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Sample records for bovine pathogen streptococcus

  1. [Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S

    2014-11-01

    The pathogenicity of ß-hemolytic group A streptococcus (GAS) is particularly diverse, ranging from mild infections, such as pharyngitis or impetigo, to potentially debilitating poststreptococcal diseases, and up to severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis or the dreaded streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. This variety of clinical expressions, often radically different in individuals infected with the same strain, results from a complex interaction between the bacterial virulence factors, the mode of infection and the immune system of the host. Advances in comparative genomics have led to a better understanding of how, following this confrontation, GAS adapts to the immune system's pressure, either peacefully by reducing the expression of certain virulence factors to achieve an asymptomatic carriage, or on the contrary, by overexpressing them disproportionately, resulting in the most severe forms of invasive infection.

  2. Molecular pathogenicity of Streptococcus anginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asam, D; Spellerberg, B

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus anginosus and the closely related species Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius, are primarily commensals of the mucosa. The true pathogenic potential of this group has been under-recognized for a long time because of difficulties in correct species identification as well as the commensal nature of these species. In recent years, streptococci of the S. anginosus group have been increasingly found as relevant microbial pathogens in abscesses and blood cultures and they play a pathogenic role in cystic fibrosis. Several international studies have shown a surprisingly high frequency of infections caused by the S. anginosus group. Recent studies and a genome-wide comparative analysis suggested the presence of multiple putative virulence factors that are well-known from other streptococcal species. However, very little is known about the molecular basis of pathogenicity in these bacteria. This review summarizes our current knowledge of pathogenicity factors and their regulation in S. anginosus.

  3. Misidentification of Streptococcus uberis as a Human Pathogen: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Enea Gino Di Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus uberis is an environmental bacterium responsible for bovine mastitis. It is occasionally described as a human pathogen, though in most cases the identification was based on biochemical phenotyping techniques. This report shows that the biochemical phenotyping may incorrectly identify Enterococcus faecium as S. uberis.

  4. Misidentification of Streptococcus uberis as a human pathogen: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Enea Gino; Toma, Luigi; Prignano, Grazia; Pelagalli, Lorella; Police, Andrea; Cavallotti, Claudia; Torelli, Riccardo; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus uberis is an environmental bacterium responsible for bovine mastitis. It is occasionally described as a human pathogen, though in most cases the identification was based on biochemical phenotyping techniques. This report shows that the biochemical phenotyping may incorrectly identify Enterococcus faecium as S. uberis.

  5. Quantification of bovine oxylipids during intramammary Streptococcus uberis infection

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    Streptococcus uberis mastitis results in severe mammary tissue damage in dairy cows due to uncontrolled inflammation. Oxylipids are potent lipid mediators that orchestrate pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, however, changes in oxylipid biosynthesis during S. uberis mastitis are unknown. Thus, ...

  6. Development of primer sets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification that enables rapid and specific detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three ...

  7. Probing vaccine antigens against bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Rosa; Prenafeta, Antoni; González-González, Luis; Pérez-Pons, Josep Antoni; Sitjà, Marta

    2016-07-19

    Streptococcus uberis is a worldwide pathogen that causes intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Because virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of S. uberis have not been clearly identified so far, a commercial vaccine is not yet available. Different S. uberis strains have the ability to form biofilm in vitro, although the association of this kind of growth with the development of mastitis is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use as vaccine antigens of proteins from S. uberis biofilms, previously identified by proteomic and immunological analyses. The capability of eliciting a protective immune response by targeted candidates was assayed on a murine model. Sera from rabbits immunized with S. uberis biofilm preparations and a convalescent cow intra-mammary infected with S. uberis were probed against cell wall proteins from biofilm and planktonic cells previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Using rabbit immunized serum, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in biofilm cells as compared to planktonic cells; when serum from the convalescent cow was used, up to sixteen biofilm proteins were detected. From these proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fructose-biphosphate aldolase (FBA), and elongation factor Ts (EFTs) were chosen to be tested as vaccine antigen candidates. For this purpose, different groups of mice were immunized with the three recombinant-expressed proteins (each one formulated separately in a vaccine), and thereafter intraperitoneally challenged with S. uberis. The three proteins induced specific IgG antibodies, but a significant reduction of mortality was only observed in the groups of mice vaccinated with FBA or EFTs. These results suggest that FBA and EFTs might be considered as strong antigenic candidates for a vaccine against S. uberis bovine mastitis. Moreover, this is the first study to indicate that also in S. uberis, GAPDH, FBA and EFTs, as proteins

  8. Genetic patterns of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Elina B; Lasagno, Mirta C; Odierno, Liliana M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection.

  9. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

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    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen.

  10. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Borne, B. H. P.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Van Schaik, G.;

    2010-01-01

    of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli during lactation and the dry period in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. Input parameters on cure were obtained from recent Dutch field data. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were....... Changing the probability of cure resulted in a nonlinear change in the cumulative incidence of IMI cases and associated costs. Lactational treatment was able to prevent IMI epidemics in dairy herds at high transmission rates of Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli. Lactational treatment did......This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics...

  11. Pathogen reduction in minimally managed composting of bovine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persistence of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in bovine feces and contaminated soils is an important risk factor in perpetuating the initial infection as well as re-infection of cattle and dissemination of pathogens throughout agricultural la...

  12. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

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    Soveri T

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  13. Pathogens associated with bovine mastitis in dairy herds in the south region of Brazil

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    Marta Bañolas Jobim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, through microbiological examinations, the etiology of bovine mastitis in 628 milk samples coming from dairy farms from Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul along the year of 2007 were evaluated. Out of this total 1,382 microorganisms were isolated. By taking into account the total of isolations, the following microorganisms and their percentage, respectively were found: Staphylococcus spp. (30.53%, Escherichia coli (21.64%, Streptococcus bovis (17.08%, Streptococcus agalactiae (11.07%, Enterobacter spp. (7.53%, Pseudomonas spp. (4.12% and others (8.03%. The microorganisms grouped into the others are: Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., gram negative rods, Shigella spp., Alcaligenes spp., Klebsiella spp., Edwarsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp., Salmonella spp. e Corynebacterium spp. The environmental pathogens predominated among the isolated microorganisms; 33.13% of the cultures presented more than three pathogens, suggesting contamination of the samples; in the mounts of November and December, there was an increase of the samples sent.

  14. Transcriptomic and genomic evidence for Streptococcus agalactiae adaptation to the bovine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bovine mastitis, which is the dominant health disorder affecting milk production within the dairy industry and is responsible for substantial financial losses to the industry worldwide. However, there is considerable evidence for host adaptation (ecotypes) within S. agalactiae, with both bovine and human sourced isolates showing a high degree of distinctiveness, suggesting differing ability to cause mastitis. Here, we (i) generate RNAseq data from three S. agalactiae isolates (two putative bovine adapted and one human) and (ii) compare publicly available whole genome shotgun sequence data from an additional 202 isolates, obtained from six host species, to elucidate possible genetic factors/adaptations likely important for S. agalactiae growth and survival in the bovine mammary gland. Results Tests for differential expression showed distinct expression profiles for the three isolates when grown in bovine milk. A key finding for the two putatively bovine adapted isolates was the up regulation of a lactose metabolism operon (Lac.2) that was strongly correlated with the bovine environment (all 36 bovine sourced isolates on GenBank possessed the operon, in contrast to only 8/151 human sourced isolates). Multi locus sequence typing of all genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis using conserved operon genes from 44 S. agalactiae isolates and 16 additional Streptococcus species provided strong evidence for acquisition of the operon via multiple lateral gene transfer events, with all Streptococcus species known to be major causes of mastitis, identified as possible donors. Furthermore, lactose fermentation tests were only positive for isolates possessing Lac.2. Combined, these findings suggest that lactose metabolism is likely an important adaptation to the bovine environment. Additional up regulation in the bovine adapted isolates included genes involved in copper homeostasis, metabolism of purine, pyrimidine

  15. Epidemiological Studies of Potent Environmental Pathogen: Streptococcus pneumoniae

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    Nazir A. Brohi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A general survey for six months was undertaken for the prevalence of environmental bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae among the different age groups (3-65 years including both sexes from various hospitals of Hyderabad city. Laboratory examinations revealed S. pneumoniae as most potent environmental pathogen from the sputum and throat swabs of old aged patients and children respectively. During observations, 39 specimens were growth positive; the biochemistry of isolates revealed that they were coagulase, catalase and oxidase negative, TSI, gel hydrolysis positive and were able to ferment glucose, lactose, maltose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, starch and raffinose. The results of antimicrobial activity showed that pneumococci were resistant to the cefspan, septran, cravit, pipemetic acid, azomax, bacitracin, and penicillin and a clear zone of inhibition was observed on clithromycin, optochin, cefizox, genatamycin, minocyclin, levoflaxacin, and vancomycin. There were intermediate zone of inhibition found on claforan, nalidixic acid, amoxycillin, fosfomycin, fortum, and erythromycin on Mueller Hinton’s agar after 24 hours incubation

  16. Streptococcus dysgalactiae: An emerging pathogen of fishes and mammals

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    Mohamed Abdelsalam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (GCSD has gained special interest of aquatic health experts throughout the past few years due to its interesting veterinary and public health importance. Increasing records of GCSD infections in farmed fishes have been documented through diverse worldwide aquatic habitats in Japan, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan and Brazil. Despite the intraspecies/interspecies dynamic spread of fish GCSD, yet, the genetic basis of its virulence remains unknown. This gap in knowledge is the main reason behind inability to develop a competent vaccine to control the disease in aquatic animals. However, the authors have concluded that the virulence of GCSD is mainly based on its cell surface properties such as high hemagglutination and hydrophobic properties which determine the main adhesive/invasive pathogenic mechanism of the pathogen where GCSD isolates were able to adhere to and invade fish epithelial cell line in vitro. Most recently, the molecular pathogenesis investigations have revealed that, serum opacity factor [SOF], superantigen and streptolysin S genes might be the most important virulence factors that have contributed to the swift propagation of streptococcal infection among aquatic and mammalian species. In conclusion, the current research based review has emphasized the current knowledge gap in epidemiology and control of fish GCSD. To bridge this current gap, a swift future development of high tech/accurate molecular research is highly needed to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of GCSD.

  17. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen.

  18. Comparison of virulence factors and capsular types of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from human and bovine infections.

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    Emaneini, Mohammad; Khoramian, Babak; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Abani, Samira; Dabiri, Hossein; Beigverdi, Reza

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of human and bovine infections. A total of 194 S. agalactiae isolates, 55 isolates from bovines and 139 from humans, were analyzed for capsular types, virulence genes (scpB, hly, rib, bca and bac) and mobile genetic elements (IS1548 and GBSi1) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex PCR. Capsular type III was predominant (61%), followed by types V, II, Ib, and IV. The scpB, hly, bca and bac virulence genes were only found among human isolates. Twelve and 2 distinct virulence gene profiles were identified among human and bovine isolates respectively. The virulence gene profiles scpB- hly- IS1548- rib-bca (51%) and scpB- hly- IS1548- bca (19%) were only predominant among human isolates. The rib gene was the most common virulence gene in both human and bovine isolates. The study showed a high prevalence of virulence genes in S. agalactiae strains isolated from human infections, these result can support the idea that S. agalactiae isolated from humans and bovines are generally unrelated and probably belonged to separate populations.

  19. The Comparison of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Fish and Bovine using Multilocus Sequence Typing

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    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has greater utility for determining the recent ancestral lineage and the relatedness of individual strains. Group B streptococci (GBS is one of the major causes of subclinical mastitis of dairy cattle in several countries. GBS also sporadically causes epizootic infections in fish. The aim of this study was to compare the evolutionary lineage of fish and bovine isolates in relation to the S. agalactiae global population as a whole by comparing the MLST profiles. Twenty S. agalactiae isolates were obtained from dairy cattle and fish. PCR products were amplified with seven different oligonucleotide primer pairs designed from the NEM316 GBS genome sequence. Clone complexes demonstrated that bovine and fish isolates were separate populations. These findings lead us to conclude that fish S. agalactiae is not a zoonotic agent for bovine. MLST could help clarify the emergence of pathogenic clones and to decide whether the host acts as a reservoir for another pathogenic lineage.

  20. Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae.

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    Pinto, Tatiana Castro Abreu; Costa, Natália Silva; Corrêa, Ana Beatriz de Almeida; de Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Menezes; de Mattos, Marcos Correa; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Benchetrit, Leslie Claude

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance genes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated the presence of Tet resistance genes (tetM and tetO) and CTns among Ery-resistant (Ery-R) and Ery-susceptible (Ery-S) GBS strains isolated from human and bovine sources; and analyzed the ability for transferring resistance determinants between strains from both origins. Tet resistance and int-Tn genes were more common among Ery-R when compared to Ery-S isolates. Conjugative transfer of all resistance genes detected among the GBS strains included in this study (ermA, ermB, mef, tetM and tetO), in frequencies between 1.10(-7) and 9.10(-7), was possible from bovine donor strains to human recipient strain, but not the other way around. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of in vitro conjugation of Ery and Tet resistance genes among GBS strains recovered from different hosts.

  1. Seven years survey of susceptibility to marbofloxacin of bovine pathogenic strains from eight European countries.

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    Meunier, D; Acar, J-F; Martel, J-L; Kroemer, S; Vallé, M

    2004-09-01

    This study was conducted from 1994 to 2001 to determine the susceptibility of bovine pathogenic bacteria to marbofloxacin (a third generation fluoroquinolone used only in individual administration for animals). Strains originated in bovine diseases from eight European countries. They were isolated from gut infections (Escherichia coli, salmonellae), mastitis (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae) and respiratory diseases (Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus somnus). There was no change in the MIC distributions for each species after the launch of marbofloxacin in 1997. In E. coli, a resistant population was present before the use of marbofloxacin having been induced by co- or cross-resistance to other antibiotics used previously. Over this period the only a significant change seen was an increase in MIC(90) of E. coli from the gut (1.275 microg/ml in 1994/1995 to 5.098 microg/ml in 2001). All the salmonellae were susceptible to marbofloxacin with a MIC(90) = 0.073 microg/ml in 2001 without development of high level resistance. The use of marbofloxacin seems not to have favoured a significant increase and spreading of resistant bacteria.

  2. Differential pathogenicity of five Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of diverse geographic origin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

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    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish and has caused significant morbidity amd mortality worldwide. The work in this study assessed whether pathogenic differences exist among isolates from different geographic locations. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were administered an...

  3. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Pathogen Isolated from Bovine Mastitis Milk in Transylvania, Romania

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    Cosmina Bouari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in cows, one of the most common and economically important infectious diseases of dairy cattle, all over the world, with significant impact due to economic losses, occurs when the udder becomes inflamed because the leukocytes are released into the mammary gland usually in response to bacteria invasion of the teat canal. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from milk in order to design specific control programs for bovine mastitis in this area. A total of 204 milk samples aseptically collected both from farms and private owners were processed during May 2014 and March 2016 within the Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The microbiological examination was carried out by inoculation on blood agar and MacConkey medium. After the overnight incubation in aerobic conditions, the identification of the isolates was performed using microscopic, cultural and biochemical methods. Biochemical identification was based on API 20 Biomerieux system. Susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar; the antibiotics were represented by Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid, Ceftiofur, Florfenicol, Mastidiscs, Enrofloxacin, Penicillin and Tetracycline. Staphylococcus spp. was the most common isolated pathogen, in 54.9% of the specimens, followed by Streptococcus spp. in 20.1%, Escherichia coli in 10.78%, Klebsiella spp. in 8.34%, Bacillus spp. in 5.88%. The most frequent associations were represented by staphylococci-streptococci in 62.7% of the samples, followed by streptococci-bacillus in 19.8% of the samples. The most important etiological agents identified were Staphylococcus aureus, S uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for the total isolates revealed good sensitivity to Enrofloxacin, Mastidiscs and Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

  4. Host-pathogen interaction during Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization and infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bogaert (Debby)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Streptococcus pneumoniae was discovered by Sternberg and Pasteur in 1880. It took another six years to discover that this microorganism, called the pneumococcus, was the actual cause of bacterial pneumonia . Subsequently, this bacterium has been shown to provoke an impr

  5. Rapid Evolution of Virulence and Drug Resistance in the Emerging Zoonotic Pathogen Streptococcus suis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holden, M.T.G.; Hauser, H.; Sanders, M.; Hoa Ngo, Thi; Cherevach, I.; Cronin, A.; Goodhead, I.; Mungall, K.; Quail, M.A.; Price, C.; Rabbinowitsch, E.; Sharp, S.; Croucher, N.; Chieu, Tran Bich; Nguyen, Thi Hoang Mai; To, Song Diep; Nguyen, Tran Chinh; Kehoe, M.; Leigh, J.A.; Ward, P.N.; Dowson, C.G.; Whatmore, A.M.; Chanter, N.; Iversen, P.; Gottschalk, M.; Slater, J.D.; Smith, H.E.; Spratt, B.G.; Jianguo, Xu; Changyun, Ye; Bentley, S.; Barrell, B.G.; Schultsz, C.; Maskell, D.J.; Parkhill, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that infects pigs and can occasionally cause serious infections in humans. S. suis infections occur sporadically in human Europe and North America, but a recent major outbreak has been described in China with high levels of mortality. The mechan

  6. Latest developments on Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen: part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segura, M.; Zheng, H.; Greeff, de A.; Gao, G.F.; Gremier, D.; Jiang, Y.; Chengping, L.; Maskell, D.; Oishi, K.; Okura, M.; Osawa, R.; Schultsz, C.; Schwerk, C.; Sekizaki, T.; Smith, H.; Srimanote, P.; Takamatsu, D.; Tang, J.; Tenenbaum, T.; Tharavichitkul, P.; Hoa, N.T.; Valentin-Weigand, P.; Wells, J.M.; Wertheim, H.; Zhu, B.; Xu, J.; Gottschalk, M.

    2014-01-01

    This second and final chapter of the report on the First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis follows on from Part 1, published in the April 2014, volume 9, issue 4 of Future Microbiology. S. suis is a swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent afflicting people in close contact with infected pigs

  7. Effect of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis on apoptosis of bovine mammary gland lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Petr; Sladek, Zbysek; Rysanek, Dusan; Langrova, Tereza

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether lymphocyte apoptosis is modulated by infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Samples of cell populations were obtained by lavage of the mammary glands at 4 intervals (24, 48, 72 and 168 h) following infection. The percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes peaked at 168 h after challenge with S. aureus or S. uberis. Subsequent experiments focused on in vitro cultivation of mammary gland lymphocytes with S. aureus and S. uberis. These experiments showed a lower percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes following 3h of cultivating cells with bacteria than after cultivation without bacteria. The results demonstrate that during both experimental infection of bovine mammary glands with S. aureus or S. uberis and during in vitro cultivation of lymphocytes with S. aureus or S. uberis, apoptosis of lymphocytes is delayed.

  8. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  9. The thioredoxin system in the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans and the food-industry bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Salvatore; Rullo, Rosario; Albino, Antonella; Masullo, Mariorosario; De Vendittis, Emmanuele; Amato, Massimo

    2013-11-01

    The Streptococcus genus includes the pathogenic species Streptococcus mutans, the main responsible of dental caries, and the safe microorganism Streptococcus thermophilus, used for the manufacture of dairy products. These facultative anaerobes control the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and indeed, both S. mutans and S. thermophilus possess a cambialistic superoxide dismutase, the key enzyme for a preventive action against ROS. To evaluate the properties of a crucial mechanism for repairing ROS damages, the molecular and functional characterization of the thioredoxin system in these streptococci was investigated. The putative genes encoding its protein components in S. mutans and S. thermophilus were analysed and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified. A single thioredoxin reductase was obtained from either S. mutans (SmTrxB) or S. thermophilus (StTrxB1), whereas two thioredoxins were prepared from either S. mutans (SmTrxA and SmTrxH1) or S. thermophilus (StTrxA1 and StTrxA2). Both SmTrxB and StTrxB1 reduced the synthetic substrate DTNB in the presence of NADPH, whereas only SmTrxA and StTrxA1 accelerated the insulin reduction in the presence of DTT. To reconstitute an in vitro streptococcal thioredoxin system, the combined activity of the thioredoxin components was tested through the insulin precipitation in the absence of DTT. The assay functions with a combination of SmTrxB or StTrxB1 with either SmTrxA or StTrxA1. These results suggest that the streptococcal members of the thioredoxin system display a direct functional interaction between them and that these protein components are interchangeable within the Streptococcus genus. In conclusion, our data prove the existence of a functioning thioredoxin system even in these microaerophiles.

  10. Streptococcus suis, an emerging drug-resistant animal and human pathogen

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    Claudio ePalmieri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen, has been receiving growing attention not only for its role in severe and increasingly reported infections in humans, but also for its involvement in drug resistance. Recent studies and the analysis of sequenced genomes have been providing important insights into the S. suis resistome, and have resulted in the identification of resistance determinants for tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, antifolate drugs, streptothricin, and cadmium salts. Resistance gene-carrying genetic elements described so far include integrative and conjugative elements, transposons, genomic islands, phages, and chimeric elements. Some of these elements are similar to those reported in major streptococcal pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus agalactiae and share the same chromosomal insertion sites. The available information strongly suggests that S. suis is an important antibiotic resistance reservoir that can contribute to the spread of resistance genes to the above-mentioned streptococci. S. suis is thus a paradigmatic example of possible intersections between animal and human resistomes.

  11. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Anderson, Mark L.; McEligot, Heather A.; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Neibergs, Holly L.; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  12. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  13. Production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Vanleeuwen, J A; Dohoo, I R; Keefe, G P; Haddad, J P; Tremblay, R; Scott, H M; Whiting, T

    2007-02-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against BLV (IDEXX ELISA; IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME), MAP (IDEXX or Biocor ELISA; Biocor Animal Health, Inc., Omaha, NE), and NC (IDEXX or Biovet ELISA; Biovet Inc., St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada). Up to 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 mo of age were tested for virus-neutralizing antibodies to the Singer strain of type 1 BVDV. Dairy Herd Improvement records were obtained electronically for all sampled cows. Linear mixed models with herd and cow as random variables were fit, with significant restricted maximum likelihood estimates of outcome effects being obtained, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Bovine leukemia virus seropositivity was not associated with 305-d milk, 305-d fat, or 305-d protein production. Cows in BVDV-seropositive herds (at least one unvaccinated animal with a titer > or =1:64) had reductions in 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 368, 10.2, and 9.5 kg, respectively, compared with cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seropositivity was associated with lower 305-d milk of 212 kg in 4+-lactation cows compared with MAP-seronegative 4+-lactation cows. Neospora caninum seropositivity in primiparous cows was associated with lower 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 158, 5.5, and 3.3 kg, respectively, compared with NC-seronegative primiparous cows. There were no interactions among seropositivity for any of the pathogens and their effects on any of the outcomes examined, although the low MAP seroprevalence limited this analysis. Results from this research

  14. Experimental study to evaluate the pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Adel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae has emerged as an important fish pathogen over the last decade in farmed rainbow trout in Iran. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of S. iniae in Poecilia reticulata. Atotal of 60 apparently healthy P. reticulata were obtained from ornamental fish pet store and injected intraperitoneally with 1.5×106 cfu of bacteria. For 14 days after challenge, the rate of mortality and clinical signs were recorded. The first clinical signs was observed in challenged fish 48 hrs after injection of S. iniae and first mortality was observed 72 hrs after injection. No significant differences in mortality and clinical signs between both sexes were observed. Streptococcus iniae was collected from internal organs of fishes challenged, and was confirmed using the conventional biochemical tests and PCR. It is concluded that, P. reticulata is susceptible to streptococcosis and can play an important role in transmission of the disease to other ornamental fish species and also cultured fish.

  15. Molecular detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine raw milk samples obtained directly from bulk tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Acácia Orieth; Cortez, Adriana; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2012-08-01

    Mastitis is the most common infectious disease affecting dairy cattle; in addition, it remains the most economically important disease of dairy industries around the world. Streptococcus agalactiae, a contagious pathogen associated with subclinical mastitis, is highly infectious. This bacterium can cause an increase in bulk tank bacterial counts (BTBC) and bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC). The microbiological identification of S. agalactiae in samples from bulk tanks is an auxiliary method to control contagious mastitis. Thus, there are some limitations for time-consuming cultures or identification methods and additional concerns about the conservation and transport of samples. Bulk tank samples from 247 dairy farms were cultured and compared through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), directed to 16S rRNA genes of S. agalactiae, followed by BTBC and S. agalactiae isolation. The mean value of BTBC was 1.08×10(6) CFU mL(-1) and the bacterium was identified through the microbiological method in 98 (39.7%; CI(95%)=33.8-45.9%) and through PCR in 110 (44.5%; CI(95%)=38.5-50.8%) samples. Results indicated sensitivity of 0.8571±0.0353 (CI(95%)=0.7719-0.9196) and specificity of 0.8255±0.0311 (CI(95%)=0.7549-0.8827). The lack of significant difference between microbiological and molecular results (κ=0.6686±0.0477 and CI(95%)=0.5752-0.7620) indicated substantial agreement between the methods. This suggests that PCR can be used for bulk tank samples to detect contagious mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.

  16. Gene Regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae: interplay between nutrition and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T. Hendriksen (Wouter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractStreptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the species of streptococci. Other pathogenic bacteria belonging to this class include Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus bovi

  17. GENOMIC DIVERSITY OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE FROM FISH, BOVINE AND HUMAN HOSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a cause of infectious disease in multiple poikilothermic and homothermic animal species. Epidemiological and zoonotic considerations necessitate an undertaking of a comparison of S. agalactiae isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regi...

  18. Proteomic Analysis to Elucidate the Antibacterial Action of Silver Ions Against Bovine Mastitis Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seog Jin; Cho, Yong Il; Kim, Ki Hyun; Cho, Eun Seok

    2016-05-01

    Silver ions act as a powerful, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent and are known to kill over 650 different kinds of pathogens. We investigated the protein expression pattern and identity after silver ion treatment in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are primarily responsible for the majority of bovine mastitis cases using proteomics. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that silver ion treatment significantly reduced 5 spot's density in E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. We identified 10 proteins (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C22 subunit, phosphoglucomutase, fructose-1-phosphate kinase, putative carbamoyl transferase, alpha-galactosidase, carbamate kinase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, fumarate hydratase class II, alcohol dehydrogenase, and conserved hypothetical protein) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF). These results demonstrated that silver ions have bactericidal effects through energy deprivation, inhibition of DNA replication, and accumulation of oxidants in bovine mastitis pathogens and suggested that silver ions can be applied for the treatment of bovine mastitis.

  19. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other importan

  20. Characterizing bovine host responses to mastitis pathogens by targeted proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    mælkeproteiner såsom kasein er dog med til at komplicere analyserne af følsomme biomarkører i mælk. De seneste år er målrettet kvantitativ proteomics ved hjælp af metoden ’selected reaction monitoring’ (SRM) blevet udbredt. Ved SRM metoden bliver peptider fra et udvalgt protein detekteret og kvantificeret i en...... beskriver dette Bovine PeptideAtlas og dets indbyggede værktøjer til at understøtte SRM metoder. Ved hjælp af Bovine PeptideAtlas blev der udvalgt kvantificerbare og observerbare peptider, der er velegnede til udvikling af SRM metoden. To peptider per protein blev herefter genetisk udtrykt i et QconCAT...... protein som tungt isotop mærkede peptider. I manuskript II præsenteres udviklingen og valideringen af SRM metoden i yvervæv ved brug af QconCAT peptider rettet mod 20 proteiner. Resultaterne af dette forsøg var en solid bestemmelse af 17 kandidatproteiner og en pålidelig kvantificering af 12 af disse. I...

  1. Horizontal gene transfers link a human MRSA pathogen to contagious bovine mastitis bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brody

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance by many clinically important bacteria can be traced to horizontal gene transfer (HGT between related or evolutionarily distant microflora. Comparative genomic analysis has become an important tool for identifying HGT DNA in emerging pathogens. We have adapted the multi-genome alignment tool EvoPrinter to facilitate discovery of HGT DNA sequences within bacterial genomes and within their mobile genetic elements. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EvoPrinter analysis of 13 different Staphylococcus aureus genomes revealed that one of the human isolates, the hospital epidemic methicillin-resistant MRSA252 strain, uniquely shares multiple putative HGT DNA sequences with different causative agents of bovine mastitis that are not found in the other human S. aureus isolates. MRSA252 shares over 14 different DNA sequence blocks with the bovine mastitis ET3 S. aureus strain RF122, and many of the HGT DNAs encode virulence factors. EvoPrinter analysis of the MRSA252 chromosome also uncovered virulence-factor encoding HGT events with the genome of Listeria monocytogenes and a Staphylococcus saprophyticus associated plasmid. Both bacteria are also causal agents of contagious bovine mastitis. CONCLUSIONS: EvoPrinter analysis reveals that the human MRSA252 strain uniquely shares multiple DNA sequence blocks with different causative agents of bovine mastitis, suggesting that HGT events may be occurring between these pathogens. These findings have important implications with regard to animal husbandry practices that inadvertently enhance the contact of human and livestock bacterial pathogens.

  2. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tettelin, H; Masignani, [No Value; Cieslewicz, MJ; Eisen, JA; Peterson, S; Paulsen, IT; Nelson, KE; Margarit, [No Value; Read, TD; Madoff, LC; Beanan, MJ; Brinkac, LM; Daugherty, SC; DeBoy, RT; Durkin, AS; Kolonay, JF; Madupu, R; Lewis, MR; Radune, D; Fedorova, NB; Scanlan, D; Khouri, H; Mulligan, S; Carty, HA; Cline, RT; Van Aken, SE; Gill, J; Scarselli, M; Mora, M; Iacobini, ET; Brettoni, C; Galli, G; Mariani, M; Vegni, F; Maione, D; Rinaudo, D; Rappuoli, R; Telford, JL; Kasper, DL; Grandi, G; Fraser, CM

    2002-01-01

    The 2,160,267 bp genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, the leading cause of bacterial sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis in neonates in the U.S. and Europe, is predicted to encode 2,175 genes. Genome comparisons among S. agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and the oth

  3. Gene expression platform for synthetic biology in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Robin A; Kuipers, Oscar P; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2015-03-20

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a bacterium that owes its success to complex gene expression regulation patterns on both the cellular and the population level. Expression of virulence factors enables a mostly hazard-free presence of the commensal, in balance with the host and niche competitors. Under specific circumstances, changes in this expression can result in a more aggressive behavior and the reversion to the invasive form as pathogen. These triggering conditions are very difficult to study due to the fact that environmental cues are often unknown or barely possible to simulate outside the host (in vitro). An alternative way of investigating expression patterns is found in synthetic biology approaches of reconstructing regulatory networks that mimic an observed behavior with orthogonal components. Here, we created a genetic platform suitable for synthetic biology approaches in S. pneumoniae and characterized a set of standardized promoters and reporters. We show that our system allows for fast and easy cloning with the BglBrick system and that reliable and robust gene expression after integration into the S. pneumoniae genome is achieved. In addition, the cloning system was extended to allow for direct linker-based assembly of ribosome binding sites, peptide tags, and fusion proteins, and we called this new generally applicable standard "BglFusion". The gene expression platform and the methods described in this study pave the way for employing synthetic biology approaches in S. pneumoniae.

  4. Whole genome investigation of a divergent clade of the pathogen Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiyad eBaig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a major porcine and zoonotic pathogen responsible for significant economic losses in the pig industry and an increasing number of human cases. Multiple isolates of S. suis show marked genomic diversity. Here we report the analysis of whole genome sequences of nine pig isolates that caused disease typical of S. suis and had phenotypic characteristics of S. suis, but their genomes were divergent from those of many other S. suis isolates. Comparison of protein sequences predicted from divergent genomes with those from normal S. suis reduced the size of core genome from 793 to only 397 genes. Divergence was clear if phylogenetic analysis was performed on reduced core genes and MLST alleles. Phylogenies based on certain other genes (16S rRNA, sodA, recN and cpn60 did not show divergence for all isolates, suggesting recombination between some divergent isolates with normal S. suis for these genes. Indeed, there is evidence of recent recombination between the divergent and normal S. suis genomes for 249 of 397 core genes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and 132 genes that were conserved between the divergent isolates and representatives of the broader Streptococcus genus showed that divergent isolates were more closely related to S. suis. Six out of nine divergent isolates possessed a S. suis-like capsule region with variation in capsular gene sequences but the remaining three did not have a discrete capsule locus. The majority (40/70, of virulence-associated genes in normal S. suis were present in the divergent genomes. Overall, the divergent isolates extend the current diversity of S. suis species but the phenotypic similarities and the large amount of gene exchange with normal S. suis gives insufficient evidence to assign these isolates to a new species or subspecies. Further sampling and whole genome analysis of more isolates is warranted to understand the diversity of the species.

  5. Genotyping and study of the pauA and sua genes of Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrig, Melina S; Ambroggio, María B; Buzzola, Fernanda R; Marcipar, Iván S; Calvinho, Luis F; Veaute, Carolina M; Barbagelata, María Sol

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the clonal relationship among 137 Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine milk with subclinical or clinical mastitis in Argentina and to assess the prevalence and conservation of pauA and sua genes. This information is critical for the rational design of a vaccine for the prevention of bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. The isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The 137 isolates exhibited 61 different PFGE types and 25 distinct RAPD profiles. Simpson's diversity index was calculated both for PFGE (0.983) and for RAPD (0.941), showing a high discriminatory power in both techniques. The analysis of the relationship between pairs of isolates showed 92.6% concordance between both techniques indicating that any given pair of isolates distinguished by one method tended to be distinguished by the other. The prevalence of the sua and pauA genes was 97.8% (134/137) and 94.9% (130/137), respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the sua and pauA genes from 20 S. uberis selected isolates, based on their PFGE and RAPD types and geographical origin, showed an identity between 95% and 100% with respect to all reference sequences registered in GenBank. These results demonstrate that, in spite of S. uberis clonal diversity, the sua and pauA genes are prevalent and highly conserved, showing their importance to be included in future vaccine studies to prevent S. uberis bovine mastitis.

  6. Expression of the Bovine NK-Lysin Gene Family and Activity against Respiratory Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfeng; Yang, Chingyuan; Tizioto, Polyana C.; Huang, Huan; Lee, Mi O. K.; Payne, Harold R.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals. The effects of synthetic peptides corresponding to functional region helices 2 and 3 of each gene product were tested on both model membranes and bio-membranes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that these peptides adopted a more helical secondary structure upon binding to an anionic model membrane and liposome leakage assays suggested that these peptides disrupt membranes. Bacterial killing assays further confirmed the antimicrobial effects of these peptides on BRD-associated bacteria, including both Pasteurella multocida and Mannhemia haemolytica and an ultrastructural examination of NK-lysin-treated P. multocida cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the lysis of target membranes. These studies demonstrate that the expanded bovine NK-lysin gene family is potentially important in host defense against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease. PMID:27409794

  7. Expression of the Bovine NK-Lysin Gene Family and Activity against Respiratory Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Chen

    Full Text Available Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq. The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals. The effects of synthetic peptides corresponding to functional region helices 2 and 3 of each gene product were tested on both model membranes and bio-membranes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that these peptides adopted a more helical secondary structure upon binding to an anionic model membrane and liposome leakage assays suggested that these peptides disrupt membranes. Bacterial killing assays further confirmed the antimicrobial effects of these peptides on BRD-associated bacteria, including both Pasteurella multocida and Mannhemia haemolytica and an ultrastructural examination of NK-lysin-treated P. multocida cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the lysis of target membranes. These studies demonstrate that the expanded bovine NK-lysin gene family is potentially important in host defense against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease.

  8. Effect of a novel antimicrobial peptide chrysophsin-1 on oral pathogens and Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tao, Rui; Tong, Zhongchun; Ding, Yonglin; Kuang, Rong; Zhai, Shafei; Liu, Jun; Ni, Longxing

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries and pulpal diseases are common oral bacterial infectious diseases. Controlling and reducing the causative pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis, is a key step toward prevention and treatment of the two diseases. Chrysophsin-1 is a cationic antimicrobial peptide having broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial activity of chrysophsin-1 against several oral pathogens and S. mutans biofilms and performed a preliminary study of the antimicrobial mechanism. Cytotoxic activity of chrysophsin-1 against human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) was investigated. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill assay were used to evaluate the killing effect of chrysophsin-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze morphological and membrane change in oral pathogens. Live/Dead staining, in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), was used to observe and analyze S. mutans biofilms. MIC and MBC results demonstrated that chrysophsin-1 had different antimicrobial activities against the tested oral microbes. Lysis and pore formation of the cytomembrane were observed following treatment of the bacteria with chrysophsin-1 for 4h or 24h by SEM. Furthermore, CLSM images showed that chrysophsin-1 remarkably reduced the viability of cells within biofilms and had a significantly lethal effect against S. mutans biofilms. Toxicity studies showed that chrysophsin-1 at concentration between 8 μg/ml and 32 μg/ml had little effect on viability of HGFs in 5 min. Our findings suggest that chrysophsin-1 may have potential clinical applications in the prevention and treatment of dental caries and pulpal diseases.

  9. A genome-wide analysis of small regulatory RNAs in the human pathogen group A Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Perez

    Full Text Available The coordinated regulation of gene expression is essential for pathogens to infect and cause disease. A recently appreciated mechanism of regulation is that afforded by small regulatory RNA (sRNA molecules. Here, we set out to assess the prevalence of sRNAs in the human bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS. Genome-wide identification of candidate GAS sRNAs was performed through a tiling Affymetrix microarray approach and identified 40 candidate sRNAs within the M1T1 GAS strain MGAS2221. Together with a previous bioinformatic approach this brings the number of novel candidate sRNAs in GAS to 75, a number that approximates the number of GAS transcription factors. Transcripts were confirmed by Northern blot analysis for 16 of 32 candidate sRNAs tested, and the abundance of several of these sRNAs were shown to be temporally regulated. Six sRNAs were selected for further study and the promoter, transcriptional start site, and Rho-independent terminator identified for each. Significant variation was observed between the six sRNAs with respect to their stability during growth, and with respect to their inter- and/or intra-serotype-specific levels of abundance. To start to assess the contribution of sRNAs to gene regulation in M1T1 GAS we deleted the previously described sRNA PEL from four clinical isolates. Data from genome-wide expression microarray, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analyses are consistent with PEL having no regulatory function in M1T1 GAS. The finding that candidate sRNA molecules are prevalent throughout the GAS genome provides significant impetus to the study of this fundamental gene-regulatory mechanism in an important human pathogen.

  10. Molecular mapping of the cell wall polysaccharides of the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Péchoux, Christine; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Hols, Pascal; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2014-11-01

    The surface of many bacterial pathogens is covered with polysaccharides that play important roles in mediating pathogen-host interactions. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is recognized as a major virulence factor while the group B carbohydrate (GBC) is crucial for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell division. Despite the important roles of CPS and GBC, there is little information available on the molecular organization of these glycopolymers on the cell surface. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to analyze the nanoscale distribution of CPS and GBC in wild-type (WT) and mutant strains of S. agalactiae. TEM analyses reveal that in WT bacteria, peptidoglycan is covered with a very thin (few nm) layer of GBC (the ``pellicle'') overlaid by a 15-45 nm thick layer of CPS (the ``capsule''). AFM-based single-molecule mapping with specific antibody probes shows that CPS is exposed on WT cells, while it is hardly detected on mutant cells impaired in CPS production (ΔcpsE mutant). By contrast, both TEM and AFM show that CPS is over-expressed in mutant cells altered in GBC expression (ΔgbcO mutant), indicating that the production of the two surface glycopolymers is coordinated in WT cells. In addition, AFM topographic imaging and molecular mapping with specific lectin probes demonstrate that removal of CPS (ΔcpsE), but not of GBC (ΔgbcO), leads to the exposure of peptidoglycan, organized into 25 nm wide bands running parallel to the septum. These results indicate that CPS forms a homogeneous barrier protecting the underlying peptidoglycan from environmental exposure, while the presence of GBC does not prevent peptidoglycan detection. This work shows that single-molecule AFM, combined with high-resolution TEM, represents a powerful platform for analysing the molecular arrangement of the cell wall polymers of bacterial pathogens.

  11. Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreier Jens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O. Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2 homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance.

  12. Pathogen diagnosis of the bovine pasteurellosis%牛出败的病原诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生庆; 张西云; 范玉霞; 胡国元; 李志宁; 王亭亭; 黄荣

    2012-01-01

    对大通县某养殖场送检的病死牛脏器进行细病原诊断,经病原的分离培养与鉴定,结合临床症状和病理变化,初步诊断该病是由牛巴氏杆菌引起的。%Pathogen diagnosis of the dead cattle organs from the DaTong farms,Through isolation and identification of pathogens, combining clinical symptoms and pathological changes. The disease is caused by the bovine pasteurellosis.

  13. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Properties of Membrane Vesicles Produced by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Haas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis, more particularly serotype 2, is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent worldwide that mainly causes meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Although several potential virulence factors produced by S. suis have been identified in the last decade, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections is still not fully understood. In the present study, we showed that S. suis produces membrane vesicles (MVs that range in diameter from 13 to 130 nm and that appear to be coated by capsular material. A proteomic analysis of the MVs revealed that they contain 46 proteins, 9 of which are considered as proven or suspected virulence factors. Biological assays confirmed that S. suis MVs possess active subtilisin-like protease (SspA and DNase (SsnA. S. suis MVs degraded neutrophil extracellular traps, a property that may contribute to the ability of the bacterium to escape the host defense response. MVs also activated the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway in both monocytes and macrophages, inducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may in turn contribute to increase the permeability of the blood brain barrier. The present study brought evidence that S. suis MVs may play a role as a virulence factor in the pathogenesis of S. suis infections, and given their composition be an excellent candidate for vaccine development.

  14. Serotype distribution of Streptococcus mutans a pathogen of dental caries in cardiovascular specimens from Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Nomura, Ryota; Homma, Hiromi; Yoshioka, Hideo; Shudo, Yasuhiro; Hata, Hiroki; Toda, Koichi; Taniguchi, Kazuhiro; Amano, Atsuo; Ooshima, Takashi

    2007-04-01

    The involvement of oral bacteria in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease has been studied, with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen of dental caries, detected in cardiovascular lesions at a high frequency. However, no information is available regarding the properties of S. mutans detected in those lesions. Heart valve specimens were collected from 52 patients and atheromatous plaque specimens from 50 patients, all of whom underwent cardiovascular operations, and dental plaque specimens were taken from 41 of those subjects prior to surgery. Furthermore, saliva samples were taken from 73 sets of healthy mothers (n=73) and their healthy children (n=78). Bacterial DNA was extracted from all specimens, then analysed by PCR with S. mutans-specific and serotype-specific primer sets. The detection rates of S. mutans in the heart valve and atheromatous plaque specimens were 63 and 64 %, respectively. Non-c serotypes were identified with a significantly higher frequency in both cardiovascular and dental plaque samples from the subjects who underwent surgery as compared to serotype c, which was detected in 70-75 % of the samples from the healthy subjects. The serotype distribution in cardiovascular patients was significantly different from that in healthy subjects, suggesting that S. mutans serotype may be related to cardiovascular disease.

  15. Morin Attenuates Streptococcus suis Pathogenicity in Mice by Neutralizing Suilysin Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Lu, Gejin; Qi, Zhimin; Li, Hongen; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yanhui; Liu, Bowen; Niu, Xiaodi; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis, a Gram-positive pathogen, is widely recognized as an important agent of swine infection, and it is also known to cause a variety of zoonoses, such as meningitis, polyarthritis and pneumonia. Suilysin (SLY), an extracellular pore-forming toxin that belongs to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family, is an essential virulence factor of S. suis capsular type 2 (SS2). Here, we found that morin hydrate (morin), a natural flavonoid that lacks anti-SS2 activity, inhibits the hemolytic activity of SLY, protects J774 cells from SS2-induced injury and protects mice from SS2 infection. Further, by molecular modeling and mutational analysis, we found that morin binds to the “stem” domain 2 in SLY and hinders its transformation from the monomer form to the oligomer form, which causes the loss of SLY activity. Our study demonstrates that morin hinders the cell lysis activity of SLY through a novel mechanism of interrupting the heptamer formation. These findings may lead to the development of promising therapeutic candidates for the treatment of SS2 infections. PMID:28373868

  16. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure.

  17. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma. Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E.; Lechuga-Arana, A. Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D.; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A.; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P < 0.01), and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 (P < 0.01). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:25815326

  18. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two farms (n=535 cows located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM and clinical mastitis (CLM were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT (≥3 and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY, lactation number (LN, herd size (HS, and number of days in milk (DM were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH, LN, HS, and DM P<0.01, and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 P<0.01. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study.

