due to up-regulated placental nutrient transfer capacity i.e. a higher nutrient net flux per gram placenta. In fetal growth restriction (FGR, where a fetus fails to achieve its genetically pre-determined growth potential, placental weight and BW:PW ratio are often reduced which may indicate a placenta that fails to adapt its nutrient transfer capacity to compensate for its small size. This review considers the literature on BW:PW ratio in both large cohort studies of normal pregnancies and those studies offering insight into the relationship between BW:PW ratio and outcome measures including stillbirth, FGR and subsequent postnatal consequences. The core of this review is the question of whether BW:PW ratio is truly indicative of altered placental efficiency, and whether changes in BW:PW ratio reflect those placentas which adapt their nutrient transfer according to their size. We consider this question using data from mice and humans, focusing upon studies that have measured the activity of the well characterized placental system A amino acid transporter, both in uncomplicated pregnancies and in FGR. Evidence suggests that BW:PW ratio is reduced both in FGR and in pregnancies resulting in a small for gestational age (SGA, birthweight <10th centile infant but this effect is more pronounced earlier in gestation (<28 weeks. In mice, there is a clear association between increased BW:PW ratio and increased placental system A activity. Additionally, there is good evidence in wild-type mice that small placentas upregulate placental nutrient transfer to prevent fetal undergrowth. In humans, this association between BW:PW ratio and

  16. Placental malaria and immunity to infant measles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owens, S.; Harper, G.; Amuasi, J.; Offei-Larbi, G.; Ordi, J.; Brabin, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of transplacental transfer of measles specific antibody was assessed in relation to placental malaria. Infection at delivery was associated with a 30% decrease in expected cord measles antibody titres. Uninfected women who received anti-malarial drugs during pregnancy transmitted 30%

  17. Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A rare case of histologically proven placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD with fetal omphalocele in a 22-year-old patient is reported. Material and Methods. Antenatal ultrasound of this patient showed hydropic placenta with a live fetus of 17 weeks period of gestation associated with omphalocele. Cordocentesis detected the diploid karyotype of the fetus. Patient, when prognosticated, choose to terminate the pregnancy in view of high incidence of fetal and placental anomalies. Subsequent histopathological examination of placenta established the diagnosis to be placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Conclusion. On clinical and ultrasonic grounds, suspicion of P.M.D. arises when hydropic placenta with a live fetus presents in second trimester of pregnancy. Cordocentesis can detect the diploid karyotype of the fetus in such cases. As this condition is prognostically better than triploid partial mole, continuation of pregnancy can sometimes be considered after through antenatal screening and patient counseling. However, a definite diagnosis of P.M.D. is made only on placental histology by absence of trophoblast hyperplasia and trophoblastic inclusions.

  18. Abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and placental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Doppler velocimetry (DV) is widely used to assess the vascular formation of the placenta in fetal growth restriction (FGR) and to estimate the haemodynamic condition of the growth-restricted fetus. Umbilical artery (UA) flow is essentially placental, rather than fetal. Hence, DV provides information about the fetal ...

  19. Placental growth factor and pre-eclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, K; Hennessy, A; Makris, A

    2017-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) is an increasingly important molecule in the prediction, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia. It has pro-angiogenic effects on the feto-placental circulation and supports trophoblast growth. Mechanisms by which PlGF expression is regulated continue to be investigated. Low circulating PlGF precedes the manifestation of clinical disease in pre-eclamptic pregnancies and intrauterine growth restriction. This suggests that low PlGF is a marker of abnormal placentation, but it remains uncertain whether this is a cause or consequence. Prediction of pre-eclampsia using PlGF is promising and may assist in the targeting of resources to women at highest risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Promisingly, experimental animal models of pre-eclampsia have been successfully treated with supplemental PlGF. Treatment of pre-eclampsia with PlGF is a potential therapeutic option requiring further exploration. This review focuses specifically on the role of PlGF in normal and pathological placental development and in the clinical management of pre-eclampsia. PMID:29115294

  20. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony; Enders, Allen

    2009-01-01

    nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures...

  1. Placental Nutrient Transport and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eGaccioli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction refers to the inability of the fetus to reach its genetically determined potential size. Fetal growth restriction affects approximately 5–15% of all pregnancies in the United States and Europe. In developing countries the occurrence varies widely between 10 and 55%, impacting about 30 million newborns per year. Besides having high perinatal mortality rates these infants are at greater risk for severe adverse outcomes, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Moreover, reduced fetal growth has lifelong health consequences, including higher risks of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Numerous reports indicate placental insufficiency as one of the underlying causes leading to altered fetal growth and impaired placental capacity of delivering nutrients to the fetus has been shown to contribute to the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Indeed, reduced expression and/or activity of placental nutrient transporters have been demonstrated in several conditions associated with an increased risk of delivering a small or growth restricted infant. This review focuses on human pregnancies and summarizes the changes in placental amino acid, fatty acid, and glucose transport reported in conditions associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as pre-eclampsia and young maternal age.

  2. Diagnosis of foetal membrane ruptures: Placental alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Pre‑labour rupture of membranes (PROM) is a common obstetric complication which presents a diagnostic challenge, especially in equivocal cases. Standard methods of diagnosis are limited by high false positives and negatives. This study compared the accuracy of a biomarker placental alpha microglobulin‑1 ...

  3. Placental genetic variations in circadian clock-related genes increase the risk of placental abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Denis, Marie; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Ananth, Cande V; Pacora, Percy N; Salazar, Manuel; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of placental abruption (PA) remains poorly understood. We examined variations in SNPs of circadian clock-related genes in placenta with PA risk. We also explored placental and maternal genomic contributions to PA risk. Placental genomic DNA samples were isolated from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip. We examined 116 SNPs in 13 genes known to moderate circadian rhythms. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs). The combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk was estimated using a weighted genetic risk score. We examined independent and joint associations of wGRS derived from placental and maternal genomes with PA. Seven SNPs in five genes (ARNTL2, CRY2, DEC1, PER3 and RORA), in the placental genome, were associated with PA risk. Each copy of the minor allele (G) of a SNP in the RORA gene (rs2899663) was associated with a 30% reduced odds of PA (95% CI 0.52-0.95). The odds of PA increased with increasing placental-wGRS (Ptrendcircadian clock-related genes are associated with PA risk; and the association persists after control of genetic variants in the maternal genome.

  4. Ancestral capture of syncytin-Car1, a fusogenic endogenous retroviral envelope gene involved in placentation and conserved in Carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Guillaume; Heidmann, Odile; Bernard-Stoecklin, Sibylle; Reynaud, Karine; Véron, Géraldine; Mulot, Baptiste; Dupressoir, Anne; Heidmann, Thierry

    2012-02-14

    Syncytins are envelope protein genes of retroviral origin that have been captured for a function in placentation. Two such genes have already been identified in simians, two distinct, unrelated genes have been identified in Muridae, and a fifth gene has been identified in the rabbit. Here, we searched for similar genes in the Laurasiatheria clade, which diverged from Euarchontoglires--primates, rodents, and lagomorphs--shortly after mammalian radiation (100 Mya). In silico search for envelope protein genes with full-coding capacity within the dog and cat genomes identified several candidate genes, with one common to both species that displayed placenta-specific expression, which was revealed by RT-PCR analysis of a large panel of tissues. This gene belongs to a degenerate endogenous retroviral element, with precise proviral integration at a site common to dog and cat. Cloning of the gene for an ex vivo pseudotype assay showed fusogenicity on both dog and cat cells. In situ hybridization on placenta sections from both species showed specific expression at the level of the invasive fetal villi within the placental junctional zone, where trophoblast cells fuse into a syncytiotrophoblast layer to form the maternofetal interface. Finally, we show that the gene is conserved among a series of 26 Carnivora representatives, with evidence for purifying selection and conservation of fusogenic activity. The gene is not found in the Pholidota order and, therefore, it was captured before Carnivora radiation, between 60 and 85 Mya. This gene is the oldest syncytin gene identified to date, and it is the first in a new major clade of eutherian mammals.

  5. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing on...

  6. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule document...

  7. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: chronological observation of placental images during gestation and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Satoshi; Ookubo, Nao; Tanaka, Kyoko; Takatsu, Akiko; Kobara, Hisanori; Kikuchi, Norihiko; Ohya, Ayumi; Kanai, Makoto; Shiozawa, Tanri

    2013-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is characterized by multiple hypoechoic vesicles which are similar to molar changes in the placenta; however, the process of such morphological changes of PMD during pregnancy has not been fully understood. We performed a review of all PMD cases published in English and identified 49 articles including 110 cases. With regard to the gestational age at which the multicystic pattern was seen, approximately 70% of cases were diagnosed at 13-20 weeks of gestation. Another characteristic feature of PMD is varicose dilation of fetal chorionic vessels. As many as 90% of cases were diagnosed as placenta with dilated fetal chorionic vessels in the third trimester. We also report a case of PMD which was found at 10 weeks of gestation according to ultrasonic molar patterns. Serial observations of the placenta using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that multicystic lesions became smaller after 23 weeks. In contrast, dilated placental vessels on the fetal side became apparent at 38 weeks. The present review highlights that placental vesicular lesions of PMD may precede dilation of fetal chorionic vessels during pregnancy. It also indicates the potential of a gradual reduction in size of PMD's placental vesicular lesions by serial study of placental images. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    . Materials and methods. From fresh born placentas, stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end and was left untouched in the other end.Then, using wire myography, they were investigated in terms of contractility...

  9. Metallothionein expression in placental tissue in Menkes' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærslev, T.; Krag Jacobsen, G.; Horn, N.

    1995-01-01

    and children affected by Menkes' disease an additional MT immunostaining appeared in the Hofbauer cells of the chorionic villi. This staining was associated with an increased content of copper as measured by NAA. We conclude that the immunohistochemical demonstration of MT reflects the copper content and may...

  10. Placentation in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Miglino, M A; Ambrosio, C E

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from several sources supports a close phylogenetic relationship between elephants and sirenians. To explore whether this was reflected in similar placentation, we examined eight delivered placentae from the Amazonian manatee using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In addition......, the fetal placental circulation was described by scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. The manatee placenta was zonary and endotheliochorial, like that of the elephant. The interhaemal barrier comprised maternal endothelium, cytotrophoblasts and fetal endothelium. We found columnar trophoblast...... beneath the chorionic plate and lining lacunae in this region, but there was no trace in the term placenta of haemophagous activity. The gross anatomy of the cord and fetal membranes was consistent with previous descriptions and included a four-chambered allantoic sac, as also found in the elephant...

  11. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  12. Adenoviral-mediated placental gene transfer of IGF-1 corrects placental insufficiency via enhanced placental glucose transport mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen N Jones

    Full Text Available Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that over-expression of human insulin-like growth factor -1 (hIGF-1 in the placenta corrects fetal weight deficits in mouse, rat, and rabbit models of intrauterine growth restriction without changes in placental weight. The underlying mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. To investigate the effect of intra-placental IGF-1 over-expression on placental function we examined glucose transporter expression and localization in both a mouse model of IUGR and a model of human trophoblast, the BeWo Choriocarcinoma cell line.At gestational day 18, animals were divided into four groups; sham-operated controls, uterine artery branch ligation (UABL, UABL+Ad-hIGF-1 (10(8 PFU, UABL+Ad-LacZ (10(8 PFU. At gestational day 20, pups and placentas were harvested by C-section. For human studies, BeWo choriocarcinoma cells were grown in F12 complete medium +10%FBS. Cells were incubated in serum-free control media ± Ad-IGF-1 or Ad-LacZ for 48 hours. MOIs of 10∶1 and 100∶1 were utilized. The RNA, protein expression and localization of glucose transporters GLUT1, 3, 8, and 9 were analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry.In both the mouse placenta and BeWo, GLUT1 regulation was linked to altered protein localization. GLUT3, localized to the mouse fetal endothelial cells, was reduced in placental insufficiency but maintained with Ad-I GF-1 treatment. Interestingly, GLUT8 expression was reduced in the UABL placenta but up-regulated following Ad-IGF-1 in both mouse and human systems. GLUT9 expression in the mouse was increased by Ad-IGF-1 but this was not reflected in the BeWo, where Ad-IGF-1 caused moderate membrane relocalization.Enhanced GLUT isoform transporter expression and relocalization to the membrane may be an important mechanism in Ad-hIGF-1mediated correction of placental insufficiency.

  13. Hyperemesis gravidarum and placental dysfunction disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Koudijs, Heleen M.; Savitri, Ary I.; Browne, Joyce L.; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence about the consequence of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) on pregnancy outcomes is still inconclusive. In this study, we evaluated if occurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with placental dysfunction disorders and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a maternal and child health primary care referral center, Budi Kemuliaan Hospital and its branch, in Jakarta, Indonesia. 2252 pregnant women visiting the hospital for regular antenata...

  14. Preeclampsia, biomarkers, syncytiotrophoblast stress, and placental capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Christopher W G; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2015-10-01

    The maternal syndrome of preeclampsia is mediated by dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast (STB). When this is stressed by uteroplacental malperfusion, its signaling to the mother changes, as part of a highly coordinated stress response. The STB signals are both proinflammatory and dysangiogenic such that the preeclamptic mother has a stronger vascular inflammatory response than normal, with an antiangiogenic bias. Angiogenic factors have limitations as preeclampsia biomarkers, especially for prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia at term. However, if they are recognized as markers of STB stress, their physiological changes at term demonstrate that STB stress develops in all pregnancies. The biomarkers reveal that the duration of pregnancies is restricted by placental capacity, such that there is increasing placental dysfunction, at and beyond term. This capacity includes limitations imposed by the size of the uterus, the capacity of the uteroplacental circulation and, possibly, the supply of villous progenitor trophoblast cells. Limited placental capacity explains the increasing risks of postmaturity, including preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia is predictable because STB stress and changes in its biomarkers are intrinsic to poor placentation, an early pregnancy pathology. Prediction of preeclampsia at term is not good because there is no early STB pathology. Moreover, biomarkers cannot accurately diagnose term preeclampsia against a background of universal STB dysfunction, which may or may not be clinically revealed before spontaneous or induced delivery. In this sense, postterm pregnancy is, at best, a pseudonormal state. However, the markers may prove useful in screening for women with more severe problems of postmaturity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Maternal-placental interactions and fetal programming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyrov, M; Moser, G; Rath, W; Kweider, N; Wruck, C J; Pufe, T; Huppertz, B

    2013-06-01

    Pregnancy-related complications not only represent a risk for maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, but are also a risk for several diseases later in life. Many epidemiological studies have shown clear associations between an adverse intrauterine environment and an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, depression, obesity, and other chronic diseases in the adult. Some of these syndromes could be prevented by avoiding adverse stimuli or insults including psychological stress during pregnancy, intake of drugs, insufficient diet and substandard working conditions. Hence, all of these stimuli have the potential to alter health later in life. The placenta plays a key role in regulating the nutrient supply to the fetus and producing hormones that control the fetal as well as the maternal metabolism. Thus, any factor or stimulus that alters the function of the hormone producing placental trophoblast will provoke critical alterations of placental function and hence could induce programming of the fetus. The factors that change placental development may interfere with nutrient and oxygen supply to the fetus. This may be achieved by a direct disturbance of the placental barrier or more indirectly by, e. g., disturbing trophoblast invasion. For both path-ways, the respective pathologies are known: while preeclampsia is caused by alterations of the villous trophoblast, intra-uterine growth restriction is caused by insufficient invasion of the extravillous trophoblast. In both cases the effect can be undernutrition and/or fetal hypoxia, both of which adversely affect organ development, especially of brain and heart. However, the mechanisms responsible for disturbances of trophoblast differentiation and function remain elusive. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Effect of incubation system on the development of intestinal villi, metabolism, and performance of one- to forty-day-old broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Pacheco Villanueva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of the incubation system ― multiple-stage (MS and single-stage (SS ― on the characteristics at hatching, intestinal morphology, metabolism, and performance of Cobb-500 chickens from 1 to 40 d of age. A total of 1,968 fertile eggs were incubated in two setters under commercial conditions. Birds hatched in SS were longer than those hatched in MS, and the females had higher relative intestinal weight compared with males. However, at hatching, there were no differences in BW and yolk-free body mass from incubation system or sex. In the period from 1-40 d, the birds hatched in SS were heavier, had higher weight gain and better adjusted feed conversion, without differences in feed intake and feed conversion. This result is due mainly to MS females, which always, although in some periods only numerically, exhibited worse responses than the other treatment, lowering the average MS bird performance. Sex influenced the duodenal villi height in chickens at 0 d; females showed larger villi than males. Moreover, the birds hatched in SS had deeper crypts than those hatched in MS. At 7 d, because males had higher feed intake, the differences in duodenal villi height found at hatching disappeared, leaving only a gender effect on jejunum crypt depth: females showed deeper crypts. As regards the metabolism coefficients of nutrients from 5 to 7 d, females were more efficient in metabolizing energy and showed higher apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen values than males, with no differences caused by the incubation system. The best incubation conditions are obtained with the single-stage system, based on the improved broiler performance (2.98%, especially in the females (5.04%.

  17. Prediction and prevention of ischemic placental disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alexander M; Cleary, Kirsten L

    2014-04-01

    Preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and placental abruption are obstetrical conditions that constitute the syndrome of ischemic placental disease or IPD, the leading cause of indicated preterm birth and an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. While the phenotypic manifestations vary significantly for preeclampsia, IUGR, and abruption, these conditions may share a common underlying etiology as evidenced by: (1) shared clinical risk factors, (2) increased recurrence risk across pregnancies as well as increased co-occurrence of IPD conditions within a pregnancy, and (3) findings that suggest the underlying pathophysiologic processes may be similar. IPD is of major clinical importance and accounts for a large proportion of indicated preterm delivery ranging from the periviable to late preterm period. Successful prevention of IPD and resultant preterm delivery could substantially improve neonatal and maternal outcomes. This article will review the following topics: (1) The complicated research literature on aspirin and the prevention of preeclampsia and IUGR. (2) Research evidence on other medical interventions to prevent IPD. (3) New clinical interventions currently under investigations, including statins. (4) Current clinical recommendations for prevention of ischemic placental disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intrauterine growth restriction and placental angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harma Muge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS are factors that take part in placental angiogenesis. They are highly expressed during embryonic and fetal development, especially in the first trimester. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of placental angiogenesis in the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR by comparing the levels of expression of VEGF-A, b-FGF, and eNOS in normal-term pregnancy and IUGR placentas. Methods The expression of VEGF-A, b-FGF, and eNOS was studied using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method in placental tissues diagnosed as normal (n = 55 and IUGR (n = 55. Results were evaluated in a semi-quantitative manner. Results The expression of all the markers was significantly higher (p Conclusion Increased expression of VEGF-A, b-FGF, and eNOS may be the result of inadequate uteroplacental perfusion, supporting the proposal that abnormal angiogenesis plays a role in the pathophysiology of IUGR.

  19. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: What every radiologist needs to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Mittal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD is an uncommon vascular anomaly of the placenta characterized by placentomegaly with multicystic placental lesion on ultrasonography and mesenchymal stem villous hyperplasia on histopathology. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cases of multicystic placental lesion such as molar pregnancy, chorioangioma, subchorionic hematoma, and spontaneous abortion with hydropic placental changes. However, lack of high-velocity signals inside the lesion and a normal karyotype favor a diagnosis of PMD. PMD must be differentiated from gestational trophoblastic disease because management and outcomes differ. We report the case of an 18-year-old female at 15 weeks of gestation with sonographic findings suggestive of placental mesenchymal dysplasia. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology.

  20. Placental Protein 13 (PP13 – a placental immunoregulatory galectin protecting pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandor Gabor Than

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, and some confer maternal-fetal immune tolerance in eutherian mammals. A chromosome 19 cluster of galectins has emerged in anthropoid primates, species with deep placentation and long gestation. Three of the five human cluster galectins are solely expressed in the placenta, where they may confer additional immunoregulatory functions to enable deep placentation. One of these is galectin-13, also known as Placental Protein 13 (PP13. It has a jelly-roll fold, carbohydrate-recognition domain and sugar-binding preference resembling to other mammalian galectins. PP13 is predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast and released from the placenta into the maternal circulation. Its ability to induce apoptosis of activated T cells in vitro, and to divert and kill T cells as well as macrophages in the maternal decidua in situ suggests important immune functions. Indeed, mutations in the promoter and an exon of LGALS13 presumably leading to altered or non-functional protein expression are associated with a higher frequency of preeclampsia and other obstetrical syndromes, which involve immune dysregulation. Moreover, decreased placental expression of PP13 and its low first trimester maternal serum concentrations are associated with elevated risk of preeclampsia. Indeed, PP13 turned to be a good early biomarker to assess maternal risk for the subsequent development of pregnancy complications caused by impaired placentation. Due to the ischemic placental stress in preterm preeclampsia, there is an increased trophoblastic shedding of PP13 immunopositive microvesicles starting in the second trimester, which leads to high maternal blood PP13 concentrations. Our meta-analysis suggests that this phenomenon may enable the potential use of PP13 in directing patient management near to or at the time of delivery. Recent findings on the beneficial effects of PP13 on decreasing

  1. Placental Protein 13 (PP13) – A Placental Immunoregulatory Galectin Protecting Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Nándor Gábor; Balogh, Andrea; Romero, Roberto; Kárpáti, Éva; Erez, Offer; Szilágyi, András; Kovalszky, Ilona; Sammar, Marei; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Matkó, János; Závodszky, Péter; Papp, Zoltán; Meiri, Hamutal

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, and some confer maternal-fetal immune tolerance in eutherian mammals. A chromosome 19 cluster of galectins has emerged in anthropoid primates, species with deep placentation and long gestation. Three of the five human cluster galectins are solely expressed in the placenta, where they may confer additional immunoregulatory functions to enable deep placentation. One of these is galectin-13, also known as Placental Protein 13 (PP13). It has a “jelly-roll” fold, carbohydrate-recognition domain and sugar-binding preference resembling other mammalian galectins. PP13 is predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast and released from the placenta into the maternal circulation. Its ability to induce apoptosis of activated T cells in vitro, and to divert and kill T cells as well as macrophages in the maternal decidua in situ, suggests important immune functions. Indeed, mutations in the promoter and an exon of LGALS13 presumably leading to altered or non-functional protein expression are associated with a higher frequency of preeclampsia and other obstetrical syndromes, which involve immune dysregulation. Moreover, decreased placental expression of PP13 and its low concentrations in first trimester maternal sera are associated with elevated risk of preeclampsia. Indeed, PP13 turned to be a good early biomarker to assess maternal risk for the subsequent development of pregnancy complications caused by impaired placentation. Due to the ischemic placental stress in preterm preeclampsia, there is increased trophoblastic shedding of PP13 immunopositive microvesicles starting in the second trimester, which leads to high maternal blood PP13 concentrations. Our meta-analysis suggests that this phenomenon may enable the potential use of PP13 in directing patient management near to or at the time of delivery. Recent findings on the beneficial effects of PP13 on decreasing blood pressure

  2. Evidence for placental compensation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Fiems, L O; Opsomer, G

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal development is known to be extremely sensitive to maternal and environmental challenges. In this study, we hypothesize that body growth and lactation during gestation in cattle reduce nutrient availability for the pregnant uterus, with consequences for placental development. Fetal membranes of 16 growing heifers and 27 fully grown cows of the Belgian Blue (BB) breed were compared to determine the effect of body growth on placental development. Furthermore, the fetal membranes of 49 lactating Holstein Friesian (HF) cows and 27 HF heifers were compared to study the impact of dam lactation compared to dam body growth. After parturition, calf birth weight and body measurements of dam and calf were recorded, as well as weight of total fetal membranes, cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes. All cotyledons were individually measured to calculate both the surface of each individual cotyledon and the total cotyledonary surface per placenta. Total cotyledonary surface was unaffected by breed or the breed×parity interaction. Besides a 0.3 kg lower cotyledonary weight (P=0.007), heifer placentas had a smaller total cotyledonary surface compared with placentas of cows (0.48±0.017 v. 0.54±0.014 m2, respectively, P<0.001). Within the BB breed, fetal membranes of heifers had a 1.5 kg lower total weight and 1.0 kg lower intercotyledonary membrane weight (P<0.005) compared with cows. A cotyledon number of only 91±5.4 was found in multiparous BB dams, while growing BB heifers had a higher cotyledon number (126±6.7, P<0.001), but a greater proportion of smaller cotyledons (<40 cm2). Within the HF breed, no parity effect on intercotyledonary membrane weight, cotyledon number and individual cotyledonary surface was found. Placental efficiency (calf weight/total cotyledonary surface) was similar in HF and BB heifers but significantly higher in multiparous BB compared with multiparous HF dams (106.0±20.45 v. 74.3±12.27 kg/m2, respectively, P<0.001). Furthermore, a

  3. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF PLACENTAL PATHOLOGY IN MATERNAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, J.; Dawson, D.; Roberts, D.; Bentley-Lewis, R.

    2014-01-01

    During a pregnancy complicated by diabetes, the human placenta undergoes a number of functional and structural pathologic changes, such as increased placental weight and increased incidence of placental lesions including villous maturational defects and fibrinoid necrosis. The pathologic findings reported have differed among studies, potentially reflecting differences in type of diabetes, study methodology, or glycemic control of study participants. Alternatively, these discrepancies may represent different biologic adaptations to distinct metabolic diseases. In order to clarify these distinctions, we conducted a comprehensive review of English language citations in Pubmed and Embase using the keywords “diabetes”, “placenta”, AND “pathology”. Abstracts were reviewed for relevance then full-text articles were reviewed in order to extract a comprehensive summary of current pathological findings associated with pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, as well as an understanding of the impact of glycemic control on placental pathology. Placental abnormalities most consistently associated with maternal diabetes are an increased incidence of villous immaturity, increased measures of angiogenesis, and increased placental weight. The literature suggests that, despite similarities in placental abnormalities, differences in placental pathology may reflect differences in pathophysiology among different types of diabetes. Consequently, standardization of terminology used to define placental lesions is warranted. Moreover, further research is needed to investigate the impact of pathophysiology, glycemic control and clinical factors, such as infant sex, weight and race, on placental structure and function. PMID:25524060

  4. Elevated Placental Adenosine Signaling Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Takayuki; Sun, Kaiqi; Parchim, Nicholas F.; Li, Jessica; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Anren; Hart, Laura A.; Blackwell, Sean C.; Sibai, Baha M.; Chan, Lee-Nien L.; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Hicks, M. John; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This pathogenic condition is speculated to be due to placental abnormalities that contribute to the maternal syndrome. However, the specific factors and signaling pathways leading to impaired placentas and maternal disease development remain elusive. Methods and Results By using two independent animal models of PE—1) genetically-engineered pregnant mice with elevated adenosine exclusively in placentas, and 2) a pathogenic autoantibody-induced PE mouse model—we demonstrated here that chronically elevated placental adenosine was sufficient to induce hallmark features of PE including hypertension, proteinuria, small fetuses, and impaired placental vasculature. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches revealed that elevated placental adenosine coupled with excessive A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling contributed to the development of these features of PE. Mechanistically, we provided both human and mouse evidence that elevated placental CD73 is a key enzyme causing increased placental adenosine, thereby contributing to PE. Conclusions We determined that elevated placental adenosine signaling is a previously unrecognized pathogenic factor for PE. Moreover, our findings revealed the molecular basis underlying the elevation of placental adenosine and the detrimental role of excess placental adenosine in the pathophysiology of PE, and, thereby highlight novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25538227

  5. Placental weight in pregnancies with high or low hemoglobin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sandra; Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Haavaldsen, Camilla; Eskild, Anne

    2016-11-01

    To study the associations of maternal hemoglobin concentrations with placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio. In this retrospective cohort study, we included all singleton pregnancies during the years 1998-2013 at a large public hospital in Norway (n=57062). We compared mean placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio according to maternal hemoglobin concentrations: 13.5g/dl. The associations of maternal hemoglobin concentrations with placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio were estimated by linear regression analyses, and adjustments were made for gestational age at birth, preeclampsia, parity, maternal age, diabetes, body mass index, smoking, offspring sex and year of birth. In pregnancies with maternal hemoglobin concentrations hemoglobin concentrations 9-13.5g/dl and 655.5g (SD 147.7g) for hemoglobin concentrations >13.5g/dl (ANOVA, phemoglobin concentrations hemoglobin concentrations 9-13.5g/dl (0.193 (SD 0.040)) and >13.5g/dl (0.193 (SD 0.043)). Adjustments for our study factors did not alter the estimates notably. Placental weight decreased with increasing maternal hemoglobin concentrations. The high placental to birthweight ratio with low maternal hemoglobin concentrations suggests differences in placental growth relative to fetal growth across maternal hemoglobin concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A systematic review of placental pathology in maternal diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, J; Dawson, D; Roberts, D; Bentley-Lewis, R

    2015-02-01

    During a pregnancy complicated by diabetes, the human placenta undergoes a number of functional and structural pathologic changes, such as increased placental weight and increased incidence of placental lesions including villous maturational defects and fibrinoid necrosis. The pathologic findings reported have differed among studies, potentially reflecting differences in type of diabetes, study methodology, or glycemic control of study participants. Alternatively, these discrepancies may represent different biologic adaptations to distinct metabolic diseases. We conducted a comprehensive review of English language citations in Pubmed and Embase using the keywords "diabetes", "placenta", AND "pathology". Abstracts were reviewed for relevance then full-text articles were reviewed in order to extract a comprehensive summary of current pathological findings associated with pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, as well as an understanding of the impact of glycemic control on placental pathology. Placental abnormalities most consistently associated with maternal diabetes are an increased incidence of villous immaturity, increased measures of angiogenesis, and increased placental weight. The literature suggests that, despite similarities in placental abnormalities, differences in placental pathology may reflect differences in pathophysiology among different types of diabetes. Consequently, standardization of terminology used to define placental lesions is warranted. Moreover, further research is needed to investigate the impact of pathophysiology, glycemic control and clinical factors, such as infant sex, weight and race, on placental structure and function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Iron homeostasis in mother and child during placental malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Santen, Susanne; de Mast, Quirijn; Luty, Adrian J F; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; Van der Ven, Andre J A M; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2011-01-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, iron deficiency and placental Plasmodium falciparum infection commonly coexist. In primigravidae and their newborns, hepcidin and other iron parameters were evaluated in groups and classified according to placental P. falciparum and maternal anemia status. Mothers had relatively high hepcidin levels considering their low iron status. In cord blood, levels of hepcidin, hemoglobin, and other iron parameters were also similar for groups. We conclude that maternal hepcidin is not significantly altered as a function of placental infection and/or anemia. Importantly, fetal hemoglobin and iron status were also unaffected, regardless of the presence of placental infection or maternal anemia.

  8. Iron Homeostasis in Mother and Child during Placental Malaria Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Santen, Susanne; de Mast, Quirijn; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Wiegerinck, Erwin T.; Van der Ven, Andre J. A. M.; Swinkels, Dorine W.

    2011-01-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, iron deficiency and placental Plasmodium falciparum infection commonly coexist. In primigravidae and their newborns, hepcidin and other iron parameters were evaluated in groups and classified according to placental P. falciparum and maternal anemia status. Mothers had relatively high hepcidin levels considering their low iron status. In cord blood, levels of hepcidin, hemoglobin, and other iron parameters were also similar for groups. We conclude that maternal hepcidin is not significantly altered as a function of placental infection and/or anemia. Importantly, fetal hemoglobin and iron status were also unaffected, regardless of the presence of placental infection or maternal anemia. PMID:21212218

  9. Elevated placental adenosine signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Takayuki; Sun, Kaiqi; Parchim, Nicholas F; Li, Jessica; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Anren; Hart, Laura A; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M; Chan, Lee-Nien L; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Hicks, M John; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-02-24

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This pathogenic condition is speculated to be caused by placental abnormalities that contribute to the maternal syndrome. However, the specific factors and signaling pathways that lead to impaired placentas and maternal disease development remain elusive. Using 2 independent animal models of preeclampsia (genetically engineered pregnant mice with elevated adenosine exclusively in placentas and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model), we demonstrated that chronically elevated placental adenosine was sufficient to induce hallmark features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, small fetuses, and impaired placental vasculature. Genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that elevated placental adenosine coupled with excessive A₂B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling contributed to the development of these features of preeclampsia. Mechanistically, we provided both human and mouse evidence that elevated placental CD73 is a key enzyme causing increased placental adenosine, thereby contributing to preeclampsia. We determined that elevated placental adenosine signaling is a previously unrecognized pathogenic factor for preeclampsia. Moreover, our findings revealed the molecular basis underlying the elevation of placental adenosine and the detrimental role of excess placental adenosine in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, and thereby, we highlight novel therapeutic targets. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Placental Abnormalities and Preeclampsia in Trisomy 13 Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Women who are carrying a trisomy 13 fetus are prone to have an abnormal placenta as well as to develop preeclampsia in the second and third trimesters. This article provides a comprehensive review of placental abnormalities, such as small placental volume, reduced placental vascularization, a partial molar appearance of the placenta and placental mesenchymal dysplasia, and preeclampsia associated with trisomy 13 pregnancies. The candidate preeclampsia-causing genes on chromosome 13, such as sFlt1, COL4A2 and periostin, are discussed.

  11. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  12. IL-11 and IL-11Rα immunolocalisation at primate implantation sites supports a role for IL-11 in placentation and fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoikos C

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryo implantation, endometrial stromal cell decidualization and formation of a functional placenta are critical processes in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin (IL-11 signalling is essential for adequate decidualization in the mouse uterus and IL-11 promotes decidualization in the human. IL-11 action is mediated via binding to the specific IL-11 receptor α (IL-11Rα. The present study examined immunoreactive IL-11 and IL-11Rα in cycling rhesus monkey endometrium, at implantation sites in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys and in human first trimester decidua and defined distinct spatial and temporal patterns. In cycling rhesus monkey endometrium, IL-11 and IL-11Rα increased in both basalis and functionalis regions during the secretory compared with the proliferative phase, with changing cellular locations in luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma. The patterns were similar overall to those previously described in human endometrium. Differences were seen in immunostaining during implantation in cynomologus and rhesus monkey. In the cynomolgus, very little staining for IL-11 or IL-11Rα was seen in syncytio- and cyto-trophoblast cells in the villi between days 12 and 150 of pregnancy although there was moderate staining in cytotrophoblast in the shell between days 12 and 17 and in subpopulations of cytotrophoblast cells invading the arteries at day 17. By contrast in the rhesus monkey between days 24 and 35 of pregnancy and in human first trimester placenta, cyto- and syncytio-trophoblast in the villi but not cytotrophoblast in the shell were positively stained. The most intense staining for both IL-11 and IL-11Rα was present within the decidua in the maternal component of implantation sites in all three primates but moderate staining was also present in maternal vascular smooth muscle and glands perivascular cells and epithelial plaques. These results are consistent with a role for IL-11 both during

  13. The placental exposome: Placental determinants of fetal adiposity and postnatal body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Lewis (R.); H. Demmelmair (Hans); R. Gaillard (Romy); N. Godfrey; S. Hauguel-De Mouzon (S.); B. Huppertz (B.); E. Larque (E.); R. Saffery (R.); M.E. Symonds (M.); G. Desoye (G.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOffspring of obese and diabetic mothers are at increased risk of being born with excess adiposity as a consequence of their intrauterine environment. Excessive fetal fat accretion reflects additional placental nutrient transfer, suggesting an effect of the maternal environment on

  14. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight.The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight.Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors.Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7.Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  15. Disruption of lactogenesis by retained placental fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A M

    2001-05-01

    This case report describes a situation in which lack of milk production led the mother to seek help from a lactation consultant in private practice. Despite extensive breast stimulation with the baby at breast and mechanical breast expression, no milk was produced. Retained placenta was suspected by the lactation consultant. The mother was later diagnosed with placenta increta. Only when this condition was diagnosed and resolved did milk onset occur. It is important to evaluate for retained placental fragments when lactation appears to be delayed.

  16. Placental findings in late-onset SGA births without Doppler signs of placental insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Saavedra, M; Crovetto, F; Triunfo, S; Savchev, S; Peguero, A; Nadal, A; Parra, G; Gratacos, E; Figueras, F

    2013-12-01

    To describe placental pathological findings in late-onset small-for-gestational age (SGA) births for which Doppler signs of placental insufficiency are lacking. A series of placentas were evaluated from singleton pregnancies of SGA births (birth weight below the 10th percentile) delivered after 34 weeks with normal umbilical artery Doppler (pulsatility index below the 95th percentile), that were matched by gestational age with adequate-for-gestational age (AGA) controls. Using a hierarchical and standardized system, placental lesions were classified histologically as consequence of maternal underperfusion, fetal underperfusion or inflammation. A total of 284 placentas were evaluated (142 SGA and 142 AGA). In the SGA group, 54.2% (77/142) of the placentas had weights below the 3rd percentile for GA while it was a 9.9% (14/142) in the AGA group (p SGA placentas were free of histological abnormalities, while it was 74.6% (106/142) in the AGA group (p SGA placentas (111/142) there were a total of 161 lesions, attributable to MUP in 64% (103/161), FUP in 15.5% (25/161), and inflammation in 20.5% (33/161). In most placentas of term SGA neonates with normal UA Doppler histological abnormalities secondary to maternal underperfusion prevail, reflecting latent insufficiency in uteroplacental blood supply. This is consistent with the higher risk of adverse perinatal outcome reported in this population and underscores a need for new markers of placental disease. A significant proportion of late-onset SGA births with normal umbilical artery Doppler may still be explained by placental insufficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Placental Growth during Normal Pregnancy - A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Lasse; Grønbeck, Lene; von Huth, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate normal human placental growth longitudinally throughout the second and third trimesters using MRI. METHODS: Twenty normal, first-time singleton pregnancies were scanned 7 times between the 14th and 38th week of gestation, at 4-week intervals, using MRI. Placental volumes...

  18. Relationship between placental thickness and growth parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... weight (Hebbar, 2003). These growth parameters are adversely affected by insufficient nutrients reaching the foetus through the placenta. In these foetuses the placental is often thin. A placental thickness of less than. 2.5 cm is usually associated with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) (Kunlmann and ...

  19. Placental transport and in vitro effects of Bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit J; Sorda, Giuseppina; Bechi, Nicoletta

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like chemical, leaches from consumer products potentially causing human exposure. To examine the effects of BPA exposure during pregnancy, we performed studies using the BeWo trophoblast cell line, placental explant cultures, placental perfusions and skin diffusion...

  20. Human placental alkaline phosphatase in liver and intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Garattini, E; Margolis, J; Heimer, E; Felix, A.; Udenfriend, S

    1985-01-01

    Three distinct forms of human alkaline phosphatase, presumably isozymes, are known, each apparently associated with a specific tissue. These are placental, intestinal, and liver (kidney and bone). We have used a specific immunoassay and HPLC to show that placental alkaline phosphatase is also present in extracts of liver and intestine in appreciable amounts.

  1. Prevalence and predictors of placental malaria in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-16

    Feb 16, 2016 ... Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‑infected pregnant women have alterations in cellular and humoral immunity that increase the risks to placental malaria infection. Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of placental malaria among HIV‑positive women.

  2. Prevalence and predictors of placental malaria in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‑infected pregnant women have alterations in cellular and humoral immunity that increase the risks to placental malaria infection. Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of placental malaria among HIV‑positive women in Nigeria. Materials and ...

  3. Maternal placental syndromes: pathological mechanisms and long-term consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, J.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia, intra uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and placental abruption are major contributors to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In these disorders the placenta is a key aetiological factor and therefore preeclampsia, IUGR and placental abruption are also referred to as

  4. Evaluation of Relationship between Opioid Addiction and Placental Abruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Salari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increased risk of placental abruption as alcohol and cocaine use and cigarette smoking but there are fewer studies about the importance of opioid abuse in placental abruption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between opioid addiction and placental abruption occurrence. Materials & Methods: In this case-control study 51 women with placental abruption and 147 women with normal pregnancy were studied. Data were collected using questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS12. Odds ratio was used for standing the relation of demographic factors and risk factors with incidence of placental abruption, logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the confounding factors. Results: Results showed that 37.3% of the women in the case group and 14.3% of women in the control-group were opioid addiction (P=0.001. The mean of gestational age was 36-41 weeks. 31.3% of the women with placental abruption and 1.3% of the women in the control group had delivery before 36 weeks gestation (P=0. Conclusion: Our results showed that opioid addiction increases of placental abruption probability 2.6 times.

  5. Relación entre Área Total y Área Epitelial de vellosidades placentarias porcinas en diferentes estadíos gestacionales Relationship between Total area and Epithelial area of porcine placental villi at different gestational periods

    OpenAIRE

    Merkis, C. I.; Cristofolini, A. L.; M. A Franchino; E Moschetti; M. A Koncurat

    2005-01-01

    La placenta porcina es epiteliocorial y no invasiva. Las interdigitaciones entre el epitelio trofoblástico fetal y el epitelio uterino conforman vellosidades de las cuales depende el crecimiento y desarrollo fetal. El objetivo fue determinar el Área Total y el Área Epitelial de vellosidades placentarias porcinas en diferentes períodos gestacionales mediante un analizador digital de imágenes. Se realizaron preparados histológicos de 5 placentas porcinas de cada período gestacional estudiado: 2...

  6. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2002-01-01

    Placental GH is thought to be responsible for the rise in maternal IGF-I during pregnancy and is considered to be important for fetal growth. In this prospective longitudinal study of healthy pregnant women, we investigated determinants of placental GH in maternal serum. Serum was obtained from 455...... women with normal singleton pregnancies at approximately 19 and 28 wk gestation. Serum placental GH concentrations were measured by a highly specific immunoradiometric assay, and fetal size was measured by ultrasound. Data on birth weight, gender, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and smoking.......002). Placental GH at second examination was positively correlated with gestational age (P = 0.002) and negatively correlated with prepregnancy BMI (P = 0.039). Placental GH correlated with fetal weight at approximately 28 wk gestation (P = 0.002) but did not predict birth weight at term. Our study supports...

  7. Clinical development of placental malaria vaccines and immunoassays harmonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chêne, Arnaud; Houard, Sophie; Nielsen, Morten A

    2016-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection constitutes a major health problem manifesting as severe disease and anaemia in the mother, impaired fetal development, low birth weight or spontaneous abortion. Prevention of placental malaria currently relies on two key strategies...... that are losing efficacy due to spread of resistance: long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. A placental malaria vaccine would be an attractive, cost-effective complement to the existing control tools. Two placental malaria vaccine candidates are currently...... in Phase Ia/b clinical trials. During two workshops hosted by the European Vaccine Initiative, one in Paris in April 2014 and the other in Brussels in November 2014, the main actors in placental malaria vaccine research discussed the harmonization of clinical development plans and of the immunoassays...

  8. Ethical aspects of banking placental blood for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, J; Reisner, E G; Kurtzberg, J

    1995-12-13

    Transplantation of blood cells harvested from the umbilical cord immediately after birth has been effective in repopulating the bone marrow. These placental blood transplantations may be safer than conventional bone marrow transplantations and may suspend the need to harvest bone marrow, a process fraught with difficulties. Further understanding and advancement of this emerging technology require developing large banks of placental blood. In this article, we examine some of the ethical issues associated with placental blood banking, including (1) questions about ownership of the tissue, (2) the necessity and nature of obtaining informed consent from parents for harvesting placental blood and the information-gathering process associated with it, (3) obligations to notify parents and children of the results of medical testing for infectious diseases and genetic information, (4) matters of privacy and confidentiality related to such information, and (5) the need for fair and equitable harvesting of and access to placental blood.

  9. Placental growth response to maternal insulin in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tierney-Ginn, Perrie; Presley, Larraine; Myers, Stephen; Catalano, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of the placenta to maternal insulin remains controversial. Early pregnancy may be a time of increased placental sensitivity to maternal insulin because insulin receptors are abundant on the syncytiotrophoblast in the first trimester but are far fewer at term. Maternal insulin secretory response in early, but not late, pregnancy is positively associated with placental growth. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort of women (n = 40) recruited before pregnancy. An iv glucose tolerance test was administered before pregnancy and in early (12-14 weeks) and late (34-36 weeks) pregnancy. Placental volume throughout gestation (in a subset of women via 3-dimensional ultrasound) and weight at birth were recorded. Total insulin secretory response in early pregnancy was positively associated with placental volume in early pregnancy (R = 0.79, P = 0.04) and placental weight at term (R = 0.42, P = 0.007). Insulin secretory response before and in late pregnancy was not significantly associated with placental growth. Although neonatal fat mass was strongly correlated with placental weight at term (R = 0.449, P = 0.0003), maternal insulin secretory response was related to neonatal fat mass only at birth in male offspring (R = 0.59, P = 0.008). Maternal insulin secretory response in early pregnancy was strongly related to placental weight at birth. Thus, in early pregnancy, increased maternal insulin response as seen in obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus may be a key influence on placental growth, possibly due to the enhanced presence of placental insulin receptors on the maternal villous membrane early in gestation.

  10. Exercise in pregnancy: an association with placental weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Gunvor; Eskild, Anne; Owe, Katrine Mari; Bø, Kari; Bjelland, Elisabeth K

    2017-02-01

    Women with high levels of physical exercise have an increased demand for oxygen and nutrients. Thus, in pregnancies of women with high levels of exercise, it is conceivable that the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the placenta is suboptimal, and growth could be impaired. The objective was to study the association of frequency of exercise during pregnancy with placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio. This was a prospective study of 80,515 singleton pregnancies in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Frequency of exercise was self-reported by a questionnaire at pregnancy weeks 17 and 30. Information on placental weight and birthweight was obtained by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Placental weight decreased with increasing frequency of exercise (tests for trend, P pregnancy week 17, the crude mean placental weight was 686.1 g compared with 667.3 g in women exercising ≥6 times weekly (difference, 18.8 g; 95% confidence interval, 12.0-25.5). Likewise, in nonexercisers in pregnancy week 30, crude mean placental weight was 684.9 g compared with 661.6 g in women exercising ≥6 times weekly (difference, 23.3 g; 95% confidence interval, 14.9-31.6). The largest difference in crude mean placental weight was seen between nonexercisers at both time points and women exercising ≥6 times weekly at both time points (difference, 31.7 g; 95% confidence interval, 19.2-44.2). Frequency of exercise was not associated with placental to birthweight ratio. We found decreasing placental weight with increasing frequency of exercise in pregnancy. The difference in placental weight between nonexercisers and women with exercising ≥6 times weekly was small and may have no clinical implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein profiling of preeclampsia placental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; Jiang, Jing; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y; He, Jin; Ye, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expressed between preterm preeclampsia and gestational age matched control, while 25 proteins were found to be expressed differentially between term preeclampsia and matched controls. Among these proteins, 16 proteins and their associated signaling pathways overlapped between preterm and term preeclampsia, suggesting the common pathogenesis of two subsets of disease. On the other hand, many proteins are uniquely altered in either preterm or term preeclampsia and correlated with severity of clinical symptoms and outcomes, therefore, providing molecular basis for these two subsets of preeclampsia. Furthermore, the expression levels of some of these proteins correlated with neonatal small for gestational age (PAI-1 and PAPP-A) and adverse outcomes (Flt-1) in women with preterm preeclampsia. These proteins could potentially be used as candidate biomarkers for predicting outcomes of preeclampsia.

  12. Hypoxia: From Placental Development to Fetal Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajersztajn, Lais; Veras, Mariana Matera

    2017-10-16

    Hypoxia may influence normal and different pathological processes. Low oxygenation activates a variety of responses, many of them regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 complex, which is mostly involved in cellular control of O 2 consumption and delivery, inhibition of growth and development, and promotion of anaerobic metabolism. Hypoxia plays a significant physiological role in fetal development; it is involved in different embryonic processes, for example, placentation, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. More recently, fetal hypoxia has been associated directly or indirectly with fetal programming of heart, brain, and kidney function and metabolism in adulthood. In this review, the role of hypoxia in fetal development, placentation, and fetal programming is summarized. Hypoxia is a basic mechanism involved in different pregnancy disorders and fetal health developmental complications. Although there are scientific data showing that hypoxia mediates changes in the growth trajectory of the fetus, modulates gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, and determines the health status later in adulthood, more mechanistic studies are needed. Furthermore, if we consider that intrauterine hypoxia is not a rare event, and can be a consequence of unavoidable exposures to air pollution, nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and other very common conditions (drug addiction and stress), the health of future generations may be damaged and the incidence of some diseases will markedly increase as a consequence of disturbed fetal programming. Birth Defects Research 109:1377-1385, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Placental thrombomodulin expression in recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turi Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early pregnancy loss can be associated with trophoblast insufficiency and coagulation defects. Thrombomodulin is an endothelial-associated anticoagulant protein involved in the control of hemostasis and inflammation at the vascular beds and it's also a cofactor of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Discussion We evaluate the Thrombomodulin expression in placental tissue from spontaneous recurrent miscarriage and voluntary abortion as controls. Thrombomodulin mRNA was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Reduced expression levels of thrombomodulin were found in recurrent miscarriage group compared to controls (1.82-fold of reduction, that corresponds to a reduction of 45% (from control group Delta CT of thrombomodulin expression in spontaneous miscarriage group respect the control groups. Summary We cannot state at present the exact meaning of a reduced expression of Thrombomodulin in placental tissue. Further studies are needed to elucidate the biological pathway of this important factor in the physiopathology of the trophoblast and in reproductive biology.

  14. Protein Profiling of Preeclampsia Placental Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; Jiang, Jing; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expressed between preterm preeclampsia and gestational age matched control, while 25 proteins were found to be expressed differentially between term preeclampsia and matched controls. Among these proteins, 16 proteins and their associated signaling pathways overlapped between preterm and term preeclampsia, suggesting the common pathogenesis of two subsets of disease. On the other hand, many proteins are uniquely altered in either preterm or term preeclampsia and correlated with severity of clinical symptoms and outcomes, therefore, providing molecular basis for these two subsets of preeclampsia. Furthermore, the expression levels of some of these proteins correlated with neonatal small for gestational age (PAI-1 and PAPP-A) and adverse outcomes (Flt-1) in women with preterm preeclampsia. These proteins could potentially be used as candidate biomarkers for predicting outcomes of preeclampsia. PMID:25392996

  15. Prognosis after maternal placental events and revascularization: PAMPER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Joel G; Booth, Gillian L; Alter, David A; Vermeulen, Marian J

    2016-01-01

    Middle-aged women are at higher risk than men of death after coronary artery revascularization. Maternal placental syndromes (gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, and placental infarction) are associated with premature coronary artery disease, but their influence on survival after coronary artery revascularization is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a history of maternal placental syndromes alters the risk of death after coronary artery revascularization in middle-aged women. We completed a population-based retrospective cohort study among all hospitals in Ontario, Canada, where universal health care includes all aspects of antenatal and delivery care as well as all outpatient and inpatient health care, which includes coronary revascularization. We included 1985 middle-aged women who underwent a first percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting between 1993 and 2012 and who had ≥1 previous delivery. We excluded those with cardiovascular disease ≤1 year before or coronary revascularization ≤90 days after any delivery. The main study outcome, determined a priori, was all-cause death. Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, parity, revascularization type, time since last delivery, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, tobacco or drug dependence, and kidney disease. Three hundred sixty-two of 1985 women (18.2%) who underwent coronary artery revascularization had a previous maternal placental syndrome event. The mean age at index coronary revascularization was 45 years; percutaneous coronary intervention comprised approximately 80% of procedures. After a mean follow-up time of approximately 5 years, 41 deaths (2.2 per 100 person-years) occurred in women with previous maternal placental syndromes and 83 deaths (1.1 per 100 person-years) in women without maternal placental syndrome (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-2.99). Of the

  16. DC-SIGN expression in Hofbauer cells may play an important role in immune tolerance in fetal chorionic villi during the development of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Woo; Cho, Eun Hee; Choi, So Young; Lee, Yun Kyung; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Yeon; Choi, Hyeong Jwa; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ko, Hyun Myung; Park, Seung Hwa; Hwang, Han Sung; Kang, Young Sun

    2017-11-01

    Immune tolerance at feto-maternal interfaces is a complex phenomenon. Although maternal decidual macrophages are well-known immune cells, little is known about fetal-derived macrophages (Hofbauer cells) within chorionic villi. Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal mortality in the field of obstetrics, and the innate immunological role of maternal decidual macrophages is well known. In this study, we assessed the differential phenotypes and marker expression in fetal macrophages, known as dendritic cell-specific ICAM-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)-positive Hofbauer cells. We compared Hofbauer cell properties between normal and PE placenta chorionic villi and performed sequential staining of DC-SIGN, CD14, and CD68 to evaluate the existence of Hofbauer cells. Furthermore, to evaluate the immunological function of these cells, we stained the cells for CD163, a marker of immunoregulatory type 2 (M2) macrophages. Additionally, we examined the expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, which is known to be produced by M2 macrophages. DC-SIGN+/CD14+, DC-SIGN+/CD68+, and CD163+/DC-SIGN+ cells were quantified based on photomicrographs. The results showed that CD14, CD163, DC-SIGN, and IL-10 levels were significantly downregulated in PE compared with normal. Additionally, CD163+/DC-SIGN+ Hofbauer cells were significantly less frequent in PE than in normal. DC-SIGN Hofbauer cells produced IL-10 at lower levels in the PE than in the normal. Thus, we speculate that fetal-derived Hofbauer cells may play an important role in normal pregnancy with immunosuppressive effects based on their M2 macrophage characteristics to maintain immune tolerance during pregnancy. Additionally, in PE, these functions were defective, supporting the roles of these macrophages in PE development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Placental defects in alpha7 integrin null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, J V; Lange, N D; Flintoff-Dye, N; Burkin, H R; Burkin, D J

    2007-01-01

    The alpha7beta1 integrin is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor that links laminin in the extracellular matrix to the cell cytoskeleton. Loss of the alpha7 integrin chain results in partial embryonic lethality. We have previously shown that alpha7 integrin null embryos exhibit vascular smooth muscle cell defects that result in cerebral vascular hemorrhaging. Since the placenta is highly vascularized, we hypothesized that placental vascular defects in alpha7 integrin null embryos may contribute to the partial embryonic lethality. Placentae from embryonic day (ED) 9.5 and 13.5 alpha7 integrin knockout embryos showed structural defects including infiltration of the spongiotrophoblast layer into the placental labyrinth, a reduction in the placental labyrinth and loss of distinct placental layers. Embryos and placentae that lacked the alpha7 integrin weighed less compared to wild-type controls. Blood vessels within the placental labyrinth of alpha7 integrin null embryos exhibited fewer differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells compared to wild-type. Loss of the alpha7 integrin resulted in altered extracellular matrix deposition and reduced expression of alpha5 integrin. Together our results confirm a role for the alpha7beta1 integrin in placental vascular development and demonstrate for the first time that loss of the alpha7 integrin results in placental defects.

  18. Correlation with placental kisspeptin in postterm pregnancy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Michela; Novembri, Romina; Conti, Nathalie; De Falco, Giulia; De Bonis, Maria; Petraglia, Felice

    2012-10-01

    Postterm pregnancy represents a condition associated with trophoblast apoptosis. Kisspeptin is a peptide able to induce apoptosis by a specific receptor, GPR54, through the upregulation of proapoptotic genes. The aims of the study were to evaluate (1) the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of kisspeptin, GPR54, Bax/Bcl2, and p21 in postterm placentas and (2) kisspeptin ability to act on apoptosis in the third trimester placental explants. Placental specimens were collected from spontaneous term and postterm delivery and kisspeptin, GPR54, Bax/Bcl2, and p21 mRNA expression levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Placental explants, collected from elective term cesarean sections, treated with different doses of kisspeptin were analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The expression levels of all the genes studied in postterm placentas were significantly higher than in-term placentas. Kisspeptin-induced apoptosis in placental explants with a dose-dependent effect, and TUNEL assay demonstrated the kisspeptin involvement in the apoptotic placental processes. Our present findings led us to hypothesize that kisspeptin may represent a placental proapoptotic agent acting in physiological and/or pathological pregnancy conditions in which placental apoptosis mechanisms are increased.

  19. Placental transport of large molecules –a study using human ex vivo placental perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line

    2011-01-01

    and extrapolation to the in vivo situation critical. In my PhD study I have focused on validation and studies with placental perfusion of substances with a high molecular weight, which require transport or carrier molecules to be transported from the maternal to the fetal side, and longer perfusion time demanding...... nutrients, gas and waste transport between the maternal blood and the developing fetus and maintaining pregnancy by producing hormones. The placenta consists of cells of both maternal and fetal origin and forms a complex barrier between the maternal and fetal blood that allows for passage of different...... within two hours of perfusion with a fetal flow rate of 3 mL/min. Negative controls are added to ensure that substance transfer is not due to leakage, e.g. high molecular weight substances that only pass the placental barrier with bulk flow through a leakage in the fetal system. Dextran (40kD) can...

  20. Placental exosomes in normal and complicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Murray D; Peiris, Hassendrini N; Kobayashi, Miharu; Koh, Yong Q; Duncombe, Gregory; Illanes, Sebastian E; Rice, Gregory E; Salomon, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    While there is considerable contemporary interest in elucidating the role of placenta-derived extracellular vesicles in normal and complicated pregnancies and their utility as biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, progress in the field is hindered by a lack of standardized extracellular vesicle taxonomy and isolation protocols. The term "extracellular vesicle" is nonspecific and refers to all membrane-bound vesicles from nanometer to micrometer diameters and of different biogenic origins. To meaningfully ascribe biological function and/or diagnostic and therapeutic utility to extracellular vesicles, and in particular exosomes, greater specificity and vesicle characterization is required. The current literature relating to exosome biology must be interpreted in this context. Exosomes are a subtype of extracellular vesicle that are specifically defined by an endosomal biogenesis and particle size (40-120 nm) and density (1.13-1.19 g/mL(-1)). Exosomes are specifically package with signaling molecules (including protein, messenger RNA, microRNA, and noncoding RNA) and are released by exocytosis into biofluid compartments. Exosomes regulate the activity of both proximal and distal target cells, including translational activity, angiogenesis, proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. As such, exosomal signaling represents an integral pathway mediating intercellular communication. During pregnancy, the placenta releases exosomes into the maternal circulation from as early as 6 weeks of gestation. Release is regulated by factors that include both oxygen tension and glucose concentration and correlates with placental mass and perfusion. The concentration of placenta-derived exosomes in maternal plasma increases progressively during gestation. Exosomes isolated from maternal plasma are bioactive in vitro and are incorporated into target cells by endocytosis. While the functional significance of placental exosomes in pregnancy remains to be fully elucidated, available

  1. Risk of placental abruption in relation to migraines and headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Cande V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine, a common chronic-intermittent disorder of idiopathic origin characterized by severe debilitating headaches and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and placental abruption, the premature separation of the placenta, share many common pathophysiological characteristics. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, hypercoagulation, and inflammation are common to both disorders. We assessed risk of placental abruption in relation to maternal history of migraine before and during pregnancy in Peruvian women. Methods Cases were 375 women with pregnancies complicated by placental abruption, and controls were 368 women without an abruption. During in-person interviews conducted following delivery, women were asked if they had physician-diagnosed migraine, and they were asked questions that allowed headaches and migraine to be classified according to criteria established by the International Headache Society. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI adjusted for confounders. Results Overall, a lifetime history of any headaches or migraine was associated with an increased odds of placental abruption (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.16-2.20. A lifetime history of migraine was associated with a 2.14-fold increased odds of placental abruption (aOR = 2.14; 95% CI 1.22-3.75. The odds of placental abruption was 2.11 (95% CI 1.00-4.45 for migraineurs without aura; and 1.59 (95% 0.70-3.62 for migraineurs with aura. A lifetime history of tension-type headache was also increased with placental abruption (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.01-2.57. Conclusions This study adds placental abruption to a growing list of pregnancy complications associated with maternal headache/migraine disorders. Nevertheless, prospective cohort studies are needed to more rigorously evaluate the extent to which migraines and/or its treatments are associated with the occurrence of placental abruption.

  2. Maternal obesity and sex-specific differences in placental pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Garcia, Sandra M; Roeder, Hilary A; Nelson, Katharine K; Liao, Xiaoyan; Pizzo, Donald P; Laurent, Louise C; Parast, Mana M; LaCoursiere, D Yvette

    2016-02-01

    Adverse effects of obesity have been linked to inflammation in various tissues, but studies on placental inflammation and obesity have demonstrated conflicting findings. We sought to investigate the influence of pregravid obesity and fetal sex on placental histopathology while controlling for diabetes and hypertension. Placental histopathology focusing on inflammatory markers of a cohort of normal weight (BMI = 20-24.9) and obese (BMI ≥ 30) patients was characterized. Demographic, obstetric and neonatal variables were assessed. 192 normal and 231 obese women were included. Placental characteristics associated with obesity and fetal sex independent of diabetes and hypertension were placental disc weight >90(th) percentile, decreased placental efficiency, chronic villitis (CV), fetal thrombosis, and normoblastemia. Additionally, female fetuses of obese mothers had higher rates of CV and fetal thrombosis. Increasing BMI increased the risk of normoblastemia and CV. The final grade and extent of CV was significantly associated with obesity and BMI, but not fetal gender. Finally, CV was less common in large-for-gestation placentas. Maternal obesity results in placental overgrowth and fetal hypoxia as manifested by normoblastemia; it is also associated with an increased incidence of CV and fetal thrombosis, both more prevalent in female placentas. We have shown for the first time that the effect of maternal obesity on placental inflammation is independent of diabetes and hypertension, but significantly affected by fetal sex. Our data also point to the intriguing possibility that CV serves to normalize placental size, and potentially fetal growth, in the setting of maternal obesity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, L

    1978-09-02

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is associated with infection by bovine leucosis virus. The incubation period is measured in years and a minority of infected animals develop clinical signs. The disease is widespread in Europe and elsewhere and can cause significant economic loss. The epidemiology is incompletely understood and findings from one cattle production system may not be directly applicable to another. Major control programmes exist in Denmark and West Germany and control schemes are being developed elsewhere. Eradication of enzootic bovine leucosis has been established as a goal in the EEC and research is revealing the ways in which this goal may be attained. To be effective, control and epidemiological monitoring must be interactive. Recently introduced serological tests, of improved sensitivity, provide a valuable tool.

  4. [How to stimulate the placental function (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanard, A; Picazo, J J

    1976-01-01

    Imminent abortion, habitual abortion and threatened premature labor, all constitute difficult clinical problems. Those cases require on every occasion a diagnosis as acurate as possible, and unfortunately our present methods of biochemical determinations only represent a means to evaluate placental function. On those cases where a faulty placental function is detected thru the tests presently available, the authors recommend the utilization of a placentotropic substance, Gestanon, that is capable to stimulate and normalize the placental function, a is demostrated by the statistical results published in the international medical bibliography.

  5. Plasmodium vivax adherence to placental glycosaminoglycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesinee Chotivanich

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax infections seldom kill directly but do cause indirect mortality by reducing birth weight and causing abortion. Cytoadherence and sequestration in the microvasculature are central to the pathogenesis of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the contribution of cytoadherence to pathology in other human malarias is less clear.The adherence properties of P. vivax infected red blood cells (PvIRBC were evaluated under static and flow conditions.P. vivax isolates from 33 patients were studied. None adhered to immobilized CD36, ICAM-1, or thrombospondin, putative ligands for P. falciparum vascular cytoadherence, or umbilical vein endothelial cells, but all adhered to immobilized chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and hyaluronic acid (HA, the receptors for adhesion of P. falciparum in the placenta. PvIRBC also adhered to fresh placental cells (N = 5. Pre-incubation with chondroitinase prevented PvIRBC adherence to CSA, and reduced binding to HA, whereas preincubation with hyaluronidase prevented adherence to HA, but did not reduce binding to CSA significantly. Pre-incubation of PvIRBC with soluble CSA and HA reduced binding to the immobilized receptors and prevented placental binding. PvIRBC adhesion was prevented by pre-incubation with trypsin, inhibited by heparin, and reduced by EGTA. Under laminar flow conditions the mean (SD shear stress reducing maximum attachment by 50% was 0.06 (0.02 Pa but, having adhered, the PvIRBC could then resist detachment by stresses up to 5 Pa. At 37 °C adherence began approximately 16 hours after red cell invasion with maximal adherence at 30 hours. At 39 °C adherence began earlier and peaked at 24 hours.Adherence of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes to glycosaminoglycans may contribute to the pathogenesis of vivax malaria and lead to intrauterine growth retardation.

  6. Prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 in cattle and buffaloes in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 in cattle and buffaloes in the Punjab using PCR as diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 samples (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were processed for identification of BHV-1 using PCR. Results: From January 2007 to December 2010 (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were collected. The DNA was extracted from a total of 63 samples and subjected to PCR revealed that none of the sample positive for the BHV-1 infection. Conclusion: From the study it was concluded that the farms screened were free from BHV-1 infection. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 343-345

  7. Loss of Thrombomodulin in Placental Dysfunction in Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, Rosanne J; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Bruijn, Jan A; Baelde, Hans J

    OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by placental dysfunction and an angiogenic imbalance. Systemically, levels of thrombomodulin, an endothelium- and syncytiotrophoblast-bound protein that regulates coagulation, inflammation, apoptosis, and tissue remodeling, are

  8. Placental chorangioma | Rabiu | Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal complications associated with placental chorangiomas include polyhydromnios, nonimmune fetal hydrops, fetal heart failure, cardiomegaly, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal anemia, thrombocytopenia, and fetal demise. Maternal complications such as preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and maternal mirror syndrome ...

  9. Placental fetal vascular thrombosis lesions and maternal thrombophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeksma, F. A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Khong, T. Y.

    Aims: Following intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), the placental fetal vessels undergo regressive changes. These changes are virtually indistinguishable from lesions that are the result of fetal vascular thrombosis (FVT). This study investigated the relation between these lesions and maternal

  10. Placental histopathology after Coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munster, J. M.; Leenders, A. C. A. P.; Hamilton, C. J. C. M.; Hak, E.; Aarnoudse, J. G.; Timmer, A.

    Symptomatic and asymptomatic Coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy have been associated with obstetric complications. We described placental histopathology and clinical outcome of five cases with asymptomatic C burnetii infection during pregnancy and compared these cases with four symptomatic

  11. The nature of placental steroid sulphatase deficiency in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, C. M.; van Breda, A. J.; van den Berg, F. M.; Jöbsis, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    Human placental steroid sulphatase was partially purified from microsome suspensions of control and steroid sulphatase deficient placentae. After polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis, staining for protein and enzymatic activity revealed that steroid sulphatase from control placenta migrates at Rf =

  12. First evidence of placental transfer of ochratoxin A in horses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minervini, Fiorenza; Giannoccaro, Alessandra; Nicassio, Michele; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a renal mycotoxin and transplacental genotoxic carcinogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural occurrence of OTA in equine blood samples and its placental transfer...

  13. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  14. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  15. Metabolism of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Abdelrahman, Doaa R.; Fokina, Valentina M.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Ahmed, Mahmoud S.; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the biotransformation of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes, identify the enzyme(s) catalyzing the reaction(s) and determine its kinetics. Bupropion was metabolized by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes to hydroxybupropion (OH-BUP), threo- (TB) and erythrohydrobupropion (EB). OH-bupropion was the major metabolite formed by hepatic microsomes (Km 36 ± 6 µM, Vmax 258 ± 32 pmol mg protein−1 min−1), however the formation of OH-BUP by placental microsomes was below the limit of quantification. The apparent Km values of bupropion for the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes were similar. The selective inhibitors of CYP2B6 (ticlopidine and phencyclidine) and monoclonal antibodies raised against human CYP2B6 isozyme caused 80% inhibition of OH-BUP formation by baboon hepatic microsomes. The chemical inhibitors of aldo-keto reductases (flufenamic acid), carbonyl reductases (menadione), and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (18β-glycyrrhetinic acid) significantly decreased the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes. Data indicate that CYP2B of baboon hepatic microsomes is responsible for biotransformation of bupropion to OH-BUP, while hepatic and placental short chain dehydrogenases/reductases and to a lesser extent aldo-keto reductases are responsible for the reduction of bupropion to TB and EB. PMID:21570381

  16. Microvessel density in the placental bed among preeclampsia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Mota Coelho

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Morphological changes in the spiral arteries of the placental bed have been studied in patients with preeclampsia, one of the largest causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The reports show that vasospasm and vascular endothelial injury were two major pathological conditions for preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to investigate the microvessel density of spiral arteries in the placental bed, in pregnancies complicated by hypertension and proteinuria, and in normal pregnancies. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional survey of immunohistochemical studies on biopsies from the spiral arteries of the placental bed, among women undergoing cesarean sections for clinical and obstetrical reasons at Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Placental bed biopsies were obtained during cesarean section after placenta removal, with direct viewing of the central area of placenta insertion. The microvessel density of spiral arteries was measured by immunohistochemical methods in decidual and myometrial segments, using CD34 antibody. RESULTS: Biopsies containing spiral arteries were obtained from 34 hypertensive pregnant women with proteinuria, and 26 normotensive pregnant women. The microvessel densities in decidual and myometrial segments of the placental bed were compared between the groups. It was observed that, with increasing blood pressure and proteinuria, the microvessel density gradually decreased. CONCLUSION: The presence of high levels of hypertension and proteinuria may be associated with a progressive decrease in microvessel density in the placental bed.

  17. Microvessel density in the placental bed among preeclampsia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Tarcisio Mota; Sass, Nelson; Camano, Luiz; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Mattar, Rosiane; Stávale, João Noberto; Silva, Maria Regina Régis; Martins, Marília da Glória; Nogueira Neto, João

    2006-03-02

    Morphological changes in the spiral arteries of the placental bed have been studied in patients with preeclampsia, one of the largest causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The reports show that vasospasm and vascular endothelial injury were two major pathological conditions for preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to investigate the microvessel density of spiral arteries in the placental bed, in pregnancies complicated by hypertension and proteinuria, and in normal pregnancies. This was a cross-sectional survey of immunohistochemical studies on biopsies from the spiral arteries of the placental bed, among women undergoing cesarean sections for clinical and obstetrical reasons at Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Placental bed biopsies were obtained during cesarean section after placenta removal, with direct viewing of the central area of placenta insertion. The microvessel density of spiral arteries was measured by immunohistochemical methods in decidual and myometrial segments, using CD34 antibody. Biopsies containing spiral arteries were obtained from 34 hypertensive pregnant women with proteinuria, and 26 normotensive pregnant women. The microvessel densities in decidual and myometrial segments of the placental bed were compared between the groups. It was observed that, with increasing blood pressure and proteinuria, the microvessel density gradually decreased. The presence of high levels of hypertension and proteinuria may be associated with a progressive decrease in microvessel density in the placental bed.

  18. Prevention of Defective Placentation and Pregnancy Loss by Blocking Innate Immune Pathways in a Syngeneic Model of Placental Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelber, Shari E; Brent, Elyssa; Redecha, Patricia; Perino, Giorgio; Tomlinson, Stephen; Davisson, Robin L; Salmon, Jane E

    2015-08-01

    Defective placentation and subsequent placental insufficiency lead to maternal and fetal adverse pregnancy outcome, but their pathologic mechanisms are unclear, and treatment remains elusive. The mildly hypertensive BPH/5 mouse recapitulates many features of human adverse pregnancy outcome, with pregnancies characterized by fetal loss, growth restriction, abnormal placental development, and defects in maternal decidual arteries. Using this model, we show that recruitment of neutrophils triggered by complement activation at the maternal/fetal interface leads to elevation in local TNF-α levels, reduction of the essential angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, and, ultimately, abnormal placentation and fetal death. Blockade of complement with inhibitors specifically targeted to sites of complement activation, depletion of neutrophils, or blockade of TNF-α improves spiral artery remodeling and rescues pregnancies. These data underscore the importance of innate immune system activation in the pathogenesis of placental insufficiency and identify novel methods for treatment of pregnancy loss mediated by abnormal placentation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Placental and fetal hemodynamics after labetalol or pindolol in a sheep model of increased placental vascular resistance and maternal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkinaro, Tiina; Kavasmaa, Tomi; Ylikauma, Laura; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Haapsamo, Mervi; Acharya, Ganesh; Ohtonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Seppo; Räsänen, Juha

    2009-08-01

    We investigated the effects of labetalol and pindolol on uterine, placental, and fetal hemodynamics following norepinephrine-induced maternal hypertension in a sheep model of increased placental vascular resistance. Also, we examined fetal and placental hemodynamic responses to acute hypoxemia after antihypertensive medication. Norepinephrine increased maternal heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and uterine vascular resistance (R(UtA)), and decreased uterine volume blood flow (Q(UtA)). Both labetalol and pindolol decreased maternal HR, MAP, and R(UtA), but did not restore Q(UtA). Fetal MAP was unaffected while fetal HR and placental volume blood flow (Q(UA)) decreased and placental vascular resistance increased. During hypoxemia, which was induced by decreasing maternal inspiratory oxygen fraction, all these parameters remained unchanged in the labetalol group while fetal HR increased and Q(UA) further decreased in the pindolol group. We conclude that labetalol and pindolol may compromise uterine and placental hemodynamics. Hypoxemic stress provokes divergent hemodynamic responses in fetuses exposed to these differently acting adrenoceptor antagonists.

  20. Evolutionary perspectives into placental biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Edward B; Hannibal, Roberta L; Green, Sherril L; Baker, Julie C

    2013-12-01

    In all mammals including humans, development takes place within the protective environment of the maternal womb. Throughout gestation, nutrients and waste products are continuously exchanged between mother and fetus through the placenta. Despite the clear importance of the placenta to successful pregnancy and the health of both mother and offspring, relatively little is understood about the biology of the placenta and its role in pregnancy-related diseases. Given that pre- and peri-natal diseases involving the placenta affect millions of women and their newborns worldwide, there is an urgent need to understand placenta biology and development. Here, we suggest that the placenta is an organ under unique selective pressures that have driven its rapid diversification throughout mammalian evolution. The high divergence of the placenta complicates the use of non-human animal models and necessitates an evolutionary perspective when studying its biology and role in disease. We suggest that diversifying evolution of the placenta is primarily driven by intraspecies evolutionary conflict between mother and fetus, and that many pregnancy diseases are a consequence of this evolutionary force. Understanding how maternal-fetal conflict shapes both basic placental and reproductive biology - in all species - will provide key insights into diseases of pregnancy.

  1. Evolutionary perspectives into placental biology and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B. Chuong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all mammals including humans, development takes place within the protective environment of the maternal womb. Throughout gestation, nutrients and waste products are continuously exchanged between mother and fetus through the placenta. Despite the clear importance of the placenta to successful pregnancy and the health of both mother and offspring, relatively little is understood about the biology of the placenta and its role in pregnancy-related diseases. Given that pre- and peri-natal diseases involving the placenta affect millions of women and their newborns worldwide, there is an urgent need to understand placenta biology and development. Here, we suggest that the placenta is an organ under unique selective pressures that have driven its rapid diversification throughout mammalian evolution. The high divergence of the placenta complicates the use of non-human animal models and necessitates an evolutionary perspective when studying its biology and role in disease. We suggest that diversifying evolution of the placenta is primarily driven by intraspecies evolutionary conflict between mother and fetus, and that many pregnancy diseases are a consequence of this evolutionary force. Understanding how maternal–fetal conflict shapes both basic placental and reproductive biology – in all species – will provide key insights into diseases of pregnancy.

  2. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  4. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Díaz Ismael Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  5. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  6. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MicroRNAs in Human Placental Development and Pregnancy Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Peng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which function as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Placenta expresses many ubiquitous as well as specific miRNAs. These miRNAs regulate trophoblast cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting that miRNAs play important roles during placental development. Aberrant miRNAs expression has been linked to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Recent research of placental miRNAs focuses on identifying placental miRNA species, examining differential expression of miRNAs between placentas from normal and compromised pregnancies, and uncovering the function of miRNAs in the placenta. More studies are required to further understand the functional significance of miRNAs in placental development and to explore the possibility of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for pregnancy-related disorders. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and function of miRNAs in placental development, and propose future directions for miRNA studies.

  8. A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bininda-Emonds Olaf RP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The higher-level phylogeny of placental mammals has long been a phylogenetic Gordian knot, with disagreement about both the precise contents of, and relationships between, the extant orders. A recent MRP supertree that favoured 'outdated' hypotheses (notably, monophyly of both Artiodactyla and Lipotyphla has been heavily criticised for including low-quality and redundant data. We apply a stringent data selection protocol designed to minimise these problems to a much-expanded data set of morphological, molecular and combined source trees, to produce a supertree that includes every family of extant placental mammals. Results The supertree is well-resolved and supports both polyphyly of Lipotyphla and paraphyly of Artiodactyla with respect to Cetacea. The existence of four 'superorders' – Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires – is also supported. The topology is highly congruent with recent (molecular phylogenetic analyses of placental mammals, but is considerably more comprehensive, being the first phylogeny to include all 113 extant families without making a priori assumptions of suprafamilial monophyly. Subsidiary analyses reveal that the data selection protocol played a key role in the major changes relative to a previously published higher-level supertree of placentals. Conclusion The supertree should provide a useful framework for hypothesis testing in phylogenetic comparative biology, and supports the idea that biogeography has played a crucial role in the evolution of placental mammals. Our results demonstrate the importance of minimising poor and redundant data when constructing supertrees.

  9. Epigenetic regulation of placental endocrine lineages and complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rosalind M

    2013-06-01

    A defining feature of mammals is the development in utero of the fetus supported by the constant flow of nutrients from the mother obtained via a specialized organ: the placenta. The placenta is also a major endocrine organ that synthesizes vast quantities of hormones and cytokines to instruct both maternal and fetal physiology. Nearly 20 years ago, David Haig and colleagues proposed that placental hormones were likely targets of the epigenetic process of genomic imprinting in response to the genetic conflicts imposed by in utero development [Haig (1993) Q. Rev. Biol. 68, 495-532]. There are two simple mechanisms through which genomic imprinting could regulate placental hormones. First, imprints could directly switch on or off alleles of specific genes. Secondly, imprinted genes could alter the expression of placental hormones by regulating the development of placental endocrine lineages. In mice, the placental hormones are synthesized in the trophoblast giant cells and spongiotrophoblast cells of the mature placenta. In the present article, I review the functional role of imprinted genes in regulating these endocrine lineages, which lends support to Haig's original hypothesis. I also discuss how imprinting defects in the placenta may adversely affect the health of the fetus and its mother during pregnancy and beyond.