  19. Transcriptional Profiling of the Oral Pathogen Streptococcus mutans in Response to Competence Signaling Peptide XIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderska, Iwona B.; Latos, Andrew; Pruitt, Benjamin; Palmer, Sara; Spatafora, Grace

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans, competence development is regulated by the ComRS signaling system comprised of the ComR regulator and the ComS prepeptide to the competence signaling peptide XIP (ComX-inducing peptide). Aside from competence development, XIP signaling has been demonstrated to regulate cell lysis, and recently, the expression of bacteriocins, small antimicrobial peptides used by bacteria to inhibit closely related species. Our study further explores the effect of XIP signaling on the S. mutans transcriptome. RNA sequencing revealed that XIP induction resulted in a global change in gene expression that was consistent with a stress response. An increase in several membrane-bound regulators, including HdrRM and BrsRM, involved in bacteriocin production, and the VicRKX system, involved in acid tolerance and biofilm formation, was observed. Furthermore, global changes in gene expression corresponded to changes observed during the stringent response to amino acid starvation. Effects were also observed on genes involved in sugar transport and carbon catabolite repression and included the levQRST and levDEFG operons. Finally, our work identified a novel heat shock-responsive intergenic region, encoding a small RNA, with a potential role in competence shutoff. IMPORTANCE Genetic competence provides bacteria with an opportunity to increase genetic diversity or acquire novel traits conferring a survival advantage. In the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans, DNA transformation is regulated by the competence stimulating peptide XIP (ComX-inducing peptide). The present study utilizes high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to provide a greater understanding of how global gene expression patterns change in response to XIP. Overall, our work demonstrates that in S. mutans, XIP signaling induces a response that resembles the stringent response to amino acid starvation. We further identify a novel heat shock-responsive intergenic region with a

  20. Early pathogenesis and inflammatory response in experimental bovine mastitis due to Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.H.; Aalbæk, B.; Røntved, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    A generally similar clinical response was observed in six lactating Holstein-Friesian cows after intramammary inoculation with approximately 107 colony-forming units of Streptococcus uberis. Increased concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) were measured in both milk and serum taken 6 and 11 h...... after inoculation, respectively. In contrast, increased concentrations of haptoglobin were detected after 10 h of infection, in milk only. In the blood, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TFN-alpha) was detected (0.503 ng/ml) in only one animal, at the time of euthanasia (10 h after infection). Interferon...... and neutrophils) and within the lumen of ducts and alveoli. Lesions developed progressively in an ascending manner and became widespread throughout the mammary gland in less than 8 h. The parallel development of inflammation and increased concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin in milk points to these acute phase...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of nisin against the swine pathogen Streptococcus suis and its synergistic interaction with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Geneviève; Piché, Fanny; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections in pigs, including meningitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Furthermore, this bacterium is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Recently, increased antibiotic resistance in S. suis has been reported worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of nisin, a bacteriocin of the lantibiotic class, as an antibacterial agent against the pathogen S. suis serotype 2. In addition, the synergistic activity of nisin in combination with conventional antibiotics was assessed. Using a plate assay, the nisin-producing strain Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of S. suis (n=18) belonging to either sequence type (ST)1, ST25, or ST28. In a microdilution broth assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of purified nisin ranged between 1.25 and 5 μg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 5 and 10 μg/mL toward S. suis. The use of a capsule-deficient mutant of S. suis indicated that the presence of this polysaccharidic structure has no marked impact on susceptibility to nisin. Following treatment of S. suis with nisin, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed lysis of bacteria resulting from breakdown of the cell membrane. A time-killing curve showed a rapid bactericidal activity of nisin. Lastly, synergistic effects of nisin were observed in combination with several antibiotics, including penicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ceftiofur. This study brought clear evidence supporting the potential of nisin for the prevention and treatment of S. suis infections in pigs.

  2. Genomic comparison between pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Nile tilapia in Thailand and fish-derived ST7 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B streptococcus (GBS), is a highly virulent pathogen in aquatic animals, causing huge mortalities worldwide. In Thailand, the serotype Ia, β-hemolytic GBS, belonging to sequence type (ST) 7 of clonal complex (CC) 7, was found to be the major cause of streptococcosis outbreaks in fish farms. In this study, we performed an in silico genomic comparison, aiming to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between the pathogenic fish strains of Thai ST7 and other ST7 from different hosts and geographical origins. In general, the genomes of Thai ST7 strains are closely related to other fish ST7s, as the core genome is shared by 92-95% of any individual fish ST7 genome. Among the fish ST7 genomes, we observed only small dissimilarities, based on the analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), surface protein markers, insertions sequence (IS) elements and putative virulence genes. The phylogenetic tree based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the core genome sequences clearly categorized the ST7 strains according to their geographical and host origins, with the human ST7 being genetically distant from other fish ST7 strains. A pan-genome analysis of ST7 strains detected a 48-kb gene island specifically in the Thai ST7 isolates. The orientations and predicted amino acid sequences of the genes in the island closely matched those of Tn5252, a streptococcal conjugative transposon, in GBS 2603V/R serotype V, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus suis. Thus, it was presumed that Thai ST7 acquired this Tn5252 homologue from related streptococci. The close phylogenetic relationship between the fish ST7 strains suggests that these strains were derived from a common ancestor and have diverged in different geographical regions and in different hosts.

  3. SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF Streptococcus agalactiae, A PATHOGEN CAUSING STREPTOCOCCOSIS IN TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen identification based on biochemical properties can barely differentiate Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae. Beside that, this technique is also limited by the length of time required to complete the assays. Therefore, rapid diagnosis is necessary to initiate prompt therapeutic and prophylactic measures in order to limit any potential economic losses caused by such pathogens. The aim of the present study was to identify Streptococcosis species using amplification of S. agalactiae DNA sequence with species-specific primer Sdi 61 AGGAAACCTGCCATTTGCG and Sdi 252 CAATCTATTTCTAGATCGTGG and perform phylogenetic analysis based on DNA nucleotide sequence data. The sequencing of PCR products was performed at BPPT Puspiptek Serpong by using the respective PCR primers, Big Dye Terminator Chemistry and AmpliTaq-FS DNA polymerase. The sequencing reactions were run on the ABI Prism version 3103 – Avant Genetic Analyzer (USA and the result was read by Sequence Navigator program (Applied Biosystem. Alignment multiple analysis was done based on the data from Genebank with BLASTN (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast.cgi on the nucleotide level. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were generated with Genetyx programme version 7 with UPGMA and MEGA software version 4.0. The result revealed that the isolates from brain, eye, and kidney of diseased Tilapia were infected by S. agalactiae and it has 99% similarity with Genebank. It has close relationship with S. agalactiae at genebank with UPGMA method. These isolates showed high variation in the first sequence which is similar to S. iniae. The information of S. agalactiae genomes suggests that gene acquisition, duplication, and reassortment have played an important role in genetic diversity and evolution of S. agalactiae. Screening of breeder fish stocks with the developed PCR methodology, followed by elimination of infected stocks, would provide an efficient strategy to control fish

  4. Induction of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response Constitutes a Pathogenic Strategy of group A Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel eHanski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The connection between bacterial pathogens and unfolded protein response (UPR is poorly explored. In this review we highlight the evidence showing that group A streptococcus (GAS induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and UPR through which it captures the amino acid asparagine (ASN from the host. GAS acts extracellularly and during adherence to host cells it delivers the hemolysin toxins; streptolysin O (SLO and streptolysin S (SLS. By poorly understood pathways, these toxins trigger UPR leading to the induction of the transcriptional regulator ATF4 and consequently to the upregulation of asparagine synthetase (ASNS transcription leading to production and release of ASN. GAS senses ASN and alters gene expression profile accordingly, and increases the rate of multiplication. We suggest that induction of UPR by GAS and by other bacterial pathogens represent means through which bacterial pathogens gain nutrients from the host, obviating the need to become internalized or inflict irreversible cell damage.

  5. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  6. Assessment of an extraction protocol to detect the major mastitis-causing pathogens in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressier, B; Bissonnette, N

    2011-05-01

    Despite all efforts to control its spread, mastitis remains the most costly disease for dairy farmers worldwide. One key component of better control of this disease is identification of the causative bacterial agent during udder infections in cows. Mastitis is complex, however, given the diversity of pathogens that must be identified. Development of a rapid and efficient bacterial species identification tool is thus necessary. This study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of bacterial DNA extraction for the automated molecular detection of major mastitis-causing pathogens directly in milk samples to complement traditional microbiological identification. Extraction and detection procedures were designed and optimized to achieve detection in a respectable time frame, at a reasonable cost, and with a high throughput capacity. The following species were identified: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Klebsiella spp. (including Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The detection procedure includes specific genomic DNA amplification by multiplex PCR for each species, separation by capillary electrophoresis, and laser-assisted automated detection. The specificity of the primers was assessed with a panel of bacteria representing mastitis-negative control species. The extraction protocol comprised multiple steps, starting with centrifugation for fat removal, followed by heating in the presence of a cation exchange resin to trap divalent ions. The analytical sensitivity was 100 cfu/mL for milk samples spiked with Staph. aureus, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli, with a tendency for K. pneumoniae. The detection limit was 500 cfu/mL for Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae. The overall diagnostic sensitivity (95.4%) and specificity (97.3%) were determined in a double-blind randomized assay by processing 172 clinical milk samples with microbiological characterization as the

  7. Surface Proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae and Related Proteins in Other Bacterial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Gunnar; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Areschoug, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is the major cause of invasive bacterial disease, including meningitis, in the neonatal period. Although prophylactic measures have contributed to a substantial reduction in the number of infections, development of a vaccine remains an important goal. While much work in this field has focused on the S. agalactiae polysaccharide capsule, which is an important virulence factor that elicits protective immunity, surface proteins have received incre...

  8. Quantotypic Properties of QconCAT Peptides Targeting Bovine Host Response to Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Codrea, Marius Cosmin

    2012-01-01

    peptides from each of these 20 proteins were obtained through the QconCAT method. We present the quantotypic properties of these 40 proteotypic peptides, and discuss their application to research in host pathogen interactions. Our results clearly demonstrate a robust monitoring of 17 targeted host...

  9. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  10. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deguo; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-05-26

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of streptococci from bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rato, Márcia G.; Bexiga, Ricardo; Florindo, Carlos;

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. T...

  12. Host-pathogen Interaction at the Intestinal Mucosa Correlates With Zoonotic Potential of Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; de Greeff, Astrid; van Rooijen, Willemien J. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Background. Streptococcus suis has emerged as an important cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. The ingestion of undercooked pork is a risk factor for human S. suis serotype 2 (SS2) infection. Here we provide experimental evidence indicating that the gastrointestinal tract is an entry site of...

  13. Bovine S protein (vitronectin increases phagocytosis of Streptococcus dysgalactiae Aumento na fagocitose de Streptococcus dysgalactiae pela ação da proteína S bovina (vitronectina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bovine S protein (vitronectin on phagocytosis of Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from cattle with mastitis were investigated. Phagocytized streptococci were determined by a fluorometric microassay using glass adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN. Preincubation of S. dysgalactiae with bovine S protein significantly increased their phagocytosis by PMN. Bovine S protein had no effect on phagocytic killing of non-S protein binding S. pyogenes cultures. Enzymatic digestion of the bovine S protein binding sites on S. dysgalactiae with pronase resulted in a significative reduction of the effects of S protein on phagocytosis. It could thus be concluded that in addition to its role as a promoter of cellular adhesion and complement inhibitor, bovine S protein may also influence the phagocytosis of S. dysgalactiae during inflammatory processes.Foram investigados os efeitos da proteína S bovina (vitronectina na fagocitose de amostras de Streptococcus dysgalactiae isoladas de bovinos com mastite. A determinação do número de estreptococos fagocitados foi realizada pelo método fluorométrico utilizando neutrófilos polimorfonucleares (NPM aderidos em lâminas de vidro. A pré-incubação do S. dysgalactiae com a proteína S bovina aumentou significativamente a sua fagocitose por NPM. A proteína S bovina não causou efeito na fagocitose de culturas de S. pyogenes, já que não apresentam sítios de ligação para esta proteína. A digestão enzimática com pronase dos sítios de ligação S. dysgalactiae para a proteína S bovina resultou numa significativa redução do efeito da proteína S na fagocitose. Pode-se concluir que além do papel como promotor da adesão celular e inibidor do complemento, a proteína S bovina pode também influir na fagocitose do S. dysgalactiae durante os processos inflamatórios.

  14. 噬菌体内溶素对奶牛乳房炎致病菌的溶解作用%Lytic Effect of Bacteriophage and Its Endolysin to Bovine Mastitis Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方正; 田中杰; 田文儒

    2015-01-01

    奶牛乳房炎一直是困扰养牛业的顽疾。诱发奶牛乳房炎的致病菌通常包括金黄色葡萄球菌、无乳链球菌等致病菌,停乳链球菌、乳房链球菌、大肠埃希菌等环境致病菌以及表皮葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌、模仿葡萄球菌等机会性致病菌。噬菌体是一类细菌依赖性的病毒,可通过内溶素抑制肽聚糖的合成,或利用穿孔素-内溶素系统水解肽聚糖。在体外试验中,噬菌体及其内溶素可溶解、抑制细菌生物膜,裂解乳房炎致病菌;在体内试验中,可清除感染动物体内的乳房炎致病菌,对奶牛乳房炎具有治疗效果。因此,噬菌体及其内溶素在奶牛乳房炎治疗方面具有良好的应用前景。%Bovine mastitis has inflicted diary industry for a long time.Pathogenic bacteria that trigger the bovine mastitis include contagious organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae ;the environmental organisms such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae ,Streptococcus uberis ,Escherichia coli ;the opportunistic organisms such as Staphylococcus epidermidis ,Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus simulans .The bacteriophage is a kind of viruses that can infect bacteria.With the help of endolysin and holin,the bacteriophage is able to inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan and directly hydro-lyze it.Bacteriophages can not only lyse various biofilms and the mastitis pathogenic bacteria in vitro ,but clear colonies of pathogenic bacteria in infected animals and directly treat bovine mastitis.Therefore,the bacteriophage and its endolysin are promising in curing bovine mastitis.

  15. Regulation of Arginine Acquisition and Virulence Gene Expression in the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae by Transcription Regulators ArgR1 and AhrC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the transcriptional response of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluctuating concentrations of arginine, an essential amino acid for this bacterium. By means of DNA microarray analyses, several operons and genes were found, the expressi

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from piscine, dolphin, bovine and human sources: a dolphin and piscine lineage associated with a fish epidemic in Kuwait is also associated with human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) causes of infections in multiple animals. This study examined the genetic relatedness of piscine, dolphin, and human GBS isolates and bovine GBS reference strains from different geographical regions using serological and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) techni...

  17. Functional definition of BirA suggests a biotin utilization pathway in the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huiyan; Cai, Mingzhu; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Zhencui; Wen, Ronghui; Feng, Youjun

    2016-05-24

    Biotin protein ligase is universal in three domains of life. The paradigm version of BPL is the Escherichia coli BirA that is also a repressor for the biotin biosynthesis pathway. Streptococcus suis, a leading bacterial agent for swine diseases, seems to be an increasingly-important opportunistic human pathogen. Unlike the scenario in E. coli, S. suis lacks the de novo biotin biosynthesis pathway. In contrast, it retains a bioY, a biotin transporter-encoding gene, indicating an alternative survival strategy for S. suis to scavenge biotin from its inhabiting niche. Here we report functional definition of S. suis birA homologue. The in vivo functions of the birA paralogue with only 23.6% identity to the counterpart of E. coli, was judged by its ability to complement the conditional lethal mutants of E. coli birA. The recombinant BirA protein of S. suis was overexpressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and verified with MS. Both cellulose TLC and MALDI-TOFF-MS assays demonstrated that the S. suis BirA protein catalyzed the biotinylation reaction of its acceptor biotin carboxyl carrier protein. EMSA assays confirmed binding of the bioY gene to the S. suis BirA. The data defined the first example of the bifunctional BirA ligase/repressor in Streptococcus.

  18. Carbapenem-resistance and pathogenicity of bovine Acinetobacter indicus-like isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Ursula; Semmler, Torsten; Scheufen, Sandra; Ewers, Christa

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45) from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A. indicus-like. A phylogenetic tree based on partial rpoB sequences indicated closest relation of the two bovine isolates to the A. indicus type strain A648T and human clinical A. indicus isolates, while whole genome comparison revealed considerable intraspecies diversity. High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that both isolates harboured blaOXA-23 localized on the chromosome and surrounded by interrupted Tn2008 transposon structures. Since the pathogenic potential of A. indicus is unknown, pathogenicity was assessed employing the Galleria (G.) mellonella infection model and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay using A549 human lung epithelial cells. Pathogenicity in vivo (G. mellonella killing assay) and in vitro (cytotoxicity assay) of the two A. indicus-like isolates was lower compared to A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and similar to A. lwoffii ATCC 15309. The reduced pathogenicity of A. indicus compared to A. baumannii correlated with the absence of important virulence genes encoding like phospholipase C1+C2, acinetobactin outer membrane protein BauA, RND-type efflux system proteins AdeRS and AdeAB or the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Ata. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and revealing genetic

  19. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.961 protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiong-Zhuo; Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, XiaoJun; Liang, Yu-He

    2007-10-01

    The smu.961 gene encodes a putative protein of 183 residues in Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen in human dental caries. The gene was cloned into expression vector pET28a and expressed in a substantial quantity in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) with a His tag at its N-terminus. The recombinant protein SMU.961 was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure consisting of Ni2+-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.9 A resolution at beamline I911-3, MAX-II-lab, Sweden. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.62, b = 73.73, c = 184.73 A, beta = 98.82 degrees.

  20. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Smu.1475c from caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Feng; Mi, Wei; Li, Lanfen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liang, Yu-He; Su, Xiao-Dong; Wei, Shicheng

    2006-02-01

    The gene smu.1475c encodes a putative protein of 211 residues in Streptococcus mutans, a primary pathogen for human dental caries. In this work, smu.1475c was cloned into pET28a and expressed in good amount from the E. coli strain BL21 (DE3). Smu.1475c protein was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure of Ni2+ chelating and size exclusion chromatography. Crystals were obtained by hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.7 angstroms resolution. The crystal belongs to orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with cell dimension of a = 68.3 angstroms, b = 105.9 angstroms, c = 136.2 angstroms. The asymmetric unit is expected to contain four molecules with solvent content of 49.4%.

  1. Effects of Streptococcus bovis Isolated from Bovine Rumen on the Fermentation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Tanzania Grass Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanine, Anderson de Moura; Bonelli, Emerson Alencar; de Souza, Alexandre Lima; Ferreira, Daniele de Jesus; Santos, Edson Mauro; Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino; Geron, Luiz Juliano Valério; Pinho, Ricardo Martins Araujo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Streptococcus bovis on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of Tanzania grass silage. Tanzania grass was chopped and left untreated (U) or treated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 at 1 × 10(6) colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g) of fresh forage or Streptococcus bovis HC5 at 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage and packed into sixtuplicate laboratory silos. The largest number of enterobacteria, molds and yeast (M&Y) occurred in untreated silages and the smallest populations of enterobacteria and M&Y and the largest numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), at 9.81 and 9.87 log cfu/g, were observed in Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively (P < 0.05). Silages treated with JB1 and HC5 had lower (P < 0.05) silage pHs and concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) than untreated silages. The application of Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 resulted in fewer losses through gases and effluents (P < 0.05), which resulted in greater dry matter recovery (DMR) and crude protein recovery (CPR) (P < 0.05). Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 improved the fermentative profile and increased the concentration of crude protein and DMR and CPR in Tanzania grass silage.

  2. Effect of bovine respiratory disease and overall pathogenic disease incidence on carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M D; Thallman, R M; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Casas, E

    2010-02-01

    The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used. The first population included crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 642) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The second population included crossbred steers (GPE8; n = 621) derived from tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds and Bos indicus-influenced breeds: Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano, as well as Hereford and Angus. Treatment records for BRD, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, and infectious pododermatitis were available for these populations. Incidence of BRD was treated as an independent effect. Incidences of the 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were pooled into a single trait to represent overall pathogenic disease incidence. Traits evaluated were HCW; KPH; LM area; marbling score; fat thickness; dressing percentage; yield grade; retail, fat, and bone yields; and meat tenderness. Both BRD and IPD were associated with differences in yield grade in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.004, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Incidence of BRD and IPD were associated with a reduction in fat thickness in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.01, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD also had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.002, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for BRD (P carcass traits should be given consideration by future studies that aim to develop selection strategies based on specific

  3. A literature review of antimicrobial resistance in Pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a critical review of the literature as it pertains to the current status of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle and to provide a concise yet informative narrative on the most relevant publications available. As such, the scientific literature contained in PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB were searched in February of 2014 for articles related to susceptibility testing of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni from cases of BRD. Titles and abstracts were read and 105 articles that were relevant to the subject of BRD antibiotic resistance were attained for further review. After the application of exclusion criterion (publications must have originated from North America, be in English, adhere to standards set forth by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and be concerning antimicrobial resistance in BRD in beef cattle), 16 articles remained and are the focus of this publication. Due to the disparate data from the few studies that investigate susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens, a quantitative assessment or meta-analysis was not performed on the studies presented in this review. However, considering diagnostic lab data, there appears to be a clear trend of a decrease in susceptibility of the three major BRD pathogens to the antimicrobials used commonly for treatment and control of BRD. Studies performing sensitivity testing on healthy cattle report much lower resistance, but it remains unclear if this is because of a true lack of resistance mechanisms, or if the isolates do contain quiescent genes for resistance that are only phenotypically expressed following the administration of an antimicrobial for either treatment or control of BRD. Future research to address this question of genotype and phenotypic expression before and after antimicrobial administration will further advance our knowledge in this area.

  4. Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2. The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92% and 1607 (86% of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops.

  5. Identification of genes and genomic islands correlated with high pathogenicity in Streptococcus suis using whole genome tiling microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zheng

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause meningitis and sepsis in both pigs and humans. Infections in humans have been sporadic worldwide but two severe outbreaks occurred in China in recent years, while infections in pigs are a major problem in the swine industry. Some S. suis strains are more pathogenic than others with 2 sequence types (ST, ST1 and ST7, being well recognized as highly pathogenic. We analyzed 31 isolates from 23 serotypes and 25 STs by NimbleGen tiling microarray using the genome of a high pathogenicity (HP ST1 strain, GZ1, as reference and a new algorithm to detect gene content difference. The number of genes absent in a strain ranged from 49 to 225 with a total of 632 genes absent in at least one strain, while 1346 genes were found to be invariably present in all strains as the core genome of S. suis, accounting for 68% of the GZ1 genome. The majority of genes are located in chromosomal blocks with two or more contiguous genes. Sixty two blocks are absent in two or more strains and defined as regions of difference (RDs, among which 26 are putative genomic islands (GIs. Clustering and statistical analyses revealed that 8 RDs including 6 putative GIs and 21 genes within these RDs are significantly associated with HP. Three RDs encode known virulence related factors including the extracellular factor, the capsular polysaccharide and a SrtF pilus. The strains were divided into 5 groups based on population genetic analysis of multilocus sequence typing data and the distribution of the RDs among the groups revealed gain and loss of RDs in different groups. Our study elucidated the gene content diversity of S. suis and identified genes that potentially promote HP.

  6. Effects of Streptococcus bovis Isolated from Bovine Rumen on the Fermentation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Tanzania Grass Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanine, Anderson de Moura; Bonelli, Emerson Alencar; de Souza, Alexandre Lima; Ferreira, Daniele de Jesus; Santos, Edson Mauro; Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino; Geron, Luiz Juliano Valério; Pinho, Ricardo Martins Araujo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Streptococcus bovis on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of Tanzania grass silage. Tanzania grass was chopped and left untreated (U) or treated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 at 1 × 106 colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g) of fresh forage or Streptococcus bovis HC5 at 1 × 106 cfu/g of fresh forage and packed into sixtuplicate laboratory silos. The largest number of enterobacteria, molds and yeast (M&Y) occurred in untreated silages and the smallest populations of enterobacteria and M&Y and the largest numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), at 9.81 and 9.87 log cfu/g, were observed in Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively (P Silages treated with JB1 and HC5 had lower (P silage pHs and concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) than untreated silages. The application of Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 resulted in fewer losses through gases and effluents (P silage. PMID:27073806

  7. [The prevalence of different Streptococcus pneumoniaе serotypes in the children presenting with ENT infections or carrying nasopharyngeal pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronina, L G; Samatova, E V; Druĭ, A E; Panina, E Iu; Kochneva, N A; Vodovoz, N Iu; Murunova, N V; Gruzdev, A I; Lakhno, T I

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the etiopathological significance of various Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in the children presenting with ENT infections and carrying nasopharyngeal pathogens. The incidence of the latter condition was 19.5% in the children free from S. pneumoniae infection in comparison with 20.9% and 30.7% in those having diagnosis of otitis media and rhinosinusitis respectively. Fifty five (88.8%) of the 62 isolated streptococcal strains were grouped into types with the use of multiplex PCR. Twelve serotypes were identified in the patients presenting with rhinosinusitis with the predominance of 6A/6B and 3 (40.5%) compared with seven isolated from the carriers of nasopharyngeal pathogens. In this group, type 3 also prevailed (26.5%) whereas other serotypes occurred less frequently: 23F (13,4%), indivisible totality of 8, 9V, 9A, 1F, 11A, 211B, 11C, 11D, 12F, 15A, and 33F (13.4%), 20 (6.7%), 19A (6.7%), 14 (6.7%), 6A,6B (6.7%). The serotypes of S. pneumoniae isolated from the patients with rhinosinusitis were found to show 55.3% identity with those present in the composition of the conjugated 7-valent pneumococcal vaccines, 63.2% identity with the 10-valent vaccine, 81.6% identity with the 11p-valnet vaccine, and 84.2% identity with the 13-valent vaccine.

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia on the Virulence Properties of the Oral Pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrudula Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA on the virulence properties of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis implicated in periodontal diseases. Methods. S. mutans was cultured in tryptone broth containing a crude leaf extract of DVA for 16 hours, and the pH was measured after 10, 12, 14, and 16 h. Biofilms of S. mutans were grown on glass slides for 48 hours and exposed to plant extract for 30 minutes; the adherent cells were reincubated and the pH was measured at various time intervals. Minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracts against the four periodontal pathogens was determined. The effect of the subinhibitory concentration of plant extract on the production of proteinases by P. gingivalis was also evaluated. Results. DVA had no effect on acid production by S. mutans biofilms; however, it significantly inhibited acid production in planktonic cells. Periodontal pathogens were completely eliminated at low concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.02 mg/mL of crude plant extracts. At subinhibitory concentrations, DVA significantly reduced Arg-gingipain (24% and Lys-gingipain (53% production by P. gingivalis (. Conclusions. These results suggest that DVA has the potential to be used to control oral infections including dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  9. Genomic signatures of human and animal disease in the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Lucy A; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Wang, Jinhong; Peters, Sarah E; Corander, Jukka; Jombart, Thibaut; Baig, Abiyad; Howell, Kate J; Vehkala, Minna; Välimäki, Niko; Harris, David; Chieu, Tran Thi Bich; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Campbell, James; Schultsz, Constance; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Langford, Paul R; Rycroft, Andrew N; Wren, Brendan W; Farrar, Jeremy; Baker, Stephen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Holden, Matthew T G; Tucker, Alexander W; Maskell, Duncan J

    2015-03-31

    Streptococcus suis causes disease in pigs worldwide and is increasingly implicated in zoonotic disease in East and South-East Asia. To understand the genetic basis of disease in S. suis, we study the genomes of 375 isolates with detailed clinical phenotypes from pigs and humans from the United Kingdom and Vietnam. Here, we show that isolates associated with disease contain substantially fewer genes than non-clinical isolates, but are more likely to encode virulence factors. Human disease isolates are limited to a single-virulent population, originating in the 1920, s when pig production was intensified, but no consistent genomic differences between pig and human isolates are observed. There is little geographical clustering of different S. suis subpopulations, and the bacterium undergoes high rates of recombination, implying that an increase in virulence anywhere in the world could have a global impact over a short timescale.

  10. Antibacterial susceptibility of bovine-mastitis pathogens tested directly in milk from infected quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhi-Lehtiö, M; Sandholm, M; Myllys, V; Honkanen-Buzalski, T

    1994-04-01

    Antibacterial susceptibilities of bovine-mastitis pathogens were analysed directly in 57 mastitic milk samples without inoculation with exogenous organisms. Aseptically collected milk was mixed with serial dilutions of antibacterials and the growth was observed using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction the following day. The results were compared with those obtained by using calibrated bacterial inocula in turbidimetric minimum-inhibitory-concentration (MIC) determination in broth cultures, and in TTC-broth culture-test and TTC-normal milk-test. The results of different methods all correlated positively when the entire data was used. However, taking the direct test in mastitic milk as the 'true' result, the total discrepancies varied from 34.7% to 48.8%. Antibacterial activities of the trimethoprim-sulphadoxine combination, and of spiramycin and ampicillin, decreased significantly when nutrient broth was replaced by milk as the test medium. The efficacy of trimethoprim-sulphadoxine as an antibacterial agent was also dependent on the source of milk.

  11. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  12. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing bovine subclinical mastitis in Eastern Hebei Province%冀东地区奶牛隐性乳房炎病原茵的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高桂生; 高光平; 邵新华; 史秋梅; 张艳英; 梁银聚

    2012-01-01

    According to the method of LMT, pH detection and count of the somatic cells, the epidemiology of recessive mastitis, the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria were carried out on 1 021 subclinical bovine from 8 bovine farms and 3 large bovine factories in Eastern Hebei Province. The results showed that the incidence rates of recessive mastitis and isolalion of bacteria were 60.63% (619/1021) and 88.21%(546/619),respectively.82 strains of bacteria were isolated from 546 subclinical mastitis cows and identified as 4 classes and 14 species. The main bacteria included 36 strains of Staphylococcus, 33 strains of Streptococcus, 8 strains of Enterobtwteria and 5 strains of Microbacterium. with the proportion of 43.90% ,40.24% ,9.76% and 6.10% ,respectively.The mare pathogenic bacteria causing bovine subclinical mastitis in Eastern Hebei Province were Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae.%通过LMT法、乳汁pH检验法和体细胞直接计数等方法相结合,对冀东地区3个大型奶牛场、8个奶牛养殖户选取的1021头奶牛进行隐性乳房炎流行病学调查与病菌分离鉴定。结果表明,隐性乳房炎发病率为60.63%(619/1021),乳房炎阳性乳样品中细菌分离率达88.21%(546/619)。从543头隐性乳房炎患牛的阳性乳区乳样中分得细菌共4类14种菌82株,其中葡萄球菌36株,占43.90%;链球菌33株,占40.24%;肠杆菌类8株,占9.76%;棒状杆菌5株。占6.10%。冀东地区奶牛隐性乳房炎主要病原菌为金黄色葡萄球菌和无乳链球菌。

  13. Genome analysis of multiple pathogenic isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae : Implications for the microbial "pan-genome"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tettelin, H; Masignani, [No Value; Cieslewicz, MJ; Donati, C; Medini, D; Ward, NL; Angiuoli, SV; Crabtree, J; Jones, AL; Durkin, AS; DeBoy, RT; Davidsen, TM; Mora, M; Scarselli, M; Ros, IMY; Peterson, JD; Hauser, CR; Sundaram, JP; Nelson, WC; Madupu, R; Brinkac, LM; Dodson, RJ; Rosovitz, MJ; Sullivan, SA; Daugherty, SC; Haft, DH; Selengut, J; Gwinn, ML; Zhou, LW; Zafar, N; Khouri, H; Radune, D; Dimitrov, G; Watkins, K; O'Connor, KJB; Smith, S; Utterback, TR; White, O; Rubens, CE; Grandi, G; Madoff, LC; Kasper, DL; Telford, JL; Wessels, MR; Rappuoli, R; Fraser, CM

    2005-01-01

    The development of efficient and inexpensive genome sequencing methods has revolutionized the study of human bacterial pathogens and improved vaccine design. Unfortunately, the sequence of a single genome does not reflect how genetic variability drives pathogenesis within a bacterial species and als

  14. Host-pathogen Interaction at the Intestinal Mucosa Correlates With Zoonotic Potential of Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; de Greeff, Astrid; van Rooijen, Willemien J. M.;

    2015-01-01

    of SS2 infection. Methods. We developed a noninvasive in vivo model to study oral SS2 infection in piglets. We compared in vitro interaction of S. suis with human and porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Results. Two out of 15 piglets showed clinical symptoms compatible with S. suis infection 24...... be considered a food-borne pathogen. S. suis interaction with human and pig IEC correlates with S. suis serotype and genotype, which can explain the zoonotic potential of SS2....

  15. DNase expression allows the pathogen group A streptococcus to escape killing in neutrophil extracellular traps

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, John T; Simpson, Amelia J; Aziz, Ramy K.; Liu, George Y.; Kristian, Sascha A.; Kotb, Malak; Feramisco, James; Nizet, Victor

    2006-01-01

    The innate immune response plays a crucial role in satisfactory host resolution of bacterial infection. In response to chemotactic signals, neutrophils are early responding cells that migrate in large numbers to sites of infection. The recent discovery of secreted neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of DNA and histones opened a novel dimension in our understanding of the microbial killing capacity of these specialized leukocytes. M1 serotype strains of the pathogen Group A Streptoc...

  16. Cloning, characterization and anion inhibition study of a β-class carbonic anhydrase from the caries producing pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, Nurcan; De Luca, Viviana; Isik, Semra; Yildirim, Hatice; Kockar, Feray; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-07-01

    The oral pathogenic bacterium involved in human dental caries formation Streptococcus mutans, encodes for two carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) one belonging to the α- and the other one to the β-class. This last enzyme (SmuCA) has been cloned, characterized and investigated for its inhibition profile with a major class of CA inhibitors, the inorganic anions. Here we show that SmuCA has a good catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction, with kcat 4.2×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 5.8×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1), being inhibited by cyanate, carbonate, stannate, divannadate and diethyldithiocarbamate in the submillimolar range (KIs of 0.30-0.64mM) and more efficiently by sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid (KIs of 15-46μM). The anion inhibition profile of the S. mutans enzyme is very different from other α- and β-CAs investigated earlier. Identification of effective inhibitors of this new enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the role of S. mutans CAs in dental caries formation, and eventually the development of pharmacological agents with a new mechanism of antibacterial action.

  17. Sequential necrotizing fasciitis caused by the monomicrobial pathogens Streptococcus equisimilis and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akiko; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressing bacterial infection of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue that is associated with a high mortality rate and is caused by a single species of bacteria or polymicrobial organisms. Escherichia coli is rarely isolated from patients with monomicrobial disease. Further, there are few reports of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli associated with necrotizing fasciitis. We report here our treatment of an 85-year-old man who was admitted because of necrotizing fasciitis of his right thigh. Streptococcus equisimilis was detected as a monomicrobial pathogen, and the infection was cured by amputation of the patient's right leg and the administration of antibiotics. However, 5 days after discontinuing antibiotic therapy, he developed necrotizing fasciitis on his right upper limb and died. ESBL-producing E. coli was the only bacterial species isolated from blood and skin cultures. This case demonstrates that ESBL-producing E. coli can cause monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis, particularly during hospitalization and that a different bacterial species can cause disease shortly after a previous episode.

  18. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.961 protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiong-Zhuo [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, XiaoJun, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China)

    2007-10-01

    The SMU.961 protein from S. mutans was crystallized and preliminary characterization of the crystals, which diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution, shows them to belong to space group C2. The smu.961 gene encodes a putative protein of 183 residues in Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen in human dental caries. The gene was cloned into expression vector pET28a and expressed in a substantial quantity in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) with a His tag at its N-terminus. The recombinant protein SMU.961 was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure consisting of Ni{sup 2+}-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution at beamline I911-3, MAX-II-lab, Sweden. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.62, b = 73.73, c = 184.73 Å, β = 98.82°.

  19. Overcoming function annotation errors in the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus suis by a proteomics-driven approach

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    Bárcena José A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annotation of protein-coding genes is a key step in sequencing projects. Protein functions are mainly assigned on the basis of the amino acid sequence alone by searching of homologous proteins. However, fully automated annotation processes often lead to wrong prediction of protein functions, and therefore time-intensive manual curation is often essential. Here we describe a fast and reliable way to correct function annotation in sequencing projects, focusing on surface proteomes. We use a proteomics approach, previously proven to be very powerful for identifying new vaccine candidates against Gram-positive pathogens. It consists of shaving the surface of intact cells with two proteases, the specific cleavage-site trypsin and the unspecific proteinase K, followed by LC/MS/MS analysis of the resulting peptides. The identified proteins are contrasted by computational analysis and their sequences are inspected to correct possible errors in function prediction. Results When applied to the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis, of which two strains have been recently sequenced and annotated, we identified a set of surface proteins without cytoplasmic contamination: all the proteins identified had exporting or retention signals towards the outside and/or the cell surface, and viability of protease-treated cells was not affected. The combination of both experimental evidences and computational methods allowed us to determine that two of these proteins are putative extracellular new adhesins that had been previously attributed a wrong cytoplasmic function. One of them is a putative component of the pilus of this bacterium. Conclusion We illustrate the complementary nature of laboratory-based and computational methods to examine in concert the localization of a set of proteins in the cell, and demonstrate the utility of this proteomics-based strategy to experimentally correct function annotation errors in sequencing projects. This

  20. Streptococcus agalactiae endogenous endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Saffra, Norman; Rakhamimov, Aleksandr; Husney, Robert; Ghitan, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (SA) is a Group B Streptococcus, which is a common pathogen implicated in neonatal and geriatric sepsis. Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE) is a condition that results from haematogenous seeding of the globe, during transient or persistent bacteremia. We document a case of a non-septic geriatric patient, who developed EBE after a transient bacteraemia with SA.

  1. Contribution of the interaction of Streptococcus mutans serotype k strains with fibrinogen to the pathogenicity of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ryota; Otsugu, Masatoshi; Naka, Shuhei; Teramoto, Noboru; Kojima, Ayuchi; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Ooshima, Takashi; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen responsible for dental caries, is occasionally isolated from the blood of patients with bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE). Our previous study demonstrated that serotype k-specific bacterial DNA is frequently detected in S. mutans-positive heart valve specimens extirpated from IE patients. However, the reason for this frequent detection remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the virulence of IE from S. mutans strains, focusing on the characterization of serotype k strains, most of which are positive for the 120-kDa cell surface collagen-binding protein Cbm and negative for the 190-kDa protein antigen (PA) known as SpaP, P1, antigen I/II, and other designations. Fibrinogen-binding assays were performed with 85 clinical strains classified by Cbm and PA expression levels. The Cbm(+)/PA(-) group strains had significantly higher fibrinogen-binding rates than the other groups. Analysis of platelet aggregation revealed that SA31, a Cbm(+)/PA(-) strain, induced an increased level of aggregation in the presence of fibrinogen, while negligible aggregation was induced by the Cbm-defective isogenic mutant SA31CBD. A rat IE model with an artificial impairment of the aortic valve created using a catheter showed that extirpated heart valves in the SA31 group displayed a prominent vegetation mass not seen in those in the SA31CBD group. These findings could explain why Cbm(+)/PA(-) strains are highly virulent and are related to the development of IE, and the findings could also explain the frequent detection of serotype k DNA in S. mutans-positive heart valve clinical specimens.

  2. Protection of gnotobiotic rats against dental caries by passive immunization with bovine milk antibodies to Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, S M; Gregory, R L; Harmon, C C; Katz, J; Richardson, G J; Hilton, T; Filler, S J; McGhee, J R

    1987-10-01

    A multivalent vaccine consisting of whole cell antigens of seven strains, representing four serotypes (b, c, d and g), of mutans streptococci was used to hyperimmunize a group of cows. Serum samples from these animals contained immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody activity to seven serotypes (a to g) of mutans streptococci. Whey obtained from the animal with the highest serum antibody activity, which also contained high levels of IgG1 antibody, was used in passive caries immunity studies. Gnotobiotic rats monoinfected with Streptococcus mutans MT8148 serotype c or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ176 (d) or 6715 (g) and provided a caries-promoting diet containing immune whey had lower plaque scores, numbers of streptococci in plaque, and degree of caries activity than similarly infected animals given a diet containing control whey obtained from nonimmunized cows. To establish the nature of the protective component(s) present in the immune whey, an ultrafiltrate fraction of the whey was prepared. This preparation contained higher levels of IgG1 anti-S. mutans antibody activity than the immune whey. Rats monoinfected with S. mutans MT8148 and provided with a diet supplemented with 0.1% of this fraction exhibited a degree of caries protection similar to that seen in animals provided a diet containing 100% immune whey. In fact, a diet containing as little as 0.01% of the ultrafiltrate fraction gave some degree of protection against oral S. mutans infection. The active component in the immune whey was the IgG1 anti-S. mutans antibody, since rats monoinfected with S. mutans MT8148 and provided a diet supplemented with purified immune whey IgG1 had significantly reduced plaque scores, numbers of S. mutans in plaque, and caries activity compared with control animals. Prior adsorption of the IgG fraction with killed S. mutans MT8148 whole cells removed antibody activity and abrogated caries protection.

  3. First Isolation of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae from a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kichan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo; Her, Moon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus species are emerging potential pathogens in marine mammals. We report the isolation and identification of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

  4. Detection and Enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk Samples by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Nara Ladeira; Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; Silva, Luis Felipe de Prada E; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with DNA extraction directly from composite milk and bulk tank samples for detection and enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae (SAG) causing subclinical mastitis. Dilutions of sterile reconstituted skim milk inoculated with SAG ATCC 13813 were used to establish a standard curve (cfu/mL) for the qPCR assay targeting SAG. The analytical sensitivity and repeatability of the qPCR assay were determined. Bulk tank (BTM; n = 38) and composite milk samples (CM; n = 26) collected from lactating cows with positive isolation of SAG were submitted to the qPCR protocol and SAG plate counting, with results from both methods compared. Amplification of DNA was not possible in two out of 64 samples, indicating that qPCR was able to detect SAG in 96 and 97% of BTM and CM samples, respectively. The inter-assay coefficient of variation was <5%, showing that the technique had adequate repeatability. The qPCR protocol can be a high-throughput and rapid diagnostic assay to accurately detect SAG from BTM and CM samples compared with conventional microbiological culture method. However, the evaluated qPCR protocol is not accurate for enumerating SAG in milk samples, probably due to quantification of DNA of non-viable cells.

  5. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana C Tizioto

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent.

  6. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7 have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Results Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV-infected pigs (4/12 and the coinfected pigs (8/10; however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10 than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12 and SS7-infected pigs (0/10. The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. Conclusion HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.

  7. Suicin 90-1330 from a nonvirulent strain of Streptococcus suis: a nisin-related lantibiotic active on gram-positive swine pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBel, Geneviève; Vaillancourt, Katy; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections (meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia) in pigs and is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Antibiotics have long been used in the swine industry for disease treatment/prevention and growth promoters. This pattern of utilization resulted in the spread of antibiotic resistance in S. suis worldwide. Interestingly, pigs may harbor S. suis in their tonsils without developing diseases, while North American strains belonging to the sequence type 28 (ST28) are nonvirulent in animal models. Consequently, the aim of this study was to purify and characterize a bacteriocin produced by a nonvirulent strain of S. suis serotype 2, with a view to a potential therapeutic and preventive application. S. suis 90-1330 belonging to ST28 and previously shown to be nonvirulent in an animal model exhibited antibacterial activity toward all S. suis pathogenic isolates tested. The bacteriocin produced by this strain was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography. Given its properties (molecular mass of nisin U produced by Streptococcus uberis. The putative gene cluster involved in suicin production was amplified by PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of 11 open reading frames, including the structural gene and those required for the modification of amino acids, export, regulation, and immunity. Further studies will evaluate the ability of suicin 90-1330 or the producing strain to prevent experimental S. suis infections in pigs.

  8. Bovine milk antibodies for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S

    2000-11-01

    The immunoglobulins of bovine colostrum provide the major antimicrobial protection against microbial infections and confer a passive immunity to the newborn calf until its own immune system matures. The concentration in colostrum of specific antibodies against pathogens can be raised by immunising cows with these pathogens or their antigens. Immune milk products are preparations made of such hyperimmune colostrum or antibodies enriched from it. These preparations can be used to give effective specific protection against different enteric diseases in calves and suckling pigs. Colostral immunoglobulin supplements designed for farm animals are commercially available in many countries. Also, some immune milk products containing specific antibodies against certain pathogens have been launched on the market. A number of clinical studies are currently in progress to evaluate the efficacy of immune milks in the prevention and treatment of various human infections, including those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bovine colostrum-based immune milk products have proven effective in prophylaxis against various infectious diseases in humans. Good results have been obtained with products targeted against rotavirus, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Streptococcus mutans, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori. Some successful attempts have been made to use immune milk in balancing gastrointestinal microbial flora. Immune milk products are promising examples of health-promoting functional foods, or nutraceuticals. This review summarises the recent progress in the development of these products and evaluates their potential as dietary supplements and in clinical nutrition.

  9. The bovine paranasal sinuses: Bacterial flora, epithelial expression of nitric oxide and potential role in the in-herd persistence of respiratory disease pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Rónan G.; Lee, Alison M.; McElroy, Máire C.; More, Simon J.; Monagle, Aisling; Earley, Bernadette; Cassidy, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    The bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. While lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. Furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. The paranasal sinuses of clinically normal cattle (n = 99) and of cattle submitted for post-mortem examination (PME: n = 34) were examined by microbial culture, PCR and serology to include bacterial and viral pathogens typically associated with BRD: Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (BPIV-3). Overall, the paranasal sinuses were either predominantly sterile or did not contain detectable microbes (83.5%: 94.9% of clinically normal and 50.0% of cattle submitted for PME). Bacteria, including BRD causing pathogens, were identified in relatively small numbers of cattle (<10%). While serology indicated widespread exposure of both clinically normal and cattle submitted for PME to BPIV-3 and BRSV (seroprevalences of 91.6% and 84.7%, respectively), PCR identified BPIV-3 in only one animal. To further explore these findings we investigated the potential role of the antimicrobial molecule nitric oxide (NO) within paranasal sinus epithelium using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the enzyme responsible for NO synthesis, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), was detected to varying degrees in 76.5% of a sub-sample of animals suggesting production of this compound plays a similar protective role in the bovine sinus as it does in humans. PMID:28282443

  10. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria in South African Wildlife: Neglected Pathogens and Potential Impediments for Bovine Tuberculosis Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Hlokwe, Tiny M.