  10. Social disparity affects the incidence of placental abruption among multiparous but not nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räisänen, Sari; Gissler, Mika; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2013-01-01

    To identify risk factors for placental abruption and to evaluate associations between adverse perinatal outcomes and placental abruption stratified by parity among women with singleton births from 1991 to 2010 in Finland....

  11. Effect of pregestational diabetes mellitus on first trimester placental characteristics: three-dimensional placental volume and power Doppler indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, N L; Gonzalez Davila, E; Castro, A; Padron, E; Plasencia, W

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether pregestational diabetes mellitus (DM) induces changes in vascular placental development detectable at first trimester. This was a prospective case-control study in 69 women with pregestational DM and 94 controls undergoing first-trimester combined screening for aneuploidies. Maternal characteristics, fetal nuchal translucency thickness, maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free β human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) were evaluated. Three-dimensional ultrasound was used to measure placental volume and three dimensional power Doppler (3D-PD) placental vascular indices including: vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI). Pregnancy-associated hypertensive complications (PAHC) and perinatal outcomes were analyzed. The total group of diabetic women and the group of diabetic women without PAHC were compared separately with the control group. 3D-PD placental vascular indexes were significantly lower in women with DM than in controls (VI p = 0.007, FI p = 0.003 and VFI p = 0.04). These differences remained on excluding cases with PAHC in the DM group. No differences were found in placental volumes between the DM group and controls. Serum PAPP-A levels were also lower in diabetic women (p effect is independent of the later development of PAHC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Blocking Endogenous Leukemia Inhibitory Factor During Placental Development in Mice Leads to Abnormal Placentation and Pregnancy Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Amy; Correia, Jeanne; Krishnan, Tara; Menkhorst, Ellen; Cuman, Carly; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-08-14

    The placenta forms the interface between the maternal and fetal circulation and is critical for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. Specialized trophoblast cells derived from the embryonic trophectoderm play a pivotal role in the establishment of the placenta. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is one of the predominant cytokines present in the placenta during early pregnancy. LIF has been shown to regulate trophoblast adhesion and invasion in vitro, however its precise role in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that LIF would be required for normal placental development in mice. LIF and LIFRα were immunolocalized to placental trophoblasts and fetal vessels in mouse implantation sites during mid-gestation. Temporally blocking LIF action during specific periods of placental development via intraperitoneal administration of our specific LIFRα antagonist, PEGLA, resulted in abnormal placental trophoblast and vascular morphology and reduced activated STAT3 but not ERK. Numerous genes regulating angiogenesis and oxidative stress were altered in the placenta in response to LIF inhibition. Pregnancy viability was also significantly compromised in PEGLA treated mice. Our data suggest that LIF plays an important role in placentation in vivo and the maintenance of healthy pregnancy.

  13. The evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in carnivores and ungulates (Ferungulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    of the chorioallantoic placenta are derived, including the diffuse and cotyledonary placental types in ungulates and zonary placenta in carnivores, specializations of the interhaemal barrier, the presence of areolae or haemophagous regions and lack of stromal decidual cells. Ungulates produce large amounts of placental...... proteins including placental lactogens and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Evolutionary innovations of the placental system may contribute to the high diversity of lifestyles within Ferungulata and be linked to the evolution of highly precocial offspring in ungulates....

  14. Epigenetic regulation and related diseases during placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-lin; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hui

    2017-04-20

    The placenta is vital to fetal growth and development, as it bridges the fetus and the mother. Genome-wide epigenetic regulations (e.g., DNA methylation, histone modifications, non-coding RNAs) participate in many aspects of placenta development, including decidua of the uterus, trophoblast cell adhesion and invasion, angiogenesis and placental imprinted gene expression. Environmental factors during pregnancy, such as heavy metals, chemical compounds, modern assisted reproductive technology and the nutrient conditions, may cause abnormal placental epigenetics. Furthermore, sex differential expression of placental genes also contributes to epigenetic modifications. As prenatal DNA methylation analysis can detect abnormal epigenetic modifications, it is a potential diagnosis tool for early stage diseases and may help disease intervention and treatment. Here, we review not only regulations of epigenetic modifications during development of the placenta, but also the influences of environmental factors. The potential value for diagnosis and treatment is also discussed.

  15. Early studies of placental ultrastructure by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was first applied to study placental ultrastructure in the 1950's. We review those early studies and mention the scientists that employed or encouraged the use of TEM. FINDINGS: Among the pioneers Edward W. Dempsey was a key figure who attracted...... many other scientists to Washington University in St. Louis. Work on human placental ultrastructure was initiated at Cambridge and Kyoto whilst domestic animals were initially studied by Björkman in Stockholm and electron micrographs of bat placenta were published by Wimsatt of Cornell University....... CONCLUSIONS: Prior to the introduction of better fixation techniques, TEM images were of modest technical quality. Nevertheless they gave important insights into placental ultrastructure, particularly the nature of the maternal-fetal interface....

  16. Indications of anti-HY immunity in recurrent placental abruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mogensen, Marie; Steffensen, Rudi

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM: Placental abruption is a potential life-threatening condition for both the fetus and the mother, being significantly more common in pregnancies with male fetuses. The pathogenesis of placental abruption remains unknown. However, some recent reports point toward a maternal immune response...... the fetus died. Seven patients (88%) had first-born boys, and 15 abruptions (68%) involved male fetuses. All patients with a first-born boy, except one, had HLA-class II alleles known to restrict CD4+ T-cell responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (HY)-antigens (HLA-DRB1*15, HLA-DRB3...... abruption is exclusively almost preceded by the birth of a boy and the majority of patients have HLA-class II known to restrict CD4 T-cell reactions against HY-antigens. This indicates that maternal immunological responses against HY-antigens play a role in recurrent placental abruption. Udgivelsesdato...

  17. Placental leptin gene methylation and macrosomia during normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinyun; Yang, Xinjun; Liu, Ziwei; Wu, Kele; Liu, Zheng; Lin, Chong; Wang, Yuhuan; Yan, Hongtao

    2014-03-01

    The present study examined the placental leptin (LEP) DNA methylation and mRNA levels in macrosomic infants from normal pregnancies. In total, 49 neonates with macrosomia, i.e., high birth weights of ≥ 4,000 g, and 52 neonates with normal birth weights between 2,500 g and 4,000 g were recruited from The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (Wenzhou, Zhejiang) in China. Placental LEP promoter methylation and LEP transcript levels were determined by Sequenom MassARRAY and quantitative PCR, respectively. LEP promoter methylation and mRNA levels were not significantly different between the individuals with macrosomia and the controls. However, stratification revealed that individual CpG dinucleotides were hypermethylated in macrosomia (Pmacrosomia following a normal pregnancy and under certain conditions. However, placental LEP expression was not affected.

  18. Oxygen and tissue culture affect placental gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, O; Sullivan, M H F

    2017-07-01

    Placental explant culture is an important model for studying placental development and functions. We investigated the differences in placental gene expression in response to tissue culture, atmospheric and physiologic oxygen concentrations. Placental explants were collected from normal term (38-39 weeks of gestation) placentae with no previous uterine contractile activity. Placental transcriptomic expressions were evaluated with GeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix). We uncovered sub-sets of genes that regulate response to stress, induction of apoptosis programmed cell death, mis-regulation of cell growth, proliferation, cell morphogenesis, tissue viability, and protection from apoptosis in cultured placental explants. We also identified a sub-set of genes with highly unstable pattern of expression after exposure to tissue culture. Tissue culture irrespective of oxygen concentration induced dichotomous increase in significant gene expression and increased enrichment of significant pathways and transcription factor targets (TFTs) including HIF1A. The effect was exacerbated by culture at atmospheric oxygen concentration, where further up-regulation of TFTs including PPARA, CEBPD, HOXA9 and down-regulated TFTs such as JUND/FOS suggest intrinsic heightened key biological and metabolic mechanisms such as glucose use, lipid biosynthesis, protein metabolism; apoptosis, inflammatory responses; and diminished trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, invasion, regeneration, and viability. These findings demonstrate that gene expression patterns differ between pre-culture and cultured explants, and the gene expression of explants cultured at atmospheric oxygen concentration favours stressed, pro-inflammatory and increased apoptotic transcriptomic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between PAPP-A and placental thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Mesdaghi-nia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A in first trimester can be a way for early detection of adverse prenatal outcome due to faulty placenta. Objective: The aim was to Determination of association between placental thickness in second trimester with low level of PAPP-A in first trimester. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, serum PAPP-A of 187 pregnant women was measured in the first trimester of pregnancy. Patients who had PAPP-A ≤0.8 MOM were in exposed and others who had PAPP-A >0.8 defined as unexposed group. The criteria of placental thickness in ultrasound study was thickness of 4 cm or more than 50% of placental length. Results: Of 187 patients, 87 patients had PAPP-A >0.8 and 93 patients had PAPP-A ≤0.8. Women with low levels of PAPP-A in the first trimester, had an increased incidence placental thickness of 34.4%, whereas another group had about 15% (p=0.002. Also, PAPP-A levels had acceptable sensitivity and specificity for placental thickness detection (71.1% and 54.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that serum level of PAPP-A generally was low (≤0.8 in women with a thick placenta (>4 cm or >50% of placental length. The first trimester of pregnancy measurement of PAPP-A will be more predictable for healthy placenta.

  20. Macrosomia has its roots in early placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N; Quant, H S; Sammel, M D; Parry, S

    2014-09-01

    We sought to determine if early placental size, as measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography, is associated with an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic or large-for-gestational age (LGA) infant. We prospectively collected 3-dimensional ultrasound volume sets of singleton pregnancies at 11-14 weeks and 18-24 weeks. Birth weights were collected from the medical records. After delivery, the ultrasound volume set were used to measure the placental volume (PV) and placental quotient (PQ = PV/gestational age), as well as the mean placental and chorionic diameters (MPD and MCD, respectively). Placental measures were analyzed as predictors of macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g) and LGA (birth weight ≥90th percentile). The 578 pregnancies with first trimester volumes included 44 (7.6%) macrosomic and 43 (7.4%) LGA infants. 373 subjects also had second trimester volumes available. A higher PV and PQ were both significantly associated with macrosomia and LGA in both the first and second trimesters. Second trimester MPD was significantly associated with both outcomes as well, while second trimester MCD was only associated with LGA. The above associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal demographic variables such as race, ethnicity, age and diabetes. Adjusted models yielded moderate prediction of macrosomia and LGA (AUC: 0.71-0.77). Sonographic measurement of the early placenta can identify pregnancies at greater risk of macrosomia and LGA. Macrosomia and LGA are already determined in part by early placental growth and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interleukin-11 alters placentation and causes preeclampsia features in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Amy L; Koga, Kaori; Menkhorst, Ellen; Van Sinderen, Michelle; Rainczuk, Katarzyna; Nagai, Miwako; Cuman, Carly; Yap, Joanne; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Simmons, David; Young, Morag J; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-12-29

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk gestation. Abnormal extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and remodeling of uterine spiral arterioles is thought to contribute to PE development. Interleukin-11 (IL11) impedes human EVT invasion in vitro and is elevated in PE decidua in women. We demonstrate that IL11 administered to mice causes development of PE features. Immunohistochemistry shows IL11 compromises trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling, and placentation, leading to increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction, although nonpregnant mice were unaffected. Real-time PCR array analysis identified pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2), associated with PE in women, as an IL11 regulated target. IL11 increased PAPPA2 serum and placental tissue levels in mice. In vitro, IL11 compromised primary human EVT invasion, whereas siRNA knockdown of PAPPA2 alleviated the effect. Genes regulating uterine natural killer (uNK) recruitment and differentiation were down-regulated and uNK cells were reduced after IL11 treatment in mice. IL11 withdrawal in mice at onset of PE features reduced SBP and proteinuria to control levels and alleviated placental labyrinth defects. In women, placental IL11 immunostaining levels increased in PE pregnancies and in serum collected from women before development of early-onset PE, shown by ELISA. These results indicate that elevated IL11 levels result in physiological changes at the maternal-fetal interface, contribute to abnormal placentation, and lead to the development of PE. Targeting placental IL11 may provide a new treatment option for PE.

  2. Loss of Thrombomodulin in Placental Dysfunction in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rosanne J; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Bruijn, Jan A; Baelde, Hans J

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by placental dysfunction and an angiogenic imbalance. Systemically, levels of thrombomodulin, an endothelium- and syncytiotrophoblast-bound protein that regulates coagulation, inflammation, apoptosis, and tissue remodeling, are increased. We aimed to investigate placental thrombomodulin dysregulation and consequent downstream effects in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Placentas from 28 preeclampsia pregnancies, 30 uncomplicated pregnancies, and 21 pregnancies complicated by growth restriction as extra controls were included. Immunohistochemical staining of thrombomodulin, caspase-3, and fibrin was performed. Placental mRNA expression of thrombomodulin, inflammatory markers, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and soluble Flt-1 were measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Thrombomodulin mRNA expression was determined in vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected trophoblast cell lines. Thrombomodulin protein and mRNA expression were decreased in preeclampsia as compared with both control groups (P=0.001). Thrombomodulin mRNA expression correlated with maternal body mass index (Ppreeclampsia. An increase in placental apoptotic cells was associated with preeclampsia (Ppreeclampsia, but not with fibrin deposits or inflammatory markers. Placental soluble Flt-1 expression correlated with decreased thrombomodulin expression. Vascular endothelial growth factor induced upregulation of thrombomodulin expression in trophoblast cells. Decreased thrombomodulin expression in preeclampsia may play a role in placental dysfunction in preeclampsia and is possibly caused by an angiogenic imbalance. Hypertension and obesity are associated with thrombomodulin downregulation. These results set the stage for further basic and clinical research on thrombomodulin in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and other syndromes characterized by endothelial dysfunction. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Placental malaria and pre-eclampsia through the looking glass backwards?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabin, Bernard J.; Johnson, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Placental malaria and pre-eclampsia occur frequently in women in developing countries and are leading causes of fetal growth restriction. Reduced placental perfusion, loss of placental integrity and endothelial cell dysfunction are characteristics of both conditions, and several common factors can

  4. Placental pathology and clinical trials : Histopathology data from prior and study pregnancies may improve analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khong, T. Y.; Ting, M.; Gordijn, S. J.

    Placental pathology may explain adverse outcomes and reveal likely recurrent lesions. Stratifying women into intervention arms of a perinatal trial on the basis of the placental histopathological findings of the index pregnancy and evaluating the effect of the interventions against the placental

  5. Altered placental development in undernourished rats: role of maternal glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maternal undernutrition (MUN during pregnancy may lead to fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which itself predisposes to adult risk of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. IUGR may stem from insufficient maternal nutrient supply or reduced placental nutrient transfer. In addition, a critical role for maternal stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs has been suggested to contribute to both IUGR and the ensuing risk of adult metabolic syndrome. While GC-induced fetal organ defects have been examined, there have been few studies on placental responses to MUN-induced maternal stress. Therefore, we hypothesize that 50% MUN associates with increased maternal GC levels and decreased placental HSD11B. This in turn leads to decreased placental and fetal growth, hence the need to investigate nutrient transporters. We measured maternal serum levels of corticosterone, and the placental basal and labyrinth zone expression of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase B 1 (HSD11B-1 predominantly activates cortisone to cortisol and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC to corticosterone, although can sometimes drive the opposing (inactivating reaction, and HSD11B-2 (only inactivates and converts corticosterone to 11-DHC in rodents in control and MUN rats at embryonic day 20 (E20. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of nutrient transporters for glucose (SLC2A1, SLC2A3 and amino acids (SLC38A1, 2, and 4. Our results show that MUN dams displayed significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels compared to control dams. Further, a reduction in fetal and placental weights was observed in both the mid-horn and proximal-horn positions. Notably, the placental labyrinth zone, the site of feto-maternal exchange, showed decreased expression of HSD11B1-2 in both horns, and increased HSD11B-1 in proximal-horn placentas, but no change in NR3C1. The reduced placental GCs catabolic capacity was accompanied by downregulation of SLC2A3, SLC

  6. Pre-Eclampsia Placental Carbohydrate Metabolism Regulating Enzymes Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Oré, Raquel; Centro de Investigación en Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Suárez, Silvia; Centro de Investigación en Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Arnao, Inés; Centro de Investigación en Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Pre eclampsia is one of the most frecuent pathologies during pregnancy. The placental tissue plays an important role in the development of the pathology. In this report we performed a study of the activities of two regulatory enzymes [ Phosphofructokinase I (E.C. 2.7.1.11) and Glucose 6-P-dehidrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.49)] of the carbohydrate metabolism in both normal and pre emclampsia placental tissue. It has been found a pronounced decreased in both activities in the pathological tissue. We di...

  7. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, April F., E-mail: april.mohanty@va.gov [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Farin, Fred M., E-mail: freddy@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Bammler, Theo K., E-mail: tbammler@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); MacDonald, James W., E-mail: jmacdon@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Afsharinejad, Zahra, E-mail: zafshari@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Burbacher, Thomas M., E-mail: tmb@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box: 357234, 1705 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Siscovick, David S., E-mail: dsiscovick@nyam.org [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  8. IFPA Meeting 2011 workshop report I: Placenta: Predicting future health; roles of lipids in the growth and development of feto-placental unit; placental nutrient sensing; placental research to solve clinical problems--a translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, G; Albrecht, C; Benton, S J; Cotechini, T; Dechend, R; Dilworth, M R; Duttaroy, A K; Grotmol, T; Heazell, A E; Jansson, T; Johnstone, E D; Jones, H N; Jones, R L; Lager, S; Laine, K; Nagirnaja, L; Nystad, M; Powell, T; Redman, C; Sadovsky, Y; Sibley, C; Troisi, R; Wadsack, C; Westwood, M; Lash, G E

    2012-02-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2011 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to both basic science and clinical research into placental growth and nutrient sensing and were divided into 1) placenta: predicting future health; 2) roles of lipids in the growth and development of feto-placental unit; 3) placental nutrient sensing; 4) placental research to solve clinical problems: a translational approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Induction of human cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in cultured placental cells by thalidomide and relevance to bioactivation and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Norie; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Daisuke; Arata, Kazuya; Harada, Tasuku; Shibata, Norio; Guengerich, F Peter; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Evidence has been presented for auto-induced human cytochrome P450 3A enzyme involvement in the teratogenicity and clinical outcome of thalidomide due to oxidation to 5-hydroxythalidomide and subsequent metabolic activation in livers. In this study, more relevant human placenta preparations and placental BeWo cells showed low but detectable P450 3A4/5 mRNA expression and drug oxidation activities. Human placental microsomal fractions from three subjects showed detectable midazolam 1´- and 4-hydroxylation and thalidomide 5-hydroxylation activities. Human placental BeWo cells, cultured in the recommended media, also indicated detectable midazolam 1´- and 4-hydroxylation and thalidomide 5-hydroxylation activities. To reduce any masking effects by endogenous hormones used in the recommended media, induction of P450 3A4/5 mRNA and oxidation activities were measured in placental BeWo cells cultured with a modified medium containing 5% charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum. Thalidomide significantly induced P450 3A4/5, 2B6, and pregnane X receptor (PXR) mRNA levels 2 to 3-fold, but rifampicin only enhanced P450 3A5 and PXR mRNA under the modified media conditions. Under these modified conditions, thalidomide also significantly induced midazolam 1´-hydroxylation and thalidomide 5-hydroxylaion activities 3-fold but not bupropion hydroxylation activity. Taken together, activation of thalidomide to 5-hydroxythalidomide with autoinduction of P450 3A enzymes in human placentas, as well as livers, is suggested in vivo.

  10. Modeling placental transport: correlation of in vitro BeWo cell permeability and ex vivo human placental perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Rytting, Erik; Mose, Tina

    2009-01-01

    . Placental passage of benzoic acid, caffeine, and glyphosate in an ex vivo human perfusion system. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 71, 984-991]. In this work, the transport of these same three compounds, plus the reference compound antipyrine, was investigated using BeWo (b30) cell monolayers. Transport......The placental passage of three compounds with different physicochemical properties was recently investigated in ex vivo human placental perfusion experiments (caffeine, benzoic acid, and glyphosate) [Mose, T., Kjaerstad, M.B., Mathiesen, L., Nielsen, J.B., Edelfors, S., Knudsen, L.E., 2008...... across the BeWo cells was observed in the rank order of caffeine>antipyrine>benzoic acid>glyphosate in terms of both the apparent permeability coefficient and the initial slope, defined as the linear rate of substance transferred to the fetal compartment as percent per time, a parameter used to compare...

  11. Studying placental transfer of highly purified non-dioxin-like PCBs in two models of the placental barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia Carreira, S; Cartwright, L; Mathiesen, L

    2011-01-01

    Currently, toxicology and toxicokinetics of purified non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are poorly characterised. Transplacental kinetics of NDL-PCBs can be studied in a variety of models, but careful validation of each model is crucial. We aimed to develop a standard operating...... procedure for establishing an in vitro model of the human placental barrier. Using this model, we sought to investigate placental transport kinetics of two NDL-PCB congeners. Firstly, we compared the BeWo cell line of the American Type Culture Collection with the BeWo b30 clone and determined parameters...... for monolayer formation. Secondly, we performed placental perfusions to validate the in vitro model. To that end, the transport of radiolabelled PCB52 and 180 was investigated in both models. We were not able to grow the ATCC cell line to confluency, but determined monolayer formation using BeWo b30...

  12. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  13. First Evidence of Placental Transfer of Ochratoxin A in Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fiorenza; Giannoccaro, Alessandra; Nicassio, Michele; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a renal mycotoxin and transplacental genotoxic carcinogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural occurrence of OTA in equine blood samples and its placental transfer. For the assessment of OTA levels, serum samples were collected from 12 stallions, 7 cycling mares and 17 pregnant mares. OTA was found in 83% of serum samples (median value = 121.4 pg/mL). For the assessment of placental transfer, serum samples were collected from the 17 mares after delivery and from the umbilical cords of their foals, after foaling. Fourteen serum samples from pregnant mares contained OTA (median value = 106.5 pg/mL), but only 50% of their foals were exposed (median values = 96.6 pg/mL). HPLC analysis carried out on four serum samples (collected from two mares and their respective foals) supported the ELISA results on OTA placental transfer. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of OTA in horse serum samples and placental transfer in horses. PMID:23344453

  14. The surrounding tissue modifies the placental stem villous vascular responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn; Forman, Axel; Aalkjær, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background: The placenta is the base for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and waste products for the fetus. The placental vessels hold a crucial role in regulation of blood flow, and compromised function may lead to complications like growth retardation and preeclampsia where no specific treatment...

  15. Challenges in the Management of Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    Reproductive Health Research Center, Alzahra Hospital Guilan University of Medical Sciences, 1Department of Pathology, Poursina Hospital, ... Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) level was 110 mIU/mL and uterus was diffusely enlarged. Total ... two substances, namely human placental lactogen (HPL) and.

  16. Placental malaria and neonatal anti-tetanus antibody status: Any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Neonatal tetanus (NT) has long remained an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the tropics, where it coexists with a high prevalence of placental malaria. The current strategy for the control of NT involves stimulating the production of a protective level of an anti-tetanus antibody in the mother, ...

  17. Gestational and placental malaria parasites in pregnant mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria infection especially with Plasmodium falciparum causes high mortality and morbidity rates among pregnant women in Nigeria. Gestational and placental malaria parasites was assessed using a total of 550 women made of 50 non- pregnant women and 500 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic ...

  18. Relationship between placental thickness and growth parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the relationship between placental thickness and foetal growth parameters in normal singleton Nigerian foetuses. Six hundred and sixty-six pregnant Nigerian women were studied by ultrasound in a cross sectional prospective study at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria. The pregnancies were in ...

  19. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched...

  20. Maternal obesity is associated with a lipotoxic placental environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity is associated with placental lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, where MAPK activity may play a central role. Accordingly, we have previously shown that placenta from obese women have increased activation of MAPK-JNK. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing on term placenta ...

  1. Cesarean Delivery for a Life‑threatening Preterm Placental Abruption

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Placental abruption is the premature separation of the normally implanted placenta after fetal viability and before the delivery of the baby. It is a significant cause of fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. The clinical diagnosis is based on a high index of suspicion, painful vaginal bleeding, uterine hypertonicity,.

  2. Diverse Placental Pathologies as the Main Causes of Fetal Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Holm, Jozien P.; Ravise, Joke M.; van der Meer, Jan; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Timmer, Albertus; van der, Meer J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the occurrence of placental causes of fetal death in relation to different gestational ages and their clinical manifestations during pregnancy. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study conducted from 2002 to 2006, we studied 750 couples with singleton intrauterine fetal death

  3. Placentation in the Hottentot golden mole, Amblysomus hottentotus (Afrosoricida: Chrysochloridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, C J P; Carter, A M; Bennett, N C

    2009-01-01

    The placentation of the Hottentot golden mole (Amblysomus hottentotus) has been examined using light and electron microscopy and lectin histochemistry of nine specimens at both mid and late gestation. The placentae were lobulated towards the allantoic surface and the lobules contained roughly par...

  4. Placental and serum levels of carotenoids in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P R; Mikhail, M S; Romney, S L

    2001-09-01

    We compared placental tissue, maternal serum, and umbilical cord venous blood levels of four dietary carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, and canthaxanthin) in normal pregnant women and those with preeclampsia. Levels of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, and canthaxanthin were measured in placental tissue, maternal serum, and umbilical cord venous blood from 22 normal pregnant women and 19 women with preeclampsia. The criteria for recruitment included gestational age of 30-42 weeks, singleton pregnancy, intact membranes, absence of labor contractions, and absence of any other medical complication concurrent with preeclampsia. Carotenoids were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. All four carotenoids were detectable in human placental tissue, maternal serum, and umbilical cord venous blood samples. The levels of beta-carotene, lycopene, and canthaxanthin in placentas from preeclamptic women were significantly lower (P =.032, .009, and .013, respectively, by Mann-Whitney test) than those from normal pregnant women. Maternal serum levels of beta-carotene and lycopene were significantly lower (P =.004 and .008, respectively, by Mann-Whitney test) in women with preeclampsia. However, umbilical cord venous blood levels of these carotenoids were not significantly different between the two groups. Lower placental tissue and maternal serum carotenoid levels in women with preeclampsia suggest that oxidative stress or a dietary antioxidant influence might have an effect on the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  5. Incidental placental choriocarcinoma in a term pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Christopher

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gestational choriocarcinoma occurs in 1 in 40,000 pregnancies. Of all forms of gestational choriocarcinoma, placental choriocarcinoma is the most rare. Maternal choriocarcinoma is usually diagnosed in symptomatic patients with metastases. The incidental finding of a choriocarcinoma confined to the placenta with no evidence of dissemination to the mother, or infant is the least common scenario. Case presentation The patient is an 18 year-old Gravida 1 Para 1 African American female who delivered a viable 3641 g female infant at 39 weeks gestation. Her pregnancy course was complicated by gestational hypertension during the third trimester. Her placenta revealed intraplacental choriocarcinoma. She was then followed closely by the Gynecologic Oncology service with a weekly serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin value. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin values dropped from 3070 mIU/ml to less than 2 mIU/ml two months post partum. No chemotherapy was initiated. Metastasis was ruled out by chest x-ray and whole body computed tomography scan. To date, both mother and baby are well. Conclusion Due to the potential fatal outcome of placental choriocarcinoma, careful evaluation of both mother and infant after the diagnosis is made is important. The incidence of placental choriocarcinoma may actually be higher than expected since it is not routine practice to send placentas for pathological evaluation after a normal spontaneous delivery. The obstetrician, pathologist, and pediatrician should have an increased awareness of placental choriocarcinoma and its manifestations.

  6. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    is slowed, although oxygen consumption is unaltered when corrected for fetal mass. Similarly, birth weight is reduced in humans living at high altitude even if the effect is tempered in those with a long highland ancestry. Placental mass changes little during sustained hypoxia in sheep or humans at high...

  7. Oxidative stress and maternal obesity: feto-placental unit interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, N; Merzouk, H; Merzouk, S A; Loukidi, B; Karaouzene, N; Malti, A; Narce, M

    2014-06-01

    To determine oxidative stress markers in maternal obesity during pregnancy and to evaluate feto-placental unit interaction, especially predictors of fetal metabolic alterations. 40 obese pregnant women (prepregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m²) were compared to 50 control pregnant women. Maternal, cord blood and placenta samples were collected at delivery. Biochemical parameters (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, superoxide anion expressed as reduced Nitroblue Tetrazolium, nitric oxide expressed as nitrite, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase) were assayed by biochemical methods. Maternal, fetal and placental triglyceride levels were increased in obese group compared to control. Maternal malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, nitric oxide and superoxide anion levels were high while reduced glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity were low in obesity. In the placenta and in newborns of these obese mothers, variations of redox balance were also observed indicating high oxidative stress. Maternal and placental interaction constituted a strong predictor of fetal redox variations in obese pregnancies. Maternal obesity compromised placental metabolism and antioxidant status which strongly impacted fetal redox balance. Oxidative stress may be one of the key downstream mediators that initiate programming of the offspring. Maternal obesity is associated with metabolic alterations and dysregulation of redox balance in the mother-placenta - fetus unit. These perturbations could lead to maternal and fetal complications and should be carefully considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Notch signalling in placental development and gestational diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S; Pollheimer, J; Knöfler, M

    2017-08-01

    Activation of Notch signalling upon cell-cell contact of neighbouring cells controls a plethora of cellular processes such as stem cell maintenance, cell lineage determination, cell proliferation, and survival. Accumulating evidence suggests that the pathway also critically regulates these events during placental development and differentiation. Herein, we summarize our present knowledge about Notch signalling in murine and human placentation and discuss its potential role in the pathophysiology of gestational disorders. Studies in mice suggest that Notch controls trophectoderm formation, decidualization, placental branching morphogenesis and endovascular trophoblast invasion. In humans, the particular signalling cascade promotes formation of the extravillous trophoblast lineage and regulates trophoblast proliferation, survival and differentiation. Expression patterns as well as functional analyses indicate distinct roles of Notch receptors in different trophoblast subtypes. Altered effects of Notch signalling have been detected in choriocarcinoma cells, consistent with its role in cancer development and progression. Moreover, deregulation of Notch signalling components were observed in pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. In summary, Notch plays fundamental roles in different developmental processes of the placenta. Abnormal signalling through this pathway could contribute to the pathogenesis of gestational diseases with aberrant placentation and trophoblast function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Placental overgrowth in mice lacking the imprinted gene Ipl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dale; Fortino, Weiwei; Clark, Lorraine; Musalo, Raymond; Wang, Wenxian; Saxena, Anjana; Li, Chi-Ming; Reik, Wolf; Ludwig, Thomas; Tycko, Benjamin

    2002-05-28

    The Ipl (Tssc3) gene lies in an extended imprinted region of distal mouse chromosome 7, which also contains the Igf2 gene. Expression of Ipl is highest in placenta and yolk sac, where its mRNA is derived almost entirely from the maternal allele. Ipl encodes a small cytoplasmic protein with a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain. We constructed two lines of mice with germ-line deletions of this gene (Ipl(neo) and Ipl(loxP)) and another line deleted for the similar but nonimprinted gene Tih1. All three lines were viable. There was consistent overgrowth of the Ipl-null placentas, with expansion of the spongiotrophoblast. These larger placentas did not confer a fetal growth advantage; fetal size was normal in Ipl nulls with the Ipl(neo) allele and was decreased slightly in nulls with the Ipl(loxP) allele. When bred into an Igf2 mutant background, the Ipl deletion partially rescued the placental but not fetal growth deficiency. Neither fetal nor placental growth was affected by deletion of Tih1. These results show a nonredundant function for Ipl in restraining placental growth. The data further indicate that Ipl can act, at least in part, independently of insulin-like growth factor-2 signaling. Thus, genomic imprinting regulates multiple pathways to control placental size.

  10. Maternal Neonatal Outcome in Relation to Placental Location ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Placenta, which is the vital link between mother and fetus, is critical for maternal neonatal well-being. Its study in early pregnancy may provide information about maternal neonatal disorders. Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the relationship of placental location and dimensions in early pregnancy with maternal ...

  11. Maternal Neonatal Outcome in Relation to Placental Location ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA) using Chi-square test and Fischer exact test for determining the statistical significance of ..... Placenta 2003;24:336-42. 28. Burton GJ, Jauniaux E. Placental oxidative stress: From miscarriage to preeclampsia. J Soc Gynaecol Investig 2004;11:342-52. How to cite this ...

  12. Placenta with Old, Diffuse Infarction that Was Difficult to Differentiate from a Placental Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hidehiko; Miyazaki-Igarashi, Miwa; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Placental lesions, including placental infarction, are associated with fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. We present a case of fetal growth restriction associated with an old, diffuse placental infarction. Because the placenta had only a single viable cotyledon, the others being atrophic, the lesion appeared to be a placental tumor on prenatal ultrasonography. The patient did not have pregnancy-induced hypertension. At 31 weeks of gestation, a cesarean delivery was performed because of fetal growth arrest and breech presentation. A small-for-gestational age infant was delivered with Apgar scores of 8 at both 1 and 5 minutes, and the infant had cleft palate and cleft lips. Pathological examination of the placenta revealed an old, diffuse infarction without neoplastic change. In cases in which a placental tumor causing fetal growth restriction is strongly suspected, diffuse placental infarction should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis, because placental tumors are associated with poor maternal prognosis.

  13. Ville Jehe : renessansimees / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Delfi juhatuse esimehest Ville Jehest. Vt. samas: Kaks suurt kirge: disain ja idamaised võitluskunstid. Lisad: Ville Jehe; Kas teadsite, et Ville Jehe. Kommenteerivad Eesti Loto juhatuse esimees Aivar Lepp, Eesti Energia juhatuse esimees Sandor Liive ja abikaasa Ülle

  14. Paraquat inhibits progesterone synthesis in human placental mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Ryszard; Sokołowska, Ewa; Rybakowska, Iwona; Kaletha, Krystian; Klimek, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    Human placenta mitochondria produces huge amounts of progesterone necessary for maintaining the pregnancy. Lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria inhibits progesterone synthesis and that inhibition can be reversed by superoxide dismutase and other antioxidants. Paraquat (PQ) a highly toxic herbicide generates superoxide radical inside cells and induces lipid peroxidation. Hence, it is supposed to stimulate lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria and in consequence to inhibit a placental mitochondrial steroidogenesis. Placentas were obtained from normal pregnancies. All experiments were done using isolated human placental mitochondria. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation was determined as tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone or pregnenolone to progesterone was measured using radiolabeled steroids and thin layer chromatography. PQ enhanced the iron-dependent lipid peroxidation as also PQ heightened the inhibitory action of this process on progesterone synthesis in isolated human placental mitochondria. Paradoxically, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) reversed the inhibition of progesterone synthesis only minimally although it strongly inhibited PQ stimulated iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. When iron was absent, PQ stimulated only negligible lipid peroxidation but strongly inhibited progesterone synthesis. SOD had no effect on inhibition of progesterone synthesis by PQ. PQ strongly inhibited of the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone but had not got any influence on the enzymatic activity of mitochondrial 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. PQ strongly decreased the efficiency of NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reduction as well as it promoted the rapid oxidation of the pre-reduced mitochondrial cytochrome P450. However PQ has not inhibited combined activity of adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin. We conclude that the most important reason of the inhibition of progesterone synthesis by PQ

  15. The association between placental histopathology and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughen, Jennifer K; Misra, Dawn P; Divine, George; Shah, Ruchit; Perez, Gabriela; VanHorn, Samantha; Onbreyt, Victoria; Dygulska, Beata; Schmitt, Rebecca; Lederman, Sanford; Narula, Pramod; Salafia, Carolyn M

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has its origins in utero. This study examines the association between evidence of placental histopathology and ASD. Administrative claims data and medical records data were used to identify ASD cases (N = 55) and matched controls (N = 199) born at New York Methodist Hospital between 2007 and 2014 and subsequently seen in affiliated pediatrics clinics. Placentas from all births during this time period were reviewed as part of routine care. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression to account for the matched (gender, gestational age, and birth weight) design. Acute placental inflammation, regardless of type was associated with an increased risk of ASD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.14, 95% CI = 1.39, 6.95). Chronic uteroplacental vasculitis (OR = 7.13; 95% CI = 1.17, 43.38), the fetal inflammatory response in the chorionic plate vessels (OR = 5.12; 95% CI = 2.02, 12.96), and maternal vascular malperfusion pathology (OR = 12.29; 95% CI = 1.37, 110.69) were associated with an increased risk of ASD. Placental villous edema was associated with a decreased risk of ASD (OR = 0.05; 95% CI = 0.0005, 0.42). In subanalyses among male placentas acute inflammation overall, fetal inflammatory response in the chorionic plate vessels, and maternal vascular malperfusion pathology remained significantly associated with an increased risk of ASD whereas placental villous edema remained associated with a decreased risk of ASD. Histologic evidence of placental inflammation and maternal vascular malperfusion pathology are associated with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of a placental infarction hematoma associated with fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia and fetal death: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurioles-Garibay, Alma; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Romero, Roberto; Qureshi, Faisal; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Jacques, Suzanne M; Garcia, Maynor; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

    2014-01-01

    The lesion termed 'placental infarction hematoma' is associated with fetal death and adverse perinatal outcome. Such a lesion has been associated with a high risk of fetal death and abruption placentae. The fetal and placental hemodynamic changes associated with placental infarction hematoma have not been reported. This paper describes a case of early and severe growth restriction with preeclampsia, and progressive deterioration of the fetal and placental Doppler parameters in the presence of a placental infarction hematoma.

  17. Placental weight and placental weight to birthweight ratio in relation to Apgar score at birth: a population study of 522 360 singleton pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskild, Anne; Haavaldsen, Camilla; Vatten, Lars J

    2014-12-01

    To study whether placental weight or placental weight to birthweight ratio are associated with Apgar score in the newborn 5 min after birth. Population-based registry study. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway. All singleton live births during the period 1999-2008, a total of 522 360 births. The placental weight to birthweight ratios were divided into quartiles within 2-week intervals of gestational age at birth, hence 25% of the pregnancies were within each group. We studied the proportion of pregnancies in the highest quartile of placental weight and placental weight to birthweight ratio according to Apgar score 5 min after birth, and estimated the odds ratio for Apgar score ≤7 if the placental weight to birthweight ratio was in the highest quartile, and used the lowest quartile as reference. Apgar score in the newborn 5 min after birth. In births after pregnancy week 29, and at every 2-week gestational age interval, the mean placental weight and placental weight to birthweight ratio were higher in newborn with Apgar score ≤7 than in infants with Apgar >7. The crude odds ratio of Apgar score ≤7 was 1.65 (95% CI 1.57-1.74), comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of placental weight to birthweight ratio. Adjustments for gestational age, birthweight, infant sex, maternal age, preeclampsia, diabetes and congenital malformations did not alter the odds ratio significantly. Placental weight and placental weight to birthweight ratio were higher in pregnancies with infant Apgar score ≤7 compared with Apgar score >7. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Elevated Adenosine Induces Placental DNA Hypomethylation Independent of A2B Receptor Signaling in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aji; Wu, Hongyu; Iriyama, Takayuki; Zhang, Yujin; Sun, Kaiqi; Song, Anren; Liu, Hong; Peng, Zhangzhe; Tang, Lili; Lee, Minjung; Huang, Yun; Ni, Xin; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent pregnancy hypertensive disease with both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that global placental DNA hypomethylation is observed in patients with preeclampsia and is linked to altered gene expression and disease development. However, the molecular basis underlying placental epigenetic changes in preeclampsia remains unclear. Using 2 independent experimental models of preeclampsia, adenosine deaminase-deficient mice and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced mouse model of preeclampsia, we demonstrate that elevated placental adenosine not only induces hallmark features of preeclampsia but also causes placental DNA hypomethylation. The use of genetic approaches to express an adenosine deaminase minigene specifically in placentas, or adenosine deaminase enzyme replacement therapy, restored placental adenosine to normal levels, attenuated preeclampsia features, and abolished placental DNA hypomethylation in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. Genetic deletion of CD73 (an ectonucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine) prevented the elevation of placental adenosine in the autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model and ameliorated preeclampsia features and placental DNA hypomethylation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that elevated placental adenosine-mediated DNA hypomethylation predominantly occurs in spongiotrophoblasts and labyrinthine trophoblasts and that this effect is independent of A2B adenosine receptor activation in both preeclampsia models. Extending our mouse findings to humans, we used cultured human trophoblasts to demonstrate that adenosine functions intracellularly and induces DNA hypomethylation without A2B adenosine receptor activation. Altogether, both mouse and human studies reveal novel mechanisms underlying placental DNA hypomethylation and potential therapeutic approaches for preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Effects of advanced maternal age and race/ethnicity on placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio in very low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, B E; Mackley, A; Jain, N; Locke, R; Paul, D A

    2015-07-01

    To study the association of advanced maternal age (AMA) and race/ethnicity on placental pathology in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. Retrospective analysis of placental pathology of inborn singleton VLBW infants from a regional level 3 NICU between July, 2002 and June, 2009. Subjects were stratified by age and race/ethnicity. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA, Chi Square and multivariable analyses. A total of 739 mother/infant dyads were included. AMA was associated with a decrease in placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers ≥35 had a lower placental weight (p = 0.01) and lower placental weight/birth weight ratio (z-score, -0.45 ± 0.71 vs -0.04 ± 1.1, p = 0.01) compared to Black/Non-Hispanic mothers age. After controlling for gestational age, race/ethnicity, maternal diabetes, maternal smoking, maternal hypertension and clinical chorioamnionitis, AMA, but not race/ethnicity, remained independently associated with placental weight/birthweight ratio z score (full model r(2) = 0.22, p age compared to mothers age. Our data suggest that maternal age affects placentation in VLBW infants, which could influence maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  20. Ultrasound assessment of placental function: the effectiveness of placental biometry in a low-risk population as a predictor of a small for gestational age neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinty, Patricia

    2012-07-01

    The aims of the study were to establish reference ranges for placental length and thickness in a low-risk obstetric population and to assess the likelihood of a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate on the basis of placental length at 18-24 weeks\\' gestation.

  1. Placental transfer of radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry in pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.R. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stabin, M.G.; Sparks, R.B. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The calculation of radiation dose estimates to the fetus is often important in nuclear medicine. To obtain the best estimates of radiation dose to the fetus, the best biological and physical models should be employed. In this paper, after identification of radiopharmaceuticals often administered to women of childbearing age, the most recent data available on the placental crossover of these radiopharmaceuticals was used (with standard kinetic models describing the maternal distribution and retention and with the best available physical models) to obtain fetal dose estimates for these radiopharmaceuticals were identified as those most commonly administered to women of childbearing years. The literature yielded information on placental crossover of 15 radiopharmaceuticals, from animal or human data. Radiation dose estimates are presented in early pregnancy and at 3-, 6-, and 9-months gestation for these radiopharmaceuticals, as well as for many others used in nuclear medicine (the latter considering only maternal organ contributions to fetal dose). 46 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. [Placental passage of macromolecules: transport pathway and mode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challier, J C; Bintein, T

    1989-09-01

    In vivo and in vitro data have recently shown that macromolecules cross the hemochorial placenta. This feature contrats with the size selectivity of the sheep placenta which exclude molecules of 0.45 nm radius. Macromolecules moves by diffusion or endocytosis. In addition to size selectivity, the electrical charges of the macromolecules might be involved in placental transfer. The main resistance to placental transfer lie in the trophoblastic layer and the pathways of specific or unspecific transcytosis are not elicited. Membrane or fluid phase markers (peroxydases), carrier molecules (LDL, transferrin...), hormones and growth factors (insuline, EGF) are internalized by endocytosis into the trophoblast and further degraded or recycled. Immunoglobulins G, which are protected from degradation, reach the fetal circulation. The endothelial layer looks less selective and permits passage either by interendothelial diffusion or transcytosis.

  3. Accuracy of ultrasound in antenatal diagnosis of placental attachment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloni, E; Alemanno, M G; Gaglioti, P; Sciarrone, A; Garofalo, A; Biolcati, M; Botta, G; Viora, E; Todros, T

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of placenta accreta and its variants, and to assess the impact of prenatal diagnosis in our population. A total of 314 women with placenta previa were enrolled prospectively and underwent transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound examinations. An ultrasound diagnosis (grayscale and color/power Doppler) of placental attachment disorder (PAD) was based on the detection of at least two of the following ('two-criteria system'): loss/irregularity of the retroplacental clear zone, thinning/interruption of the uterine serosa-bladder wall interface, turbulent placental lacunae with high velocity flow, myometrial thickness prenatal diagnosis of PAD, as seen by less blood loss and shorter hospitalization. Our data confirmed that grayscale and color Doppler ultrasound have good performance in the diagnosis of PAD and that prenatal diagnosis improves maternal outcome. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Placental Extracellular Vesicles and Feto-Maternal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, M.; Chamley, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    The human placenta is an anatomically unique structure that extrudes a variety of extracellular vesicles into the maternal blood (including syncytial nuclear aggregates, microvesicles, and nanovesicles). Large quantities of extracellular vesicles are produced by the placenta in both healthy and diseased pregnancies. Since their first description more than 120 years ago, placental extracellular vesicles are only now being recognized as important carriers for proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, which may play a crucial role in feto-maternal communication. Here, we summarize the current literature on the cargos of placental extracellular vesicles and the known effects of such vesicles on maternal cells/systems, especially those of the maternal immune and vascular systems. PMID:25635060

  5. Placental defects in α7 integrin null mice

    OpenAIRE

    Welser, Jennifer V.; Lange, Naomi D.; Flintoff-Dye, Nichole; Burkin, Heather R.; Burkin, Dean J.

    2007-01-01

    The α7β1 integrin is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor that links laminin in the extracellular matrix to the cell cytoskeleton. Loss of the α7 integrin chain results in partial embryonic lethality. We have previously shown that α7 integrin null embryos exhibit vascular smooth muscle cell defects that result in cerebral vascular hemorrhaging. Since the placenta is highly vascularized, we hypothesized that placental vascular defects in α7 integrin null embryos may contribute to the partial...

  6. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Jianyun [Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Feixue [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Organ Development and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliue@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  7. The role of prophylactic antimalarial in the reduction of placental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The gross presence of placental malaria in the intermittent preventive treatment (IPT)-treated and the control groups was 10.6% and 11.3% respectively (P=0.76). Anemia occurred in 3.1% of the IPT-treated group compared to 11.7% among the control group (P=0.000). Only 7.9% of the IPT-treated women had ...

  8. Placental elasticity evaluation using virtual touch tissue quantification during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmaru, Takako; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Sugitani, Maiko; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko

    2015-08-01

    Virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) has been developed to evaluate tissue elasticity. Our previous study using delivered placentas showed increased elasticity in fetal growth restriction (FGR). Therefore, we investigated changes in placental elasticity during pregnancy, including complicated pregnancies. Based on complications, 199 women were divided into 5 groups (normal, FGR, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), diabetes mellitus and collagen disease), and shear wave velocity (SWV) of the placenta, measured using VTTQ, was compared. A cross-sectional study was performed with the 143 normal cases to construct the reference range. The association between placental SWV and the expression ratio of collagen fibers in the placenta stained with Masson's trichrome was determined. The SWV was safely measured for all participants. The correlation between SWV and gestational weeks was not significant. The mean ± SD SWVs in the normal, FGR, and PIH groups were 0.98 ± 0.21, 1.28 ± 0.39, and 1.60 ± 0.45 m/sec, respectively. The FGR and PIH groups had significantly higher SWVs than that of the normal group. SWV and the expression ratio of collagen fibers were significantly correlated. Based on the present findings, changes in SWV during pregnancy were associated with placental fibrosis, and increased SWV in PIH and/or FGR cases might be influenced by infarction, ischemic changes, and inflammation, as well as fibrosis. In conclusion, the measurement of placental SWV is potentially useful to evaluate the condition of the placenta during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  10. [Oxidative stress level and placental histological changes during preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Yahuaca Mendoza, Patricia; Presno Bernal, Manuel; Alvarado Acosta, José Luis

    2008-06-01

    Oxidative stress has been related to several conditions during pregnancy (preeclampsia, abortions and premature rupture of membranes); it causes higher sensitivity of the endothelial blood vessel constriction and aggravates the endothelium dependent vasodilatación. To determine the oxidative stress level and histological changes in preeclamptic women's placenta. Longitudinal and comparative study. There were included 25 patients referred from second level health units (IMSS, ISSSTE and Hospital General de Zacatecas). To evaluate oxidative stress level, a sample of blood and placenta were obtained during delivery and a second sample was taken during mediate puerperium (10 days). In control group, total lipidic peroxide levels in serum were 135.6 +/- 7.3 nmol of MDA/mL of serum, compared with the group of moderate hypertension, which registered 222.0 +/- 35.15 nmol MDA/mL. Total lipidic peroxides in serum during puerperium for control group were 150.4 +/- 30.8 and 183.3 +/- 18.51 nmol MDA/mL for the group of moderate hypertension. Placental lipoperoxidation for control group was 0.40 +/- 0.03 microg MDNg, and of 0.32 +/- 0.03 microg MDN/g for the group of mild hypertension. Patients of moderate hypertension group showed an increase at 34% on placental lipoperoxidation over control group. Placental histological alterations where characterized by vascular remodeling loss, deposits of proteinaceous material and macrophagic process. Total lipidic peroxide levels in serum increases during preeclampsia. Histological changes refer uterus-placental ischemia that, probably, induces the oxidative stress.

  11. Dexamethasone and sex regulate placental glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, James S M; Saif, Zarqa; Perkins, Anthony V; Moritz, Karen M; Clifton, Vicki L

    2017-08-01

    Maternal dexamethasone exposure in the mouse impairs placental development and programs adult disease in a sexually dimorphic manner. Glucocorticoids bind to different glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms to regulate gene transcription and cellular signaling. We hypothesized that sexually dimorphic placental responses to glucocorticoids are due to differences in GR isoforms present in the placenta. Pregnant C57Bl6 mice were exposed to saline or dexamethasone from E12.5 until E14.5 (1 µg/kg/h) before the collection of placentae. Cytoplasmic and nuclear protein fractions were extracted from placentae of male and female fetuses for Western blot analysis of GR isoforms. Eight known isoforms of the GR were detected in the mouse placenta including the translational isoforms GRα-A, B, C and D1-3 and the splice variants GRA and GRP. The expression of GRA, GRP and each of the GRα isoforms were altered by dexamethasone in relation to fetal sex and cellular location. Placentae of female fetuses had higher GRα-A and GRP expression in the cytoplasm than males, and GRα-C was more highly expressed in the nucleus of females than that in males. Dexamethasone significantly increased the cytoplasmic expression of GRα-A, but reduced the expression of GRα-C in placentae of males. Dexamethasone increased the expression of the GRα-C-regulated genes Sgk1 and Bcl2l11, particularly in females. The cleaved caspase-3 staining in placental sections indicated GRα-C may mediate sex differences in dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. These findings may underlie the sex-specific placental adaptations that regulate different growth profiles in males and females and different risks for programmed disease outcomes in offspring. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Auer Lopes

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. Method: this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1 verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2 definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r and R(r. Results: while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. Conclusion: the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality.

  13. A placental phenotype for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenes, V L; Lim, Y-H; Bowman, N; Tailor, H; Dixon, P H; Chambers, J; Brown, L; Wyatt-Ashmead, J; Bhakoo, K; Williamson, C

    2011-12-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy specific liver disease associated with significant risk of fetal complications. It is hypothesised that the risk of adverse fetal outcomes relates to the toxic effects of bile acids, the levels of which are increased in both maternal and fetal serum. Human and rodent studies have shown that transplacental transfer of bile acids is impaired in ICP. Furthermore, the morphology of placentas from the rodent model of ICP is markedly abnormal, and is associated with increased expression of apoptotic markers and oxidative stress. Using placental tissue from ICP cases and normal pregnancies and cultured placental explant fragments we investigated the histological and molecular effects of cholestasis. We also examined the influence of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) administration on these parameters. Here we report that ICP is associated with several morphological abnormalities of the placenta, including an increase in the number of syncytial knots, and that these can be reproduced in an in vitro (explant) model exposed to the bile acids taurocholic acid and taurochenodoexycholic acid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid, a drug commonly used in the management of ICP, has a protective effect on placental tissue both in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-05-05

    Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A population-based study of race-specific risk for placental abruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamilio David M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to elucidate risk factors for placental abruption are imperative due to the severity of complications it produces for both mother and fetus, and its contribution to preterm birth. Ethnicity-based differences in risk of placental abruption and preterm birth have been reported. We tested the hypotheses that race, after adjusting for other factors, is associated with the risk of placental abruption at specific gestational ages, and that there is a greater contribution of placental abruption to the increased risk of preterm birth in Black mothers, compared to White mothers. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Missouri Department of Health's maternally-linked database of all births in Missouri (1989–1997 to assess racial effects on placental abruption and the contribution of placental abruption to preterm birth, at different gestational age categories (n = 664,303. Results Among 108,806 births to Black mothers and 555,497 births to White mothers, 1.02% (95% CI 0.96–1.08 of Black births were complicated by placental abruption, compared to 0.71% (95% CI 0.69–0.73 of White births (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.22–1.43. The magnitude of risk of placental abruption for Black mothers, compared to White mothers, increased with younger gestational age categories. The risk of placental abruption resulting in term and extreme preterm births ( Conclusion Black women have an increased risk of placental abruption compared to White women, even when controlling for known coexisting risk factors. This risk increase is greatest at the earliest preterm gestational ages when outcomes are the poorest. The relative contribution of placental abruption to term births was greater in Black women, whereas the relative contribution of placental abruption to preterm birth was greater in White women.

  16. Placental Implications of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Gestation and Parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Borel, Valerie; Gallot, Denis; Marceau, Geoffroy; Sapin, Vincent; Blanchon, Loïc

    2008-01-01

    The placenta is a transitory structure indispensable for the proper development of the embryo and fetus during mammalian gestation. Like other members of the nuclear receptor family, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are known to be involved in the physiological and pathological events occurring during the placentation. This placental involvement has been recently reviewed focusing on the early stages of placental development (implantation and invasion, etc.), mouse PP...

  17. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  18. Temporo-spatial expression of adrenomedullin and its receptors in the bovine placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adrenomedullin (AM) is a potent vasodilator peptide and is also involved in various physiological activities. In humans and rodents, AM is found in the uteroplacental unit and may be responsible for fetal development and maintenance of placental function. This study investigated 1) the mRNA expression patterns of AM and its receptor components (calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) 2 and RAMP3) during pregnancy and 2) mRNA and protein localization of AM, CRLR and RAMPs in the bovine placentome. Methods For real-time quantitative RT-PCR, bovine uteroplacental tissues were collected from Day 25, 60, 100, 150, 200 and 250 of gestation and separated into uterine caruncle (CAR), intercaruncular endometrium (ICAR), extra-embryonic membranes on Day 25 and cotyledonary villous after Day 60 (EEM-COT) and intercotyledonary chorion (ICOT). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the cellular localization of mRNA and protein of AM, CRLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3 in the placentome on Day 56, 150 and 230 of gestation and interplacentomal tissues on Day 56 of gestation. Results AM mRNA was highly expressed on Day 200 in EEM-COT, CAR and ICAR. CRLR mRNA was highly expressed on Day 60 in all portions. RAMP2 mRNA was also highly expressed on Day 60 in ICOT and ICAR. In EEM-COT, mRNA expression of CRLR and RAMP2 decreased from Day 150 to 250. RAMP3 mRNA was highly expressed on Day 150 in EEM-COT, ICOT and ICAR. A distinct AM mRNA and protein signal were only found in trophoblast binucleate cells (BNCs), whereas those of CRLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3 were detected in cotyledonary villous and caruncular epithelial cells. In interplacentomal tissues, AM was detected in BNCs of fetal membrane and a small part of luminal epithelium, endothelial lineage of blood vessels and glandular epithelium of the endometrium. Distinct signals of CRLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3 were found in trophoblast cells, luminal epithelium, stroma

  19. Placental STAT3 signaling is activated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliqueo, M; Sundström Poromaa, I; Vanky, E; Fornes, R; Benrick, A; Åkerud, H; Stridsklev, S; Labrie, F; Jansson, T; Stener-Victorin, E

    2015-03-01

    Does polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women without pregnancy complications affect placental signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling? Placental STAT3 signaling is activated but mTOR signaling is unaffected in PCOS. Women with PCOS have increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes (e.g. restricted or accelerated fetal growth), indicating placental dysfunction. Placental STAT3 and mTOR pathways regulate placental function and indirectly affect fetal growth. In a case-control study, placental tissue and maternal blood were collected at delivery from 40 control pregnant women and 38 PCOS women with uncomplicated pregnancy. Women with PCOS were recruited at two medical centers and pregnant controls were recruited at one of these centers. Placental mRNA expression of genes encoding proteins related to steroid action, metabolic pathways and cytokines was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Phosphorylated placental STAT3 (P-STAT3) and mTOR targets was measured by western blot. Levels of sex steroids in serum were determined by mass spectrometry. Placental P-STAT3 (Tyr-705) was increased in women with PCOS (P Becas Chile Programme (Chile) and University of Chile for financial support through a postdoctoral fellowship. There are no competing interests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Altered feto-placental vascularization, feto-placental malperfusion and fetal growth restriction in mice with Egfl7 loss of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Lauretta A; Hurtado, Romulo; Hinds, Samantha; Poulos, Michael G; Butler, Jason M; Stuhlmann, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    EGFL7 is a secreted angiogenic factor produced by embryonic endothelial cells. To understand its role in placental development, we established a novel Egfl7 knockout mouse. The mutant mice have gross defects in chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis and placental vascular patterning. Microangiography and 3D imaging revealed patchy perfusion of Egfl7-/- placentas marked by impeded blood conductance through sites of narrowed vessels. Consistent with poor feto-placental perfusion, Egfl7 knockout resulted in reduced placental weight and fetal growth restriction. The placentas also showed abnormal fetal vessel patterning and over 50% reduction in fetal blood space. In vitro, placental endothelial cells were deficient in migration, cord formation and sprouting. Expression of genes involved in branching morphogenesis, Gcm1, Syna and Synb, and in patterning of the extracellular matrix, Mmrn1, were temporally dysregulated in the placentas. Egfl7 knockout did not affect expression of the microRNA embedded within intron 7. Collectively, these data reveal that Egfl7 is crucial for placental vascularization and embryonic growth, and may provide insight into etiological factors underlying placental pathologies associated with intrauterine growth restriction, which is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Detection of suspected placental invasion by MRI: Do the results depend on observer’ experience?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor, E-mail: leonor.alamo@chuv.ch [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Anaye, Anass; Rey, Jannick; Denys, Alban [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bongartz, Georg [Universitätsspital Basel (Switzerland); Terraz, Sylvain [Hôpitaux Universitaires Genève (Switzerland); Artemisia, Simona; Meuli, Reto; Schmidt, Sabine [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of previously described MR features used for detecting suspected placental invasion according to observers’ experience. Materials and methods: Our population included 25 pregnant women (mean age 35.16) investigated by prenatal MRI (1.5 T, T1- and T2-weighted MR-sequences without i.v. contrast), among them 12 with histopathologically proven placental invasion and 13 women (52%) without placental invasion used as control group. Two senior and two junior radiologists blindly and independently reviewed MR-examinations in view of 6 previously defined MR-features indicating presence and degree of placental invasion (placenta increta, accreta or percreta). For each reader the sensibility, specificity, and receiver operating curve (ROC) were calculated. Interobserver agreements between senior and junior readers were determined. Stepwise logistic regression was performed including the 6 MR-features predictive of placental invasion. Results: Demographics between both groups were statistically equivalent. Overall sensitivity and specificity for placental invasion was 90.9% and 75.0% for seniors and 81.8% and 61.8% for juniors, respectively. The best single MR-feature indicating placental invasion was T2-hypointense placental bands (r{sup 2} = 0.28), followed by focally interrupted myometrial border, infiltration of pelvic organs and tenting of the bladder (r{sup 2} = 0.36). Interobserver agreement for detecting placental invasion was 0.64 for seniors and 0.41 for juniors, thus substantial and moderate, respectively. Seniors detected placental invasion and depth of infiltration with significantly higher diagnostic certitude than juniors (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0282, respectively). Conclusion: MRI can be a reliable and reproducible tool for the detection of suspected placental invasion, but the diagnostic value significantly depends on observers’ experience.

  2. Nephrocalcinosis and Placental Findings in Neonatal Bartter Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko Maruyama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Bartter syndrome (NBS is an inherited renal tubular disorder associated with hypokalemic alkalosis. Here we report a case of genetically diagnosed NBS. Polyhydramnios was noted at 26 weeks. A boy was born at 31 weeks and 1 day, weighed 1344 g, and had an Apgar score of 8/8. We initiated indomethacin (IND at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/d on day 31, and increased it to approximately 3 mg/kg/d. However, his urinary calcium (Ca levels remained unchanged. At 4 months of age, nephrocalcinosis was detected by ultrasound. The placenta weighed 700 g (+2.7 standard deviations. Although the proportion of terminal villi was consistent with the gestational age, many of them exhibited poorly dilated capillaries. Hemosiderin pigment was seen throughout the amniochorionic connective tissue and along about 50% of the trophoblast basement membrane (TBM. Von Kossa stain revealed the corresponding area of mineralization along the TBM. In our opinion, urinary Ca levels were high and did not change after IND initiation, indicating that nephrocalcinosis may be inevitable. Enhanced inflow of maternal plasma through the basement membrane would cause Ca deposition, given that the same finding was obtained in the case with polyhydramnios. The same mechanism would also explain the hemosiderin pigment distribution.

  3. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  4. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general

  5. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-14

    A cattle dashboard has recently been developed to share surveillance information gathered from submissions to the Great Britain veterinary diagnostic network. Data relating to Scotland come from the SAC C VS. This article, by Tim Geraghty, relates to cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland, as summarised on the APHA Cattle Dashboard. British Veterinary Association.

  6. The Significance of Placental Cord Insertion Site in Twin Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, Erkan; Thilaganathan, Basky; Papageorghiou, Aris; Bhide, Amar; Khalil, Asma

    2017-10-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between abnormal cord insertion and the development of the twin-specific complications, including birthweight discordance, selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR) and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). A single-center cohort study of twin pregnancies. Abnormal cord insertion was defined as either marginal (cord attachment site less than 2cm to the nearest margin of the placental disc) or velamentous (when the umbilical cord was attached to the membrane before reaching the placental disc with clear evidence of vessels traversing the membranes to connect with the placental disc), as described in placental pathology reports. Major structural or chromosomal abnormalities and monochorionic monoamniotic twins were not included in the study. Information on the pregnancies, ultrasound findings, prenatal investigation and interventions was obtained from the electronic ultrasound database, while data on the placental histopathological findings, pregnancy outcomes, mode of delivery, birthweight, gestational age at delivery, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were obtained from the maternity records. Categorical variables were compared by the X2 -test or Fisher's exact test, while continuous variables were compared using the t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) for multiple comparison and the Kruskal-Wallis test. 497 twin pregnancies, 351 (70.6%) dichorionic and 146 (29.3%) monochorionic, were included in the analysis. The incidence of birthweight discordance of 25% or more was significantly higher in pregnancies with velamentous and marginal cord insertions compared to those with normal cord insertion (24.5%, 15.2% vs 7.5%, Pcord insertions compared to the larger twins (1.8% and 18.5%, respectively Pcord insertions (40.9%) compared to the larger twins (2.3% and 29.5%, respectively Pcord insertion group, only velamentous insertion was significantly associated with the risk of sFGR (OR 9

  7. Identification of lactoferrin in bovine tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1996-09-01

    To determine whether bovine tear film contains the iron-binding glycoprotein, lactoferrin. 40 Adult Hereford, Angus, and Simmental cattle. Protein analysis: pooled bovine tears were used for protein analysis (size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] fractionation). HPLC was used for tear analysis. A diode array detector was used (215 and 280 microns) for chromatogram analysis and comparisons. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE): protein electrophoresis was performed, using 7.5% running gels with 4% stacking gels. Molecular weight of proteins in the unknown samples was determined as recommended by the manufacturer of the standards. Protein sequencing: amino acid sequencing, using automated Edman degradation of HPLC purified protein, was performed. The sequence obtained was compared with the known protein sequence of bovine lactoferrin. HPLC analysis of whole bovine tears resulted in a consistent chromatogram. Peak collection was performed to recover a protein from the bovine tear film with chromatogram characteristics nearly identical to purified bovine lactoferrin. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE of this peak revealed a band with molecular mass consistent with bovine lactoferrin (estimated mass of 78 kd). The first 13 amino acid residues of this protein were identical to the amino acid sequence of bovine lactoferrin. Analysis of whole bovine tears, using size exclusion HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and amino acid sequencing, provided evidence that bovine tears contain lactoferrin. Lactoferrin probably exerts a bacteriostatic effect in bovine tear film. Locally produced lactoferrin may bathe the ocular surface and sequester iron from potential pathogens.

  8. Placental immune response to apple allergen in allergic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelius, Martina Sandberg; Enke, Uta; Varosi, Frauke; Hoyer, Heike; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Jenmalm, Maria C; Markert, Udo R

    2014-12-01

    The immunological milieu in the placenta may be crucial for priming the developing foetal immune system. Early imbalances may promote the establishment of immune-mediated diseases in later life, including allergies. The initial exposure to allergens seems to occur in utero, but little is known about allergen-induced placental cytokine and chemokine release. The release of several cytokines and chemokines from placenta tissue after exposure to mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 or apple allergen in placentas from allergic and healthy mothers was to be analysed. Four placentas from women with apple allergy and three controls were applied in a placental perfusion model with two separate cotyledons simultaneously perfused with and without apple allergen (Mal d 1). Two control placentas were perfused with compound 48/80. In outflow, histamine was quantified spectrophotofluorometrically, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ by a cytometric multiplex bead array and IL-13 and CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22 with an in-house multiplex Luminex assay. Compound 48/80 induced a rapid release of histamine, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22, but not of the other factors. Apple allergen induced a time-dependent release of IL-6 and TNF, but not of histamine, in placentas of women with apple allergy compared with the unstimulated cotyledon. CCL17 levels were slightly increased after allergen stimulation in control placentas. Allergens can induce placental cytokines and chemokines distinctly in allergic and healthy mothers. These mediators may affect the prenatal development of the immune system and modify the risk of diseases related to immune disorders in childhood such as allergies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variation in macrophage migration inhibitory factor [MIF] immunoreactivity during bovine gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulesu, L.; Pfarrer, C.; Romagnoli, R.

    2012-01-01

    reestablishment of vascularisation, the vasculature in the caruncular area showed MIF reactivity. While supporting involvement of MIF in different placental types, the spatio-temporal variation in the bovine placenta suggests a regulatory role for MIF mainly in the interhemal barrier and during vascular......, the caruncular epithelium during pregnancy showed stronger staining for MIF. The intercaruncular epithelium in non-pregnant endometrium showed some reaction apically with increasing intensity at uterine gland openings; in contrast, at day 18 of gestation this staining was markedly increased. During gestation...... both caruncular and trophoblast epithelium of the placentomes were positive with different intensity in relation to the gestational stage. In the uterine glands, some strongly stained cells were present. The mature binucleated trophoblast giant cells were negative throughout pregnancy. During...

  10. Bovine leukemia virus: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliarena MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marcela Alicia Juliarena,1 Clarisa Natalia Barrios,1 Claudia María Lützelschwab,1 Eduardo Néstor Esteban,2 Silvina Elena Gutiérrez1 1Department of Animal Health and Preventive Medicine, Veterinary Research Center of Tandil (CIVETAN, CIC-CONICET, Faculty of Veterinary Science, National University of the Center of Buenos Aires Province, Tandil, Argentina; 2BIOALPINA Program (GENIAL/COTANA, Colonia Alpina, Argentina Abstract: Enzootic bovine leukosis, caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, is the most common neoplasm of dairy cattle. Although beef and dairy cattle are susceptible to BLV infection and BLV-associated lymphosarcoma, the disease is more commonly detected in dairy herds, mostly because of the management practices in dairy farms. The pathogenicity of BLV in its natural host, the bovine, depends mainly on the resistance/susceptibility genetics of the animal. The majority of infected cattle are asymptomatic, promoting the extremely high dissemination rate of BLV in many bovine populations. The important productive losses caused by the BLV, added to the health risk of maintaining populations with a high prevalence of infection with a retrovirus, generates the need to implement control measures. Different strategies to control the virus have been attempted. The most effective approach is to identify and cull the totality of infected cattle in the herd. However, this approach is not suitable for herds with high prevalence of infection. At present, no treatment or vaccine has proven effective for the control of BLV. Thus far, the genetic selection of resistant animals emerges as a natural strategy for the containment of the BLV dissemination. In natural conditions, most of the infected, resistant cattle can control the infection, and therefore do not pass the virus to other animals, gradually decreasing the prevalence of the herd. Keywords: bovine leukemia virus, control, genetic resistance, BoLA-DRB3

  11. Association between PAPP-A and placental thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Elaheh Mesdaghi-nia; Mitra Behrashi; Arezoo Saeidi; Masoomeh Abedzadeh Kalahroodi; Mojtaba Sehat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measuring of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in first trimester can be a way for early detection of adverse prenatal outcome due to faulty placenta. Objective: The aim was to Determination of association between placental thickness in second trimester with low level of PAPP-A in first trimester. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, serum PAPP-A of 187 pregnant women was measured in the first trimester of pregnancy. Patients who had PAPP-A ?0.8...

  12. [Morphology of the vascular placental bed in chronic arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Francisco Lázaro Pereira de; Sass, Nelson; Camano, Luiz; Stávale, João Norberto; Mesquita, Maria Rita de Sousa; Souza, Eder Viana de; Oliveira, Fábio Roberto de; Ishigai, Márcia Marcelino Souza

    2008-01-01

    To analyze histopathological patterns of placental bed arteries in pregnancies complicated by chronic arterial hypertension. Alterations were considered according to clinical classification of the hypertensive disorders as mild (MG); moderate (MoG) and severe (SG) for comparison with uncomplicated pregnancies, control group (CG). Placental bed biopsy was performed in 60 pregnant women; the study group was comprised of pregnant women with hypertension, subdivided in 13 with severe chronic hypertension (CH), 11 with moderate CH and 11 with mild CH, and results were compared to 25 placental bed biopsies from uncomplicated pregnancies. All the pregnant women had a gestational age of at least 28 weeks of gestation with a live fetus and were submitted to cesarean section. Hypertension was considered mild with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 90 I? 100 mmHg, moderate DBP 100 I? 110 mmHg and severe DBP=110 mmHg. Placental bed variables selected for histological analysis were: unaltered patterns, physiological changes, medial layer disorganization, medial and intimal hyperplasic changes, acute necrosis and atherosis. In cases with SG and MoG there was predominance of abnormal histophysiological findings: medial layer disorganization and hyperplasic changes, with a statistically significant difference when compared to MG and CG. Alteration in the medial layer was observed in these cases. The normal pattern, unaltered patterns and physiologic changes were more frequent in CG and MG. Physiological changes were the most usual finding, further, there was no acute necrosis or atherosis. 1. Abnormal histophysiological findings were predominant in hypertensive pregnant women compared to the normotensive ones; 2. These patterns were more frequent, according to the severity of the hypertensive disorders: Severe, Moderate and Mild; 3. More significant abnormal findings were a change in the medial layer, mainly in the group with severe hypertensive disorders; 4. The groups with moderate

  13. Evidence that fetal death is associated with placental aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Kaushik; Sultana, Zakia; Aitken, Robert J; Morris, Jonathan; Park, Felicity; Andrew, Bronwyn; Riley, Simon C; Smith, Roger

    2017-10-01

    The risk of unexplained fetal death or stillbirth increases late in pregnancy, suggesting that placental aging is an etiological factor. Aging is associated with oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and lipids. We hypothesized that placentas at >41 completed weeks of gestation (late-term) would show changes consistent with aging that would also be present in placentas associated with stillbirths. We sought to determine whether placentas from late-term pregnancies and unexplained stillbirth show oxidative damage and other biochemical signs of aging. We also aimed to develop an in vitro term placental explant culture model to test the aging pathways. We collected placentas from women at 37-39 weeks' gestation (early-term and term), late-term, and with unexplained stillbirth. We used immunohistochemistry to compare the 3 groups for: DNA/RNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine), lysosomal distribution (lysosome-associated membrane protein 2), lipid oxidation (4-hydroxynonenal), and autophagosome size (microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B, LC3B). The expression of aldehyde oxidase 1 was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Using a placental explant culture model, we tested the hypothesis that aldehyde oxidase 1 mediates oxidative damage to lipids in the placenta. Placentas from late-term pregnancies show increased aldehyde oxidase 1 expression, oxidation of DNA/RNA and lipid, perinuclear location of lysosomes, and larger autophagosomes compared to placentas from women delivered at 37-39 weeks. Stillbirth-associated placentas showed similar changes in oxidation of DNA/RNA and lipid, lysosomal location, and autophagosome size to placentas from late-term. Placental explants from term deliveries cultured in serum-free medium also showed evidence of oxidation of lipid, perinuclear lysosomes, and larger autophagosomes, changes that were blocked by the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 agonist G1, while the oxidation of lipid was blocked by the

  14. Ultrastructural modification of the endothelium in placental insufficiency and microangiopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidagulova, S V; Zhornik, T M; Nepomnyashchikh, D L; Marinkin, I O; Vinogradova, E V; Nokhrina, Zh V

    2009-05-01

    Structural reorganization of endotheliocytes was studied on models of various pathological processes: placental dysfunction, glomerular pathology, vibration syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome, and diffuse angiokeratoma, all of these characterized by endothelial insufficiency. Universal modification of endothelial associations was revealed. It included a chain of stereotypical reactions: from degeneration alternating with compensatory hypertrophy to subsequent atrophy and death of endotheliocytes. The time course of the process was confirmed by the results of light microscopy in combination with ultrastructural examination and by evaluation of the biosynthetic reactions by in vitro radioautography.

  15. Preeclampsia, placental insufficiency, and autism spectrum disorder or developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cheryl K; Krakowiak, Paula; Baker, Alice; Hansen, Robin L; Ozonoff, Sally; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and many forms of developmental delay (DD) originate during fetal development. Preeclampsia may trigger aberrant neurodevelopment through placental, maternal, and fetal physiologic mechanisms. To determine whether preeclampsia is associated with ASD and/or DD. The Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study is a population-based, case-control investigation of ASD and/or DD origins. Children from 20 California counties aged 24 to 60 months at the time of recruitment and living in catchment areas with a biological parent fluent in English or Spanish were enrolled from January 29, 2003, through April 7, 2011. Children with ASD (n = 517) and DD (n = 194) were recruited through the California Department of Developmental Services, the Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (MIND) Institute, and referrals. Controls with typical development (TD) (n = 350) were randomly selected from birth records and frequency matched on age, sex, and broad geographic region. Physicians diagnosing preeclampsia were masked to neurodevelopmental outcome, and those assessing neurodevelopmental function were masked to preeclampsia status. Preeclampsia and placental insufficiency were self-reported and abstracted from medical records. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised were used to confirm ASD, whereas children with DD and TD were confirmed by Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and were free of autistic symptoms. Hypotheses were formulated before data collection. Children with ASD were twice as likely to have been exposed in utero to preeclampsia as controls with TD after adjustment for maternal educational level, parity, and prepregnancy obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.18-4.68); risk increased with greater preeclampsia severity (test for trend, P = .02). Placental

  16. Placental and stillbirth tissue lead concentrations in occupationally exposed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, A K; Wibberley, D G; Dathan, J G

    1980-11-01

    The lead values in maternal and infant blood, in placental tissue, and in stillbirth liver, kidney, and rib- and skull-bones have been determined in samples from the Stoke-on-Trent area. The lead values in antenatal blood and placenta increase with occupational exposure; liver and kidney stillbirth lead values are lower than those of much older children and rib-bone lead values from stillbirths were on average three times as high as those from a control group comprised of cot deaths and early infant deaths from accidental causes.

  17. Of mice and women: rodent models of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars; Marinho, Claudio R F; Staalsoe, Trine

    2010-01-01

    expressed in placental malaria (PM) and specific for chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). In Plasmodium falciparum, these VSA(PM) appear largely synonymous with the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family variant VAR2CSA. As rodent malaria parasites do not possess PfEMP1 homologs......, the usefulness of experimental mouse PM models remains controversial. However, many features of murine and human PM are similar, including involvement of VSAs analogous to PfEMP1. It thus appears that rodent model studies can further the understanding of VSA-dependent malaria pathogenesis and immunity....