    2017-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The NTM identified in this study include the following species which were isolated from tissue with tuberculosis- like lesions in the absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) implying their potential role as pathogens of animals: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium sinense JMD 601, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense, and Mycobacterium septicum/M. peregrinum. Mycobaterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, and a potential novel Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii were found for the first time in this study to be potential pathogens of animals. Mycobacterium simiae was isolated from a sample originating from a tuberculin skin test positive reactor, demonstrating its potential to elicit inappropriate immune responses in animals that may interfere with diagnosis of tuberculosis by immunology. Mycobacterium abscessus

  11. Altered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zinicola

    Full Text Available Bovine digital dermatitis (DD is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

  12. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

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    Rini I Damayanti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were used as control animals. Isolate I and III were originated from semen from IBR positive bulls number G 867 and G 148 respectively whereas isolate II was collected from vaginal mucosa and isolate IV was from nasal mucosa of IBR positive cattle treated with dexamethasone. Clinical response, gross-pathological and histopathological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the antigen in tissue section. The results show that the BHV-1 local isolates could produce IBR syndrome namely fever and changes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts even though the clinical responses seemed to be disappeared by 21 days PI. Grossly there were hyperaemic nasal and vaginal mucosa and pneumonia whereas histologically there were non suppurative rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia and vulvovaginitis. Immunohistochemically the antigen was detected in the nasal concha and trachea. Dexamethasone treatment at 60-64 days PI could produce less severe clinical features and the second necroppsy at 69 days PI also results in less severe pathological responses. The findings also suggest that the pathogenicity of BHV-1 local isolates were as follows: isolates I, II, IV and III.

  13. Bactericidal effect of bovine lactoferrin and synthetic peptide lactoferrin chimera in Streptococcus pneumoniae and the decrease in luxS gene expression by lactoferrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. León-Sicairos; U.A. Angulo-Zamudio; J.E. Vidal; C.A. López-Torres; J.G.M. Bolscher; K. Nazmi; R. Reyes-Cortes; M. Reyes-López; M. de la Garza; A. Canizalez-Román

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for nearly one million child deaths annually. Pneumococcus causes infections such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, and sepsis. The human immune system includes antibacterial peptides and proteins such as lactoferrin (LF), but its activity

  14. 牛源性无乳链球菌血清型分布及抗生素耐药性研究%Serotype Distribution of Bovine Streptococcus agalactiae and its Drug Resistance to Antibiotics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏胜; 郁杰; 罗金印; 李新圃; 徐继英; 王旭荣; 张礼华

    2012-01-01

    本研究旨在查明牛源性无乳链球菌血清型分布及对常见抗生素的耐药情况,指导临床合理用药.对从中国部分地区奶牛场采集的临床型乳房炎病牛乳中分离鉴定出78株无乳链球菌地方菌株,制备沉淀反应抗原及6株标准血清型无乳链球菌单因子血清抗体,采用环状沉淀试验,对78株无乳链球菌地方菌株进行了血清学分型鉴定;同时采用K-B纸片法测定了这些菌株对抗生素的耐药情况.结果表明,引起奶牛乳房炎的无乳链球菌血清型主要为X型(60.26%),其次为Ⅲ型(10.26%)、R型(7.69%)、Ⅱ型(7.69%)和Ⅰb型(5.13%),Ⅰ a型尚未发现.无乳链球菌对目前临床上使用的大部分抗生素,如头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟、丁胺卡那霉素、卡那霉素、庆大霉素、四环素、强力霉素、氟苯尼考、多黏菌素B、环丙沙星、氟哌酸和头孢他啶/棒酸均较敏感;但对氨苄青霉素、链霉素、恩诺沙星、阿莫西林/棒酸和复方新诺明,有一定的耐药性,其耐药率达50%~100%.本研究对进一步研制有效的药物及疫苗,指导临床合理用药具有重要的意义.%To identify serotype distribution of bovine Streptococcus agalactiae and its drug resistance to common antibiotics, so that the correct antibiotics was applied during clinical therapy, 78 local strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were isolated from milk samples of dairy cow with clinical mastitis throughout the country. We prepared antigens for precipitation reaction and hyperimmune serum antibodies of 6 standard serotype Streptococcus agalactiae strains, then 78 local strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were identified by ring precipitation test and antibiotic resistance were analyzed. In China, the predominant serotype of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine mastitis were X-type (60. 26%), Ⅲ-type (10. 26%), R-type (7.69%), Ⅱ -type (7.69%) and I b-type (5. 13%) respectively. However, I a-type was not

  15. Epidemiological and pathogenic study on the outbreak of toxic shock syndrome and meningocephalitis caused by swine streptococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐家琪; 白薇; 朱进; 郭恒彬; 胡晓抒; 朱凤才; 刘光中

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the relationship between the biological characteristics of pathogen and the pig-to-human spread of the epidemic and infectious disease in 1998 in East China. Methods: Epidemiological survey, pathological examination of pigs and patients, and pathogen isolation were performed. Results: The disease had a character of quick onset, serious symptoms, short course and high mortality. The clinical manifestations and pathological changes of the disease were high fever, sometimes with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, then might develop to myositis, fascitis, DIC, multiple organ failure, shock and usually died in 2-3 d. Among 25 patients, 16 manifested clinically as streptococcal toxic shock syndromes and 9 streptococcal meningiocephalitis syndrome. The mortality was 81.25% and 11.11% respectively. Pathogenic bacteria isolated from diseased pigs and patients were found to have some common characteristics in morphology, staining and biological characters. Conclusion: The pathogen isolated from the blood of patients and pigs were identified as streptococci.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine.

  17. Comparative activity and mechanism of action of three types of bovine antimicrobial peptides against pathogenic Prototheca spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasinsig, Linda; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Scarsini, Michele; Guida, Filomena; Piccinini, Renata; Tossi, Alessandro; Zanetti, Margherita

    2012-02-01

    The yeast-like algae of the genus Prototheca are ubiquitous saprophytes causing infections in immunocompromised patients and granulomatous mastitis in cattle. Few available therapies and the rapid spread of resistant strains worldwide support the need for novel drugs against protothecosis. Host defence antimicrobial peptides inactivate a wide array of pathogens and are a rich source of leads, with the advantage of being largely unaffected by microbial resistance mechanisms. Three structurally diverse bovine peptides [BMAP-28, Bac5 and lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP)] have thus been tested for their capacity to inactivate Prototheca spp. In minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays, they were all effective in the micromolar range against clinical mastitis isolates as well as a Prototheca wickerhamii reference strain. BMAP-28 sterilized Prototheca cultures within 30-60 min at its MIC, induced cell permeabilization with near 100% release of cellular adenosine triphosphate and resulted in extensive surface blebbing and release of intracellular material as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Bac5 and LAP inactivated Prototheca following 3-6 h incubation at fourfold their MIC and did not result in detectable surface damage despite 70-90% killing, suggesting they act via non-lytic mechanisms. In circular dichroism studies, the conformation of BMAP-28, but not that of Bac5 or LAP, was affected by interaction with liposomes mimicking algal membranes. Our results indicate that BMAP-28, Bac5 and LAP kill Prototheca with distinct potencies, killing kinetics, and modes of action and may be appropriate for protothecal mastitis treatment. In addition, the ability of Bac5 and LAP to act via non-lytic mechanisms may be exploited for the development of target-selective drugs.

  18. Tricuspid valve endocarditis with Group B Streptococcus after an elective abortion: the need for new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palys, Erica E; Li, John; Gaut, Paula L; Hardy, W David

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B streptococcus (GBS), was originally discovered as a cause of bovine mastitis. GBS colonizes the genital tract of up to 40% of women and has become a major pathogen in neonatal meningitis. GBS endocarditis is thought to be an uncommon manifestation of this infection and carries a higher mortality compared to other streptococcal pathogens. Studies have shown that endocarditis after abortion has an incidence of about one per million. However, this figure was published prior to routine use of echocardiography for diagnosis. The American Heart Association has recently declared transesophageal echocardiography the gold standard for endocarditis diagnosis. This case report illustrates that, given the potentially devastating consequences of endocarditis, there is a need for updated studies to adequately assess the true incidence of this infection. Pending the outcome of these studies, routine GBS screening and prophylactic antibiotics prior to abortion should be recommended.

  19. Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis With Group B Streptococcus After an Elective Abortion: The Need for New Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Palys

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B streptococcus (GBS, was originally discovered as a cause of bovine mastitis. GBS colonizes the genital tract of up to 40% of women and has become a major pathogen in neonatal meningitis. GBS endocarditis is thought to be an uncommon manifestation of this infection and carries a higher mortality compared to other streptococcal pathogens. Studies have shown that endocarditis after abortion has an incidence of about one per million. However, this figure was published prior to routine use of echocardiography for diagnosis. The American Heart Association has recently declared transesophageal echocardiography the gold standard for endocarditis diagnosis. This case report illustrates that, given the potentially devastating consequences of endocarditis, there is a need for updated studies to adequately assess the true incidence of this infection. Pending the outcome of these studies, routine GBS screening and prophylactic antibiotics prior to abortion should be recommended.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of nanosystems for the control of oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupe, Carolina Gonçalves; Villardi, Michele; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Rocha, Helvécio Vinícius Antunes; Maia, Lucianne Cople; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Background Diseases that affect the buccal cavity are a public health concern nowadays. Chlorhexidine and nystatin are the most commonly used drugs for the control of buccal affections. In the search for more effective antimicrobials, nanotechnology can be successfully used to improve the physical chemical properties of drugs whilst avoiding the undesirable side effects associated with its use. Herein described are studies using nystatin and chlorhexidine with sodium montmorillonite (MMTNa), and chlorhexidine with β-cyclodextrin and two derivatives methyl-β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the development of antimicrobial nanosystems. Methods The nanosystems were prepared by kneading and solubilization followed by freeze-drying technique. The nanosystems were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Nanosystem antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans strains was evaluated with inhibition halo analysis. Results The nanocarriers MMTNa and cyclodextrins showed good yields. XRPD, FTIR, and DSC analysis confirmed the proposed nanosystems formation and the suitability of the production methods. The nanosystems that showed best antimicrobial effect were chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes and CHX:MMTNa 60% cation exchange capacity – 24 hours. Conclusion The nanosystem formulations present higher stability for all chlorhexidine inclusion complexes compared with pure chlorhexidine. The nystatin nanosystems have the potential to mask the bitter taste, justifying subsequent in-vivo studies. For these reasons, further studies are being carried out to evaluate their application in professional formulations. PMID:22114490

  1. A STUDY ON IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS BENGALENSIS LINN. ON DENTAL CARIES PATHOGENS STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND ACTINOMYCES VISCOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. B. Prashanth, I. Kannan*, C. Sambandam, M. Jayalakshmi, R.K. Premavathy and S. Shantha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aerial roots of Ficus bengalensis Linn. were collected in and around Chennai, Tamilnadu, India They were washed, shade dried and were ground into powder. The powder was extracted with chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol and hexane. The antibacterial screening of the extracts was carried out by determining the zone of inhibition using disc diffusion method. The strains were grown to logarithmic phase in BHI broth and the inoculum was prepared by adjusting the turbidity of bacterial suspension to 0.5 McFarland’s tube. The dried extracts was dissolved in 10% Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO in required concentration. The sterile discs were impregnated with 20 μl of extract. The extract discs were placed on BHI agar plates, which were previously inoculated with test strains and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. Ampicillin disc (10μg and 10% DMSO impregnated discs were used as positive and negative controls respectively and the zones of inhibition were recorded. The Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by agar dilution method. The results of the present study showed that the methanol and chloroform extracts of Ficus bengalensis Linn. have activity against both Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus. From the present study it is concluded that Ficus bengalensis Linn. extracts can be used as an effective antibacterial agent against dental caries.

  2. Increasing of temperature induces pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae and the up-regulation of inflammatory related genes in infected Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2014-08-06

    Temperature strongly affects the health of aquatic poikilotherms. In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), elevated water temperatures increase the severity of streptococcosis. Here we investigated the effects of temperature on the vulnerability and inflammatory response of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci; GBS). At 35 and 28 °C, GBS took 4 and 7h, respectively to reach the log-phase and, when incubated with tilapia whole blood, experienced survival rates of 97% and 2%, respectively. The hemolysis activity of GBS grown at 35 °C was five times higher than that of GBS grown at 28 °C. GBS expressed cylE (β-hemolysin/cytolysin), cfb (CAMP factor) and PI-2b (pili-backbone) much more strongly at 35 °C than at 28 °C. Challenging Nile tilapia reared at 35 and 28 °C with GBS resulted in accumulated mortalities of about 85% and 45%, respectively. At 35 °C, infected tilapia exhibited tremendous inflammatory responses due to a dramatic up-regulation (30-40-fold) of inflammatory-related genes (cyclooxygenase-2, IL-1β and TNF-α) between 6 and 96 h-post infection. These results suggest that the increase of GBS pathogenicity to Nile tilapia induced by elevated temperature is associated with massive inflammatory responses, which may lead to acute mortality.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of nanosystems for the control of oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupe CG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Gonçalves Pupe1, Michele Villardi1, Carlos Rangel Rodrigues1, Helvécio Vinícius Antunes Rocha2, Lucianne Cople Maia3, Valeria Pereira de Sousa1, Lucio Mendes Cabral11Depto de Medicamentos, Faculdade de Farmácia, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, 2Farmanguinhos/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, 3Faculdade de Odontologia, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Diseases that affect the buccal cavity are a public health concern nowadays. Chlorhexidine and nystatin are the most commonly used drugs for the control of buccal affections. In the search for more effective antimicrobials, nanotechnology can be successfully used to improve the physical chemical properties of drugs whilst avoiding the undesirable side effects associated with its use. Herein described are studies using nystatin and chlorhexidine with sodium montmorillonite (MMTNa, and chlorhexidine with ß-cyclodextrin and two derivatives methyl-β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the development of antimicrobial nanosystems.Methods: The nanosystems were prepared by kneading and solubilization followed by freeze-drying technique. The nanosystems were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Nanosystem antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans strains was evaluated with inhibition halo analysis.Results: The nanocarriers MMTNa and cyclodextrins showed good yields. XRPD, FTIR, and DSC analysis confirmed the proposed nanosystems formation and the suitability of the production methods. The nanosystems that showed best antimicrobial effect were chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes and CHX:MMTNa 60% cation exchange capacity – 24 hours.Conclusion: The nanosystem formulations present higher stability for all chlorhexidine inclusion complexes compared with pure chlorhexidine. The nystatin nanosystems have the potential to mask the

  4. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien S Bouchard

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation; inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC; and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  5. Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis at calving in dairy herds with suboptimal udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Å; Nyman, A-K; Aspán, A; Börjesson, S; Unnerstad, H Ericsson; Waller, K Persson

    2016-03-01

    Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis are common causes of bovine mastitis. To study these pathogens in early lactation, a 12-mo longitudinal, observational study was carried out in 13 herds with suboptimal udder health. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of these pathogens and to identify if presence of the 3 pathogens, and of genotypes within the pathogens, differed with respect to herd, season, and parity. Quarter milk samples, collected at calving and 4 d in milk (DIM), were cultured for the 3 pathogens. Genotyping of staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates was performed using spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, respectively. For each of the 3 pathogens, cows with an udder infection at calving or 4 DIM were allocated to 1 of 4 infection types: cleared (pathogen present only at calving), persistent (pathogen present in the same quarter at calving and 4 DIM), new (pathogen present only at 4 DIM), or cleared/new (pathogen present in 1 quarter at calving and in another quarter at 4 DIM). Associations between season or parity and overall occurrence of pathogens or infection types were determined using univariable mixed-effect logistic-regression models and the Fisher's exact test, respectively. The most commonly occurring pathogen was Staph. aureus, followed by Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. Persistent infections were the most common infection type among Staph. aureus-infected cows, whereas cleared infections were the most common among Strep. dysgalactiae- and Strep. uberis-positive cows. The proportion of cows with persistent Staph. aureus infections and the proportion of cows having a Strep. uberis infection at calving or 4 DIM were higher in the multiparous cows than in primiparous cows. Infections with Strep. dysgalactiae were less common during the early housing season than during the late housing or pasture seasons, whereas persistent Strep. uberis

  6. Nationwide survey of the development of drug-resistant pathogens in the pediatric field in 2007 and 2010: drug sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Japan (second report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Takeshi; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2013-06-01

    We previously conducted nationwide surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 2000-2001 (period 1) and 2004 (period 2) and reported the findings. Subsequent surveillance surveys conducted in 2007 (period 3) and 2010 (period 4) are now reported. Bacterial strains were clinically isolated from children with meningitis, sepsis, and respiratory tract infections at 27 hospitals participating in the Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease. Twenty-one drugs were investigated for 283 isolated strains in period 3, and 24 drugs were investigated for 459 strains in period 4. In period 3, 43.8 % of strains were penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP), 52.3 % were penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP), and 3.9 % were penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP). In period 4, the percentages were PSSP 23.1 %, PISP 49.9 %, and PRSP 27.0 %. The resistance rates were 56.2 % and 76.9 %, respectively. Drug sensitivity was best with panipenem, at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)90 ≤0.063 μg/ml in period 3, and with tebipenem (MIC90 ≤ 0.063 μg/ml) in period 4. Patients' background factors related to increased bacterial resistance were investigated, and significant differences were found depending on whether a child had siblings (P = 0.0056) or was a daycare center attendee (P = 0.0195) in period 3, and age category (P = 0.0256) in period 4. No factors were common to both periods 3 and 4. Pneumococcus is a major causative organism of pediatric infectious disease, and we plan to continue conducting surveillance and providing information in the future.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Bovine Mastitis Pathogen Mycoplasma californicum Strain ST-6T (ATCC 33461T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Fox, Lawrence K

    2014-07-03

    Mycoplasma californicum is one of several mycoplasmal species associated with bovine mastitis. The complete genome sequence of 793,841 bp has been determined and annotated for the M. californicum ST-6 type strain, providing a resource for the identification of surface antigens and putative pathoadaptive features.

  8. 链球菌猪主要致病种和型多重PCR检测方法的建立%Establishment of a multiplex PCR assay for detection of pig-pathogenic species and types of Streptococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹君; 王楷宬; 田莉莉; 王旭远; 曾巧英; 范伟兴

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method to detect streptococci at genus,species and type levels simultaneously by just a single PCR.Targeting at mainly pig-pathogenic species and types including Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus and Streptococcus suis types 1,2,7,9(SS1,SS2,SS7 and SS9),based on genetic sequences in GenBank,7 pairs of primers respectively targeting at Streptococcus genus-conservative gene(elongation factor,EF-TU),Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus conservative gene(glutamate dehydrogenase,GDH and M-like protein respectively),and type specific genes(capsular polysaccharide,CPS,CPS1I,CPS2J,CPS7H,CPS9H respectively for SS1,SS2,SS7 and SS9).The novel multiplex PCR assay could clearly produce the 7 expected bands with correct sizes and sequences at 61 ℃ as annealing temperature.Specificity and accuracy were confirmed by expected bands when detecting standard SS strains and Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus strain 555,and even further proven by 100% in agreement with bacteriological and PCR results when detecting 16 Streptococcus isolates.Sensitivity reached 0.08 ng/μL and stability was verified by same performance in 5 separate tests.The multiplex PCR are the only assay up to date which could detect pig-pathogenic Streptococcus at genus,species and type levels by a single PCR with high specificity,accuracy,sensitivity and stability,suiting for Streptococcus surveillance on pig farm and fast epidemiological survey.%根据GenBank中登录的链球菌属保守基因(EF-TU)、猪链球菌种保守基因(GDH)、C群马链球菌兽疫亚种保守基因(M-like)、猪链球菌型特异性基因(SS1型CPS1I、SS2型CPS2J、SS7型CPS7H和SS9型CPS9H)的序列设计合成7对引物,建立了一次性在属、种、型3个水平上检测链球菌猪主要致病种和型(C群马链球菌兽疫亚种和猪链球菌1、2、7、9型)的多重PCR方法。结

  9. Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Streptococcus equi evolution: the role of CRISPRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Andrew S; Robinson, Carl

    2013-12-01

    The host-restricted bacterium Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of equine strangles, the most frequently diagnosed infectious disease of horses worldwide. The disease is characterized by abscessation of the lymph nodes of the head and neck, leading to significant welfare and economic cost. S. equi is believed to have evolved from an ancestral strain of Streptococcus zooepidemicus, an opportunistic pathogen of horses and other animals. Comparison of the genome of S. equi strain 4047 with those of S. zooepidemicus identified examples of gene loss due to mutation and deletion, and gene gain through the acquisition of mobile genetic elements that have probably shaped the pathogenic specialization of S. equi. In particular, deletion of the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) locus in the ancestor of S. equi may have predisposed the bacterium to acquire and incorporate new genetic material into its genome. These include four prophages and a novel integrative conjugative element. The virulence cargo carried by these mobile genetic elements is believed to have shaped the ability of S. equi to cause strangles. Further sequencing of S. zooepidemicus has highlighted the diversity of this opportunistic pathogen. Again, CRISPRs are postulated to influence evolution, balancing the need for gene gain over genome stability. Analysis of spacer sequences suggest that these pathogens may be susceptible to a limited range of phages and provide further evidence of cross-species exchange of genetic material among Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

  10. Molecular detection and sensitivity to antibiotics and bacteriocins of pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in family dairy herds of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E; Lechuga-Arana, A Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P antibiotics tested in this study.

  11. Identification, isolation, and partial characterization of a novel Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Raul A; Luther, Douglas A; Park, Hee-Myung; Oliver, Stephen P

    2006-06-15

    The ability to attach to the host cell surface has been considered an important virulence strategy in many bovine mammary gland pathogens, including Streptococcus uberis. Research conducted in our laboratory lead to the identification of an S. uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) with affinity for bovine lactoferrin (LF) and delineation of its role in adherence of S. uberis to bovine mammary epithelial cells. Using a selected bacterial surface protein extraction protocol and affinity chromatography, a 112-kDa protein that had a similar molecular mass and the LF affinity as one of the identified S. uberis LBP described by Fang and Oliver in 1999 was found. To further characterize SUAM, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein was elucidated. A protein query versus translated database TBLASTN search of the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI), non-redundant database, nr, with the LBP N-terminal amino acid sequence showed no significant similarity with previous entries. Antibodies directed against SUAM and a 17 amino acid long N-terminal sequence (pep-SUAM) inhibited adherence to and internalization of S. uberis UT888 into bovine mammary epithelial cells. Data presented suggests that we have discovered a novel bacterial protein involved in the pathogenesis of this economically important mastitis pathogen.

  12. 免疫牛乳清对变形链球菌粘附的影响%Effects of Immune Bovine Whey on Sucrose-dependent Adherence of Streptococcus mutans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊明文; 陈文霞; 边专; 杜民权; 陈东

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to explore the possible anti-carious mechanisms of immune bovine whey.Methods:The immune milk was collected from cows immunized with cell associated glucosyltransferase(GFT) over-expression strain B-29-33 of Streptococcus mutans(S.mutans) MT8148. The control milk was obtained from non-immunized cows. The immune and control bovine whey were prepared by removing fat and casein.The effects of two kinds of bovine whey on sucrose-dependent adherence of S.mutans MT8148 were examined by using TTY media with five different volumes of the immune and the control milk, 100,300,500,700 and 900μl respectively. The adherent rates were determined by reading the optical density. The adherent morphology was observed by using a scanning electron microscope(SEM). Results: There was no significant difference in adherence of S.mutans MT8148 cells to the smooth glass surface among five doses with those of the control whey. The immune bovine whey inhibited the adherence of S.mutans. The adherent percentage was 84.37% at 100μl and decreased by 58.59% at 900μl.The inhibition was does_dependent. The difference of adherent morphology between the immune and control whey was noticeable at 900μl. The SEM revealed that cells of S.mutans MT8148 with the control whey were covered by large quantities of gelatinous material,but cells with the immune whey were clearly distinguished. Conclusion: The immune whey has inhibitory potential against the sucrose-dependent adherence of S.mutans.%目的:研究免疫乳清对变形链球菌蔗糖依赖性粘附的影响。方法:用来源于葡糖基转移酶过表达株B-29-33免疫孕牛获得的免疫牛奶和从未免疫孕牛获得的对照牛奶,分别观察两种乳清在5种不同剂量条件下的细菌粘附率,并用扫描电镜观察粘附的形态学变化。结果:对照乳清在5种剂量条件下,变形链球菌的粘附率基本无变化。免疫乳清随着剂量的增加,细菌的

  13. Opposing Signals from Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns and IL-10 Are Critical for Optimal Dendritic Cell Induction of In Vivo Humoral Immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    patterns and IL-10 for optimization of DC induction of an in vivo humoral immune response. Bone marrow-derived, CD8 DC pulsed with Streptococcus ... pneumoniae in vitro induce in vivo protein- and polysaccharide-specific Ig isotype responses upon adoptive transfer into naive mice. Following bacterial

  14. Streptolysin S of Streptococcus anginosus exhibits broad-range hemolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asam, Daniela; Mauerer, Stefanie; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is a commensal of mucous membranes and an emerging human pathogen. Some strains, including the type strain, display a prominent β-hemolytic phenotype. A gene cluster (sag), encoding a variant of streptolysin S (SLS) has recently been identified as the genetic background for β-hemolysin production in S. anginosus. In this study, we further characterized the hemolytic and cytolytic activity of the S. anginosus hemolysin in comparison with other streptococcal hemolysins. The results indicate that SLS of S. anginosus is a broad-range hemolysin able to lyse erythrocytes of different species, including horse, bovine, rabbit and even chicken. The hemolytic activity is temperature dependent, and a down-regulation of the hemolysin expression is induced in the presence of high glucose levels. Survival assays indicate that in contrast to other streptococcal species, S. anginosus does not require SLS for survival in the presence of human granulocytes. Cross-complementation studies using the sagB and sagD genes of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis demonstrated functional similarities to the S. anginosus SLS. Nevertheless, distinct differences to other streptolysin S variants were noted and provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms of SLS pathogen host interactions.

  15. Septicemia with Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Littauer, Pia Jeanette; Greve, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    patients, growth of an atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae (non-capsular, non-serotypeable, optochin susceptible under ambient atmosphere and bile-intermediately soluble) was recovered. All three patients had a history of a haematological disease (myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma......Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was described in 2004 as a new human pathogen, acknowledged in a range of clinical infections typically associated to the respiratory tract. This report demonstrates that S. pseudopneumoniae has the potential to cause invasive infection. In blood cultures from three......) and an apparent origin of infection related to the liver or bile duct. All isolates were genome sequenced and subsequently identified as S. pseudopneumoniae by multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA). Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) based on the S. pneumoniae scheme revealed unknown sequence types...

  16. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  17. Effect of carryover and presampling procedures on the results of real-time PCR used for diagnosis of bovine intramammary infections with Streptococcus agalactiae at routine milk recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Mweu, Marshal M; Nielsen, Søren S; Katholm, Jørgen; Klaas, Ilka C

    2014-03-01

    The use of PCR tests as diagnostics for intramammary infections (IMI) based on composite milk samples collected in a non-sterile manner at milk recordings is increasing. Carryover of sample material between cows and non-aseptic PCR sampling may be incriminated for misclassification of IMI with Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in dairy herds with conventional milking parlours. Misclassification may result in unnecessary costs for treatment and culling. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the effect of carryover on PCR-positivity for S. agalactiae at different PCR cycle threshold (Ct) cut-offs by estimating the between-cow correlation while accounting for the milking order, and (2) evaluate the effect of aseptic presampling procedures (PSP) on PCR-positivity at the different Ct-value cut-offs. The study was conducted in four herds with conventional milking parlours at routine milk recordings. Following the farmers' routine pre-milking preparation, 411 of 794 cows were randomly selected for the PSP treatment. These procedures included removing the first streams of milk and 70% alcohol teat disinfection. Composite milk samples were then collected from all cows and tested using PCR. Data on milking order were used to estimate the correlation between consecutively milked cows in each milking unit. Factors associated with the PCR-positivity for S. agalactiae were analyzed using generalized estimating equations assuming a binomially-distributed outcome with a logit link function. Presampling procedures were only significant using cut-off 37. A first-order autoregressive correlation structure provided the best correlation between consecutively milked cows. The correlation was 13%, 11%, 9% at cut-offs <40, 37, and 34, respectively. PSP did not reduce the odds of cows being PCR-positive for S. agalactiae. In conclusion, carryover and non-aseptic sampling affected the PCR results and should therefore be considered when samples from routine milk

  18. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia-prone age groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Farida (Helmia); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); M.H. Gasem; M. Keuter (Monique); H. Wahyono (Hendro); P. van den Broek (Peterhans); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control

  19. Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumonia in Pneumonia-Prone Age Groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farida, H.; Severin, J.A.; Gasem, M.H.; Keuter, M.; Wahyono, H.; Broek, P van den; Hermans, P.W.M.; Verbrugh, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control pneumococcal

  20. Non-infectivity of Cattle Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as a Lancefield’s group B Streptococcus (GBS). It is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis that is responsible for severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish, worldwide. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis. Only limited comparativ...

  1. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  2. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  3. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-29

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens.

  4. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases for Control of Mastitis Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis results in annual losses between $1.7 billion and $2 billion in the United States alone. Among the most relevant causative agents of this disease are Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B; GBS) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Group C; GCS) streptococci as well as Staphylococcus aureus. ...

  5. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosini

    Full Text Available The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  6. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosini, Roberto; Campisi, Edmondo; De Chiara, Matteo; Tettelin, Hervé; Rinaudo, Daniela; Toniolo, Chiara; Metruccio, Matteo; Guidotti, Silvia; Sørensen, Uffe B Skov; Kilian, Mogens; Ramirez, Mario; Janulczyk, Robert; Donati, Claudio; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  7. Infections Associated with Streptococcus intermedius in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, Howard S

    2016-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a viridans Streptococcus belonging to the Anginosus group. In the past 7 years, it has been associated with abscesses in 48 children, 40% of whom had complicated and/or life-threatening illness. It was the sole pathogen in 35 cases. Seventy-five percent of the infections occurred in winter and spring. None occurred in infants younger than 1 year.

  8. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  9. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB).

  10. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control c

  11. Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Joyce J.; Phillip H. Klesius; Pasnik, David J.; Bohnsack, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

  12. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  13. 内蒙古无乳链球菌耐药性及四环素耐药基因检测%Drug resistance and tetracycline resistance gene identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from bovine in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜琳; 郝永清

    2016-01-01

    为了解内蒙古地区隐性乳房炎无乳链球菌分离株耐药性及耐药基因,采集内蒙古不同地区的规模化养殖场隐性乳房炎乳样,采用 Kirby-Bauer(K-B)纸片扩散法测试分离株对16种抗菌药物的敏感性,PCR 方法检测其耐药基因.结果显示:无乳链球菌对大部分抗生素较敏感.对其有较强抑菌作用的药物为:青霉素 G、头孢噻肟、头孢唑啉、阿莫西林、红霉素、环丙沙星、恩诺沙星、氧氟沙星、林可霉素、呋喃妥因、万古霉素.其敏感性达到90%~100%.该菌株对四环素有较强的耐药性,耐药率达77.27%.PCR 扩增四环素耐药基因 tetM 、tetO 、tetK 、tetL ,结果显示22株无乳链球菌均含有 tetM 基因,其基因的检出率为100%.其中7株同时含有 tetK 基因,tetO 、tetL 基因未检出.%In order to understand drug resistance and tetracycline resistance gene of Streptococcus agalactiae epidemic strains,the prevalent strains of S .agalactiae from the main bovine culture area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were detected through Kirby-B auer(K-B)method and PCR.Drug susceptibility testing indicated that the S .agalactiae isolated strains were sensitive to most antibiotics. The S .agalactiae isolates were susceptible to penicillin,cefotaxime,cefazolin,amoxicillin,erythromy-cin,ciprofloxacin,enrofloxacin,ofloxacin,clindamycin,nitrofurantoin,and vancomycin with susceptibili-ties rates of 90% to 100%.In contrast,the S .agalactiae isolates were resistant to tetracycline with re-sistance rates of 77.27%.Four resistance genes including tetM ,tet O ,tetK ,and tetL were characterized by PCR.All strains carried the resistance gene tetM and 7 strains also carried the resistance gene tetK . The resistance genes tetO and tetL were not detected.The results indicated that the resistance gene were related to the resistant type of antimicrobial agents and was important for further research and clinical therapy resistance mechanisms.

  14. NATURAL MUTATION IN THE GENE OF RESPONSE REGULATOR BgrR RESULTING IN REPRESSION OF Bac PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, A PATHOGENICITY FACTOR OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rozhdestvenskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause variety of diseases of newborns and adults. For successful colonization of different human tissues and organs as well as for suppression of the host immune system S. agalactiae expresses numerous virulence factors. For coordinated expression of the virulence genes S. agalactiae employs regulatory molecules including regulatory proteins of two-component systems. Results of the present study demonstrated that in S. agalactiae strain A49V the natural mutation in the brgR gene encoding for BgrR regulatory protein, which is component of regulatory system BgrRS, resulted in the repression of Bac protein synthesis, a virulence factor of S. agalactiae. A single nucleotide deletion in the bgrR gene has caused a shift of the reading frame and the changes in the primary, secondary and tertiary structures of the BgrR protein. The loss of functional activity of BgrR protein in A49V strain and repression of Bac protein synthesis have increased virulence of the strain in experimental animal streptococcal infection.

  15. Interactions between Streptococcus pneumoniae and the human host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, S.P. van

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, is an important human pathogen causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. This thesis addresses several interactions between pneumococcus and man. The first part of the thesis deals with the host immune response against pneumococci. We studied

  16. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 2. Label-free relative quantitative proteomics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6mb00290k Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaliar, Manikhandan; Tassi, Riccardo; Thomas, Funmilola C.; McNeilly, Tom N.; Weidt, Stefan K.; McLaughlin, Mark; Wilson, David; Burchmore, Richard; Herzyk, Pawel; Eckersall, P. David

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle in the western world. It is primarily caused by bacteria, with Streptococcus uberis as one of the most prevalent causative agents. To characterize the proteome during Streptococcus uberis mastitis, an experimentally induced model of intramammary infection was used. Milk whey samples obtained from 6 cows at 6 time points were processed using label-free relative quantitative proteomics. This proteomic analysis complements clinical, bacteriological and immunological studies as well as peptidomic and metabolomic analysis of the same challenge model. A total of 2552 non-redundant bovine peptides were identified, and from these, 570 bovine proteins were quantified. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed clear clustering of results by stage of infection, with similarities between pre-infection and resolution stages (0 and 312 h post challenge), early infection stages (36 and 42 h post challenge) and late infection stages (57 and 81 h post challenge). Ingenuity pathway analysis identified upregulation of acute phase protein pathways over the course of infection, with dominance of different acute phase proteins at different time points based on differential expression analysis. Antimicrobial peptides, notably cathelicidins and peptidoglycan recognition protein, were upregulated at all time points post challenge and peaked at 57 h, which coincided with 10 000-fold decrease in average bacterial counts. The integration of clinical, bacteriological, immunological and quantitative proteomics and other-omic data provides a more detailed systems level view of the host response to mastitis than has been achieved previously. PMID:27412694

  17. Short communication: Antimicrobial efficacy of intramammary treatment with a novel biphenomycin compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli-induced mouse mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demon, Dieter; Breyne, Koen; Schiffer, Guido; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis undermines udder health, jeopardizes milk production, and entails prohibitive costs, estimated at $2 billion per year in the dairy industry of the United States. Despite intensive research, the dairy industry has not managed to eradicate the 3 major bovine mastitis-inducing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of a newly formulated biphenomycin compound (AIC102827) was assessed against intramammary Staph. aureus, Strep. uberis, and E. coli infections, using an experimental mouse mastitis model. Based on its effective and protective doses, AIC102827 applied into the mammary gland was most efficient to treat Staph. aureus, but also adequately reduced growth of Strep. uberis or E. coli, indicating its potential as a broad-spectrum candidate to treat staphylococcal, streptococcal, and coliform mastitis in dairy cattle.

  18. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other respiratory bacterial pathogens in low and lower-middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Adegbola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in low income countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs are still underused. In countries where PCVs have been introduced, much of their efficacy has resulted from their impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in vaccinated children. Understanding the epidemiology of carriage for S. pneumoniae and other common respiratory bacteria in developing countries is crucial for implementing appropriate vaccination strategies and evaluating their impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have systematically reviewed published studies reporting nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria meningitidis in children and adults in low and lower-middle income countries. Studies reporting pneumococcal carriage for healthy children <5 years of age were selected for a meta-analysis. The prevalences of carriage for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were generally higher in low income than in lower-middle income countries and were higher in young children than in adults. The prevalence of S. aureus was high in neonates. Meta-analysis of data from young children before the introduction of PCVs showed a pooled prevalence estimate of 64.8% (95% confidence interval, 49.8%-76.1% in low income countries and 47.8% (95% confidence interval, 44.7%-50.8% in lower-middle income countries. The most frequent serotypes were 6A, 6B, 19A, 19F, and 23F. CONCLUSIONS: In low and lower-middle income countries, pneumococcal carriage is frequent, especially in children, and the spectrum of serotypes is wide. However, because data are limited, additional studies are needed to adequately assess the impact of PCV introduction on carriage of respiratory bacteria in these countries.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae CNCTC 10/84, a Hypervirulent Sequence Type 26 Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Hooven, Thomas A.; Randis, Tara M.; Daugherty, Sean C.; Narechania, Apurva; Planet, Paul J.; Tettelin, Hervé; Ratner, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a human pathogen with a propensity to cause neonatal infections. We report the complete genome sequence of GBS strain CNCTC 10/84, a hypervirulent clinical isolate frequently used to study GBS pathogenesis. Comparative analysis of this sequence may shed light on novel pathogenic mechanisms.

  20. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that ...

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) and their cousins the HoBi-like viruses: Multi symptom, multi host, multi tasking pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has come to refer to a diverse collection of clinical presentations that include respiratory, enteric and reproductive symptoms accompanied by immunosuppression. While the majority of cases are subclinical in nature two forms exist, mucosal disease and hemorrhag...

  2. Economic assessment and pathogenic bacteria inhibition of bovine hide presoaking solutions formulated with enzymes that can remove adobe-type manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presoaking formulations that have recently been developed are effective in removing the damaging adobe type bovine manure and eco-friendly because the ingredients used are recycled and required only a quarter of the amount of biocide and surfactant that the industry is commonly using. The goal ...

  3. Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the...

  4. 1株致病性兔无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定与系统发育分析%Isolation, identification and phylogenetic analysis of a pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思宇; 耿毅; 汪开毓; 罔赵英; 刘星星; 吴春艳

    2013-01-01

    从患病家兔肝、肺、脑和心血中分离到1株链状革兰阳性球菌P110323,以1×106 CFU/mL菌液灌胃感染健康家兔后,表现出站立不稳、四肢划动、惊厥和呼吸障碍等症状,感染96 h后,死亡率为60%.解剖见肺淤血、出血;肝、脾和肾肿大,坏死;大脑肿胀,脑膜充血,脑回肿胀扁平,脑沟变浅.分离菌在BHI平板上形成湿润、边缘整齐的灰白色菌落;在5%的脱纤维羊血平板上形成透明的β溶血环;V-P试验、水解精氨酸与马脲酸等为阳性;水解七叶苷和利用甘露醇、山梨醇和乳糖产酸为阴性.16S rDNA系统发育分析显示分离菌与Streptococcus difficilis和Streptococcus agalactiae聚在一簇.gyrB基因系统发育分析表明分离菌属于无乳链球菌(S.agalactiae),结合细菌形态特点和生理生化特性鉴定该病原菌为无乳链球菌(S.agalactiae),多重PCR方法确定该菌荚膜多糖类型为Ia型.%A pathogenic bacterium (P110323) was isolated from the liver,lung,cerebrum and heart blood of the diseased rabbit.Artificial infection of rabbits with P110323 proved that it was the pathogen of the disease,disease signs and a mortality rate of 60% were noted after 96 h postinoculation with 106 CFU/mL bacterium.The clinical symptoms of infected rabbits included incoordination,lateral prostration,paddling and convulsions with acute respiratory distress syndrome.Necropsy revealed degeneration and necrotic changes in many organs,especially,serious lesions occurred in the liver and kidney.Hemorrhage and swelling of the lung and spleen were considerable;The surfece of gyri was swollen and flattened with the shallow cerebullar sulci,hyperemia of meninges was obvious.The isolated bacterium was a Gram-positive cocci which possessed β-hemolytic activity on agar media with 5% sterile sheep's blood and had moistening and gray colonies in BHI.Arginine,hippuric acid and V-P test were positive; esculin,sorbitol,lactose and mannitol were

  5. Effect of high-pressure processing of bovine colostrum on immunoglobulin G concentration, pathogens, viscosity, and transfer of passive immunity to calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Derek M; Poulsen, Keith P; Sylvester, Hannah J; Jacob, Megan E; Casulli, Kaitlyn E; Farkas, Brian E

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of high-pressure processing on the immunoglobulin concentration, microbial load, viscosity, and transfer of passive immunity to calves when applied to bovine colostrum as an alternative to thermal pasteurization. A pilot study using Staphylococcus aureus was conducted to determine which pressure-time treatments are most appropriate for use with bovine colostrum, with the goals of maximizing bacterial inactivation while minimizing IgG content and viscosity changes. Following the pilot study, an inoculation study was conducted in which first-milking colostrum samples from Holstein-Friesian cows were inoculated with known concentrations of various bacteria or viruses and pressure processed at either 300 MPa for up to 60min or at 400MPa for up to 30min. The recovery of total native aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Dublin, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, bovine herpesvirus type 1, and feline calicivirus were determined after processing. Colostrum IgG content was measured before and after pressure processing. Shear stress and viscosity for each treatment was determined over shear rates encompassing those found during calf feeding and at normal bovine body temperature (37.8°C). Following a calf trial, serum IgG concentration was measured in 14 calves fed 4 L of colostrum pressure processed at 400MPa for 15min. In the pilot study, S. aureus was effectively reduced with pressure treatment at 300 and 400MPa (0, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45min), with 2 treatments at 400MPa (30, 45min) determined to be inappropriate for use with bovine colostrum due to viscosity and IgG changes. High-pressure processing at 300MPa (30, 45, and 60min) and 400MPa (10, 15, and 20min) was shown to effectively reduce total native aerobic bacteria, E. coli, Salmonella Dublin, bovine herpesvirus type 1, and feline calicivirus populations in bovine colostrum, but no decrease occurred in Mycobacterium avium ssp

  6. Biofilm formation by Streptococcus agalactiae: influence of environmental conditions and implicated virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosini, Roberto; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is an important human pathogen that colonizes the urogenital and/or the lower gastro-intestinal tract of up to 40% of healthy women of reproductive age and is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonates. GBS can also infect the elderly and immuno-compromised adults, and is responsible for mastitis in bovines. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS can form biofilm-like three-dimensional structures that could enhance its ability to colonize and persist in the host. Biofilm formation by GBS has been investigated in vitro and appears tightly controlled by environmental conditions. Several adhesins have been shown to play a role in the formation of GBS biofilm-like structures, among which are the protein components of pili protruding outside the bacterial surface. Remarkably, antibodies directed against pilus proteins can prevent the formation of biofilms. The implications of biofilm formation in the context of GBS asymptomatic colonization and dissemination to cause invasive disease remain to be investigated in detail.

  7. Biofilm formation by Streptococcus agalactiae: influence of environmental conditions and implicated virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma eMargarit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS is an important human pathogen that colonizes the urogenital and/or the lower gastro-intestinal tract of up to 40% of healthy women of reproductive age and is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonates. GBS can also infect the elderly and immuno-compromised adults, and is responsible for mastitis in bovines. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS can form biofilm-like three-dimensional structures that could enhance its ability to colonize and persist in the host. Biofilm formation by GBS has been investigated in vitro and appears tightly controlled by environmental conditions. Several adhesins have been shown to play a role in the formation of GBS biofilm-like structures, among which are the protein components of pili protruding outside the bacterial surface. Remarkably, antibodies directed against pilus proteins can prevent the formation of biofilms. The implications of biofilm formation in the context of GBS asymptomatic colonization and dissemination to cause invasive disease remain to be investigated in detail.

  8. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs.

  9. Susceptibilities of bovine summer mastitis bacteria to antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Jousimies-Somer, H; Pyörälä, S.; Kanervo, A

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility to 9 antimicrobial agents of 32 aerobic bacterial isolates and to 10 antimicrobial agents of 37 anaerobic bacterial isolates from 23 cases of bovine summer mastitis (16 Actinomyces pyogenes isolates, 8 Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates, 3 S. uberis isolates, 3 S. acidominimus isolates, 2 Streptococcus spp., 15 Peptostreptococcus indolicus isolates, 10 Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates, and 12 isolates of anaerobic gram-negative rods) was determined by the agar dilution m...

  10. Group B streptococcus cystitis presenting in a diabetic patient with a massive abdominopelvic abscess: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ulett, Kimberly B; Shuemaker, Jennifer H; Benjamin, William H.; Tan, Chee K.; Glen C. Ulett

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus is a Gram-positive pathogen that is typically associated with neonatal disease and infection in pregnant women. Group B streptococcus also causes invasive infections in non-pregnant adults including urinary tract infections. The spectrum of urinary tract infections caused by group B streptococcus includes cystitis, pyelonephritis, urosepsis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, which is particularly common among elderly individuals. A rar...