  18. A STUDY ON PLACENTAL MORPHOLOGY IN GESTATIONAL DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katadi Venkata Sudha Madhuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM refers to any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Maternal diabetes constitutes an unfavourable environment for embryonic and foetoplacental development. The histomorphological changes in the placenta are associated with increased perinatal morbidity, increased risk of diabetes in the offspring and the mother in the ensuing years of life. Present study aims to study the morphological changes in the placenta along with maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GDM. MATERIALS AND METHODS A descriptive observational case-controlled study was conducted from January 2013 to November 2016 in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam. Hundred and sixty four women diagnosed with GDM and hundred women with normal gestation were enrolled in the study. Foetal surveillance was done by Doppler ultrasound and kick count technique during the gestation. Foetal and maternal outcome was evaluated and compared to the outcome of normal gestation. Placental specimens from term gestations (38-42 weeks diagnosed with GDM and normal full-term gestations were studied to assess the morphological parameters. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive statistical measures. RESULTS In the present study, 62.19% of the GDM cases terminated as normal gestations. Recurrent UTI was the most common complication (14.02% during the antenatal period. 17.68% of the foetuses from GDM mothers presented with macrosomia, however, there were no cases of congenital anomalies or shoulder dystocia. Placental tissue from the GDM cases was larger, heavier and more cotyledonous as compared to placenta from normal subjects. The umbilical cord showed eccentric and central attachment in all the controls and most of the cases and 5.48% of the cases showed marginal attachment of the umbilical cord. CONCLUSION The study describes the various maternal, foetal and placental outcomes in pregnancies

  19. Extensive intron gain in the ancestor of placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide studies of intron dynamics in mammalian orthologous genes have found convincing evidence for loss of introns but very little for intron turnover. Similarly, large-scale analysis of intron dynamics in a few vertebrate genomes has identified only intron losses and no gains, indicating that intron gain is an extremely rare event in vertebrate evolution. These studies suggest that the intron-rich genomes of vertebrates do not allow intron gain. The aim of this study was to search for evidence of de novo intron gain in domesticated genes from an analysis of their exon/intron structures. Results A phylogenomic approach has been used to analyse all domesticated genes in mammals and chordates that originated from the coding parts of transposable elements. Gain of introns in domesticated genes has been reconstructed on well established mammalian, vertebrate and chordate phylogenies, and examined as to where and when the gain events occurred. The locations, sizes and amounts of de novo introns gained in the domesticated genes during the evolution of mammals and chordates has been analyzed. A significant amount of intron gain was found only in domesticated genes of placental mammals, where more than 70 cases were identified. De novo gained introns show clear positional bias, since they are distributed mainly in 5' UTR and coding regions, while 3' UTR introns are very rare. In the coding regions of some domesticated genes up to 8 de novo gained introns have been found. Intron densities in Eutheria-specific domesticated genes and in older domesticated genes that originated early in vertebrates are lower than those for normal mammalian and vertebrate genes. Surprisingly, the majority of intron gains have occurred in the ancestor of placentals. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence for numerous intron gains in the ancestor of placental mammals and demonstrates that adequate taxon sampling is crucial for reconstructing intron evolution. The

  20. Detection and clinical manifestation of placental malaria in southern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acquah Patrick A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum can be detected by microscopy, histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP2 capture test or PCR but the respective clinical relevance of the thereby diagnosed infections in pregnant women is not well established. Methods In a cross-sectional, year-round study among 839 delivering women in Agogo, Ghana, P. falciparum was screened for in both, peripheral and placental blood samples, and associations with maternal anaemia, low birth weight (LBW and preterm delivery (PD were analysed. Results In peripheral blood, P. falciparum was observed in 19%, 34%, and 53% by microscopy, HRP2 test, and PCR, respectively. For placental samples, these figures were 35%, 41%, and 59%. Irrespective of diagnostic tool, P. falciparum infection increased the risk of anaemia. Positive peripheral blood results of microscopy and PCR were not associated with LBW or PD. In contrast, the HRP2 test performed well in identifying women at increased risk of poor pregnancy outcome, particularly in case of a negative peripheral blood film. Adjusting for age, parity, and antenatal visits, placental HRP2 was the only marker of infection associated with LBW (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 1.5 (95%CI, 1.0–2.2 and, at borderline statistical significance, PD (aOR, 1.4 (1.0–2.1 in addition to anaemia (aOR, 2.3 (1.7–3.2. Likewise, HRP2 in peripheral blood of seemingly aparasitaemic women was associated with PD (aOR, 1.7 (1.0–2.7 and anaemia (aOR, 2.1 (1.4–3.2. Conclusion Peripheral blood film microscopy not only underestimates placental malaria. In this highly endemic setting, it also fails to identify malaria as a cause of foetal impairment. Sub-microscopic infections detected by a HRP2 test in seemingly aparasitaemic women increase the risks of anaemia and PD. These findings indicate that the burden of malaria in pregnancy may be even larger than thought and accentuate the need for effective anti-malarial interventions in pregnancy.

  1. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A. J.; van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Benders, Manon J. N.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. A case control study was performed at the University

  2. High-Throughput Testing of Antibody-Dependent Binding Inhibition of Placental Malaria Parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; Salanti, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The particular virulence of Plasmodium falciparum manifests in diverse severe malaria syndromes as cerebral malaria, severe anemia and placental malaria. The cause of both the severity and the diversity of infection outcome, is the ability of the infected erythrocyte (IE) to bind a range......-throughput assay used in the preclinical and clinical development of a VAR2CSA based vaccine against placental malaria....

  3. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A J; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Benders, Manon J N|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185214266; Mol, Ben Willem J; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074234692; Oudijk, Martijn A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/246958898

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. METHODS: A case control study was performed

  4. Placental Malaria in Colombia: Histopathologic Findings in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Arango, Eliana; Maestre, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Studies on gestational malaria and placental malaria have been scarce in malaria-endemic areas of the Western Hemisphere. To describe the histopathology of placental malaria in Colombia, a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. In this study, 179 placentas were studied by histologic analysis (112 with gestational malaria and 67 negative for malaria). Placental malaria was confirmed in 22.35%, 50.0% had previous infections, and 47.5% had acute infections. Typical malaria-associated changes were observed in 37%. The most common changes were villitis, intervillitis, deciduitis, increased fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knots, mononuclear (monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes), polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, and trophozoites in fetal erythrocytes. No association was found between type of placental changes observed and histopathologic classification of placental malaria. The findings are consistent with those reported for placental malaria in other regions. Plasmodium vivax was the main parasite responsible for placental and gestational malaria, but its role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria was not conclusive. PMID:23546807

  5. Fetal gender screening based on placental location by 2-dimentional ul-trasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Mohammad Jafari

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: According to our results, an anterior and posterior positions of the placen-ta had significant relation with fetal gender. Our findings are consistent with previous studies regarding prediction of fetal gender using placental location. We suggest that more research with large sample size is required as well as investigations with more de-tails about placental locations.

  6. New imaging markers for preconceptional and first-trimester utero-placental vascularization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, I.F. (I. F.); A.G.M.G.J. Mulders (Annemarie); Koster, M.P.H. (M. P.H.); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); Frudiger, A. (A.); S.P. Willemsen (Sten); E. Jauniaux; Burton, G.J. (G. J.); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction The availability of imaging makers of early placental circulation development is limited. This study aims to develop a feasible and reliable method to assess preconceptional and early first-trimester utero-placental vascular volumes using three-dimensional power Doppler (3D

  7. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction and metabolic syndrome in young women after placental syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, M.; Stekkinger, E.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Lotgering, F.K.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether women with a recent history of a placental syndrome and concomitant metabolic syndrome have reduced cardiac diastolic function. METHODS: In this cohort study, women with a history of a placental syndrome were included. We assessed body mass index, blood pressure,

  8. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (chiroptera: myzopodidae) endemic to madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...

  9. Reduced placental oxygenation during subclinical uterine contractions as assessed by BOLD MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Frøkjær, Jens B; Christiansen, Ole B; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Anne

    2016-03-01

    During placental Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), we have observed spontaneous reductions in placental oxygenation lasting 2-4 min. We hypothesize, that these reductions in placental oxygenation are caused by subclinical uterine contractions. We evaluated placental oxygenation during a five-minute placental BOLD MRI in 56 normal pregnancies (gestational week 23-40) and observed a spontaneous reduction in eight cases. The 56 BOLD MRIs were systematically analyzed for signs of uterine contractions, i.e. visual changes in uterus shape and reductions in the number of pixels within Regions of interest (ROI) covering the outline of the entire uterus. The eight reductions in the BOLD signal lasted for 217 ± 51 (mean ± SD) seconds with an average signal loss of 17 ± 5%. They were all associated with a contraction, which started 43 ± 21 s prior to the start of the reduction and ended 71 ± 30 s prior to the end of the reduction. In the remaining 48 MRIs, we observed no contraction. We suggest that the observed spontaneous reductions in placental oxygenation are caused by uterine contractions. According to our data, subclinical uterine contractions occur regularly and have a markedly impact on placental oxygenation. Therefore, uterine contractions need to be considered in the interpretation of placental MRI as they may interfere with the MRI results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective antibodies against placental malaria and poor outcomes during pregnancy, Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Doritchamou, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes that bind to placental tissue. Binding is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen coded by the var gene, which interacts with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Consequences include maternal anemia and fetal growth retardation....... Antibody-mediated immunity to placental malaria is acquired during successive pregnancies, but the target of VAR2CSA-specific protective antibodies is unclear. We assessed VAR2CSA-specific antibodies in pregnant women and analyzed their relationships with protection against placental infection, preterm...... infection, preterm birth, and low birthweight. These data suggest that antibodies against VAR2CSA N-terminal region mediate immunity to placental malaria and associated outcomes. Our results validate current vaccine development efforts with VAR2CSA N-terminal constructs....

  11. Pre-clinical and clinical development of the first placental malaria vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehrson, Caroline; Salanti, Ali; Theander, Thor G

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Malaria during pregnancy is a massive health problem in endemic areas. Placental malaria infections caused by Plasmodium falciparum are responsible for up to one million babies being born with a low birth weight every year. Significant efforts have been invested into preventing...... the condition.  Areas covered: Pub Med was searched using the broad terms 'malaria parasite placenta' to identify studies of interactions between parasite and host, 'prevention of placental malaria' to identify current strategies to prevent placental malaria, and 'placental malaria vaccine' to identify pre...... will contribute to endpoint measurements, further it may require extensive follow-up to establish protection. Future second generation vaccines may overcome the inherent challenges in making an effective placental malaria vaccine....

  12. Pre-clinical and clinical development of the first placental malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Caroline; Salanti, Ali; Theander, Thor G; Nielsen, Morten A

    2017-06-01

    Malaria during pregnancy is a massive health problem in endemic areas. Placental malaria infections caused by Plasmodium falciparum are responsible for up to one million babies being born with a low birth weight every year. Significant efforts have been invested into preventing the condition. Areas covered: Pub Med was searched using the broad terms 'malaria parasite placenta' to identify studies of interactions between parasite and host, 'prevention of placental malaria' to identify current strategies to prevent placental malaria, and 'placental malaria vaccine' to identify pre-clinical vaccine development. However, all papers from these searches were not systematically included. Expert commentary: The first phase I clinical trials of vaccines are well underway. Trials testing efficacy are more complicated to carry out as only women that are exposed to parasites during pregnancy will contribute to endpoint measurements, further it may require extensive follow-up to establish protection. Future second generation vaccines may overcome the inherent challenges in making an effective placental malaria vaccine.

  13. Long-Term Effects of Placental Growth on Overweight and Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan G. Eriksson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is programmed in utero and small babies generally have small placentas. In some circumstances, an undernourished fetus can expand its placental surface to extract more nutrients. We hypothesize that this results in an imbalanced nutrient supply to the fetus leading to obesity. To determine whether placental size determines overweight and body composition, we studied 2003 subjects in adult life. Associations between placental surface area and indices of overweight were restricted to people who carried the Pro12Pro genotype of the PPARγ2 gene. For every 1 SD increase in placental surface area, the odds ratio for overweight was 1.37 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.71; P=0.005. Expansion of the placental surface in compensation for fetal undernutrition increases the risk of overweight and a higher body fat percentage in people carrying the Pro12Pro genotype. We suggest that similar underlying multifactorial mechanisms affect the development of obesity in general.

  14. The effect of Ramadan fasting and maternal hypoalbuminaemia on neonatal anthropometric parameters and placental weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, M N; Balsak, D; Verit, F F; Zebitay, A G; Buyuk, A; Akay, E; Turfan, M; Demir, S; Yayla, M

    2016-05-01

    In Islamic religion, daytime fasting during the month called Ramadan is an annual practice. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting and maternal hypoalbuminaemia on neonatal growth parameters. A prospective case-control study was conducted in Diyarbakir and Istanbul, Turkey. The sample size of fasting group was 168 and that of non-fasting group was 170. Demographic characteristics, obstetrics ultrasonographic findings and laboratory parameters of the participants were recorded. Neonatal anthropometric parameters and placental weight were noted. The mean placental weight was significantly higher in the fasting group (p = 0.037). Also, in the fasting group, pregnant women with hypoalbuminaemia had significantly higher placental weight (p = 0.009). In conclusion, the mean placental weight in the fasting group was significantly higher. Also a significant correlation between placental weight and maternal serum albumin level was observed in the fasting group.

  15. Placental tumor (chorioangioma) as a cause of polyhydramnios: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Nabil; Bachanek, Michal; Trojanowski, Seweryn; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Wlodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Placental chorioangioma is the most common type of placental tumor. It is usually symptomless and may be associated with serious maternal and fetal complication when it reaches a large size. We presented a case of an angiomatous type of placental hemangioma diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy in a patient with polyhydramnios. A normal volume of amniotic fluid was successfully achieved by three amnioreductions with conservative management. The size of the placental tumor remained the same from the time of diagnosis to the end of pregnancy. A term labor was uncomplicated and a healthy newborn was delivered. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of the placenta confirmed the diagnosis. Despite the rarity of placental tumors, they should be considered as differential diagnosis in cases of polyhydramnios. PMID:25429242

  16. Upstream Stimulating Factors 1 and 2 Enhance Transcription from the Placenta-Specific Promoter 1.1 of the Bovine Cyp19 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanselow Jens

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placenta-derived oestrogens have an impact on the growth and differentiation of the trophoblast, and are involved in processes initiating and facilitating birth. The enzyme that converts androgens into oestrogens, aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom, is encoded by the Cyp19 gene. In the placenta of the cow, expression of Cyp19 relies on promoter 1.1 (P1.1. Our recent studies of P1.1 in vitro and in a human trophoblast cell line (Jeg3 revealed that interactions of placental nuclear protein(s with the E-box element at position -340 are required for full promoter activity. The aim of this work was to identify and characterise the placental E-box (-340-binding protein(s (E-BP as a step towards understanding how the expression of Cyp19 is regulated in the bovine placenta. Results The significance of the E-box was confirmed in cultured primary bovine trophoblasts. We enriched the E-BP from placental nuclear extracts using DNA-affinity Dynabeads and showed by Western blot analysis and supershift EMSA experiments that the E-BP is composed of the transcription factors upstream stimulating factor (USF 1 and USF2. Depletion of the USFs by RNAi and expression of a dominant-negative USF mutant, were both associated with a significant decrease in P1.1-dependent reporter gene expression. Furthermore, scatter plot analysis of P1.1 activity vs. USF binding to the E-box revealed a strong positive correlation between the two parameters. Conclusion From these results we conclude that USF1 and USF2 are activators of the bovine placenta-specific promoter P1.1 and thus act in the opposite mode as in the case of the non-orthologous human placenta-specific promoter.

  17. Effects of Assisted Reproduction Technology on Placental Imprinted Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Yukiko; Aoki, Chizu; Tamaki-Ishihara, Yuko; Fukuda, Yusuke; Kitamura, Mamoru; Matsue, Yoichi; So, Akiko; Morita, Mineto

    2010-01-01

    We used placental tissue to compare the imprinted gene expression of IGF2, H19, KCNQ1OT1, and CDKN1C of singletons conceived via assisted reproduction technology (ART) with that of spontaneously conceived (SC) singletons. Of 989 singletons examined (ART n = 65; SC n = 924), neonatal weight was significantly lower (P < .001) in the ART group than in the SC group, but placental weight showed no significant difference. Gene expression analyzed by real-time PCR was similar for both groups with appropriate-for-date (AFD) birth weight. H19 expression was suppressed in fetal growth retardation (FGR) cases in the ART and SC groups compared with AFD cases (P < .02 and P < .05, resp.). In contrast, CDKN1C expression was suppressed in FGR cases in the ART group (P < .01), while KCNQ1OT1 expression was hyperexpressed in FGR cases in the SC group (P < .05). As imprinted gene expression patterns differed between the ART and SC groups, we speculate that ART modifies epigenetic status even though the possibilities always exist. PMID:20706653

  18. Placental passage of antiepileptic drugs at delivery and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Anna M; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Ritchie, James C; Pennell, Page B

    2017-05-01

    Children of women treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at increased risk of adverse outcomes detectable in the neonatal period, which may be associated with the amount of AEDs in the fetal circulation. Placental passage of AEDs can be measured by calculating the ratio of umbilical cord to maternal AED concentrations collected at delivery. The aims of this study were to determine the umbilical cord concentrations and umbilical-to-maternal ratios for AEDs, and whether higher cord concentrations are associated with increased risk of neonatal complications. AED cord and maternal blood concentrations from 70 mother-newborn dyads and neonatal complications were recorded. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between AED concentrations and complications. Mean umbilical-to-maternal ratios for total concentrations ranged from 0.79 for carbamazepine to 1.20 for valproic acid, and mean umbilical-to-maternal ratios for free concentrations ranged from 0.86 for valproic acid to 1.42 for carbamazepine, indicating complete placental passage. Neither umbilical cord concentrations nor umbilical-to-maternal ratios were associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Additional investigations are warranted to delineate the relationship between quantified fetal AED exposure and neonatal complications. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Impact of placental insufficiency on fetal skeletal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W

    2016-11-05

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by placental insufficiency is one of the most common and complex problems in perinatology, with no known cure. In pregnancies affected by placental insufficiency, a poorly functioning placenta restricts nutrient supply to the fetus and prevents normal fetal growth. Among other significant deficits in organ development, the IUGR fetus characteristically has less lean body and skeletal muscle mass than their appropriately-grown counterparts. Reduced skeletal muscle growth is not fully compensated after birth, as individuals who were born small for gestational age (SGA) from IUGR have persistent reductions in muscle mass and strength into adulthood. The consequences of restricted muscle growth and accelerated postnatal "catch-up" growth in the form of adiposity may contribute to the increased later life risk for visceral adiposity, peripheral insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in individuals who were formerly IUGR. This review will discuss how an insufficient placenta results in impaired fetal skeletal muscle growth and how lifelong reductions in muscle mass might contribute to increased metabolic disease risk in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in bovine placentomes from implantation until term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfarrer, C.D.; Ruziwa, S.D.; Winther, H.

    2006-01-01

    ). To determine the role of VEGF in bovine implantation and placentation, placentomes and interplacentomal areas from 33 cows from early implantation until near term were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. VEGF immunoreactivity was detected in fetal and maternal blood vessel tissues during implantation until near...... term were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. VEGF immunoreactivity was detected in fetal and maternal blood vessel tissues during implantation and throughout gestation, and in preimplantatory trophoblast cells and uterine epithelium. After implantation the immunoreaction was confined to TGC and uterine......, facilitating feto-maternal exchange via paracrine action, (3) chemotactic activity on capillary endothelium, and (4) an autocrine influence on TGC migratory activity....

  1. A longitudinal study of intrauterine growth and the placental growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis in maternal circulation: association between placental GH and fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Vangsgaard, K; Larsen, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective lon....... We found a significant association between placental GH and fetal growth. In addition, we found a highly significant association between the increase in placental GH and the increase in IGF-I. The gestational age at peak placental GH levels was associated with pregnancy length....

  2. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  3. Residential Proximity to Roadways and Ischemic Placental Disease in a Cape Cod Family Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Amelia K; Carwile, Jenny L; Fabian, María Patricia; Winter, Michael R; Butler, Lindsey J; Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Aschengrau, Ann

    2017-06-24

    Exposure to air pollution may adversely impact placental function through a variety of mechanisms; however, epidemiologic studies have found mixed results. We examined the association between traffic exposure and placental-related obstetric conditions in a retrospective cohort study on Cape Cod, MA, USA. We assessed exposure to traffic using proximity metrics (distance of residence to major roadways and length of major roadways within a buffer around the residence). The outcomes included self-reported ischemic placental disease (the presence of at least one of the following conditions: preeclampsia, placental abruption, small-for-gestational-age), stillbirth, and vaginal bleeding. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential confounders. We found no substantial association between traffic exposure and ischemic placental disease, small-for-gestational-age, preeclampsia, or vaginal bleeding. We found some evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth and placental abruption among women living the closest to major roadways (RRs comparing living <100 m vs. ≥200 m = 1.75 (95% CI: 0.82-3.76) and 1.71 (95% CI: 0.56-5.23), respectively). This study provides some support for the hypothesis that air pollution exposure adversely affects the risk of placental abruption and stillbirth; however, the results were imprecise due to the small number of cases, and may be impacted by non-differential exposure misclassification and selection bias.

  4. The Multiple Roles of EG-VEGF/PROK1 in Normal and Pathological Placental Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Alfaidy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Placentation is associated with several steps of vascular adaptations throughout pregnancy. These vascular changes occur both on the maternal and fetal sides, consisting of maternal uterine spiral arteries remodeling and placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, respectively. Placental angiogenesis is a pivotal process for efficient fetomaternal exchanges and placental development. This process is finely controlled throughout pregnancy, and it involves ubiquitous and pregnancy-specific angiogenic factors. In the last decade, endocrine gland derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF, also called prokineticin 1 (PROK1, has emerged as specific placental angiogenic factor that controls many aspects of normal and pathological placental angiogenesis such as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL, gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD, fetal growth restriction (FGR, and preeclampsia (PE. This review recapitulates EG-VEGF mediated-angiogenesis within the placenta and at the fetomaternal interface and proposes that its deregulation might contribute to the pathogenesis of several placental diseases including FGR and PE. More importantly this paper argues for EG-VEGF clinical relevance as a potential biomarker of the onset of pregnancy pathologies and discusses its potential usefulness for future therapeutic directions.

  5. Maternal fructose drives placental uric acid production leading to adverse fetal outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Zeenat A.; Thompson, Alysha; Chi, Maggie; Cusumano, Andrew; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Saben, Jessica L.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal metabolic diseases increase offspring risk for low birth weight and cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. Excess fructose consumption may confer metabolic risks for both women and their offspring. However, the direct consequences of fructose intake per se are unknown. We assessed the impact of a maternal high-fructose diet on the fetal-placental unit in mice in the absence of metabolic syndrome and determined the association between maternal serum fructose and placental uric acid levels in humans. In mice, maternal fructose consumption led to placental inefficiency, fetal growth restriction, elevated fetal serum glucose and triglyceride levels. In the placenta, fructose induced de novo uric acid synthesis by activating the activities of the enzymes AMP deaminase and xanthine oxidase. Moreover, the placentas had increased lipids and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress. Treatment of mothers with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol reduced placental uric acid levels, prevented placental inefficiency, and improved fetal weights and serum triglycerides. Finally, in 18 women delivering at term, maternal serum fructose levels significantly correlated with placental uric acid levels. These findings suggest that in mice, excess maternal fructose consumption impairs placental function via a xanthine oxidase/uric acid-dependent mechanism, and similar effects may occur in humans. PMID:27125896

  6. We can Diagnose it if we Consider it. Diagnostic Pitfall for Placenta: Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva Serap TORU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is an increasingly recognizable abnormality. Early cases have been confused with partial hydatidiform mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is probably under-diagnosed because of being an unfamiliar clinical entity and also mistaken for gestational trophoblastic disease due to the similar sonographic findings of two entities. In this report, we describe the clinical, gross, and histopathological findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in two cases. The 33-week-preterm baby of a 26-year-old woman with cardiovascular disease and 342 gram placenta and the 19-week fetus with trisomy 21 of a 40 year-old woman were terminated. Macroscopically thick-walled vessels and microscopically hydropic villous with peripherally localized thick-walled vessels without trophoblastic cell proliferation were observed in both cases. These two cases represent a rare placental anomaly that is benign but it is challenging to distinguish placental mesenchymal dysplasia from an incomplete mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia should be included in the differential diagnosis of sonographic findings that show a normal appearing fetus and a placenta with cystic lesions. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is associated with pregnancy-related hypertension. In conclusion, the most important point is “you can diagnose it if you consider it”.

  7. Ultrasound Determination of Gestational Age Using Placental Thickness in Female Dogs: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Louzada Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To verify if the placental thickness allows determining the gestational age, evaluating the correlation between the referred gestational age with the studied one, and the accuracy of the placental thickness measurement (biometry with fetal morphologic parameters in bitches. Methods. The placental thickness of 336 bitches of diverse breeds was evaluated. Bitches were divided in three groups by body weight: small, medium, and big large size. The gestations pregnancies were evaluated by ultrasound from the third week of gestation. An analysis was performed between the mean values of the gestational age obtained of placental thickness by adjustment of curves and the reported gestational age. Student's t-test was applied to compare the mean of reported and placental thickness gestational age. Significance was defined as P<0.05. Results. A positive and statistically significant correlation exists between the placental thickness and gestational age. The expression that presents the best correlation coefficient and explanation was thickness of placenta = 0.021x gestational age −0.314. Conclusion. It is possible to determine the gestational age in relation to the placental thickness measured by ultrasound in bitches with a satisfactory accuracy in relation to fetal morphologic parameters as gestational vesicle, ribs, or kidneys.

  8. Ultrasound determination of gestational age using placental thickness in female dogs: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, André Luiz Louzada; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Mendonça, Débora Sartori; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To verify if the placental thickness allows determining the gestational age, evaluating the correlation between the referred gestational age with the studied one, and the accuracy of the placental thickness measurement (biometry) with fetal morphologic parameters in bitches. Methods. The placental thickness of 336 bitches of diverse breeds was evaluated. Bitches were divided in three groups by body weight: small, medium, and big large size. The gestations pregnancies were evaluated by ultrasound from the third week of gestation. An analysis was performed between the mean values of the gestational age obtained of placental thickness by adjustment of curves and the reported gestational age. Student's t-test was applied to compare the mean of reported and placental thickness gestational age. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results. A positive and statistically significant correlation exists between the placental thickness and gestational age. The expression that presents the best correlation coefficient and explanation was thickness of placenta = 0.021x gestational age -0.314. Conclusion. It is possible to determine the gestational age in relation to the placental thickness measured by ultrasound in bitches with a satisfactory accuracy in relation to fetal morphologic parameters as gestational vesicle, ribs, or kidneys.

  9. We can Diagnose it if we Consider it. Diagnostic Pitfall for Placenta: Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toru, Havva Serap; Aytekin, Esra Çobankent; Sanhal, Cem Yaşar; Yakut, Sezin; Çetin, Zafer; Mendilcioğlu, İbrahim İnanç; Peştereli, Hadice Elif

    2017-02-04

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is an increasingly recognizable abnormality. Early cases have been confused with partial hydatidiform mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is probably under-diagnosed because of being an unfamiliar clinical entity and also mistaken for gestational trophoblastic disease due to the similar sonographic findings of two entities. In this report, we describe the clinical, gross, and histopathological findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in two cases. The 33-week-preterm baby of a 26-year-old woman with cardiovascular disease and 342 gram placenta and the 19-week fetus with trisomy 21 of a 40 year-old woman were terminated. Macroscopically thick-walled vessels and microscopically hydropic villous with peripherally localized thick-walled vessels without trophoblastic cell proliferation were observed in both cases. These two cases represent a rare placental anomaly that is benign but it is challenging to distinguish placental mesenchymal dysplasia from an incomplete mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia should be included in the differential diagnosis of sonographic findings that show a normal appearing fetus and a placenta with cystic lesions. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is associated with pregnancy-related hypertension. In conclusion, the most important point is "you can diagnose it if you consider it".

  10. Placental perfusion in normal pregnancy and early and late preeclampsia: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, S; Mulic-Lutvica, A; Lindgren, P; Ortiz-Nieto, F; Wikström, A-K; Wikström, J

    2014-03-01

    Our primary aim was to investigate if women with early or late preeclampsia have different placental perfusion compared with normal pregnancies. A secondary aim was to investigate if placental perfusion changes with increasing gestational age in normal pregnancy. The study population included thirteen women with preeclampsia (five with early and eight with late preeclampsia) and nineteen women with normal pregnancy (ten with early and nine with late pregnancy). Early was defined as early preeclampsia had a smaller placental perfusion fraction (p = 0.001) and women with late preeclampsia had a larger placental perfusion fraction (p = 0.011), compared to women with normal pregnancies at the corresponding gestational age. The placental perfusion fraction decreased with increasing gestational age in normal pregnancies (p = 0.001). Both early and late preeclampsia differ in placental perfusion from normal pregnant women. Observed differences are however in the opposite direction, suggesting differences in pathophysiology. Placental perfusion decreases with increasing gestational age in normal pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFECTS OF SECRETABLE PLACENTAL FACTORS UPON SECRETION OF CYTOKINES BY THP-1 MONOCYTE-LIKE CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. S. Onokhina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Мonocytes in feto-placental circulation are exposed to factors secreted by placental tissue. These factors influence monocyte functions in pregnancy. In present study, an in vitro model (monocyte-like THP-1 cells was used for assessing effects of soluble placental factors obtained from women with physiological pregnancies, or preeclampsia cases. The following effects of placental factors were revealed: increased secretion of VEGF by THP-1 cells along with decreased secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 under the influence of placental factors from the I. trimester of pregnancy in comparison with III. trimester. Secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 by THP-1 cells was increased, and secretion of soluble TNFRII was decreased upon co-cultivation with soluble placental factors from the women with preeclampsia, as compared with placental products from physiological pregnancies.The work is supported by grants ГК № 02.740.11.0711 from Ministry of Education and Science, and НШ-3594.2010.7 grant from the President of Russian Federation.

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Carvajal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction. Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction.

  13. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  14. Pregnant women carrying female fetuses are at higher risk of placental malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ishag; Salih, Magdi M; Mohmmed, Ahmed A; Rayis, Duria A; Elbashir, Mustafa I

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of the placental malaria is not fully understood. If there is a fetal sex-specific susceptibility to malaria infection, this might add to the previous knowledge on the immunology, endocrinology and pathophysiology of placental malaria infections. This study was conducted to assess whether the sex of the fetus was associated with placental malaria infections. A cross-sectional study was performed including a secondary analysis of a cohort of women who were investigated for prevalence and risk factors (including fetal sex) for placental malaria in eastern Sudan. Placental histology was used to diagnose placental malaria infections. Among 339 women enrolled, the mean (SD) age was 25.8 (6.7) years and parity was 2.7 (2.2). Among the new born babies, 157 (46.3%) were male and 182 (53.7%) were female. Five (1.5%), 9 (2.7%) and 103 (30.4%) of the 339 placentas had active, active-chronic, past-chronic malaria infection on histopathology examination respectively, while 222 (65.5%) of them showed no malaria infection. Logistic regression analyses showed no associations between maternal age or parity and placental malaria infections. Women who have blood group O (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.19-3.10; P = 0.007) and women who had female new born were at higher risk for placental malaria infections (OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.57-4.13; P< 0.001). Fetal gender may be a novel risk factor for placental malaria. In this work the female placentas were at higher risk for malaria infections than the male placentas.

  15. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia and intrauterine fetal growth restriction with doppler velocimetry alterations - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Vendruscolo Tozatti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD is a rare placental abnormality. We report a case of PMD associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which was diagnosed by an ultrasound scan during the second trimester of pregnancy. A 36-year-old primiparous woman with signs of placental chorioangioma was referred to our hospital at the 23th gestational week. An ultrasonography revealed a small-for-gestational-age fetus with a large multicystic placenta. A serial Doppler sonographic assessment of umbilical and uterine artery blood flow showed a compromised fetus. A female, small-for-gestational-age baby was delivered by c-section at 28 weeks, and PMD was histopathologically confirmed.

  16. PLACENTAL GROWTH FACTOR AND CORONARY NEOANGIOGENESIS IN CORONARY HEART DISEASE

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    M. V. Tulikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoangiogenesis in coronary heart disease is a protective reaction aimed to improve ischemic myocardial perfusion, by increasing the number and size of arterial collaterals. Placental growth factor (PlGF is one of the key peptides regulating angiogenic processes in atherosclerosis. In particular, a number of investigators have shown that injection of recombinant PlGF into the system or regional blood flow can stimulate neoangiogenesis. On the other hand, there is evidence confirming the involvement of PlGF in the progression of atherosclerosis and in the development of acute coronary syndrome. In this connection, the problem of investigating the efficiency and safety of possible use of PlGF preparations, as well as its place in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome remains urgent

  17. Presentation of Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor with Amenorrhea

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    Fariba Behnamfar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental site throphoblastic tumor (PSTT is a rare manifestation of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that may complicate any type of pregnancy. The disease is unique from other type, and is defined by slow growth, low human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG serum levels, the late-onset metastatic potential, and most significantly, insensitivity to chemotherapy. We describe a case of a 31-year-old woman with prolonged amenorrhea and slightly elevated serum beta hCG (βhCG level, referred for termination of abnormal pregnancy. During curettage, necrotic tissue was removed and severs vaginal bleeding was controlled with medical therapy. Histology examination showed neoplastic intermediate trophoblastic cells with invasion to the vessel wall compatible with PSTT. After that, hysterectomy was down and serum βhCG declined to undetectable level 2 weeks after surgery and was followed for 2 years without complication.

  18. Term and postterm twin gestations. Placental cause of perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleker, O P; Oosting, H

    1997-11-01

    To compare perinatal mortality in twins and singletons and to study the influence of fetal sex, placentation and maternal parity on perinatal mortality in term and postterm twin gestations. The subjects of the study were 1,511 twin pairs and 3,022 singletons. All were born at a gestational age of 27 weeks or more in two clinics in Amsterdam between 1931 and 1975. Perinatal mortality was lower in twins than in singletons until 37-38 weeks and higher afterwards. In twins, perinatal mortality was higher in boys than in girls, in monochorial than in dichorial twins, and in primiparae than in multiparae, especially in the last trimester. The development of the twin placenta may set limits in term and postterm twin gestations and may be responsible, to some extent, for the increase in perinatal mortality.

  19. Screening and analyzing genes associated with Amur tiger placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Lu, T F; Liu, D; Hu, P F; Sun, B; Ma, J Z; Wang, W J; Wang, K F; Zhang, W X; Chen, J; Guan, W J; Ma, Y H; Zhang, M H

    2014-09-26

    The Amur tiger is a unique endangered species in the world, and thus, protection of its genetic resources is extremely important. In this study, an Amur tiger placenta cDNA library was constructed using the SMART cDNA Library Construction kit. A total of 508 colonies were sequenced, in which 205 (76%) genes were annotated and mapped to 74 KEGG pathways, including 29 metabolism, 29 genetic information processing, 4 environmental information processing, 7 cell motility, and 5 organismal system pathways. Additionally, PLAC8, PEG10 and IGF-II were identified after screening genes from the expressed sequence tags, and they were associated with placental development. These findings could lay the foundation for future functional genomic studies of the Amur tiger.

  20. Pathologic evaluation of normal and perfused term placental tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Mathiesen, Line; Hedegaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This study reports for the 1st time the incidence and interobserver variation of morphologic findings in a series of 34 term placentas from pregnancies with normal outcome used for perfusion studies. Histologic evaluation of placental tissue is challenging, especially when it comes to defining...... and selected findings were tested against success parameters from the perfusions. Finally, the criteria for frequent lesions with fair to poor interobserver variation in the nonperfused tissue were revised and reanalyzed. In the perfused tissue, the perfusion artefact "trophoblastic vacuolization," which...... with addition of antibiotics to the medium. In the "normal" tissue, certain lesions were very frequent and showed only fair or poor interobserver agreement. Revised minimum criteria for these lesions were defined and found reproducible. This study has emphasized the value of pathologic examination...

  1. Maternal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Alters Fetal and Placental Growth and Fetal-Placental Vascular Resistance in the Growth-Restricted Ovine Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Charlotte; Stanley, Joanna L; Oliver, Mark H; Bloomfield, Frank H; Baker, Philip N

    2016-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) causes short- and long-term morbidity. Reduced placental perfusion is an important pathogenic component of IUGR; substances that enhance vasodilation in the uterine circulation, such as sildenafil citrate (sildenafil), may improve placental blood flow and fetal growth. This study aimed to examine the effects of sildenafil in the growth-restricted ovine fetus. Ewes carrying singleton pregnancies underwent insertion of vascular catheters, and then, they were randomized to receive uterine artery embolization (IUGR) or to a control group. Ewes in the IUGR group received a daily infusion of sildenafil (IUGR+SC; n=10) or vehicle (IUGR+V; n=8) for 21 days. The control group received no treatment (n=9). Umbilical artery blood flow was measured using Doppler ultrasound and the resistive index (RI) calculated. Fetal weight, biometry, and placental weight were obtained at postmortem after treatment completion. Umbilical artery RI in IUGR+V fell less than in controls; the RI of IUGR+SC was intermediate to that of the other 2 groups (mean±SEM for control versus IUGR+V versus IUGR+SC: ∆RI, 0.09±0.03 versus -0.01±0.02 versus 0.03±0.02; F(2, 22)=4.21; P=0.03). Compared with controls, lamb and placental weights were reduced in IUGR+V but not in IUGR+SC (control versus IUGR+V versus IUGR+SC: fetal weight, 4381±247 versus 3447±235 versus 3687±129 g; F(2, 24)=5.49; P=0.01 and placental weight: 559.7±35.0 versus 376.2±32.5 versus 475.2±42.5 g; F(2, 24)=4.64; P=0.01). Sildenafil may be a useful adjunct in the management of IUGR. An increase in placental weight and fall in fetal-placental resistance suggests that changes to growth are at least partly mediated by changes to placental growth rather than alterations in placental efficiency. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Alteration of placental haemostatic mechanisms in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Bernal Villegas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy with a high probability of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It appears tobe caused by abnormal development of placental vasculature. Haemostatic processes are important for the development of the placenta,and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors has been associated with risk of intrauterine growth restriction.Objective. To evaluate coagulation abnormalities in placenta of pregnancies complicated with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction.Materials and methods. Five placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 19 controls.We performed gross and histological examination of the placenta. Analysis was made of both mRNA expression by real-time PCRand protein by ELISA of tissue factor and thrombomodulin in placental tissue. Results. Results based on histological evaluation wereconsistent with an increased prothrombotic state in placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction, andthrombosis of chorionic vessels was the most important finding. The study showed an increased expression of tissue factor protein(p=0.0411 and an increase in the ratio of tissue factor/thrombomodulin mRNA (p=0.0411 and protein (p=0.0215 in placentas frompregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction. There were no statistically significant differences neither between cases andcontrols in the mRNA levels of tissue factor or thrombomodulin nor at the protein level of thrombomodulin. Conclusion. Evidence ofalteration of local haemostatic mechanisms at the level of the placenta, including abnormal expression of tissue factor and tissue factor/thrombomodulin ratio, in pregnancies that occur with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction is presented.

  3. Placental pathology in systemic lupus erythematosus with antiphospholipid antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogishima, D; Matsumoto, T; Nakamura, Y; Yoshida, K; Kuwabara, Y

    2000-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with a poor pregnancy outcome. Antiphospholipid antibodies (APL), which include lupus anticoagulant (LAC) and anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), are frequently found in patients with SLE, and their presence has been associated with fetal loss. To examine placental pathologic features of SLE patients with APL, we performed a pathologic study on 47 placental tissue samples from 47 pregnant SLE patients with APL (15 patients; four LAC single-positive patients, seven aCL single-positive patients, four LAC and aCL double-positive patients) and without APL (32 LAC and aCL double-negative patients). The incidence of extensive infarction, decidual vasculopathy, decidual thrombosis and perivillous fibrinoid change, which have been thought to be characteristic lesions of APL placenta, was significantly higher in the LAC and aCL double-positive patients than in the patients without APL. Conversely, the above-mentioned lesions between the LAC or aCL single-positive patients and the APL negative patients did not differ significantly. Among the 15 patients with APL, two of the three patients with both decidual vasculopathy and thrombosis had extensive infarction associated with fetal death. Moreover, the patients having fetal death showed LAC and aCL double-positivity. In conclusion, this study indicated that the LAC and aCL double-positivity is an important factor for extensive infarction resulting from decidual vasculopathy and decidual thrombosis in the SLE placenta. Moreover, it was indicated that LAC and aCL double-positivity is an important risk factor for fetal death in the SLE patient.

  4. Mifepristone-induced abortion and placental complications in subsequent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qian-Xi; Gao, Er-Sheng; Chen, Ai-Min; Luo, Lin; Cheng, Yi-Min; Yuan, Wei

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effect of first-trimester mifepristone-induced abortion (MA) on placental complications in subsequent pregnancy. Two cohorts of nulliparous pregnant women were recruited in China during early pregnancy, one with a history of one MA and the other with no abortion (NA). Women were followed up until delivery. The incidence proportions of abruptio placenta, placenta previa, placenta accreta and retained placenta in the MA group (4673) and NA group (4690) were, respectively, 0.5 and 0.3, 0.8 and 0.9, 0.5 and 0.5, and 0.7 and 0.8% (all differences non-significant). After adjustment for center, age, education, occupation, residence, income, BMI and type of delivery, the incidence rates of placenta previa, accreta and retained placenta in the MA and NA groups showed no significant differences. The risk of abruptio placenta in women with a MA was nearly double that of women with no abortion, although this apparent increased risk was not statistically significant. Furthermore, this increased risk of abruptio placenta was found only in those with a gestational age >6 weeks at abortion (aOR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.00-6.04), a curettage after abortion (aOR: 3.00; 95% CI: 1.25-7.20) or a longer inter-pregnancy interval (P-value for trend: 0.022). Mifepristone-induced abortion itself is not associated with placental complications in subsequent pregnancy, but other factors related to medical abortion-such as a gestational age >6 weeks at abortion, a curettage after abortion, and a longer interpregnancy interval-may increase the risk of abruptio placenta.

  5. Role of Exosomes in Placental Homeostasis and Pregnancy Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, C; Rice, G E

    2017-01-01

    The human placenta is a unique organ that performs the function of the majority of fetal organs across gestation. How the placenta communicates with maternal tissues to prepare them for pregnancy is not fully understood. Recently, it has been established that placental cells can communicate with maternal tissues to regulate their biological function via extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are subclassified into exosomes or microvesicles (MVs) according to their size, cell or tissue of origin, functions, and physical features. Exosomes are a specific type of EVs from an endocytic origin, while MVs are released via budding from the plasma membrane. With regards to pregnancy, the role of EVs has been described in several functions such as immune responses and maternal metabolic adaptation to gestation. Interestingly, EVs of placental origin can be detected in a variety of body fluids including urine and blood, and have been identified in the maternal circulation at as early as 6 weeks of gestation. Moreover, the number of exosomes across gestation is higher in complications of pregnancies such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus compared to normal pregnancies. Circulating exosomes contains proteins and RNAs that are representative of the cell of origin, including surface and cytoplasmic protein, messenger RNA, and micro-RNAs. Finally, exosomes are capable of transferring their contents to other cells and regulating the biological function of the target cell. In this review, we will discuss the effect of the maternal microenvironment on secretion and content of placenta-derived EVs, and how this may lead to complications of pregnancies with a special emphasis on exosomes. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Maternal Obesity on Placental Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Haghiac, Maricela; Minium, Judi; Glazebrook, Patricia; Ranasinghe, Geraldine Cheyana; Hoppel, Charles; Hauguel de-Mouzon, Sylvie; Catalano, Patrick; O'Tierney-Ginn, Perrie

    2017-08-01

    Obese women, on average, give birth to babies with high fat mass. Placental lipid metabolism alters fetal lipid delivery, potentially moderating neonatal adiposity, yet how it is affected by maternal obesity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that fatty acid (FA) accumulation (esterification) is higher and FA β-oxidation (FAO) is lower in placentas from obese, compared with lean women. We assessed acylcarnitine profiles (lipid oxidation intermediates) in mother-baby-placenta triads, in addition to lipid content, and messenger RNA (mRNA)/protein expression of key regulators of FA metabolism pathways in placentas of lean and obese women with normal glucose tolerance recruited at scheduled term Cesarean delivery. In isolated trophoblasts, we measured [3H]-palmitate metabolism. Placentas of obese women had 17.5% (95% confidence interval: 6.1, 28.7%) more lipid than placentas of lean women, and higher mRNA and protein expression of FA esterification regulators (e.g., peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, steroyl-CoA desaturase 1, and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1). [3H]-palmitate esterification rates were increased in trophoblasts from obese compared with lean women. Placentas of obese women had fewer mitochondria and a lower concentration of acylcarnitines, suggesting a decrease in mitochondrial FAO capacity. Conversely, peroxisomal FAO was greater in placentas of obese women. Altogether, these changes in placental lipid metabolism may serve to limit the amount of maternal lipid transferred to the fetus, restraining excess fetal adiposity in this population of glucose-tolerant women. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  7. In vivo assessment of putative functional placental tissue volume in placental intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in human fetuses using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, D; Nasel, C; Schweim, T; Dekan, S; Chalubinski, K; Prayer, D

    2013-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a diagnostic challenge, since ultrasound fetal biometry (UFB) provides only a 50% detection rate for IUGR. This may be attributable to the fact that UFB does not allow a direct evaluation of functional placental tissue. We hypothesized that direct assessment, using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DT-MRI), can provide better detection of IUGR by reliably distinguishing between normal and non-functional placental tissue. Patients with normal placenta function (n = 21) and suspected IUGR (n = 14) according to UFB were examined. DT-MRI-based properties of areas of the placenta that were judged to represent normal functional tissue, in normal pregnancies, were used to perform volumetry of the putative functional placental tissue (PFPT) in a control- and an IUGR-group. Fractional anisotropy (FRC), as well as maximum and mean diffusivity were also calculated. PFPT volumetry showed a significant reduction of functional placental tissue in the IUGR group of up to 33%. Analysis of global PFPT, maximum diffusivity, mean diffusivity, and FRC also showed a significant difference. PFPT volume is dramatically reduced in IUGR. Several DT-MRI parameters suggest an additional placental micro-architecture disturbance in IUGR. PFPT volumetry appears to be a promising tool for improving the detection of IUGR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lauren Auer; Bernardino, Elizabeth; Crozeta, Karla; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt

    2016-08-18

    to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1) verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2) definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r) and R(r). while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality. identificar fatores relacionados à qualidade das amostras do sangue de cordão umbilical e placentário e definir boas práticas para sua coleta em um banco público de sangue de cordão umbilical e placentário. pesquisa descritiva, abordagem quantitativa, realizada em um banco público de sangue de cordão umbilical e placentário, desenvolvida em duas etapas: 1) verificação dos fatores obstétricos, neonatais e operacionais, obtidos por coleta em instrumento próprio e observação não participante; 2) definição das boas práticas, por meio do agrupamento de não-conformidades observadas antes, durante e após a coleta do sangue. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva, utilizando-se dos softwares Statistica(r) e R(r). houve

  9. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  10. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo ...

  11. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome : from placental anastomoses to long-term outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopriore, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies associated with high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates. Placental vascular anastomoses, almost invariably present in monochorionic placentas, are the essential anatomical substrate for the

  12. Characterization of human placental glycosaminoglycans and regional binding to VAR2CSA in malaria infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaudet, Julie M; Mansur, Leandra; Joo, Eun Ji

    2014-01-01

    Placental malaria is a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Young women are particular susceptible to contracting this form of malaria during their first or second pregnancy despite previously acquired immunity from past infections. Placental malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites...... expressing VAR2CSA on the erythrocyte surface. This protein adheres to a low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate-A found in placental tissue causing great harm to both mother and developing fetus. In rare cases, the localization of infected erythrocytes to the placenta can even result in the vertical transmission...... of malaria. In an effort to better understand this infection, chondroitin sulfate was isolated from the cotyledon part of the placenta, which should be accessible for parasite adhesion, as well as two non-accessible parts of the placenta to serve as controls. The placental chondroitin sulfate structures...

  13. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martinez-Payo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report - We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion - We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies.

  14. Association of Shorter Height with Increased Risk of Ischaemic Placental Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kohei; Morisaki, Naho; Saito, Shigeru; Sato, Shoji; Fujiwara, Takeo; Sago, Haruhiko

    2017-05-01

    Although adult height is inversely related with the risk of chronic disease, the association between maternal height and ischaemic placental disease remains unclear. We used the national, multicentre Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology perinatal database to assess the risk of preeclampsia, placental abruption, and small for gestational age (SGA) births (birthweight 162 cm). When the association between height and outcomes was considered in linear terms, each 5 cm decrement in height was associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.09, 1.14), placental abruption (RR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01, 1.09), and SGA birth (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.28, 1.31). Shorter height was associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia, placental abruption, and SGA birth. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. IFPA Meeting 2010 Workshop Report I: Immunology; ion transport; epigenetics; vascular reactivity; epitheliochorial placentation; proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, C; Antczak, D F; Carvalho, J; Chamley, L W; Chen, Q; Daher, S; Damiano, A E; Dantzer, V; Díaz, P; Dunk, C E; Daly, E; Escudero, C; Falcón, B; Guillomot, M; Han, Y W; Harris, L K; Huidobro-Toro, J P; Illsley, N; Jammes, H; Jansson, T; Johnson, G A; Kfoury, J R; Marín, R; Murthi, P; Novakovic, B; Myatt, L; Petroff, M G; Pereira, F T V; Pfarrer, C; Redman, C W G; Rice, G; Saffery, R; Tolosa, J M; Vaillancourt, C; Wareing, M; Yuen, R; Lash, G E

    2011-03-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting. At IFPA Meeting 2010 there were twelve themed workshops, six of which are summarized in this report. 1. The immunology workshop focused on normal and pathological functions of the maternal immune system in pregnancy. 2. The transport workshop dealt with regulation of ion and water transport across the syncytiotrophoblast of human placenta. 3. The epigenetics workshop covered DNA methylation and its potential role in regulating gene expression in placental development and disease. 4. The vascular reactivity workshop concentrated on methodological approaches used to study placental vascular function. 5. The workshop on epitheliochorial placentation covered current advances from in vivo and in vitro studies of different domestic species. 6. The proteomics workshop focused on a variety of techniques and procedures necessary for proteomic analysis and how they may be implemented for placental research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex Differences in Placental Mitochondrial Function Associated with Ozone-Induced Fetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal growth restriction is a major underlying cause of infant mortality worldwide. Despite knowledge of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes, the mechanisms that drive compromised growth during pregnancy have not been well established. Placental maladaptation, particularl...

  17. Placental Histopathologic Changes Associated with Subclinical Malaria Infection and Its Impact on the Fetal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Falgunee K.; Davison, Billie B.; Gamboa, Dionicia; Hernandez, Jean; Branch, OraLee H.

    2010-01-01

    Microscopic examination of placental tissue can provide an accurate assessment of malaria infection during pregnancy. In this cross-sectional study of 193 women in Iquitos, Peru, 1.0% and 6.6% had parasites in the peripheral blood as detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. However, 22% had placental malaria pigment indicating past, subclinical infections. Placental tissues with pigment from 24 cases were matched by gravidity and month of delivery to 24 controls and histopathologically examined. Cases had significantly higher number of monocytes in the intervillous space (44.7 versus 25.5; P = 0.012). Pigmented monocytes in fetal vessels were present in 33.3% of cases. This study demonstrated that subclinical malarial infection occurred frequently in pregnant women and is associated with increased presence of monocytes in the placenta. Pigmented monocytes in fetal vessels suggest parasites can breach the placental barrier and enter the fetal circulation. PMID:21036823

  18. Effects of human placental extract on brain monoamines and monoamine oxidase activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, K K; Bishayee, A; Chatterjee, M

    1995-05-01

    Human placental extract, an agent clinically used world-wide in a number of physiological anomalies, has been claimed to be effective in children of slow learners. Since the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems in the brain play an important role in the processes of learning and memory, we examined the effects of human placental extract on the levels of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonine in rat brain as an attempt to evaluate the possible underlying biochemical mechanism of action of the extract. We also determined the changes of brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity following placental extract treatment. The results showed that subchronic (5, 10, 15 or 20) administration of placental extract (2-4 ml/kg/day) had the effect of increasing all the monoamines and decreasing the MAO activity which could be the possible mode of action of the extract in slow learners.

  19. Placental Implications of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Gestation and Parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Borel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The placenta is a transitory structure indispensable for the proper development of the embryo and fetus during mammalian gestation. Like other members of the nuclear receptor family, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are known to be involved in the physiological and pathological events occurring during the placentation. This placental involvement has been recently reviewed focusing on the early stages of placental development (implantation and invasion, etc., mouse PPARs knockout phenotypes, and cytotrophoblast physiology. In this review, we describe the placental involvement of PPARs (e.g., fat transport and metabolism, etc. during the late stages of gestation and in the amniotic membranes, highlighting their roles in the inflammation process (e.g., chorioamnionitis, metabolic disorders (e.g., diabetes, and parturition.

  20. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  1. Virus-Free Human Placental Cell Lines To Study Genetic Functions | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Section on Cellular Differentiation is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize immortalized virus-free human placental cell lines.The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Section on Cellular Differentiation is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize immortalized virus-free human placental cell lines.

  2. Placental share and hemoglobin level in relation to birth weight in twin anemia-polycythemia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Slaghekke, F; Middeldorp, J M; Duan, T; Oepkes, D; Lopriore, E

    2014-12-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is a newly described form of chronic twin transfusion. Previous observational studies noted a discordance between birth weight and individual placental share in TAPS. The purpose of this study was to investigate if fetal growth in monochorionic (MC) twins with TAPS is determined by placental share or by the net inter-twin blood transfusion. All consecutive MC twin placentas of live-born twin pairs with and without TAPS examined at our center between June 2002 and February 2014 were included in this study. Hemoglobin (Hb) levels and individual placental share were evaluated at birth and correlated with birth weight share. We excluded MC twin pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. A total of 270 MC twin pregnancies (TAPS group, n = 20; control group without TAPS, n = 250) were included in this study. Donors with TAPS had a lower birth weight than recipients in 90% (18/20) of cases, but a larger placental share in 65% (13/20) of cases. In the TAPS group, birth weight share was positively correlated with Hb share at birth (P < 0.01) but not with placental share (P = 0.54). In the control group without TAPS, birth weight share was strongly correlated with placental share (P < 0.01) but not with Hb share (P = 0.14). A relatively larger placental share may enable the survival of the anemic twin in TAPS. In contrast with uncomplicated MC twins, fetal growth in MC twins with TAPS is determined primarily by the net inter-twin blood transfusion instead of placental share. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of insulin on placental, fetal and maternal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, Rabia; Karim, Nasim; Ara Hasan, Jahan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of exogenous insulin on placental, fetal and maternal outcomes in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Methods: After screening and diagnoses(WHO criteria) 30 GDM patients(Group A) were kept on diet control and 39 GDM (Group B) who did not achieve glycemic targets were added subcutaneous insulin. Term placental weight, size, shape, consistency, fibrinoid necrosis, hemorrhages, cord color, length of the cord, completeness of membranes, weight and condition of ...

  4. [Placental lesions in teenager`s pregnancies of a public hospital of Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandorena, Cintia; Garcia, Juan Sebastian; Cavoti-Sadonio, Victoria; Grandi, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    In Argentina, 18.3% of all births are related to adolescent mothers. Adolescent pregnancy has been associated with an increase of adverse perinatal outcomes. Placental examination helps to identify etiology and predict recurrence of perinatal pathologies. The aim of this study was to describe placental weight and placental lesions and to estimate the risks of adolescent pregnancies compared with young adults mothers. We examined 50 placentas from adolescent mothers (greater than 16 yrs, n = 18 and 17-19 yrs, n = 32) and 101 placentas from adults mothers between 20 and 29 years old attending the Sarda' Maternity Hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Conventional methods were used for macroscopic and histological examination. No differences were found in placental weights. In half of examined placenta one or more lesions were present, predominantly in adolescents (p = 0.327). In greater than 16 ys placental lesions represented 77.78 % (14/18, 95% CI 54 - 91), in older teenagers 34.3% (11/32, 95% CI 20 - 51) (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.32 - 3.38, p = 0.003), whereas in young adults figure was 41.5% (42/101, [95% CI 32 - 51]), a 1.87 (IC 95% 1.33 - 2.62, p = 0.004) and 0.83 (IC 95% 0.49 - 1.41, p = 0.469) crude risks of both adolescents' groups compared with adults, respectively. Adjusted risk for placental lesions was four folds higher in adolescent at or below 16 years (p = 0.018). No differences were found in placental weights Younger teenagers (≤ 16 year age) have an increased risk for having placental lesions.

  5. Genomic evidence reveals a radiation of placental mammals uninterrupted by the KPg boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Zhang, Jin; Rheindt, Frank E; Lei, Fumin; Qu, Yanhua; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yu; Sullivan, Corwin; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Yang, Fengtang; Chen, Jinping; Edwards, Scott V; Meng, Jin; Wu, Shaoyuan

    2017-08-29

    The timing of the diversification of placental mammals relative to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (KPg) boundary mass extinction remains highly controversial. In particular, there have been seemingly irreconcilable differences in the dating of the early placental radiation not only between fossil-based and molecular datasets but also among molecular datasets. To help resolve this discrepancy, we performed genome-scale analyses using 4,388 loci from 90 taxa, including representatives of all extant placental orders and transcriptome data from flying lemurs (Dermoptera) and pangolins (Pholidota). Depending on the gene partitioning scheme, molecular clock model, and genic deviation from molecular clock assumptions, extensive sensitivity analyses recovered widely varying diversification scenarios for placental mammals from a given gene set, ranging from a deep Cretaceous origin and diversification to a scenario spanning the KPg boundary, suggesting that the use of suboptimal molecular clock markers and methodologies is a major cause of controversies regarding placental diversification timing. We demonstrate that reconciliation between molecular and paleontological estimates of placental divergence times can be achieved using the appropriate clock model and gene partitioning scheme while accounting for the degree to which individual genes violate molecular clock assumptions. A birth-death-shift analysis suggests that placental mammals underwent a continuous radiation across the KPg boundary without apparent interruption by the mass extinction, paralleling a genus-level radiation of multituberculates and ecomorphological diversification of both multituberculates and therians. These findings suggest that the KPg catastrophe evidently played a limited role in placental diversification, which, instead, was likely a delayed response to the slightly earlier radiation of angiosperms.

  6. Placental lactogen secretion during prolonged-pregnancy in the rat: the ovary plays a pivotal role in the control of placental function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, K; Furuyama, N; Takahashi, M

    1991-10-01

    The serum of rats at mid-pregnancy contains at least 2 distinct placental lactogen (PL)-like substances tentatively termed placental lactogen-alpha (PL-alpha) and placental lactogen-beta (PL-beta) (Endocrinol Japon 38: 533-540, 1991). We have investigated the secretory patterns of three placental lactogens (PL-alpha, PL-beta and placental lactogen-II) during normal pregnancy and in two prolonged-pregnancy models. Pregnancy was prolonged by the introduction of new corpora lutea by inducing ovulation on day 15 of pregnancy by successive treatments with PMSG (30 IU/rat, sc on day 12) and hCG (10 IU/rat, iv on day 14), and in the second model by progesterone implants on day 15 of pregnancy. During normal pregnancy, each of the 3 PLs exhibited only one secretory peak in the serum; PL-alpha and PL-beta on day 12 and placental lactogen II (PL-II) on day 20. Interestingly, in the rats with new sets of corpora lutea, serum PL-alpha and PL-beta levels began to increase again on day 18 and showed peaks on day 20 for PL-alpha and on day 22 for PL-beta. In this model, the initiation of PL-II secretion was not affected, but high levels were maintained until day 26, when parturition occurred. In rats receiving either PMSG or hCG, the secretory patterns of the PLs were similar to as those during normal pregnancy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Bacterial communities found in placental tissues are associated with severe chorioamnionitis and adverse birth outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan M Doyle

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Bacterial infection and the subsequent inflammatory response are recognised as an important cause of preterm birth. It is hypothesised that these organisms ascend the cervical canal, colonise placental tissues, cause chorioamnionitis and in severe cases infect amniotic fluid and the foetus. However, the presence of bacteria within the intrauterine cavity does not always precede chorioamnionitis or preterm birth. Whereas previous studies observing the types of bacteria present have been limited in size and the specificity of a few predetermined organisms, in this study we characterised bacteria found in placental tissues from a cohort of 1391 women in rural Malawi using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that specific bacteria found concurrently on placental tissues associate with chorioamnionitis and delivery of a smaller newborn. Severe chorioamnionitis was associated with a distinct difference in community members, a higher bacterial load and lower species richness. Furthermore, Sneathia sanguinengens and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius found in both matched participant vaginal and placental samples were associated with a lower newborn length-for-age Z-score. This is the largest study to date to examine the placental microbiome and its impact of birth outcomes. Our results provide data on the role of the vaginal microbiome as a source of placental infection as well as the possibility of therapeutic interventions against targeted organisms during pregnancy.

  8. Development of Non-Viral, Trophoblast-Specific Gene Delivery for Placental Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura Abd Ellah

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with both short term problems and the fetal programming of adult onset diseases, including an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Placental insufficiency leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR contributes to the prevalence of diseases with developmental origins. Currently there are no therapies for IUGR or placental insufficiency. To address this and move towards development of an in utero therapy, we employ a nanostructure delivery system complexed with the IGF-1 gene to treat the placenta. IGF-1 is a growth factor critical to achieving appropriate placental and fetal growth. Delivery of genes to a model of human trophoblast and mouse placenta was achieved using a diblock copolymer (pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA complexed to hIGF-1 plasmid DNA under the control of trophoblast-specific promoters (Cyp19a or PLAC1. Transfection efficiency of pEGFP-C1-containing nanocarriers in BeWo cells and non-trophoblast cells was visually assessed via fluorescence microscopy. In vivo transfection and functionality was assessed by direct placental-injection into a mouse model of IUGR. Complexes formed using pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA and CYP19a-923 or PLAC1-modified plasmids induce trophoblast-selective transgene expression in vitro, and placental injection of PLAC1-hIGF-1 produces measurable RNA expression and alleviates IUGR in our mouse model, consequently representing innovative building blocks towards human placental gene therapies.

  9. Placental responses to changes in the maternal environment determine fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Genelyn eDimasuay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental responses to maternal perturbations are complex and remain poorly understood. Altered maternal environment during pregnancy such as hypoxia, stress, obesity, diabetes, toxins, altered nutrition, inflammation, and reduced utero-placental blood flow may influence fetal development, which can predispose to diseases later in life. The placenta being a metabolically active tissue responds to these perturbations by regulating the fetal supply of nutrients and oxygen and secretion of hormones into the maternal and fetal circulation. We have proposed that placental nutrient sensing integrates maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient sensing signaling pathways to balance fetal demand with the ability of the mother to support pregnancy by regulating maternal physiology, placental growth, and placental nutrient transport. Emerging evidence suggests that the nutrient-sensing signaling pathway mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR plays a central role in this process. Thus, placental nutrient sensing plays a critical role in modulating maternal-fetal resource allocation, thereby affecting fetal growth and the life-long health of the fetus.

  10. The Endocannabinoid System in the Postimplantation Period: A Role during Decidualization and Placentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the detrimental effects of cannabis consumption during gestation are known for years, the vast majority of studies established a link between cannabis consumption and foetal development. The complex maternal-foetal interrelationships within the placental bed are essential for normal pregnancy, and decidua definitively contributes to the success of this process. Nevertheless, the molecular signalling network that coordinates strategies for successful decidualization and placentation are not well understood. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system highlighted new signalling mediators in various physiological processes, including reproduction. It is known that endocannabinoids present regulatory functions during blastocyst development, oviductal transport, and implantation. In addition, all the endocannabinoid machinery was found to be expressed in decidual and placental tissues. Additionally, endocannabinoid’s plasmatic levels were found to fluctuate during normal gestation and to induce decidual cell death and disturb normal placental development. Moreover, aberrant endocannabinoid signalling during the period of placental development has been associated with pregnancy disorders. It indicates the existence of a possible regulatory role for these molecules during decidualization and placentation processes, which are known to be particularly vulnerable. In this review, the influence of the endocannabinoid system in these critical processes is explored and discussed.

  11. Heightened pro-inflammatory effect of preeclamptic placental microvesicles on peripheral blood immune cells in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Beth S; Tower, Clare L; Jones, Carolyn J P; Aplin, John D; Abrahams, Vikki M

    2012-04-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with the presence of circulating placental microvesicles (MVs). Increased MV shedding and altered immune activation are seen in patients with preeclampsia, suggesting that placental MVs may play a role in the pathophysiology of this disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by MVs shed by first-trimester, normal term, and preeclamptic term placenta. First-trimester and preeclamptic term, but not normal term, placental-derived MVs activated PBMCs, as evidenced by elevated IL1B. Significant changes were also seen with several other cytokines and chemokines, and in general when compared to normal term MVs, preeclamptic MVs induced a greater pro-inflammatory response in PBMCs. Pretreatment of PBMCs with first-trimester or normal term placental MVs resulted in a dampened IL1B response to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. In contrast, treatment of PBMCs with preeclamptic term placental MVs exacerbated the LPS response. This was also the case for several other cytokines and chemokines. These studies suggest that placental MVs can modulate basal peripheral immune cell activation and responsiveness to LPS during normal pregnancy, and that in preeclampsia this effect is exacerbated.

  12. The 4-vessel Sampling Approach to Integrative Studies of Human Placental Physiology In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Ane M; Holm, Maia B; Roland, Marie C P; Horne, Hildegunn; Michelsen, Trond M; Haugen, Guttorm; Henriksen, Tore

    2017-08-02

    The human placenta is highly inaccessible for research while still in utero. The current understanding of human placental physiology in vivo is therefore largely based on animal studies, despite the high diversity among species in placental anatomy, hemodynamics and duration of the pregnancy. The vast majority of human placenta studies are ex vivo perfusion studies or in vitro trophoblast studies. Although in vitro studies and animal models are essential, extrapolation of the results from such studies to the human placenta in vivo is uncertain. We aimed to study human placenta physiology in vivo at term, and present a detailed protocol of the method. Exploiting the intraabdominal access to the uterine vein just before the uterine incision during planned cesarean section, we collect blood samples from the incoming and outgoing vessels on the maternal and fetal sides of the placenta. When combining concentration measurements from blood samples with volume blood flow measurements, we are able to quantify placental and fetal uptake and release of any compound. Furthermore, placental tissue samples from the same mother-fetus pairs can provide measurements of transporter density and activity and other aspects of placental functions in vivo. Through this integrative use of the 4-vessel sampling method we are able to test some of the current concepts of placental nutrient transfer and metabolism in vivo, both in normal and pathological pregnancies. Furthermore, this method enables the identification of substances secreted by the placenta to the maternal circulation, which could be an important contribution to the search for biomarkers of placenta dysfunction.

  13. Assessment of placental stiffness using acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in pregnant women with fetal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan, Bircan; Goya, Cemil; Tunc, Senem; Teke, Memik; Hattapoglu, Salih [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Diyarbakir (Turkmenistan)

    2016-04-15

    We aimed to evaluate placental stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in pregnant women in the second trimester with a normal fetus versus those with structural anomalies and non-structural findings. Forty pregnant women carrying a fetus with structural anomalies diagnosed sonographically at 18-28 weeks of gestation comprised the study group. The control group consisted of 34 healthy pregnant women with a sonographically normal fetus at a similar gestational age. Placental shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI elastography and compared between the two groups. Structural anomalies and non-structural findings were scored based on sonographic markers. Placental stiffness measurements were compared among fetus anomaly categories. Doppler parameters of umbilical and uterine arteries were compared with placental SWV measurements. All placental SWV measurements, including minimum SWV, maximum SWV, and mean SWV were significantly higher in the study group than the control group ([0.86 ± 0.2, 0.74 ± 0.1; p < 0.001], [1.89 ± 0.7, 1.59 ± 0.5; p = 0.04], and [1.26 ± 0.4, 1.09 ± 0.2; p = 0.01]), respectively. Placental stiffness evaluated by ARFI elastography during the second trimester in pregnant women with fetuses with congenital structural anomalies is higher than that of pregnant women with normal fetuses.

  14. Gestational diabetes is associated with changes in placental microbiota and microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, Judit; Serino, Matteo; Carreras-Badosa, Gemma; Burcelin, Rémy; Blasco-Baque, Vincent; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Fernandez-Real, José-Manuel

    2016-12-01

    The human microbiota is a modulator of the immune system. Variations in the placental microbiota could be related with pregnancy disorders. We profiled the placental microbiota and microbiome in women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and studied its relation to maternal metabolism and placental expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Placental microbiota and microbiome and expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10, TIMP3, ITGAX, and MRC1MR) were analyzed in placentas from women with GDM and from control women. Fasting insulin, glucose, O'Sullivan glucose, lipids, and blood cell counts were assessed at second and third trimester of pregnancy. Bacteria belonging to the Pseudomonadales order and Acinetobacter genus showed lower relative abundance in women with GDM compared to control (P microbiota profile and microbiome is present in GDM. Acinetobacter has been recently shown to induce IL-10 in mice. GDM could constitute a state of placental microbiota-driven altered immunologic tolerance, making placental microbiota a new target for therapy in GDM.

  15. Improvement of a tissue maceration technique for the determination of placental involvement in schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Martha Charlotte; Neubauer, Heinrich; Groten, Tanja; El-Adawy, Hosny; Pastuschek, Jana; Richter, Joachim; Häussinger, Dieter; Pletz, Mathias Wilhelm; Schleenvoigt, Benjamin Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Schistosomiasis in pregnancy may cause low birth weight, prematurity and stillbirth of the offspring. The placenta of pregnant women might be involved when schistosome ova are trapped in placental tissue. Standard histopathological methods only allow the examination of a limited amount of placental tissue and are therefore not sufficiently sensitive. Thus, placental schistosomiasis remains underdiagnosed and its role in contributing to schistosomiasis-associated pregnancy outcomes remains unclear. Here we investigated an advanced maceration method in order to recover a maximum number of schistosome ova from the placenta. We examined the effect of different potassium hydroxide (KOH) concentrations and different tissue fixatives with respect to maceration success and egg morphology. Placental tissue was kept either in 0.9% saline, 5% formalin or 70% ethanol and was macerated together with Schistosoma mansoni infested mouse livers and KOH 4% or 10%, respectively. We found that placenta maceration using 4% KOH at 37°C for 24 h was the most effective method: placental tissue was completely digested, egg morphology was well preserved and alkaline concentration was the lowest. Ethanol proved to be the best fixative for this method. Here we propose an improved maceration technique in terms of sensitivity, safety and required skills, which may enable its wider use also in endemic areas. This technique may contribute to clarifying the role of placental involvement in pregnant women with schistosomiasis.

  16. Placental hypoechoic-anechoic areas and infarction: sonographic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R D; Simpson, W A; Pet, L R; Marin-Padilla, M; Crow, H C

    1990-07-01

    High-resolution ultrasound (US) and pathologic analysis were used to define the relationship between placental hypoechoic-anechoic areas, frequently seen in the third trimester, and the clinically significant entity of placental infarction. Placentas were obtained from three groups of patients: those prospectively demonstrating one or more placental hypoechoic-anechoic areas greater than or equal to 1 cm in diameter on third-trimester sonograms (n = 14), those with risk factors for vascular disease (n = 12), and control patients without risk factors (n = 16). Pathologic analysis demonstrated significantly more infarcts in patients with risk factors than in control patients (17 vs three, P = .047). Of a total of 22 infarcts from all three groups, 19 (86%) were isoechoic to viable placenta and therefore not detected with US. The three infarcts identified with US contained hypoechoic or anechoic foci of fibrin or hemorrhage. Of 26 placental hypoechoic-anechoic areas 23 (88%) were decidual septal cysts or intervillous thrombosis without infarction. The authors conclude that nonhemorrhagic placental infarction cannot be identified with ex utero US and, by inference, that prenatal US is probably insensitive for detection of placental infarction.

  17. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  18. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Matrotrophy and placentation in invertebrates: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2016-08-01

    histophagy are rarer, plausibly evolving through heterochronous development of the embryonic mouthparts and digestive system. During gestation, matrotrophic modes can shift, intergrade, and be performed simultaneously. Invertebrate matrotrophic adaptations are less complex structurally than in chordates, but they are more diverse, being formed either by a parent, embryo, or both. In a broad and still preliminary sense, there are indications of trends or grades of evolutionarily increasing complexity of nutritive structures: formation of (i) local zones of enhanced nutritional transport (placental analogues), including specialized parent-offspring cell complexes and various appendages increasing the entire secreting and absorbing surfaces as well as the contact surface between embryo and parent, (ii) compartmentalization of the common incubatory space into more compact and 'isolated' chambers with presumably more effective nutritional relationships, and (iii) internal secretory ('milk') glands. Some placental analogues in onychophorans and arthropods mimic the simplest placental variants in vertebrates, comprising striking examples of convergent evolution acting at all levels-positional, structural and physiological. © 2015 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in ex vivo perfused placental tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehrson, Caroline; Mathiesen, Line; Heno, Kristine K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Placental malaria occurs when Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta. Placental parasite isolates bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) by expression of VAR2CSA on the surface of infected erythrocytes, but may sequester by other VAR2CSA mediated mechanisms......, such as binding to immunoglobulins. Furthermore, other parasite antigens have been associated with placental malaria. These findings have important implications for placental malaria vaccine design. The objective of this study was to adapt and describe a biologically relevant model of parasite adhesion in intact...... placental tissue. RESULTS: The ex vivo placental perfusion model was modified to study adhesion of infected erythrocytes binding to CSA, endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) or a transgenic parasite where P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 expression had been shut down. Infected erythrocytes...

  1. Placental glucose transfer: a human in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane M Holme

    Full Text Available The placental transfer of nutrients is influenced by maternal metabolic state, placenta function and fetal demands. Human in vivo studies of this interplay are scarce and challenging. We aimed to establish a method to study placental nutrient transfer in humans. Focusing on glucose, we tested a hypothesis that maternal glucose concentrations and uteroplacental arterio-venous difference (reflecting maternal supply determines the fetal venous-arterial glucose difference (reflecting fetal consumption.Cross-sectional in vivo study of 40 healthy women with uncomplicated term pregnancies undergoing planned caesarean section. Glucose and insulin were measured in plasma from maternal and fetal sides of the placenta, at the incoming (radial artery and umbilical vein and outgoing vessels (uterine vein and umbilical artery.There were significant mean (SD uteroplacental arterio-venous 0.29 (0.23 mmol/L and fetal venous-arterial 0.38 (0.31 mmol/L glucose differences. The transplacental maternal-fetal glucose gradient was 1.22 (0.42 mmol/L. The maternal arterial glucose concentration was correlated to the fetal venous glucose concentration (r = 0.86, p<0.001, but not to the fetal venous-arterial glucose difference. The uteroplacental arterio-venous glucose difference was neither correlated to the level of glucose in the umbilical vein, nor fetal venous-arterial glucose difference. The maternal-fetal gradient was correlated to fetal venous-arterial glucose difference (r = 0.8, p<0.001 and the glucose concentration in the umbilical artery (r = -0.45, p = 0.004. Glucose and insulin concentrations were correlated in the mother (r = 0.52, p = 0.001, but not significantly in the fetus. We found no significant correlation between maternal and fetal insulin values.We did not find a relation between indicators of maternal glucose supply and the fetal venous-arterial glucose difference. Our findings indicate that the maternal-fetal glucose gradient is significantly

  2. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five bovine...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  4. Maternal BMI, gestational diabetes, and weight gain in relation to childhood obesity: The mediation effect of placental weight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Parker, Margaret G; Luo, Zhong‐Cheng; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Hui‐Juan; Jiang, Fan; Wang, Xiaobin; Gillman, Matthew W; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    .... The placentas were weighed after removing cord and membranes. We performed sequential generalized estimating equation-linear models excluding and including placental weight to evaluate its mediation effect...

  5. The impact of ultrasonographic placental architecture on antenatal course, labor and delivery in a low-risk primigravid population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the impact of placental architecture on antenatal course and labor delivery in a low-risk primigravid population. METHODS: This study involves prospective recruitment of 1011 low-risk primigravids with placental ultrasound at 22?24 weeks and 36 weeks. Detailed postnatal review of all mothers and infants was undertaken. Retrospective analysis of ultrasound and clinical outcome data was performed. RESULTS: Eight hundred ten women with complete outcome data were available. Anterior placentation was statistically associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth and fundal placentation was significantly associated with a higher incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and infants with a birthweight less than the 9th centile. Placental infarcts in the third trimester was significantly increased in cases complicated by pre-eclampsia (PET) and in cases with fetal acidosis. Placental calcification was associated a 40-fold increase in the incidence of IUGR. Placental lakes in the second trimester were more prevalent in patients with threatened miscarriage. Increased placental thickness was associated with a higher rate of fetal acidosis. The Grannum grade of the placenta was higher with threatened first or second trimester loss, PET and in infants born less than 9th centile for gestation. CONCLUSION: Placental site and architecture impact on the incidence of maternal and fetal disease.

  6. An international network (PlaNet) to evaluate a human placental testing platform for chemicals safety testing in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownbill, Paul; Chernyavsky, Igor; Bottalico, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    in pregnancy and how ex vivo and in vitro human placental models might be advanced to reproducible human placental test systems (HPTSs), refining a weight of evidence to the guidance given around compound risk assessment during pregnancy. The placental pharmacokinetics of xenobiotic transfer, dysregulated...... placental function in pregnancy-related pathologies and influx/efflux transporter polymorphisms are a few caveats that could be addressed by HPTSs, not the specific focus of current mammalian reproductive toxicology systems. An international consortium, “PlaNet”, will bridge academia, industry...

  7. Implication of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Envelope Proteins in Placental Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjimon Gatien Lokossou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retroviruses (ERVs represent 8% of the total human genome. Although the majority of these ancient proviral sequences have only retained non-coding long terminal repeats (LTRs, a number of “endogenized” retroviral genes encode functional proteins. Previous studies have underlined the implication of these ERV-derived proteins in the development and the function of the placenta. In this review, we summarize recent findings showing that two ERV genes, termed Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-2, which encode former envelope (Env proteins, trigger fusion events between villous cytotrophoblasts and the peripheral multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast layer. Such fusion events maintain the stability of this latter cell structure, which plays an important role in fetal development by the active secretion of various soluble factors, gas exchange and regulation of fetomaternal immunotolerance. We also highlight new studies showing that these ERV proteins, in addition to their localization at the cell surface of cytotrophoblasts, are also incorporated on the surface of various extracellular microvesicles, including exosomes. Such exosome-associated proteins could be involved in the various functions attributed to these vesicles and could provide a form of tropism. Additionally, through their immunosuppressive domains, these ERV proteins could also contribute to fetomaternal immunotolerance in a local and more distal manner. These various aspects of the implication of Syncytin-1 and -2 in placental function are also addressed in the context of the placenta-related disorder, preeclampsia.

  8. Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Carabello, Blaise; Mehta, Satish; Schlegel, Todd; Pellis, Neal; Ott, Mark; Pierson, Duane

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies on normal human lymphocytes have shown a five-fold increase (p less than 0.001) in angiogenic inducers such as Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in physiologically stressful environments such as modeled microgravity, a space analog. This suggests de-regulation of cardiovascular signalling pathways indicated by upregulation of PIGf. In the current study, we measured PIGf in the plasma of 33 patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) to investigate whether such disease is associated with increased levels of PIGf. A control consisting of 31 sex matched apparently healthy subjects was also included in the study. We observed that the levels of PIGf in CAD patients were significantly increased compared to those in healthy control subjects (p less than 0.001) and usually increased beyond the clinical threshold level (greater than 27ng/L). The mechanisms leading to up-regulation of angiogenic factors and the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments such as isolation, high altitude, hypoxia, ischemia, microgravity, increased radiation, etc are presently unknown and require further investigation in spaceflight and these other physiologically stressed environments.