  11. Genomics, evolution, and molecular epidemiology of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Lacroix, Christophe; Stevens, Marc J A

    2015-07-01

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) is a group of human and animal derived streptococci that are commensals (rumen and gastrointestinal tract), opportunistic pathogens or food fermentation associates. The classification of SBSEC has undergone massive changes and currently comprises 7 (sub)species grouped into four branches based on sequences identities: the Streptococcus gallolyticus, the Streptococcus equinus, the Streptococcus infantarius and the Streptococcus alactolyticus branch. In animals, SBSEC are causative agents for ruminal acidosis, potentially laminitis and infective endocarditis (IE). In humans, a strong association was established between bacteraemia, IE and colorectal cancer. Especially the SBSEC-species S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an emerging pathogen for IE and prosthetic joint infections. S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and the S. infantarius branch are further associated with biliary and urinary tract infections. Knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms is so far limited to colonization factors such as pili and biofilm formation. Certain strain variants of S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius are associated with traditional dairy and plant-based food fermentations and display traits suggesting safety. However, due to their close relationship to virulent strains, their use in food fermentation has to be critically assessed. Additionally, implementing accurate and up-to-date taxonomy is critical to enable appropriate treatment of patients and risk assessment of species and strains via recently developed multilocus sequence typing schemes to enable comparative global epidemiology. Comparative genomics revealed that SBSEC strains harbour genomics islands (GI) that seem acquired from other streptococci by horizontal gene transfer. In case of virulent strains these GI frequently encode putative virulence factors, in strains from food fermentation the GI encode functions that are

  12. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype IV in Humans and Cattle, Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Kulkas, Laura; Katholm, Jorgen;

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging pathogen of nonpregnant human adults worldwide and a reemerging pathogen of dairy cattle in parts of Europe. To learn more about interspecies transmission of this bacterium, we compared contemporaneously collected isolates from humans and cattle in Finland...

  13. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule...... evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S. pneumoniae...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  14. Prevention of bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; King, S H; Torre, P M; Shull, E P; Dowlen, H H; Lewis, M J; Sordillo, L M

    1989-11-01

    A natural exposure study was conducted in a herd of 150 lactating dairy cows for 18 mo to determine the effectiveness of chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis. Right quarters of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal. Left quarters were not dipped and served as within-cow negative controls. The experimental teat dip reduced Staphylococcus aureus infections 67.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae infections 63.8%, and Streptococcus uberis infections 27.8%. Overall efficacy of the chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide teat dip against major mastitis pathogens was 52.2%. The experimental teat dip reduced Corynebacterium bovis infections and coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections also by 45.8 and 38.7%, respectively. Overall efficacy against minor mastitis pathogens was 43.4%. Under conditions of this trial, the experimental teat dip containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide was effective in preventing new intramammary infections against a variety of mastitis pathogens.

  15. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Strep and Pregnancy • What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? • What does it mean to be colonized ... planned cesarean birth? •Glossary What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? Group B streptococcus is one of the ...

  16. Differential Ability of Bovine Antimicrobial Cathelicidins to Mediate Nucleic Acid Sensing by Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Arnaud; Kiener, Mirjam Susanna; Haigh, Brendan; Perreten, Vincent; Summerfield, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Cathelicidins encompass a family of cationic peptides characterized by antimicrobial activity and other functions, such as the ability to enhance the sensing of nucleic acids by the innate immune system. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of the bovine cathelicidins indolicidin, bactenecin (Bac)1, Bac5, bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide (BMAP)-27, BMAP-28, and BMAP-34 to inhibit the growth of bacteria and to enhance the sensing of nucleic acid by the host’s immune system. BMAP-27 was the most effective at killing Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli, and this was dependent on its amphipathic structure and cationic charge. Although most cathelicidins possessed DNA complexing activity, only the alpha-helical BMAP cathelicidins and the cysteine-rich disulfide-bridged Bac1 were able to enhance the sensing of nucleic acids by primary epithelial cells. We also compared these responses with those mediated by neutrophils. Activation of neutrophils with phorbol myristate acetate resulted in degranulation and release of cathelicidins as well as bactericidal activity in the supernatants. However, only supernatants from unstimulated neutrophils were able to promote nucleic acid sensing in epithelial cells. Collectively, the present data support a role for certain bovine cathelicidins in helping the innate immune system to sense nucleic acids. The latter effect is observed at concentrations clearly below those required for direct antimicrobial functions. These findings are relevant in development of future strategies to promote protection at mucosal surfaces against pathogen invasion. PMID:28203238

  17. 广东新兴地区致病性A组链球菌病种分布及耐药性分析%Pathogenic group A streptococcus distribution of diseases and drug resistance analysis in Xinxing Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎国强; 李云; 谭志伟; 欧国生

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical diseases distribution and drug re-sistance of the pathogenicity of group A Streptococcus (GAS) from Xinxing area in Guangdong and guide the clinical use.Methods 85 GAS isolates were collected from 2063 cases of school-age children's throat swab,pus and other specimens in Xinxing area during January 2007 to June 2009.Drug sensitivity tests were evaluated by the K-B disk diffusion method containing 5% fiber blood to the M-H agar.Resusts Pathogenicity of 85 GAS acute pharyngitis 36,suppurative tonsillitis 25,acute rheumatic fever 5,acute glomerulonephritis 6,psoriasis 4,Other diseases 9.The resistance rates to erythromycin and other macrolides was more than 77.65 percent,Except Clindamycin,GAS resistant to other antibiotics compared with the macrolides (P<0.05),There was significant difference.Acute rheumatic fever and suppurative tonsillitis,acute pharyngitis cases of GAS resistant to the cephalosporins rate (P<0.05),There was significant difference.Conclusions GAS pathogenicity is wider distribution in this area,Penicillins and cephalosporins should still be the first choice for the treatment or prevention of GAS infection.%目的 了解致病性A组链球菌(GAS)在广东新兴地区的病种分布及其耐药情况,以便指导临床用药.方法 2007年1月至2009年6月间,采集新兴地区学龄期儿童咽拭子、脓液等标本2063例,共分离出致病性GAS菌株85例,药物敏感性试验用含5%去纤维羊血的M-H琼脂培养基.按K-B纸片扩散法进行.结果 85株致病性GAS菌株中急性咽炎36株,化脓性扁桃腺炎25株,急性风湿热5株,急性肾小球肾炎6株,银屑病4株,其他病种9株;对红霉素等大环内酯为耐药达77.65%以上,除克林霉素外,GAS对其他类抗生素耐药率与大环内酯类比较(P<0.05),差异有显著性;急性风湿热与化脓性扁桃腺炎、急性咽炎病例中的GAS对头孢菌类耐药率比较(P<0.05),差异有显著性.结论 本地区致病

  18. Bovine milk glycome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, N; DePeters, E J; Freeman, S; German, J B; Grimm, R; Lebrilla, C B

    2008-10-01

    Bovine milk oligosaccharides have several potentially important biological activities including the prevention of pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelial and as nutrients for beneficial bacteria. It has been suggested that milk oligosaccharides are an important source of complex carbohydrates as supplements for the food and the pharmaceutical industries. However, only a small number of structures of bovine milk oligosaccharides (bMO) are known. There have been no systematic studies on bMO. High-performance mass spectrometry and separation methods are used to evaluate bMO, and nearly 40 oligosaccharides are present in bovine milk. Bovine milk oligosaccharides are composed of shorter oligomeric chains than are those in human milk. They are significantly more anionic with nearly 70%, measured abundances, being sialylated. Additionally, bMO are built not only on the lactose core (as are nearly all human milk oligosaccharides), but also on lactose amines. Sialic acid residues include both N-acetyl and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, although the former is significantly more abundant.

  19. 杂交鳢海豚链球菌病病原分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation and identification of pathogen Streptococcus iniae in diseased hybrid snakehead (Channa argus♂× Channamaculata♀)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈言峰; 周爱国; 邹青; 陈冠锋; 陈建酬; 张继平; 张辉华

    2015-01-01

    【目的】对广东省中山市某养殖场的患病濒死杂交鳢进行病原分离鉴定及药敏试验,旨在确定病因,为今后生产中有效防控该病提供参考。【方法】从濒死杂交鳢体内分离致病菌,通过其生理生化特征与16S rRNA基因序列分析进行菌株鉴定,并采用纸片扩散法进行药敏试验。【结果】从患病濒死的杂交鳢体内分离获得两株优势菌(ZS2013711-1和ZS2013711-2),根据其生理生化鉴定结果与16S rRNA基因序列分析结果,可鉴定为海豚链球菌(Streptococcusiniae)。两株分离菌株对杂交鳢的半致死剂量(LD50)分别为2.7×105和6.7×105 CFU/g。药敏试验结果显示,该致病菌对头孢噻肟、头孢拉定、头孢唑啉、林可霉素等抗生素高度敏感。【结论】杂交鳢是海豚链球菌的一种新发现宿主,生产中可选用头孢噻肟、头孢拉定、头孢唑啉、林可霉素等药物进行防治。%Objective]The pathogens from diseased hybrid snakehead (Channa argus♂×Channa maculata♀) in an aquafarm in Zhongshan City of Guangdong Province were isolated and identified and antibiotic sensitivity test was per-formed in order to determine the causes and provide references for preventing and controlling this disease effectively.[Method]Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from moribund hybrid snakehead , and they were identified through physio-logical and biochemical characteristics test and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Furthermore , antibiotic sensitivity test was performed through Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. [Result]Two dominant bacterias (ZS2013711-1, ZS2013711-2) were isolated from moribund hybrid snakehead , and they were identified to be Streptococcus iniae according to their physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The half lethal dose values for the iso-lates to healthy hybrid snakehead were 2.7 ×105 and 6.7 ×105 CFU/g, respectively. The results of

  20. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell profileration and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2009-01-01

    with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2) and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL) and antioxidant activity (SOD1). Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary...... of lipid synthesis, stress-activated kinase signaling cascades, and PPAR signaling (most likely PPARγ). This latter effect may provide a mechanistic explanation for the inverse relationship between immune response and milk fat synthesis.......Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare...

  1. 无乳链球菌检测及其奶牛乳腺炎防治的研究进展%Research Progress of the Detection Method of Streptococcus agalactiae and Control of Bovine Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞萍; 刘磊; 边艳青; 赵宝华

    2008-01-01

    本文就近年来国内外在无乳链球菌的鉴定、检测方法、防御等方面的研究进展进行了系统性的综述,为控制该病原微生物的传播、蔓延和由无乳链球菌引起的奶牛乳腺炎的防治提供参考.无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)属于B群链球菌,是影响人畜健康的重要病原微生物之一.它可以引起新生儿脑膜炎、肺炎、败血病等,又是奶牛乳腺炎的主要病原体之一,给奶牛业造成了巨大的损失.

  2. Streptococcus pluranimalium: A novel human pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasanthi Aryasinghe

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Subdural empyema represents a neurosurgical emergency and if left untreated is invariably fatal. Rapid diagnosis, surgical intervention and intensive antibiotic therapy improve both morbidity and mortality.

  3. Biochemistry Identification and Drug Sensitivity Test of Pathogenic Streptococcus from Tilapia in Guangxi%广西罗非鱼链球菌病病原的生化鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 陈明; 李莉萍; 陈汉忠; 徐增辉; 李超; 黄维义; 梁万文

    2008-01-01

    从来自南宁、北海等地的十几个暴发疾病的罗非鱼养殖场发病罗非鱼中,分离得到了8株链球菌.通过生化鉴定及药敏试验,结果表明,分离到的8株致病性链球菌,有6株为海豚链球菌(streptococcus iniae),2株为无乳链球菌(streptococcus agalactiae).

  4. Group B Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H. Adriaanse

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae is an important cause of neonatal sepsis. Prevention is possible by intrapartum screening for maternal GBS carriership and antimicrobial treatment of colonized women with risk factors during labor. The conflicting results of diagnostic performance are reported both for the newly developed rapid GBS antigen tests and Gram's stain.

  5. Fate of naturally occurring Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other zoonotic pathogens during minimally managed bovine feedlot manure composting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in livestock manures before application to cropland is critical for reducing the risk of foodborne illness associated with produce. Our objective was to determine the fate of naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogens during minimally managed on-farm bo...

  6. Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered...... specific for S. pneumoniae hamper the exact identification of S. pneumoniae. Based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes of a collection of 634 streptococcal strains, identified by multilocus sequence analysis, we detected a cytosine at position 203 present in all 440 strains of S. pneumoniae but replaced...... by an adenosine residue in all strains representing other species of mitis group streptococci. The S. pneumoniae-specific sequence signature could be demonstrated by sequence analysis or indirectly by restriction endonuclease digestion of a PCR amplicon covering the site. The S. pneumoniae-specific signature...

  7. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Zas Sandra L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decrease economic losses to dairy farmers. The main objective of this study was to determine the most affected gene networks and pathways in mammary tissue in response to an intramammary infection (IMI with S. uberis and relate these with other physiological measurements associated with immune and/or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated differentially expressed genes (DEG. Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each, the majority of which were signaling pathways. Among the most inhibited were LXR/RXR Signaling and PPARα/RXRα Signaling. Pathways activated by IMI were IL-10 Signaling and IL-6 Signaling which likely reflected counter mechanisms of mammary tissue to respond to infection. Of the 2,102 DEG, 1,082 were up-regulated during IMI and were primarily involved with the immune response, e.g., IL6, TNF, IL8, IL10, SELL, LYZ, and SAA3. Genes down-regulated (1,020 included those associated with milk fat synthesis, e.g., LPIN1, LPL, CD36, and BTN1A1. Network analysis of DEG indicated that TNF had positive relationships with genes involved with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2 and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL and antioxidant activity (SOD1. Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary tissue that are associated with the innate immune response to S. uberis infection. Our study indicated that IMI challenge with S. uberis (strain O140J elicited

  8. 珠江口西岸地区致病性猪链球菌的分离鉴定与血清型分析%Isolation and identification of pathogenic Streptococcus suis and its serotypes analysis in the west coast of Pearl River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李儒曙; 伍时达; 罗宝正; 冷和平; 曾俊霞; 邱民希

    2013-01-01

    To investigate four major serotypes of pathogenic Streptococcus suis in the west coast of Pearl River Estuary,we process a risk evaluation of epidemiology.Tissue samples of suspected pigs infected with Streptococcus suis were collected from 21 scaled pig-farms in the west coast of Pearl River Estuary and nearby,and bacterial isolation and cultivation were con ducted; 168 suspected Streptococcus suis positive strains were conducted for multiple PCR method for the identification and serotype analysis.Results showed that 61 strains of pathogenic Streptococcus suis were identified,including 19 strains of type Ⅱ,3 strains of type Ⅰ,and 2 strains of type Ⅶ,while type u was not detected.The positive rates were 31%,4.9%,3.3%,and 0,respectively.It's indicated that Streptococcussuis is widely spread in the west coast of Pearl River Estuary with the dominating serotype of type Ⅱ,which is a significant risk to animal epidemic prevention and public health.%目的 调查珠江口西岸地区致病性猪链球菌血清型的分布情况.方法 从调查地21个猪场内疑似病猪中采集标本,进行细菌分离培养,对疑似猪链球菌阳性的168个菌株以多重PCR方法鉴定血清型.结果 检测到61株致病性猪链球菌,分布于12个区县,其中2型19株,1型3株,7型2株,阳性率分别为31%、4.9%、3.3%.结论 珠江口西岸地区猪链球菌流行广泛,并以2型流行为主,兼有1型和7型.存在较大的动物疫病和公共卫生风险.

  9. 齐口裂腹鱼无乳链球菌的分离鉴定及其感染的病理损伤%Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae from Schizothorax prenanti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余泽辉; 张佳; 耿毅; 邓梦玲; 汪开毓; 黄小丽; 陈德芳; 王均

    2014-01-01

    In 2012-2013, a serious infectious disease characterized by exophthalmia, hemorrhage, and neurological symptoms emerged in Schizothorax prenanti farms in Sichuan Province. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was found in liver and kidney smears. Two strains of Gram-positive, chain-forming cocci were isolated from the diseased fish. The colonies had a smooth-surface and were white, circular, regular and pin-head sized after incubation at 28℃for 48 h on brain heart infusion (BHI). Artificial infection proved that the isolates were the pathogen of the disease. It was primarily identified to be Streptococcus agalactiae according to morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis by BLAST in GenBank indicated that the two isolates showed high levels of similarity to S. agalactiae (more than 96.5%). A phylogenetic tree was constructed comparing the 16S rDNA sequences of both isolates (GenBank accession number KF773744 and KF761304) to other related bacterial species in the GenBank database. In the phylogenetic tree the two isolates and other S. agalactiae strains constituted a branch. In addition, the two isolates were positive in a specific PCR detection of S. agalactiae based on the cfb gene. Based on the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and specific PCR detection, both isolates were identified as S. agalactiae. The sensitivity results showed that both strains were sensitive to doxycycline, amoxicillin, cephalothin V, ofloxacin and levofloxacin, but showed some difference in sensitivity to neomycin and amikacin. Histopathologically, the S. agalactiae infection could cause serious pathological changes in multi-organs and tissues, especially in liver, kidney and brain. The main pathologic lesions were degeneration, necrosis and infiltration of the inflammation cells. Electron microscopical examination found that bacteria could invade hepatocytes, renal cells and

  10. Specific detection by PCR of Streptococcus agalactiae in milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, G.; Harel, J; Gottschalk, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and specific method for direct detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from cow's milk. The method was based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific and universal primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene. The amplification product was verified by restriction endonuclease digest and sequencing. Specific identification was proven on a collection of 147 S. agalactiae isolates of bovine and human origin. In addition, 17 strains belonging...

  11. Onderzoek naar de gevoeligheid van streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae en Moraxella catarrhalis voor antibiotica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Neeling AJ; Overbeek BP; Timmerman CP; de Jong J; Dessens-Kroon M; van Klingeren B

    1992-01-01

    The susceptibility to antibiotics of three respiratory pathogens, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, was determined. The isolates were obtainied in three regional laboratories in the Netherlands and tested using the microdilution method. After incubation th

  12. Short communication: Lipolytic activity on milk fat by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae strains commonly isolated in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidanarachchi, Janak K; Li, Shengjie; Lundh, Åse Sternesjö; Johansson, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the lipolytic activity on milk fat of 2 bovine mastitis pathogens, that is, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The lipolytic activity was determined by 2 different techniques, that is, thin-layer chromatography and an extraction-titration method, in an experimental model using the most commonly occurring field strains of the 2 mastitic bacteria isolated from Swedish dairy farms. The microorganisms were inoculated into bacteria-free control milk and incubated at 37°C to reflect physiological temperatures in the mammary gland. Levels of free fatty acids (FFA) were analyzed at time of inoculation (t=0) and after 2 and 6h of incubation, showing significant increase in FFA levels. After 2h the FFA content had increased by approximately 40% in milk samples inoculated with Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae, and at 6h the pathogens had increased FFA levels by 47% compared with the bacteria-free control milk. Changes in lipid composition compared with the bacteria-free control were investigated at 2 and 6h of incubation. Diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, and phospholipids increased significantly after 6h incubation with the mastitis bacteria, whereas cholesterol and sterol esters decreased. Our results suggest that during mammary infections with Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae, the action of lipases originating from the mastitis pathogens will contribute significantly to milk fat lipolysis and thus to raw milk deterioration.

  13. [Streptococcus intermedius: a rare cause of brain abscess in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhadi, Z; Sadiki, H; Hafid, I; Najib, J

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group, also known as the Streptococcus milleri group. Although this is a commensal agent of the mouth and upper airways, it has been recognized as an important pathogen in the formation of abscesses. However, it has rarely been involved in the formation of brain abscess in children. We report 4 pediatric cases of brain abscess caused by S. intermedius. Three boys and 1 girl, all aged over 2 years, were admitted for a febrile meningeal syndrome and seizures, caused by a S. intermedius brain abscess. Diagnosis was obtained by brain imaging combined with culture of cerebrospinal fluid. The outcome was favorable after antibiotic therapy and abscess puncture. S. intermedius should be considered a potential pathogen involved in the development of brain abscess in children.

  14. Study on the antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae causing bovine mastitis in China%我国奶牛乳房炎无乳链球菌抗生素耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏胜; 罗金印; 王旭荣; 李新圃; 王玲; 杨峰; 张世栋; 苗小楼

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to inves e the antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus tiae causing cow mastitis in China, and guide reasonahle clinical prescription. 115 strains of polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime/clavulanic acid and ceftazidime/clavulanic acid, and resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, streptomycin, enroiloxacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid/sulfamethoxazole compound with resistance rate of 50%-100%.%为了查明我国奶牛乳房炎无乳链球菌对抗生素耐药情况,指导临床合理用药,从我国部分地区奶牛场采集的临床型奶牛乳房炎病乳中分离鉴定出无乳链球菌115株,采用K—B纸片法测定了这些菌株对抗生素的耐药情况,结果表明,无乳链球菌对目前临床上使用的大部分抗生素,如头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟、丁胺卡那霉素、卡那霉素、庆大霉素、四环素、强力霉素、麦迪霉素、林可霉素、氟苯尼考、多黏菌素B、环丙沙星、氟哌酸、氨苄青霉素/舒巴坦、头孢噻肟,棒酸和头抱他啶,棒酸均比较敏感;但对青霉素G、氨苄青霉素、链霉素、恩诺沙星、阿莫西林,棒酸和复方新诺明等有一定耐药性,其耐药率迭50%-100%。

  15. Acute Mastoiditis Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obringer, Emily; Chen, Judy L

    2016-05-01

    Acute mastoiditis (AM) is a relatively rare complication of acute otitis media (AOM). The most common pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Pneumococcal vaccination and changes in antibiotic prescribing recommendations for AOM may change the incidence of AM in the future. Diagnosis of AM can be made based on clinical presentation, but computed tomography of the temporal bone with contrast should be considered if there is concern for complicated AM. Both extracranial and intracranial complications of AM may occur. Previously, routine cortical mastoidectomy was recommended for AM treatment, but new data suggest that a more conservative treatment approach can be considered, including intravenous (IV) antibiotics alone or IV antibiotics with myringotomy. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(5):e176-e179.].

  16. The Seasonal Characteristics of Children with Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Pathogen Resistance Analysis%儿童链球菌性肺炎的季节特点及病原菌的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范慧子; 许晓红; 张佳慧; 张志程; 刘丽晓

    2013-01-01

    Objective:We want to learn the situation of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin and the other antibiotics usually used for the children who had gotten sick of pneumonia and gotten recovery at our hospital by the retrospective analysis.Methods:We selected all the medical records of the children who received our treatments at our hospital and recovered from January,2008 to January,2012 because of Childhood pneumonia(CP),and those patients with other diseases were excluded.All the reports about bacteria isolated,cultured,resistance were reviewed.There were altogether 388 S.pneumoniae susceptibility results were retrospectively analyzed.Results:During the selected period,we found that childhood pneumonia which caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae had distinctive seasonal characteristics.CP had a high incidencein winter and spring especially at autumn and winter alternating periods.From January,2008 to January,2012,the rate of resistance to Penicillin in Streptococcus pneumoniae is 48.9%,53.8%,52.6% and 55.7% respectively and the rate of resistance to Penicillin showed an increasing trend year by year.In our present study,we found that the rate of resistance to clinical commonly used antibiotics such as Cefuroxime,Azithromycin,Erythromycin,Tetracycline,Clindamycin,Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was higher than that of the previous reports,and their rates of resistance were 77.8%,82.0%,86.9%,79.9%,80.9% and 69.1%,respectively.Although the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae was more serious than ever,there were a few kinds of antibiotics used clinically which still had a higher sensitivity to it.These antibiotics which were sensitive to Streptococcus pneumoniae included Cefotaxime,Ceftriaxone,Meropenem,Vancomycin,Ofloxacin and Linezolid.Our present research provides a good trade-offreferenee on the use of antibiotics in the treatments of Childhood pneumonia reduced by Streptococcus pneumoniae for the pediatrician

  17. Intestinal translocation of Streptococcus suis type 2 EF+ in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swildens, B.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Meulen, van der J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Nielen, M.; Niewold, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sepsis with subsequent multisystem organ failure after translocation of bacteria from the gut is a serious risk associated with stress situations. We showed that intestinal bacterial translocation could be one of the pathways for pathogenic Streptococcus suis infections in the pig. In 24 piglets wei

  18. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Streptococcus and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Pathogenic... pustules on the skin), urinary tract infections, rheumatic fever, and kidney disease. (b)...

  19. A commercial rapid optical immunoassay detects Streptococcus agalactiae from aquatic cultures and clinical specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BioStar STREPT B Optical ImmunoAssay (OIA) (BioStar® OIA® Strep B Assay Kit; Biostar Incorporation; Louisville, CO, USA) was used to identify 32 known group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates of fish, dolphin, bovine, and human origin. Thirteen non-GBS isolates from fish and other animals were test...

  20. Protective Immunity to Hepatitis B and Streptococcus Pneumoniae in Active Duty Women Versus Men: Prevalence and Responses to Preventive Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Protective Immunity to Hepatitis B and Streptococcus Pneumoniae in Active Duty Women Versus Men: Prevalence and Responses to Preventive Immunization...April 1996 I Final (1 Dec 94 - 31 Dec 95) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prot~ecti•ve Inmnunity¥ to Hepat~it~is B and 6. FUNDING NUMBERS Streptococcus Pneumoniae in...pneumococcal vaccine is not included in the standard vaccinations for active duty military. The prevalence of immunity to pathogenic Streptococcus pneumoniae in

  1. Research Progress of Streptococcus suis Type 2, One Newly Found Zoonosis Pathogen%人畜共患新病原--猪链球菌2型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董国英; 李敏; 向华

    2005-01-01

    @@ 猪链球菌2型(Streptococcus suis type 2,SS2)又称猪链球菌血清2型或荚膜2型猪链球菌,分类上属于兰氏(Lancefield)R群[1].1954年首先在英国从暴发败血症、脑膜炎和关节炎的乳猪中分离到,1968年Elliot按荚膜分类法将其命名为荚膜2型猪链球菌.

  2. Streptococcus mutans SMU.623c codes for a functional, metal-dependent polysaccharide deacetylase that modulates interactions with salivary agglutinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, D.M.; Urch, J.E.; ten Cate, J.M.; Rao, V.A.; van Aalten, D.M.F.; Crielaard, W.

    2009-01-01

    The genome sequence of the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans predicts the presence of two putative polysaccharide deacetylases. The first, designated PgdA in this paper, shows homology to the catalytic domains of peptidoglycan deacetylases from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, w

  3. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation.

  4. Fluoroquinolone Resistance among Clonal Complex 1 Group B Streptococcus Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alefiya Neemuchwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone resistance in group B Streptococcus is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here, we correlated fluoroquinolone resistance with mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, identified by mining whole-genome sequencing (WGS data of 190 clonal complex 1 group B Streptococcus strains recovered from patients with invasive diseases in North America. We report a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (12% among GBS strains in our collection. Our approach is the first step towards accurate prediction of fluoroquinolone resistance from WGS data in this opportunistic pathogen.

  5. Antimicrobial Properties of Biofunctionalized Silver Nanoparticles on Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus mutans and Its Serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Manuel Martínez-Robles

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans is the principal pathogen involved in the formation of dental caries. Other systemic diseases have also been associated with specific S. mutans serotypes (c, e, f, and k. Silver nanoparticles (SNP have been demonstrated to have good antibacterial effects against S. mutans; therefore, limited studies have evaluated the antimicrobial activity of biofunctionalized SNP on S. mutans serotypes. The purpose of this work was to prepare and characterize coated SNP using two different organic components and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of SNP in clinical isolates of S. mutans strains and serotypes; (2 Methods: SNP with bovine serum albumin (BSA or chitosan (CS coatings were prepared and the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of SNP were evaluated; (3 Results: Both types of coated SNP showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans bacteria and serotypes. Better inhibition was associated with smaller particles and BSA coatings; however, no significant differences were found between the different serotypes, indicating a similar sensitivity to the coated SNP; (4 Conclusion: This study concludes that BSA and CS coated SNP had good antimicrobial activity against S. mutans strains and the four serotypes, and this study suggest the widespread use of SNP as an antimicrobial agent for the inhibition of S. mutans bacteria.

  6. Two Spx regulators modulate stress tolerance and virulence in Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkun Zheng

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important zoonotic pathogen causing severe infections in pigs and humans. The pathogenesis of S. suis 2 infections, however, is still poorly understood. Spx proteins are a group of global regulators involved in stress tolerance and virulence. In this study, we characterized two orthologs of the Spx regulator, SpxA1 and SpxA2 in S. suis 2. Two mutant strains (ΔspxA1 and ΔspxA2 lacking the spx genes were constructed. The ΔspxA1 and ΔspxA2 mutants displayed different phenotypes. ΔspxA1 exhibited impaired growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, while ΔspxA2 exhibited impaired growth in the presence of SDS and NaCl. Both mutants were defective in medium lacking newborn bovine serum. Using a murine infection model, we demonstrated that the abilities of the mutant strains to colonize the tissues were significantly reduced compared to that of the wild-type strain. The mutant strains also showed a decreased level of survival in pig blood. Microarray analysis revealed a global regulatory role for SpxA1 and SpxA2. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that Spx is involved in triggering the host inflammatory response. Collectively, our data suggest that SpxA1 and SpxA2 are global regulators that are implicated in stress tolerance and virulence in S. suis 2.

  7. Novel real-time PCR assays using TaqMan minor groove binder probes for identification of fecal carriage of Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex from rectal swab specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo Guilherme Markus; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente; Agnes, Grasiela; Costabeber, Ane Micheli; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2014-03-01

    Real-time PCR based on the recN and gyrB genes was developed to detect four Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBEC) subspecies from rectal swab specimens. The overall prevalence was 35.2%: Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (11.1%), S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (13%), Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli (20.4%), and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius (11.1%). To conclude, these real-time PCR assays provide a reliable molecular method to detect SBEC pathogenic subspecies from rectal swab specimens.

  8. Mechanisms of genome evolution of Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Cheryl P; Hanage, William P

    2015-07-01

    The genus Streptococcus contains 104 recognized species, many of which are associated with human or animal hosts. A globally prevalent human pathogen in this group is Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). While being a common resident of the upper respiratory tract, it is also a major cause of otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis, accounting for a high burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent findings demonstrate the importance of recombination and selection in driving the population dynamics and evolution of different pneumococcal lineages, allowing them to successfully evade the impacts of selective pressures such as vaccination and antibiotic treatment. We highlight the ability of pneumococci to respond to these pressures through processes including serotype replacement, capsular switching and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance genes. The challenge in controlling this pathogen also lies in the exceptional genetic and phenotypic variation among different pneumococcal lineages, particularly in terms of their pathogenicity and resistance to current therapeutic strategies. The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, which target only a small subset of the more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes, provides us with a unique opportunity to elucidate how the processes of selection and recombination interact to generate a remarkable level of plasticity and heterogeneity in the pneumococcal genome. These processes also play an important role in the emergence and spread of multi-resistant strains, which continues to pose a challenge in disease control and/or eradication. The application of population of genomic approaches at different spatial and temporal scales will help improve strategies to control this global pathogen, and potentially other pathogenic streptococci.

  9. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  10. Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7% had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pathological lesions and change in udder secretion, in addition to that 276 quarters (31.4% showed subclinical mastitis. The incidence of mastitis was found to be increased in older cows. Staphylococcus aurous was considered to be the most common cause of both clinical and subclinical mastitis and followed by coli forms, streptococcus spp., corynebacterium spp., proteus spp. and pseudomonas spp. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains using tertracycline, ampicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, penicillin G and sulphamethoxazol trimethoprim.

  11. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  12. Case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus equisimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Suemori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Suemori1, Akira Sawada1, Shinya Komori1, Kiyofumi Mochizuki1, Kiyofumi Ohkusu2, Hirofumi Takemura31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of General and Cardiothoracic Surgery Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, JapanAbstract: We report a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus equisimilis. A 74-year-old woman with endocarditis developed endogenous endophthalmitis. The patient underwent emergency mitral valvuloplasty, and intravitreal and subconjunctival injections of vancomycin and meropenem. After the surgery, she was treated with topical antibiotics, ointment, intravenous gentamicin and intravenous penicillin G potassium. The causative organism was identified as S. equisimilis. S. equisimilis should be considered as a pathogen that can cause severe endogenous endophthalmitis.Keywords: endogenous endophthalmitis, group G Streptococcus, endocarditis, Streptococcus equisimilis

  13. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Comments on the proposed rule were required to......

  14. Bovine Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen that causes reproductive losses in cattle and zoonotic infections in people. An eradication program based on serologic detection and vaccination has been in place for decades in the United States. Brucella use multiple molecular mechanisms to modify th...

  15. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  16. Structure of N-acetyl-[beta]-D-glucosaminidase (GcnA) from the Endocarditis Pathogen Streptococcus gordonii and its Complex with the Mechanism-based Inhibitor NAG-thiazoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, David B.; Harty, Derek W.S.; Jacques, Nicholas A.; Hunter, Neil; Guss, J. Mitchell; Collyer, Charles A. (Sydney); (Westmead)

    2008-09-17

    The crystal structure of GcnA, an N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase from Streptococcus gordonii, was solved by multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using crystals of selenomethionine-substituted protein. GcnA is a homodimer with subunits each comprised of three domains. The structure of the C-terminal {alpha}-helical domain has not been observed previously and forms a large dimerization interface. The fold of the N-terminal domain is observed in all structurally related glycosidases although its function is unknown. The central domain has a canonical ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} TIM-barrel fold which harbours the active site. The primary sequence and structure of this central domain identifies the enzyme as a family 20 glycosidase. Key residues implicated in catalysis have different conformations in two different crystal forms, which probably represent active and inactive conformations of the enzyme. The catalytic mechanism for this class of glycoside hydrolase, where the substrate rather than the enzyme provides the cleavage-inducing nucleophile, has been confirmed by the structure of GcnA complexed with a putative reaction intermediate analogue, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosamine-thiazoline. The catalytic mechanism is discussed in light of these and other family 20 structures.

  17. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Dennis; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    1981-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis strain Challis. Homologous transformation of S. mutans was less efficient than heterologous transformation by deoxyribonucleic acids from other strains of S. mutans.

  18. Streptococcus mutans Clonal Variation Revealed by Multilocus Sequence Typing▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Kazuhiko; Lapirattanakul, Jinthana; Nomura, Ryota; Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Alaluusua, Satu; Grönroos, Lisa; Vaara, Martti; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Ooshima, Takashi; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, a biofilm-dependent infectious disease, and occasionally causes infective endocarditis. S. mutans strains have been classified into four serotypes (c, e, f, and k). However, little is known about the S. mutans population, including the clonal relationships among strains of S. mutans, in relation to the particular clones that cause systemic diseases. To address this issue, we have developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme ...

  19. Emergence of respiratory Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in cystic fibrosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Eickel; Barbara Kahl; Beatrice Reinisch; Angelika Dübbers; Peter Küster; Claudia Brandt; Barbara Spellerberg

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-known pathogen for neonates and immunocompromized adults. Beyond the neonatal period, S. agalactiae is rarely found in the respiratory tract. During 2002-2008 we noticed S. agalactiae in respiratory secretions of 30/185 (16%) of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The median age of these patients was 3-6 years older than the median age CF patients not harboring S. agalactiae. To analyze, if the S. agalactiae isolates from CF patients were clonal, further characte...

  20. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J S; Jensen, T G; Kolmos, H J

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among adult patients with first-time Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB) from 2000 through 2008. Patients were identified in a population-based bacteremia database and followed up for mortality through the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS...... age of the patients was 65 years. The focal diagnosis of the SPB was pneumonia in 381 (79 %) patients, followed in frequency by meningitis in 33 (7 %) patients. Of the 481 patients, 390 (81 %) had community-acquired SPB. Of these, 23 (6 %) did not have sepsis, 132 (34 %) had sepsis, 224 (57 %) had...

  1. ArgR is an essential local transcriptional regulator of the arcABC-operon in Streptococcus suis and crucial for biological fitness in acidic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulde, M.; Willenborg, J.; Greeff, de A.; Benga, L.; Smith, H.E.; Valentin-Weigand, P.; Goethe, R.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is one of the most important pathogens in pigs and can also cause severe infections in humans. Despite its clinical relevance very little is known about the factors contributing to its virulence. Recently, we identified a new putative virulence factor in Streptococcus suis, the ar

  2. Biological Characteristic and Pathogenicity Research of Streptococcus agalactiae in Tilapia%罗非鱼无乳链球菌生物学特性与致病力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田珂; 贾爱卿; 陈善真; 李守军; 王贵平; 石和荣

    2013-01-01

    本试验分离纯化1株致使罗非鱼具有链球菌发病症状的病原菌,药敏试验结果表明,该菌对氯霉素等10种药物敏感.PCR扩增该菌的cfb基因,将扩增片段测序后与GenBank上登录的罗非鱼无乳链球菌的cfb基因序列进行比对.同时对该病原菌的生物学特性进行研究,包括培养时间和pH对该菌生长的影响;培养温度对其致病力的影响;探讨了不同攻毒方式(腹腔、胸腔和背部肌肉注射)与鱼发病快慢的关系;并对不同规格(100和10 g左右)的罗非鱼对该菌的易感性进行分析.试验结果表明,该病原菌为无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae);该菌的最适培养时间为ll.5h,最适培养pH为7.5;腹腔、胸腔和背部肌肉注射后,其发病时间几乎一致,但胸腔注射的试验鱼死亡速度最慢,背部肌肉注射是较安全可行的攻毒方式;33℃培养的无乳链球菌攻毒的罗非鱼发病最快,死亡最集中;100 g的试验鱼比10 g的试验鱼更易感染.

  3. 黄河裸裂尻鱼无乳链球菌的分离鉴定与多位点序列分型%Identification of the pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae in Schizopygopsis pylzovi (Kessler) by multilocus sequence typing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨薇; 耿毅; 余泽辉; 汪开毓; 李亚军; 牟维豪; 曾毅仁; 叶梦婷

    2016-01-01

    2015年10月四川省雅安市某养殖场的黄河裸裂尻鱼(Schizopygopsis pylzovi Kessler)暴发传染病,临床表现为神经症状,眼球、下颌和鳃盖等出血或无明显临床表现而突然死亡,内脏涂片见革兰氏阳性球菌.从病鱼的肝、脾和肾组织中分离到2株病原菌(ZYW151011,ZYW151012),通过人工感染、无乳链球菌种属特异性cfb基因(GBS-specific gene cfb,CAMP factor)的PCR检测和16S rRNA基因序列分析等方法对病原菌进行鉴定,发现2株病原菌均为无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae).2株病原菌16S rRNA序列(GenBank登录号:KU308396和KU308397)与GenBank中无乳链球菌16S rRNA序列同源性达99.8%.药敏试验结果表明,2株病原菌对头孢类和喹诺酮类药物敏感,而对强力霉素、氟苯尼考和阿莫西林等耐药.进一步通过荚膜多糖血清分型和多位点序列分型技术对病原菌进行分子特征分析,结果表明2株病原菌荚膜多糖血清型均为致病性Ia型;2株病原菌多位点序列分型均被鉴定为新的序列型ZST-1,与序列型为ST-261的亲缘关系最近,此新型ZST-1在glnA位点发生变异,提交序列到MLST数据库获得新的等位基因编号81(登录ID:BIGSdb_ 20151110 081850_13025_35759).

  4. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; Wigcheren, Van Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; Haas, de Carla J.C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J.J.M.; Kessel, Van Kok P.M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; Strijp, van Jos A.G.; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leu

  5. Salivaricin G32, a Homolog of the Prototype Streptococcus pyogenes Nisin-Like Lantibiotic SA-FF22, Produced by the Commensal Species Streptococcus salivarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Wescombe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivaricin G32, a 2667 Da novel member of the SA-FF22 cluster of lantibiotics, has been purified and characterized from Streptococcus salivarius strain G32. The inhibitory peptide differs from the Streptococcus pyogenes—produced SA-FF22 in the absence of lysine in position 2. The salivaricin G32 locus was widely distributed in BLIS-producing S. salivarius, with 6 (23% of 26 strains PCR-positive for the structural gene, slnA. As for most other lantibiotics produced by S. salivarius, the salivaricin G32 locus can be megaplasmid encoded. Another member of the SA-FF22 family was detected in two Streptococcus dysgalactiae of bovine origin, an observation supportive of widespread distribution of this lantibiotic within the genus Streptococcus. Since the inhibitory spectrum of salivaricin G32 includes Streptococcus pyogenes, its production by S. salivarius, either as a member of the normal oral microflora or as a commercial probiotic, could serve to enhance protection of the human host against S. pyogenes infection.

  6. Analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae pan-genome for prevalence, diversity and functionality of integrative and conjugative or mobilizable elements integrated in the tRNA(Lys CTT) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puymège, Aurore; Bertin, Stéphane; Guédon, Gérard; Payot, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the first cause of invasive infections in human neonates and is also a major bovine and fish pathogen. High genomic diversity was observed in this species that hosts numerous mobile genetic elements, in particular elements transferable by conjugation. This works aims to evaluate the contribution of these elements to GBS genome diversity. Focusing on genomic islands integrated in the tRNA(Lys) (CTT) gene, a known hotspot of recombination, an extensive in silico search was performed on the sequenced genome of 303 strains of S. agalactiae isolated from different hosts. In all the isolates (except 9), whatever their origin (human, bovine, camel, dog, gray seal, dolphin, fish species or bullfrog), this locus carries highly diverse genomic islands transferable by conjugation such as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), integrative and mobilizable elements (IMEs), CIs-mobilizable elements (CIMEs) or composite elements. Transfer of an ICE from an ST67 bovine strain to a phylogenetically distant ST23 human isolate was obtained experimentally indicating that there was no barrier to ICE transfer between strains from different hosts. Interestingly, a novel family of putative IMEs that site-specifically integrate in the nic site of oriT of ICEs belonging to Tn916/ICESt3 superfamily was detected in silico. These elements carry an antibiotic resistance gene (lsa(C)) already described to confer cross-resistance to lincosamides, streptogramins A and pleuromutilins. Further work is needed to evaluate the impact of these IMEs on the transfer of targeted ICEs and the mobility and the dissemination of these IMEs.

  7. STREPTOCOCCUS PHOCAE ISOLATED FROM A SPOTTED SEAL (PHOCA LARGHA) WITH PYOMETRA IN ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueffer, Karsten; Lieske, Camilla L.; McGilvary, Lisa M.; Hare, Rebekah F.; Miller, Debra L.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    A spotted seal harvested by subsistence hunters in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska (USA), showed a grossly enlarged uterus and associated lymph nodes. Streptococcus phocae was isolated from the purulent uterine discharge. Histopathologic examination revealed inflammation that was limited to the uterine mucosa. Lymph nodes draining the affected organ were reactive but no evidence of active infection was found in the lymph nodes. This report is the first Streptococcus phocae isolated from spotted seals as well as the first report of pyometra as the main pathologic finding associated with this pathogen. Isolation of this pathogen from Alaska expands the reported range to arctic pinnipeds. Zoonotic potential remains unknown. PMID:22946378

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Plant-Derived Diterpenes against Bovine Mastitis Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. S. Veneziani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL−1 against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect, but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis.

  9. Application of a Dot Blot Hybridization Platform to Assess Streptococcus uberis Population Structure in Dairy Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Pedro; Ribeiro, Niza; Almeida, Alexandre; Panschin, Irena; Porfirio, Afonso; Vales, Marta; Diniz, Francisca; Madeira, Helena; Tavares, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is considered one of the most important pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. While traditionally acknowledged as an environmental pathogen, S. uberis has been shown to adopt a contagious epidemiological pattern in several dairy herds. Since different control strategies are employed depending on the mode of transmission, in-depth studies of S. uberis populations are essential to determine the best practices to control this pathogen. In this work, we optimized and validated a dot blot platform, combined with automatic image analysis, to rapidly assess the population structure of infective S. uberis, and evaluated its efficiency when compared to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) genotyping. Two dairy herds with prevalent S. uberis infections were followed in a 6 month period, in order to collect and characterize isolates from cows with persistent infections. These herds, located in Portugal (Barcelos and Maia regions), had similar management practices, with the herd from Barcelos being smaller and having a better milking parlor management, since infected cow segregation was immediate. A total of 54 S. uberis isolates were obtained from 24 different cows from the two herds. To overcome operator-dependent analysis of the dot blots and increase the technique's consistency and reliability, the hybridization signals were converted into probability values, with average probabilities higher than 0.5 being considered positive results. These data allowed to confirm the isolates' identity as S. uberis using taxa-specific markers and to determine the presence of virulence- and antibiotic resistance-related genes. In addition, MLSA allowed to disclose the most prevalent S. uberis clonal lineages in both herds. Seven different clusters were identified, with Barcelos showing a high clonal diversity and Maia a dominant lineage infecting most cows, suggesting distinct epidemiological patterns, with S. uberis displaying an environmental or contagious

  10. Development of a multiplex PCR assay to detect Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Bin; Kwon, Kyoung; Cha, In Seok; Jang, Ho Bin; Nho, Seong Won; Fagutao, Fernand F; Kim, Young Kyu; Yu, Jong Earn; Jung, Tae Sung

    2014-01-01

    A multiplex PCR protocol was established to simultaneously detect major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) including Edwardsiella (E.) tarda, Streptococcus (S.) parauberis, and S. iniae. The PCR assay was able to detect 0.01 ng of E. tarda, 0.1 ng of S. parauberis, and 1 ng of S. iniae genomic DNA. Furthermore, this technique was found to have high specificity when tested with related bacterial species. This method represents a cheaper, faster, and reliable alternative for identifying major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder, the most important farmed fish in Korea.

  11. Genetic Manipulation of Streptococcus pyogenes (The Group A Streptococcus, GAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus, GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild superficial infections (pharyngitis, impetigo) to severe often life-threatening invasive diseases (necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome) in humans. This unit describes molecular techniques for the genetic manipulation of S. pyogenes with detailed protocols for transformation, gene disruption, allelic exchange, transposon mutage...

  12. Potential antibiotic and anti-infective effects of rhodomyrtone from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. on Streptococcus pyogenes as revealed by proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limsuwan, Surasak; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Kayser, Oliver; Meinders, Hesseling A.

    2011-01-01

    Rhodomyrtone from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf extract has a strong antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Our previous studies indicated that the bactericidal activity of rhodomyrtone might involve intracellular targets. In the present studies we

  13. Additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae capsular type Ib: is genetic resistance correlated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus (S.) iniae and S. agalactiae are both economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens affecting the globally farmed tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Historically control of these bacteria in tilapia culture has included biosecurity, therapeutants and vaccination strategies. Genet...

  14. Native Valve Streptococcus bovis Endocarditis and Refractory Transfusion Dependent Iron Deficiency Anaemia Associated with Concomitant Carcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Azeez Ahamed Riyaaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is found as a commensal organism in human gut and may become opportunistically pathogenic. Infective endocarditis is one of the commonest modes of presentation of this infection. The association between Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colorectal cancer is well recognized. We report a case of Streptococcus bovis endocarditis along with a refractory iron deficiency anaemia associated with concomitant carcinoma of ascending colon in a 63-year-old male. Cooccurrence of these two conditions may cause a challenge in the management. Considering the strong association of colon cancer with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis, a detailed screening colonoscopy is mandatory following the diagnosis of the latter.

  15. Purification of bovine milk lactoperoxidase and investigation of antibacterial properties at different thiocyanate mediated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğuz, M T; Ozdemir, H

    2005-01-01

    Bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) was purified with amberlite CG 50 H+ resin, CM sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography from skim milk. The activity of lactoperoxidase was measured by using 2.2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6 sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as a choromogenic substrate at pH 6.0. Purification degree for the purified enzyme was controlled with SDS-PAGE and Rz value (A412/A280). Rz value for the purified LPO was 0.8. Km value at pH 6.0 at 20 degrees C for the LPO was 0.20 mM. Vmax value was 7.87 micromol/ml min at pH 6.0 at 20 degrees C. Bovine LPO showed high antibacterial activity in 100 mM thiocyanate--100 mM H2O2 medium for some pathogenic bacteria, such as Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Micrococcus luteus LA 2971, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Pseudomonas pyocyanea, Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 10, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 15753, Bacillus brevis FMC3, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 5, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Bacillus cereus EU, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Yersinia enterocolytica, Listeria monocytogenes scoot A, Bacillus megaterium EU, Bacillus megaterium DSM32, Klebsiella oxytocica, Staphylococcus aerogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067 and compared with well known antibacterial substances such as penicilline, ampicilline, amoxicillin-clavulanate and ceftriaxon. The LPO--100 mM thiocyanate--100 mM H2O2 system was purposed as an effective agent against many of the diseases causing organisms in human and animals.

  16. Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regianne Umeko Kamiya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virulence factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing, classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis.

  17. Bioinformatics analysis of bacterial pathogens from East African camels

    OpenAIRE

    Zubair, Saima

    2015-01-01

    The camel is the most valuable livestock species in arid and semi-arid regions in the Greater Horn of Africa. Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus are important pathogens for a wide range of hosts including camels, cattle and humans. Streptococcus agalactiae has been reported to cause infections of the skin, the respiratory tract, the mammary gland and the vaginal tract in camels. Staphylococcus aureus has been isolated from the nasal cavity, wound infections and mastitis from c...

  18. Colecistitis aguda por Streptococcus constellatus

    OpenAIRE

    M Sandra Gómez-Canosa; Cristina Lijó-Carballeda; Begoña Vázquez-Vázquez; M José Bello-Peón

    2016-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de una paciente de edad avanzada y significativa comorbilidad que se diagnosticó de colecistitis aguda por Streptococcus constellatus. El drenaje de la vesícula biliar por colecistostomía percutánea, asociado a penicilinas, ha conseguido una evolución favorable. We report the case of a patient of advanced age and significant comorbidity diagnosed acute cholecystitis by Streptococcus constellatus. Gallbladder drainage by percutaneous cholecystostomy associated ...

  19. Novel bacteriophage lysin with broad lytic activity protects against mixed infection by Streptococcus pyogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Daniel B; Schmitz, Jonathan E; Euler, Chad W; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GrAS]) cause serious and sometimes fatal human diseases. They are among the many Gram-positive pathogens for which resistance to leading antibiotics has emerged. As a result, alternative therapies need to be developed to combat these pathogens. We have identified a novel bacteriophage lysin (PlySs2), derived from a Streptococcus suis phage, with broad lytic activity against MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), Streptococcus suis, Listeria, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), S. pyogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis, group G streptococci (GGS), group E streptococci (GES), and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PlySs2 has an N-terminal cysteine-histidine aminopeptidase (CHAP) catalytic domain and a C-terminal SH3b binding domain. It is stable at 50 °C for 30 min, 37 °C for >24 h, 4°C for 15 days, and -80 °C for >7 months; it maintained full activity after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. PlySs2 at 128 μg/ml in vitro reduced MRSA and S. pyogenes growth by 5 logs and 3 logs within 1 h, respectively, and exhibited a MIC of 16 μg/ml for MRSA. A single, 2-mg dose of PlySs2 protected 92% (22/24) of the mice in a bacteremia model of mixed MRSA and S. pyogenes infection. Serially increasing exposure of MRSA and S. pyogenes to PlySs2 or mupirocin resulted in no observed resistance to PlySs2 and resistance to mupirocin. To date, no other lysin has shown such notable broad lytic activity, stability, and efficacy against multiple, leading, human bacterial pathogens; as such, PlySs2 has all the characteristics to be an effective therapeutic.

  20. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  1. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  2. [Bovine viral diarrhea control in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliukin, M I; Iurov, K P; Glotov, A G; Donchenko, N A

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the greatest challenges for breeding and commercial livestock. It is characterized by lesions of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, abortion, infertility, immune deficiency, and persistence of the pathogen. In this work, a set of measures for the rehabilitation and prevention of BVD in cattle is described. It includes the data of the literature, guidance documents for the diagnosis and control of BVD adopted by OIE, EU countries, USA, as well as the results of this research.

  3. Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, J G; Allan, E M; Selman, I E

    1985-09-07

    The left eyes of 10 conventional dairy cross calves were inoculated with a pathogenic strain of Moraxella bovis and lesions of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis developed in nine of these eyes. M bovis was isolated from all inoculated eyes and lesions developed in five out of 10 eyes which had become naturally infected. The clinical and microbiological findings were similar to those described in field cases.

  4. Clinical implications and treatment of multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, T M

    2006-05-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Prior to the 1970s this pathogen was uniformly susceptible to penicillin and most other antimicrobials. However, since the 1990s there has been a significant increase in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) due, in large part, to increased use of antimicrobials. The clinical significance of this resistance is not definitely established, but appears to be most relevant to specific MICs for specific antimicrobials. Certain beta-lactams (amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone), the respiratory fluoroquinolones, and telithromycin are among several agents that remain effective against DRSP. Continued surveillance studies, appropriate antimicrobial usage campaigns, stratification of patients based on known risk factors for resistance, and vaccination programmes are needed to appropriately manage DRSP and limit its spread.

  5. Crystal structure of cytotoxin protein suilysin from Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingfeng; Huang, Bo; Du, Huamao; Zhang, Xuejun C; Xu, Jianguo; Li, Xuemei; Rao, Zihe

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDC) are pore forming toxins. A prototype of the CDC family members is perfringolysin O (PFO), which directly binds to the cell membrane enriched in cholesterol, causing cell lysis. However, an exception of this general observation is intermedilysin (ILY) of Streptococcus intermedius, which requires human CD59 as a receptor in addition to cholesterol for its hemolytic activity. A possible explanation of this functional difference is the conformational variation between the C-terminal domains of the two toxins, particularly in the highly conserved undecapeptide termed tryptophan rich motif. Here, we present the crystal structure of suilysin, a CDC toxin from the infectious swine pathogen Streptococcus suis. Like PFO, suilysin does not require a host receptor for hemolytic activity; yet the crystal structure of suilysin exhibits a similar conformation in the tryptophan rich motif to ILY. This observation suggests that the current view of the structure-function relationship between CDC proteins and membrane association is far from complete.

  6. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain S25 Isolated from Peritoneal Liquid of Nile Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Rafaella Menegheti; Lima Júnior, Edson Antônio; Ribeiro Júnior, Jose Carlos; Beloti, Vanerli; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Padua, Santiago Benites; Pereira, Ulisses Pádua

    2016-08-04

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is one of the major pathogens in fish production, especially in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The genomic characteristics of GBS isolated from fish must be more explored. Thus, we present here the genome of GBS S25, isolated from Nile tilapia from Brazil.

  8. Immunoproteomic analysis of the antibody response obtained in tilapia following immunization with a Streptococcus iniae vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is one of the most economically important Gram-positive pathogens in cultured fish species worldwide. Research has shown that vaccination is a tool that can be used in the prevention of streptococcal disease. The USDA-ARS patented S. iniae vaccine has been demonstrated to be ef...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the Serotype k Streptococcus mutans Strain LJ23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Chihiro; Furukawa, Nayuta; Watanabe, Takayasu; Minegishi, Kana; Furukawa, Asuka; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Oshima, Kenshiro; Kurokawa, Ken; Hattori, Masahira; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Ooshima, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries and occasionally causes infective endocarditis. Here we report the complete genome sequence of serotype k S. mutans strain LJ23, which was recently isolated from the oral cavity of a Japanese patient. PMID:22535936

  10. The ParB-parS Chromosome Segregation System Modulates Competence Development in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attaiech, Laetitia; Minnen, Anita; Kjos, Morten; Gruber, Stephan; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: ParB proteins bind centromere-like DNA sequences called parS sites and are involved in plasmid and chromosome segregation in bacteria. We previously showed that the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae contains four parS sequences located close to the origin of replicati

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain S25 Isolated from Peritoneal Liquid of Nile Tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Rafaella Menegheti; Lima Júnior, Edson Antônio; Ribeiro Júnior, Jose Carlos; Beloti, Vanerli; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Padua, Santiago Benites

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is one of the major pathogens in fish production, especially in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The genomic characteristics of GBS isolated from fish must be more explored. Thus, we present here the genome of GBS S25, isolated from Nile tilapia from Brazil. PMID:27491974

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Ia and III Isolates from Tilapia Farms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areechon, Nontawith; Kannika, Korntip; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Unajak, Sasimanas

    2016-03-24

    Streptococcus agalactiaeserotypes Ia and III were isolated from infected tilapia in cage and pond culture farms in Thailand during 2012 to 2014, in which pathogenicity analysis demonstrated that serotype III showed higher virulence than serotype Ia. Here, we report the draft genome sequencing of piscineS. agalactiaeserotypes Ia and III.

  13. Bioinformatics and structural characterization of a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nan, Jie; Brostromer, Erik; Liu, Xiang-Yu;

    2009-01-01

    As an oral bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus mutans has been known as the aetiologic agent of human dental caries. Among a total of 1960 identified proteins within the genome of this organism, there are about 500 without any known functions. One of these proteins, SMU.440, has very few homologs...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Streptococcus and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Pathogenic streptococci are associated with infections, such as sore throat... fever, and kidney disease. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  15. Streptococcus pneumoniae and reactive oxygen species : an unusual approach to living with radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesilkaya, Hasan; Andisi, Vahid Farshchi; Andrew, Peter W.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, an aerotolerant anaerobe, is an important human pathogen that regularly encounters toxic oxygen radicals from the atmosphere and from the host metabolism and immune system. Additionally, S. pneumoniae produces large amounts of H2O2 as a byproduct of its metabolism, which co

  16. Establishment of a Cre recombinase based mutagenesis protocol for markerless gene deletion in Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, A; Willenborg, J; Bertram, R; Takamatsu, D; Valentin-Weigand, P; Goethe, R

    2014-12-01

    The lack of knowledge about pathogenicity mechanisms of Streptococcus (S.) suis is, at least partially, attributed to limited methods for its genetic manipulation. Here, we established a Cre-lox based recombination system for markerless gene deletions in S. suis serotype 2 with high selective pressure and without undesired side effects.

  17. Draft genome sequences of nine Streptococcus suis strains isolated in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen responsible for economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Additionally, it is a zoonotic agent that can cause severe infections in those in close contact with infected pigs and/or who consume uncooked or undercooked pork products. Here, we report nine draf...

  18. Streptococcus pyogenes udgående fra tonsilfokus som mulig årsag til alvorlig sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimoradi, Jalal; Lisby, Gorm; Jeppesen, Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (SP) is a common bacterial pathogen. For the past two decades, several studies have reported an increase in the severity and the incidence of SP infections. Case: a 60-year-old female admitted to the hospital with tonsillitis acuta verified by strep-A test was initially...

  19. Streptococcus suis infections in pigs : use of virulence-associated markers in diagnostics and vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, Hendrikus Jan

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pig pathogen which is mainly associated with meningitis, arthritis and septicaemia. Control of the disease is hampered by the lack of effective vaccines and the lack of reliable diagnostic tests with high specificity and sensitivity. The development of these tools

  20. Antimicrobial Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Khanal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns plays important role in the selection of appropriate therapy. Present study was undertaken to analyze the susceptibility patterns of pneumococcal isolates against commonly used antimicrobials with special reference to determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of penicillin in a tertiary care hospital in eastern Nepal. Methods: Twenty-six strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from various clinical specimens submitted to microbiology laboratory were evaluated. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion method. MIC of penicillin was tested by broth dilution method. Results: Of the total isolates 19 (73% were from invasive infections. Seven isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. No resistance to penicillin was seen in disk diffusion testing. Less susceptibility to penicillin (MIC 0.1-1.0 mg/L was observed in five (17% isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not detected. One isolate was multidrug resistant. Conclusions: S. pneumoniaeisolates with intermediate resistance to penicillin prevail in Tertiary Care Hospital in eastern Nepal, causing invasive and noninvasive infections. As intermediate resistance is not detected in routine susceptibility testing, determination of MIC is important. It helps not only in the effective management of life threatening infections but is also essential in continuous monitoring and early detection of resistance. In addition, further study on pneumococcal infections, its antimicrobial resistance profile and correlation with clinical and epidemiological features including serotypes and group prevalence is recommended in future. Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, penicillin, Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  1. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  2. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  3. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae proteomics: determinants of pathogenesis and vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittaye, Mustapha; Cash, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that is responsible for a variety of invasive diseases. The bacteria gain entry initially by establishing a carriage state in the nasopharynx from where they migrate to other sites in the body. The worldwide distribution of the bacteria and the severity of the diseases have led to a significant level of interest in the development of vaccines against the bacteria. Current vaccines, based on the bacterial polysaccharide, have a number of limitations including poor immunogenicity and limited effectiveness against all pneumococcal serotypes. There are many challenges in developing vaccines that will be effective against the diverse range of isolates and serotypes for this highly variable bacterial pathogen. This review considers how proteomic technologies have extended our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of nasopharyngeal colonization and disease development as well as the critical areas in developing protein-based vaccines.

  5. Significance, management and prevention of Streptococcus agalactiae infection during the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Reinhard

    2004-06-01

    The highest annual death rate during the first five decades of life occurs in the first year, particularly during the perinatal period between the onset of labor and 72 h after birth. Invasive bacterial disease evoking the severe inflammatory response syndrome is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) is the most important pathogen in this period of life, although the concept of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis has impressively reduced the rate of culture-proven invasive infection in neonates. This strategy, however, has considerable limitations since group B streptococcus-related stillbirths or prematurity and late-onset sepsis cannot be prevented. Moreover, the use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis has significantly increased the use of antibiotics during labor and therefore may select for intrapartum infections caused by other bacteria, including those resistant to antibiotics. Several advances in the development of vaccines and research on virulence factors and pathways involved in the immune response to group B streptococcus have been accomplished within the last years, including complete sequencing of the group B streptococcus genome. Development of effective vaccines and implementation of vaccination strategies will be one of the key challenges in the future for prevention of neonatal group B Streptococcus infections.

  6. 高致病性2型猪链球菌毒素-抗毒素系统SezAT的鉴定与活性研究%Identification and activity assay of the SezAT toxin-antitoxin system of highly pathogenic Streptococcus suis serotype 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 李明; 钟秋; 赵岩; 饶贤才; 黎庶; 谭银玲; 胡福泉

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对我国高致病性2型猪链球菌05ZYH33基因组的89K毒力岛序列进行生物信息学分析,发现存在一对与化脓链球菌Epsilon-zeta(ε-ζ)同源的Ⅱ型毒素-抗毒素系统(Toxin-antitoxin system,TA)-SezAT,推测该系统具有稳定89K毒力岛使其不易丢失的作用.验证SezAT为有活性的TA系统.[方法]对SezAT进行了生物信息学分析;RT-PCR验证SezAT共转录特性;在大肠杆菌中选择性地诱导表达毒素蛋白SezT和抗毒素蛋白SezA;最后通过同源重组技术敲除SezAT系统.[结果]sezAT由同一操纵子控制,SezT可抑制细菌生长,SezA可中和SezT的毒性作用,同源重组成功获得sezT敲除突变株.[结论]证实SezAT为一对有活性的毒素-抗毒素(TA)系统,为进一步研究SezAT可能发挥稳定89K毒力岛的功能,同时获得89K毒力岛缺失突变株并深入认识89K在我国高致病性SS2中的作用奠定了基础.%[Objective] Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the 89K pathogenicity island(PAI) of highly pathogenic Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) in China encodes a putative type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system named SezAT, which is homologous to the epsilon-zeta system from S. Pyogenes. SezAT is presumed to be requisite for the stability of the 89K PAI in SS2. To confirm the SezAT system is a functional TA system. [Methods] The sequence characteristics of SezAT were subjected to further bioinformatics analysis. RT-PCR was performed to analyze the transcriptions of the sezAT locus and the flanking genes. The SezT toxin and SezA antitoxin proteins were selectively overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Deletion mutagenesis was carried out to obtain a SezAT-deficient mutant. [Results] Bioinformatics analysis and RT-PCR results suggest that sezAT are in the same operon. Overexpression of SezT led to severe growth inhibition of the host bacteria, while this toxicity was counteracted by the expression of SezA. Finally, the toxin-encoding gene sezT was successfully

  7. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worley Kim C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries.

  8. Colecistitis aguda por Streptococcus constellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sandra Gómez-Canosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de edad avanzada y significativa comorbilidad que se diagnosticó de colecistitis aguda por Streptococcus constellatus. El drenaje de la vesícula biliar por colecistostomía percutánea, asociado a penicilinas, ha conseguido una evolución favorable. We report the case of a patient of advanced age and significant comorbidity diagnosed acute cholecystitis by Streptococcus constellatus. Gallbladder drainage by percutaneous cholecystostomy associated with penicillins has achieved a favorable outcome.

  9. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  10. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake...

  11. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  12. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delannoy Christian MJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26, seals (n = 6, a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host

  13. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  14. [Pathogenicity and pneumococcal capsular genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E; García, P; López, R

    1994-01-01

    Pneumococci remain to be one of the most prominent human pathogens. Increasing efforts are being dedicated to the development of improved vaccines with wider specificity. Since a clear understanding of the genetics of capsular types in Streptococcus pneumoniae is missing, our efforts are oriented to characterize, at the molecular level, the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. We have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal DNA fragment of a clinical isolate of type 3 pneumococcus and showed that it contains a type 3 specific gene as well as genes common to other serotypes.

  15. Epidemiological aspects of group B streptococci of bovine and human origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1996-01-01

    restriction enzymes, HindIII and HhaI. All isolates could be typed by ribotyping and seven ribotypes were identified among the reference strains. The restriction enzymes used alone or in combination gave typing results that allowed discrimination between and within serotype. Combined use of serotype, Hind......Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding rRNA (ribotyping) was used in combination with conventional epidemiological markers to study phenotypic variations among Streptococcus agalactiae of bovine origin and the possible epidemiological interrelationship between the bovine...

  16. Neonatal necrotizing fasciitis of the scrotum caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Junpei; Inoue, Nobuaki; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Terakawa, Toshiro; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2015-04-01

    We herein describe the case of a 27-day-old male infant who was brought to the emergency room for intermittent crying, and swelling of the left scrotum. Based on the clinical findings, necrotizing fasciitis was suspected, and surgical intervention was successfully completed within a few hours of admission. Streptococcus agalactiae type Ia was cultured from the drained abscess, and was considered the causative pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal necrotizing fasciitis caused by S. agalactiae. Prompt diagnosis and immediate surgical debridement are crucial in the initial management of this disease.

  17. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wang,1 Yunmei Song,1 Kiro Petrovski,2 Patricia Eats,2 Darren J Trott,2 Hui San Wong,2 Stephen W Page,3 Jeanette Perry,2 Sanjay Garg11School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.Results: Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 µg/mL. The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than

  18. Fluorescent copper(II complexes: The electron transfer mechanism, interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinuclear copper(II complexes with formula [Cu2(L2(N32] (1 and [Cu2(L2(NCS2] (2 HL = (1-[(3-methyl-pyridine-2-ylimino-methyl]-naphthalen-2-ol were synthesized by controlling the molar ratio of Cu(OAC2·6H2O, HL, sodium azide (1 and ammonium thiocyanate (2. The end on bridges appear exclusively in azide and thiocyanate to copper complexes. The electron transfer mechanism of copper(II complexes is examined by cyclic voltammetry indicating copper(II complexes are Cu(II/Cu(I couple. The interactions of copper(II complexes towards bovine serum albumin (BSA were examined with the help of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic tools. We report a superficial solution-based route for the synthesis of micro crystals of copper complexes with BSA. The antibacterial activity of the Schiff base and its copper complexes were investigated by the agar disc diffusion method against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that the antibacterial activity of all complexes is higher than the ligand.

  19. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of some Sinai medicinal plant extracts on bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamil S. G. Zeedan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis is the most economically important disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide from an economic, diagnostic and public-health point of view. The present study aimed to isolate and identify of bacteria causes mastitis in dairy cows and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of some selected medicinal plants extracts comparing antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 203 milk samples of dairy cows were collected during the period from February to June 2013 at different Governorates in Egypt. The use clinical inspection and California mastitis test examination were provided efficient diagnostic tool for detection of clinical, subclinical mastitis and apparently normal health cattle. The collected milk samples were cultured on Nutrient, Blood agar, Mannitol salt, Edward’s and MacConkey agar plates supporting the growth of various types of bacteria for their biochemical studies and isolation. The antimicrobial activity of plants extracts (Jasonia montana and Artemisia herb albawith different solvent (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and acetonewere studied in vitro against isolated bacteria from mastitis by paper desk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC. Results: The prevalence of clinical, subclinical mastitis and normal healthy animals were 34.50%, 24.7% and 40.8% respectively. The major pathogens isolated from collected milk samples were Escherichia coli (22.16%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.19%, Streptococcus spp. (13.3%, Streptococcus agalactiae (12.8%, Streptococcus dysgalactia (0.5%, Pasteurella spp. (2.45%, Klebsiella spp. (1.47%and Pseudomonas spp. (0.45%. The highest antibacterial activity of J. montana plant extracted with acetone solvent against S. agalactiae, E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococci with zone of inhibition values ± standard deviation (SD, ranging from 4.33±0.57 to 25.6±0.60 mm. The MIC values

  20. Identification and serotyping of Streptococcus agalactiae by PCR%无乳链球菌及其血清型的PCR方法鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤炜; 周雪; 于立权; 吴志军; 朱战波; 崔玉东

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important pathogen that causes bovine mastitis and life-threatening invasive infections (septicemia,pneumonia,and meningitis) during the neonatal period.To rapidly identify capsular serotypes of S.agalactiae,a total of 22 bovine Streptococcus isolates from different regions of China were typed by biochemical tests and multiplex PCR to amplify the conserved sip and cps genes of the S.agalactiae.The results shown 17 of the 22 isolates were positive for sip gene,whereas,15 of the 17 S.agalactiae were positive identified by biochemical tests.Furthermore,the multiplex PCR also revealed that among the 17 isolates,the cps gene serotypes were 4 of Ia,11 of Ⅱ and 2 of Ⅲ,repectively.This study may provide a reference for identification and serotyping of S.agalactiae.%无乳链球菌(S.agalactiae)是引起奶牛乳房炎和新生儿期侵袭性感染(包括败血症、肺炎和脑膜炎)的重要病原菌.为快速准确地鉴定S.agalactiae及其血清型,本研究对22株从国内不同地区分离的牛源链球菌进行生化鉴定以及针对S.agalactiae保守基因sip进行PCR鉴定,并采用多重PCR技术扩增sip基因阳性菌株的cps基因进行血清分型.结果显示,PCR扩增sip基因阳性17株,其中15株生化试验与PCR结果一致;多重PCR扩增cps基因显示,其中Ia型4株、Ⅱ型11株、Ⅲ型2株.本研究为鉴定S.agalactiae及其血清型提供了参考.

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Marguerite; Saab, Matthew; Heider, Luke; McClure, J Trenton; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: (1) Streptococcus uberis (n = 70), (2) Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28), (3) other Streptococci spp. (n = 35), (4), Lactococcus spp. (n = 32), and (5) Enterococcus spp. (n = 27). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible S. uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin) to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin), with a median of 82%. All S. dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible) and tetracycline (18% susceptible). The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline) to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin) to 97% (for erythromycin), median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice

  2. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus : immunopathology and vaccine evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Human and bovine RSVs cause severe disease in humans and in cattle respectively. They have been recognised as important respiratory pathogens in the last five decades, and this has resulted in significant research activities on the pathogenesis and intervention strategies around the world. Physician

  3. Streptococcus oligofermentans inhibits Streptococcus mutans in biofilms at both neutral pH and cariogenic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; de Soet, J.J.; Tong, H.; Gao, X.; He, L.; van Loveren, C.; Deng, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide (

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Periodontal Streptococcus Constellatus and Streptococcus Intermedius Clinical Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Feik, Diane; Mortensen, Joel E; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius in subgingival dental plaque biofilms may contribute to forms of periodontitis that resist treatment with conventional mechanical root debridement/surgical procedures and may additionally participate in some extraoral infections. B

  5. Lung abscess due to Streptococcus pneumoniae simulating pulmonary tuberculosis: presentation of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Perazzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, anaerobes were the most common cause of community-acquired lung abscess; Streptococcus species were the second most common cause. In recent years, this has changed. Klebsiella pneumoniae is now most common cause of community- acquired lung abscess, although Streptococcus species remain pathogen of major importance. We present two cases of pulmonary cavitation due to Streptococcus pneumoniae which resembled pulmonary tuberculosis with regards to their history and radiological findings. These are examples of a common diagnosis presenting in an uncommon way. Our cases had some peculiarities: they had a clinical picture strongly suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis or lung cancer rather than necrotizing infectious pneumonia in patients with no comorbidities or underlying diseases (including oral or dental pathologies. Radiological findings did not help the clinicians: pulmonary tuberculosis was the first diagnostic hypothesis in both cases. An underlying lung cancer was excluded in the first case only after invasive pulmonary procedures.

  6. Human and bovine viruses and bacteria at three Great Lakes beaches: Environmental variable associations and health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Lutz, Michelle A.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Busse, Kimberly M.; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65–87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13–35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 3 × 10–5, 7 × 10–9, and 3 × 10–7 for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  7. Human and Bovine Viruses and Bacteria at Three Great Lakes Beaches: Environmental Variable Associations and Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Borchardt, Mark A; Carvin, Rebecca B; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K; Lutz, Michelle A; McDermott, Colleen M; Busse, Kimberly M; Kleinheinz, Gregory T; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-19

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65-87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13-35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 2 × 10(-5), 8 × 10(-6), and 3 × 10(-7) [corrected] for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  8. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  9. Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Scott V; McShan, William M

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5' end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13 to 20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges.

  10. Genetic diversity of geographically distinct Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates from fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdelsalam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish. Clinically, infection is characterized by the development of necrotic lesions at the caudal peduncle of infected fishes. The pathogen has been recently isolated from different fish species in many countries. Twenty S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia were molecularly characterized by biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE using SmaI enzyme, and tuf gene sequencing analysis. DNA sequencing of ten S. dysgalactiae revealed no genetic variation in the tuf amplicons, except for three strains. The restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA measured by BSFGE were differentiated into six distinct types and one subtype among collected strains. To our knowledge, this report gives the first snapshot of S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from different countries that are localized geographically and differed on a multinational level. This genetic unrelatedness among different isolates might suggest a high recombination rate and low genetic stability.

  11. Phagocytosis and killing of Streptococcus suis by porcine neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Roy, Geneviève; Willson, Philip; Segura, Mariela; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2006-07-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen responsible for diverse infections, mainly meningitis. Virulence factors and the pathogenesis of infection are not well understood. Neutrophils may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infection given that infiltration by neutrophils and mononuclear cells are frequently observed in lesions caused by S. suis. The objective of this work was to study the interactions between S. suis serotype 2 and porcine neutrophils. Results showed that suilysin is toxic to neutrophils and this could help S. suis evade innate immunity. Moreover, suilysin appears to affect complement-dependent killing by decreasing the opsonization of S. suis and the bactericidal capacity of neutrophils. Our results confirm that capsule polysaccharide protects S. suis against killing and phagocytosis by neutrophils. We also showed that the presence of specific IgG against S. suis serotype 2 promoted killing by neutrophils, indicating that the induction of a strong humoral response is beneficial for clearance of this pathogen.

  12. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stärk Katharina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146 for the period 2003–2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories in European countries based on validated and harmonised methodologies. Available summary data of the susceptibility testing of the bacterial pathogens from the different laboratories were collected. Method Antimicrobial susceptibility data for several bovine pathogens were obtained over a three year period (2002–2004. Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excel-file templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species. A proficiency test (EQAS – external quality assurance system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted each year to test the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the participating laboratories. The data from this testing demonstrated that for the species included in the EQAS the results are comparable between countries. Results Data from 25,241 isolates were collected from 13 European countries. For Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis major differences were apparent in the occurrence of resistance between countries and between the different antimicrobial agents tested. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin. For Mannheimia haemolytica resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphonamide were observed in France, the Netherlands and Portugal. All isolates of Pasteurella multocida isolated in Finland and most of those from Denmark, England (and Wales, Italy and Sweden were susceptible to the majority of the antimicrobials. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from Sweden were fully susceptible. For the other countries some resistance was observed to

  13. Antibacterial activity of Iranian medicinal plants against Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirbalouti Ghasemi Abdollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems. Ten Iranian medicinal plants were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus iniae isolates obtained from diseased Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmonidae; Walbaum, 1972 collected from fish farms in Iran. The antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum, Quercus branti, Glycyrrhiza glabra and essential oils of Heracleum lasiopetalum, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis, Myrtus communis, Echinophora platyloba, Kelussia odoratissima and Stachys lavandulifolia against Steptococcus iniae was evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts and essential oils showed a relatively high antibacterial activity against Streptococcus iniae. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of Satureja bachtiarica, Echinophora platyloba, Thymus daenensis and the ethanol extract of Quercus branti. Some of the extracts were active against Streptococcus iniae. Two essential oils showed lower MIC values; Heracleum lasiopetalum (78 μg/ml and Satureja bachtiarica (39 μg/ml. The essential oil of Satureja bachtiarica could be an important source of antibacterial compounds against the Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout.

  14. The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loof, Torsten G; Deicke, Christin; Medina, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis and is a host defense mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system after tissue injury. During bacterial infections, the coagulation system cooperates with the inflammatory system to eliminate the invading pathogens. However, pathogenic bacteria have frequently evolved mechanisms to exploit the hemostatic system components for their own benefit. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus, provides a remarkable example of the extraordinary capacity of pathogens to exploit the host hemostatic system to support microbial survival and dissemination. The coagulation cascade comprises the contact system (also known as the intrinsic pathway) and the tissue factor pathway (also known as the extrinsic pathway), both leading to fibrin formation. During the early phase of S. pyogenes infection, the activation of the contact system eventually leads to bacterial entrapment within a fibrin clot, where S. pyogenes is immobilized and killed. However, entrapped S. pyogenes can circumvent the antimicrobial effect of the clot by sequestering host plasminogen on the bacterial cell surface that, after conversion into its active proteolytic form, plasmin, degrades the fibrin network and facilitates the liberation of S. pyogenes from the clot. Furthermore, the surface-localized fibrinolytic activity also cleaves a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, thereby enabling S. pyogenes to migrate across barriers and disseminate within the host. This review summarizes the knowledge gained during the last two decades on the role of coagulation/fibrinolysis in host defense against S. pyogenes as well as the strategies developed by this pathogen to evade and exploit these host mechanisms for its own benefit.

  15. M-ficolin binds selectively to the capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 19B and 19C and of a S. mitis strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Troels Rønn; Hansen, Annette G; Sørensen, Uffe B S

    2012-01-01

    of infections. We investigated the binding selectivity by examining the binding of M-ficolin to a panel of more than 100 different streptococcal strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis) each expressing distinct polysaccharide structures. M-ficolin binding was observed for three strains only...... able to demonstrate specific binding of M-ficolin to some capsular polysaccharides of the opportunistic pathogen S. pneumoniae and of the commensal bacterium S. mitis....

  16. Bifidobacteria upregulate expression of toll-like receptor negative regulators counteracting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli mediated inflammation in bovine intestinal epitheliocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Kozue; Villena, Julio Cesar; Tomosada, Yohsuke; Risa, Hara; Chiba, Eriko; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Aso, Hisashi; Suda, Yoshihito; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-zhong; Saito, Tadao; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2015-01-01

    We previously established a bovine intestinal epithelial cell line (BIE cells) and showed that BIE cells are useful in vitro model system for the study of interactions between pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms and bovine intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In the present study we aimed to select potential immunomodulatory bifidobacteria that may be used to beneficially modulate the inflammatory response in bovine IECs. We also aimed to gain insight in the molecular mechanisms involved ...

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Auxotrophs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altabe, Silvia; Lopez, Paloma; de Mendoza, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis is essential for the maintenance of membrane structure and function in many groups of anaerobic bacteria. Like Escherichia coli, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids. In E. coli UFA synthesis requires the action of two gene products, the essential isomerase/dehydratase encoded by fabA and an elongation condensing enzyme encoded by fabB. S. pneumoniae lacks both genes and instead employs a single enzyme with only an isomerase function encoded by the fabM gene. In this paper we report the construction and characterization of an S. pneumoniae 708 fabM mutant. This mutant failed to grow in complex medium, and the defect was overcome by addition of UFAs to the growth medium. S. pneumoniae fabM mutants did not produce detectable levels of monounsaturated fatty acids as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography analysis of the radiolabeled phospholipids. We also demonstrate that a fabM null mutant of the cariogenic organism Streptococcus mutants is a UFA auxotroph, indicating that FabM is the only enzyme involved in the control of membrane fluidity in streptococci. Finally we report that the fabN gene of Enterococcus faecalis, coding for a dehydratase/isomerase, complements the growth of S. pneumoniae fabM mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that FabM is a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents against streptococci and that S. pneumoniae UFA auxotrophs could help identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in UFA biosynthesis. PMID:17827283

  18. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Ayako; Furukawa, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; Morinaga, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2011-01-01

    The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity. PMID:21239559

  19. Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis following a Streptococcus pyogenes Toxic Shock Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Patient: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-François Roussy; Catherine Allard; Guy St-Germain; Jacques Pépin

    2012-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon opportunistic infection and the gastrointestinal form is the rarest. Rhizopus sp. is the most frequent pathogen and infection occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients. We describe the first case of intestinal mucormycosis occurring after a Streptococcus pyogenes toxic shock syndrome in a previously healthy patient caused by Rhizopus microsporus var. azygosporus.

  20. Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis following a Streptococcus pyogenes Toxic Shock Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Patient: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussy, Jean-François; Allard, Catherine; St-Germain, Guy; Pépin, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon opportunistic infection and the gastrointestinal form is the rarest. Rhizopus sp. is the most frequent pathogen and infection occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients. We describe the first case of intestinal mucormycosis occurring after a Streptococcus pyogenes toxic shock syndrome in a previously healthy patient caused by Rhizopus microsporus var. azygosporus.

  1. Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis following a Streptococcus pyogenes Toxic Shock Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Roussy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is an uncommon opportunistic infection and the gastrointestinal form is the rarest. Rhizopus sp. is the most frequent pathogen and infection occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients. We describe the first case of intestinal mucormycosis occurring after a Streptococcus pyogenes toxic shock syndrome in a previously healthy patient caused by Rhizopus microsporus var. azygosporus.

  2. SMC is recruited to oriC by ParB and promotes chromosome segregation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, Anita; Attaiech, Laetitia; Thon, Maria; Gruber, Stephan; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2011-01-01

    Segregation of replicated chromosomes is an essential process in all organisms. How bacteria, such as the oval-shaped human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, efficiently segregate their chromosomes is poorly understood. Here we show that the pneumococcal homologue of the DNA-binding protein ParB re

  3. Slaughterhouse Pigs Are a Major Reservoir of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capable of Causing Human Infection in Southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.H Ngo; T.B.C. Tran; T.T.N. Tran; V.D. Nguyen; J. Campbell; H.A. Pham; H.T. Huynh; V.V.C. Nguyen; J.E. Bryant; T.H. Tran; J. Farrar; C. Schultsz

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serot

  4. An emerging zoonotic clone in the Netherlands provides clues to virulence and zoonotic potential of Streptococcus suis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, N.; Howell, K.J.; Weinert, L.A.; Heuvelink, A.; Pannekoek, Y.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Smith, H.E.; Ende, Van Der A.; Schultsz, C.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic swine pathogen and a major public health concern in Asia, where it emerged as an important cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. While associated with food-borne transmission in Asia, zoonotic S. suis infections are mainly occupational hazards elsewhere. To ide

  5. Rapid Detection and Identification of Streptococcus Iniae Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems . The traditional plate culture technique to detect and identify S. iniae is time consuming and may be problematic due to phenotypic variations...

  6. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  7. Sexing Bovine Embryos Using PCR Amplification of Bovine SRY Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾溢滔; 张美兰; 陈美珏; 周霞娣; 黄英; 任兆瑞; 黄淑帧; 胡明信; 吴学清; 高建明; 张斌; 徐慧如

    1994-01-01

    This study analyses the bovine SRY DNA sequence by direct sequencing procedure, followed by the designation of the PCR primers specific for bovine SRY. Using PCR amplification of bovine SRY gene, the embryo sex was determined. The results of the embryo sex identification were confirmed after the embryo transfer and pregnancies.

  8. Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., two novel Streptococcus species isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Vandamme, Peter; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; Elfahime, El Mostafa; Farricha, Omar El; Swings, Jean; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on two unidentified Gram-stain positive, catalase and oxidase negative, non-hemolytic Streptococcus-like organisms recovered from raw camel milk in Morocco. Phenotypic characterization and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the two strains were highly different from each other and that they did not correspond to any recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the unidentified organisms each formed a hitherto unknown sub-line within the genus Streptococcus, displaying a close affinity with Streptococcus moroccensis, Streptococcus minor and Streptococcus ovis. DNA G+C content determination, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and biochemical tests demonstrated the bacterial isolates represent two novel species. Based on the phenotypic distinctiveness of the new bacteria and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed to classify the two strains as Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov., with CCMM B832(T) (=LMG 27683(T)) as the type strain, and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., with CCMM B834(T) (=LMG 27685(T)) as the type strain.

  9. Targeted Antimicrobial Therapy Against Streptococcus mutans Establishes Protective Non-cariogenic Oral Biofilms and Reduces Subsequent Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li-Na; Guo, Li-hong; Lux, Renate; Eckert, Randal; Yarbrough, Daniel; He, Jian; Anderson, Maxwell; Shi, Wen-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Aim Dental biofilms are complex communities composed largely of harmless bacteria. Certain pathogenic species including Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) can become predominant when host factors such as dietary sucrose intake imbalance the biofilm ecology. Current approaches to control S. mutans infection are not pathogen-specific and eliminate the entire oral community along with any protective benefits provided. Here, we tested the hypothesis that removal of S. mutans from the oral community...

  10. Establishment of bovine prion peptide-based monoclonal antibodies for identifying bovine prion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To obtain high titer monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) which can react with mammalian prion protein(PrP),Balb/C mice were immunized with bovine(Bo) PrP peptide(BoPrP 209-228 aa) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin(KLH).The hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against the peptide were established by cell fusion and cloning.The obtained McAbs were applied to detect recombinant human,bovine and hamster PrP,cellular prion protein(PrPc) in normal bovine brain and pathogenic scrapie prion protein(PrPSc) accumulated in the medulla oblongata of bovine spongiform encephalopathy(BSE)specimen with Western blot and immunohistochemical detection,respectively.The current procedure might offer a simple,feasible method to raise high titer antibodies for studying biological features of PrP in mammals,as well as detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy(TSE) and diagnosis of BSE,in particular.

  11. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy.

  12. Zinc disrupts central carbon metabolism and capsule biosynthesis in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y; Walker, Mark J; McEwan, Alastair G

    2015-06-01

    Neutrophils release free zinc to eliminate the phagocytosed bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underpinning zinc toxicity towards this human pathogen, responsible for diseases ranging from pharyngitis and impetigo, to severe invasive infections. Using the globally-disseminated M1T1 GAS strain, we demonstrate that zinc stress impairs glucose metabolism through the inhibition of the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. In the presence of zinc, a metabolic shift to the tagatose-6-phosphate pathway allows conversion of D-galactose to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate, partially bypassing impaired glycolytic enzymes to generate pyruvate. Additionally, zinc inhibition of phosphoglucomutase results in decreased capsule biosynthesis. These data indicate that zinc exerts it toxicity via mechanisms that inhibit both GAS central carbon metabolism and virulence pathways.

  13. Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Noronha Frey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade, e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5, e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5 and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

  14. [Streptococcus pyogenes toxic-shock syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Rui; Diogo, Marco; Carvalho, Alexandre; Pimentel, Teresa; Oliveira, José

    2011-12-01

    Recently there has been an exponential increase in invasive infections caused by Streptococcus ß hemolyticus group A. In about one third of cases they are complicated by toxic shock syndrome, characterized by septic shock and multiorgan failure. The authors, by their rarity, report a case of bacteraemia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes complicated by toxic shock syndrome.

  15. Group A Streptococcus vulvovaginitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Lacy, Judith; Hillard, Paula A

    2008-08-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus-associated vulvovaginitis is uncommon in adult women. Clinicians should include group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus as a possible cause of vulvovaginal symptoms in breastfeeding women. Along with appropriate antibiotic therapy, vaginal estrogen therapy may be considered to diminish susceptibility to recurrent infection in women with vaginal atrophy.

  16. Seeing Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Common Killer Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of ink, watercolours and computer graphics. We propose a novel artistic visual rendering of Streptococcus pneumoniae and ask what the value of these kind of representations are compared to traditional scientific data. We ask if drawings and computer...

  17. Streptococcus pyogenes toxic-shock syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, R; M Diogo; Carvalho, A.; Pimentel, T.; J. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been an exponential increase in invasive infections caused by Streptococcus ß hemolyticcus group A. In about one third of cases they are complicated by toxic shock syndrome, characterized by septic shock and multiorgan failure. The authors, by their rarity, report a case of bacteraemia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes complicated by toxic shock syndrome.

  18. Enzootic bovine leukosis and Bovine leukemia virus

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri; Alice Fernandes Alfieri; Luis Álvaro Leuzzi Junior

    2004-01-01

    All over de World the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a important viral infection in cattle herds. This revision points out topics relative to the etiological agent, clinical signals, diagnosis methods, control and prophylaxis of the infection.A Leucose Enzoótica Bovina é uma infecção viral amplamente disseminada em rebanhos bovinos de todo o mundo. Esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar tópicos relacionados ao agente etiológico, à doença clínica e aos métodos de diagnóstico, controle e profila...

  19. Simultaneous Concentration of Bovine Viruses and Agricultural Zoonotic Bacteria from Water Using Sodocalcic Glass Wool Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmaksoud, Sherif; Spencer, Susan K; Gerba, Charles P; Tamimi, Akrum H; Jokela, William E; Borchardt, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Infiltration and runoff from manured agricultural fields can result in livestock pathogens reaching groundwater and surface waters. Here, we measured the effectiveness of glass wool filters to simultaneously concentrate enteric viruses and bacteria of bovine origin from water. The recovery efficiencies were determined for bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, bovine rotavirus group A, bovine coronavirus, poliovirus Sabin III, toxigenic Escherichia coli ,and Campylobacter jejuni seeded into water with three different turbidity levels (0.5, 215, and 447 NTU). Twenty liters of dechlorinated tap water (pH 7) were seeded with the test organisms, and then passed through a glass wool filter using a peristaltic pump (flow rate = 1 liter min(-1)). Retained organisms were eluted from the filters by passing beef extract-glycine buffer (pH 9.5) in the direction opposite of sample flow. Recovered organisms were enumerated by qPCR except for C. jejuni, which was quantified by culture. Mean recovery efficiencies ranged from 55 to 33% for the bacteria and 58 to 16% for the viruses. Using bootstrapping techniques combined with Analysis of Variance, recovery efficiencies were found to differ among the pathogen types tested at the two lowest turbidity levels; however, for a given pathogen type turbidity did not affect recovery except for C. jejuni. Glass wool filtration is a cost-effective method for concentrating several waterborne pathogens of bovine origin simultaneously, although recovery may be low for some specific taxa such as bovine viral diarrhea virus 1.

  20. Group G Streptococcus bacteremia in recurrent cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Gubertini, Nicoletta; Patriarca, Maria Martina; Trevisan, Giusto

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, group G Streptococcus has been reported with increasing frequency as the cause of a variety of human infections. Underlying host factors such as immunosuppression, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis may be predisposing conditions leading to infection. Toxic involvement and post-streptococcal sequalae, once believed to be exclusive to infections caused by group A Streptococcus, are now known to occur following acute group G Streptococcus and group C Streptococcus infections. We report on a case of group G Streptococcus bacteremia and recurrent cellulitis with toxic involvement. Patient blood cultures were always negative for β-hemolytic Streptococci in all the recurrences, except during the last one. Antibiotic therapy based on antibiogram quickly resolved the infection. A regimen of intramuscular injection of 1.2 million units of benzathine penicillin every 15 days for one year prevented recurrences of cellulitis.

  1. Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pinto Loguercio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis.The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (94.4% and Streptococcus sp. (85.2% showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

  2. Antimicrobial Properties of Biofunctionalized Silver Nanoparticles on Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus mutans and Its Serotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Manuel Martínez-Robles; Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez; Norma Verónica Zavala-Alonso; Rita Elizabeth Martinez-Martinez; Facundo Ruiz; René Homero Lara-Castro; Alejandro Donohué-Cornejo; Simón Yobanny Reyes-López; León Francisco Espinosa-Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the principal pathogen involved in the formation of dental caries. Other systemic diseases have also been associated with specific S. mutans serotypes (c, e, f, and k). Silver nanoparticles (SNP) have been demonstrated to have good antibacterial effects against S. mutans; therefore, limited studies have evaluated the antimicrobial activity of biofunctionalized SNP on S. mutans serotypes. The purpose of this work was to prepare and characteri...

  3. Emergence of a Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolate highly resistant to telithromycin and fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccone, Diego; Andres, Patricia; Galas, Marcelo; Tokumoto, Marta; Rosato, Adriana; Corso, Alejandra

    2005-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia and acute bronchitis. Macrolides, fluoroquinolones (FQs), and, recently, telithromycin (TEL) constitute primary therapeutic options, and rare cases of resistance have been reported. In this report, we describe the emergence of an S. pneumoniae clinical isolate with high-level TEL resistance (MIC, 256 microg/ml) and simultaneous resistance to FQs. Ongoing studies are oriented to elucidate the precise mechanism of resistance to TEL.

  4. Emergence of a Streptococcus pneumoniae Clinical Isolate Highly Resistant to Telithromycin and Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Faccone, Diego; Andres, Patricia; Galas, Marcelo; Tokumoto, Marta; Rosato, Adriana; Corso, Alejandra

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia and acute bronchitis. Macrolides, fluoroquinolones (FQs), and, recently, telithromycin (TEL) constitute primary therapeutic options, and rare cases of resistance have been reported. In this report, we describe the emergence of an S. pneumoniae clinical isolate with high-level TEL resistance (MIC, 256 μg/ml) and simultaneous resistance to FQs. Ongoing studies are oriented to elucidate the precise mechanism of res...

  5. Group A Streptococcus Gene Expression in Humans and Cynomolgus Macaques with Acute Pharyngitis

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms used by group A Streptococcus (GAS) to survive on the host mucosal surface and cause acute pharyngitis are poorly understood. To provide new information about GAS host-pathogen interactions, we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to analyze transcripts of 17 GAS genes in throat swab specimens taken from 18 pediatric patients with pharyngitis. The expression of known and putative virulence genes and regulatory genes (including genes in seven two-component...

  6. Comparison of transmission dynamics between Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of study were to determine the transmission parameters (β), durations of infection, and basic reproductive numbers (R0) of both Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis as pathogens causing mastitis outbreaks in dairy herds. A 10-mo longitudinal study was performed using 2 smallholder dairy herds with mastitis outbreaks caused by Strep. agalactiae and Strep. uberis, respectively. Both herds had poor mastitis control management and did not change their milking management during the entire study period. Quarter milk samples were collected at monthly intervals from all lactating animals in each herd for bacteriological identification. The durations of infection for Strep. uberis intramammary infection (IMI) and Strep. agalactiae IMI were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the Kaplan-Meier survival functions for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were compared using log rank survival-test. The spread of Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae through the population was determined by transmission parameter, β, the probability per unit of time that one infectious quarter will infect another quarter, assuming that all other quarters are susceptible. For the Strep. uberis outbreak herd (31 cows), 56 new infections and 28 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. For the Strep. agalactiae outbreak herd (19 cows), 26 new infections and 9 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. The duration of infection for Strep. agalactiae (mean=270.84 d) was significantly longer than the duration of infection for Strep. uberis (mean=187.88 d). The transmission parameters (β) estimated (including 95% confidence interval) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were 0.0155 (0.0035-0.0693) and 0.0068 (0.0008-0.0606), respectively. The R0 (including 95% confidence interval) during the study were 2.91 (0.63-13.47) and 1.86 (0.21-16.61) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI, respectively. In conclusion, the transmission

  7. Streptococcus milleri in the appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, P M; Wilson, G

    1977-10-01

    The appendix was investigated as a possible habitat of Streptococcus milleri. Both normal and inflamed appendices were examined and the isolation rates compared. S. milleri was present in a quarter of the normal appendices and more than half of those associated with apendicitis--a difference that was statistically highly significant. The isolation rates throughout were indepencent of age. There was a pronounced connection between the presence of S. milleri in the appendix and the purulent manifestations of appendicitis. S. milleri was isolated from other abdominal sites associated with appendicitis. The frequency of isolation was increased by culture in an enrichment broth containing nalidixic acid and sulphadimidine.

  8. A preliminary study on the pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis bacteria in immunodepressed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, N.E.; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenicity of 13 strains of Bacillus licheniformis was studied in immunodepressed mice. The strains had been isolated from cases of bovine abortions (n=5), bovine feedstuffs (n=3), soil (n=l), and grain products (n=2). The origin of two strains was unknown. Groups of 10 mice were inoculate...... intravenously with B. licheniformis bacteria at doses from...

  9. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  10. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The sy

  11. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is caused by a novel contagion, known to as a prion. Prions are proteins capable of converting a normal cellular protein into a prion, thereby propagating an infection. BSE is the first known prion zoonotic. As such it has attracted broad scientific and, to a r...

  12. Identifikasi Carrier Bakteri Streptococcus β hemolyticus Group A pada Murid SD Negeri 13 Padang Berdasarkan Perbedaan Umur dan Jenis Kelamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhila Aini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakStreptococcus β hemolyticus Grup A atau yang disebut juga Streptococcus pyogenes merupakan salah satu bakteri patogen yang banyak menginfeksi manusia.Bakteri ini dapat ditemukan sebagai carrier di saluran pernafasan terutama pada anak-anak, tidak menimbulkan penyakit tetapi berisiko untuk menyebarkan penyakit. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan jumlah carrier  bakteri Streptococcus β hemolyticus Grup A pada murid berdasarkan perbedaan umur dan jenis kelamin. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif cross-sectional dengan menggunakan sampel seluruh murid SD Negeri 13 Padang. Hasil penelitian adalah didapatkan 2 orang murid yang menderita carrier, yaitu pada kelompok usia>8-9 tahun dan >11 tahun. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin yang terdiri dari 54 orang laki-laki dan 50 orang perempuan, didapatkan 2 orang carrier yaitu hanya pada anak laki-laki. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa carrier bakteri Streptococcus β hemolyticus Group  A terdapat pada anak usia tersebut karena masih kurangnya pengetahuan tentang kebersihan. Carrier yang ditemukan hanya pada anak laki-laki kemungkinan disebabkan mereka lebih sering bermain di luar rumah dan terpapar dengan berbagai bakteri patogen dan kurang memperhatikan kebersihan diri.Kata kunci: carrier, streptococcus β hemolyticus grup A, umur, jenis kelamin AbstractGroup A Streptococcus β hemolyticus or also called Streptococcus pyogenes is one of many pathogenic bacteria that infect humans. These bacteria can be found as a carrier in the respiratory tract especially in children, do not cause disease but can be a risk for spreading the disease. This objective of this study was to determine the amount of the carrier of bacteria group A Streptococcus β hemolyticus based on age and gender differences. This research is a descriptive cross - sectional study using a sample of all students of SD Negeri 13 Padang. Based on the age of 104 students found that students who suffer 2 carrier, which is in the age

  13. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria of bovine subclinical mastitis in Harbin%哈尔滨地区奶牛隐性乳房炎病原菌的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 高学军

    2011-01-01

    通过BMT法、乳汁pH检验法和体细胞直接计数法等方法相结合,对哈尔滨市3个大型奶牛场、10户奶牛养殖户选取的1 000头奶牛,4000个乳区进行隐性乳房炎的流行病学调查,以及致病菌的分离鉴定.结果表明,其中隐性乳房炎的发病率为47.7%(477/1 000);乳区发病率为27.3%(1092/4000),从477头的隐性乳房炎奶牛的1 092个阳性乳区乳样中分得细菌共9种541株.其中葡萄球菌183株,占33.8%,革兰氏阴性杆菌113株,占20.1%.,链球菌132株,占24.4%.%According to the method of BMT, pH detection and count of the somatic cells, the epidemiologic investigation of recessive mastitis, isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria were studied on 4 000 breast areas of 1 000 subclinical cows from ten cow farms and three large cow factories in Harbin. The result showed that incidence rates of recessive mastitis and breast area were 47.7% (447/1 000) and 27.3% (1 092/4 000), respectively. And 12 species of the bacteria and 541 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from 1 092 breast areas of 477 subclinical mastitis cows. The main bacteria included 183 strains of Staphylococcus, 113 strains of Gram negative bacteria and 132 strains of Staphylococcus, with the proportion of 33.8%, 20.1%, and 24.4%, respectively.

  14. Assessment of Streptococcus mutans in healthy versus gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: A clinico-microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Dani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are most common oral diseases. Streptococcus mutans are considered to be the major pathogens in initiation of dental caries. Evidence shows that periodontal disease and caries share a number of contributory factors. Thus in view of these findings it would be worthwhile to examine whether Streptococcus mutans persist within the saliva and subgingival environment of the periodontitis patients and to determine whether there is any association between Streptococcus mutans colonization, pH of saliva and sub-gingival plaque pH in periodontal diseases before therapy. Methods: The study comprises of 75 subjects aged between 20-70 years, reporting to department of Periodontology, KLEs Institute of Dental Sciences, Bangalore. Subjects were divided into 3 groups of 25 each. Group 1 – Healthy controls, Group 2 – Gingivitis Group, 3 – Chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile container and immediately pH was evaluated. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four deepest periodontal pockets in chronic periodontitis and from first molars in healthy subjects using 4 sterile paper points. In gingivitis subjects samples were collected from areas showing maximum signs of inflammation. All paper points and saliva samples were cultured on mitis salivarius agar culture media with bacitracin for quantification of the Streptococcus mutans colonies. Results: Increased colonization of Streptococcus mutans was seen in chronic periodontitis subjects both in saliva and sub-gingival plaque samples. There was also a positive correlation seen with the periodontal parameters. Conclusion: More severe forms of periodontal disease may create different ecological niches for the proliferation of Streptococcus mutans.

  15. Assessment of Streptococcus mutans in healthy versus gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: A clinico-microbiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sneha; Prabhu, Ashwin; Chaitra, K. R.; Desai, N. C.; Patil, Sudhir R.; Rajeev, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are most common oral diseases. Streptococcus mutans are considered to be the major pathogens in initiation of dental caries. Evidence shows that periodontal disease and caries share a number of contributory factors. Thus in view of these findings it would be worthwhile to examine whether Streptococcus mutans persist within the saliva and subgingival environment of the periodontitis patients and to determine whether there is any association between Streptococcus mutans colonization, pH of saliva and sub-gingival plaque pH in periodontal diseases before therapy. Methods: The study comprises of 75 subjects aged between 20-70 years, reporting to department of Periodontology, KLEs Institute of Dental Sciences, Bangalore. Subjects were divided into 3 groups of 25 each. Group 1 – Healthy controls, Group 2 – Gingivitis Group, 3 – Chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile container and immediately pH was evaluated. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four deepest periodontal pockets in chronic periodontitis and from first molars in healthy subjects using 4 sterile paper points. In gingivitis subjects samples were collected from areas showing maximum signs of inflammation. All paper points and saliva samples were cultured on mitis salivarius agar culture media with bacitracin for quantification of the Streptococcus mutans colonies. Results: Increased colonization of Streptococcus mutans was seen in chronic periodontitis subjects both in saliva and sub-gingival plaque samples. There was also a positive correlation seen with the periodontal parameters. Conclusion: More severe forms of periodontal disease may create different ecological niches for the proliferation of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:27994423

  16. Effects of Preinfection With Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus on Immune Cells From the Lungs of Calves Inoculated With Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risalde, M A; Molina, V; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Palomo, F; Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interstitial aggregates of immune cells observed in pulmonary parenchyma of calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and challenged later with bovine herpesvirus 1. In addition, the intent of this research was to clarify the role of bovine viral diarrhea virus in local cell-mediated immunity and potentially in predisposing animals to bovine respiratory disease complex. Twelve Friesian calves, aged 8 to 9 months, were inoculated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1. Ten were subsequently challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1 and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days postinoculation. The other 2 calves were euthanized prior to the second inoculation. Another cohort of 10 calves was inoculated only with bovine herpesvirus 1 and then were euthanized at the same time points. Two calves were not inoculated with any agent and were used as negative controls. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated in all animals, while quantitative and biosynthetic changes in immune cells were concurrently examined immunohistochemically to compare coinfected calves and calves challenged only with bovine herpesvirus 1. Calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus demonstrated moderate respiratory clinical signs and histopathologic evidence of interstitial pneumonia with aggregates of mononuclear cells, which predominated at 4 days postinoculation. Furthermore, this group of animals was noted to have a suppression of interleukin-10 and associated alterations in the Th1-driven cytokine response in the lungs, as well as inhibition of the response of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes against bovine herpesvirus 1. These findings suggest that bovine viral diarrhea virus preinfection could affect the regulation of the immune response as modulated by regulatory T cells, as well as impair local cell-mediated immunity to secondary respiratory pathogens.

  17. Pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius that shows the diagnostic importance of evaluating the microbiota in the lower respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Shingo; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yamasaki, Kei; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Naito, Keisuke; Akata, Kentarou; Nagata, Shuya; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial species in the Streptococcus anginosus group (S. constellatus, S. anginosus, S. intermedius) are important causative pathogens of bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary abscesses and empyema. However, the bacteria in this group are primarily oral resident bacteria and unable to grow significantly on ordinary aerobic culture media. We experienced a case of pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius detected using a 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and pleural effusion, but not sputum. Even when applying the molecular method, sputum samples are occasionally unsuitable for identifying the causative pathogens of lower respiratory tract infections.

  18. Immunogenicity of amino acids 1-150 of Streptococcus GapC displayed on the surface of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Baifen; Yang, Xijing; Sun, Hunan; Yu, Liquan; Ma, Jinzhu; Wu, Zhijun; Cui, Yudong

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcus is one of the main pathogens that cause bovine mastitis. They includes into S.agalactiae, S.dysgalactiae, and S.uberis. The GapC protein is a virulence factor that is expressed on the surface of Streptococcus species. GapC is highly antigenic and immunization with GapC confers cross-protection against all three species. Our previous data showed that amino acids 1-150 of GapC (GapC1-150) of S. dysgalactiae conferred similar immunoprotection compared to full-length GapC. Thus, the present study aimed to construct a recombinant Escherichia coli XL1-Blue strain that displayed GapC1-150 on its surface, and to investigate the immunogenicity of the surface-localized GapC1-150. To do so, the ompA gene of the E. coli XL1-Blue strain was replaced with the lpp'-ompA-gapC11-150 or lpp'-ompA genes by λ Red recombination, the former of which fused GapC1-150 to an Lpp lipoprotein signal peptide and amino acids 1-159 of OmpA; the recombinant strains were named XL1-Blue/LOG76 and XL1-Blue/LO11, respectively. GapC1-150 was confirmed to localize to the surface of the XL1-Blue/LOG76 strain by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Then, ICR mice were immunized intramuscularly with the XL1-Blue/LOG76 or XL1-Blue/LO11 strains, or recombinant GapC1-150. The sera of the immunized mice were collected and the anti-GapC1-150 antibody levels were detected by ELISA. Lymphocytes secreting interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon-γ were detected by an enzyme-linked ImmunoSpot assay, as was the level of IL-17A level in the supernatant of cultured splenic lymphocytes. The mice immunized with the XL1-Blue/LOG76 strain or GapC1-150 exhibited better cellular and humoral immunity. Lastly, the immunized mice were challenged with S. uberis, S. dysgalactiae, and S. agalactiae strains, and mice that were immunized with the XL1-Blue/LOG76 strain were better protected than those that were

  19. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Javed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra, characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi.

  20. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, R.; Taku, A. K.; Gangil, Rakhi; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi. PMID:27651677

  1. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the 'top 10' causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•(-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress.

  2. Detection of Streptococcus pyogenes using rapid visual molecular assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangna; He, Xiaoming; Li, Huan; Zhao, Jiangtao; Huang, Simo; Liu, Wei; Wei, Xiao; Ding, Yiwei; Wang, Zhaoyan; Zou, Dayang; Wang, Xuesong; Dong, Derong; Yang, Zhan; Yan, Xiabei; Huang, Liuyu; Du, Shuangkui; Yuan, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an increasingly important pathogen in many parts of the world. Rapid and accurate detection of S. pyogenes aids in the control of the infection. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and validated for the specific detection of S. pyogenes. The assay incorporates two methods: a chromogenic analysis using a calcein/Mn(2+) complex and real-time turbidity monitoring to assess the reaction. Both methods detected the target DNA within 60 min under 64°C isothermal conditions. The assay used specifically designed primers to target spy1258, and correctly identified 111 strains of S. pyogenes and 32 non-S. pyogenes strains, including other species of the genus Streptococcus. Tests using reference strains showed that the LAMP assay was highly specific. The sensitivity of the assay, with a detection limit of 1.49 pg DNA, was 10-fold greater than that of PCR. The LAMP assay established in this study is simple, fast and sensitive, and does not rely upon any special equipment; thus, it could be employed in clinical diagnosis.

  3. Comparative erythromycin and tylosin susceptibility testing of streptococci from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kaspar, Heike; Kadlec, Kristina; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    Tylosin, a 16-membered macrolide, is - besides other indications - used for the treatment of bovine mastitis. So far, there is only limited information available on the tylosin susceptibility of streptococci isolated from mastitis. The aim of the present study was to comparatively investigate 303 streptococci from bovine mastitis, including 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 102 Streptococcus uberis, for their tylosin and erythromycin susceptibility by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion. Both tests followed the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). For erythromycin, the results were interpreted using the CLSI-approved clinical breakpoints. Moreover, erythromycin-resistant isolates were tested for the presence of macrolide resistance genes and for inducible macrolide resistance. In general, both testing methods showed a good correlation for the three streptococcal species, although for the erythromycin susceptibility testing 11 S. uberis isolates fell into the very major error category. All but one of the erythromycin-resistant isolates harbored at least one macrolide resistance gene, with the erm(B) gene being most common. Moreover, single isolates of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae proved to be inducibly macrolide-resistant. Since inducible macrolide resistance can easily switch to constitutive resistance, tylosin should not be used for the treatment of infections caused by inducibly resistant streptococci.

  4. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Clinical Pathogens

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    Laura Fernández-García

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are prevalent in bacteria and archaea. Although not essential for normal cell growth, TA systems are implicated in multiple cellular functions associated with survival under stress conditions. Clinical strains of bacteria are currently causing major human health problems as a result of their multidrug resistance, persistence and strong pathogenicity. Here, we present a review of the TA systems described to date and their biological role in human pathogens belonging to the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp. and others of clinical relevance (Escherichia coli, Burkholderia spp., Streptococcus spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Better understanding of the mechanisms of action of TA systems will enable the development of new lines of treatment for infections caused by the above-mentioned pathogens.

  5. Antibody binding to Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis cell fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Katherine A.; Bowden, George H.; Richmond, Dorothy A.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Cole, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine which cell fraction(s) of Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 serve as the best source of antigens recognized by salivary SIgA antibodies in infants. Design Whole cells of 38 reference and wild-type isolates of Streptococcus mitis, S. oralis, S. gordonii, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and E. faecalis were fractionated into cell walls CW), protease-treated cell walls (PTCW), cell membranes (CM) and cell protein (CP). Whole cells and these fractions were tested for binding by rabbit anti-S. mitis SK145 and anti-S. oralis SK100 sera, and also by salivary SIgA antibodies from infants and adults. Results Anti-SK145 and anti-SK100 sera bound whole cells and fractions of all strains of S. mitis and S. oralis variably. Cluster analysis of antibody binding data placed the strains into S. mitis, S. oralis and ‘Non-S. mitis/non-S. oralis’ clusters. Antigens from CW and CM best discriminated S. mitis from S. oralis. CM bound the most infant salivary SIgA antibody and PTCW bound the least. In contrast, adult salivary SIgA antibody bound all of the cell fractions and at higher levels. Conclusions Presumably the relatively short period of immune stimulation and immunological immaturity in infants, in contrast to adults, result in low levels of salivary SIgA antibody that preferentially bind CM of S. mitis but not PTCW. By utilizing isolated cell walls and membranes as sources of antigens for proteomics it may be possible to identify antigens common to oral streptococci and dissect the fine specificity of salivary SIgA antibodies induced by oral colonization by S. mitis. PMID:17904095

  6. Etiology of acute otitis media and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in Chilean children <5 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblut, Andres; Napolitano, Carla; Pereira, Angelica; Moreno, Camilo; Kolhe, Devayani; Lepetic, Alejandro; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged Streptococcus pneumoniae (41.7% [58/139]) and Haemophilus influenzae (40.3% [56/139]) were predominant among the cultures that showed bacterial growth (85% [139/164]). All Streptococcus pneumoniae positive episodes were serotyped, 19F (21%) and 14 (17%) were the predominant serotypes; all Haemophilus influenzae strains were nontypeable. Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin (5%) and erythromycin (33%); Haemophilus influenzae were resistant to ampicillin (14%) and cefuroxime and cefotaxime (2% each). AOM in Chilean children is predominantly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Use of a broad spectrum vaccine against these pathogens might aid the reduction of AOM in Chile. PMID:28178138

  7. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches.

  8. Immunoglobulin A in Bovine Milk: A Potential Functional Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakebread, Julie A; Humphrey, Rex; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2015-08-26

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an anti-inflammatory antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. It is found in large quantities in human milk, but there are lower amounts in bovine milk. In humans, IgA plays a significant role in providing protection from environmental pathogens at mucosal surfaces and is a key component for the establishment and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis via innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To date, many of the dairy-based functional foods are derived from bovine colostrum, targeting the benefits of IgG. IgA has a higher pathogenic binding capacity and greater stability against proteolytic degradation when ingested compared with IgG. This provides IgA-based products greater potential in the functional food market that has yet to be realized.

  9. Pathogen intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  10. Solitary Pyomyositis of the Left Rhomboideus Muscle Caused by Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius in an Immunocompetent Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Takaya, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Go; Shinzato, Isaku; Takafuta, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Primary pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle commonly affecting children with Staphylococcus aureus most often isolated as a pathogen. However, pyomyositis caused by anaerobic bacteria is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of solitary Pyomyositis of the left rhomboideus muscle in an immunocompetent person. A 70-year-old Japanese male presented with high fever and left shoulder pain. His muscle below the lower edge of the left scapula was tender and swollen. His laboratory examinations revealed severe inflammation. Computed tomography showed a solitary low-density area around a contrast enhancement in the left rhomboideus muscle. He was diagnosed as having solitary pyomyositis. Although his symptoms did not improve despite empiric intravenous administration of antibiotics, an incision was performed. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from the culture of drainage fluid. His symptoms gradually disappeared after the incisional drainage and continuous administration of antibiotics. Pyomyositis did not recur after his discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anaerobic pyomyositis of the shoulder muscle.

  11. Solitary Pyomyositis of the Left Rhomboideus Muscle Caused by Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius in an Immunocompetent Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle commonly affecting children with Staphylococcus aureus most often isolated as a pathogen. However, pyomyositis caused by anaerobic bacteria is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of solitary Pyomyositis of the left rhomboideus muscle in an immunocompetent person. A 70-year-old Japanese male presented with high fever and left shoulder pain. His muscle below the lower edge of the left scapula was tender and swollen. His laboratory examinations revealed severe inflammation. Computed tomography showed a solitary low-density area around a contrast enhancement in the left rhomboideus muscle. He was diagnosed as having solitary pyomyositis. Although his symptoms did not improve despite empiric intravenous administration of antibiotics, an incision was performed. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from the culture of drainage fluid. His symptoms gradually disappeared after the incisional drainage and continuous administration of antibiotics. Pyomyositis did not recur after his discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anaerobic pyomyositis of the shoulder muscle.

  12. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from horses are a genetically distinct population within the Streptococcus dysgalactiae taxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Marcos D.; Erol, Erdal; Ribeiro-Gonçalves, Bruno; Mendes, Catarina I.; Carriço, João A.; Matos, Sandra C.; Preziuso, Silvia; Luebke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H.; Melo-Cristino, Jose; Ramirez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic role of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae in the equine host is increasingly recognized. A collection of 108 Lancefield group C (n = 96) or L (n = 12) horse isolates recovered in the United States and in three European countries presented multilocus sequence typing (MLST) alleles, sequence types and emm types (only 56% of the isolates could be emm typed) that were, with few exceptions, distinct from those previously found in human Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Characterization of a subset of horse isolates by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that most equine isolates could also be differentiated from S. dysgalactiae strains from other animal species, supporting the existence of a horse specific genomovar. Draft genome information confirms the distinctiveness of the horse genomovar and indicates the presence of potentially horse-specific virulence factors. While this genomovar represents most of the isolates recovered from horses, a smaller MLST and MLSA defined sub-population seems to be able to cause infections in horses, other animals and humans, indicating that transmission between hosts of strains belonging to this group may occur. PMID:27530432

  13. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti Díaz, Ismael Alejandro; Vargas, Roberto; Apolo, Ada; Moraña, José Antonio; Pedrana, Graciela; Cardozo, Elena; Almeida, Edgardo

    2003-01-01

    A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  14. Protein antigen in serotype k Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, K; Nomura, R; Nemoto, H; Lapirattanakul, J; Taniguchi, N; Grönroos, L; Alaluusua, S; Ooshima, T

    2008-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries and infective endocarditis, is classified into serotypes c, e, f, and k, with serotype k strains recently reported to be frequently detected in persons with infective endocarditis. Thus, we hypothesized that common properties associated with infective endocarditis are present in those strains. Fifty-six oral S. mutans strains, including 11 serotype k strains, were analyzed. Western blotting analysis revealed expression of the 3 types of glucosyltransferases in all strains, while expression of the approximately 190-kDa cell-surface protein (PA) was absent in 12 strains, among which the prevalence of serotype k (7/12) was significantly high. Furthermore, cellular hydrophobicity and phagocytosis susceptibility were lower in the group of serotype k strains. These results indicate that the absence of PA expression, low cellular hydrophobicity, and phagocytosis susceptibility are common bacterial properties associated with serotype k strains, which may be associated with virulence for infective endocarditis.

  15. The role of Streptococcus intermedius in brain abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Fournier, P-E

    2013-04-01

    Brain abscess represents a significant medical problem, despite recent advances made in detection and therapy. Streptococcus intermedius, a commensal organism, has the potential to cause significant morbidity. S. intermedius expresses one or more members of a family of structurally and antigenically related surface proteins termed antigen I/II, which plays a potential role in its pathogenesis. It is involved in binding to human fibronectin and laminin and in inducing IL-8 release from monocytes, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. There are few published data on the role of this organism in brain abscess. This review focuses on the clinical evidence, pathogenic role, mechanism of predisposition, and currently employed strategies to fight against S. intermedius associated to brain abscess.

  16. Third Case of Streptococcus suis Infection in Greece

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    Marianneta Chatzopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus that can cause severe disease to both pigs and humans. Its zoonotic potential was first recognized in 1968 when the first human case of meningitis was reported in Denmark. Since then, over 1600 human cases have been reported worldwide, the vast majority of which originated in Southeast Asia, and, thus, S. suis has been fairly characterized as an emerging pathogen. Infection in humans presents most commonly as bacteremia and/or meningitis while less common clinical manifestations such as endocarditis and septic arthritis can occur. S. suis infection is extremely uncommon in Greece and this is the third human case to be reported. Correct identification is of importance for optimization of antimicrobial treatment and epidemiological monitoring.

  17. [Microbiological colonisation of bovine teat canal--significance and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Krömker, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The teat canal of lactating dairy cattle is of particular importance for the defence of facultative pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., staphylococci) invading the bovine udder. Furthermore the canal is usually colonized with microorganisms, too. In addition to microorganisms inhibiting mastitis pathogens the teat canal is colonized by staphylococci. The microbial colonization can be influenced by the environment of the animals, the care and disinfection of the teat skin and indirectly by the effects of forces being associated with machine milking. Because of vacuum fluctuations occurring under the teat tip microorganisms, which colonize the teat canal, can invade the bovine mammary gland and cause infections there. This paper gives a review of the microbial colonization of the bovine teat duct and of influencing factors on the microbial populations as well as of the significance of the teat canal colonization for the development of mastitis.

  18. Selenium in bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, S M; Kuzan, F B; Senger, P L

    1981-05-01

    This study investigated the association of selenium with ejaculated bovine spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive selenium-75 was released after 30 min of incubation in 2 X 10(-3) dithiothreitol. Of the selenium-75 released by dithiothreitol, 85% was associated with spermatozoal protein. Protein containing selenium-75 was found predominantly in a single band after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight was approximately 21,500 daltons.

  19. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelos, JA

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The...

  20. Cationic antimicrobial peptides disrupt the Streptococcus pyogenes ExPortal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Luis Alberto; Caparon, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    Although they possess a well-characterized ability to porate the bacterial membrane, emerging research suggests that cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) can influence pathogen behaviour at levels that are sublethal. In this study, we investigated the interaction of polymyxin B and human neutrophil peptide (HNP-1) with the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. At sublethal concentrations, these CAPs preferentially targeted the ExPortal, a unique microdomain of the S. pyogenes membrane, specialized for protein secretion and processing. A consequence of this interaction was the disruption of ExPortal organization and a redistribution of ExPortal components into the peripheral membrane. Redistribution was associated with inhibition of secretion of certain toxins, including the SpeB cysteine protease and the streptolysin O (SLO) cytolysin, but not SIC, a protein that protects S. pyogenes from CAPs. These data suggest a novel function for CAPs in targeting the ExPortal and interfering with secretion of factors required for infection and survival. This mechanism may prove valuable for the design of new types of antimicrobial agents to combat the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  1. Chronic mastitis in cows caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojkić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in dairy cows is an economically important disease because it makes up 38% of all diseases that occur in intensive cattle breeding. Mastitis affects milk production, either temporarily or permanently, depending on the course of infection and type of pathogen agent. Regular and timely therapy of mastitis based on the application antimicrobials, apart from prophylaxis, is very important for good health of breeding stock. This paper presents the case of repeated mastitis in a cow, Holstein-Friesian breed, 5 years old, which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Milk samples from each separate quarter of the udder were collected under aseptic conditions and sent to the laboratory for further bacteriological tests, for isolation and identification of pathogens, as well as to test pathogen resistance to some antibiotics. On the basis of bacteriological examinations, there was confirmed the presence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, which showed sensitivity to ampicillin, cloxacillin and augmentin, intermediate resistance to tetracycline and resistance to kotrimeksazol.(cotrimoxazole-proveriti [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31085

  2. Group B Streptococcus Evades Host Immunity by Degrading Hyaluronan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Stacey L; Kyme, Pierre; Tseng, Ching Wen; Soliman, Antoine; Kaplan, Amber; Liang, Jiurong; Nizet, Victor; Jiang, Dianhua; Murali, Ramachandran; Arditi, Moshe; Underhill, David M; Liu, George Y

    2015-12-09

    In response to tissue injury, hyaluronan (HA) polymers are cleaved by host hyaluronidases, generating small fragments that ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to elicit inflammatory responses. Pathogenic bacteria such as group B Streptococcus (GBS) express and secrete hyaluronidases as a mechanism for tissue invasion, but it is not known how this activity relates to immune detection of HA. We found that bacterial hyaluronidases secreted by GBS and other Gram-positive pathogens degrade pro-inflammatory HA fragments to their component disaccharides. In addition, HA disaccharides block TLR2/4 signaling elicited by both host-derived HA fragments and other TLR2/4 ligands, including lipopolysaccharide. Application of GBS hyaluronidase or HA disaccharides reduced pulmonary pathology and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in an acute lung injury model. We conclude that breakdown of host-generated pro-inflammatory HA fragments to disaccharides allows bacterial pathogens to evade immune detection and could be exploited as a strategy to treat inflammatory diseases.

  3. Die Immunantwort boviner und capriner Euterepithelzellen auf verschiedene Mastitiserreger

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Infections of the bovine mammary gland are, in addition to the affliction of the animals, a great economic burden in the dairy industry. A better understanding of the innate immune response of the host could lead to a better selection of mastitis resistant cows or to better prophylactic and therapeutical treatments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the epithelial cells into the outcome of mastitis induced by different pathogens. Primary epithelial cell ...

  4. Prevalence of Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Haemophilus Influenzae and Moraxella Catarrhalis in Adenoid Tissues of Children with Adenoid Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Khoramrooz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Chronic infection of the adenoid tissue is one of the causes of hypertrophy. Adenoids are considered to be as reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mentioned bacteria in children with adenoid hypertrophy. Methods: A total of 113 children with adenoid hypertrophy who underwent adenoidectomy were included in this study. Subsequently, adenoidectomy was performed under general anesthesia. All of the adenoid samples were evaluated for bacterial infection by culture and PCR methods. Results: Streptococcus. pneumoniae was the most common (33.6% bacteria isolated by culture followed by H. influenzae (22.9% and M. catarrhalis (9.7%. PCR method detected S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis in 31%, 29.2% and 9.7% of samples respectively. Conclusion: Streptococcus. Pneumonia, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis are isolated with different frequency in patients with adenoid hypertrophy.

  5. Pulp response to Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R C; Pountney, S K

    1987-09-01

    The maxillary molar pulps of germ-free rats were mechanically exposed, and suspensions of a strain of freshly grown Streptococcus mutans were applied to the pulp wounds. The pulps were left open to the oral environment, and the animals were maintained in the isolator until they were killed in groups after 2, 7, and 28 days. After 2 days there was little evidence of any pulp response. In the 7-day group early pulp necrosis was present. No evidence of inflammatory infiltration was detected in either the 2- or 7-day animals. After 28 days there was extensive pulp necrosis in many specimens. Dentine bridges were present in fewer than one fourth of the teeth.

  6. Control methods for bovine respiratory disease for feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, T A

    2010-07-01

    Vaccines and antibiotics are still relied upon as the standard methods of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) prevention, control, and therapy. Success in building disease resistance begins with genetic selection and continues with colostrum management and reducing pathogen exposure. Purchasing single-source cattle with a history of pre- and post-weaning procedures will minimize pathogen exposure and enhance immunity. Using cattle-handling techniques and facilities that promote low stress will allow host immune defenses to remain effective against bacterial and viral colonization. Lastly, controlling BRD must be managed through a comprehensive herd health immunization and management program that effectively addresses disease challenges common to the operation.

  7. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  8. Intravitreal Ampicillin Sodium for Antibiotic-Resistant Endophthalmitis: Streptococcus uberis First Human Intraocular Infection Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Velez-Montoya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment with intravitreal ampicillin sodium of a postoperative endophthalmitis case due to Streptococcus uberis; an environmental pathogen commonly seen in mastitis cases of lactating cows. Methods. Case Report. A 52-year-old, Hispanic diabetic patient who suddenly developed severe pain and severe loss of vision, following vitrectomy. Results. The patient was diagnosed with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to a highly resistant strain of Streptococcus uberis that did not respond to intravitreal antibiotics. He was treated with an air-fluid interchange, anterior chamber washout, intravitreal ampicillin sodium (5 mg/0.1 mL, and silicon oil tamponade (5000 ck. The eye was anatomically stabilized, though there was no functional recovery. Conclusion. Streptococcus uberis is an uncommon pathogen to the human eye, which has unique features that help the strain in developing resistance to antibiotics. While treatment with intravitreal ampicillin is feasible, there are still concerns about its possible toxicity.

  9. Isolation of Streptococcus tigurinus - a novel member of Streptococcus mitis group from a case of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhotre, Shree V; Mehetre, Gajanan T; Dharne, Mahesh S; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Nagoba, Basavraj S

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Streptococcus viridians group and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated only by newer molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene analysis. During the course of study on bacteraemia and infective endocarditis with reference to periodontitis and viridians group of streptococci, a strain of S. tigurinus isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontitis identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, which was originally identified as Streptococcus pluranimalium by Vitek 2. Confirmation by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 99.39% similarity (1476/1485 bp) with S. tigurinus AZ_3a(T) (AORU01000002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of S. tigurinus from the oral cavity of a periodontitis patient.

  10. Functional variation of the antigen I/II surface protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, FC; Assev, S; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Scheie, AA

    2002-01-01

    Although Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus mutans are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, S. intermedius is often associated with deep-seated purulent infections, whereas S. mutans is frequently associated with dental caries. In this study, we investigated the role

  11. Penetration of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguinis into dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Susanne; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küpper, Harald; Raser, Gerhard; Willershausen, Brita; Callaway, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference in virulence of acidogenic and aciduric oral streptococci in an in vitro caries model using their penetration depths into dental enamel. 30 caries-free extracted molars from 11- to 16-year-olds were cleaned ultrasonically for 1 min with de-ionized water and, after air-drying, embedded in epoxy resin. After 8-h of setting at room temperature, the specimens were ground on the buccal side with SiC-paper 1200 (particle size 13-16 μm). Enamel was removed in circular areas sized 3 mm in diameter; the mean depth of removed enamel was 230 ± 60 μm. 15 specimens each were incubated anaerobically under standardized conditions with 24 h-cultures of Streptococcus sanguinis 9S or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 in Balmelli broth at 37 ± 2 °C; the pH-values of the broths were measured at the beginning and end of each incubation cycle. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks 3 teeth each were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer for 24 h, washed 3× and dehydrated 30-60min by sequential washes through a series of 30-100% graded ethanol. The teeth were cut in half longitudinally; afterward, two slits were made to obtain fracture surfaces in the infected area. After critical-point-drying the fragments were gold-sputtered and viewed in a scanning electron microscope at magnifications of ×20-20,000. After 10 weeks of incubation, penetration of S. sanguinis of 11.13 ± 24.04 μm below the break edges into the enamel was observed. The invasion of S. sobrinus reached depths of 87.53 ± 76.34 μm. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test: p = 0.033). The experimental penetration depths emphasize the importance of S. sanguinis versus S. sobrinus in the context of the extended ecological plaque hypothesis.

  12. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevarathan J; Deepti A; Muthu M; Rathna Prabhu V; Chamundeeswari G

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free childr...

  13. Mutations induced in the NS5B gene of bovine viral diarrhea virus by antiviral treatment convey resistance to the compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a widespread bovine pathogen for which there is no specific therapeutic agent. A previous study using 2-(2-benzimidazolyl)-5-[4-(2-imidazolino)phenyl]furan dihydrochloride (DB772) to treat calves persistently infected with BVDV resulted in a decrease in the vira...

  14. Pathogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Irudayaraj

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence, in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...

  15. Incidence of Bacteriocins Produced by Food-Related Lactic Acid Bacteria Active towards Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Papadimitriou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the incidence of bacteriocins produced by 236 lactic acid bacteria (LAB food isolates against pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic oral bacteria. This set of LAB contained several strains (≥17% producing bacteriocins active against food-related bacteria. Interestingly only Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, while Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC 179 and Lactobacillus plantarun ACA-DC 269 produced bacteriocins solely against Streptococcus oralis. Thus, the percentage of strains that were found to produce bacteriocins against oral bacteria was ~1.3%. The rarity of bacteriocins active against oral LAB pathogens produced by food-related LAB was unexpected given their close phylogenetic relationship. Nevertheless, when tested in inhibition assays, the potency of the bacteriocin(s of S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against the three oral streptococci was high. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis revealed that exposure of the target cells to the antimicrobial compounds caused major alterations of key cellular constituents. Our findings indicate that bacteriocins produced by food-related LAB against oral LAB may be rare, but deserve further investigation since, when discovered, they can be effective antimicrobials.

  16. Absence of capsule reveals glycan-mediated binding and recognition of salivary mucin MUC7 by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamadilok, S; Roche-Håkansson, H; Håkansson, A P; Ruhl, S

    2016-04-01

    Salivary proteins modulate bacterial colonization in the oral cavity and interact with systemic pathogens that pass through the oropharynx. An interesting example is the opportunistic respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae that normally resides in the nasopharynx, but belongs to the greater Mitis group of streptococci, most of which colonize the oral cavity. Streptococcus pneumoniae also expresses a serine-rich repeat (SRR) adhesin, PsrP, which is a homologue to oral Mitis group SRR adhesins, such as Hsa of Streptococcus gordonii and SrpA of Streptococcus sanguinis. As the latter bind to salivary glycoproteins through recognition of terminal sialic acids, we wanted to determine whether S. pneumoniae also binds to salivary proteins through possibly the same mechanism. We found that only a capsule-free mutant of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 binds to salivary proteins, most prominently to mucin MUC7, but that this binding was not mediated through PsrP or recognition of sialic acid. We also found, however, that PsrP is involved in agglutination of human red blood cells (RBCs). After removal of PsrP, an additional previously masked lectin-like adhesin activity mediating agglutination of sialidase-treated RBCs becomes revealed. Using a custom-spotted glycoprotein and neoglycoprotein dot blot array, we identify candidate glycan motifs recognized by PsrP and by the putative S. pneumoniae adhesin that could perhaps be responsible for pneumococcal binding to salivary MUC7 and glycoproteins on RBCs.

  17. [Culture media for the detection and the identification of Streptococcus agalactiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, M; Pérez, M; Carazo, C; Pareja, L; Orts, A; Cantudo, P

    1994-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, a Group B streptococcus, is the main cause of bacterial perinatal infection and is also an important opportunistic pathogen. Detection and identification of S. agalactiae are straight forward with special culture media, where Group B streptococci show a specific, typical pink or red pigment. To quickly and easily detect the pigment, culture media should contain: (i) starch; (ii) an inhibitor of the folate pathway; (iii) animal serum; (iv) a pepsic proteic hydrolysate; and (v) glucose, together with a high-capacity buffer. When selective antibiotics are added to culture media designed in this way, it is possible to detect S. agalactiae directly from clinical samples by observation of its pigment after less than 12 hours of aerobic incubation.

  18. FATAL CASE OF STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS INFECTION IN A YOUNG WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA) FROM SOUTHWESTERN SPAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, David; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Gonçalves, Pilar; Martínez, Remigio; García, Alfredo; Rosales, Rubén; Gómez, Luis; de Mendoza, Javier Hermoso

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus suis is a recognized pathogen that may cause important diseases in pigs and humans. This microorganism has been repeatedly isolated from wild boar (Sus scrofa). However, its health implications for this wild species are still unknown. This article reports a detailed description of a fatal case of septicemia by S. suis affecting a young wild boar. The affected animal, about 15 days old, was found near death and exhibiting neurologic signs at a wild boar estate in southwestern Spain. Postmortem examination showed generalized congestion, brain hemorrhages and lobular pneumonia. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated the presence of meningitis and encephalitis with marked congestion and suppurative bronchopneumonia. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 isolates exhibiting important virulence factors (extracellular factor, muramidase-released protein, and suylisin) were isolated from the affected animal. This study confirms the presence of potentially virulent and zoonotic strains of S. suis in wild boar from Spain.

  19. Streptococcus agalactiae vaginitis: nonhemolytic variant on the Liofilchem® Chromatic StreptoB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; D'Antonio, Marianna; D'Amario, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; D'Antonio, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) vaginal pathogenicity is not uniformly acknowledged throughout the literature; accordingly, in women, genital itching and burning, along with leukorrhea are commonly and almost exclusively referred to bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Conversely, GBS virulence for vagina was recognized in the past, as the organism has been observed to potentially cause local inflammation and discharge, as well as lactobacilli rarefaction. We depict here a case where a nonhemolytic (γ-hemolytic) GBS strain was found to be the etiologic agent of vaginal infection. Such uncommon S. agalactiae phenotypes are hard to be recognized and may be therefore responsible for misdiagnosing and underestimation of GBS vaginitis prevalence; here, we had the support of the Liofilchem(®) Chromatic StreptoB medium, that successfully detected such an atypical variant.

  20. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  1. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A

    2015-03-01

    As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The discoveries of Mor bovoculi and reports of IBK associated with Mycoplasma spp without concurrent Mor bovis or Mor bovoculi have raised new questions into the roles that other organisms may play in IBK pathogenesis.

  2. Cellobiose-Mediated Gene Expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae : A Repressor Function of the Novel GntR-Type Regulator BguR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Leite, Luciana C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has the ability to use the carbon-and energy source cellobiose due to the presence of a cellobiose-utilizing gene cluster (cel locus) in its genome. This system is regulated by the cellobiose-dependent transcriptional activator CelR, which has been previou

  3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Increases the Virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Binding to Penicillin Binding Protein 1a A New Paradigm in Respiratory Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Claire M.; Sandrini, Sara; Datta, Sumit; Freestone, Primrose; Shafeeq, Sulman; Radhakrishnan, Priya; Williams, Gwyneth; Glenn, Sarah M.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Hirst, Robert A.; Easton, Andrew J.; Andrew, Peter W.; O'Callaghan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major respiratory pathogens. Coinfection with RSV and S. pneumoniae is associated with severe and often fatal pneumonia but the molecular basis for this remains unclear. ObjeOtives: Todetermine if interaction between RSV a

  4. FlpS, the FNR-like protein of streptococcus suis is an essential, oxygen-sensing activator of the arginine deiminase system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willenborg, Jörg; Koczula, Anna; Fulde, Marcus; Greeff, de Astrid; Beineke, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing septicemia and meningitis in pigs and humans. During infection S. suis must metabolically adapt to extremely diverse environments of the host. CcpA and the FNR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators are important for metabolic gene re

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Serotypes 5, 6A, 6B, 18C, 19A, and 23F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.; Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Karlsson, Roger; Gonzales-Silès, Lucia; Boulund, Fredrik; Engstrand, Lars; Kristiansson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogenic bacterium found most commonly in the respiratory tract of humans and is a common cause of pneumonia and bacterial meningitis. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of six S. pneumoniae strains: CCUG 1350, CCUG 7206, CCUG 11780, CCUG 33774, CCUG 35180, and CCUG 35272. PMID:28385844

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  7. A Conserved UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase Encoded outside the hasABC Operon Contributes to Capsule Biogenesis in Group A Streptococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Jason N.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Kuipers, Kirsten; Timmer, Anjuli M.; Nizet, Victor; van Sorge, Nina M.

    2012-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific bacterial pathogen responsible for serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule of GAS is a major virulence factor, contributing to bloodstream survival through resistance to neutrophil and antimicrobial peptide killing a

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  9. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  10. 昆明地区奶牛临床型乳房炎病原菌分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation,identification and drug sensitivity of pathogen causingbovine clinical mastitis in Kunming area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 荀来武; 杨玉艾; 王桂瑛

    2012-01-01

    对昆明地区多个奶牛场的奶牛临床型乳房炎病原菌进行分离、鉴定,从114份乳样中共分离出细菌13种305株,经培养特性、染色镜检、生化鉴定等,鉴定出金黄色葡萄球菌63株,占20.66%;表皮葡萄球菌26株,占8.52%;无乳链球菌53株,占17.38%;停乳链球菌23株,占7.54%;乳房链球菌19株,占6.23%;乳链球菌14株,占4.59%;粪链球菌15株,占4.92%;化脓链球菌14株,占4.59%;大肠杆菌48株,占15.74%;真菌12株,占3.93%。分别对分离菌株进行17种药物的敏感性试验,除真菌外,所有菌株对庆大霉素、新霉素、环丙沙星、诺氟沙星、林可霉素、乳肿康均高度敏感,对临床常用的青霉素、链霉素、鱼腥草等具有较强的耐药性。%305 strains of pathogen causing bovine clinical mastitis in Kunming area was isolated from 114 milk samples and belonged to 13 species after cultivation,staining identification and biochemical test.Among these pathogen,Staphylococcus aureus was 63 strains(20.66%),Staphylococcus epidermidis was 26 strains(8.52%),Streptococcus agalactiae was 53 strains(17.38%),Streptococcus dysgalactiae was 23 strains(7.54%),Streptococcus uberis was 19 strains(6.23%),Streptococcus lactis was 14 strains(4.59%),Streptococcus faecium was 15 strains(4.92%),Streptococcus pyogenes was 14 strains(4.59%),Escherichia coli was 48 strains(15.74%)and the fungus was 12 strains(3.93%).Drug sensitive test showed that all bacteria except the fungus were sensitive to Gentamicin,Neomycin,Ciprofloxacin,Norfloxacin,Lincomycin etc.,and resistant to Penicilin,Streptomycin and Houttuynia cordata.

  11. Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kazuko; Saito, Masanori; Tsudukibashi, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirasawa, Masatomo

    2013-08-01

    Four Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates that were obtained from donkey oral cavities formed two distinct clonal groups when characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. From the results of biochemical tests, the organisms were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two of the isolates were related most closely to Streptococcus ursoris with 95.6 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and to Streptococcus ratti with 92.0 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates, however, were related to Streptococcus criceti with 95.0 and 89.0 % similarities based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. From both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the four isolates formed two distinct clonal groups and are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus. The names proposed for these organisms are Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1801(T) = JCM 17942(T) = DSM 25193(T)) and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1808(T) = JCM 17943(T) = DSM 25137(T)).

  12. Distribution of Streptococcus troglodytae and Streptococcus dentirousetti in chimpanzee oral cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Okamoto, Masaaki; Saito, Wataru; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Momoi, Yasuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and phenotypic properties of the indigenous streptococci in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) oral cavities. Eleven chimpanzees (aged from 9 to 44 years, mean ± SD, 26.9 ± 12.6 years) in the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University were enrolled in this research and brushing bacterial samples collected from them. Streptococci were isolated from the oral cavities of all chimpanzees. The isolates (n = 46) were identified as thirteen species by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The predominant species was Streptococcus sanguinis of mitis streptococci from five chimpanzees (45%). Mutans streptococci were isolated from six chimpanzees (55%). The predominant species in the mutans streptococci were Streptococcus troglodytae from four chimpanzees (36%), this species having been proposed as a novel species by us, and Streptococcus dentirousetti from three chimpanzees (27%). Streptococcus mutans was isolated from one chimpanzee (9%). However, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus macacae and Streptococcus downei, which are indigenous to human and monkey (Macaca fasciclaris) oral habitats, were not isolated. Of the mutans streptococci, S. troglodytae, S. dentirousetti, and S. mutans possessed strong adherence activity to glass surface.

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Dairy Cows with Clinical Mastitis in Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古通辽市某奶牛场乳房炎无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚团莲

    2016-01-01

    旨在调查引起内蒙古通辽地区奶牛乳房炎发生的优势病原菌。采用常规方法对采集自该地区某奶牛场的3份临床型乳房炎患牛奶样进行优势致病菌的分离鉴定,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)评价分离菌对兽医临床常用抗菌药物的敏感性。结果表明,从3份乳样中共分离到14株菌,经生化试验鉴定为无乳链球菌;药敏试验结果表明,分离菌对链霉素及磺胺嘧啶表现出较强的耐药性,而卡那霉素、庆大霉素及麦迪霉素对分离菌则表现出较好的抑菌效果。%The aim of the present study was to determine the dominant species of bacteria associated with bovine mastitis in Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia. Three quarter milk samples were collected from dairy cows with clinical mastitis and were used to isolate pathogenic bacteria by conventional method. The antimicrobial susceptibility test of the isolates was conducted using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The results revealed that a total of 14 strains were isolated from the 3 samples and they were subsequently phenotypically identified as Streptococcus agalactiae. While reduced susceptibility to streptomycin and sulfadiazine were observed, kanamycin, gentamicin and midecamycin are found as susceptible drugs for the isolated Streptococcus strains.

  14. Discrimination between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis based on sorting of their MALDI mass spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikryannikova, L N; Filimonova, A V; Malakhova, M V; Savinova, T; Filimonova, O; Ilina, E N; Dubovickaya, V A; Sidorenko, S V; Govorun, V M

    2013-11-01

    Accurate species-level identification of alpha-hemolytic (viridans) streptococci (VGS) is very important for understanding their pathogenicity and virulence. However, an extremely high level of similarity between VGS within the mitis group (S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, S. oralis and S. pseudopneumoniae) often results in misidentification of these organisms. Earlier, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been suggested as a tool for the rapid identification of S. pneumoniae. However, by using Biotyper 3.0 (Bruker) or Vitek MS (bioMérieux) databases, Streptococcus mitis/oralis species can be erroneously identified as S. pneumoniae. ClinProTools 2.1 software was used for the discrimination of MALDI-TOF mass spectra of 25 S. pneumoniae isolates, 34 S. mitis and three S. oralis. Phenotypical tests and multilocus gene typing schemes for the S. pneumoniae (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/) and viridans streptococci (http://viridans.emlsa.net/) were used for the identification of isolates included in the study. The classifying model was generated based on different algorithms (Genetic Algorithm, Supervised Neural Network and QuickClassifier). In all cases, values of sensitivity and specificity were found to be equal or close to 100%, allowing discrimination of mass spectra of different species. Three peaks (6949, 9876 and 9975 m/z) were determined conferring the maximal statistical weight onto each model built. We find this approach to be promising for viridans streptococci discrimination.

  15. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  16. Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T reveals a distinct phylogenetic clade in the genus Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jade L L; Huang, Yi; Tse, Herman; Chen, Jonathan H K; Tang, Ying; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-20

    Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the "sanguinis group." As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the "mitis group." On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named "sinensis group," to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy.

  17. Effect of bovine lactoferrin addition to milk in yogurt manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, I; Castillo, E; Pérez, M D; Calvo, M; Sánchez, L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of milk supplementation with lactoferrin of different iron saturation on the manufacturing and characteristics of yogurt. Bovine lactoferrin was added at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL in the holo (iron saturated) and apo (without iron) forms. Some physicochemical properties, such as pH, concentration of lactic acid, and texture of supplemented yogurts, were determined throughout the shelf-life period storage (28 d) at 4°C. We also evaluated the stability of lactoferrin in supplemented yogurt throughout the storage time. The supplementation of milk with bovine lactoferrin did not greatly affect the physical properties of the yogurt, though apo-lactoferrin slightly delayed the decrease of pH. This could be attributed to the partial inhibition observed on the growth of Streptococcus thermophilus. The integrity and immunoreactive concentration of lactoferrin, determined by Western blotting and noncompetitive ELISA, respectively, remained constant throughout the shelf life of yogurt.

  18. A novel endolysin disrupts Streptococcus suis with high efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhui; Huang, Qingqing; Sun, Liang; Wang, Hengan; Yan, Yaxian; Sun, Jianhe

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) is a zoonotic pathogen that exhibits high-level resistance and multi-drug resistance to classic antibiotics and causes serious human casualties and heavy economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. Therefore, alternative therapies or novel antibacterial agents need to be developed to combat this pathogen. A novel endolysin derived from the S. suis temperate phage phi7917, termed Ly7917, was identified, which had broad lytic activity against S. suis type 1, 2, 7 and 9. Ly7917 consisted of an N-terminal cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidase catalytic domain and C-terminal SH3b cell wall binding domain. The endolysin maintained activity at high pH and its catalytic activity could be improved by addition of 10 μM 1.5 mM Ca(2+). In animal studies, 90% of BALB/c mice challenged with typical virulent strain HA9801 of S. suis 2 were protected by Ly7917 treatment. The bacterial load in the blood of HA9801-challenged mice was efficiently reduced almost 50% by Ly7917 while that of penicillin-G-treated mice kept almost unchanged. Our data suggest that Ly7917 may be an alternative therapeutic agent for infections caused by virulent S. suis strains.

  19. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms – formation, biology,and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eFiedler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS is an exclusive human bacterial pathogen. The virulence potential of this species is tremendous. Interactions with humans range from asymptomatic carriage over mild and superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes up to systemic purulent toxic-invasive disease manifestations. Particularly the latter are a severe threat for predisposed patients and lead to significant death tolls worldwide. This places GAS among the most important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Many recent reviews have highlighted the GAS repertoire of virulence factors, regulators and regulatory circuits/networks that enable GAS to colonize the host and to deal with all levels of the host immune defense. This covers in vitro and in vivo studies, including animal infection studies based on mice and more relevant, macaque monkeys. It is now appreciated that GAS, like many other bacterial species, do not necessarily exclusively live in a planktonic lifestyle. GAS is capable of microcolony and biofilm formation on host cells and tissues. We are now beginning to understand that this feature significantly contributes to GAS pathogenesis. In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on GAS biofilm formation, the biofilm-phenotype associated virulence factors, regulatory aspects of biofilm formation, the clinical relevance, and finally contemporary treatment regimens and future treatment options.

  20. Immune receptors involved in Streptococcus suis recognition by dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pier Lecours

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent of septicemia and meningitis. Knowledge on host immune responses towards S. suis, and strategies used by this pathogen for subversion of these responses is scarce. The objective of this study was to identify the immune receptors involved in S. suis recognition by dendritic cells (DCs. Production of cytokines and expression of co-stimulatory molecules by DCs were shown to strongly rely on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, suggesting that DCs recognize S. suis and become activated mostly through Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling. Supporting this fact, TLR2(-/- DCs were severely impaired in the release of several cytokines and the surface expression of CD86 and MHC-II. The release of IL-12p70 and CXC10, and the expression of CD40 were found to depend on signaling by both TLR2 and TLR9. The release of IL-23 and CXCL1 were partially dependent on NOD2. Finally, despite the fact that MyD88 signaling was crucial for DC activation and maturation, MyD88-dependent pathways were not implicated in S. suis internalization by DCs. This first study on receptors involved in DC activation by S. suis suggests a major involvement of MyD88 signaling pathways, mainly (but not exclusively through TLR2. A multimodal recognition involving a combination of different receptors seems essential for DC effective response to S. suis.

  1. Proteomic analysis of the copper resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhong; Han, Junlong; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Kun; He, Ke; Du, Gaofei; Zeng, Guandi; Zhang, Liang; Yu, Guangchuang; Sun, Zhenghua; He, Qing-Yu; Sun, Xuesong

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen causing a variety of diseases, including otitis media, bacteraemia and meningitis. Although copper is an essential trace metal for bacterial growth, high intracellular levels of free-copper are toxic. Copper resistance has emerged as an important virulence determinant of microbial pathogens. In this study, we determined the minimum inhibition concentration of copper for the growth inhibition of S. pneumoniae. Two-dimensional-electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was applied to identify proteins involved in copper resistance of S. pneumoniae. In total, forty-four proteins with more than 1.5-fold alteration in expression (p < 0.05) were identified. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to confirm the proteomic results. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in the cell wall biosynthesis, protein biosynthesis, purine biosynthesis, pyrimidine biosynthesis, primary metabolic process, and the nitrogen compound metabolic process. Many up-regulated proteins in response to the copper treatment directly or indirectly participated in the cell wall biosynthesis, indicating that the cell wall is a critical determinant in copper resistance of S. pneumoniae.

  2. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for differentiation between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prehn, Joffrey; van Veen, Suzanne Q; Schelfaut, Jacqueline J G; Wessels, Els

    2016-05-01

    We compared the Vitek MS and Microflex MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform for species differentiation within the Streptococcus mitis group with PCR assays targeted at lytA, Spn9802, and recA as reference standard. The Vitek MS correctly identified 10/11 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 13/13 Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and 12/13 S. mitis/oralis. The Microflex correctly identified 9/11 S. pneumoniae, 0/13 S. pseudopneumoniae, and 13/13 S. mitis/oralis. MALDI-TOF is a powerful tool for species determination within the mitis group. Diagnostic accuracy varies depending on platform and database used.

  3. A Rare Cause of Endocarditis: Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Gültekin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although group A β-hemolytic streptococcus is an uncommon cause of infective endocarditis, an increase in the incidence of invasive group A streptococcus infections including bacteremia has been reported in the last two decades. Herein we report Streptococcus pyogenes endocarditis in a previously healthy adult patient who was hospitalized to investigate the etiology of fever. Because of a suspicion of a new vegetation appeared in the second (aortic valve in the 14th day of high dose penicillin G treatment, the mitral and aortic valves were replaced by mechanical prosthesis on the 22nd day of treatment. He was discharged from hospital after the 6 week course of antibiotic treatment.

  4. SMC is recruited to oriC by ParB and promotes chromosome segregation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Minnen, Anita; Attaiech, Laetitia; Thon, Maria; Gruber, Stephan; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2011-01-01

    Segregation of replicated chromosomes is an essential process in all organisms. How bacteria, such as the oval-shaped human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, efficiently segregate their chromosomes is poorly understood. Here we show that the pneumococcal homologue of the DNA-binding protein ParB recruits S. pneumoniae condensin (SMC) to centromere-like DNA sequences (parS) that are located near the origin of replication, in a similar fashion as was shown for the rod-shaped model bacterium Ba...

  5. Prevalence of Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Haemophilus Influenzae and Moraxella Catarrhalis in Adenoid Tissues of Children with Adenoid Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    SS Khoramrooz; A. Mirsalehian; Emaneini, M.; A Sharifi; S A Khosravani; Jabalameli, F.; M.Aligholi; D Darban-Sarokhalil; M Mirzaii; A Bazargani

    2012-01-01

    Background & aim: Chronic infection of the adenoid tissue is one of the causes of hypertrophy. Adenoids are considered to be as reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mentioned bacteria in children with adenoid hypertrophy. Methods: A total of 113 children with adenoid hypertrophy who underwent adenoidectomy were included in this study. Subsequently, ad...

  6. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30% of these cultures, 26 (44.8% corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%, to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%, to Enterococcus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 % to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%, to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7% to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germanyprovides a typical pattern ("good identification" for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

  7. Quarter, cow, and farm risk factors for intramammary infections with major pathogens relative to minor pathogens in Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2011 on 35 smallholder dairy farms in Chiang Mai, Thailand, to identify the quarter, cow, and farm factors that relate to intramammary infections (IMI) from major specified pathogens, compared to infections from minor pathogens. Data on general farm management, milking management, and dry cow management were recorded for each herd. Quarter milk samples were collected from either clinical or subclinical mastitis quarters. Dependent variables were binary data defining the specified major pathogens, including Streptococcus agalactiae (7.1 %), Streptococcus uberis (9.4 %), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.0 %), and other streptococci (16.7 %), as a case, and all minor pathogens as a control, in each dependent variable. The occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI was lower in first-parity cows and cows with short milking time. Cows with body condition score (BCS) quarters with California mastitis test (CMT) score 2, score 3, and having clinical mastitis and in farms with increasing age of vacuum system. Quarters with CMT score 3, having clinical mastitis, cow with manual milking after detaching milking cluster, and farms with high bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC >500,000 cells/ml) had higher occurrence of S. dysgalactiae IMI. For other streptococci, quarters having clinical mastitis, BCS <2.5, and pulling down of milking cluster while milking increased occurrence of other streptococci IMI relative to minor pathogen IMI. These results highlight the importance of individual cow factors, milking characteristics, and BMSCC in determining the risk of IMI from major pathogens.

  8. Identification of organic acids in Cichorium intybus inhibiting virulence-related properties of oral pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papetti, A.; Mascherpa, D.; Carazzone, C.; Stauder, M.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Pratten, J.; Ciric, L.; Lingström, P.; Zaura, E.; Weiss, E.; Ofek, I.; Signoretto, C.; Pruzzo, C.; Gazzani, G.

    2013-01-01

    The low molecular mass (LMM) extract of Cichorium intybus var. silvestre (red chicory) has been shown to inhibit virulence-linked properties of oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Prevotella intermedia. In the present study HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS2 was used to investiga

  9. Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Cirone, Francesco; D'Abramo, Maria; Lorusso, Eleonora; Greco, Grazia; Mari, Viviana; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-01-01

    Four outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infection in Italian cattle herds were reported. In 3 outbreaks, BRD was observed only in 2-3-month-old feedlot calves, whereas in the remaining outbreak, lactating cows, heifers, and calves were simultaneously affected. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), BCoV RNA was detected in all outbreaks without evidence of concurrent viral pathogens (i.e., bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine parainfluenza virus). Common bacteria of cattle were recovered only from 2 outbreaks of BRD: Staphylococcus spp. and Proteus mirabilis (outbreak 1) and Mannheimia haemolytica (outbreak 4). A recently established real-time RT-PCR assay showed that viral RNA loads in nasal secretions ranged between 3.10 x 10(2) and 7.50 x 10(7) RNA copies/microl of template. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from respiratory specimens from all outbreaks except outbreak 1, in which real-time RT-PCR found very low viral titers in nasal swabs.

  10. Monoclonal Idiotope Vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Mary K.; Ward, Ronald E.; Kohler, Heinz

    1984-12-01

    A monoclonal anti-idiotope antibody coupled to a carrier protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice against a lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Vaccinated mice developed a high titer of antibody to phosphorylcholine, which is known to protect against infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Measurement of the median lethal dose of the bacteria indicated that anti-idiotope immunization significantly increased the resistance of BALB/c mice to the bacterial challenge. Antibody to an idiotope can thus be used as an antigen substitute for the induction of protective immunity.

  11. Characterization of a Multipeptide Lantibiotic Locus in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Maricic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities are established through a combination of cooperative and antagonistic interactions between the inhabitants. Competitive interactions often involve the production of antimicrobial substances, including bacteriocins, which are small antimicrobial peptides that target other community members. Despite the nearly ubiquitous presence of bacteriocin-encoding loci, inhibitory activity has been attributed to only a small fraction of gene clusters. In this study, we characterized a novel locus (the pld locus in the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae that drives the production of a bacteriocin called pneumolancidin, which has broad antimicrobial activity. The locus encodes an unusual tandem array of four inhibitory peptides, three of which are absolutely required for antibacterial activity. The three peptide sequences are similar but appear to play distinct roles in regulation and inhibition. A modification enzyme typically found in loci encoding a class of highly modified bacteriocins called lantibiotics was required for inhibitory activity. The production of pneumolancidin is controlled by a two-component regulatory system that is activated by the accumulation of modified peptides. The locus is located on a mobile element that has been found in many pneumococcal lineages, although not all elements carry the pld genes. Intriguingly, a minimal region containing only the genes required for pneumolancidin immunity was found in several Streptococcus mitis strains. The pneumolancidin-producing strain can inhibit nearly all pneumococci tested to date and provided a competitive advantage in vivo. These peptides not only represent a unique strategy for bacterial competition but also are an important resource to guide the development of new antimicrobials.

  12. Identification of β-haemolysin-encoding genes in Streptococcus anginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asam, D; Mauerer, S; Walheim, E; Spellerberg, B

    2013-08-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is an emerging pathogen, but little is known about its virulence factors. To detect the genes responsible for β-haemolysis we performed genomic mutagenesis of the β-haemolytic S. anginosus type strain ATCC 12395 using the vector pGhost9:ISS1. Integration site analysis of 15 non-haemolytic mutants identified a gene cluster with high homology to the genes of the streptolysin S (SLS) encoding sag gene cluster of S. pyogenes. The gene cluster harbours 10 open reading frames displaying significant similarities to the S. pyogenes genes sagA-sagI, with the identities on protein level ranging from 38 to 87%. Complementation assays of S. anginosus sagB and sagD integration mutants with the respective genes confirmed their importance for β-haemolysin production and suggest the presence of post-translational modifications in S. anginosus SLS similar to SLS of S. pyogenes. Characterization of the S. anginosus haemolysin in comparison to the S. pyogenes SLS showed that the haemolysin is surface bound, but in contrast to S. pyogenes neither fetal calf serum nor RNA was able to stabilize the haemolysin of S. anginosus in culture supernatants. Inhibition of β-haemolysis by polyethylene glycol of different sizes was carried out, giving no evidence of a pore-forming haemolytic mechanism. Analysis of a whole genome shotgun sequence of Streptococcus constellatus, a closely related streptococcal species that belongs to the S. anginosus group, revealed a similar sag gene cluster. Employing a genomic mutagenesis strategy we were able to determine an SLS encoding gene cluster in S. anginosus and demonstrate its importance for β-haemolysin production in S. anginosus.

  13. Factors that cause trimethoprim resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, René; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

    2014-01-01

    The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent.

  14. Comparative analysis of whole-genome sequences of Streptococcus suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pengli; WEI Wu; LI Yixue; MA Yuanyuan; DING Guohui; LI Xiaoping; WANG Xiaojing; ZHANG Liwen; SUN Jingchun; WANG Yong; TU Kang; WANG Ningning; HAO Pei; WANG Chuan; CAO Zhiwei; SHI Tieliu

    2006-01-01

    The outbreak of Streptococcus suis recently in some districts of Sichuan Province in China has caused over 30 deaths and over 200 infections in human beings. In order to study the pathogenicity mechanism and to prevent the bacteria from spreading and infecting human beings and swine, we have annotated and analyzed the genomes of two strains, Streptococcus suis P1/7 and 89-1591 respectively. The whole length of P1/7 is 2.007 Mb,and has 1969 ORFs. In contrast, the partial genome sequence of 89-1591 is 1.98 Mb in length and exists in 177 contigs with 1918 ORFs. Analysis shows that the average lengths of CDSs in two genomes are very close, and the numbers of the homolog ORFs are 1306 between those two strains. Most of the toxicity factors of the two strains are homologeous, but there are still some significant differences between those two strains. For example, among the 11 genes (cps2A-cps2K) encoding for the capsules in P1/7, 4(cps2A, 2B, 2I, 2J) are not detected in strain 89-1591.At the same time, the genes encoding EF and Haemolysin in P1/7 are also not found in strain 89-1591. Besides, the genes related to DNA replication, repair and recombination differ from each other significantly and there also exist certain differences among the surface proteins. Those characteristics indicate that those two strains have evolved their own specific functions to adapt to the different environments and that the pathogenesis of the two strains is different. We have accumulated comprehensive genomics information for future systematic studies of S.sui. Our results are helpful for disease prevention,vaccine development, as well as drug design for S.suis.

  15. Iron acquisition and regulation systems in Streptococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ruiguang; Sun, Xuesong

    2014-05-01

    Gram-positive Streptococcus species are responsible for millions of cases of meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis. Iron is essential for the growth and survival of Streptococcus in the host environment. Streptococcus species have developed various mechanisms to uptake iron from an environment with limited available iron. Streptococcus can directly extract iron from host iron-containing proteins such as ferritin, transferrin, lactoferrin and hemoproteins, or indirectly by relying on the employment of specialized secreted hemophores (heme chelators) and small siderophore molecules (high affinity ferric chelators). This review presents the most recent discoveries in the iron acquisition system of Streptococcus species - the transporters as well as the regulators.

  16. Pathogen Reduction of Fresh Whole Blood for Military and Civilian Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Pathogen Reduction of Fresh Whole Blood for Military and Civilian Use 24 - 4 RTO-MP-HFM-182 Figure 5: Growth rate of B. cereus in treated and... Bacillus cereus 2/8 Streptococcus pyogenes 4/10 Staphylococcus epidermidis 15/22 3.3 Parasite Reduction Several experiments to test the...RTO-MP-HFM-182 24 - 1 Pathogen Reduction of Fresh Whole Blood for Military and Civilian Use Raymond P. Goodrich, Ph.D., Heather L. Reddy

  17. Intervet symposium: bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, T; Dubey, J P; Adrianarivo, A; Frankena, K; Romero, J J; Pérez, E; Heuer, C; Nicholson, C; Russell, D; Weston, J

    2004-10-28

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The symposium was organised by Juan Muñoz-Bielsa,Wicher Holland, Enzo Foccoliand Theo Schetters (chairman). The focus was on the present state of knowledge of the biology, epidemiology(presented by J.P. Dubey) and immunology of Neospora infection (presented by A. Adrianarivo),with special emphasis on the prospects of vaccination of cattle against Neospora-induced abortion (presentations of K. Frankena (Costa Rican trial) and C. Heuer (New Zealand trial)).

  18. Humans and cattle: a review of bovine zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Clinton J; Cardwell, Diana M; Moeller, Robert B; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious disease prevention and control has been among the top public health objectives during the last century. However, controlling disease due to pathogens that move between animals and humans has been challenging. Such zoonotic pathogens have been responsible for the majority of new human disease threats and a number of recent international epidemics. Currently, our surveillance systems often lack the ability to monitor the human-animal interface for emergent pathogens. Identifying and ultimately addressing emergent cross-species infections will require a "One Health" approach in which resources from public veterinary, environmental, and human health function as part of an integrative system. Here we review the epidemiology of bovine zoonoses from a public health perspective.

  19. SCM-positive Streptococcus canis are predominant among pet-associated group G streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkühlen, Gerd-Josef; Pägelow, Dennis; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Fulde, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) canis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen with increasing impor- tance. Since knowledge about its distribution in pets in Germany is scant, we designed a study and tested 335 dogs and 71 cats for colonization by S. canis. S. canis was isolated from swabs taken from the perianal region by culture and subsequent identification was performed biochemically as well as by PCR. In total, 15.8% (53) of the canine and 8.5% (six) of the feline strains grown on Staphlyo- coccus/Streptococcus Selective Agar were tested positive for the Lancefield group G antigen. The vast majority of strains expressing the Lancefield Group G carbohy- drate (56 out of 59) were further identified as S. canis underlining their outstanding role among animal-associated Group G streptococci (GGS). Furthermore, 90.0% of the canine and 83.3% of the feline S. canis strains harbour the species-specific anti- phagocytic M protein homologue SCM, which has been described as an important virulence factor. In contrast, emm-genes typically encoded by human-specific GGS could not be detected in any of the S. canis isolates. Taken together, this study provides insights into the distribution of the neglected zoonotic pathogen S. canis in a population of pets in Germany. The presence of SCM in the vast majority of strains indicates their pathogenic potential.

  20. Social isolation may influence responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Mars, M.H.; Leushuis, I.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was performed to develop a model to study the impact of stress on responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in veal calves. Social isolation after previous group-housing was used as a putatively stressful treatment. Group-housed specific pathogen-free veal calves (n=

  1. Comparative genomic analyses of Streptococcus mutans provide insights into chromosomal shuffling and species-specific content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakai Kenta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, and it occasionally causes infective endocarditis. While the pathogenicity of this species is distinct from other human pathogenic streptococci, the species-specific evolution of the genus Streptococcus and its genomic diversity are poorly understood. Results We have sequenced the complete genome of S. mutans serotype c strain NN2025, and compared it with the genome of UA159. The NN2025 genome is composed of 2,013,587 bp, and the two strains show highly conserved core-genome. However, comparison of the two S. mutans strains showed a large genomic inversion across the replication axis producing an X-shaped symmetrical DNA dot plot. This phenomenon was also observed between other streptococcal species, indicating that streptococcal genetic rearrangements across the replication axis play an important role in Streptococcus genetic shuffling. We further confirmed the genomic diversity among 95 clinical isolates using long-PCR analysis. Genomic diversity in S. mutans appears to occur frequently between insertion sequence (IS elements and transposons, and these diversity regions consist of restriction/modification systems, antimicrobial peptide synthesis systems, and transporters. S. mutans may preferentially reject the phage infection by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs. In particular, the CRISPR-2 region, which is highly divergent between strains, in NN2025 has long repeated spacer sequences corresponding to the streptococcal phage genome. Conclusion These observations suggest that S. mutans strains evolve through chromosomal shuffling and that phage infection is not needed for gene acquisition. In contrast, S. pyogenes tolerates phage infection for acquisition of virulence determinants for niche adaptation.

  2. Use of a Serotype-Specific DNA Microarray for Identification of Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Linyan; Wang, Quan; Li, Yayue; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Cao, Boyang; Wang, Lei; Feng, Lu

    2006-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) is an important cause of sepsis and meningitis. Nine GBS serotypes, based on capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigens, have been described. Their distribution varies worldwide and needs to be monitored to understand the epidemiology of GBS disease and inform the development of vaccines. In this study, we sequenced cpsH of GBS serotype II (cpsHII) and compared it with that of the other eight serotypes to identify serotype-specific regions. We...

  3. Population diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the upper respiratory tracts of adults, determined by a nonculture strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, H; Hance, I

    2008-01-01

    We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat...... with loss and acquisition from contacts. These findings provide a platform for understanding the mechanisms that govern the balance within the complex microbiota at mucosal sites and between the microbiota and the mucosal immune system of the host....

  4. 鱼源无乳链球菌致病机理研究进展%Review on Pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae from Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝璟琳; 杨弘

    2013-01-01

    从无乳链球菌的感染与传播途径,引起的病理学变化,致病机制,毒力因子和理化因子的影响等5个方面对鱼源无乳链球菌的致病机理作一综述。%The studies on pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae from fish were summarized as viewed from the following five factors: transmission studies, pathogenic mechanism, Group B Streptococcus (GBS) virulence and environmental factors.

  5. The cia Operon of Streptococcus mutans Encodes a Unique Component Required for Calcium-Mediated Autoregulation

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xuesong; Wu, Chenggang; Yarbrough, Daniel; Sim, Lucy; Niu, Guoqing; Merritt, Justin; Shi, Wenyuan; Qi, Fengxia

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a primary pathogen for dental caries in humans. CiaR and CiaH of S. mutans comprise a two-component signal transduction system (TCS) involved in regulating various virulent factors. However, the signal that triggers the CiaRH response remains unknown. In this study, we show that calcium is a signal for regulation of the ciaRH operon, and that a double-glycine-containing small peptide encoded within the ciaRH operon (renamed ciaX) mediates this regulation. CiaX contains...

  6. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Jensen, T G; Dessau, R B

    2000-01-01

    the effect of the bactericidal agent. In this study, the possible interaction between penicillin and erythromycin was investigated in vitro and in vivo against four clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with MICs of penicillin ranging from 0.016 to 0.5 mg/L and of erythromycin from 0. 25 to >128 mg......The combination of beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides is often recommended for the initial empirical treatment of acute pneumonia in order to obtain activity against the most important pathogens. Theoretically, this combination may be inexpedient, as the bacteriostatic agent may antagonize...

  7. Nasopharyngeal Infection of Mice with Streptococcus pyogenes and In Vivo Detection of Superantigen Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppa, Joseph J; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T; Kasper, Katherine J; Xu, Stacey X; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; McCormick, John K

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific pathogen that is responsible for an enormous burden of infectious disease. Despite intensive experimental efforts to understand the molecular correlates that contribute to invasive infections, there has been less focus on S. pyogenes carriage and local infection of the nasopharynx. This chapter describes an acute nasopharyngeal infection model in mice that is utilized in our laboratory to study the role of superantigen toxins in the biology of S. pyogenes. We also describe a method to detect superantigen-specific T cell activation in vivo.

  8. Septic Osteoarthritis Due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies equisimilis in a Three-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a three-year-old toddler with an acute and severe osteoarticular infection of her left hip and proximal thigh. In the first 24 hours she underwent an arthrotomy and during the intravenous phase of antibiotic treatment multiple teeth were removed because of an extensive periodontal disease. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE was identified in her blood culture samples. The paper discusses the clinical spectrum of the disease caused by this pathogen and briefly reviews the literature. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first case of septic osteomyelitis and arthritis caused by SDSE in a child.

  9. Development of species-specific primers for detection of Streptococcus mutans in mixed bacterial samples

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhou; Saxena, Deepak; Caufield, Page W.; Ge, Yao; Wang, Minqi; Li, Yihong

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the major microbial pathogen associated with dental caries in children. The objectives of this study were to design and evaluate species-specific primers for the identification of S. mutans. Validation of the best primer set, Sm479F/R, was performed using 7 S. mutans reference strains, 48 ATCC non-S. mutans strains, 92 S. mutans clinical isolates, DNA samples of S. mutans-S. sobrinus or S. mutans-S. sanguinis, and mixed bacterial DNA of saliva samples from 33 18-month-...

  10. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed.

  11. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed.

  12. Vaccination against δ-Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerónimo Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukemia virus (BLV and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 are closely related d-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia. Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of d-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy.

  13. Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae as an Otopathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingfu; Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Sabharwal, Vishakha; Pelton, Stephen; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Among 34 Spn sequential isolates from middle ear fluid we found a case of a nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae (NT-Spn) in a child with AOM. The strain was pneumolysin PCR positive and capsule gene PCR negative. Virulence of the NT-Spn was confirmed in a chinchilla model of AOM. PMID:21251566

  14. NEW VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Peter Wilhelmus Maria; Bootsma, Jeanette Hester; Burghout, Pieter Jan; Kuipers, Oscar; Bijlsma, Johanna Jacoba Elisabeth; Kloosterman, Tomas Gerrit; Andersen, Christian O.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides proteins/genes, which are essential for survival, and consequently, for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo, and thus are ideal vaccine candidates for a vaccine preparation against pneumococcal infection. Further, also antibodies against said protein(s) are i

  15. How Does Streptococcus pneumoniae Invade the Brain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iovino, Federico; Seinen, Jolien; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the major cause of bacterial meningitis. The mechanisms by which pneumococci from the bloodstream penetrate the blood-brain barrier to reach the brain are not fully understood. Receptor-mediated adhesion of the bacteria to the brain endothelium is consi

  16. NEW VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsma, Jeanette Hester; Burghout, Pieter Jan; Hermans, Peter Wilhelmus Maria; Bijlsma, Johanna; Kuipers, Oscar; Kloosterman, Tomas Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides proteins/genes, which are essential for survival, and consequently, for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo, and thus are ideal vaccine candidates for a vaccine preparation against pneumococcal infection. Further, also antibodies against said protein(s) are i

  17. Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing....

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae and the host cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstedt, Per Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is een bacterie die in de menselijke keel-neusholte voorkomt. Vaak is zij ongevaarlijk, maar soms kan zij van leefomgeving veranderen en zich als invasieve ziekteverwekker door het lichaam verspreiden. Dan kan de bacterie longontsteking, bloedvergiftiging of hersenvliesontst

  19. Prostatic Abscess Caused by Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Nguyen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The first reported case of prostatic abscess caused by Streptococcus mutans isolated in pure culture is described. Urethral dilation for obstruction was unsuccessful, so suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Perineal aspiration under ultrasonic guidance resulted in 10 mL of pus containing pure Strep mutans. Diagnosis of prostatic abscess is difficult since the clinical manifestations are nonspecific.

  20. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  1. The genome of Streptococcus mitis B6--what is a commensal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Denapaite

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mitis is the closest relative of the major human pathogen S. pneumoniae. The 2,15 Mb sequence of the Streptococcus mitis B6 chromosome, an unusually high-level beta-lactam resistant and multiple antibiotic resistant strain, has now been determined to encode 2100 genes. The accessory genome is estimated to represent over 40%, including 75 mostly novel transposases and IS, the prophage phiB6 and another seven phage related regions. Tetracycline resistance mediated by Tn5801, and an unusual and large gene cluster containing three aminoglycoside resistance determinants have not been described in other Streptococcus spp. Comparative genomic analyses including hybridization experiments on a S. mitis B6 specific microarray reveal that individual S. mitis strains are almost as distantly related to the B6 strain as S. pneumoniae. Both species share a core of over 900 genes. Most proteins described as pneumococcal virulence factors are present in S. mitis B6, but the three choline binding proteins PcpA, PspA and PspC, and three gene clusters containing the hyaluronidase gene, ply and lytA, and the capsular genes are absent in S. mitis B6 and other S. mitis as well and confirm their importance for the pathogenetic potential of S. pneumoniae. Despite the close relatedness between the two species, the S. mitis B6 genome reveals a striking X-alignment when compared with S. pneumoniae.

  2. Quorum Sensing Regulation of Competence and Bacteriocins in Streptococcus pneumoniae and mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Erin; Federle, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the production of bacteriocins and the entry into the competent state, a requirement for natural transformation. Natural transformation provides bacteria with a mechanism to repair damaged genes or as a source of new advantageous traits. In S. pneumoniae, the competence pathway is controlled by the two-component signal transduction pathway ComCDE, which directly regulates SigX, the alternative sigma factor required for the initiation into competence. Over the past two decades, effectors of cellular killing (i.e., fratricides) have been recognized as important targets of the pneumococcal competence QS pathway. Recently, direct interactions between the ComCDE and the paralogous BlpRH pathway, regulating bacteriocin production, were identified, further strengthening the interconnections between these two QS systems. Interestingly, a similar theme is being revealed in S. mutans, the primary etiological agent of dental caries. This review compares the relationship between the bacteriocin and the competence QS pathways in both S. pneumoniae and S. mutans, and hopes to provide clues to regulatory pathways across the genus Streptococcus as a potential tool to efficiently investigate putative competence pathways in nontransformable streptococci. PMID:28067778

  3. Development of real-time PCR for detection and quantitation of Streptococcus parauberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T L; Lim, Y J; Kim, D-H; Austin, B

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus parauberis is an increasing threat to aquaculture of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Temminck & Schlegel, in South Korea. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the TaqMan probe assay to detect and quantify S. parauberis by targeting the gyrB gene sequences, which are effective for molecular analysis of the genus Streptococcus. Our real-time PCR assay is capable of detecting 10 fg of genomic DNA per reaction. The intra- and interassay coefficient of variation (CV) values ranged from 0.42-1.95%, demonstrating that the assay has good reproducibility. There was not any cross-reactivity to Streptococcus iniae or to other streptococcal/lactococcal fish pathogens, such as S. agalactiae and Lactococcus garvieae, indicating that the assay is highly specific to S. parauberis. The results of the real-time PCR assay corresponded well to those of conventional culture assays for S. parauberis from inoculated tissue homogenates (r = 0.957; P real-time PCR is a valuable tool for diagnostic quantitation of S. parauberis in clinical samples.

  4. [Streptococcus pyogenes--much more than the aetiological agent of scarlet fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2009-11-01

    The grampositive bacterium S. pyogenes (beta-haemolytic group A Streptococcus) is a natural colonizer of the human oropharynx mucous membrane and one of the most common agents of infectious diseases in humans. S. pyogenes causes the widest range of disease in humans among all bacterial pathogens. It is responsible for various skin infections such as impetigo contagiosa and erysipelas, and localized mucous membrane infections of the oropharynx (e. g. tonsillitis and pharyngitis). Betahaemolytic group A Streptococcus causes also invasive diseases such as sepses including puerperal sepsis. Additionally, S. pyogenes induces toxin-mediated syndromes, i. e. scarlet fever, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF). STSS and NF are severe, frequently fatal diseases that have emerged in Europe and Northern America during the last two decades. Finally, some immunpathological diseases such as acute rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis also result from S. pyogenes infections. Most scientists recommend penicillins (benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicllin) as drugs of first choice for treatment of Streptococcus tonsillopharyngitis and scarlet fever. Erysipelas and some other skin infections should be treated with benzylpenicillin. Intensive care measurements are needed for treatment of severe toxin-mediated S. pyogenes diseases. These measurements include the elimination of internal bacterial foci, concomitant application of clindamycin and benzylpenicillin and suitable treatment of shock symptoms. Management of immunpathological diseases requires antiphlogistical therapy. Because of the wide distribution of S. pyogenes in the general population and the lack of an effective vaccine, possibilities for prevention allowing a suitable protection for diseases due to S. pyogenes are very limited.

  5. 奥尼罗非鱼无乳链球菌的鉴定、致病性及药物敏感性研究%Identification, Pathogenicity and Drug Sensitivity of Streptococcus agalactiae from Hybrid Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus×Oreochromis aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晶晶; 陈昌福; 高宇; 刘振兴; 王美珍; 李革雷

    2010-01-01

    从海南省某水产养殖场患病奥尼罗非鱼(Oreochromis aureus×Oreochromis niloticus)中,分离到1个编号为LFY-08-23的菌株.经过对分离菌株进行生理生化特性鉴定、Biolog系统鉴定以及利用原核生物16S rRNA基因通用引物进行 16S rRNA基因的克隆及序列分析,结果发现LFY-08-23菌株与无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)的生理生化特性相似,16S rRNA基因克隆及序列分析结果与S.agalactiae(EF092913,DQ303183,AF459432)自然构成一个分支,相似性高达99.8%.用分离的S.agalactiae LFY-08-23菌株对异育银鲫和斑点叉尾鮰进行人工感染试验,结果表明,当注射菌浓度达到1.0×109cfu/mL时,2种鱼全部死亡.S.agalactiae LFY-08-23菌株对头孢氨噻肟、丙氟哌酸、利福平等13种药物高度敏感,对呋喃妥因、新生霉素、强力霉素等7种药物中度敏感,对卡那霉素、链霉素、磺胺异恶唑等5种药物不敏感.

  6. Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Madsen, P.; Mark, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    . uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations among the pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered...... as the overall pleiotropic effect of genes affecting resistance to a specific pathogen, and highest for bacteria sharing characteritics regarding immune response. The genetic correlations between the groups of pathogens were high, 0.73 and 0.83. Results showed that the pathogen-specific traits used in this study......The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus...

  7. Antigen I/II encoded by integrative and conjugative elements of Streptococcus agalactiae and role in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuzeville, Sarah; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Madec, Jean-Yves; Haenni, Marisa; Payot, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (i.e. Group B streptococcus, GBS) is a major human and animal pathogen. Genes encoding putative surface proteins and in particular an antigen I/II have been identified on Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) found in GBS. Antigens I/II are multimodal adhesins promoting colonization of the oral cavity by streptococci such as Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans. The prevalence and diversity of antigens I/II in GBS were studied by a bioinformatic analysis. It revealed that antigens I/II, which are acquired by horizontal transfer via ICEs, exhibit diversity and are widespread in GBS, in particular in the serotype Ia/ST23 invasive strains. This study aimed at characterizing the impact on GBS biology of proteins encoded by a previously characterized ICE of S. agalactiae (ICE_515_tRNA(Lys)). The production and surface exposition of the antigen I/II encoded by this ICE was examined using RT-PCR and immunoblotting experiments. Surface proteins of ICE_515_tRNA(Lys) were found to contribute to GBS biofilm formation and to fibrinogen binding. Contribution of antigen I/II encoded by SAL_2056 to biofilm formation was also demonstrated. These results highlight the potential for ICEs to spread microbial adhesins between species.

  8. Real-time polymerase chain reaction-based identification of bacteria in milk samples from bovine clinical mastitis with no growth in conventional culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taponen, S; Salmikivi, L; Simojoki, H; Koskinen, M T; Pyörälä, S

    2009-06-01

    In more than 30% of milk samples from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis, bacteria fail to grow even after 48 h of conventional culture. The "no-growth" samples are problematic for mastitis laboratories, veterinarians, and dairy producers. This study provides the first investigation of the bacteriological etiology of such samples, using a real-time PCR-based commercial reagent kit. The assay targets the DNA of the 11 most common bacterial species or groups in mastitis and the staphylococcal blaZ gene (responsible for penicillin resistance) and can identify and quantify bacterial cells even if dead or growth-inhibited. A study was made of 79 mastitic milk samples with no-growth bacteria in conventional culture, originating from cows with clinical mastitis. Of the 79 samples, 34 (43%) were positive for 1 (32 samples) or 2 (2 samples) of the target bacteria. The positive findings included 11 Staphylococcus spp. (staphylococci other than Staphylococcus aureus), 10 Streptococcus uberis, 2 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 6 Corynebacterium bovis, 3 Staph. aureus, 1 Escherichia coli, 1 Enterococcus, and 1 Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The positive samples contained as many as 10(3) to 10(7) bacterial genome copies per milliliter of milk. This study demonstrates that in nearly half of the clinical mastitis cases in which conventional culture failed to detect bacteria, mastitis pathogens were still present, often in substantial quantities. The clearly elevated N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase activity values of the milk samples, together with clinical signs of the infected cows and quarters, confirmed the diagnosis of clinical mastitis and indicated that real-time, PCR-based bacterial findings are able to reveal bacteriological etiology. We conclude that all common mastitis bacteria can occur in large quantities in clinical mastitis samples that exhibit no growth in conventional culture, and that the real-time PCR assay is a useful tool for bacteriological diagnosis of such

  9. ETIOLOGY OF THE BOVINE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN GOIÂNIA ETIOLOGIA DA MASTITE CLÍNICA BOVINA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Moreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    There is an estimate that the mastitis in dairy herds causes production losses between 5 and 35%, equivalent from 85 to 500 million dollars per year. 231 milk samples from 231 cows on different stages of lactation, with clinic mastitis, from 35 farms of Goiânia, were analyzed in order to map the pathogens implicated in these process and to discover the microorganisms with major prevalence. All the samples had positive growth. The principal agents were Staphylococcus coagulase positive (32.90%, Streptococcus sp. (22.07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12.12%, Enterobacter sp. (10.38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8.65%, Escherichia coli (8.22%, Bacillus sp. (8.22%, Proteus sp. (6.49%, Klebsiella sp. (4.32% and Staphylococcus coagulase negative (3.46%. The Nocardia genus was isolated in 0.86% of the cases.

    KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; etiology; isolated microorganisms.

    Estima-se que a presença de mastite bovina em rebanhos produtores provoque perdas de produção entre 5 e 35%, o que equivale de 85 a 500 milhões de dólares ao ano. Com o objetivo de mapear os patógenos envolvidos nesse processo e evidenciar os microrganismos com maior freqüência foram examinadas amostras de leite de 231 vacas, em diferentes estágios de lactação, que apresentaram sinais de mastite clínica e eram pertencentes a 35 propriedades rurais da bacia leiteira de Goiânia. Todas as amostras tiveram crescimento bacteriano positivo. Os principais agentes isolados foram o Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (32,90%, Streptococcus sp. (22,07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12,12%, Enterobacter sp. (10,38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8,65%, Escherichia coli (8,22%, Bacillus sp. (8,22%,

  10. Etiology of acute otitis media and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in Chilean children <5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblut, Andres; Napolitano, Carla; Pereira, Angelica; Moreno, Camilo; Kolhe, Devayani; Lepetic, Alejandro; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged Haemophilus influenzae (40.3% [56/139]) were predominant among the cultures that showed bacterial growth (85% [139/164]). All Streptococcus pneumoniae positive episodes were serotyped, 19F (21%) and 14 (17%) were the predominant serotypes; all Haemophilus influenzae strains were nontypeable. Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin (5%) and erythromycin (33%); Haemophilus influenzae were resistant to ampicillin (14%) and cefuroxime and cefotaxime (2% each).AOM in Chilean children is predominantly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Use of a broad spectrum vaccine against these pathogens might aid the reduction of AOM in Chile.

  11. Novel molecular method for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae applicable to clinical microbiology and 16S rRNA sequence-based microbiome studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Christian F. P.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered...... specific for S. pneumoniae hamper the exact identification of S. pneumoniae. Based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes of a collection of 634 streptococcal strains, identified by multilocus sequence analysis, we detected a cytosine at position 203 present in all 440 strains of S. pneumoniae but replaced...... by an adenosine residue in all strains representing other species of mitis group streptococci. The S. pneumoniae-specific sequence signature could be demonstrated by sequence analysis or indirectly by restriction endonuclease digestion of a PCR amplicon covering the site. The S. pneumoniae-specific signature...

  12. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  13. Prevalence of Pathogens Causing Subclinical Mastitis in Argentinean Dairy Herds

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    Silvana Andrea Dieser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different mastitis pathogens in Argentinean dairy farms. Composite milk samples were collected of 2296 cows from 51 randomly selected herds in Córdoba, Argentina. Somatic cell count was determined in all samples and bacterial examination of the milk samples with a SCC exceeding 200,000 cells/mL was performed. About 54%of cows were diagnosed with subclinical mastitis (SCC ≥200,000/mL. Bacteria were isolated in 83.1% of milk samples subjected to bacteriological analysis. The most frequently isolated pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (52.1%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%, Corynebacterium spp. (5.2%, Streptococcus agalactiae (4.4% and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.4%. This study demonstrates that among the major pathogens isolated, the contagious bacteria caused most of the subclinical infections of dairy cows in Cordoba, Argentina. Moreover, CNS was the most relevant group of minor pathogens causing subclinical mastitis.

  14. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci.

  15. Analysis of Streptococcus bovis infections at a monographic oncological centre

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    Lozano TG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, catalase and oxidase negative coccus belonging to the genus Streptococcus. It is part of Streptoccus bovis/ equinus complex and it express the Lancefield antigen D on the surface.This complex has been characterized by molecular biology techniques and specifically by 16S rRNA and sodA gene. Phylogenetic trees based on these techniques are complex and therefore the routine work in laboratories, biochemical techniques are used to identify subspecies if it is necessary.The complex is divided into two subtypes based on biochemical properties: positive mannitol fermentation (biotype I including S. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus and S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus, mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase negative (biotype II/ 1, which includes more species (S. infantarius subsp. coli and S. lutetiensis and mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase positive (biotype II/ 2, with a single species called S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus.Owing to the relationship between colon cancer tumour and Streptococcus bovis, we intend to analyse all isolates in our hospital between the periods of 2010 until March 2013 and analyse tumor epidemiology at our center, in patients infected with this pathogen.Despite the different types of samples and out of the possibility of identification of subspecies, were isolated 14 S. bovis of 14 different patients. The isolates patients were (at the beginning: 4 blood (blood culture, 5 urine, 4 multiple exudates and 1 bronchoalveolar lavage. The proportion of men and women was 8/6. The mean age was 67 years (56±91. Malignant tumor distribution was: 6 prostate cancer, 1 breast cancer, 1 biliary tract, 1 skin, 1, stomach, 1 uterus, 1 vulvar, 1 pyriform sinus and other reproductive organs without specify.The study of antimicrobial in vitro susceptibility was performed by microdilution (MicroScan® WalkAway, Siemens, Sacramento, CA, USA and the

  16. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  17. Photoinactivation of major bacterial pathogens in aquaculture

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    Heyong Jin Roh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant increases in the bacterial resistance to various antibiotics have been found in fish farms. Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases in aquaculture are needed. In recent years, light-emitting diode technology has been applied to the inactivation of pathogens, especially those affecting humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of blue light (wavelengths 405 and 465 nm on seven major bacterial pathogens that affect fish and shellfish important in aquaculture. Results We successfully demonstrate inactivation activity of a 405/465-nm LED on selected bacterial pathogens. Although some bacteria were not fully inactivated by the 465-nm light, the 405-nm light had a bactericidal effect against all seven pathogens, indicating that blue light can be effective without the addition of a photosensitizer. Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio anguillarum, and Edwardsiella tarda were the most susceptible to the 405-nm light (36.1, 41.2, and 68.4 J cm−2, respectively, produced one log reduction in the bacterial populations, whereas Streptococcus parauberis was the least susceptible (153.8 J cm−2 per one log reduction. In general, optical density (OD values indicated that higher bacterial densities were associated with lower inactivating efficacy, with the exception of P. damselae and Vibrio harveyi. In conclusion, growth of the bacterial fish and shellfish pathogens evaluated in this study was inactivated by exposure to either the 405- or 465-nm light. In addition, inactivation was dependent on exposure time. Conclusions This study presents that blue LED has potentially alternative therapy for treating fish and shellfish bacterial pathogens. It has great advantages in aspect of eco-friendly treating methods differed from antimicrobial methods.

  18. Evolving trends in Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance: implications for therapy of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Jacobs, Michael R; Sader, Helio S

    2010-09-01

    Pneumonia is a major infectious disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality and utilisation of healthcare resources. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for 20-60% of bacterial cases. Emergence of multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae has become a significant problem in the management of CAP. Although pneumococcal conjugate vaccine usage in children has led to significant decreases in morbidity and mortality due to S. pneumoniae in all age groups, disease management has been further complicated by the unexpected increase in resistant serotypes, such as 19A, in some regions. Until rapid and accurate diagnostic tests become available, initial treatment of CAP will remain empirical. Thus, selection of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for CAP must be based on prediction of the most likely pathogens and their local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. This article reviews information on antimicrobial resistance patterns amongst S. pneumoniae and implications for managing CAP.

  19. Genetic diversity and virulence properties of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Giovanni; Imperi, Monica; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Pataracchia, Marco; Creti, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    A recent increase in virulence of pathogenic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has been widely proposed. Such an increase may be partly explained by the acquisition of new virulence traits by horizontal gene transfer from related streptococci such as Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS). A collection of 54 SDSE strains isolated in Italy in the years 2000-2010 from different sources (paediatric throat carriage, invasive and non-invasive diseases) was characterized by emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The virulence repertoire was evaluated by PCR for the presence of GAS superantigen (spe) genes, the streptolysin S (sagA) gene, the group G fibronectin-binding protein (gfbA) gene and GAS-GBS alpha-like protein family (alp) genes; moreover, the ability to invade human epithelial cells was investigated. Resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin was assessed. The combined use of emm typing and PFGE proved to be a reliable strategy for the epidemiological analysis of SDSE isolates. The most frequent emm types were the same as those more frequently reported in other studies, thus indicating the diffusion of a limited number of a few successful emm types fit to disseminate in humans. The speG gene was detected in SDSE strains of different genetic backgrounds. Erythromycin resistance determined by the erm(T) gene, and the unusual, foggy MLSB phenotype, observed in one and seven strains, respectively, have never previously, to our knowledge, been reported in SDSE. Moreover, a new member of the alp family was identified. The identification of new antibiotic and virulence determinants, despite the small size of the sample analysed, shows the importance of constant attention to monitoring the extent of lateral gene transfer in this emerging pathogen.

  20. Production of a highly immunogenic subunit ISCOM vaccine against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Roensholt, L.; Jensen, M.Holm;

    1999-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle in most countries. The main reservoir of virus in herds are BVDV persistently infected animals, which arise as a result of infection of the bovine fetus early in gestation. The spread of virus to the unborn fetus may be prevented......, concentration, and insertion of antigens into immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs). Vaccines based on two different Danish strains of BVDV were injected into calves and the antisera produced were tested for neutralising activity against a panel of Danish BVDV strains. The two vaccines induced different...

  1. Spontaneous mutations in Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from streptococcal toxic shock syndrome patients play roles in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Matsumura, Takayuki; Nihonmatsu, Hisako; Ohya, Hitomi; Okuno, Rumi; Mitsui, Chieko; Kawahara, Ryuji; Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Sasaki, Mari; Shimada, Naomi; Ato, Manabu; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-06-28

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a widespread human pathogen and causes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). STSS isolates have been previously shown to have high frequency mutations in the csrS/csrR (covS/covR) and/or rgg (ropB) genes, which are negative regulators of virulence. However, these mutations were found at somewhat low frequencies in emm1-genotyped isolates, the most prevalent STSS genotype. In this study, we sought to detect causal mutations of enhanced virulence in emm1 isolates lacking mutation(s) in the csrS/csrR and rgg genes. Three mutations associated with elevated virulence were found in the sic (a virulence gene) promoter, the csrR promoter, and the rocA gene (a csrR positive regulator). In vivo contribution of the sic promoter and rocA mutations to pathogenicity and lethality was confirmed in a GAS mouse model. Frequency of the sic promoter mutation was significantly higher in STSS emm1 isolates than in non-invasive STSS isolates; the rocA gene mutation frequency was not significantly different among STSS and non-STSS isolates. STSS emm1 isolates possessed a high frequency mutation in the sic promoter. Thus, this mutation may play a role in the dynamics of virulence and STSS pathogenesis.

  2. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes group A isolates from a tertiary hospital in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaky, Nathalie M; Araj, George F; Tokajian, Sima T

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes [Group A Streptococcus (GAS)] is one of the most important human pathogens, responsible for numerous diseases with diverse clinical manifestations. As the epidemiology of GAS infections evolves, a rapid and reliable characterization of the isolates remains essential for epidemiological analysis and infection control. This study investigated the epidemiological patterns and genetic characteristics of 150 GAS isolates from a tertiary hospital in Lebanon by emm typing, superantigens (SAgs) detection, PFGE and antibiotic profiling. The results revealed 41 distinct emm types, the most prevalent of which were emm89 (16 %), emm12 (10 %), emm2 (9 %) and emm1 (8 %). Testing for the presence of superantigens showed that speB (87 %), ssa (36 %) and speG (30 %) were predominant. PFGE detected 39 pulsotypes when a similarity cut-off value of 80 % was implemented. Antibiotic-susceptibility testing against seven different classes of antibiotics showed that 9 % of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, 23 % were resistant to erythromycin and 4 % showed the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotype. The emergence of tetracycline-resistant strains (37 %) was high when compared with previous reports from Lebanon. This study provided comprehensive evidence of the epidemiology of GAS in Lebanon, highlighting the association between emm types and toxin genes, and providing valuable information about the origin and dissemination of this pathogen.

  3. Conserved and divergent functions of RcrRPQ in Streptococcus gordonii and S. mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Robert C; Burne, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans, an MarR-like transcriptional regulator (RcrR), two ABC efflux pumps (RcrPQ) and two effector peptides encoded in the rcrRPQ operon provide molecular connections between stress tolerance, (p)ppGpp metabolism and genetic competence. Here, we examined the role of RcrRPQ in the oral commensal S. gordonii. Unlike in S. mutans, introduction of polar or non-polar rcrR mutations into S. gordonii elicited no significant changes in transformation efficiency. However, S. gordonii rcrR mutants were markedly impaired in their ability to grow in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, paraquat, low pH or elevated temperature. Sensitivity to paraquat could also be conferred by mutation of cysteine residues that are present in the RcrR protein of S. gordonii, but not in S. mutans RcrR. Thus, stress tolerance is a conserved function of RcrRPQ in a commensal and pathogenic streptococcus, but the study reveals additional differences in regulation of genetic competence development between S. mutans and S. gordonii.

  4. Streptococcus dysgalactiae endocarditis presenting as acute endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Su-Min Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being bilateral feet osteomyelitis in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye.

  5. [Thousand faces of Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Bálint Gergely; Lénárt, Katalin Szidónia; Kádár, Béla; Gombos, Andrea; Dezsényi, Balázs; Szanka, Judit; Bobek, Ilona; Prinz, Gyula

    2015-11-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are high worldwide and in Hungary among paediatric as well as adult populations. Pneumococci account for 35-40% of community acquired adult pneumonias requiring hospitalization, while 25-30% of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonias are accompanied by bacteraemia. 5-7% of all infections are fatal but this rate is exponentially higher in high risk patients and elderly people. Mortality could reach 20% among patients with severe invasive pneumococcal infections. Complications may develop despite administration of adequate antibiotics. The authors summarize the epidemiology of pneumococcal infections, pathogenesis of non-invasive and invasive disease and present basic clinical aspects through demonstration of four cases. Early risk stratification, sampling of hemocultures, administration of antibiotics and wider application of active immunization could reduce the mortality of invasive disease. Anti-pneumococcal vaccination is advisable for adults of ≥50 years and high risk patients of ≥18 years who are susceptible to pneumococcal disease.

  6. Effects of Suilysin on Streptococcus suis-induced platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood platelets play important roles during pathological thrombocytopenia in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS. Streptococcus suis (S. suis an emerging human pathogen, can cause STSS similarly to S. pyogenes. However, S. suis interactions with platelets are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY, different from other bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs, was the sole stimulus that induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the inside-out activation of GPIIb/IIIa of platelets mediated SLY-induced platelet aggregation. This process was triggered by Ca2+ influx that depend on the pore forming on platelets by SLY. Additionally, although SLY induced α-granule release occurred via the MLCK-dependent pathway, PLC-β-IP3/DAG-MLCK and Rho-ROCK-MLCK signaling were not involved in SLY-induced platelet aggregation. Interestingly, the pore dependent Ca2+ influx was also found to participate in the induction of platelet aggregation with pneumolysin (PLY and streptolysin O (SLO, two other CDCs. It is possible that the CDC-mediated platelet aggregation we observed in S. suis is a similar response mechanism to that used by a wide range of bacteria. These findings might lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for S. suis-associated STSS.

  7. Effects of Suilysin on Streptococcus suis-Induced Platelet Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengwei; Wang, Junping; Chen, Shaolong; Yin, Jiye; Pan, Zhiyuan; Liu, Keke; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yuling; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Blood platelets play important roles during pathological thrombocytopenia in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Streptococcus suis (S. suis) an emerging human pathogen, can cause STSS similarly to S. pyogenes. However, S. suis interactions with platelets are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), different from other bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), was the sole stimulus that induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the inside-out activation of GPIIb/IIIa of platelets mediated SLY-induced platelet aggregation. This process was triggered by Ca2+ influx that depend on the pore forming on platelets by SLY. Additionally, although SLY induced α-granule release occurred via the MLCK-dependent pathway, PLC-β-IP3/DAG-MLCK and Rho-ROCK-MLCK signaling were not involved in SLY-induced platelet aggregation. Interestingly, the pore dependent Ca2+ influx was also found to participate in the induction of platelet aggregation with pneumolysin (PLY) and streptolysin O (SLO), two other CDCs. It is possible that the CDC-mediated platelet aggregation we observed in S. suis is a similar response mechanism to that used by a wide range of bacteria. These findings might lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for S. suis-associated STSS. PMID:27800304

  8. Nicotine Enhances Interspecies Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Ren, Biao; He, Jinzhi; Xu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine. More C. albicans cells were present in the dual-species biofilms in the nicotine-treated groups as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis of EPS was increased by 1 mg/ml of nicotine as detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result of qRT-PCR showed gtfs expression was upregulated when 1 mg/ml of nicotine was used. We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans, and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. Since S. mutans and C. albicans are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic relationship by nicotine may contribute to caries development in smokers. PMID:28280743

  9. Streptococcus mutans clonal variation revealed by multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuhiko; Lapirattanakul, Jinthana; Nomura, Ryota; Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Alaluusua, Satu; Grönroos, Lisa; Vaara, Martti; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Ooshima, Takashi; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2007-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, a biofilm-dependent infectious disease, and occasionally causes infective endocarditis. S. mutans strains have been classified into four serotypes (c, e, f, and k). However, little is known about the S. mutans population, including the clonal relationships among strains of S. mutans, in relation to the particular clones that cause systemic diseases. To address this issue, we have developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for S. mutans. Eight housekeeping gene fragments were sequenced from each of 102 S. mutans isolates collected from the four serotypes in Japan and Finland. Between 14 and 23 alleles per locus were identified, allowing us theoretically to distinguish more than 1.2 x 10(10) sequence types. We identified 92 sequence types in these 102 isolates, indicating that S. mutans contains a diverse population. Whereas serotype c strains were widely distributed in the dendrogram, serotype e, f, and k strains were differentiated into clonal complexes. Therefore, we conclude that the ancestral strain of S. mutans was serotype c. No geographic specificity was identified. However, the distribution of the collagen-binding protein gene (cnm) and direct evidence of mother-to-child transmission were clearly evident. In conclusion, the superior discriminatory capacity of this MLST scheme for S. mutans may have important practical implications.

  10. Recombinant expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J; Yates, Laura E; Terra, Vanessa S; Cuccui, Jon; Wren, Brendan W

    2016-04-01

    Currently, Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for over 14 million cases of pneumonia worldwide annually, and over 1 million deaths, the majority of them children. The major determinant for pathogenesis is a polysaccharide capsule that is variable and is used to distinguish strains based on their serotype. The capsule forms the basis of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) that contains purified capsular polysaccharide from 23 serotypes, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 13 common serotypes conjugated to CRM197 (mutant diphtheria toxin). Purified capsule from S. pneumoniae is required for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine production, and costs can be prohibitively high, limiting accessibility of the vaccine in low-income countries. In this study, we demonstrate the recombinant expression of the capsule-encoding locus from four different serotypes of S. pneumoniae within Escherichia coli. Furthermore, we attempt to identify the minimum set of genes necessary to reliably and efficiently express these capsules heterologously. These E. coli strains could be used to produce a supply of S. pneumoniae serotype-specific capsules without the need to culture pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, these strains could be applied to synthetic glycobiological applications: recombinant vaccine production using E. coli outer membrane vesicles or coupling to proteins using protein glycan coupling technology.

  11. Potential Transmission Pathways of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus.

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    Jessika Dumke

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, a member of group D streptococci, is an inhabitant of the animal and human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen which causes e.g. endocarditis, septicemia and mastitis. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between animals and humans. However, the transmission routes are an unsolved issue. In this study, we present systematic analyses of an S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolate of an infective endocarditis patient in relation to isolates of his laying hen flock. Isolates from pooled droppings of laying hens, pooled dust samples and human blood culture were characterized by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST and DNA fingerprinting. MLST revealed the same allelic profile of isolates from the human blood culture and from the droppings of laying hens. In addition, these isolates showed clonal identity regarding a similar DNA fingerprinting pattern. For the first time, we received a hint that transmission of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus between poultry and humans may occur. This raises the question about the zoonotic potential of isolates from poultry and should be considered in future studies.

  12. Adaptation of group A Streptococcus to human amniotic fluid.

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    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For more than 100 years, group A Streptococcus has been identified as a cause of severe and, in many cases, fatal infections of the female urogenital tract. Due to advances in hospital hygiene and the advent of antibiotics, this type of infection has been virtually eradicated. However, within the last three decades there has been an increase in severe intra- and post-partum infections attributed to GAS. METHODOLOGY: We hypothesized that GAS alters its transcriptome to survive in human amniotic fluid (AF and cause disease. To identify genes that were up or down regulated in response to growth in AF, GAS was grown in human AF or standard laboratory media (THY and samples for expression microarray analysis were collected during mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic, and stationary growth phases. Microarray analysis was performed using a custom Affymetrix chip and normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates were collected at each growth point. Ratios of AF/THY above a 2-fold change and P-value <0.05 were considered significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The majority of changes in the GAS transcriptome involved down regulation of multiple adhesins and virulence factors and activation of the stress response. We observed significant changes in genes involved in the arginine deiminase pathway and in the nucleotide de novo synthesis pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides new insight into how pathogenic bacteria respond to their environment to establish infection and cause disease.

  13. Effect of Lactobacillus species on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayaz; Dachang, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Jianjun, Liu; Juanjuan, Qiu; Yi, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary pathogen responsible for initiating dental caries and decay. The presence of sucrose, stimulates S. mutans to produce insoluble glucans to form oral biofilm also known as dental plaque to initiate caries lesion. The GtfB and LuxS genes of S. mutans are responsible for formation and maturation of biofilm. Lactobacillus species as probiotic can reduces the count of S. mutans. In this study effect of different Lactobacillus species against the formation of S. mutans biofilm was observed. Growing biofilm in the presence of sucrose was detected using 96 well microtiter plate crystal violet assay and biofilm formation by S. mutans in the presence of Lactobacillus was detected. Gene expression of biofilm forming genes (GtfB and LuxS) was quantified through Real-time PCR. All strains of Lactobacillus potently reduced the formation of S. mutans biofilm whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the genetic expression by 60-80%. Therefore, probiotic Lactobacillus species can be used as an alternative instead of antibiotics to decrease the chance of dental caries by reducing the count of S. mutans and their gene expression to maintain good oral health.

  14. Granzyme A impairs host defense during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Vernooy, Juanita H; Medema, Jan P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Endeman, Henrik; Biesma, Douwe H; Boon, Louis; Van't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Granzyme A (GzmA) is a serine protease produced by a variety of cell types involved in the immune response. We sought to determine the role of GzmA on the host response during pneumococcal pneumonia. GzmA was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from CAP patients from the infected and contralateral uninfected side and in lung tissue slides from CAP patients and controls. In CAP patients, GzmA levels were increased in BALF obtained from the infected lung. Human lungs showed constitutive GzmA expression by both parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells. In an experimental setting, pneumonia was induced in wild-type (WT) and GzmA-deficient (GzmA(-/-)) mice by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae In separate experiments, WT and GzmA(-/-) mice were treated with natural killer (NK) cell depleting antibodies. Upon infection with S. pneumoniae, GzmA(-/-) mice showed a better survival and lower bacterial counts in BALF and distant body sites compared with WT mice. Although NK cells showed strong GzmA expression, NK cell depletion did not influence bacterial loads in either WT or GzmA(-/-) mice. These results implicate that GzmA plays an unfavorable role in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia by a mechanism that does not depend on NK cells.

  15. Emergence of respiratory Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Eickel

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-known pathogen for neonates and immunocompromized adults. Beyond the neonatal period, S. agalactiae is rarely found in the respiratory tract. During 2002-2008 we noticed S. agalactiae in respiratory secretions of 30/185 (16% of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The median age of these patients was 3-6 years older than the median age CF patients not harboring S. agalactiae. To analyze, if the S. agalactiae isolates from CF patients were clonal, further characterization of the strains was achieved by capsular serotyping, surface protein determination and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. We found a variety of sequence types (ST among the isolates, which did not substantially differ from the MLST patterns of colonizing strains from Germany. However serotype III, which is often seen in colonizing strains and invasive infections was rare among CF patients. The emergence of S. agalactiae in the respiratory tract of CF patients may represent the adaptation to a novel host environment, supported by the altered surfactant composition in older CF patients.

  16. Immunogenic properties of Streptococcus agalactiae FbsA fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Papasergi

    Full Text Available Several species of Gram-positive bacteria can avidly bind soluble and surface-associated fibrinogen (Fng, a property that is considered important in the pathogenesis of human infections. To gain insights into the mechanism by which group B Streptococcus (GBS, a frequent neonatal pathogen, interacts with Fng, we have screened two phage displayed genomic GBS libraries. All of the Fng-binding phage clones contained inserts encoding fragments of FbsA, a protein displaying multiple repeats. Since the functional role of this protein is only partially understood, representative fragments were recombinantly expressed and analyzed for Fng binding affinity and ability to induce immune protection against GBS infection. Maternal immunization with 6pGST, a fragment containing five repeats, significantly protected mouse pups against lethal GBS challenge and these protective effects could be recapitulated by administration of anti-6pGST serum from adult animals. Notably, a monoclonal antibody that was capable of neutralizing Fng binding by 6pGST, but not a non-neutralizing antibody, could significantly protect pups against lethal GBS challenge. These data suggest that FbsA-Fng interaction promotes GBS pathogenesis and that blocking such interaction is a viable strategy to prevent or treat GBS infections.

  17. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevarathan J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer′s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

  18. Comparative functional genomics and the bovine macrophage response to strains of the Mycobacterium genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin eRue-Albrecht

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in cattle and are also potential zoonotic agents with implications for human health. Despite the implementation of comprehensive animal surveillance programs, many mycobacterial diseases have remained recalcitrant to eradication in several industrialized countries. Two major mycobacterial pathogens of cattle are Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, the causative agents of bovine tuberculosis and Johne’s disease, respectively. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, granulomatous disease of the respiratory tract that is spread via aerosol transmission, while Johne’s disease is a chronic granulomatous disease of the intestines that is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Although these diseases exhibit differential tissue tropism and distinct complex etiologies, both M. bovis and MAP infect, reside and replicate in host macrophages—the key host innate immune cell that encounters mycobacterial pathogens after initial exposure and mediates the subsequent immune response. The persistence of M. bovis and MAP in macrophages relies on a diverse series of immunomodulatory mechanisms, including the inhibition of phagosome maturation and apoptosis, generation of cytokine-induced necrosis enabling dissemination of infection through the host, local pathology, and ultimately shedding of the pathogen. Here, we review the bovine macrophage response to infection with M. bovis and MAP. In particular, we describe how recent advances in functional genomics are shedding light on the host macrophage-pathogen interactions that underlie different mycobacterial diseases. To illustrate this, we present new analyses of previously published bovine macrophage transcriptomics data following in vitro infection with virulent M. bovis, the attenuated vaccine strain M. bovis BCG, and MAP, and discuss our findings with respect to the differing etiologies of bovine tuberculosis and

  19. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.

  20. Tobacco smoke augments Porphyromonas gingivalis-Streptococcus gordonii biofilm formation.

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    Juhi Bagaitkar

    Full Text Available Smoking is responsible for the majority of periodontitis cases in the US and smokers are more susceptible than non-smokers to infection by the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis colonization of the oral cavity is dependent upon its interaction with other plaque bacteria, including Streptococcus gordonii. Microarray analysis suggested that exposure of P. gingivalis to cigarette smoke extract (CSE increased the expression of the major fimbrial antigen (FimA, but not the minor fimbrial antigen (Mfa1. Therefore, we hypothesized that CSE promotes P. gingivalis-S. gordonii biofilm formation in a FimA-dependent manner. FimA total protein and cell surface expression were increased upon exposure to CSE whereas Mfa1 was unaffected. CSE exposure did not induce P. gingivalis auto-aggregation but did promote dual species biofilm formation, monitored by microcolony numbers and depth (both, p<0.05. Interestingly, P. gingivalis biofilms grown in the presence of CSE exhibited a lower pro-inflammatory capacity (TNF-α, IL-6 than control biofilms (both, p<0.01. CSE-exposed P. gingivalis bound more strongly to immobilized rGAPDH, the cognate FimA ligand on S. gordonii, than control biofilms (p<0.001 and did so in a dose-dependent manner. Nevertheless, a peptide representing the Mfa1 binding site on S. gordonii, SspB, completely inhibited dual species biofilm formation. Thus, CSE likely augments P. gingivalis biofilm formation by increasing FimA avidity which, in turn, supports initial interspecies interactions and promotes subsequent high affinity Mfa1-SspB interactions driving biofilm growth. CSE induction of P. gingivalis biofilms of limited pro-inflammatory potential may explain the increased persistence of this pathogen in smokers. These findings may also be relevant to other biofilm-induced infectious diseases and conditions.

  1. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  2. Evolution and Diversity of the Antimicrobial Resistance Associated Mobilome in Streptococcus suis: A Probable Mobile Genetic Elements Reservoir for Other Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhu; Ma, Jiale; Shang, Kexin; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Yuan; Li, Daiwei; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Chen, Li; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a previously neglected, newly emerging multidrug-resistant zoonotic pathogen. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play a key role in intra- and interspecies horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Although, previous studies showed the presence of several MGEs, a comprehensive analysis of AMR-associated mobilome as well as their interaction and evolution has not been performed. In this study, we presented the AMR-associated mobilome and their insertion hotspots in S. suis. Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), prophages and tandem MGEs were located at different insertion sites, while 86% of the AMR-associated MGEs were inserted at rplL and rum loci. Comprehensive analysis of insertions at rplL and rum loci among four pathogenic Streptococcus species (Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and S. suis) revealed the existence of different groups of MGEs, including Tn5252, ICESp1108, and TnGBS2 groups ICEs, Φm46.1 group prophage, ICE_ICE and ICE_prophage tandem MGEs. Comparative ICE genomics of ICESa2603 family revealed that module exchange and acquisition/deletion were the main mechanisms in MGEs' expansion and evolution. Furthermore, the observation of tandem MGEs reflected a novel mechanism for MGE diversity. Moreover, an in vitro competition assay showed no visible fitness cost was observed between different MGE-carrying isolates and a conjugation assay revealed the transferability of ICESa2603 family of ICEs. Our statistics further indicated that the prevalence and diversity of MGEs in S. suis is much greater than in other three species which prompted our hypothesis that S. suis is probably a MGEs reservoir for other streptococci. In conclusion, our results showed that acquisition of MGEs confers S. suis not only its capability as a multidrug resistance pathogen, but also represents a paradigm to study the modular evolution and matryoshkas of MGEs. PMID:27774436

  3. Technological advances in bovine mastitis diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carla M; Freitas, Paulo P; Bexiga, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economic burden for dairy farmers and preventive control measures are crucial for the sustainability of any dairy business. The identification of etiological agents is necessary in controlling the disease, reducing risk of chronic infections and targeting antimicrobial therapy. The suitability of a detection method for routine diagnosis depends on several factors, including specificity, sensitivity, cost, time in producing results, and suitability for large-scale sampling of milk. This article focuses on current methodologies for identification of mastitis pathogens and for detection of inflammation, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. Emerging technologies, such as transcriptome and proteome analyses and nano- and microfabrication of portable devices, offer promising, sensitive methods for advanced detection of mastitis pathogens and biomarkers of inflammation. The demand for alternative, fast, and reliable diagnostic procedures is rising as farms become bigger. Several examples of technological and scientific advances are summarized which have given rise to more sensitive, reliable and faster diagnostic results.

  4. Real-time PCR for detection of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Diep, To Song; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Campbell, James; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and is the main cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adult patients in Vietnam. We developed an internally controlled real-time PCR for detection of S. suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples targeted at the cps2J gene. Sensitivity and specificity in culture-confirmed clinical samples were 100%. The PCR detected S. suis serotype 2 infection in 101 of 238 (42.4%) prospectively collected CSF samples, of which 55 (23%) were culture positive. Culture-negative but PCR-positive CSF samples were significantly associated with the use of antimicrobial agents before admission. S. suis serotype 2 infection was more common than infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis combined. Our results strikingly illustrate the additional diagnostic value of PCR in patients who are pretreated with antimicrobial agents and demonstrate the extremely high prevalence of S. suis infections among Vietnamese adult patients with bacterial meningitis. PMID:21767702

  5. Characterization of a plasmid carrying cat, ermB and tetS genes in a foodborne Listeria monocytogenes strain and uptake of the plasmid by cariogenic Streptococcus mutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Shi, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans by natural transformation and resulted in the acquiring of multiple resistances in the transconjugants. This study contributes to our knowledge on acquired multi-drug resistance in foodborne pathogenic L.monocytogenes, which will add to a better understanding of effective clinical...

  6. Inflammation-induced haemostatic response in layer chickens infected with Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus as evaluated by fibrinogen, prothrombin time and thromboelastography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Krisna; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus zooepidemicus has recently been shown to be a severe pathogen in layer chickens, where it is able to cause serious lesions in the vascular system. To evaluate the haemostatic response, 10 layer chickens were inoculated intravenously with S. zooepidemicus. Four hypotheses were tested...

  7. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general p

  8. Crystal Structures of Respiratory Pathogen Neuraminidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Y.; Parker, D; Ratner, A; Prince, A; Tong, L

    2009-01-01

    Currently there is pressing need to develop novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of infections by the human respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The neuraminidases of these pathogens are important for host colonization in animal models of infection and are attractive targets for drug discovery. To aid in the development of inhibitors against these neuraminidases, we have determined the crystal structures of the P. aeruginosa enzyme NanPs and S. pneumoniae enzyme NanA at 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. In situ proteolysis with trypsin was essential for the crystallization of our recombinant NanA. The active site regions of the two enzymes are strikingly different. NanA contains a deep pocket that is similar to that in canonical neuraminidases, while the NanPs active site is much more open. The comparative studies suggest that NanPs may not be a classical neuraminidase, and may have distinct natural substrates and physiological functions. This work represents an important step in the development of drugs to prevent respiratory tract colonization by these two pathogens.

  9. 青海省部分地区3种牛病毒性腹泻病原的感染情况调查%Survey of Three Kinds of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Pathogens Infection in Some Areas of Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权英存; 刘虎守

    2014-01-01

    为了解青海省部分牛群中牛病毒性腹泻病毒(bovine viral diarrhea virus,BVDV)、牛轮状病毒(bovine rotavirus,BRV)和牛冠状病毒(bovine coronavirus,BCV)3种牛病毒性腹泻病原的感染现状,本研究采用RT-PCR方法首次对2012~2013年青海省部分地区的32份具有腹泻症状的临床病料及152份健康牛粪便样品进行了BVDV、BRV、BCV的核酸检测与分析.结果显示,32份腹泻牛病料样品中BVDV、BRV、BCV的阳性率分别为65.63%(21/32)、18.75%(6/32)、34.38%(11/32),且存在2种或3种病原的混合感染;152份健康牛粪便样品中BVDV、BRV、BCV的阳性率分别为3.95% (6/152)、1.97%(3/152)、0(0/152).该结果表明青海省部分牛群中普遍存在BVDV、BRV、BCV的感染,且混合感染现象严重,需进一步加强青海省地区牛病毒性腹泻病原的综合防控.

  10. Benfang Lei’s research on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and bacterial pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Benfang Lei’s laboratory conducts research on pathogenesis of human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS)and horse pathogen Streptococcus equi(S.equi). His current research focuses on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and molecular mechanism of GAS and S.equi pathogenesis.Heme is an important source of essential iron for bacterial pathogens.Benfang Lei and colleagues identified the first cell surface heme-binding protein in Gram-positive pathogens and the heme acquisition system in GAS,demonstrated direct heme transfer from one protein to another,demonstrated an experimental pathway of heme acquisition by the Staphylococcus aureus Isd system,elucidated the activated heme transfer mechanism,and obtained evidence for a chemical mechanism of direct axial ligand displacement during the Shp-to-HtsA heme transfer reaction.These findings have considerably contributed to the progress that has been made over recent years in understanding the heme acquisition process in Grampositive pathogens.Pathogenesis of GAS is mediated by an abundance of extracellular proteins,and pathogenic role and functional mechanism are not known for many of these virulence factors.Lei laboratory identified a secreted protein of GAS as a CovRS-regulated virulence factor that is a protective antigen and is critical for GAS spreading in the skin and systemic dissemination.These studies may lead to development of novel strategies to prevent and treat GAS infections.

  11. Antibacterial activity of triterpene acids and semi-synthetic derivatives against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon Cunha, Luis C; Andrade e Silva, Márcio L; Cardoso Furtado, Niege A J; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Gomes Martins, Carlos H; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Cunha, Wilson R

    2007-01-01

    Triterpene acids (ursolic, oleanoic, gypsogenic, and sumaresinolic acids) isolated from Miconia species, along with a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids and a mixture of maslinic and 2-a-hydroxyursolic acids, as well as ursolic acid derivatives were evaluated against the following microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis, which are potentially responsible for the formation of dental caries in humans. The microdilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) during the evaluation of the antibacterial activity. All the isolated compounds, mixtures, and semi-synthetic derivatives displayed activity against all the tested bacteria, showing that they are promising antiplaque and anticaries agents. Ursolic and oleanolic acids displayed the most intense antibacterial effect, with MIC values ranging from 30 microg/mL to 80 microg/mL. The MIC values of ursolic acid derivatives, as well as those obtained for the mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids showed that these compounds do not have higher antibacterial activity when compared with the activity observed with either ursolic acid or oleanolic acid alone. With regard to the structure-activity relationship of triterpene acids and derivatives, it is suggested that both hydroxy and carboxy groups present in the triterpenes are important for their antibacterial activity against oral pathogens.

  12. Histophilus somni biofilm formation in cardiopulmonary tissue of the bovine host following respiratory challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Indra; Shao, Jian Q.; Annadata, Satish

    2009-01-01

    Biofilms form in a variety of host sites following infection with many bacterial species. However, the study of biofilms in a host is hindered due to the lack of protocols for the proper experimental investigation of biofilms in vivo. Histophilus somni is an agent of respiratory and systemic...... diseases in bovines, and readily forms biofilms in vitro. In the present study the capability of H. somni to form biofilms in cardiopulmonary tissue following experimental respiratory infection in the bovine host was examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy...... haemagglutinin (FHA), predicted to be involved in attachment. Thus, this investigation demonstrated that H. somni is capable of forming a biofilm in its natural host, that such a biofilm may be capable of harboring other bovine respiratory disease pathogens, and that the genes responsible for biofilm formation...

  13. Recombination between Streptococcus suis ICESsu32457 and Streptococcus agalactiae ICESa2603 yields a hybrid ICE transferable to Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Emanuela; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna

    2015-07-09

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that reside in the chromosome but retain the ability to undergo excision and to transfer by conjugation. Genes involved in drug resistance, virulence, or niche adaptation are often found among backbone genes as cargo DNA. We recently characterized in Streptococcus suis an ICE (ICESsu32457) carrying resistance genes [tet(O/W/32/O), tet(40), erm(B), aphA, and aadE] in the 15K unstable genetic element, which is flanked by two ∼1.3kb direct repeats. Remarkably, ∼1.3-kb sequences are conserved in ICESa2603 of Streptococcus agalactiae 2603V/R, which carry heavy metal resistance genes cadC/cadA and mer. In matings between S. suis 32457 (donor) and S. agalactiae 2603V/R (recipient), transconjugants were obtained. PCR experiments, PFGE, and sequence analysis of transconjugants demonstrated a tandem array between ICESsu32457 and ICESa2603. Matings between tandem array-containing S. agalactiae 2603V/R (donor) and Streptococcus pyogenes RF12 (recipient) yielded a single transconjugant containing a hybrid ICE, here named ICESa2603/ICESsu32457. The hybrid formed by recombination of the left ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESsu32457 and the ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESa2603. Interestingly, the hybrid ICE was transferable between S. pyogenes strains, thus demonstrating that it behaves as a conventional ICE. These findings suggest that both tandem arrays and hybrid ICEs may contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in streptococci, creating novel mobile elements capable of disseminating new combinations of antibiotic resistance genes.

  14. Bovine CCL28 Mediates Chemotaxis via CCR10 and Demonstrates Direct Antimicrobial Activity against Mastitis Causing Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyler B Pallister

    Full Text Available In addition to the well characterized function of chemokines in mediating the homing and accumulation of leukocytes to tissues, some chemokines also exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. Little is known of the potential role of chemokines in bovine mammary gland health and disease. The chemokine CCL28 has previously been shown to play a key role in the homing and accumulation of IgA antibody secreting cells to the lactating murine mammary gland. CCL28 has also been shown to act as an antimicrobial peptide with activity demonstrated against a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Here we describe the cloning and function of bovine CCL28 and document the concentration of this chemokine in bovine milk. Bovine CCL28 was shown to mediate cellular chemotaxis via the CCR10 chemokine receptor and exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bovine mastitis causing organisms. The concentration of bovine CCL28 in milk was found to be highly correlated with the lactation cycle. Highest concentrations of CCL28 were observed soon after parturition, with levels decreasing over time. These results suggest a potential role for CCL28 in the prevention/resolution of bovine mastitis.

  15. Sympathetic empyema arising from streptococcus anginosus splenic abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissa E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 52 year old male with a history splenic infarction, abdominal pain and shortness of breath. CT scanning revealed a splenic abcess and empyema. Cultures from both sites grew Streptococcus anginosus. These resolved with drainage and antibiotics. Physicians should consider Streptococcus species when confronted with a patient with splenic infarction.

  16. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points.

  17. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  18. Crystal structure of histone-like protein from Streptococcus mutans refined to 1.9 Å resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Pierce; Lovell, Scott; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Battaile, Kevin; Biswas, Indranil

    2016-04-01

    Nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) in prokaryotes play an important architectural role in DNA bending, supercoiling and DNA compaction. In addition to architectural roles, some NAPs also play regulatory roles in DNA replication and repair, and act as global transcriptional regulators in many bacteria. Bacteria encode multiple NAPs and some of them are even essential for survival. Streptococcus mutans, a dental pathogen, encodes one such essential NAP called histone-like protein (HLP). Here, the three-dimensional structure of S. mutans HLP has been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The HLP structure is a dimer and shares a high degree of similarity with other bacterial NAPs, including HU. Since HLPs are essential for the survival of pathogenic streptococci, this structure determination is potentially beneficial for future drug development against these pathogens.

  19. Spring forward with improved Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus resistant to Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture worldwide is valued around US $ 7 billion. Tilapia are an important source of protein for domestic (top 5 most consumed seafoods) and global food security. Two gram postitive bacteria, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae, are responsible for billion dollar losses annually. Gen...

  20. Influence of pH on inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by Streptococcus oligofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chu, Lei; Wu, Fei; Guo, Lili; Li, Mengci; Wang, Yinghui; Wu, Ligeng

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus oligofermentans is a novel strain of oral streptococcus that can specifically inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. The aims of this study were to assess the growth of S. oligofermentans and the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans at different pH values. Growth inhibition was investigated in vitro using an interspecies competition assay. The 4-aminoantipyine method was used to measure the initial production rate and the total yield of hydrogen peroxide in S. oligofermentans. S. oligofermentans grew best at pH 7.0 and showed the most pronounced inhibitory effect when it was inoculated earlier than S. mutans. In terms of the total yield and the initial production rate of hydrogen peroxide by S. oligofermentans, the effects of the different culture pH values were as follows: pH 7.0 > 6.5 > 6.0 > 7.5 > 5.5 = 8.0 (i.e. there was no significant difference between pH 5.5 and pH 8.0). Environmental pH and the sequence of inoculation significantly affected the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit the growth of S. mutans. The degree of inhibition may be attributed to the amount of hydrogen peroxide produced.