  9. Isolation and characterization of membrane-associated placental proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, H; Winckler, W

    1991-01-01

    Membrane-associated proteins (MPs) of the human term placenta (afterbirth) were obtained by extracting the insoluble part of the tissue with solubilizing agents, after the soluble material had been removed by washing with saline. The insoluble residue was subsequently exhaustively extracted first with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 and then with 6 M urea. In the Triton extract eleven new different membrane-associated antigens could be detected by immunochemical methods; they were designated as MP2A to MP2L. One of these proteins (MP2C) was found to be immunochemically identical with the already described soluble placental protein PP21 [3]. MP1 another antigen detected in the Triton extract later was identified as heart stable alkaline phosphatase. In the urea extract eight different membrane-associated antigens could be identified by immunochemical methods; they were designated as MP3 to MP10. MP3 later was found to be immunochemically identical with laminin. All these membrane-associated proteins have now been isolated to purity and characterized by their physico-chemical properties. Specific antisera to the new proteins were obtained by immunizing animals with the corresponding purified proteins. They were used to detect and quantitate the new proteins in extracts of placentas and other human tissues by immunochemical methods such as gel diffusion tests. The immunocytochemical localization of the new proteins as well as measurement of their concentrations in body fluids by sensitive radioimmunoassays or enzyme immunoassays are presently under investigation.

  10. Specific Immunoassays for Placental Alkaline Phosphatase As a Tumor Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinghen, Sérvio T.; Moura, Juliana F.; Zancanella, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Giovanna A.; Pianovski, Mara A.; Lalli, Enzo; Arnold, Dodie L.; Minozzo, João C.; Callefe, Luis G.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Figueiredo, Bonald C.

    2006-01-01

    Human placental (hPLAP) and germ cell (PLAP-like) alkaline phosphatases are polymorphic and heat-stable enzymes. This study was designed to develop specific immunoassays for quantifying hPLAP and PLAP-like enzyme activity (EA) in sera of cancer patients, pregnant women, or smokers. Polyclonal sheep anti-hPLAP antibodies were purified by affinity chromatography with whole hPLAP protein (ICA-PLAP assay) or a synthetic peptide (aa 57–71) of hPLAP (ICA-PEP assay); the working range was 0.1–11 U/L and cutoff value was 0.2 U/L EA for nonsmokers. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 3.7%–6.5% (ICA-PLAP assay) and 9.0%–9.9% (ICA-PEP assay). An insignificant cross-reactivity was noted for high levels of unheated intestinal alkaline phosphatase in ICA-PEP assay. A positive correlation between the regression of tumor size and EA was noted in a child with embryonal carcinoma. It can be concluded that ICA-PEP assay is more specific than ICA-PLAP, which is still useful to detect other PLAP/PLAP-like phenotypes. PMID:17489017

  11. Influences of placental growth factor on mouse retinal vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Vanessa R; Tayade, Chandrakant; Carmeliet, Peter; Croy, B Anne

    2017-09-01

    Placental growth factor (PGF) is important for wound-healing and vascular collaterogenesis. PGF deficiency is associated with preeclampsia, a hypertensive disease of human pregnancy. Offspring born to preeclamptic mothers display cognitive impairments and brain vascular and neurostructural deviations. Low PGF production during development may contribute to alterations in offspring cerebrovascular beds. Retina is a readily accessible part of the central nervous system with a well-described pattern of vascular development in mice. Impacts of PGF deficiency were addressed during mouse retinal vascularization. Retinal vessels were compared between Pgf-/- and congenic C57BL/6 (B6) mice. PGF deficiency altered neonatal retinal vascularization patterns. Some anatomic alterations persisted into adulthood, particularly in males. Greater arterial wall collagen IV expression was found in adult Pgf-/- females. Pregnancy (studied in adult females at gestational days 11.5 or 18.5) induced subtle changes upon the mother's retinal vasculature but these pregnancy-induced changes did not differ between genotypes. Significant sex-related differences occurred between adult male and female B6 although sexually dimorphic retinal vascular differences were absent in B6 neonates. Overall, PGF has a role in retinal vascular angiogenesis and vessel organization during development but does not affect retinal vessel adaptations in adult females during pregnancy. Developmental Dynamics 246:700-712, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cytokeratins 8 and 19 in the Mouse Placental Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Yoshitaka; Ishikawa, Tomo-o; Bösl, Michael R.; Mori, Masahiko; Nozaki, Masami; Baribault, Heléne; Oshima, Robert G.; Taketo, Makoto M.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the expression and biological roles of cytokeratin 19 (K19) in development and in adult tissues, we inactivated the mouse K19 gene (Krt1-19) by inserting a bacterial β-galactosidase gene (lacZ) by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, and established germ line mutant mice. Both heterozygous and homozygous mutant mice were viable, fertile, and appeared normal. By 7.5–8.0 days post coitum (dpc), heterozygous mutant embryos expressed lacZ in the notochordal plate and hindgut diverticulum, reflecting the fact that the notochord and the gut endoderm are derived from the axial mesoderm-originated cells. In the adult mutant, lacZ was expressed mainly in epithelial tissues. To investigate the possible functional cooperation and synergy between K19 and K8, we then constructed compound homozygous mutants, whose embryos died ∼10 dpc. The lethality resulted from defects in the placenta where both K19 and K8 are normally expressed. As early as 9.5 dpc, the compound mutant placenta had an excessive number of giant trophoblasts, but lacked proper labyrinthine trophoblast or spongiotrophoblast development, which apparently caused flooding of the maternal blood into the embryonic placenta. These results indicate that K19 and K8 cooperate in ensuring the normal development of placental tissues. PMID:11062258

  13. [Placental epigenetic programming in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanello, Paola; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo; Krause, Bernardo J

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a perinatal condition affecting foetal growth, with under the 10th percentile of the weight curve expected for gestational age. This condition has been associated with higher cardiovascular and metabolic risk and post-natal obesity. There are also major changes in placental function, and particularly in a key molecule in this regulation, nitric oxide. The synthesis of nitric oxide has numerous control mechanisms and competition with arginase for their common substrate, the amino acid L-arginine. This competition is reflected in various vascular diseases and particularly in the endothelium of the umbilical vessels of babies with IUGR. Along with this, there is regulation at the epigenetic level, where methylation in specific regions of some gene promoters, such as the nitric oxide synthase, regulating their expression. It is currently of great interest to understand the mechanisms by which diseases such as IUGR may be conditioned, particularly by maternal nutritional and metabolic conditions, and epigenetic mechanisms that could eventually be modifiable, and thus a focus of interest for health interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. RNA-seq analysis of the rat placentation site reveals maternal obesity-associated changes in placental and offspring thyroid hormone signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction In animal models, maternal obesity (OB) leads to augmented risk of offspring OB. While placental function is influenced by maternal habitus, the effect of maternal obesity on the interacting zones of the placenta [the labyrinth (LZ), junctional (JZ) and metrial gland (MG)] remains unkno...

  15. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  16. Increased prevalence of major congenital anomalies in births with placental abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Outi; Metsäranta, Marjo; Ritvanen, Annukka; Gissler, Mika; Luukkaala, Tiina; Paavonen, Jorma; Nuutila, Mika; Andersson, Sture; Tikkanen, Minna

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between major congenital anomalies and placental abruption. A register-based retrospective case-control study was carried out from 1987 to 2005. Data on baseline characteristics and birth outcomes were collected from three Finnish national health registers: the Medical Birth Register, National Hospital Discharge Register, and Register of Congenital Malformations. The study population consisted of 4,190 women with singleton birth and placental abruption. Three control women without placental abruption were selected for each case, matched by maternal age, parity, year of birth, and hospital district. The main outcome measure of the study was a major congenital anomaly associated with placental abruption. In total, 261 (prevalence 623/10,000) births with placental abruption and 415 (prevalence 330/10,000) control births had major congenital anomalies (odds ratio [OR] 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.52). The association was strongest among births with growth restriction and prematurity. Adjusted analysis revealed a significant association with central nervous system anomalies (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.29-4.23), anomalies of the eyes and ears (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.08-3.09), cardiovascular anomalies (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.34-2.37), respiratory anomalies (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.56-7.90), gastrointestinal anomalies (OR 3.81, 95% CI 2.27-6.41), genitourinary anomalies (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.73- 3.74), musculoskeletal anomalies (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.24-2.24), and anomalies of integument (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.20-8.98) in births complicated by placental abruption. Major congenital anomalies are twice as common among neonates born from pregnancies complicated by placental abruption compared with control pregnancies without abruption. This observation applies to several organ systems. II.

  17. A web-database of mammalian morphology and a reanalysis of placental phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent publications concerning the interordinal phylogeny of placental mammals have converged on a common signal, consisting of four major radiations with some ambiguity regarding the placental root. The DNA data with which these relationships have been reconstructed are easily accessible from public databases; access to morphological characters is much more difficult. Here, I present a graphical web-database of morphological characters focusing on placental mammals, in tandem with a combined-data phylogenetic analysis of placental mammal phylogeny. Results The results reinforce the growing consensus regarding the extant placental mammal clades of Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Euarchontoglires, and Laurasiatheria. Unweighted parsimony applied to all DNA sequences and insertion-deletion (indel) characters of extant taxa alone support a placental root at murid rodents; combined with morphology this shifts to Afrotheria. Bayesian analyses of morphology, indels, and DNA support both a basal position for Afrotheria and the position of Cretaceous eutherians outside of crown Placentalia. Depending on treatment of third codon positions, the affinity of several fossils (Leptictis,Paleoparadoxia, Plesiorycteropus and Zalambdalestes) vary, highlighting the potential effect of sequence data on fossils for which such data are missing. Conclusion The combined dataset supports the location of the placental mammal root at Afrotheria or Xenarthra, not at Erinaceus or rodents. Even a small morphological dataset can have a marked influence on the location of the root in a combined-data analysis. Additional morphological data are desirable to better reconstruct the position of several fossil taxa; and the graphic-rich, web-based morphology data matrix presented here will make it easier to incorporate more taxa into a larger data matrix. PMID:17608930

  18. 3D power Doppler ultrasound assessment of placental perfusion during uterine contraction in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miki; Noguchi, Junko; Mashima, Masato; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Hata, Toshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    To assess placental perfusion during spontaneous or induced uterine contraction in labor at term using placental vascular sonobiopsy (PVS) by 3D power Doppler ultrasound with the VOCAL imaging analysis program. PVS was performed in 50 normal pregnancies (32 in spontaneous labor group [SLG], and 18 in induced labor group with oxytocin or prostaglandin F2α [ILG]) at 37-41 weeks of gestation to assess placental perfusion during uterine contraction in labor. Only pregnancies with an entirely visualized anterior placenta were included in the study. Data acquisition was performed before, during (at the peak of contraction), and after uterine contraction. 3D power Doppler indices such as the vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI) were calculated in each placenta. There were no abnormal fetal heart rate tracings during contraction in either group. VI and VFI values were significantly reduced during uterine contraction in both groups (SLG, -33.4% [-97.0-15.2%], and ILG, -49.6% [-78.2--4.0%]), respectively (P reduction in placental perfusion. Reduced placental blood flow in induced uterine contraction has a tendency to be marked compared with that in spontaneous uterine contraction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the non-invasive assessment of placental perfusion during uterine contraction in labor using 3D power Doppler ultrasound. However, the data and their interpretation in the present study should be taken with some degree of caution because of the small number of subjects studied. Further studies involving a larger sample size are needed to assess placental perfusion and vascularity using PVS during normal and abnormal uterine contractions in normal and high-risk pregnancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New imaging markers for preconceptional and first-trimester utero-placental vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, I F; Mulders, A G M G J; Koster, M P H; Koning, A H J; Frudiger, A; Willemsen, S P; Jauniaux, E; Burton, G J; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Steegers, E A P

    2018-01-01

    The availability of imaging makers of early placental circulation development is limited. This study aims to develop a feasible and reliable method to assess preconceptional and early first-trimester utero-placental vascular volumes using three-dimensional power Doppler (3D PD) ultrasound on two different Virtual Reality (VR) systems. 3D PD ultrasound images of the uterine and placental vasculature were obtained in 35 women, either preconceptionally (n = 5), or during pregnancy at 7 (n = 10), 9 (n = 10) or 11 (n = 10) weeks of gestation. Preconceptional uterine vascular volume (UVV), first-trimester placental vascular volume (PVV) and embryonic vascular volume (EVV) were measured by two observers on two VR systems, i.e., a Barco I-Space and VR desktop. Intra- and inter-observer agreement and intersystem agreement were assessed by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and absolute and relative differences. Uterine-, embryonic- and placental vascular volume measurements showed good to excellent intra- and inter-observer agreement and inter-system reproducibility with most ICC above 0.80 and relative differences of less than 20% preconceptionally and almost throughout the entire gestational age range. Inter-observer agreement of PVV at 11 weeks gestation was suboptimal (ICC 0.69, relative difference 50.1%). Preconceptional and first-trimester 3D PD ultrasound utero-placental and embryonic vascular volume measurements using VR are feasible and reliable. Longitudinal cohort studies with repeated measurements are needed to further validate this and assess their value as new imaging markers for placental vascular development and ultimately for the prediction of placenta-related pregnancy complications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel expression of EGFL7 in placental trophoblast and endothelial cells and its implication in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Lauretta A; Massimiani, Micol; Sones, Jenny L; Hurtado, Romulo; Salvi, Silvia; Ferrazzani, Sergio; Davisson, Robin L; Campagnolo, Luisa; Stuhlmann, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    The mammalian placenta is the site of nutrient and gas exchange between the mother and fetus, and is comprised of two principal cell types, trophoblasts and endothelial cells. Proper placental development requires invasion and differentiation of trophoblast cells, together with coordinated fetal vasculogenesis and maternal vascular remodeling. Disruption in these processes can result in placental pathologies such as preeclampsia (PE), a disease characterized by late gestational hypertension and proteinuria. Epidermal Growth Factor Like Domain 7 (EGFL7) is a largely endothelial-restricted secreted factor that is critical for embryonic vascular development, and functions by modulating the Notch signaling pathway. However, the role of EGFL7 in placental development remains unknown. In this study, we use mouse models and human placentas to begin to understand the role of EGFL7 during normal and pathological placentation. We show that Egfl7 is expressed by the endothelium of both the maternal and fetal vasculature throughout placental development. Importantly, we uncovered a previously unknown site of EGFL7 expression in the trophoblast cell lineage, including the trophectoderm, trophoblast stem cells, and placental trophoblasts. Our results demonstrate significantly reduced Egfl7 expression in human PE placentas, concurrent with a downregulation of Notch target genes. Moreover, using the BPH/5 mouse model of PE, we show that the downregulation of Egfl7 in compromised placentas occurs prior to the onset of characteristic maternal signs of PE. Together, our results implicate Egfl7 as a possible factor in normal placental development and in the etiology of PE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Placental Microbiota Is Altered among Subjects with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Mao, Lili; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has significant implications for the future health of the mother and child. However, the associations between human placental microbiota and GDM are poorly understood. We aimed to profile the placental microbiota of GDM and further define whether or not certain placental microbiota taxon correlates with specific clinical characteristics. Placenta were collected from GDM women and women with normal pregnancies (n = 10, in each group) consecutively recruited at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The anthropometric parameters of mother and infant, and cord blood hormones, including insulin, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured. Bacterial genomic DNA was isolated using magnetic beads and the human placental microbiota was analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq Sequencing System based on the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. It showed there was no statistical difference in the clinical characteristics of mothers and infants, such as BMI at the beginning of pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG), birth weight, and cord blood hormones, including insulin, leptin and IGF-1. We found that the placental microbiota is composed of four dominant phyla from Proteobacteria (the most abundant), Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, with the proportion of Proteobacteria increased, and Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were decreased of women with GDM. Further analyses suggested that bacterial taxonomic composition of placentas from the phylum level down to the bacteria level, differed significantly between women with GDM and non-GDM women with normal pregnancies. Regression analysis showed a cluster of key operational taxonomic units (OTUs), phyla and genera were significantly correlated with GWG during pregnancy of mothers, and cord blood insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations. In conclusion, our novel study showed that a distinct placental microbiota profile is present in GDM, and is associated

  2. Maternal peripheral blood level of IL-10 as a marker for inflammatory placental malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutabingwa Theonest K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental malaria (PM is an important cause of maternal and foetal mortality in tropical areas, and severe sequelae and mortality are related to inflammation in the placenta. Diagnosis is difficult because PM is often asymptomatic, peripheral blood smear examination detects parasitemia as few as half of PM cases, and no peripheral markers have been validated for placental inflammation. Methods In a cohort of Tanzanian parturients, PM was determined by placental blood smears and placental inflammation was assessed by histology and TNF mRNA levels. Maternal peripheral blood levels of several immune mediators previously implicated in PM pathogenesis, as well as ferritin and leptin were measured. The relationship between the levels of these soluble factors to PM and placental inflammation was examined. Results Peripheral levels of TNF, TNF-RI, TNF-RII, IL-1, IL-10, and ferritin were elevated during PM, whereas levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 were unchanged and levels of leptin were decreased. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, IL-10 had the greatest area under the curve, and would provide a sensitivity of 60% with a false positive rate of 10%. At a cut off level of 15 pg/mL, IL-10 would detect PM with a sensitivity of 79.5% and a specificity of 84.3%. IL-10 levels correlated with placental inflammatory cells and placental TNF mRNA levels in first time mothers. Conclusion These data suggest that IL-10 may have utility as a biomarker for inflammatory PM in research studies, but that additional biomarkers may be required to improve clinical diagnosis and management of malaria during pregnancy.

  3. Altered placental DNA methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccani, Jennifer Zj; Maccani, Matthew A

    2015-05-07

    The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that adverse early life exposures can have lasting, detrimental effects on lifelong health. Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with morbidity and mortality in offspring, including increased risks for miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, asthma, obesity, altered neurobehavior, and other conditions. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy interferes with placental growth and functioning, and it has been proposed that this may occur through the disruption of normal and necessary placental epigenetic patterns. Epigenome-wide association studies have identified a number of differentially methylated placental genes that are associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy, including RUNX3, PURA, GTF2H2, GCA, GPR135, and HKR1. The placental methylation status of RUNX3 and NR3C1 has also been linked to adverse infant outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight, respectively. Candidate gene analyses have also found maternal smoking-associated placental methylation differences in the NR3C1, CYP1A1, HTR2A, and HSD11B2 genes, as well as in the repetitive elements LINE-1 and AluYb8. The differential methylation patterns of several genes have been confirmed to also exhibit altered gene expression patterns, including CYP1A1, CYP19A1, NR3C1, and HTR2A. Placental methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy may be largely gene-specific and tissue-specific and, to a lesser degree, involve global changes. It is important for future research to investigate the mechanistic roles that these differentially methylated genes may play in mediating the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and disease in later life, as well as to elucidate the potential influence of emerging tobacco product use during pregnancy, including the use of electronic cigarettes, on placental epigenetics.

  4. Placental size is associated with mental health in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khalife

    Full Text Available The role of the placenta in fetal programming has been recognized as a highly significant, yet often neglected area of study. We investigated placental size in relation to psychopathology, in particular attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms, in children at 8 years of age, and later as adolescents at 16 years.Prospective data were obtained from The Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC 1986. Placental weight, surface area and birth weight were measured according to standard procedures, within 30 minutes after birth. ADHD symptoms, probable psychiatric disturbance, antisocial disorder and neurotic disorder were assessed at 8 years (n = 8101, and ADHD symptoms were assessed again at 16 years (n = 6607, by teachers and parents respectively. We used logistic regression analyses to investigate the association between placental size and mental health outcomes, and controlled for gestational age, birth weight, socio-demographic factors and medical factors, during gestation. There were significant positive associations between placental size (weight, surface area and placental-to-birth-weight ratio and mental health problems in boys at 8 and 16 years of age. Increased placental weight was linked with overall probable psychiatric disturbance (at 8 y, OR= 1.14 [95% CI= 1.04-1.25], antisocial behavior (at 8 y, OR = 1.14 [95% CI= 1.03-1.27] and ADHD symptoms (inattention-hyperactivity at 16 y, OR= 1.19 [95% CI = 1.02-1.38]. No significant associations were detected among girls.Compensatory placental growth may occur in response to prenatal insults. Such overgrowth may affect fetal development, including brain development, and ultimately contribute to psychopathology.

  5. Effect of nicotine on placental ischemia-induced complement activation and hypertension in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laule, Connor F; Wing, Cameron R; Odean, Evan J; Wilcox, Jacob A; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Regal, Jean F

    2017-12-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition manifested by new-onset maternal hypertension with systemic inflammation, including increased innate immune system complement activation. While exact pathophysiology is unknown, evidence suggests that inadequate spiral artery invasion and resulting utero-placental insufficiency is the initiating event. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy decreases the risk of preeclampsia. Nicotine, a major component of cigarettes, stimulates the efferent cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway through peripherally expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and is known to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury in kidney and liver. Prior studies indicated that complement activation was critical for placental ischemia-induced hypertension in a rat model. Thus, it was hypothesized here that nicotine was responsible for the protective effect of cigarette smoking in preeclampsia and would attenuate placental ischemia-induced systemic complement activation and hypertension. The Reduced Utero-placental Perfusion Pressure (RUPP) model in the pregnant rat was employed to induce placental ischemia, resulting in complement activation, fetal resorptions, and hypertension. On gestation day (GD)14, nicotine (1 mg/kg) or saline was administered via subcutaneous injection prior to RUPP surgery and daily through GD18. On GD19, placental ischemia significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in saline injected animals. However, the placental ischemia-induced increase in blood pressure was not evident in nicotine-treated animals and nicotine treatment significantly increased MAP variability. Circulating C3a was measured as an indicator of complement activation and increased C3a in RUPP compared to Sham persisted with nicotine treatment, as did fetal resorptions. These data suggested to us that nicotine may contribute to the decreased risk of preeclampsia with cigarette smoking, but this protective effect was confounded by additional

  6. A web-database of mammalian morphology and a reanalysis of placental phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent publications concerning the interordinal phylogeny of placental mammals have converged on a common signal, consisting of four major radiations with some ambiguity regarding the placental root. The DNA data with which these relationships have been reconstructed are easily accessible from public databases; access to morphological characters is much more difficult. Here, I present a graphical web-database of morphological characters focusing on placental mammals, in tandem with a combined-data phylogenetic analysis of placental mammal phylogeny. Results The results reinforce the growing consensus regarding the extant placental mammal clades of Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Euarchontoglires, and Laurasiatheria. Unweighted parsimony applied to all DNA sequences and insertion-deletion (indel characters of extant taxa alone support a placental root at murid rodents; combined with morphology this shifts to Afrotheria. Bayesian analyses of morphology, indels, and DNA support both a basal position for Afrotheria and the position of Cretaceous eutherians outside of crown Placentalia. Depending on treatment of third codon positions, the affinity of several fossils (Leptictis,Paleoparadoxia, Plesiorycteropus and Zalambdalestes vary, highlighting the potential effect of sequence data on fossils for which such data are missing. Conclusion The combined dataset supports the location of the placental mammal root at Afrotheria or Xenarthra, not at Erinaceus or rodents. Even a small morphological dataset can have a marked influence on the location of the root in a combined-data analysis. Additional morphological data are desirable to better reconstruct the position of several fossil taxa; and the graphic-rich, web-based morphology data matrix presented here will make it easier to incorporate more taxa into a larger data matrix.

  7. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  8. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  9. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-01-01

    ...) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV...

  10. Virome of US bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Yugo, Danielle M; Phan, Tung Gia; Deng, Xutao; Kanevsky, Isis; Opriessnig, Tanja; Woolums, Amelia R; Hurley, David J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Delwart, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Using viral metagenomics we analyzed four bovine serum pools assembled from 715 calves in the United States. Two parvoviruses, bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) and a previously uncharacterized parvovirus designated as bosavirus (BosaV), were detected in 3 and 4 pools respectively and their complete coding sequences generated. Based on NS1 protein identity, bosavirus qualifies as a member of a new species in the copiparvovirus genus. Also detected were low number of reads matching ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, bovine hepacivirus, and several papillomaviruses. This study further characterizes the diversity of viruses in calf serum with the potential to infect fetuses and through fetal bovine serum contaminate cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Strain elastography in placental dysfunction: placental elasticity differences in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies in the second trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimsit, Canan; Yoldemir, Tevfik; Akpinar, Ihsan Nuri

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if the Strain elastography (SE) of the placenta measured in the second trimester differs between normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE). 219 singleton pregnancies who had routine anomaly scanning between the 20th and 23rd weeks of gestation were included in this observational study. Women with either posterior placentations (n = 63) or other obstetric pathologies (n = 12) were excluded from the study, leaving 144 pregnant women for the evaluation of strain ratio with SE. One hundred and one women with normal pregnancies and normal deliveries without any perinatal complications formed Group A. Twenty-eight patients who were clinically diagnosed with early onset PE before anomaly scanning formed Group B. Fifteen normotensive pregnant women with either mild proteinuria, and past history of preeclampsia during their previous pregnancies formed Group C. The strain ratios were compared between the groups. The strain ratio of Group B was significantly higher than those of Group A and Group C (p elasticity ratios measured by SE imaging during the second trimester differ between the normal pregnancies and the pregnancies complicated by PE. SE might be used as a supplement tool in addition to the existing methods for the prediction of PE.

  12. Metabolism and Calcification of Bovine Tooth Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    高木, 亨; 田上, 順次; 中村, 聡; Tohru, Takagi; Junji, TAGAMI; Satoshi, Nakamura; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 生化学講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 歯科保存学第1講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 医用器材研究所; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Institute of Medical and Dental Engineering, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mineralization mechanism in developing enamel using pH staining. Unerupted bovine teeth were used for the expriment. The activity of a proteolytic enzyme was evaluated against enamel protein obtainedfrom bovine enamel. Crystals in developing enamel, which were classlfied into neutral zone 1 and 2, acid zone 1 and 2, were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and power X-ray diffractometry. Proteolytic enzyme showed the hig...

  13. Interactions between bovine cornea proteoglycans and collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Speziale, P.; Bardoni, A; Balduini, C.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of proteoglycan subunits were obtained from bovine cornea, the first mainly composed of proteochondroitin sulphate and the second of proteokeratan sulphate. These two fractions can be obtained from the tissue as an aggregate, and are able to recombine each other after separation, to re-form the original structure. In order to investigate collagen-proteoglycan interactions, type-I collagen was isolated from bovine cornea by pepsin digestion followed by 3.5% (w/v) NaCl precipitation, ...

  14. Placental vascular dysfunction in diabetic pregnancies: intimations of fetal cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Lopa

    2011-05-01

    In the human placenta, the angioarchitecture of fetal vessels lying in maternal blood is useful for nutrient uptake, but it makes the synthesis, maturation and functioning of placental vessels vulnerable to any alterations in the fetal and maternal environment. This review discusses how the maternal diabetic milieu, and the resultant fetal hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, may act together to produce an altered placental vascular phenotype, which includes increased angiogenesis, altered junctional maturity, increased vascular endothelial-like growth factor (VEGF), altered VEGF and insulin receptor profiles, and upregulation of genes involved in signal transduction, transcription and mitosis in placental endothelial cells. The placental vascular dysfunction does extend to other fetal vascular beds including endothelial cells from umbilical vessels, where there are reports of elevated basal iNOS activity and altered sensitivity to insulin. There is emerging evidence of epigenetic modulation of fetal endothelial genes in diabetes and long-term vascular consequences of this. Thus, placental vascular dysfunction in diabetes may be contributing to and describing disturbances in the fetal vasculature, which may produce an overt pathological response in later life if challenged with additional cardiovascular stresses. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  16. Effect of Maternal Obesity on Fetal Growth and Expression of Placental Fatty Acid Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kui; Li, Li; Zhang, Dan; Li, Yi; Wang, Hai Qing; Lai, Han Lin; Hu, Chuan Lai

    2017-12-15

    To explore the effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity on fetal growth and the expression of placental nutrient transporters. Maternal obesity was established in rats by 8 weeks of pre-pregnancy fed HF diet, while rats in the control group were fed normal (CON) diet. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats and diet-induced obesity-resistant (DIR) rats were selected according to body weight gain over this period. After copulation, the CON rats were divided into two groups: switched to HF diet (CON-HF group) or maintained on the CON diet (CON-CON group). The DIO rats and DIR rats were maintained on the HF diet throughout pregnancy. Pregnant rats were euthanized at day 21 gestation, fetal and placental weights were recorded, and placental tissue was collected. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine mRNA expression of placental nutrient transporters. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Average fetal weight of DIO dams was reduced by 6.9%, and the placentas of CON-HF and DIO dams were significantly heavier than the placentas of CON-CON and DIR dams at day 21 of gestation (pobesity induced by a HF diet led to intrauterine growth retardation and down-regulated the expression of placental fatty acid transporters.

  17. Short-Term Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Influences on Placental Vascularization Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettfleisch, Karen; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein; Carvalho, Mariana Azevedo; Pastro, Luciana Duzolina Manfré; Vieira, Sandra Elisabete; Saldiva, Silvia R D M; Saldiva, Paulo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira

    2017-04-01

    It has been widely demonstrated that air pollution can affect human health and that certain pollutant gases lead to adverse obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. We evaluated the influence of individual maternal exposure to air pollution on placental volume and vascularization evaluated in the first trimester of pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study on low-risk pregnant women living in São Paulo, Brazil. The women carried passive personal NO2 and O3 monitors in the week preceding evaluation. We employed the virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) technique using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound to evaluate placental volume and placental vascular indexes [vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI)]. We analyzed the influence of pollutant levels on log-transformed placental vascularization and volume using multiple regression models. We evaluated 229 patients. Increased NO2 levels had a significant negative association with log of VI (p = 0.020 and beta = -0.153) and VFI (p = 0.024 and beta = -0.151). NO2 and O3 had no influence on the log of placental volume or FI. NO2, an estimator of primary air pollutants, was significantly associated with diminished VI and VFI in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  18. Fetal, maternal, and placental sources of serotonin and new implications for developmental programming of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, A; Levitt, P

    2011-12-01

    In addition to its role in neurotransmission, embryonic serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in the regulation of neurodevelopmental processes. For example, we recently showed that a subset of 5-HT1-receptors expressed in the fetal forebrain mediate a serotonergic modulation of thalamocortical axons response to axon guidance cues, both in vitro and in vivo. This influence of 5-HT signaling on fetal brain wiring raised important questions regarding the source of the ligand during pregnancy. Until recently, it was thought that 5-HT sources impacting brain development arose from maternal transport to the fetus, or from raphe neurons in the brainstem of the fetus. Using genetic mouse models, we uncovered previously unknown differences in 5-HT accumulation between the fore- and hindbrain during early and late fetal stages, through an exogenous source of 5-HT. Using additional genetic strategies, a new technology for studying placental biology ex vivo, and direct manipulation of placental neosynthesis, we investigated the nature of this exogenous source and uncovered a placental 5-HT synthetic pathway from a maternal tryptophan precursor, in both mice and humans. These results implicate a new, direct role for placental metabolic pathways in modulating fetal brain development and suggest an important role for maternal-placental-fetal interactions and 5-HT in the fetal programming of adult mental disorders. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Retroelement demethylation associated with abnormal placentation in Mus musculus x Mus caroli hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith D; Piccuillo, Vanessa; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2012-03-01

    The proper functioning of the placenta requires specific patterns of methylation and the appropriate regulation of retroelements, some of which have been co-opted by the genome for placental-specific gene expression. Our inquiry was initiated to determine the causes of the placental defects observed in crosses between two species of mouse, Mus musculus and Mus caroli. M. musculus × M. caroli fetuses are rarely carried to term, possibly as a result of genomic incompatibility in the placenta. Taking into account that placental dysplasia is observed in Peromyscus and other Mus hybrids, and that endogenous retroviruses are expressed in the placental transcriptome, we hypothesized that these placental defects could result, in part, from failure of the genome defense mechanism, DNA methylation, to regulate the expression of retroelements. Hybrid M. musculus × M. caroli embryos were produced by artificial insemination, and dysplastic placentas were subjected to microarray and methylation screens. Aberrant overexpression of an X-linked Mus retroelement in these hybrid placentas is consistent with local demethylation of this retroelement, concomitant with genome instability, disruption of gene regulatory pathways, and dysgenesis. We propose that the placenta is a specific site of control that is disrupted by demethylation and retroelement activation in interspecific hybridization that occur as a result of species incompatibility of methylation machinery. To our knowledge, the present data provide the first report of retroelement activation linked to decreased methylation in a eutherian hybrid system.

  20. Placental hormones and the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbern, Dorothee; Freemark, Michael

    2011-12-01

    To examine the roles of the placental and pituitary hormones in the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth. In addition to promoting growth of maternal tissues, placental growth hormone (GH-V) induces maternal insulin resistance and thereby facilitates the mobilization of maternal nutrients for fetal growth. Human placental lactogen (hPL) and prolactin increase maternal food intake by induction of central leptin resistance and promote maternal beta-cell expansion and insulin production to defend against the development of gestational diabetes mellitus. The effects of the lactogens are mediated by diverse signaling pathways and are potentiated by glucose. Pathologic conditions of pregnancy are associated with dysregulation of GH-V and hPL gene expression. The somatogenic and lactogenic hormones of the placenta and maternal pituitary gland integrate the metabolic adaptations of pregnancy with the demands of fetal and neonatal development. Dysregulation of placental growth hormone and/or placental lactogen in pathologic conditions of pregnancy may adversely impact fetal growth and postnatal metabolic function.

  1. Case report: lethal fetal head injury and placental abruption in a pregnant trauma patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadro, Claudia T; Zins, Andrea M; Debiec, Kate; Robinson, Jeffrey

    2012-04-01

    Fetal trauma in blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon, but traumatic fetal head injury is almost universally fatal to the fetus. Placental abruption is the most common injury to the gravid uterus in trauma, and when the mother survives, it is the most common cause of fetal death. The imaging diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult since there are only three cases reported in the literature of intrauterine skull fractures on plain films [3, 8, 10], ultrasound is in sensitive in the diagnosis of placental abruption [24], and the most sensitive test to diagnose placental abruption is external fetal monitoring with devices that measure uterine tone and contractility and fetal heart rate [23]. The diagnosis of fetal trauma and placental abruption may be made on contrast enhanced CT performed through the abdomen and pelvis of pregnant trauma patients. For these reasons, it is useful for the radiologist interpreting the CT scan to recognize fetal head injuries and placental abruption in pregnant trauma patients.Fig. 7 Axial scans through the bony pelvis demonstrate an unstable pelvic fracture with posterior pelvic ring disruption.There is a zone 2 fracture of the left sacrum and a fracture of the left obturator ring (arrowheads)

  2. Correlation of placental microbiota with fetal macrosomia and clinical characteristics in mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Qian; Mao, Li-Li; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jian-Ping; Wang, Tong

    2017-10-10

    Substantial studies indicated that fetal macrosomia was associated with detrimental pregnancy outcomes, and increased susceptibility to metabolic diseases in later life. However, investigations into the association between placental microbiota and fetal macrosomia are limited. We aimed to profile the placental microbiota of fetal macrosomia and study whether they relate to clinical characteristics. Placenta samples were collected from fetal macrosomias and newborns with normal birth weight. The clinical characteristics, umbilical cord blood parameters were measured, and placental microbiota were sequenced and further analysed. The clinical characteristics of infants and mothers and umbilical cord blood parameters were significantly different between macrosomias and controls. The relative abundance of microbiota sequences revealed that microbial structures of the placenta differed significantly between macrosomia and controls. Regression analysis showed a cluster of key operational taxonomic unit (OTUs), phyla and genera were significantly correlated with body length, ponderal index and placenta weight, body weight increase during pregnancy of mothers, and cord blood IGF-1 and leptin concentrations. In conclusion, our study for the first time explored the relationship between placental microbiota profile and fetal macrosomia. It is novel in showing that a distinct placental microbiota profile is present in fetal macrosomia, and is associated with clinical characteristics of mothers and newborns.

  3. Excess LIGHT contributes to placental impairment, increased secretion of vasoactive factors, hypertension, and proteinuria in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Parchim, Nicholas F; Iriyama, Takayuki; Luo, Renna; Zhao, Cheng; Liu, Chen; Irani, Roxanna A; Zhang, Weiru; Ning, Chen; Zhang, Yujin; Blackwell, Sean C; Chen, Lieping; Tao, Lijian; Hicks, M John; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2014-03-01

    Preeclampsia, a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is believed to be secondary to uteroplacental ischemia. Accumulating evidence indicates that hypoxia-independent mediators, including inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, are associated with preeclampsia, but it is unclear whether these signals directly contribute to placental damage and disease development in vivo. We report that LIGHT, a novel tumor necrosis factor superfamily member, is significantly elevated in the circulation and placentas of preeclamptic women compared with normotensive pregnant women. Injection of LIGHT into pregnant mice induced placental apoptosis, small fetuses, and key features of preeclampsia, hypertension and proteinuria. Mechanistically, using neutralizing antibodies specific for LIGHT receptors, we found that LIGHT receptors herpes virus entry mediator and lymphotoxin β receptor are required for LIGHT-induced placental impairment, small fetuses, and preeclampsia features in pregnant mice. Accordingly, we further revealed that LIGHT functions through these 2 receptors to induce secretion of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and endothelin-1, 2 well-accepted pathogenic factors in preeclampsia, and thereby plays an important role in hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant mice. Lastly, we extended our animal findings to human studies and demonstrated that activation of LIGHT receptors resulted in increased apoptosis and elevation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 secretion in human placental villous explants. Overall, our human and mouse studies show that LIGHT signaling is a previously unrecognized pathway responsible for placental apoptosis, elevated secretion of vasoactive factors, and subsequent maternal features of preeclampsia, and reveal new therapeutic opportunities for the management of the disease.

  4. A dating success story: genomes and fossils converge on placental mammal origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami Anjali

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The timing of the placental mammal radiation has been a source of contention for decades. The fossil record of mammals extends over 200 million years, but no confirmed placental mammal fossils are known prior to 64 million years ago, which is approximately 1.5 million years after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg mass extinction that saw the end of non-avian dinosaurs. Thus, it came as a great surprise when the first published molecular clock studies suggested that placental mammals originated instead far back in the Cretaceous, in some cases doubling divergence estimates based on fossils. In the last few decades, more than a hundred new genera of Mesozoic mammals have been discovered, and molecular divergence studies have grown from simple clock-like models applied to a few genes to sophisticated analyses of entire genomes. Yet, molecular and fossil-based divergence estimates for placental mammal origins have remained remote, with knock-on effects for macro-scale reconstructions of mammal evolution. A few recent molecular studies have begun to converge with fossil-based estimates, and a new phylogenomic study in particular shows that the palaeontological record was mostly correct; most placental mammal orders diversified after the K-Pg mass extinction. While a small gap still remains for Late Cretaceous supraordinal divergences, this study has significantly improved the congruence between molecular and palaeontological data and heralds a broader integration of these fields of evolutionary science.

  5. Variations of placental migration in patients with early third trimester malposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haino, Kazufumi; Ishii, Keisuke; Kanda, Masako; Kanai, Asako; Hayashi, Shusaku; Mitsuda, Nobuaki

    2017-04-27

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of placental migration on the definitive prepartum diagnosis of patients with placenta previa (PP) and low-lying placenta (LLP) after late preterm. This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with PP and LLP diagnosed at 30-33 weeks of gestation. We assessed the rate of changes in transvaginal ultrasonographic measurements of placental position during the period from 34 to 38 weeks of gestation. A total of 127 cases (82 of PP, 45 of LLP) were included. The PP group comprised 34 cases with complete PP and 48 with partial and marginal PP. The diagnosis of complete PP was changed to partial or marginal PP in two (5.9%) cases. Concerning cases with partial and marginal PP, 14 (29.2%) were eventually revised to LLP and four (8.3%) ultimately normalized. Among the patients with LLP, placental position was normalized in 23 (51.1%). Overall, a revision in diagnosis after late preterm was required in 48 cases (37.8%). Among the 93 patients who did not have complete PP, 46 (49.5%) needed revisions of their placental diagnosis. Repeated evaluations of placental position by ultrasonography after late preterm could be of significant value in selecting the most appropriate mode of delivery.

  6. Early transcriptional responses of bovine chorioallantoic membrane explants to wild type, ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P S Mol

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308, ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; P<0.05 were functionally classified, and transcripts related to defense and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Infection with wild type B. abortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ΔvirB2 or the ΔbtpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ΔvirB and ΔbtpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion.

  7. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antenatal embolization of a large placental chorioangioma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babic Inas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A chorioangioma is the most common benign tumor of the placenta. The majority of pregnancies with chorioangiomas are asymptomatic. Pregnancies with large chorioangiomas are associated with maternal and fetal complications, such as growth restriction, cardiomegaly, congestive heart failure, fetal anemia, thrombocytopenia, nonimmune hydrops and intrauterine fetal death. There are several modalities of treatment published to date with various results. Our case was the third such case report published on the successful treatment with antenatal embolization of the feeding vessel of the chorioangioma. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no published cases about antenatal treatment of placental chorioangiomas in Saudi Arabia, or any other Gulf state. Case presentation We describe the case of a 28-year-old Arab woman diagnosed at 22 weeks of gestation with a chorioangioma. A glue material - enbucrilate (Histoacryl - was used for embolization of the feeding vessel. Intrauterine fetal blood transfusions were performed twice, as a treatment for fetal anemia. The fetus developed heart failure at 30 weeks of gestation. A Cesarean section was performed and the outcome was a live baby with right ventricular hypertrophy. The baby was admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit and discharged at 42 days following birth in a stable condition,with follow-up with our cardiology team. Conclusion In this case, we found that intrauterine embolization of the feeding vessel of a chorioangioma with Histoacryl was a valid treatment option that carried a small risk considering the good pregnancy outcome.

  9. Rising maternal circulating GH during murine pregnancy suggests placental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L Gatford

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Placenta-derived hormones including growth hormone (GH in humans contribute to maternal adaptation to pregnancy, and intermittent maternal GH administration increases foetal growth in several species. Both patterns and abundance of circulating GH are important for its activity, but their changes during pregnancy have only been reported in humans and rats. The aim of the present study was to characterise circulating profiles and secretory characteristics of GH in non-pregnant female mice and throughout murine pregnancy. Circulating GH concentrations were measured in whole blood (2 μL collected every 10 min for 6 h in non-pregnant diestrus female C57Bl/6J mice (n = 9, and pregnant females at day 8.5–9.5 (early pregnancy, n = 8, day 12.5–13.5 (mid-pregnancy, n = 7 and day 17.5 after mating (late pregnancy, n = 7. Kinetics and secretory patterns of GH secretion were determined by deconvolution analysis, while orderliness and regularity of serial GH concentrations were calculated by approximate entropy analysis. Circulating GH was pulsatile in all groups. Mean circulating GH and total and basal GH secretion rates increased markedly from early to mid-pregnancy, and then remained elevated. Pulse frequency and pulsatile GH secretion rate were similar between groups. The irregularity of GH pulses was higher in all pregnant groups than that in non-pregnant mice. Increased circulating GH in murine pregnancy is consistent with an important role for this hormone in maternal adaptation to pregnancy and placental development. The timing of increased basal secretion from mid-pregnancy, concurrent with the formation of the chorioallantoic placenta and initiation of maternal blood flow through it, suggests regulation of pituitary secretion by placenta-derived factors.

  10. Effect of placental function on fatty acid requirements during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggarty, P

    2004-12-01

    The fetus has an absolute requirement for the n-3/n-6 fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) in particular is essential for the development of the brain and retina. Most of the fat deposition in the fetus occurs in the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. The likely rate of DHA utilisation during late pregnancy cannot be met from dietary sources alone in a significant proportion of mothers. De novo synthesis makes up some of the shortfall but the available evidence suggests that the maternal adipose tissue makes a significant contribution to placental transport to the fetus. The placenta plays a crucial role in mobilising the maternal adipose tissue and actively concentrating and channelling the important n-3/n-6 fatty acids to the fetus via multiple mechanisms including selective uptake by the syncytiotrophoblast, intracellular metabolic channelling, and selective export to the fetal circulation. These mechanisms protect the fetus against low long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intakes in the last trimester of pregnancy and have the effect of reducing the maternal dietary requirement for preformed DHA at this time. As a result of these adaptations, small changes in the composition of the habitual maternal diet before pregnancy are likely to be more effective in improving LCPUFA delivery to the fetus than large dietary changes in late pregnancy. There is little evidence that DHA intake/status in the second half of pregnancy affects visual and cognitive function in the offspring, but more studies are needed, particularly in children born to vegetarian and vegan and mothers who may have very low intakes of DHA.

  11. Placental sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites is mediated by the interaction between VAR2CSA and chondroitin sulfate A on syndecan-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres Pereira, Marina; Mandel Clausen, Thomas; Pehrson, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    During placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta, causing health problems for both the mother and fetus. The specific adherence is mediated by the VAR2CSA protein, which binds to placental chondroitin sulfate (CS) on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans...... for VAR2CSA mediated placental adherence. We further show that the commonly used placental choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo, express a different set of proteoglycans than those present on placental syncytiotrophoblast and may not be the most biologically relevant model to study placental malaria. Syncytial...... fusion of the BeWo cells, triggered by forskolin treatment, caused an increased expression of placental CS-modified syndecan-1. In line with this, we show that rVAR2 binding to placental CS impairs syndecan-1-related Src signaling in forskolin treated BeWo cells, but not in untreated cells....

  12. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat-Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat-bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  13. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals. PMID:28638381

  14. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okagawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1, is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2 was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV. Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  15. Susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial cells to bovine herpesviruses and pseudocowpox virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Jongejan, F.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial (BUE) cells to bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1, BHV2, BHV4 and BHV5, and to pseudocowpox virus. the detection limits and growth curves of these viruses in BUE cells were compared with those in Vero,

  16. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all t...

  17. Placental serotonin: implications for the developmental effects of SSRIs and maternal depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Velasquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders, increasing evidence points to serotonin (5-HT as a crucial molecule for the modulation of neurodevelopmental processes. Recent evidence indicates that the placenta is involved in the synthesis of 5-HT from maternally derived tryptophan (TRP. This gives rise to the possibility that genetic and environmental perturbations directly affecting placental TRP metabolism may lead to abnormal brain circuit wiring in the developing embryo, and therefore contribute to the developmental origin of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we discuss how perturbations of the placental TRP metabolic pathway may lead to abnormal brain development and function throughout life. Of particular interest is prenatal exposure to maternal depression and antidepressants, both known to alter fetal development. We review existing evidence on how antidepressants can alter placental physiology in its key function of maintaining fetal homeostasis and have long-term effects on fetal forebrain development.

  18. Placental Component and Pregnancy Outcome in Singleton versus Twin Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Eran; Feldstein, Ohad; Schreiber, Letizia; Grinstein, Ehud; Barber, Elad; Dekalo, Ann; Bar, Jacob; Kovo, Michal

    2017-09-13

    To compare placental histopathological lesions and pregnancy outcomes in singleton and twin pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE). Maternal characteristics, neonatal outcomes, and placental histopathology reports of pregnancies complicated by PE between January 2008 and October 2016 were reviewed. Results were compared between singletons (singleton group) and dichorionic-diamniotic twins (twin group). Placental lesions were classified into maternal and fetal vascular supply lesions. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as birth weight ≤10th percentile. Composite adverse neonatal outcome was defined as one or more early neonatal complications. Compared to the twin group (n = 67), the singleton group (n = 275) was characterized by lower maternal age (p = 0.003), higher gestational age (p pregnancies complicated by PE were characterized by higher rates of maternal and fetal vascular lesions compared to those from twin pregnancies, suggesting that different mechanisms participate in the development of PE in these two groups. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Placentation and fetal membrane development in the South American coati, Nasua nasua (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaron, Phelipe O; Morini, João C; Mess, Andrea M; Miglino, Maria A; Ambrósio, Carlos E

    2014-06-27

    Placental research in carnivores has concentrated on domestic species, which have zonary, labyrinthine placentas with an endotheliochorial barrier. Although the coati, Nasua nasua, is a widely distributed species in South America, data on the development of the placenta and the fetal membranes in this species are very sparse. Four placentas from mid-gestation to near term were collected from wild individuals and were investigated based on gross morphology, histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The available data support the concept that the ancestral condition of placentation in carnivores is phylogenetically characterized by a zonary and labyrinthine placental type with an endotheliochorial fetomaternal barrier, comprising extended epitheliochorial and haemochorial zones, such as hemophagous organs for iron supply and histiotrophe uptake and a yolk sac placenta. Because of the foundational mechanisms that lead to the considerable complexity of fetomaternal contact zones in carnivores have not been studied, carnivores are interesting animal models for interhaemal barrier differentiation.

  20. Cervical Length & Leading Placental Edge to Internal OS Measurements - TA vs TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerway, Sue Campbell; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Hyett, Jon

    Brief Description of the Purpose of the Study: To compare cervical length/leading placental edge from the internal cervical os measurements obtained by both transabdominal (TA) and transvaginal (TV) approach and to assess intra / inter-observer variation for these measurements. Methods: Cross...... sectional study of 374 consecutive pregnancies with gestation 12 weeks to term. The cervical length was estimated as the distance from internal to external os, and the placenta / cervix distance as the leading placental edge to internal cervical os. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the two methods....... Importance of the Conclusions: TA estimates of cervix and placental edge position did not reflect the estimates obtained by TV assessment. As both measures are important markers of pregnancy outcome and management, the transabdominal method in the present form is insuffi- cient in clinical management....

  1. Applications for Research Concerning Fetal or Placental Tissue and Expected Institutional Review Board Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatta, Lynn; Kaufman, David; Kelly, Judith Parsells; Babaian, David; Banks, Mary

    2017-07-01

    Proposals for research concerning fetal and/or placental tissue may be refused institutional review board (IRB) review, effectively preventing the research from occurring. We conducted an anonymous electronic survey of IRB chairs to determine their assessment of the likely response to research projects using fetal/placental tissue obtained from various procedures. We found that proposals concerning tissue obtained from diagnostic procedures or miscarriage were anticipated to be considered at most institutions. Tissue obtained after abortion was likely to be refused consideration by more than 25% of respondents. Additional consultation during review was anticipated for up to 30% of scenarios. Responses for fetal and placental tissue were similar. The most frequently anticipated reason for refusal was institutional policy.

  2. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, Mette

    1980-01-01

    concentration of hPL in serum were no lower in this group than in women without previous induced abortion. Neither was the frequency of a low 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine or low concentration of hPL in serum (values less than mean - 1.96 s) found to be increased. This study could not demonstrate......Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean...... an increased frequency of dysfunction of the feto-placental unit during the last part of pregnancy in women with previous legally induced abortion. These findings indicate that legal abortion does not seem to increase the frequency of retarded intrauterine growth in a subsequent pregnancy....

  3. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, M

    1980-01-01

    Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean concentration of hPL in serum were no lower in this group than in women without previous induced abortion. Neither was the frequency of a low 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine or low concentration of hPL in serum (values less than mean - 1.96 s) found to be increased. This study could not demonstrate an increased frequency of dysfunction of the feto-placental unit during the last part of pregnancy in women with previous legally induced abortion. These findings indicate that legal abortion does not seem to increase the frequency of retarded intrauterine growth in a subsequent pregnancy.

  4. Pregnancy outcome and placental pathology differences in term gestational diabetes with and without hypertensive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovo, Michal; Granot, Yoav; Schreiber, Letizia; Divon, Michael; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Bar, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    To compare pregnancy outcome and placental pathology in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM A1 and A2), with and without hypertensive disorders. Pregnancy outcome and placental pathology from term deliveries of women complicated with GDM with (GDM + H) and without (GDM - H) hypertensive disorders were compared. Results of the GDM + H group were compared also with the non-diabetic patients but with hypertensive disorders (non-GDM + H). Composite neonatal outcome was defined as one or more of early complications: respiratory distress or need of ventilation support, sepsis, phototherapy, transfusion, seizure, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Placental lesions were categorized to lesions related to maternal and fetal vascular supply abnormalities, and maternal and fetal inflammatory responses. Of the 192 women with GDM, the GDM + H group (n = 41) were more obese, p hypertensive disorders, similar to women without DM and with hypertensive complications.

  5. Growth restriction in gastroschisis: quantification of its severity and exploration of a placental cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Sam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastroschisis patients are commonly small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight [BW] th centile. However, the extent, symmetry and causes of that growth restriction remain controversial. Methods We compared BW, crown-heel length (LT, occipitofrontal circumference (OFC and ponderal index (PI in 179 gastroschisis cases and 895 matched controls by univariate and multiple regression. Fetal ultrasounds (N = 80 were reviewed to determine onset of growth restriction. Placental histology was examined in 31 gastroschisis patients whose placental tissue was available and in 29 controls. Results Gastroschisis cases weighed less than controls (BW = 2400 ± 502 g vs. 2750 ± 532 g, p Conclusions Marked, relatively symmetric intrauterine growth restriction is an intrinsic part of gastroschisis. It begins early in the second trimester, and is associated with placental chorangiosis.

  6. Measurement of utero-placental blood flow with /sup 113m/In in diabetic pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmler, K.; Kirsch, G.; Zoellner, P.; Fuhrmann, K.; Jutzi, E. (Zentralinstitut fuer Diabetes, Karlsburg (German Democratic Republic); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1985-01-01

    In 122 diabetic pregnancies the placental blood flow has been estimated determining the half-life of the activity inflow (2 MBq /sup 113m/In-transferrin) into the placenta. A highly sensitive detector (modified pinhole collimator) and a computer-supported evaluation were used. 259 flow measurements were compared to the risk of complication in the course of diabetic pregnancy. The half-life values in the diabetic group, calculated by a gamma camera computer system by means of an iterative regression analysis, were significantly different compared to a control group (12 pregnancies without risk.) Severe diabetic angiopathic complications (classes D, F, and R according to White) are accompanied by higher half-life values (placental blood flow reductions) and perinatal complications. Even in pregnant women with gestational diabetes of disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism disturbed placental hemodynamics is to be found.

  7. ALTERED EXPRESSION OF SURFACE RECEPTORS AT EA.HY926 ENDOTHELIAL CELL LINE INDUCED WITH PLACENTAL SECRETORY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Stepanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Placental cell populations produce a great variety of angiogenic factors and cytokines than control angiogenesis in placenta. Functional regulation of endothelial cells proceeds via modulation of endothelial cell receptors for endogenous angiogenic and apoptotic signals. Endothelial phenotype alteration during normal pregnancy and in cases of preclampsia is not well understood. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate altered expression of angiogenic and cytokine receptors at EA.hy926 endothelial cells under the influence of placental tissue supernatants. Normal placental tissue supernatants from 1st and 3rd trimesters, and pre-eclamptic placental tissue supernatants (3rd trimester stimulated angiogenic and cytokine receptors expression by the cultured endothelial cells, as compared with their background expression. Tissue supernatants from placental samples of 3rd trimester caused a decreased expression of angiogenic and cytokine receptors by endothelial cells, thus reflecting maturation of placental vascular system at these terms. Supernatants from preeclamptic placental tissue induced an increase of CD119 expression, in comparison with normal placental supernatants from the 3rd trimester. This finding suggests that IFNγ may be a factor of endothelial activation in pre-eclampsia. The study was supported by grants ГК №02.740.11.0711, НШ-3594.2010.7., and МД-150.2011.7.

  8. Placental cord insertion and birthweight discordance in twin pregnancies: results of the national prospective ESPRiT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Etaoin M; Breathnach, Fionnuala M; Gillan, John E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael P; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Carroll, Stephen; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Malone, Fergal D

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of noncentral placental cord insertion on birthweight discordance in twins. We performed a multicenter, prospective trial of twin pregnancies. Placental cord insertion was documented as central, marginal, or velamentous according to a defined protocol. Association of the placental cord insertion site with chorionicity, birthweight discordance, and growth restriction were assessed. Eight hundred sixteen twin pairs were evaluated; 165 pairs were monochorionic, and 651 pairs were dichorionic. Monochorionic twins had higher rates of marginal (P = .0068) and velamentous (P < .0001) placental cord insertion. Noncentral placental cord insertion was more frequent in smaller twins of discordant pairs than control pairs (29.8% vs 19.1%; P = .004). Velamentous placental cord insertion in monochorionic twins was associated significantly with birthweight discordance (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-9.4) and growth restriction (odds ratio, 4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-14.3). Noncentral placental cord insertion contributes to birthweight discordance in monochorionic twin pregnancies. Sonographic delineation of placental cord insertion may be of value in antenatal assessment of twin pregnancies. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonimmune immunoglobulin binding and multiple adhesion characterize Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes of placental origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, Niloofar; Namusoke, Fatuma; Chêne, Arnaud

    2006-01-01

    . A P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 variant, VAR2CSA, and the placental receptor chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) are currently the focus of PAM research. A role for immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) from normal human serum and hyaluronic acid as additional receptors in placental sequestration have...

  10. An international delphi study of the causes of death and the criteria used to assign cause of death in bovine perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, J F; Sanchez-Miguel, C; Doherty, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to elicit opinion from two groups of veterinarians [subject matter experts and non-subject matter experts] about the causes of bovine perinatal mortality and the criteria used to assign such causes. The subject matter experts were selected on the basis of their scientific publications or experience of working in a veterinary diagnostic or research laboratory in the area of bovine perinatal mortality. The non-subject matter experts were self-selected as cattle veterinarians without particular expertise in bovine perinatology. A total of 74 veterinarians (46 subject matter experts and 28 non-subject matter experts) from 23 countries responded. The study was conducted using Delphi methodology over seven rounds. Respondents were asked to agree the causes of bovine perinatal mortality and for each cause to agree the supporting diagnostic criteria. There was a close agreement between groups on 16 causes of death apart from intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) and micronutrient imbalances which were accepted by fewer subject matter experts. There was inter-group consensus on the criteria to diagnose accidents, congenital defects, dystocia, hyperthermia, infections, premature placental separation, prematurity and prolonged calving. There was inter-group consensus on the criteria to diagnose anoxia, apart from gingival cyanosis; on haemorrhage, apart from haemorrhagic anaemia; on IUGR, apart from organ weights; and on iodine imbalance, apart from goitre and thyroid iodine content. The results from this study highlighted the current lack of standardization of the criteria used to define the cause of death for bovine perinatal mortality and the need for such standardization. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. A gestational profile of placental exosomes in maternal plasma and their effects on endothelial cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salomon

    Full Text Available Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n = 20 per pregnant group were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks, second (ST, 22-24 weeks and third (TT, 32-38 weeks trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP, respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte. Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001. During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001. Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction.

  12. PP128. Placental Caspase-3 gene polymorphisms is associated with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C-D; Polavarapu, S; Parton, L

    2012-07-01

    Increased placental trophoblastic apoptosis (programmed cell death) was previously reported in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. Caspase-3 is one of the key executioners of apoptosis. Caspase are expressed in many tissues including human placental trophoblast and other tissues. Variations in the promoter area of the Caspase genes may modulate apoptotic signaling, contributing to an increased risk of preeclampsia To determine if gene polymorphisms of Caspase 3 proteins differ between patient with and without preeclampsia. Forty-three singleton placentas were studied. Twenty-two placentas were with preeclampsia and 21 were normotensive controls. DNA was extracted from placentas using QIAAmp DNA Minikit. Genotyping of Caspase 3 +567 was determined by real-time PCR using the Applied Biosystems Prism 7900 HT SDS machine. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. There were no significant differences in maternal age, parity or race between the two groups. Preeclamptic placentas had higher frequency of wild type TT of Caspase-3 SNP (+567) as compared with normotensive controls (59% versus 28.5%). Preeclamptic placentas expressed significantly more genotype of TT of Caspase-3 SNP (+567) than normotensive patients when compared to CC (p=0.02). The alle frequencies of the Caspase SNP (+567) in preeclampstic placentas were 0.77 and 0.23 for T and C, respectively, as compared to 0.52 and 0.48, respectively, in placentas from normotensive pregnancies. Immune intolerance of maternal and placental interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Increased of placental apoptosis was reported in pregnancy complicated with preeclamsia. Our findings indicate placental Caspase 3 (+567) gene polymorphisms is associated with preeclampsia. Altered placental alle frequencies and caspase-3 SNP (+567) in preeclampsia further suggests preeclampsia is a trophoblastic disorder. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Meng; Luo, Han-Wen; Kou, Hao; Wen, Yin-Xian; Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-Guo; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen; Wang, Hui

    2015-11-15

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30-120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8-20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sonographic assessment of placental migration in second trimester low lying placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Tuladhar, A; Shrestha, A; Amatya, N B; Pradhan, P

    2012-12-01

    To assess the migration of low lying placenta diagnosed in the second trimester ultrasonogram (USG). All the women attending antenatal OPD clinic had undergone routine obstetric USG in the second trimester (14 weeks onwards). Those cases who had low lying placenta lower edge of placenta within 3.0 cms from the cervical internal os were included in the study. These cases were subjected to be followed up at 4 weekly interval to repeated serial ultrasonogram by Transabdominal and/or Transvaginal USG well through 3rd trimester of pregnancy or delivery which ever was earlier. Of the total 1229 second trimester USG, 312 (25.3%) women had low lying placenta in the second trimester. Follow up of this 312 cases indicated that in 288 (92.4%) cases it had migrated to upper segment by 3rd trimester. The migration of placenta was 92.4% and 68.0 % where the distance between the leading edge of placenta and cervical internal os was more than 2.0 cm or less than 2 cm respectively. Migration was not observed in women where the distance was less than 1.5 cm. Placental migration was 94.5% in anteriorly situated placenta and 90.2% in posteriorly situated placenta. The rate of placental migration was 95.1%, 77.7%, 55.5% in women who had previous normal delivery, previous caesarean delivery and prior history of dilatation and curettage (D & C) or manual removal of placenta (MRP), respectively. The prevalence of low lying placenta in 2nd trimester is 25.3%, which reduces to 7.3% at term. The rate of placental migration was over 90.0%. Factor like initial distance between the lower edge of the placental and cervical internal os. placental position and previous birth by caesarean section influence the placental migration.

  15. Tumor placentário diagnosticado durante a gravidez: relato de caso Placental tumor diagnosed in pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mauad Filho

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O tumor não trofoblástico placentário encontrado com maior freqüência é o corioangioma, com incidência de aproximadamente 1%. Quando são pequenos, geralmente não levam a alterações fetais, mas quando são grandes, podem levar a restrição de crescimento intra-útero, poliidrâmnio, trabalho de parto prematuro, insuficiência cardíaca congestiva e morte fetal. Os autores relatam um caso de corioangioma em uma paciente de 28 anos, diagnosticado em exame ultra-sonográfico de rotina, com idade gestacional de 32 semanas. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo exame anatomopatológico. As avaliações ultra-sonográficas revelaram a presença de sofrimento fetal crônico, que levou à interrupção da gestação com 36 semanas. Os resultados neonatais foram satisfatórios, com Apgar de 9-10 e peso fetal de 2.460 gramas.The most frequently nontrophoblastic tumor of the placenta found is chorioangioma, with an incidence of about 1%. When they are small, they do not significantly affect the fetus, but the large ones can cause intrauterine growth restriction, polyhydramnios, premature delivery, congestive heart failure and fetal death. The authors report a case of chorioangioma in a 28-year-old woman, second gestation, whose diagnosis was established at the 32nd week by ultrasound and confirmed by the anatomopathological examination. Ultrasonography evaluations showed chronic fetal distress and the delivery was performed at 36 weeks. The newborn results were satisfactory with Apgar 9-10 and fetal weight 2.460 g.

  16. Placental Nano-vesicles Target to Specific Organs and Modulate Vascular Tone In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mancy; Stanley, Joanna L; Chen, Q; James, Joanna L; Stone, Peter R; Chamley, Larry W

    2017-11-01

    How do nano-vesicles extruded from normal first trimester human placentae affect maternal vascular function? Placental nano-vesicles affect the ability of systemic mesenteric arteries to undergo endothelium- and nitric oxide- (NO-) dependent vasodilation in vivo in pregnant mice. Dramatic cardiovascular adaptations occur during human pregnancy, including a substantial decrease in total peripheral resistance in the first trimester. The human placenta constantly extrudes extracellular vesicles that can enter the maternal circulation and these vesicles may play an important role in feto-maternal communication. Human placental nano-vesicles were administered into CD1 mice via a tail vein and their localization and vascular effects at 30 min and 24 h post-injection were investigated. Nano-vesicles from normal first trimester human placentae were collected and administered into pregnant (D12.5) or non-pregnant female mice. After either 30 min or 24 h of exposure, all major organs were dissected for imaging (n = 7 at each time point) while uterine and mesenteric arteries were dissected for wire myography (n = 6 at each time point). Additional in vitro studies using HMEC-1 endothelial cells were also conducted to investigate the kinetics of interaction between placental nano-vesicles and endothelial cells. Nano-vesicles from first trimester human placentae localized to the lungs, liver and kidneys 24 h after injection into pregnant mice (n = 7). Exposure of pregnant mice to placental nano-vesicles for 30 min in vivo increased the vasodilatory response of mesenteric arteries to acetylcholine, while exposure for 24 h had the opposite effect (P nano-vesicles did not affect the function of uterine arteries or mesenteric arteries from non-pregnant mice. Placental nano-vesicles rapidly interacted with endothelial cells via a combination of phagocytosis, endocytosis and cell surface binding in vitro. N/A. As it is not ethical to administer labelled placental nano-vesicles to

  17. Comparison of functional assays used in the clinical development of a placental malaria vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehrson, Caroline; Heno, Kristine Klysner; Adams, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with significant morbidity in pregnant women and their offspring. Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) express VAR2CSA that mediates binding to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) in the placenta. Two VAR2CSA-based vaccines for placental malaria...... are in clinical development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the robustness and comparability of binding inhibition assays used in the clinical development of placental malaria vaccines. METHODS: The ability of sera from animals immunised with different VAR2CSA constructs to inhibit IE binding to CSA...

  18. Implementation of a quality system (ISO 9000 series) for placental blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirchia, G; Rebulla, P; Lecchi, L; Mozzi, F; Crepaldi, R; Parravicini, A

    1998-02-01

    Although placental blood has recently become a new source of hematopoietic progenitors for marrow replacement, limited attention has been given to systems suitable to ensure the short-term and long-term quality of placental blood units used for transplantation. In this article, we describe a quality system for placental blood banking developed in accord with ISO 9002 norms at Milano Cord Blood Bank. The quality system is the organizational structure, procedures, processes, and resources needed to implement quality management. ISO 9002 is a model for quality assurance in production, installation, and servicing, which includes a number of clauses providing guidance for the implementation of the quality system. The quality system was started by the bank medical director with step 1: the general quality plan, which included (a) the written description of mission, objectives, technical and organizational policies, and staff organization chart of the placental blood bank, (b) the definition and acquisition of adequate financial, human, and structural resources, (c) the appointment of a quality system head independent from the production laboratory and reporting directly to the medical director. Tasks of the quality system head were (a) to identify the placental blood banking process together with the placental blood bank personnel, (b) to implement a documentation plan finalized at the production and maintenance of (i) the quality manual, which provides a summary on how the bank operates with a quality system in compliance with the ISO 9002 clauses, (ii) the general procedures (or quality system procedures), which provide more detail on selected clauses, including at least those prescribed by the ISO 9002 standard, (iii) the operative procedures (or process procedures), which describe in detail the process of placental blood banking and how technical activities must be performed, (iv) the work instructions, which provide stepwise descriptions of individual activities, (v

  19. Deep trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling in the placental bed of the lowland gorilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pijnenborg, R; Vercruysse, L; Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to baboon or rhesus macaque, trophoblast invasion in the human placental bed occurs by the interstitial as well as the endovascular route and reaches as deep as the inner myometrium. We here describe two rare specimens of gorilla placenta. In the light of recent findings in the chimpa......In contrast to baboon or rhesus macaque, trophoblast invasion in the human placental bed occurs by the interstitial as well as the endovascular route and reaches as deep as the inner myometrium. We here describe two rare specimens of gorilla placenta. In the light of recent findings...

  20. The physiologic and therapeutic role of heparin in implantation and placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Michela; Erez, Offer; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Koifman, Arie; Leron, Elad; Eshkoli, Tamar; Mazor, Moshe; Holcberg, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Implantation, trophoblast development and placentation are crucial processes in the establishment and development of normal pregnancy. Abnormalities of these processes can lead to pregnancy complications known as the great obstetrical syndromes: preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise, premature prelabor rupture of membranes, preterm labor, and recurrent pregnancy loss. There is mounting evidence regarding the physiological and therapeutic role of heparins in the establishment of normal gestation and as a modality for treatment and prevention of pregnancy complications. In this review, we will summarize the properties and the physiological contributions of heparins to the success of implantation, placentation and normal pregnancy.

  1. Androgen dependent mechanisms of pro-angiogenic networks in placental and tumor development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzler, Veronika M.; de Brot, Simone; Robinson, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    . In this review we focus on the well-established role of androgen regulation of angiogenesis in cancer and relate these mechanisms to placental angiogenesis. The physiological actions of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand dependent transcription factor. Androgens and the AR...... molecular mechanisms of androgen regulation of angiogenesis and infer the potential significance of these pathways to normal and pathogenic placental function. Finally, we offer potential research applications of androgen-targeting molecules developed to treat cancer as investigative tools to help further...

  2. Novel use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS to non-invasively assess placental metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C Denison

    Full Text Available Placental insufficiency is a major cause of antepartum stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR. In affected pregnancies, delivery is expedited when the risks of ongoing pregnancy outweigh those of prematurity. Current tests are unable to assess placental function and determine optimal timing for delivery. An accurate, non-invasive test that clearly defines the failing placenta would address a major unmet clinical need. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H MRS can be used to assess the metabolic profile of tissue in-vivo. In FGR pregnancies, a reduction in N-acetylaspartate (NAA/choline ratio and detection of lactate methyl are emerging as biomarkers of impaired neuronal metabolism and fetal hypoxia, respectively. However, fetal brain hypoxia is a late and sometimes fatal event in placental compromise, limiting clinical utility of brain (1H MRS to prevent stillbirth. We hypothesised that abnormal placental (1H MRS may be an earlier biomarker of intrauterine hypoxia, affording the opportunity to optimise timing of delivery in at-risk fetuses.We recruited three women with severe placental insufficiency/FGR and three matched controls. Using a 3T MR system and a combination of phased-array coils, a 20×20×40 mm(1H MRS voxel was selected along the 'long-axis' of the placenta with saturation bands placed around the voxel to prevent contaminant signals. A significant choline peak (choline/lipid ratio 1.35-1.79 was detected in all healthy placentae. In contrast, in pregnancies complicated by FGR, the choline/lipid ratio was ≤0.02 in all placentae, despite preservation of the lipid peak (p<0.001.This novel proof-of-concept study suggests that in severe placental insufficiency/FGR, the observed 60-fold reduction in the choline/lipid ratio by (1H MRS may represent an early biomarker of critical placental insufficiency. Further studies will determine performance of this test and the potential role of 1H-MRS in the in-vivo assessment of

  3. Placental examination in intrauterine coinfection with herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlemann, K; Menegus, M A

    1996-01-01

    Intrauterine coinfections have rarely been reported. However, pregnancies exposed to multiple sexually transmitted infectious agents and drugs are likely to occur with increasing frequency and lead to complex pathology in the newborn. Often it will be difficult to establish a diagnosis, above all when this has to be done retrospectively. A premature (34 weeks) newborn presented with a complex clinical picture after exposure to multiple infectious and noninfectious teratogens during gestation. Immunocytochemical staining of the placental membranes and parenchyma suggested intrauterine coinfection by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 and cytomegalovirus. This case illustrates the importance of careful placental investigation with modern techniques for the diagnosis of intrauterine HSV infection and coinfections.

  4. The physiologic and therapeutic role of heparin in implantation and placentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Quaranta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation, trophoblast development and placentation are crucial processes in the establishment and development of normal pregnancy. Abnormalities of these processes can lead to pregnancy complications known as the great obstetrical syndromes: preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise, premature prelabor rupture of membranes, preterm labor, and recurrent pregnancy loss. There is mounting evidence regarding the physiological and therapeutic role of heparins in the establishment of normal gestation and as a modality for treatment and prevention of pregnancy complications. In this review, we will summarize the properties and the physiological contributions of heparins to the success of implantation, placentation and normal pregnancy.

  5. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  6. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  7. Characterization of the IGF2 Imprinted Gene Methylation Status in Bovine Oocytes during Folliculogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise dos Santos Mendonça

    Full Text Available DNA methylation reprogramming occurs during mammalian gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Sex-specific DNA methylation patterns at specific CpG islands controlling imprinted genes are acquired during this window of development. Characterization of the DNA methylation dynamics of imprinted genes acquired by oocytes during folliculogenesis is essential for understanding the physiological and genetic aspects of female gametogenesis and to determine the parameters for oocyte competence. This knowledge can be used to improve in vitro embryo production (IVP, specifically because oocyte competence is one of the most important aspects determining the success of IVP. Imprinted genes, such as IGF2, play important roles in embryo development, placentation and fetal growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the DNA methylation profile of the CpG island located in IGF2 exon 10 in oocytes during bovine folliculogenesis. The methylation percentages in oocytes from primordial follicles, final secondary follicles, small antral follicles, large antral follicles, MII oocytes and spermatozoa were 73.74 ± 2.88%, 58.70 ± 7.46%, 56.00 ± 5.58%, 65.77 ± 5.10%, 56.35 ± 7.45% and 96.04 ± 0.78%, respectively. Oocytes from primordial follicles showed fewer hypomethylated alleles (15.5% than MII oocytes (34.6% (p = 0.039; spermatozoa showed only hypermethylated alleles. Moreover, MII oocytes were less methylated than spermatozoa (p<0.001. Our results showed that the methylation pattern of this region behaves differently between mature oocytes and spermatozoa. However, while this region has a classical imprinted pattern in spermatozoa that is fully methylated, it was variable in mature oocytes, showing hypermethylated and hypomethylated alleles. Furthermore, our results suggest that this CpG island may have received precocious reprogramming, considering that the hypermethylated pattern was already found in growing oocytes from primordial follicles. These results

  8. Riigi teaduspreemiate 2003 kandidaadid / Villi Ehatamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehatamm, Villi

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. teaduspreemia kandidaadid: J. Einasto, A.-E. Kaasik, R. Hagelberg, H. Rätsep, R. Pullat, M. Kilp, V. Laan, P. Normak, S. Keevallik, V. Hižnjakov, M. Selg, T. Pehk, T. Rang, M. Mihkla, A. Eek, E. Meister, H.-J. Kaalep, J. Harro, A. Metspalu, T. Jürimäe, J. Haberman, A. Miidel, T. Nõges, E. Pihu, A. Raukas, R. Gross, T. Paaver, A. Valdmann, Ü. Tamm, M. Mandre, K. Ots, H. Pärn, J. Klõseiko, T. Rajasalu, V. Vensel, E. Berg, J. Reiljan, U. Varblane, K. Katus, A. Puur, A. Põldma, K. Rebane, M. Hallik, M. Must, A. Univere, E. Juhkam, I. Käsi, V. Lonn, E. Niit, K. Kirme

  9. Võrgu avamine toob valikuvabaduse / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 28. jaan. lk. 6. Kohus hakkab arutama sideameti ettekirjutust, milles nõutakse Elion Ettevõtted AS-ilt telefonivõrgu avamist teistele operaatoritele. Kommenteerib Raivo Sormunen

  10. Bovine Eimeria species in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W

    2012-05-01

    Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) decrease the placental syncytiotrophoblast volume and increase Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) in the placenta of normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, M; Aiko, Y; Kawamoto, T; T Hachisuga; Kooriyama, C; Myoga, M; Tomonaga, C; Matsumura, F; Anan, A; Tanaka, M; Yu, H S; Fujisawa, Y; Suga, R; Shibata, E

    2013-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of biologically active, highly stable compounds. Exposure risks include consumption of fatty fish, meat, dairy products and human breast milk, as well as environmental and occupational settings. Numerous reports have described PCB-dependent adverse effects on human fetal growth, including increased risk for IUGR, changes in endocrine function and hormone metabolism, and immunosuppressive and neurological deficits. Here we test the prediction that in utero PCB exposure adversely effects placental morphology, potentially leading to placental insufficiency en route to fetal growth restriction. PCB homologs (10) were measured in the maternal and fetal blood of a small cohort of normotensive pregnancies (22) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB levels were compared with angiogenesis associated proteins Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and sFlt-1, determined by ELISA, and the total estimated syncytiotrophoblast (ST) volume. Significant associations between PCB exposure and both PlGF and ST volume were identified. PCB effects on placenta morphology and predicted function are discussed. These results demonstrate that the human placenta, including ST, is a target of PCB toxicity, and that current environmental PCB exposure levels are a risk to reproductive health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of the placental Vitamin D receptor in modulating feto-placental growth in Fetal growth restriction and Preeclampsia-affected pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma eMurthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signalling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation.

  13. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of ...

  14. Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factors for human infection with bovine tuberculosis among dairy and non-dairy farming neighbour households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  15. A longitudinal study of intrauterine growth and the placental growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis in maternal circulation: association between placental GH and fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Vangsgaard, K; Larsen, T

    2004-01-01

    above -2 SD. Placental GH levels were detectable in all samples from as early as 5 wk gestation and increased significantly throughout pregnancy to approximately 37 wk when peak levels of 22 ng/ml (range, 4.64-69.22 ng/ml) were reached. Subsequently, placental GH levels decreased until birth. The change...... in placental GH during 24.5-37.5 wk gestation was positively associated with fetal growth rate (P = 0.027) and birth weight (P = 0.027). Gestational age at peak placental GH values (P = 0.007) was associated with pregnancy length. A positive association between the change in placental GH and the change in IGF......The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective...

  16. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  17. Protection against bovine leukosis virus infection in sheep with the BL 20 bovine lymphoblastoid cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Sands, J; Wibberley, G

    1982-11-01

    The bovine lymphoblastoid BL 20 cell line derived from a case of sporadic bovine leukosis when inoculated into sheep did not induce an antibody response directed against bovine leukosis virus (BLV) structural proteins. Sheep were inoculated twice with the BL 20 cell line and then challenged with BLV infected lymphocytes. Three out of four sheep challenged four weeks after BL 20 inoculation did not develop BLV antibodies. Of the 12 sheep challenged later, three sheep did not develop BLV antibodies. BLV was isolated from all the seropositive animals and from none of the seronegative animals.

  18. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's Solution...

  19. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  20. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cultures for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine...