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Sample records for bovine pathogen streptococcus

  1. Infection of human keratinocytes by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae isolated from milk of the bovine udder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Alves-Barroco, Cynthia; Raposo, Luís R; Costa, Mafalda N; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro Viana; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) are considered exclusive animal pathogens; however, a putative zoonotic upper limb cellulitis, a prosthetic joint infection and an infective endocarditis were described in humans. To unravel if bovine SDSD isolates are able to infect human cells, the adherence and internalization to human primary keratinocytes of two bovine SDSD strains isolated from milk collected from udder were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion assays and confocal microscopy indicate a high adherence and internalization of SDSD isolates to human cells, suggesting for the first time the ability of bovine isolates to infect human cells. PMID:26655883

  2. Quantification of bovine oxylipids during intramammary Streptococcus uberis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus uberis mastitis results in severe mammary tissue damage in dairy cows due to uncontrolled inflammation. Oxylipids are potent lipid mediators that orchestrate pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, however, changes in oxylipid biosynthesis during S. uberis mastitis are unknown. Thus, ...

  3. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  4. Development of primer sets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification that enables rapid and specific detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three ...

  5. Probing vaccine antigens against bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Rosa; Prenafeta, Antoni; González-González, Luis; Pérez-Pons, Josep Antoni; Sitjà, Marta

    2016-07-19

    Streptococcus uberis is a worldwide pathogen that causes intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Because virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of S. uberis have not been clearly identified so far, a commercial vaccine is not yet available. Different S. uberis strains have the ability to form biofilm in vitro, although the association of this kind of growth with the development of mastitis is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use as vaccine antigens of proteins from S. uberis biofilms, previously identified by proteomic and immunological analyses. The capability of eliciting a protective immune response by targeted candidates was assayed on a murine model. Sera from rabbits immunized with S. uberis biofilm preparations and a convalescent cow intra-mammary infected with S. uberis were probed against cell wall proteins from biofilm and planktonic cells previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Using rabbit immunized serum, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in biofilm cells as compared to planktonic cells; when serum from the convalescent cow was used, up to sixteen biofilm proteins were detected. From these proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fructose-biphosphate aldolase (FBA), and elongation factor Ts (EFTs) were chosen to be tested as vaccine antigen candidates. For this purpose, different groups of mice were immunized with the three recombinant-expressed proteins (each one formulated separately in a vaccine), and thereafter intraperitoneally challenged with S. uberis. The three proteins induced specific IgG antibodies, but a significant reduction of mortality was only observed in the groups of mice vaccinated with FBA or EFTs. These results suggest that FBA and EFTs might be considered as strong antigenic candidates for a vaccine against S. uberis bovine mastitis. Moreover, this is the first study to indicate that also in S. uberis, GAPDH, FBA and EFTs, as proteins

  6. Probing vaccine antigens against bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Rosa; Prenafeta, Antoni; González-González, Luis; Pérez-Pons, Josep Antoni; Sitjà, Marta

    2016-07-19

    Streptococcus uberis is a worldwide pathogen that causes intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Because virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of S. uberis have not been clearly identified so far, a commercial vaccine is not yet available. Different S. uberis strains have the ability to form biofilm in vitro, although the association of this kind of growth with the development of mastitis is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use as vaccine antigens of proteins from S. uberis biofilms, previously identified by proteomic and immunological analyses. The capability of eliciting a protective immune response by targeted candidates was assayed on a murine model. Sera from rabbits immunized with S. uberis biofilm preparations and a convalescent cow intra-mammary infected with S. uberis were probed against cell wall proteins from biofilm and planktonic cells previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Using rabbit immunized serum, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in biofilm cells as compared to planktonic cells; when serum from the convalescent cow was used, up to sixteen biofilm proteins were detected. From these proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fructose-biphosphate aldolase (FBA), and elongation factor Ts (EFTs) were chosen to be tested as vaccine antigen candidates. For this purpose, different groups of mice were immunized with the three recombinant-expressed proteins (each one formulated separately in a vaccine), and thereafter intraperitoneally challenged with S. uberis. The three proteins induced specific IgG antibodies, but a significant reduction of mortality was only observed in the groups of mice vaccinated with FBA or EFTs. These results suggest that FBA and EFTs might be considered as strong antigenic candidates for a vaccine against S. uberis bovine mastitis. Moreover, this is the first study to indicate that also in S. uberis, GAPDH, FBA and EFTs, as proteins

  7. Comparative genome analysis identifies two large deletions in the genome of highly-passaged attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain YM001 compared to the parental pathogenic strain HN016

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Li, Liping; Huang, Yan; Luo, Fuguang; Liang, Wanwen; Gan, Xi; Huang, Ting; Lei, Aiying; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lianfu

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae), also known as group B Streptococcus (GBS), is an important pathogen for neonatal pneumonia, meningitis, bovine mastitis, and fish meningoencephalitis. The global outbreaks of Streptococcus disease in tilapia cause huge economic losses and threaten human food hygiene safety as well. To investigate the mechanism of S. agalactiae pathogenesis in tilapia and develop attenuated S. agalactiae vaccine, this study sequenced and comparatively analyz...

  8. Short communication: N-Acetylcysteine-mediated modulation of antibiotic susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Liu, L H; Li, X P; Luo, J Y; Zhang, Z; Yan, Z T; Zhang, S D; Li, H S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on antibiotic susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were tested by the agar-based E-test method. The presence of 10mM NAC reduced the MIC of penicillin and ampicillin but enhanced the MIC of erythromycin and ciprofloxacin for all of the strains. In addition, NAC-mediated modulation of MIC of kanamycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin was diverse, depending on the target bacterial pathogen and antibiotic being used. The results suggest that NAC is an important modulator of antibiotic activity against the major bovine mastitis pathogens. PMID:27016837

  9. Pathogenicity of Streptococcus ictaluri to Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The infectivity of a Streptococcus ictaluri isolate for fry (0.5 g), fingerling (15 g), and juvenile (55 g) channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was determined by bath immersion and injection infectivity experiments. Channel catfish exposed by immersion were exposed to baths containing 1012, 1011,...

  10. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen. PMID:26854346

  11. Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Castro Abreu Pinto; Natália Silva Costa; Ana Beatriz de Almeida Corrêa; Ivi Cristina Menezes Oliveira; Marcos Correa de Mattos; Alexandre Soares Rosado; Leslie Claude Benchetrit

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance genes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated ...

  12. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Borne, B. H. P.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Van Schaik, G.;

    2010-01-01

    of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli during lactation and the dry period in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. Input parameters on cure were obtained from recent Dutch field data. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were....... Changing the probability of cure resulted in a nonlinear change in the cumulative incidence of IMI cases and associated costs. Lactational treatment was able to prevent IMI epidemics in dairy herds at high transmission rates of Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli. Lactational treatment did......This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics...

  13. Pathogens associated with bovine mastitis in dairy herds in the south region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bañolas Jobim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, through microbiological examinations, the etiology of bovine mastitis in 628 milk samples coming from dairy farms from Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul along the year of 2007 were evaluated. Out of this total 1,382 microorganisms were isolated. By taking into account the total of isolations, the following microorganisms and their percentage, respectively were found: Staphylococcus spp. (30.53%, Escherichia coli (21.64%, Streptococcus bovis (17.08%, Streptococcus agalactiae (11.07%, Enterobacter spp. (7.53%, Pseudomonas spp. (4.12% and others (8.03%. The microorganisms grouped into the others are: Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., gram negative rods, Shigella spp., Alcaligenes spp., Klebsiella spp., Edwarsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp., Salmonella spp. e Corynebacterium spp. The environmental pathogens predominated among the isolated microorganisms; 33.13% of the cultures presented more than three pathogens, suggesting contamination of the samples; in the mounts of November and December, there was an increase of the samples sent.

  14. Comparative genomics and the role of lateral gene transfer in the evolution of bovine adapted Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Vincent P; Lang, Ping; Bitar, Paulina D. Pavinski; Lefebure, Tristan; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Michael J Stanhope

    2011-01-01

    In addition to causing severe invasive infections in humans, Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus (GBS), is also a major cause of bovine mastitis. Here we provide the first genome sequence for S. agalactiae isolated from a cow diagnosed with clinical mastitis (strain FSL S3-026). Comparison to eight S. agalactiae genomes obtained from human disease isolates revealed 183 genes specific to the bovine strain. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for the presence/abs...

  15. Transcriptomic and genomic evidence for Streptococcus agalactiae adaptation to the bovine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bovine mastitis, which is the dominant health disorder affecting milk production within the dairy industry and is responsible for substantial financial losses to the industry worldwide. However, there is considerable evidence for host adaptation (ecotypes) within S. agalactiae, with both bovine and human sourced isolates showing a high degree of distinctiveness, suggesting differing ability to cause mastitis. Here, we (i) generate RNAseq data from three S. agalactiae isolates (two putative bovine adapted and one human) and (ii) compare publicly available whole genome shotgun sequence data from an additional 202 isolates, obtained from six host species, to elucidate possible genetic factors/adaptations likely important for S. agalactiae growth and survival in the bovine mammary gland. Results Tests for differential expression showed distinct expression profiles for the three isolates when grown in bovine milk. A key finding for the two putatively bovine adapted isolates was the up regulation of a lactose metabolism operon (Lac.2) that was strongly correlated with the bovine environment (all 36 bovine sourced isolates on GenBank possessed the operon, in contrast to only 8/151 human sourced isolates). Multi locus sequence typing of all genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis using conserved operon genes from 44 S. agalactiae isolates and 16 additional Streptococcus species provided strong evidence for acquisition of the operon via multiple lateral gene transfer events, with all Streptococcus species known to be major causes of mastitis, identified as possible donors. Furthermore, lactose fermentation tests were only positive for isolates possessing Lac.2. Combined, these findings suggest that lactose metabolism is likely an important adaptation to the bovine environment. Additional up regulation in the bovine adapted isolates included genes involved in copper homeostasis, metabolism of purine, pyrimidine

  16. Distribution of Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes among Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from Bovine and Human Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Belgin; Schukken, Y. H.; de Santisteban, C.; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the emergence and transmission of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae, we compared phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 52 human and 83 bovine S. agalactiae isolates. Serotypes found among isolates from human hosts included V (48.1%), III (19.2%), Ia and Ib (13.5% each), and II (5.8%). Among isolates from bovine hosts, molecular serotypes III and II were predominant (53 and 14.5%, respectively). Four and 21 different ribotypes were found among human and b...

  17. Mobile Genetic Elements Provide Evidence for a Bovine Origin of Clonal Complex 17 of Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Bruant, Guillaume; Lanotte, Philippe; Brun, Stella; Picard, Bertrand; Rosenau, Agnès; Van Ver Mee-Marquet, Nathalie; Rainard, Pascal; Quentin, Roland; Mereghetti, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    International audience We sought an explanation for epidemiological changes in Streptococcus agalactiae infections by investigating the link between ecological niches of the bacterium by determining the prevalence of 11 mobile genetic elements. The prevalence of nine of these elements differed significantly according to the human or bovine origin of the isolate. Correlating this distribution with the phylogeny obtained by multilocus sequence analysis, we observed that human isolates harbor...

  18. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen. PMID:26778303

  19. Protein degradation in bovine milk caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Maria; Wredle, Ewa; Lam, Vo; Johansson, Monika

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae is a contagious mastitis bacterium, often associated with cases of subclinical mastitis. Different mastitis bacteria have been evaluated previously from a diagnostic point of view, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning their effect on milk composition. Protein composition is important in achieving optimal yield and texture when milk is processed to fermented products, such as cheese and yoghurt, and is thus of great economic value. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate protein degradation mainly caused by exogenous proteases originating from naturally occurring Str. agalactiae. The samples were incubated at 37°C to imitate degradation caused by the bacteria in the udder. Protein degradation caused by different strains of Str. agalactiae was also investigated. Protein degradation was observed to occur when Str. agalactiae was added to milk, but there were variations between strains of the bacteria. Caseins, the most economically important proteins in milk, were degraded up to 75% in milk inoculated with Str. agalactiae in relation to sterile ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk, used as control milk. The major whey proteins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, were degraded up to 21% in relation to the sterile control milk. These results suggest that different mastitis bacteria but also different strains of mastitis bacteria should be evaluated from a milk quality perspective to gain knowledge about their ability to degrade the economically important proteins in milk. PMID:22850579

  20. Draft genome sequence of a nonhemolytic fish-pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Christian M J; Zadoks, Ruth N; Lainson, Frederick A; Ferguson, Hugh W; Crumlish, Margaret; Turnbull, James F; Fontaine, Michael C

    2012-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a significant Gram-positive bacterial pathogen of terrestrial and aquatic animals. A subpopulation of nonhemolytic strains which appear to be pathogenic only for poikilotherms exists. We report here the first draft genome sequence of a nonhemolytic S. agalactiae isolate recovered from a diseased fish. PMID:23105075

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of a Nonhemolytic Fish-Pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Delannoy, Christian M J; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Lainson, Frederick A.; Ferguson, Hugh W.; Crumlish, Margaret; Turnbull, James F; Fontaine, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a significant Gram-positive bacterial pathogen of terrestrial and aquatic animals. A subpopulation of nonhemolytic strains which appear to be pathogenic only for poikilotherms exists. We report here the first draft genome sequence of a nonhemolytic S. agalactiae isolate recovered from a diseased fish.

  2. Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from the bovine mammary gland evade immune recognition by mammary epithelial cells, but not of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Juliane; Czabanska, Anna; Bauer, Isabel; Leigh, James A; Holst, Otto; Seyfert, Hans-Martin

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is frequently isolated from the mammary gland of dairy cattle. Infection with some strains can induce mild subclinical inflammation whilst others induce severe inflammation and clinical mastitis. We compared here the inflammatory response of primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) towards S. uberis strains collected from clinical or subclinical cases (seven strains each) of mastitis with the strong response elicited by Escherichia coli. Neither heat inactivated nor live S. uberis induced the expression of 10 key immune genes (including TNF, IL1B, IL6). The widely used virulent strain 0140J and the avirulent strain, EF20 elicited similar responses; as did mutants defective in capsule (hasA) or biofilm formation (sub0538 and sub0539). Streptococcus uberis failed to activate NF-κB in pbMEC or TLR2 in HEK293 cells, indicating that S. uberis particles did not induce any TLR-signaling in MEC. However, preparations of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from two strains strongly induced immune gene expression and activated NF-κB in pbMEC, without the involvement of TLR2. The immune-stimulatory LTA must be arranged in the intact S. uberis such that it is unrecognizable by the relevant pathogen receptors of the MEC. The absence of immune recognition is specific for MEC, since the same S. uberis preparations strongly induced immune gene expression and NF-κB activity in the murine macrophage model cell RAW264.7. Hence, the sluggish immune response of MEC and not of professional immune cells to this pathogen may aid establishment of the often encountered belated and subclinical phenotype of S. uberis mastitis. PMID:26738804

  3. The Comparison of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Fish and Bovine using Multilocus Sequence Typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has greater utility for determining the recent ancestral lineage and the relatedness of individual strains. Group B streptococci (GBS is one of the major causes of subclinical mastitis of dairy cattle in several countries. GBS also sporadically causes epizootic infections in fish. The aim of this study was to compare the evolutionary lineage of fish and bovine isolates in relation to the S. agalactiae global population as a whole by comparing the MLST profiles. Twenty S. agalactiae isolates were obtained from dairy cattle and fish. PCR products were amplified with seven different oligonucleotide primer pairs designed from the NEM316 GBS genome sequence. Clone complexes demonstrated that bovine and fish isolates were separate populations. These findings lead us to conclude that fish S. agalactiae is not a zoonotic agent for bovine. MLST could help clarify the emergence of pathogenic clones and to decide whether the host acts as a reservoir for another pathogenic lineage.

  4. The effect of pre-enrichment on recovery of Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and mycoplasma from bovine milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Thurmond, M C; Tyler, J W; Luiz, D. M.; Holmberg, C A; Picanso, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether pre-enrichment would increase sensitivity of detecting Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae, Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and mycoplasma in bovine milk. Two procedures were followed, one involving direct inoculation of milk on bovine blood agar, and the other involving preenrichment in broth followed by inoculation on agar. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of isolation as a function of culture procedure and two additional covariate...

  5. Seven years survey of susceptibility to marbofloxacin of bovine pathogenic strains from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, D; Acar, J-F; Martel, J-L; Kroemer, S; Vallé, M

    2004-09-01

    This study was conducted from 1994 to 2001 to determine the susceptibility of bovine pathogenic bacteria to marbofloxacin (a third generation fluoroquinolone used only in individual administration for animals). Strains originated in bovine diseases from eight European countries. They were isolated from gut infections (Escherichia coli, salmonellae), mastitis (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae) and respiratory diseases (Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus somnus). There was no change in the MIC distributions for each species after the launch of marbofloxacin in 1997. In E. coli, a resistant population was present before the use of marbofloxacin having been induced by co- or cross-resistance to other antibiotics used previously. Over this period the only a significant change seen was an increase in MIC(90) of E. coli from the gut (1.275 microg/ml in 1994/1995 to 5.098 microg/ml in 2001). All the salmonellae were susceptible to marbofloxacin with a MIC(90) = 0.073 microg/ml in 2001 without development of high level resistance. The use of marbofloxacin seems not to have favoured a significant increase and spreading of resistant bacteria.

  6. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Deguo Wang; Yanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactia...

  7. Differential pathogenicity of five Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of diverse geographic origin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish and has caused significant morbidity amd mortality worldwide. The work in this study assessed whether pathogenic differences exist among isolates from different geographic locations. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were administered an...

  8. Variation in the group B Streptococcus CsrRS regulon and effects on pathogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Sheng-Mei; Ishmael, Nadeeza; Hotopp, Julie Dunning; Puliti, Manuela; Tissi, Luciana; Kumar, Nikhil; Cieslewicz, Michael J.; Tettelin, Herve; Wesselsl, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    CsrRS (or CovRS) is a two-component regulatory system that controls expression of multiple virulence factors in the important human pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS). We now report global gene expression studies in GBS strains 2603V/R and 515 and their isogenic csrR and csrS mutants. Together wit

  9. Effect of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis on apoptosis of bovine mammary gland lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Petr; Sladek, Zbysek; Rysanek, Dusan; Langrova, Tereza

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether lymphocyte apoptosis is modulated by infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Samples of cell populations were obtained by lavage of the mammary glands at 4 intervals (24, 48, 72 and 168 h) following infection. The percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes peaked at 168 h after challenge with S. aureus or S. uberis. Subsequent experiments focused on in vitro cultivation of mammary gland lymphocytes with S. aureus and S. uberis. These experiments showed a lower percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes following 3h of cultivating cells with bacteria than after cultivation without bacteria. The results demonstrate that during both experimental infection of bovine mammary glands with S. aureus or S. uberis and during in vitro cultivation of lymphocytes with S. aureus or S. uberis, apoptosis of lymphocytes is delayed.

  10. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  11. Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Bulk Tank Milk in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya Jing; Qin, Yun; Guix Vallverdú, Roger; Maldonado García, Jaime; Sun, Wei; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the herd prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) in China dairy herds, to determine the relationship between the presence of mastitis pathogens and bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BTSCC), and to investigate the impact of different dairy cattle farming modes and region on bacterial species. BTM samples collected from 894 dairy herds in China were examined for the presence of mastitis pathogens. The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards were used for BTM sample collection, storage, and transportation and bacterial DNA amplification by real-time PCR. Among contagious pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were detected in 50.1, 92.2, and 72.3% of the 894 BTM samples, respectively. Among environmental pathogens, E. coli, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium bovis, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were detected in 28.6, 8.9, 35.7, 20.0, 1.3, 17.0, and 67.2% of the BTM samples, respectively. Staphylococcal β-lactamase gene was detected in 61.7% of the BTM samples. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were significantly associated with high BTSCC, respectively. Significant differences were found in presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in BTM sampled from the small household farms, dairy-farming communities, and large-scaled dairy farms. There were significant differences in the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, staphylococcal β-lactamase gene, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus uberis in BTM among Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Hebei province. In conclusion, contagious mammary pathogens are predominated among pathogens in BTM samples in China. PMID:27187065

  12. Diversity and Mobility of Integrative and Conjugative Elements in Bovine Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, and S. uberis▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Haenni, Marisa; Saras, Estelle; Bertin, Stéphane; Leblond, Pierre; Madec, Jean-Yves; Payot, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Bovine isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 76), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (n = 32), and Streptococcus uberis (n = 101) were analyzed for the presence of different integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) and their association with macrolide, lincosamide, and tetracycline resistance. The diversity of the isolates included in this study was demonstrated by multilocus sequence typing for S. agalactiae and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for S. dysgalactiae and S. u...

  13. Evaluation of the Rapid Mastitis Test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, J L; Owens, W E

    1988-01-01

    A latex agglutination test system (Rapid Mastitis Test [RMT]; Immucell, Portland, Maine) containing reagents for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae from bovine intramammary infections was evaluated with 527 staphylococcal and 267 streptococcal isolates. The RMT Staphylococcus aureus reagent detected 94.2% of 242 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 80% of 25 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates, and 42.8% of 21 tube coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus isol...

  14. Endocytosis‒Mediated Invasion and Pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae in Rat Cardiomyocyte (H9C2)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Pooja; Muthuirulan Pushpanathan; Paramasamy Gunasekaran; Jeyaprakash Rajendhran

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae infection causes high mortality in cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, especially in case of setting prosthetic valve during cardiac surgery. However, the pathogenesis mechanism of S. agalactiae associate with CVD has not been well studied. Here, we have demonstrated the pathogenicity of S. agalactiae in rat cardiomyocytes (H9C2). Interestingly, both live and dead cells of S. agalactiae were uptaken by H9C2 cells. To further dissect the process of S. agalactiae int...

  15. Streptococcus suis, an Emerging Drug-Resistant Animal and Human Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Palmieri, Claudio; Varaldo, Pietro E.; Facinelli, Bruna

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen, has been receiving growing attention not only for its role in severe and increasingly reported infections in humans, but also for its involvement in drug resistance. Recent studies and the analysis of sequenced genomes have been providing important insights into the S. suis resistome, and have resulted in the identification of resistance determinants for tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, antifolate drugs, streptothricin,...

  16. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  17. Experimental study to evaluate the pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Adel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae has emerged as an important fish pathogen over the last decade in farmed rainbow trout in Iran. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of S. iniae in Poecilia reticulata. Atotal of 60 apparently healthy P. reticulata were obtained from ornamental fish pet store and injected intraperitoneally with 1.5×106 cfu of bacteria. For 14 days after challenge, the rate of mortality and clinical signs were recorded. The first clinical signs was observed in challenged fish 48 hrs after injection of S. iniae and first mortality was observed 72 hrs after injection. No significant differences in mortality and clinical signs between both sexes were observed. Streptococcus iniae was collected from internal organs of fishes challenged, and was confirmed using the conventional biochemical tests and PCR. It is concluded that, P. reticulata is susceptible to streptococcosis and can play an important role in transmission of the disease to other ornamental fish species and also cultured fish.

  18. Molecular detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine raw milk samples obtained directly from bulk tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Acácia Orieth; Cortez, Adriana; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2012-08-01

    Mastitis is the most common infectious disease affecting dairy cattle; in addition, it remains the most economically important disease of dairy industries around the world. Streptococcus agalactiae, a contagious pathogen associated with subclinical mastitis, is highly infectious. This bacterium can cause an increase in bulk tank bacterial counts (BTBC) and bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC). The microbiological identification of S. agalactiae in samples from bulk tanks is an auxiliary method to control contagious mastitis. Thus, there are some limitations for time-consuming cultures or identification methods and additional concerns about the conservation and transport of samples. Bulk tank samples from 247 dairy farms were cultured and compared through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), directed to 16S rRNA genes of S. agalactiae, followed by BTBC and S. agalactiae isolation. The mean value of BTBC was 1.08×10(6) CFU mL(-1) and the bacterium was identified through the microbiological method in 98 (39.7%; CI(95%)=33.8-45.9%) and through PCR in 110 (44.5%; CI(95%)=38.5-50.8%) samples. Results indicated sensitivity of 0.8571±0.0353 (CI(95%)=0.7719-0.9196) and specificity of 0.8255±0.0311 (CI(95%)=0.7549-0.8827). The lack of significant difference between microbiological and molecular results (κ=0.6686±0.0477 and CI(95%)=0.5752-0.7620) indicated substantial agreement between the methods. This suggests that PCR can be used for bulk tank samples to detect contagious mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.

  19. Gene Regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae: interplay between nutrition and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T. Hendriksen (Wouter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractStreptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the species of streptococci. Other pathogenic bacteria belonging to this class include Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus bovi

  20. GENOMIC DIVERSITY OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE FROM FISH, BOVINE AND HUMAN HOSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a cause of infectious disease in multiple poikilothermic and homothermic animal species. Epidemiological and zoonotic considerations necessitate an undertaking of a comparison of S. agalactiae isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regi...

  1. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yongchun Yang; Yinglong Liu; Yunlei Ding; Li Yi; Zhe Ma; Hongjie Fan; Chengping Lu

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and two Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) isolates were collected from dairy cattle with subclinical mastitis in Eastern China during 2011. Clonal groups were established by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS), pilus and alpha-like-protein (Alp) family genes were also characterized by molecular techniques. MLST analysis revealed that these isolates were limited to three clo...

  2. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other importan

  3. Characterizing bovine host responses to mastitis pathogens by targeted proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    mælkeproteiner såsom kasein er dog med til at komplicere analyserne af følsomme biomarkører i mælk. De seneste år er målrettet kvantitativ proteomics ved hjælp af metoden ’selected reaction monitoring’ (SRM) blevet udbredt. Ved SRM metoden bliver peptider fra et udvalgt protein detekteret og kvantificeret i en...... beskriver dette Bovine PeptideAtlas og dets indbyggede værktøjer til at understøtte SRM metoder. Ved hjælp af Bovine PeptideAtlas blev der udvalgt kvantificerbare og observerbare peptider, der er velegnede til udvikling af SRM metoden. To peptider per protein blev herefter genetisk udtrykt i et QconCAT...... protein som tungt isotop mærkede peptider. I manuskript II præsenteres udviklingen og valideringen af SRM metoden i yvervæv ved brug af QconCAT peptider rettet mod 20 proteiner. Resultaterne af dette forsøg var en solid bestemmelse af 17 kandidatproteiner og en pålidelig kvantificering af 12 af disse. I...

  4. Horizontal gene transfers link a human MRSA pathogen to contagious bovine mastitis bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brody

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance by many clinically important bacteria can be traced to horizontal gene transfer (HGT between related or evolutionarily distant microflora. Comparative genomic analysis has become an important tool for identifying HGT DNA in emerging pathogens. We have adapted the multi-genome alignment tool EvoPrinter to facilitate discovery of HGT DNA sequences within bacterial genomes and within their mobile genetic elements. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EvoPrinter analysis of 13 different Staphylococcus aureus genomes revealed that one of the human isolates, the hospital epidemic methicillin-resistant MRSA252 strain, uniquely shares multiple putative HGT DNA sequences with different causative agents of bovine mastitis that are not found in the other human S. aureus isolates. MRSA252 shares over 14 different DNA sequence blocks with the bovine mastitis ET3 S. aureus strain RF122, and many of the HGT DNAs encode virulence factors. EvoPrinter analysis of the MRSA252 chromosome also uncovered virulence-factor encoding HGT events with the genome of Listeria monocytogenes and a Staphylococcus saprophyticus associated plasmid. Both bacteria are also causal agents of contagious bovine mastitis. CONCLUSIONS: EvoPrinter analysis reveals that the human MRSA252 strain uniquely shares multiple DNA sequence blocks with different causative agents of bovine mastitis, suggesting that HGT events may be occurring between these pathogens. These findings have important implications with regard to animal husbandry practices that inadvertently enhance the contact of human and livestock bacterial pathogens.

  5. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tettelin, H; Masignani, [No Value; Cieslewicz, MJ; Eisen, JA; Peterson, S; Paulsen, IT; Nelson, KE; Margarit, [No Value; Read, TD; Madoff, LC; Beanan, MJ; Brinkac, LM; Daugherty, SC; DeBoy, RT; Durkin, AS; Kolonay, JF; Madupu, R; Lewis, MR; Radune, D; Fedorova, NB; Scanlan, D; Khouri, H; Mulligan, S; Carty, HA; Cline, RT; Van Aken, SE; Gill, J; Scarselli, M; Mora, M; Iacobini, ET; Brettoni, C; Galli, G; Mariani, M; Vegni, F; Maione, D; Rinaudo, D; Rappuoli, R; Telford, JL; Kasper, DL; Grandi, G; Fraser, CM

    2002-01-01

    The 2,160,267 bp genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, the leading cause of bacterial sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis in neonates in the U.S. and Europe, is predicted to encode 2,175 genes. Genome comparisons among S. agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and the oth

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae ZQ0910, a Pathogen Causing Meningoencephalitis in the GIFT Strain of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bei; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Cai, Shuanghu; Huang, Yuchong; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Here, we reported the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae strain ZQ0910, which was isolated from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia in Guangdong, China.

  7. Whole genome investigation of a divergent clade of the pathogen Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiyad eBaig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a major porcine and zoonotic pathogen responsible for significant economic losses in the pig industry and an increasing number of human cases. Multiple isolates of S. suis show marked genomic diversity. Here we report the analysis of whole genome sequences of nine pig isolates that caused disease typical of S. suis and had phenotypic characteristics of S. suis, but their genomes were divergent from those of many other S. suis isolates. Comparison of protein sequences predicted from divergent genomes with those from normal S. suis reduced the size of core genome from 793 to only 397 genes. Divergence was clear if phylogenetic analysis was performed on reduced core genes and MLST alleles. Phylogenies based on certain other genes (16S rRNA, sodA, recN and cpn60 did not show divergence for all isolates, suggesting recombination between some divergent isolates with normal S. suis for these genes. Indeed, there is evidence of recent recombination between the divergent and normal S. suis genomes for 249 of 397 core genes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and 132 genes that were conserved between the divergent isolates and representatives of the broader Streptococcus genus showed that divergent isolates were more closely related to S. suis. Six out of nine divergent isolates possessed a S. suis-like capsule region with variation in capsular gene sequences but the remaining three did not have a discrete capsule locus. The majority (40/70, of virulence-associated genes in normal S. suis were present in the divergent genomes. Overall, the divergent isolates extend the current diversity of S. suis species but the phenotypic similarities and the large amount of gene exchange with normal S. suis gives insufficient evidence to assign these isolates to a new species or subspecies. Further sampling and whole genome analysis of more isolates is warranted to understand the diversity of the species.

  8. The effect of pre-enrichment on recovery of Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and mycoplasma from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, M. C.; Tyler, J. W.; Luiz, D. M.; Holmberg, C. A.; Picanso, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether pre-enrichment would increase sensitivity of detecting Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae, Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and mycoplasma in bovine milk. Two procedures were followed, one involving direct inoculation of milk on bovine blood agar, and the other involving preenrichment in broth followed by inoculation on agar. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of isolation as a function of culture procedure and two additional covariates, the California Mastitis Test (CMT) score of the milk and the type of sample (indicating sample storage temperature and herd mastitis status). A total of 13778 milk samples was cultured for each of the three bacteria. By using results of both direct inoculation and pre-enrichment, the probability of isolation compared to use of direct inoculation only and adjusted for effects of other variables was increased 3.6-fold for Str. agalactiae, 1.6-fold for S. aureus and 1.7-fold for mycoplasma. The probability of isolation for all three bacteria increased as the CMT score increased. For Str. agalactiae, there was a statistical interaction predicting that enrichment improved the odds of isolation more from milk with high CMT scores than from milk with low scores. Results indicate that pre-enrichment can substantially increase the sensitivity of bacteriological screening of dairy cows for mastitis caused by Str. agalactiae, S. aureus, and mycoplasma. PMID:2691266

  9. Molecular mapping of the cell wall polysaccharides of the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Péchoux, Christine; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Hols, Pascal; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2014-11-01

    The surface of many bacterial pathogens is covered with polysaccharides that play important roles in mediating pathogen-host interactions. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is recognized as a major virulence factor while the group B carbohydrate (GBC) is crucial for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell division. Despite the important roles of CPS and GBC, there is little information available on the molecular organization of these glycopolymers on the cell surface. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to analyze the nanoscale distribution of CPS and GBC in wild-type (WT) and mutant strains of S. agalactiae. TEM analyses reveal that in WT bacteria, peptidoglycan is covered with a very thin (few nm) layer of GBC (the ``pellicle'') overlaid by a 15-45 nm thick layer of CPS (the ``capsule''). AFM-based single-molecule mapping with specific antibody probes shows that CPS is exposed on WT cells, while it is hardly detected on mutant cells impaired in CPS production (ΔcpsE mutant). By contrast, both TEM and AFM show that CPS is over-expressed in mutant cells altered in GBC expression (ΔgbcO mutant), indicating that the production of the two surface glycopolymers is coordinated in WT cells. In addition, AFM topographic imaging and molecular mapping with specific lectin probes demonstrate that removal of CPS (ΔcpsE), but not of GBC (ΔgbcO), leads to the exposure of peptidoglycan, organized into 25 nm wide bands running parallel to the septum. These results indicate that CPS forms a homogeneous barrier protecting the underlying peptidoglycan from environmental exposure, while the presence of GBC does not prevent peptidoglycan detection. This work shows that single-molecule AFM, combined with high-resolution TEM, represents a powerful platform for analysing the molecular arrangement of the cell wall polymers of bacterial pathogens.

  10. Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreier Jens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O. Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2 homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance.

  11. Effect of a novel antimicrobial peptide chrysophsin-1 on oral pathogens and Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tao, Rui; Tong, Zhongchun; Ding, Yonglin; Kuang, Rong; Zhai, Shafei; Liu, Jun; Ni, Longxing

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries and pulpal diseases are common oral bacterial infectious diseases. Controlling and reducing the causative pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis, is a key step toward prevention and treatment of the two diseases. Chrysophsin-1 is a cationic antimicrobial peptide having broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial activity of chrysophsin-1 against several oral pathogens and S. mutans biofilms and performed a preliminary study of the antimicrobial mechanism. Cytotoxic activity of chrysophsin-1 against human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) was investigated. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill assay were used to evaluate the killing effect of chrysophsin-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze morphological and membrane change in oral pathogens. Live/Dead staining, in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), was used to observe and analyze S. mutans biofilms. MIC and MBC results demonstrated that chrysophsin-1 had different antimicrobial activities against the tested oral microbes. Lysis and pore formation of the cytomembrane were observed following treatment of the bacteria with chrysophsin-1 for 4h or 24h by SEM. Furthermore, CLSM images showed that chrysophsin-1 remarkably reduced the viability of cells within biofilms and had a significantly lethal effect against S. mutans biofilms. Toxicity studies showed that chrysophsin-1 at concentration between 8 μg/ml and 32 μg/ml had little effect on viability of HGFs in 5 min. Our findings suggest that chrysophsin-1 may have potential clinical applications in the prevention and treatment of dental caries and pulpal diseases.

  12. Genotyping and study of the pauA and sua genes of Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrig, Melina S; Ambroggio, María B; Buzzola, Fernanda R; Marcipar, Iván S; Calvinho, Luis F; Veaute, Carolina M; Barbagelata, María Sol

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the clonal relationship among 137 Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine milk with subclinical or clinical mastitis in Argentina and to assess the prevalence and conservation of pauA and sua genes. This information is critical for the rational design of a vaccine for the prevention of bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. The isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The 137 isolates exhibited 61 different PFGE types and 25 distinct RAPD profiles. Simpson's diversity index was calculated both for PFGE (0.983) and for RAPD (0.941), showing a high discriminatory power in both techniques. The analysis of the relationship between pairs of isolates showed 92.6% concordance between both techniques indicating that any given pair of isolates distinguished by one method tended to be distinguished by the other. The prevalence of the sua and pauA genes was 97.8% (134/137) and 94.9% (130/137), respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the sua and pauA genes from 20 S. uberis selected isolates, based on their PFGE and RAPD types and geographical origin, showed an identity between 95% and 100% with respect to all reference sequences registered in GenBank. These results demonstrate that, in spite of S. uberis clonal diversity, the sua and pauA genes are prevalent and highly conserved, showing their importance to be included in future vaccine studies to prevent S. uberis bovine mastitis. PMID:26507633

  13. A putative quantitative trait locus on chromosome 20 associated with bovine pathogenic disease incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Snowder, G D

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to detect QTL associated with the incidence of multiple pathogenic diseases in offspring from half-sib bovine families. Four F(1) sires were used to produce offspring: Brahman x Hereford (BH; n = 547), Piedmontese x Angus (PA; n = 209), Brahman x Angus (n = 176), and Belgian Blue x MARC III (n = 246). Treatment records for bovine respiratory disease, infectious keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye), and infectious pododermatitis (footrot) were available for all of the offspring from birth to slaughter. The incidences of these 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were combined into a single binary trait to represent an overall pathogenic disease incidence. Offspring diagnosed and treated for 1 or more of the previously mentioned pathogenic diseases were coded as a 1 for affected. Cattle with no treatment record were coded as 0 for healthy. A putative QTL for pathogenic disease incidence was detected in the family derived from the BH sire at the genome-wise suggestive level. This was supported by evidence, in the same chromosomal region, of a similar QTL in the family derived from the PA sire. The maximum F-statistic (F = 13.52; P = 0.0003) was located at cM 18. The support interval of the QTL spanned from cM 9 to 28. Further studies should explore this QTL by using other bovine populations to further confirm the QTL and refine the QTL support interval. Offspring inheriting the Hereford allele, in the family from the BH sire, and the Angus allele, in the family from the PA sire, were less susceptible to incidence of pathogenic diseases, when compared with those inheriting the Brahman allele and Piedmontese allele, from the BH and PA sires, respectively. PMID:18502878

  14. Pathogen diagnosis of the bovine pasteurellosis%牛出败的病原诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生庆; 张西云; 范玉霞; 胡国元; 李志宁; 王亭亭; 黄荣

    2012-01-01

    对大通县某养殖场送检的病死牛脏器进行细病原诊断,经病原的分离培养与鉴定,结合临床症状和病理变化,初步诊断该病是由牛巴氏杆菌引起的。%Pathogen diagnosis of the dead cattle organs from the DaTong farms,Through isolation and identification of pathogens, combining clinical symptoms and pathological changes. The disease is caused by the bovine pasteurellosis.

  15. Identification of a Streptococcus agalactiae protein antigen associated with bovine mastitis isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Wanger, A R; Dunny, G. M.

    1987-01-01

    Immunoblotting was used to analyze the immune response of cows to Streptococcus agalactiae. Antibody from the milk of cows immunized (via the superficial inguinal lymph node) with formalinized S. agalactiae cells or from the milk of cows with S. agalactiae mastitis reacted strongly with a group of high-molecular-weight proteinaceous antigens. The two most predominant antigenic polypeptides in this group had apparent molecular weights of 97,000 and 104,000. Because the data indicated that thes...

  16. The use of polyethylene intramammary device in protection of the lactating bovine udder against experimental infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus agalactiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, B W; Barnum, D A

    1982-01-01

    The susceptibility of lactating bovine udder quarters fitted with a polyethylene intramammary device to infection was investigated. Following experimental challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus, the incidence of infection was significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in intramammary device-fitted quarters compared to control quarters. In general, total foremilk and strippings milk somatic cell counts for intramammary device-fitted and control quarters were not significa...

  17. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Tettelin, Hervé; Masignani, Vega; Cieslewicz, Michael J.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Peterson, Scott; Wessels, Michael R.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Nelson, Karen E.; Margarit, Immaculada; Read, Timothy D.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Wolf, Alex M.; Beanan, Maureen J; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Sean C Daugherty

    2002-01-01

    The 2,160,267 bp genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, the leading cause of bacterial sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis in neonates in the U.S. and Europe, is predicted to encode 2,175 genes. Genome comparisons among S. agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and the other completely sequenced genomes identified genes specific to the streptococci and to S. agalactiae. These in silico analyses, combined with comparative genome hybridization experiments between the ...

  18. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Properties of Membrane Vesicles Produced by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Haas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis, more particularly serotype 2, is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent worldwide that mainly causes meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Although several potential virulence factors produced by S. suis have been identified in the last decade, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections is still not fully understood. In the present study, we showed that S. suis produces membrane vesicles (MVs that range in diameter from 13 to 130 nm and that appear to be coated by capsular material. A proteomic analysis of the MVs revealed that they contain 46 proteins, 9 of which are considered as proven or suspected virulence factors. Biological assays confirmed that S. suis MVs possess active subtilisin-like protease (SspA and DNase (SsnA. S. suis MVs degraded neutrophil extracellular traps, a property that may contribute to the ability of the bacterium to escape the host defense response. MVs also activated the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway in both monocytes and macrophages, inducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may in turn contribute to increase the permeability of the blood brain barrier. The present study brought evidence that S. suis MVs may play a role as a virulence factor in the pathogenesis of S. suis infections, and given their composition be an excellent candidate for vaccine development.

  19. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure.

  20. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two farms (n=535 cows located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM and clinical mastitis (CLM were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT (≥3 and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY, lactation number (LN, herd size (HS, and number of days in milk (DM were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH, LN, HS, and DM P<0.01, and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 P<0.01. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study.

  1. Correlation of hypothetical virulence traits of two Streptococcus uberis strains with the clinical manifestation of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Riccardo; McNeilly, Tom N; Sipka, Anja; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. Several virulence mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the species' ability to cause disease. Here, virulence characteristics were compared between S. uberis strains FSL Z1-048, which consistently caused clinical mastitis in a challenge model, and FSL Z1-124, which consistently failed to cause disease in the same model, to ascertain whether in vitro virulence characteristics were related to clinical outcome. Macrophages derived from bovine blood monocytes failed to kill FSL Z1-048 whilst reducing survival of FSL Z1-124 by 42.5%. Conversely, blood derived polymorphonuclear cells caused more reduction (67.1 vs. 44.2%, respectively) in the survival of FSL Z1-048 than in survival of FSL Z1-124. After 3 h of coincubation with bovine mammary epithelial cell line BME-UV1, 1000-fold higher adherence was observed for FSL Z1-048 compared to FSL Z1-124, despite presence of a frame shift mutation in the sua gene of FSL Z1-048 that resulted in predicted truncation of the S. uberis Adhesion Molecule (SUAM) protein. In contrast, FSL Z1-124 showed higher ability than FSL Z1-048 to invade BME-UV1 cells. Finally, observed biofilm formation by FSL Z1-124 was significantly greater than for FSL Z1-048. In summary, for several hypothetical virulence characteristics, virulence phenotype in vitro did not match disease phenotype in vivo. Evasion of macrophage killing and adhesion to mammary epithelial cells were the only in vitro traits associated with virulence in vivo, making them attractive targets for further research into pathogenesis and control of S. uberis mastitis. PMID:26497306

  2. Endocytosis‒Mediated Invasion and Pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae in Rat Cardiomyocyte (H9C2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pooja

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae infection causes high mortality in cardiovascular disease (CVD patients, especially in case of setting prosthetic valve during cardiac surgery. However, the pathogenesis mechanism of S. agalactiae associate with CVD has not been well studied. Here, we have demonstrated the pathogenicity of S. agalactiae in rat cardiomyocytes (H9C2. Interestingly, both live and dead cells of S. agalactiae were uptaken by H9C2 cells. To further dissect the process of S. agalactiae internalization, we chemically inhibited discrete parts of cellular uptake system in H9C2 cells using genistein, chlorpromazine, nocodazole and cytochalasin B. Chemical inhibition of microtubule and actin formation by nocodazole and cytochalasin B impaired S. agalactiae internalization into H9C2 cells. Consistently, reverse‒ transcription PCR (RT‒PCR and quantitative real time‒PCR (RT-qPCR analyses also detected higher levels of transcripts for cytoskeleton forming genes, Acta1 and Tubb5 in S. agalactiae‒infected H9C2 cells, suggesting the requirement of functional cytoskeleton in pathogenesis. Host survival assay demonstrated that S. agalactiae internalization induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. S. agalactiae cells grown with benzyl penicillin reduced its ability to internalize and induce cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells, which could be attributed with the removal of surface lipoteichoic acid (LTA from S. agalactiae. Further, the LTA extracted from S. agalactiae also exhibited dose‒dependent cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that S. agalactiae cells internalized H9C2 cells through energy‒dependent endocytic processes and the LTA of S. agalactiae play major role in host cell internalization and cytotoxicity induction.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of nisin against the swine pathogen Streptococcus suis and its synergistic interaction with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Geneviève; Piché, Fanny; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections in pigs, including meningitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Furthermore, this bacterium is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Recently, increased antibiotic resistance in S. suis has been reported worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of nisin, a bacteriocin of the lantibiotic class, as an antibacterial agent against the pathogen S. suis serotype 2. In addition, the synergistic activity of nisin in combination with conventional antibiotics was assessed. Using a plate assay, the nisin-producing strain Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of S. suis (n=18) belonging to either sequence type (ST)1, ST25, or ST28. In a microdilution broth assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of purified nisin ranged between 1.25 and 5 μg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 5 and 10 μg/mL toward S. suis. The use of a capsule-deficient mutant of S. suis indicated that the presence of this polysaccharidic structure has no marked impact on susceptibility to nisin. Following treatment of S. suis with nisin, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed lysis of bacteria resulting from breakdown of the cell membrane. A time-killing curve showed a rapid bactericidal activity of nisin. Lastly, synergistic effects of nisin were observed in combination with several antibiotics, including penicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ceftiofur. This study brought clear evidence supporting the potential of nisin for the prevention and treatment of S. suis infections in pigs.

  4. Genomic comparison between pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Nile tilapia in Thailand and fish-derived ST7 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B streptococcus (GBS), is a highly virulent pathogen in aquatic animals, causing huge mortalities worldwide. In Thailand, the serotype Ia, β-hemolytic GBS, belonging to sequence type (ST) 7 of clonal complex (CC) 7, was found to be the major cause of streptococcosis outbreaks in fish farms. In this study, we performed an in silico genomic comparison, aiming to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between the pathogenic fish strains of Thai ST7 and other ST7 from different hosts and geographical origins. In general, the genomes of Thai ST7 strains are closely related to other fish ST7s, as the core genome is shared by 92-95% of any individual fish ST7 genome. Among the fish ST7 genomes, we observed only small dissimilarities, based on the analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), surface protein markers, insertions sequence (IS) elements and putative virulence genes. The phylogenetic tree based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the core genome sequences clearly categorized the ST7 strains according to their geographical and host origins, with the human ST7 being genetically distant from other fish ST7 strains. A pan-genome analysis of ST7 strains detected a 48-kb gene island specifically in the Thai ST7 isolates. The orientations and predicted amino acid sequences of the genes in the island closely matched those of Tn5252, a streptococcal conjugative transposon, in GBS 2603V/R serotype V, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus suis. Thus, it was presumed that Thai ST7 acquired this Tn5252 homologue from related streptococci. The close phylogenetic relationship between the fish ST7 strains suggests that these strains were derived from a common ancestor and have diverged in different geographical regions and in different hosts. PMID:26455417

  5. Induction of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response Constitutes a Pathogenic Strategy of group A Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel eHanski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The connection between bacterial pathogens and unfolded protein response (UPR is poorly explored. In this review we highlight the evidence showing that group A streptococcus (GAS induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and UPR through which it captures the amino acid asparagine (ASN from the host. GAS acts extracellularly and during adherence to host cells it delivers the hemolysin toxins; streptolysin O (SLO and streptolysin S (SLS. By poorly understood pathways, these toxins trigger UPR leading to the induction of the transcriptional regulator ATF4 and consequently to the upregulation of asparagine synthetase (ASNS transcription leading to production and release of ASN. GAS senses ASN and alters gene expression profile accordingly, and increases the rate of multiplication. We suggest that induction of UPR by GAS and by other bacterial pathogens represent means through which bacterial pathogens gain nutrients from the host, obviating the need to become internalized or inflict irreversible cell damage.

  6. Surface Proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae and Related Proteins in Other Bacterial Pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Gunnar; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Areschoug, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is the major cause of invasive bacterial disease, including meningitis, in the neonatal period. Although prophylactic measures have contributed to a substantial reduction in the number of infections, development of a vaccine remains an important goal. While much work in this field has focused on the S. agalactiae polysaccharide capsule, which is an important virulence factor that elicits protective immunity, surface proteins have received incre...

  7. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  8. Assessment of an extraction protocol to detect the major mastitis-causing pathogens in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressier, B; Bissonnette, N

    2011-05-01

    Despite all efforts to control its spread, mastitis remains the most costly disease for dairy farmers worldwide. One key component of better control of this disease is identification of the causative bacterial agent during udder infections in cows. Mastitis is complex, however, given the diversity of pathogens that must be identified. Development of a rapid and efficient bacterial species identification tool is thus necessary. This study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of bacterial DNA extraction for the automated molecular detection of major mastitis-causing pathogens directly in milk samples to complement traditional microbiological identification. Extraction and detection procedures were designed and optimized to achieve detection in a respectable time frame, at a reasonable cost, and with a high throughput capacity. The following species were identified: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Klebsiella spp. (including Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The detection procedure includes specific genomic DNA amplification by multiplex PCR for each species, separation by capillary electrophoresis, and laser-assisted automated detection. The specificity of the primers was assessed with a panel of bacteria representing mastitis-negative control species. The extraction protocol comprised multiple steps, starting with centrifugation for fat removal, followed by heating in the presence of a cation exchange resin to trap divalent ions. The analytical sensitivity was 100 cfu/mL for milk samples spiked with Staph. aureus, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli, with a tendency for K. pneumoniae. The detection limit was 500 cfu/mL for Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae. The overall diagnostic sensitivity (95.4%) and specificity (97.3%) were determined in a double-blind randomized assay by processing 172 clinical milk samples with microbiological characterization as the

  9. Quantotypic Properties of QconCAT Peptides Targeting Bovine Host Response to Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Codrea, Marius Cosmin;

    2012-01-01

    peptides from each of these 20 proteins were obtained through the QconCAT method. We present the quantotypic properties of these 40 proteotypic peptides, and discuss their application to research in host pathogen interactions. Our results clearly demonstrate a robust monitoring of 17 targeted host...

  10. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  11. Genome Sequences of Two Pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from the One-Humped Camel Camelus dromedarius

    OpenAIRE

    Zubair, Saima; de Villiers, Etienne P.; Younan, Mario; Andersson, Göran; Tettelin, Herve; Riley, David R; Jores, Joerg; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Bishop, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes a range of clinical syndromes in camels (Camelus dromedarius). We report the genome sequences of two S. agalactiae isolates that induce abscesses in Kenyan camels. These genomes provide novel data on the composition of the S. agalactiae “pan genome” and reveal the presence of multiple genomic islands.

  12. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Xinjiang%新疆地区奶牛乳房炎病原菌的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏少虎; 李冉

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis pathogens in Xin Jiang area, which include sub- and clinical mastitis. Our results showed that the prevalent rates of subclinical mastitis were from 11.3%to 28.8%within different herds. Most of cases were caused by single bacteria. Nine species were iso-lated from subclinical mastitis cases while eleven species were isolated from clinical cases. Of these pathogens, CNS, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae were the most common in subclinical cases and CNS, Streptococcus uberis, E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were mainly responsible for clinical cases.%对新疆地区奶牛乳房炎(包括隐性乳房炎和临床乳房炎)进行了发病率和致病菌进行了流行病学调查。结果发现新疆地区7个牧场隐性乳房炎发病率在11.3%~28.8%。大部分乳房炎发病为单一细菌感染引起。隐性乳房炎中共分离得到9个不同种属的病原菌,以凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌、乳房链球菌和无乳链球菌为最常见。临床乳房炎样品中共分离得到11个不同种属的样品,流行度最高的四种病原菌为凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌、乳房链球菌、大肠杆菌和肺炎克雷伯菌。在隐性乳房炎和临床乳房炎样品中均分离得到了金黄色葡萄球菌。

  13. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of streptococci from bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rato, Márcia G.; Bexiga, Ricardo; Florindo, Carlos;

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. T...

  14. Bovine S protein (vitronectin increases phagocytosis of Streptococcus dysgalactiae Aumento na fagocitose de Streptococcus dysgalactiae pela ação da proteína S bovina (vitronectina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bovine S protein (vitronectin on phagocytosis of Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from cattle with mastitis were investigated. Phagocytized streptococci were determined by a fluorometric microassay using glass adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN. Preincubation of S. dysgalactiae with bovine S protein significantly increased their phagocytosis by PMN. Bovine S protein had no effect on phagocytic killing of non-S protein binding S. pyogenes cultures. Enzymatic digestion of the bovine S protein binding sites on S. dysgalactiae with pronase resulted in a significative reduction of the effects of S protein on phagocytosis. It could thus be concluded that in addition to its role as a promoter of cellular adhesion and complement inhibitor, bovine S protein may also influence the phagocytosis of S. dysgalactiae during inflammatory processes.Foram investigados os efeitos da proteína S bovina (vitronectina na fagocitose de amostras de Streptococcus dysgalactiae isoladas de bovinos com mastite. A determinação do número de estreptococos fagocitados foi realizada pelo método fluorométrico utilizando neutrófilos polimorfonucleares (NPM aderidos em lâminas de vidro. A pré-incubação do S. dysgalactiae com a proteína S bovina aumentou significativamente a sua fagocitose por NPM. A proteína S bovina não causou efeito na fagocitose de culturas de S. pyogenes, já que não apresentam sítios de ligação para esta proteína. A digestão enzimática com pronase dos sítios de ligação S. dysgalactiae para a proteína S bovina resultou numa significativa redução do efeito da proteína S na fagocitose. Pode-se concluir que além do papel como promotor da adesão celular e inibidor do complemento, a proteína S bovina pode também influir na fagocitose do S. dysgalactiae durante os processos inflamatórios.

  15. Innate immune response to a bovine mastitis pathogen profiled in milk and blood monocytes using a systems biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland which leads to reduced milk yield and increased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) resulting in an estimated annual cost to the dairy industry worldwide of ~ 2 billion euros. Mastitis has a complex etiology, with pathogenic, host and envi...

  16. Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Streptococcus group B: A Postpartum Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae group B (S. agalactiae gr. B) is widespread in nature mainly causes bacterial septicemia and neonatal meningitis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on S. agalactiae gr. B with respect of antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and bio typing. S. agalactiae gr. B strain was used in this experiment bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 12386) number and stored according to the recommended storage protoc...

  17. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Min; Wang Shujie; Li Linxi; Lei Liancheng; Liu Yonggang; Shi Wenda; Wu Jiabin; Li Liqin; Rong Fulong; Xu Mingming; Sun Guangli; Xiang Hua; Cai Xuehui

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS) outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7) have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Results Respirato...

  18. 噬菌体内溶素对奶牛乳房炎致病菌的溶解作用%Lytic Effect of Bacteriophage and Its Endolysin to Bovine Mastitis Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方正; 田中杰; 田文儒

    2015-01-01

    奶牛乳房炎一直是困扰养牛业的顽疾。诱发奶牛乳房炎的致病菌通常包括金黄色葡萄球菌、无乳链球菌等致病菌,停乳链球菌、乳房链球菌、大肠埃希菌等环境致病菌以及表皮葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌、模仿葡萄球菌等机会性致病菌。噬菌体是一类细菌依赖性的病毒,可通过内溶素抑制肽聚糖的合成,或利用穿孔素-内溶素系统水解肽聚糖。在体外试验中,噬菌体及其内溶素可溶解、抑制细菌生物膜,裂解乳房炎致病菌;在体内试验中,可清除感染动物体内的乳房炎致病菌,对奶牛乳房炎具有治疗效果。因此,噬菌体及其内溶素在奶牛乳房炎治疗方面具有良好的应用前景。%Bovine mastitis has inflicted diary industry for a long time.Pathogenic bacteria that trigger the bovine mastitis include contagious organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae ;the environmental organisms such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae ,Streptococcus uberis ,Escherichia coli ;the opportunistic organisms such as Staphylococcus epidermidis ,Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus simulans .The bacteriophage is a kind of viruses that can infect bacteria.With the help of endolysin and holin,the bacteriophage is able to inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan and directly hydro-lyze it.Bacteriophages can not only lyse various biofilms and the mastitis pathogenic bacteria in vitro ,but clear colonies of pathogenic bacteria in infected animals and directly treat bovine mastitis.Therefore,the bacteriophage and its endolysin are promising in curing bovine mastitis.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.412c protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallization of SMU.412c protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans can easily appear in the condition 2.8 M sodium acetate pH 7.0 and its crystal belongs to space group P41212. The smu.412c gene encodes a putative histidine triad-like protein (SMU.412c) with 139 residues that is involved in cell-cycle regulation in Streptococcus mutans. The gene was cloned into the expression vector pET28a and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) to give a substantially soluble form of SMU.412c with a His6 tag at its N-terminus. The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure involving Ni2+-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution on beamline BL6A at Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. The crystal belonged to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 53.5, c = 141.1 Å

  20. Functional definition of BirA suggests a biotin utilization pathway in the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huiyan; Cai, Mingzhu; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Zhencui; Wen, Ronghui; Feng, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Biotin protein ligase is universal in three domains of life. The paradigm version of BPL is the Escherichia coli BirA that is also a repressor for the biotin biosynthesis pathway. Streptococcus suis, a leading bacterial agent for swine diseases, seems to be an increasingly-important opportunistic human pathogen. Unlike the scenario in E. coli, S. suis lacks the de novo biotin biosynthesis pathway. In contrast, it retains a bioY, a biotin transporter-encoding gene, indicating an alternative survival strategy for S. suis to scavenge biotin from its inhabiting niche. Here we report functional definition of S. suis birA homologue. The in vivo functions of the birA paralogue with only 23.6% identity to the counterpart of E. coli, was judged by its ability to complement the conditional lethal mutants of E. coli birA. The recombinant BirA protein of S. suis was overexpressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and verified with MS. Both cellulose TLC and MALDI-TOFF-MS assays demonstrated that the S. suis BirA protein catalyzed the biotinylation reaction of its acceptor biotin carboxyl carrier protein. EMSA assays confirmed binding of the bioY gene to the S. suis BirA. The data defined the first example of the bifunctional BirA ligase/repressor in Streptococcus. PMID:27217336

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from piscine, dolphin, bovine and human sources: a dolphin and piscine lineage associated with a fish epidemic in Kuwait is also associated with human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) causes of infections in multiple animals. This study examined the genetic relatedness of piscine, dolphin, and human GBS isolates and bovine GBS reference strains from different geographical regions using serological and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) techni...

  2. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.961 protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiong-Zhuo; Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, XiaoJun; Liang, Yu-He

    2007-10-01

    The smu.961 gene encodes a putative protein of 183 residues in Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen in human dental caries. The gene was cloned into expression vector pET28a and expressed in a substantial quantity in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) with a His tag at its N-terminus. The recombinant protein SMU.961 was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure consisting of Ni2+-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.9 A resolution at beamline I911-3, MAX-II-lab, Sweden. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.62, b = 73.73, c = 184.73 A, beta = 98.82 degrees.

  3. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Smu.1475c from caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Feng; Mi, Wei; Li, Lanfen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liang, Yu-He; Su, Xiao-Dong; Wei, Shicheng

    2006-02-01

    The gene smu.1475c encodes a putative protein of 211 residues in Streptococcus mutans, a primary pathogen for human dental caries. In this work, smu.1475c was cloned into pET28a and expressed in good amount from the E. coli strain BL21 (DE3). Smu.1475c protein was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure of Ni2+ chelating and size exclusion chromatography. Crystals were obtained by hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.7 angstroms resolution. The crystal belongs to orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with cell dimension of a = 68.3 angstroms, b = 105.9 angstroms, c = 136.2 angstroms. The asymmetric unit is expected to contain four molecules with solvent content of 49.4%.

  4. The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis induces expression of transposases and cell death of Streptococcus mitis in a biofilm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Pinedo, Ana E; Baker, Vinesha D; Frias-Lopez, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    Oral microbial communities are extremely complex biofilms with high numbers of bacterial species interacting with each other (and the host) to maintain homeostasis of the system. Disturbance in the oral microbiome homeostasis can lead to either caries or periodontitis, two of the most common human diseases. Periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease caused by the coordinated action of a complex microbial community, which results in inflammation of tissues that support the teeth. It is the most common cause of tooth loss among adults in the United States, and recent studies have suggested that it may increase the risk for systemic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. In a recent series of papers, Hajishengallis and coworkers proposed the idea of the "keystone-pathogen" where low-abundance microbial pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis) can orchestrate inflammatory disease by turning a benign microbial community into a dysbiotic one. The exact mechanisms by which these pathogens reorganize the healthy oral microbiome are still unknown. In the present manuscript, we present results demonstrating that P. gingivalis induces S. mitis death and DNA fragmentation in an in vitro biofilm system. Moreover, we report here the induction of expression of multiple transposases in a Streptococcus mitis biofilm when the periodontopathogen P. gingivalis is present. Based on these results, we hypothesize that P. gingivalis induces S. mitis cell death by an unknown mechanism, shaping the oral microbiome to its advantage. PMID:24866802

  5. Molecular detection and sensitivity to antibiotics and bacteriocins of pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in family dairy herds of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E; Lechuga-Arana, A Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:25815326

  6. Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2. The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92% and 1607 (86% of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops.

  7. Effects of Streptococcus bovis Isolated from Bovine Rumen on the Fermentation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Tanzania Grass Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanine, Anderson de Moura; Bonelli, Emerson Alencar; de Souza, Alexandre Lima; Ferreira, Daniele de Jesus; Santos, Edson Mauro; Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino; Geron, Luiz Juliano Valério; Pinho, Ricardo Martins Araujo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Streptococcus bovis on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of Tanzania grass silage. Tanzania grass was chopped and left untreated (U) or treated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 at 1 × 10(6) colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g) of fresh forage or Streptococcus bovis HC5 at 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage and packed into sixtuplicate laboratory silos. The largest number of enterobacteria, molds and yeast (M&Y) occurred in untreated silages and the smallest populations of enterobacteria and M&Y and the largest numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), at 9.81 and 9.87 log cfu/g, were observed in Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively (P < 0.05). Silages treated with JB1 and HC5 had lower (P < 0.05) silage pHs and concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) than untreated silages. The application of Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 resulted in fewer losses through gases and effluents (P < 0.05), which resulted in greater dry matter recovery (DMR) and crude protein recovery (CPR) (P < 0.05). Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 improved the fermentative profile and increased the concentration of crude protein and DMR and CPR in Tanzania grass silage.

  8. Effect of bovine respiratory disease and overall pathogenic disease incidence on carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M D; Thallman, R M; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Casas, E

    2010-02-01

    The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used. The first population included crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 642) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The second population included crossbred steers (GPE8; n = 621) derived from tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds and Bos indicus-influenced breeds: Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano, as well as Hereford and Angus. Treatment records for BRD, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, and infectious pododermatitis were available for these populations. Incidence of BRD was treated as an independent effect. Incidences of the 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were pooled into a single trait to represent overall pathogenic disease incidence. Traits evaluated were HCW; KPH; LM area; marbling score; fat thickness; dressing percentage; yield grade; retail, fat, and bone yields; and meat tenderness. Both BRD and IPD were associated with differences in yield grade in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.004, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Incidence of BRD and IPD were associated with a reduction in fat thickness in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.01, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD also had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.002, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for BRD (P carcass traits should be given consideration by future studies that aim to develop selection strategies based on specific

  9. A literature review of antimicrobial resistance in Pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a critical review of the literature as it pertains to the current status of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle and to provide a concise yet informative narrative on the most relevant publications available. As such, the scientific literature contained in PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB were searched in February of 2014 for articles related to susceptibility testing of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni from cases of BRD. Titles and abstracts were read and 105 articles that were relevant to the subject of BRD antibiotic resistance were attained for further review. After the application of exclusion criterion (publications must have originated from North America, be in English, adhere to standards set forth by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and be concerning antimicrobial resistance in BRD in beef cattle), 16 articles remained and are the focus of this publication. Due to the disparate data from the few studies that investigate susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens, a quantitative assessment or meta-analysis was not performed on the studies presented in this review. However, considering diagnostic lab data, there appears to be a clear trend of a decrease in susceptibility of the three major BRD pathogens to the antimicrobials used commonly for treatment and control of BRD. Studies performing sensitivity testing on healthy cattle report much lower resistance, but it remains unclear if this is because of a true lack of resistance mechanisms, or if the isolates do contain quiescent genes for resistance that are only phenotypically expressed following the administration of an antimicrobial for either treatment or control of BRD. Future research to address this question of genotype and phenotypic expression before and after antimicrobial administration will further advance our knowledge in this area.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia on the Virulence Properties of the Oral Pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrudula Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA on the virulence properties of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis implicated in periodontal diseases. Methods. S. mutans was cultured in tryptone broth containing a crude leaf extract of DVA for 16 hours, and the pH was measured after 10, 12, 14, and 16 h. Biofilms of S. mutans were grown on glass slides for 48 hours and exposed to plant extract for 30 minutes; the adherent cells were reincubated and the pH was measured at various time intervals. Minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracts against the four periodontal pathogens was determined. The effect of the subinhibitory concentration of plant extract on the production of proteinases by P. gingivalis was also evaluated. Results. DVA had no effect on acid production by S. mutans biofilms; however, it significantly inhibited acid production in planktonic cells. Periodontal pathogens were completely eliminated at low concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.02 mg/mL of crude plant extracts. At subinhibitory concentrations, DVA significantly reduced Arg-gingipain (24% and Lys-gingipain (53% production by P. gingivalis (. Conclusions. These results suggest that DVA has the potential to be used to control oral infections including dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  11. [The prevalence of different Streptococcus pneumoniaе serotypes in the children presenting with ENT infections or carrying nasopharyngeal pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronina, L G; Samatova, E V; Druĭ, A E; Panina, E Iu; Kochneva, N A; Vodovoz, N Iu; Murunova, N V; Gruzdev, A I; Lakhno, T I

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the etiopathological significance of various Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in the children presenting with ENT infections and carrying nasopharyngeal pathogens. The incidence of the latter condition was 19.5% in the children free from S. pneumoniae infection in comparison with 20.9% and 30.7% in those having diagnosis of otitis media and rhinosinusitis respectively. Fifty five (88.8%) of the 62 isolated streptococcal strains were grouped into types with the use of multiplex PCR. Twelve serotypes were identified in the patients presenting with rhinosinusitis with the predominance of 6A/6B and 3 (40.5%) compared with seven isolated from the carriers of nasopharyngeal pathogens. In this group, type 3 also prevailed (26.5%) whereas other serotypes occurred less frequently: 23F (13,4%), indivisible totality of 8, 9V, 9A, 1F, 11A, 211B, 11C, 11D, 12F, 15A, and 33F (13.4%), 20 (6.7%), 19A (6.7%), 14 (6.7%), 6A,6B (6.7%). The serotypes of S. pneumoniae isolated from the patients with rhinosinusitis were found to show 55.3% identity with those present in the composition of the conjugated 7-valent pneumococcal vaccines, 63.2% identity with the 10-valent vaccine, 81.6% identity with the 11p-valnet vaccine, and 84.2% identity with the 13-valent vaccine.

  12. Pelvic inflammatory disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae: a usual pathogen at an unusual place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoyne, S; Van Leemput, J; Smet, D; Desmedt, E; Devos, H; Van Schaeren, J; Jeurissen, A

    2008-01-01

    We report three cases of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae in previously healthy young women. S. pneumoniae frequently causes bacteremia, meningitis and respiratory infections, but it very rarely infects the genital tract. All our patients presented with an acute onset of severe abdominal pain and had an intrauterine device (IUD) present. No abnormal sexual behavior was noticed. Although the relation between PID due to S. pneumoniae and the use of an IUD has been a topic for discussions, culture of IUD in all our patients and blood culture in 2 of 3 of our patients revealed S. pneumoniae. All patients recovered well with intravenous antibiotic treatment and removal of the IUD. PMID:19170357

  13. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 2. Label-free relative quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaliar, Manikhandan; Tassi, Riccardo; Thomas, Funmilola C; McNeilly, Tom N; Weidt, Stefan K; McLaughlin, Mark; Wilson, David; Burchmore, Richard; Herzyk, Pawel; Eckersall, P David; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2016-08-16

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle in the western world. It is primarily caused by bacteria, with Streptococcus uberis as one of the most prevalent causative agents. To characterize the proteome during Streptococcus uberis mastitis, an experimentally induced model of intramammary infection was used. Milk whey samples obtained from 6 cows at 6 time points were processed using label-free relative quantitative proteomics. This proteomic analysis complements clinical, bacteriological and immunological studies as well as peptidomic and metabolomic analysis of the same challenge model. A total of 2552 non-redundant bovine peptides were identified, and from these, 570 bovine proteins were quantified. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed clear clustering of results by stage of infection, with similarities between pre-infection and resolution stages (0 and 312 h post challenge), early infection stages (36 and 42 h post challenge) and late infection stages (57 and 81 h post challenge). Ingenuity pathway analysis identified upregulation of acute phase protein pathways over the course of infection, with dominance of different acute phase proteins at different time points based on differential expression analysis. Antimicrobial peptides, notably cathelicidins and peptidoglycan recognition protein, were upregulated at all time points post challenge and peaked at 57 h, which coincided with 10 000-fold decrease in average bacterial counts. The integration of clinical, bacteriological, immunological and quantitative proteomics and other-omic data provides a more detailed systems level view of the host response to mastitis than has been achieved previously. PMID:27412694

  14. Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered...

  15. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing bovine subclinical mastitis in Eastern Hebei Province%冀东地区奶牛隐性乳房炎病原茵的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高桂生; 高光平; 邵新华; 史秋梅; 张艳英; 梁银聚

    2012-01-01

    According to the method of LMT, pH detection and count of the somatic cells, the epidemiology of recessive mastitis, the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria were carried out on 1 021 subclinical bovine from 8 bovine farms and 3 large bovine factories in Eastern Hebei Province. The results showed that the incidence rates of recessive mastitis and isolalion of bacteria were 60.63% (619/1021) and 88.21%(546/619),respectively.82 strains of bacteria were isolated from 546 subclinical mastitis cows and identified as 4 classes and 14 species. The main bacteria included 36 strains of Staphylococcus, 33 strains of Streptococcus, 8 strains of Enterobtwteria and 5 strains of Microbacterium. with the proportion of 43.90% ,40.24% ,9.76% and 6.10% ,respectively.The mare pathogenic bacteria causing bovine subclinical mastitis in Eastern Hebei Province were Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae.%通过LMT法、乳汁pH检验法和体细胞直接计数等方法相结合,对冀东地区3个大型奶牛场、8个奶牛养殖户选取的1021头奶牛进行隐性乳房炎流行病学调查与病菌分离鉴定。结果表明,隐性乳房炎发病率为60.63%(619/1021),乳房炎阳性乳样品中细菌分离率达88.21%(546/619)。从543头隐性乳房炎患牛的阳性乳区乳样中分得细菌共4类14种菌82株,其中葡萄球菌36株,占43.90%;链球菌33株,占40.24%;肠杆菌类8株,占9.76%;棒状杆菌5株。占6.10%。冀东地区奶牛隐性乳房炎主要病原菌为金黄色葡萄球菌和无乳链球菌。

  16. Effect of bovine respiratory disease and overall pathogenic disease incidence on carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M D; Thallman, R M; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Casas, E

    2010-02-01

    The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used. The first population included crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 642) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The second population included crossbred steers (GPE8; n = 621) derived from tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds and Bos indicus-influenced breeds: Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano, as well as Hereford and Angus. Treatment records for BRD, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, and infectious pododermatitis were available for these populations. Incidence of BRD was treated as an independent effect. Incidences of the 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were pooled into a single trait to represent overall pathogenic disease incidence. Traits evaluated were HCW; KPH; LM area; marbling score; fat thickness; dressing percentage; yield grade; retail, fat, and bone yields; and meat tenderness. Both BRD and IPD were associated with differences in yield grade in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.004, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Incidence of BRD and IPD were associated with a reduction in fat thickness in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.01, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD also had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.002, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for BRD (P yield (P yield (P yield (P < 0.01) measurements than unaffected animals. The relationship between disease and carcass

  17. Genome analysis of multiple pathogenic isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae : Implications for the microbial "pan-genome"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tettelin, H; Masignani, [No Value; Cieslewicz, MJ; Donati, C; Medini, D; Ward, NL; Angiuoli, SV; Crabtree, J; Jones, AL; Durkin, AS; DeBoy, RT; Davidsen, TM; Mora, M; Scarselli, M; Ros, IMY; Peterson, JD; Hauser, CR; Sundaram, JP; Nelson, WC; Madupu, R; Brinkac, LM; Dodson, RJ; Rosovitz, MJ; Sullivan, SA; Daugherty, SC; Haft, DH; Selengut, J; Gwinn, ML; Zhou, LW; Zafar, N; Khouri, H; Radune, D; Dimitrov, G; Watkins, K; O'Connor, KJB; Smith, S; Utterback, TR; White, O; Rubens, CE; Grandi, G; Madoff, LC; Kasper, DL; Telford, JL; Wessels, MR; Rappuoli, R; Fraser, CM

    2005-01-01

    The development of efficient and inexpensive genome sequencing methods has revolutionized the study of human bacterial pathogens and improved vaccine design. Unfortunately, the sequence of a single genome does not reflect how genetic variability drives pathogenesis within a bacterial species and als

  18. Natural Variation in the Promoter of the Gene Encoding the Mga Regulator Alters Host-Pathogen Interactions in Group A Streptococcus Carrier Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Anthony R.; Olsen, Randall J.; Wunsche, Andrea; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Shelburne, Samuel A.; Carroll, Ronan K; Musser, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Humans commonly carry pathogenic bacteria asymptomatically, but the molecular factors underlying microbial asymptomatic carriage are poorly understood. We previously reported that two epidemiologically unassociated serotype M3 group A Streptococcus (GAS) carrier strains had an identical 12-bp deletion in the promoter of the gene encoding Mga, a global positive gene regulator. Herein, we report on studies designed to test the hypothesis that the identified 12-bp deletion in the mga promoter al...

  19. Structural insight for substrate tolerance to 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase from the pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thinh-Phat; Kim, Joong-Su; Woo, Mi-Hee; Choi, Jin Myung; Jun, Youngsoo; Lee, Kun Ho; Lee, Sung Haeng

    2016-04-01

    2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase (DERA) is a class I aldolase that catalyzes aldol condensation of two aldehydes in the active site, which is particularly germane in drug manufacture. Structural and biochemical studies have shown that the active site of DERA is typically loosely packed and displays broader substrate specificity despite sharing conserved folding architecture with other aldolases. The most distinctive structural feature of DERA compared to other aldolases is short and flexible C-terminal region. This region is also responsible for substrate recognition. Therefore, substrate tolerance may be related to the C-terminal structural features of DERA. Here, we determined the crystal structures of full length and C-terminal truncated DERA from Streptococcus suis (SsDERA). In common, both contained the typical (α/β)8 TIM-barrel fold of class I aldolases. Surprisingly, C-terminal truncation resulting in missing the last α9 and β8 secondary elements, allowed DERA to maintain activity comparable to the fulllength enzyme. Specifically, Arg186 and Ser205 residues at the C-terminus appeared mutually supplemental or less indispensible for substrate phosphate moiety recognition. Our results suggest that DERA might adopt a shorter C-terminal region than conventional aldolases during evolution pathway, resulting in a broader range of substrate tolerance through active site flexibility. PMID:27033207

  20. Comparative genomics analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae reveals that isolates from cultured tilapia in China are closely related to the human strain A909

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae, also referred to as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a frequent resident of the rectovaginal tract in humans, and a major cause of neonatal infection. In addition, S. agalactiae is a known fish pathogen, which compromises food safety and represents a zoonotic hazard. The complete genome sequence of the piscine S. agalactiae isolate GD201008-001 was compared with 14 other piscine, human and bovine strains to explore their virulence determinants, evolutionary...

  1. Host-pathogen Interaction at the Intestinal Mucosa Correlates With Zoonotic Potential of Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; de Greeff, Astrid; van Rooijen, Willemien J. M.;

    2015-01-01

    of SS2 infection. Methods. We developed a noninvasive in vivo model to study oral SS2 infection in piglets. We compared in vitro interaction of S. suis with human and porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Results. Two out of 15 piglets showed clinical symptoms compatible with S. suis infection 24...... be considered a food-borne pathogen. S. suis interaction with human and pig IEC correlates with S. suis serotype and genotype, which can explain the zoonotic potential of SS2....

  2. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.961 protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SMU.961 protein from S. mutans was crystallized and preliminary characterization of the crystals, which diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution, shows them to belong to space group C2. The smu.961 gene encodes a putative protein of 183 residues in Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen in human dental caries. The gene was cloned into expression vector pET28a and expressed in a substantial quantity in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) with a His tag at its N-terminus. The recombinant protein SMU.961 was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure consisting of Ni2+-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution at beamline I911-3, MAX-II-lab, Sweden. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.62, b = 73.73, c = 184.73 Å, β = 98.82°

  3. Sequential necrotizing fasciitis caused by the monomicrobial pathogens Streptococcus equisimilis and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akiko; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressing bacterial infection of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue that is associated with a high mortality rate and is caused by a single species of bacteria or polymicrobial organisms. Escherichia coli is rarely isolated from patients with monomicrobial disease. Further, there are few reports of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli associated with necrotizing fasciitis. We report here our treatment of an 85-year-old man who was admitted because of necrotizing fasciitis of his right thigh. Streptococcus equisimilis was detected as a monomicrobial pathogen, and the infection was cured by amputation of the patient's right leg and the administration of antibiotics. However, 5 days after discontinuing antibiotic therapy, he developed necrotizing fasciitis on his right upper limb and died. ESBL-producing E. coli was the only bacterial species isolated from blood and skin cultures. This case demonstrates that ESBL-producing E. coli can cause monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis, particularly during hospitalization and that a different bacterial species can cause disease shortly after a previous episode. PMID:26912298

  4. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.961 protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiong-Zhuo [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, XiaoJun, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China)

    2007-10-01

    The SMU.961 protein from S. mutans was crystallized and preliminary characterization of the crystals, which diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution, shows them to belong to space group C2. The smu.961 gene encodes a putative protein of 183 residues in Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen in human dental caries. The gene was cloned into expression vector pET28a and expressed in a substantial quantity in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) with a His tag at its N-terminus. The recombinant protein SMU.961 was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure consisting of Ni{sup 2+}-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution at beamline I911-3, MAX-II-lab, Sweden. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.62, b = 73.73, c = 184.73 Å, β = 98.82°.

  5. Multicentric study in five African countries of antibiotic susceptibility for three main pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerouali, Khalid; Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Boye, Cheikh; Hammami, Adnane

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing clinical and epidemiological problem. We report on the antibiotic susceptibility of three pathogens isolated from patients in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Senegal, and Tunisia during 2010-2011. In total, 218 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 428 Staphylococcus aureus, and 414 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were collected. S. pneumoniae resistance was noted against penicillin (30.2%), erythromycin (27.4%), cefpodoxime (19.1%), amoxicillin (12.0%), cefotaxime (7.4%), and levofloxacin (3.2%). All the strains were teicoplanin susceptible. Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance differed between countries, from 5.0% in Senegal to 62.7% in Egypt. Levofloxacin resistance was low in all countries, and the highest rate (in Egypt) was still only 13.6% for intermediate and resistant strains combined. Most strains were susceptible to fosfomycin (99.3%) and pristinamycin (94.2%). P. aeruginosa resistance was found against levofloxacin (30.4%), ciprofloxacin (29.9%), tobramycin (19.7%), ceftazidime (19.2%), and imipenem (17.9%), but not colistin. Antibiotic susceptibility varied widely between countries, with resistance typically most prevalent in Egypt. PMID:25363146

  6. M-protein and other intrinsic virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes are encoded on an ancient pathogenicity island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakata Masanobu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of completely sequenced bacterial genomes allows comparing their architecture and genetic makeup. Such new information highlights the crucial role of lateral genetic exchanges in bacterial evolution and speciation. Results Here we analyzed the twelve sequenced genomes of Streptococcus pyogenes by a naïve approach that examines the preferential nucleotide usage along the chromosome, namely the usage of G versus C (GC-skew and T versus A (TA-skew. The cumulative GC-skew plot presented an inverted V-shape composed of two symmetrical linear segments, where the minimum and maximum corresponded to the origin and terminus of DNA replication. In contrast, the cumulative TA-skew presented a V-shape, which segments were interrupted by several steep slopes regions (SSRs, indicative of a different nucleotide composition bias. Each S. pyogenes genome contained up to nine individual SSRs, encompassing all described strain-specific prophages. In addition, each genome contained a similar unique non-phage SSR, the core of which consisted of 31 highly homologous genes. This core includes the M-protein, other mga-related factors and other virulence genes, totaling ten intrinsic virulence genes. In addition to a high content in virulence-related genes and to a peculiar nucleotide bias, this SSR, which is 47 kb-long in a M1GAS strain, harbors direct repeats and a tRNA gene, suggesting a mobile element. Moreover, its complete absence in a M-protein negative group A Streptococcus natural isolate demonstrates that it could be spontaneously lost, but in vitro deletion experiments indicates that its excision occurred at very low rate. The stability of this SSR, combined to its presence in all sequenced S. pyogenes sequenced genome, suggests that it results from an ancient acquisition. Conclusion Thus, this non-phagic SSR is compatible with a pathogenicity island, acquired before S. pyogenes speciation. Its potential excision

  7. Overcoming function annotation errors in the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus suis by a proteomics-driven approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárcena José A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annotation of protein-coding genes is a key step in sequencing projects. Protein functions are mainly assigned on the basis of the amino acid sequence alone by searching of homologous proteins. However, fully automated annotation processes often lead to wrong prediction of protein functions, and therefore time-intensive manual curation is often essential. Here we describe a fast and reliable way to correct function annotation in sequencing projects, focusing on surface proteomes. We use a proteomics approach, previously proven to be very powerful for identifying new vaccine candidates against Gram-positive pathogens. It consists of shaving the surface of intact cells with two proteases, the specific cleavage-site trypsin and the unspecific proteinase K, followed by LC/MS/MS analysis of the resulting peptides. The identified proteins are contrasted by computational analysis and their sequences are inspected to correct possible errors in function prediction. Results When applied to the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis, of which two strains have been recently sequenced and annotated, we identified a set of surface proteins without cytoplasmic contamination: all the proteins identified had exporting or retention signals towards the outside and/or the cell surface, and viability of protease-treated cells was not affected. The combination of both experimental evidences and computational methods allowed us to determine that two of these proteins are putative extracellular new adhesins that had been previously attributed a wrong cytoplasmic function. One of them is a putative component of the pilus of this bacterium. Conclusion We illustrate the complementary nature of laboratory-based and computational methods to examine in concert the localization of a set of proteins in the cell, and demonstrate the utility of this proteomics-based strategy to experimentally correct function annotation errors in sequencing projects. This

  8. Simultaneous detection of LipL32 and LipL21 genes of pathogenic leptospira from serum samples of bovines by multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timiri V. Meenambigai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease of cattle associated with pathogenic leptospiral infection. This study focuses in the use of a molecular tool to detect pathogenic leptospiral infection in bovines by targeting the outer membrane proteins LipL32 and LipL21 simultaneously in a multiplex PCR. Sixteen pathogenic reference strains and 10 bovine serum samples were analyzed for simultaneous detection of both genes at appropriate annealing conditions. These findings are suggestive of the fact that multiplex PCR can be used to detect major outer membrane proteins of pathogenic leptospira from serum samples. Further it aided in the differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic species of leptospires too. This study will definitely serve as a valuable tool, as it suggests the importance of LipL32 genes as potential candidates for vaccine development to control animal Leptospirosis.

  9. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azizollah Ebrahimi; Azar Moatamedi; Sharareh Lotfalian; Pejhman Mirshokraei

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were bio...

  10. Streptococcus agalactiae endogenous endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Saffra, Norman; Rakhamimov, Aleksandr; Husney, Robert; Ghitan, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (SA) is a Group B Streptococcus, which is a common pathogen implicated in neonatal and geriatric sepsis. Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE) is a condition that results from haematogenous seeding of the globe, during transient or persistent bacteremia. We document a case of a non-septic geriatric patient, who developed EBE after a transient bacteraemia with SA.

  11. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Rini I Damayanti; Sudarisman

    2005-01-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were ...

  12. Molecular characterization and virulence gene profiling of pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae populations from tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) farms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Katagiri, Takayuki; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2014-05-19

    Streptococcus spp. were recovered from diseased tilapia in Thailand during 2009-2010 (n = 33), and were also continually collected from environmental samples (sediment and water) from tilapia farms for 9 months in 2011 (n = 25). The relative percent recovery of streptococci from environmental samples was 13-67%. All streptococcal isolates were identified as S. agalactiae (group B streptococci [GBS]) by a species-specific polymerase chain reaction. In molecular characterization assays, 4 genotypic categories comprised of 1) molecular serotypes, 2) the infB allele, 3) virulence gene profiling patterns (cylE, hylB, scpB, lmb, cspA, dltA, fbsA, fbsB, bibA, gap, and pili backbone-encoded genes), and 4) randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting patterns, were used to describe the genotypic diversity of the GBS isolates. There was only 1 isolate identified as molecular serotype III, while the others were serotype Ia. Most GBS serotype Ia isolates had an identical infB allele and virulence gene profiling patterns, but a large diversity was established by RAPD analysis with diversity tending to be geographically dependent. Experimental infection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) revealed that the GBS serotype III isolate was nonpathogenic in the fish, while all 5 serotype Ia isolates (3 fish and 2 environmental isolates) were pathogenic, with a median lethal dose of 6.25-7.56 log10 colony-forming units. In conclusion, GBS isolates from tilapia farms in Thailand showed a large genetic diversity, which was associated with the geographical origins of the bacteria. PMID:24842288

  13. Pathogenicity of Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia-associated vaccine-induced alloantibodies correlates with Major Histocompatibility Complex class I expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedictus, Lindert; Luteijn, Rutger D; Otten, Henny; Lebbink, Robert Jan; van Kooten, Peter J S; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J; Rutten, Victor P M G; Koets, Ad P

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), a fatal bleeding syndrome of neonatal calves, is caused by maternal alloantibodies absorbed from colostrum and is characterized by lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and bone marrow hypoplasia. An inactivated viral vaccine is the likely source of alloantigens inducing BNP-associated alloantibodies in the dam. In this study the specificity of BNP alloantibodies was assessed and was linked to the pathology of BNP. We demonstrated that Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC I) and Very Late Antigen-3, an integrin α3/β1 heterodimer, were the major targets of BNP alloantibodies. However, alloantibody binding to various bovine cell types correlated with MHC I expression, rather than integrin β1 or α3 expression. Likewise, alloantibody-dependent complement-mediated cell lysis correlated strongly with MHC I expression. Examination of several tissues of third trimester bovine foetuses revealed that cells, shown to be affected in calves with BNP, were characterized by high MHC class I expression and high levels of alloantibody binding. We conclude that in spite of the heterogeneous specificity of BNP associated maternal alloantibodies, MHC I-specific antibodies mediate the pathogenicity of BNP in the calf and that cells with high MHC I expression were preferentially affected in BNP. PMID:26235972

  14. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 1. High abundance proteins, acute phase proteins and peptidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Funmilola Clara; Mullen, William; Tassi, Riccardo; Ramírez-Torres, Adela; Mudaliar, Manikhandan; McNeilly, Tom N; Zadoks, Ruth N; Burchmore, Richard; David Eckersall, P

    2016-08-16

    A peptidomic investigation of milk from an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis in dairy cows has incorporated a study of milk high abundance and acute phase (APP) proteins as well as analysis of low molecular weight peptide biomarkers. Intramammary infection (IMI) with S. uberis caused a shift in abundance from caseins, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin to albumin, lactoferrin and IgG with the increase in lactoferrin occurring last. The APP response of haptoglobin, mammary associated serum amyloid A3 and C-reactive protein occurred between 30-48 hours post challenge with peak concentrations of APPs at 72-96 hours post challenge and declined thereafter at a rate resembling the fall in bacterial count rather than the somatic cell count. A peptide biomarker panel for IMI based on capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was developed. It comprised 77 identified peptides (IMI77) composed mainly of casein derived peptides but also including peptides of glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule and serum amyloid A. The panel had a biomarker classification score that increased from 36 hour to 81 hour post challenge, significantly differentiating infected from non-infected milk, thus suggesting potential as a peptide biomarker panel of bovine mastitis and specifically that of S. uberis origin. The use of omic technology has shown a multifactorial cross system reaction in high and low abundance proteins and their peptide derivatives with changes of over a thousand fold in analyte levels in response to S. uberis infection. PMID:27412456

  15. Impact of varying metal ion- and carbohydrate concentrations on gene expression in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafeeq, Sulman

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is een grampositieve menselijke ziekteverwekker die jaarlijks verantwoordelijk is voor de dood van miljoenen mensen, voornamelijk kinderen, en veroorzaakt pneumokokken infecties zoals longontsteking, hersenvliesontsteking, middenoor ontsteking en sepsis. De bacterie leeft on

  16. Single nucleotide resolution RNA-seq uncovers new regulatory mechanisms in the opportunistic pathogen [i]Streptococcus agalactiae[/i

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvage, Elisabeth; Sismeiro, Odile; Villain, Adrien; Da Cunha, Violette; Caliot, Marie-Elise; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Bouloc, Philippe; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Glaser, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus, is a leading cause of neonatal infections and an increasing cause of infections in adults with underlying diseases. In an effort to reconstruct the transcriptional networks involved in S. agalactiae physiology and pathogenesis, we performed an extensive and robust characterization of its transcriptome through a combination of differential RNA-sequencing in eight different growth conditions or genetic backgrounds and strand-specifi...

  17. Biofilm formation by Streptococcus agalactiae: influence of environmental conditions and implicated virulence factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rosini, Roberto; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is an important human pathogen that colonizes the urogenital and/or the lower gastro-intestinal tract of up to 40% of healthy women of reproductive age and is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonates. GBS can also infect the elderly and immuno-compromised adults, and is responsible for mastitis in bovines. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS can form biofilm-like three-dimensional structures that could enhance its abilit...

  18. Detection and Enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk Samples by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Nara Ladeira; Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; Silva, Luis Felipe de Prada E; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with DNA extraction directly from composite milk and bulk tank samples for detection and enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae (SAG) causing subclinical mastitis. Dilutions of sterile reconstituted skim milk inoculated with SAG ATCC 13813 were used to establish a standard curve (cfu/mL) for the qPCR assay targeting SAG. The analytical sensitivity and repeatability of the qPCR assay were determined. Bulk tank (BTM; n = 38) and composite milk samples (CM; n = 26) collected from lactating cows with positive isolation of SAG were submitted to the qPCR protocol and SAG plate counting, with results from both methods compared. Amplification of DNA was not possible in two out of 64 samples, indicating that qPCR was able to detect SAG in 96 and 97% of BTM and CM samples, respectively. The inter-assay coefficient of variation was <5%, showing that the technique had adequate repeatability. The qPCR protocol can be a high-throughput and rapid diagnostic assay to accurately detect SAG from BTM and CM samples compared with conventional microbiological culture method. However, the evaluated qPCR protocol is not accurate for enumerating SAG in milk samples, probably due to quantification of DNA of non-viable cells. PMID:26134534

  19. Survival of Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria in Bovine Feces on Pasture▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sinton, Lester W.; Braithwaite, Robin R.; Hall, Carollyn H.; Mackenzie, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    The survival of enteric bacteria was measured in bovine feces on pasture. In each season, 11 cow pats were prepared from a mixture of fresh dairy cattle feces and sampled for up to 150 days. Four pats were analyzed for Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci, and enterococci, and four inoculated pats were analyzed for Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica. Two pats were placed on drainage collectors, and another pat was fitted with a temperature probe. In the first 1 to 3 weeks, there wer...

  20. Effects of Chinese Propolis in Protecting Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells against Mastitis Pathogens-Induced Cell Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-Lu; Shen, Xiao-Ge; Sun, Li-Ping; Wu, Li-Ming; Wei, Jiang-Qin; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; Hu, Fu-Liang; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese propolis (CP), an important hive product, can alleviate inflammatory responses. However, little is known regarding the potential of propolis treatment for mastitis control. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of CP on bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), we used a range of pathogens to induce cellular inflammatory damage. Cell viability was determined and expressions of inflammatory/antioxidant genes were measured. Using a cell-based reporter assay system, we evaluated CP and its primary constituents on the NF-κB and Nrf2-ARE transcription activation. MAC-T cells treated with bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), heat-inactivated Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus exhibited significant decreases in cell viability while TNF-α and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) did not. Pretreatment with CP prevented losses in cell viability associated with the addition of killed bacteria or bacterial endotoxins. There were also corresponding decreases in expressions of proinflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. Compared with the mastitis challenged cells, enhanced expressions of antioxidant genes HO-1, Txnrd-1, and GCLM were observed in CP-treated cells. CP and its polyphenolic active components (primarily caffeic acid phenethyl ester and quercetin) had strong inhibitive effects against NF-κB activation and increased the transcriptional activity of Nrf2-ARE. These findings suggest that propolis may be valuable in the control of bovine mastitis. PMID:27433029

  1. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7 have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Results Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV-infected pigs (4/12 and the coinfected pigs (8/10; however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10 than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12 and SS7-infected pigs (0/10. The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. Conclusion HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain SA20-06, a fish pathogen associated to meningoencephalitis outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ulisses de Pádua; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Guimarães, Luís Carlos; Silva Almeida, Sintia; Diniz, Carlos Augusto Almeida; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Gomes Sá, Pablo; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Dorella, Fernanda Alves

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is the causative agent of meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis in humans. Meningoencephalitis is a major health problem for tilapia farming and is responsible for high economic losses worldwide. Despite its importance, the genomic characteristics and the main molecular mechanisms involved in virulence of S. agalactiae isolated from fish are still poorly understood. Here, we present the genomic features of the 1,8...

  3. Suicin 90-1330 from a nonvirulent strain of Streptococcus suis: a nisin-related lantibiotic active on gram-positive swine pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBel, Geneviève; Vaillancourt, Katy; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections (meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia) in pigs and is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Antibiotics have long been used in the swine industry for disease treatment/prevention and growth promoters. This pattern of utilization resulted in the spread of antibiotic resistance in S. suis worldwide. Interestingly, pigs may harbor S. suis in their tonsils without developing diseases, while North American strains belonging to the sequence type 28 (ST28) are nonvirulent in animal models. Consequently, the aim of this study was to purify and characterize a bacteriocin produced by a nonvirulent strain of S. suis serotype 2, with a view to a potential therapeutic and preventive application. S. suis 90-1330 belonging to ST28 and previously shown to be nonvirulent in an animal model exhibited antibacterial activity toward all S. suis pathogenic isolates tested. The bacteriocin produced by this strain was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography. Given its properties (molecular mass of nisin U produced by Streptococcus uberis. The putative gene cluster involved in suicin production was amplified by PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of 11 open reading frames, including the structural gene and those required for the modification of amino acids, export, regulation, and immunity. Further studies will evaluate the ability of suicin 90-1330 or the producing strain to prevent experimental S. suis infections in pigs.

  4. Pathogen detection in milk samples by ligation detection reaction-mediated universal array method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, P; Pisoni, G; Severgnini, M; Consolandi, C; Moroni, P; Raschetti, M; Castiglioni, B

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a new DNA chip, based on the use of a ligation detection reaction coupled to a universal array, developed to detect and analyze, directly from milk samples, microbial pathogens known to cause bovine, ovine, and caprine mastitis or to be responsible for foodborne intoxication or infection, or both. Probes were designed for the identification of 15 different bacterial groups: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, nonaureus staphylococci, Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus parauberis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma spp., Salmonella spp., Bacillus spp., Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli and related species. These groups were identified based on the 16S rRNA gene. For microarray validation, 22 strains from the American Type Culture Collection or other culture collections and 50 milk samples were tested. The results demonstrated high specificity, with sensitivity as low as 6 fmol. Moreover, the ligation detection reaction-universal array assay allowed for the identification of Mycoplasma spp. in a few hours, avoiding the long incubation times of traditional microbiological identification methods. The universal array described here is a versatile tool able to identify milk pathogens efficiently and rapidly. PMID:19528580

  5. Antimicrobial potential for the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with lactoferrin-resistant probiotics against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P-W; Jheng, T T; Shyu, C-L; Mao, F C

    2013-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that several probiotic strains can resist the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, a portion of orally administered apo-bLf is digested in vivo by pepsin to yield bLf hydrolysate, which produces stronger antibacterial activity than that observed with apo-bLf. However, whether bLf hydrolysate affects the growth of probiotic strains is unclear. Therefore, various probiotic strains in Taiwan were collected and evaluated for activity against apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate in vitro. Thirteen probiotic strains were evaluated, and the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, and Bifidobacterium lactis BCRC 17394 were inhibited by both apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate. The growth of 8 strains were not affected by apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, including L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11739, Lactobacillus coryniformis ATCC 25602, L. acidophilus BCRC 14065, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8081. However, apo-bLf and its hydrolysate inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the supernatants produced by L. fermentum, B. lactis, and B. longum inhibited the growth of most pathogens. Importantly, a combination of apo-bLf or bLf hydrolysate with the supernatants of cultures of the organisms described above showed synergistic or partially synergistic effects against the growth of most of the selected pathogens. In conclusion, several probiotic strains are resistant to apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, warranting clinical studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential for the combination of apo-bLf or its hydrolysate with specific probiotics. PMID:23332852

  6. Natural variation in the promoter of the gene encoding the Mga regulator alters host-pathogen interactions in group a Streptococcus carrier strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Anthony R; Olsen, Randall J; Wunsche, Andrea; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Shelburne, Samuel A; Carroll, Ronan K; Musser, James M

    2013-11-01

    Humans commonly carry pathogenic bacteria asymptomatically, but the molecular factors underlying microbial asymptomatic carriage are poorly understood. We previously reported that two epidemiologically unassociated serotype M3 group A Streptococcus (GAS) carrier strains had an identical 12-bp deletion in the promoter of the gene encoding Mga, a global positive gene regulator. Herein, we report on studies designed to test the hypothesis that the identified 12-bp deletion in the mga promoter alters GAS virulence, thereby potentially contributing to the asymptomatic carrier phenotype. Using allelic exchange, we introduced the variant promoter into a serotype M3 invasive strain and the wild-type promoter into an asymptomatic carrier strain. Compared to strains with the wild-type mga promoter, we discovered that strains containing the promoter with the 12-bp deletion produced significantly fewer mga and Mga-regulated gene transcripts. Consistent with decreased mga transcripts, strains containing the variant mga promoter were also significantly less virulent in in vivo and ex vivo models of GAS disease. Further, we provide evidence that the pleiotropic regulator protein CodY binds to the mga promoter and that the 12-bp deletion in the mga promoter reduces CodY-mediated mga transcription. We conclude that the naturally occurring 12-bp deletion in the mga promoter significantly alters the pathogen-host interaction of these asymptomatic carrier strains. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular basis of the carrier state of an important human pathogen. PMID:23980109

  7. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini I Damayanti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were used as control animals. Isolate I and III were originated from semen from IBR positive bulls number G 867 and G 148 respectively whereas isolate II was collected from vaginal mucosa and isolate IV was from nasal mucosa of IBR positive cattle treated with dexamethasone. Clinical response, gross-pathological and histopathological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the antigen in tissue section. The results show that the BHV-1 local isolates could produce IBR syndrome namely fever and changes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts even though the clinical responses seemed to be disappeared by 21 days PI. Grossly there were hyperaemic nasal and vaginal mucosa and pneumonia whereas histologically there were non suppurative rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia and vulvovaginitis. Immunohistochemically the antigen was detected in the nasal concha and trachea. Dexamethasone treatment at 60-64 days PI could produce less severe clinical features and the second necroppsy at 69 days PI also results in less severe pathological responses. The findings also suggest that the pathogenicity of BHV-1 local isolates were as follows: isolates I, II, IV and III.

  8. Altered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zinicola

    Full Text Available Bovine digital dermatitis (DD is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

  9. Bactericidal effect of bovine lactoferrin and synthetic peptide lactoferrin chimera in Streptococcus pneumoniae and the decrease in luxS gene expression by lactoferrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. León-Sicairos; U.A. Angulo-Zamudio; J.E. Vidal; C.A. López-Torres; J.G.M. Bolscher; K. Nazmi; R. Reyes-Cortes; M. Reyes-López; M. de la Garza; A. Canizalez-Román

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for nearly one million child deaths annually. Pneumococcus causes infections such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, and sepsis. The human immune system includes antibacterial peptides and proteins such as lactoferrin (LF), but its activity

  10. An Evaluation of a Teat Dip with Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid in Preventing Bovine Mammary Gland Infection from Experimental Exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Barnum, D A; Johnson, R. E.; Brooks, B W

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of a teat dip with dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (1.94%) for the prevention of intramammary infections was determined in cows experimentally challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. The infection rates with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus were 62.5% and 75% in undipped quarters, 12.5% and 21.5% in dipped quarters with a reduction rate of 80% and 71% respectively. The significance of some findings in relation to mastitis control a...

  11. 牛源性无乳链球菌血清型分布及抗生素耐药性研究%Serotype Distribution of Bovine Streptococcus agalactiae and its Drug Resistance to Antibiotics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏胜; 郁杰; 罗金印; 李新圃; 徐继英; 王旭荣; 张礼华

    2012-01-01

    本研究旨在查明牛源性无乳链球菌血清型分布及对常见抗生素的耐药情况,指导临床合理用药.对从中国部分地区奶牛场采集的临床型乳房炎病牛乳中分离鉴定出78株无乳链球菌地方菌株,制备沉淀反应抗原及6株标准血清型无乳链球菌单因子血清抗体,采用环状沉淀试验,对78株无乳链球菌地方菌株进行了血清学分型鉴定;同时采用K-B纸片法测定了这些菌株对抗生素的耐药情况.结果表明,引起奶牛乳房炎的无乳链球菌血清型主要为X型(60.26%),其次为Ⅲ型(10.26%)、R型(7.69%)、Ⅱ型(7.69%)和Ⅰb型(5.13%),Ⅰ a型尚未发现.无乳链球菌对目前临床上使用的大部分抗生素,如头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟、丁胺卡那霉素、卡那霉素、庆大霉素、四环素、强力霉素、氟苯尼考、多黏菌素B、环丙沙星、氟哌酸和头孢他啶/棒酸均较敏感;但对氨苄青霉素、链霉素、恩诺沙星、阿莫西林/棒酸和复方新诺明,有一定的耐药性,其耐药率达50%~100%.本研究对进一步研制有效的药物及疫苗,指导临床合理用药具有重要的意义.%To identify serotype distribution of bovine Streptococcus agalactiae and its drug resistance to common antibiotics, so that the correct antibiotics was applied during clinical therapy, 78 local strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were isolated from milk samples of dairy cow with clinical mastitis throughout the country. We prepared antigens for precipitation reaction and hyperimmune serum antibodies of 6 standard serotype Streptococcus agalactiae strains, then 78 local strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were identified by ring precipitation test and antibiotic resistance were analyzed. In China, the predominant serotype of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine mastitis were X-type (60. 26%), Ⅲ-type (10. 26%), R-type (7.69%), Ⅱ -type (7.69%) and I b-type (5. 13%) respectively. However, I a-type was not

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental bovine mastitis pathogens in west central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Kheirabadi, K H Pirali; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy herds of Chahar Mahal province in west central Iran. Out of the 620 milk samples collected from the four districts, 180 were CMT (California mastitis test) positive that cultured and yield, 7 (3.88%) coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS), 15 (8.33%) Streptococci other than agalactiae and 17 (9.44%) E. coli. CNS resistance to penicillin was 14.28% but for streptomycin, Oxytetracycline and Colistin, were 28.57%. Non agalactiae Streptococci resistance to Oxytetracycline and Kanamycin were 20 and 13.33%, respectively. E. coli resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and Colistin were 88.23, 82.35, 76.47, 76.47 and 52.94%, respectively. PMID:19090221

  13. Epidemiological and pathogenic study on the outbreak of toxic shock syndrome and meningocephalitis caused by swine streptococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐家琪; 白薇; 朱进; 郭恒彬; 胡晓抒; 朱凤才; 刘光中

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the relationship between the biological characteristics of pathogen and the pig-to-human spread of the epidemic and infectious disease in 1998 in East China. Methods: Epidemiological survey, pathological examination of pigs and patients, and pathogen isolation were performed. Results: The disease had a character of quick onset, serious symptoms, short course and high mortality. The clinical manifestations and pathological changes of the disease were high fever, sometimes with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, then might develop to myositis, fascitis, DIC, multiple organ failure, shock and usually died in 2-3 d. Among 25 patients, 16 manifested clinically as streptococcal toxic shock syndromes and 9 streptococcal meningiocephalitis syndrome. The mortality was 81.25% and 11.11% respectively. Pathogenic bacteria isolated from diseased pigs and patients were found to have some common characteristics in morphology, staining and biological characters. Conclusion: The pathogen isolated from the blood of patients and pigs were identified as streptococci.

  14. Persistent infection of the chin with an unusual skin pathogen (Streptococcus milleri): a sign of intraoral carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D A; Murphy, A; Dervan, P; Hone, R; O'Dwyer, T; O'Loughlin, S

    1998-01-01

    Streptococcus milleri is a commensal of the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract which is not generally associated with skin disease. We now report a patient who presented with a pustular mass of the chin with lower lip anaesthesia. He was initially thought to have sycosis barbae, but response to treatment was poor and lesional swabs repeatedly cultured S. milleri. After some delay, squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth, involving the mandible and overlying skin, was detected. We consider that the S. milleri either invaded through the tumour from the mouth or root canal or colonized the skin from saliva dribbled over the numb lower lip. Isolation of an unusual organism and numbness of the chin are features that should suggest the need for early radiography. PMID:9667108

  15. Efficacy of chlorhexidine as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; King, S H; Lewis, M J; Torre, P M; Matthews, K R; Dowlen, H H

    1990-08-01

    A natural exposure trial was conducted for 12 mo in a herd of 150 lactating Jersey cows to determine efficacy of a .35% chlorhexidine teat dip containing a glycerine emollient for the prevention of bovine intramammary infections. Right teats of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal and left teats were not dipped. The herd was free of Streptococcus agalactiae and had a low prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus. Most new major pathogen intramammary infections resulted from Streptococcus species, primarily Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. New infections by Streptococcus species were significantly lower in teats dipped in chlorhexidine than in undipped teats. Overall efficacy of the chlorhexidine teat dip against major mastitis pathogens was 50%. The experimental teat dip also reduced coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species infections 49.0% and Corynebacterium bovis infections 65.2%. Overall efficacy against minor mastitis pathogens was 54.0%. No irritation or chapping of teats dipped in the experimental teat dip was observed. PMID:2229606

  16. Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine.

  17. Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis With Group B Streptococcus After an Elective Abortion: The Need for New Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Palys

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B streptococcus (GBS, was originally discovered as a cause of bovine mastitis. GBS colonizes the genital tract of up to 40% of women and has become a major pathogen in neonatal meningitis. GBS endocarditis is thought to be an uncommon manifestation of this infection and carries a higher mortality compared to other streptococcal pathogens. Studies have shown that endocarditis after abortion has an incidence of about one per million. However, this figure was published prior to routine use of echocardiography for diagnosis. The American Heart Association has recently declared transesophageal echocardiography the gold standard for endocarditis diagnosis. This case report illustrates that, given the potentially devastating consequences of endocarditis, there is a need for updated studies to adequately assess the true incidence of this infection. Pending the outcome of these studies, routine GBS screening and prophylactic antibiotics prior to abortion should be recommended.

  18. Tricuspid valve endocarditis with Group B Streptococcus after an elective abortion: the need for new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palys, Erica E; Li, John; Gaut, Paula L; Hardy, W David

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B streptococcus (GBS), was originally discovered as a cause of bovine mastitis. GBS colonizes the genital tract of up to 40% of women and has become a major pathogen in neonatal meningitis. GBS endocarditis is thought to be an uncommon manifestation of this infection and carries a higher mortality compared to other streptococcal pathogens. Studies have shown that endocarditis after abortion has an incidence of about one per million. However, this figure was published prior to routine use of echocardiography for diagnosis. The American Heart Association has recently declared transesophageal echocardiography the gold standard for endocarditis diagnosis. This case report illustrates that, given the potentially devastating consequences of endocarditis, there is a need for updated studies to adequately assess the true incidence of this infection. Pending the outcome of these studies, routine GBS screening and prophylactic antibiotics prior to abortion should be recommended.

  19. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Kaijalainen, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumococcus, is an importanthuman pathogen that causes both serious invasive infections, suchas septicaemia, meningitis and pneumonia, as well as mild upper respiratoryinfections. It also belongs to the normal nasopharyngeal microbialflora. The purpose of this study was to compare bacteriologicalphenotypic methods with genetechnological methods in the identificationof pneumococci, especially among suspect pneumococcal isolateslacking one or more typical ...

  20. Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Protein Complex Formation and Bacterial Immune Evasion of Streptococcus suis Protein Fhb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueqin; Liu, Peng; Gan, Shuzhen; Zhang, Chunmao; Zheng, Yuling; Jiang, Yongqiang; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-08-12

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2)-induced sepsis and meningitis are often accompanied by bacteremia. The evasion of polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated phagocytic clearance is central to the establishment of bacteremia caused by S. suis 2 and is facilitated by the ability of factor H (FH)-binding protein (Fhb) to bind FH on the bacterial surface, thereby impeding alternative pathway complement activation and phagocytic clearance. Here, C3b/C3d was found to bind to Fhb, along with FH, forming a large immune complex. The formation of this immune complex was mediated by domain II of Fhb via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which, to our knowledge, is a new type of interaction. Interestingly, Fhb was found to be associated with the cell envelope and also present in the culture supernatant, where secreted Fhb inhibited complement activation via interactions with domain II, thereby enhancing antiphagocytic clearance by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Thus, Fhb is a multifunctional bacterial protein, which binds host complement component C3 as well as FH and interferes with innate immune recognition in a secret protein manner. S. suis 2 therefore appears to have developed a new strategy to combat host innate immunity and enhance survival in host blood. PMID:27342778

  1. A STUDY ON IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS BENGALENSIS LINN. ON DENTAL CARIES PATHOGENS STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND ACTINOMYCES VISCOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. B. Prashanth, I. Kannan*, C. Sambandam, M. Jayalakshmi, R.K. Premavathy and S. Shantha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aerial roots of Ficus bengalensis Linn. were collected in and around Chennai, Tamilnadu, India They were washed, shade dried and were ground into powder. The powder was extracted with chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol and hexane. The antibacterial screening of the extracts was carried out by determining the zone of inhibition using disc diffusion method. The strains were grown to logarithmic phase in BHI broth and the inoculum was prepared by adjusting the turbidity of bacterial suspension to 0.5 McFarland’s tube. The dried extracts was dissolved in 10% Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO in required concentration. The sterile discs were impregnated with 20 μl of extract. The extract discs were placed on BHI agar plates, which were previously inoculated with test strains and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. Ampicillin disc (10μg and 10% DMSO impregnated discs were used as positive and negative controls respectively and the zones of inhibition were recorded. The Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by agar dilution method. The results of the present study showed that the methanol and chloroform extracts of Ficus bengalensis Linn. have activity against both Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus. From the present study it is concluded that Ficus bengalensis Linn. extracts can be used as an effective antibacterial agent against dental caries.

  2. Increasing of temperature induces pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae and the up-regulation of inflammatory related genes in infected Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2014-08-01

    Temperature strongly affects the health of aquatic poikilotherms. In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), elevated water temperatures increase the severity of streptococcosis. Here we investigated the effects of temperature on the vulnerability and inflammatory response of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci; GBS). At 35 and 28 °C, GBS took 4 and 7h, respectively to reach the log-phase and, when incubated with tilapia whole blood, experienced survival rates of 97% and 2%, respectively. The hemolysis activity of GBS grown at 35 °C was five times higher than that of GBS grown at 28 °C. GBS expressed cylE (β-hemolysin/cytolysin), cfb (CAMP factor) and PI-2b (pili-backbone) much more strongly at 35 °C than at 28 °C. Challenging Nile tilapia reared at 35 and 28 °C with GBS resulted in accumulated mortalities of about 85% and 45%, respectively. At 35 °C, infected tilapia exhibited tremendous inflammatory responses due to a dramatic up-regulation (30-40-fold) of inflammatory-related genes (cyclooxygenase-2, IL-1β and TNF-α) between 6 and 96 h-post infection. These results suggest that the increase of GBS pathogenicity to Nile tilapia induced by elevated temperature is associated with massive inflammatory responses, which may lead to acute mortality. PMID:24856132

  3. Preparation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of nanosystems for the control of oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupe CG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Gonçalves Pupe1, Michele Villardi1, Carlos Rangel Rodrigues1, Helvécio Vinícius Antunes Rocha2, Lucianne Cople Maia3, Valeria Pereira de Sousa1, Lucio Mendes Cabral11Depto de Medicamentos, Faculdade de Farmácia, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, 2Farmanguinhos/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, 3Faculdade de Odontologia, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Diseases that affect the buccal cavity are a public health concern nowadays. Chlorhexidine and nystatin are the most commonly used drugs for the control of buccal affections. In the search for more effective antimicrobials, nanotechnology can be successfully used to improve the physical chemical properties of drugs whilst avoiding the undesirable side effects associated with its use. Herein described are studies using nystatin and chlorhexidine with sodium montmorillonite (MMTNa, and chlorhexidine with ß-cyclodextrin and two derivatives methyl-β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the development of antimicrobial nanosystems.Methods: The nanosystems were prepared by kneading and solubilization followed by freeze-drying technique. The nanosystems were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Nanosystem antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans strains was evaluated with inhibition halo analysis.Results: The nanocarriers MMTNa and cyclodextrins showed good yields. XRPD, FTIR, and DSC analysis confirmed the proposed nanosystems formation and the suitability of the production methods. The nanosystems that showed best antimicrobial effect were chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes and CHX:MMTNa 60% cation exchange capacity – 24 hours.Conclusion: The nanosystem formulations present higher stability for all chlorhexidine inclusion complexes compared with pure chlorhexidine. The nystatin nanosystems have the potential to mask the

  4. Pathogenicity of Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia-associated vaccine-induced alloantibodies correlates with Major Histocompatibility Complex class I expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, Lindert; Luteijn, Rutger D; Otten, Henny; Jan Lebbink, Robert; van Kooten, Peter J S; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J; Rutten, Victor P M G; Koets, Ad P

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), a fatal bleeding syndrome of neonatal calves, is caused by maternal alloantibodies absorbed from colostrum and is characterized by lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and bone marrow hypoplasia. An inactivated viral vaccine is the likely source of alloantigens induc

  5. Pathogenicity of Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia-associated vaccine-induced alloantibodies correlates with Major Histocompatibility Complex class 1 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, L.; Luteijn, Rutger D.; Otten, H.; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Kooten, van P.J.S.; Wiertz, E.J.H.J.; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Koets, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), a fatal bleeding syndrome of neonatal calves, is caused by maternal alloantibodies absorbed from colostrum and is characterized by lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and bone marrow hypoplasia. An inactivated viral vaccine is the likely source of alloantigens induc

  6. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván; Barboza-Corona, José E.; A. Arianna Lechuga-Arana; Mauricio Valencia-Posadas; Aguayo, Daniel D.; Carlos Cedillo-Pelaez; Erika A. Martínez-Ortega; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages f...

  7. 链球菌猪主要致病种和型多重PCR检测方法的建立%Establishment of a multiplex PCR assay for detection of pig-pathogenic species and types of Streptococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹君; 王楷宬; 田莉莉; 王旭远; 曾巧英; 范伟兴

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method to detect streptococci at genus,species and type levels simultaneously by just a single PCR.Targeting at mainly pig-pathogenic species and types including Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus and Streptococcus suis types 1,2,7,9(SS1,SS2,SS7 and SS9),based on genetic sequences in GenBank,7 pairs of primers respectively targeting at Streptococcus genus-conservative gene(elongation factor,EF-TU),Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus conservative gene(glutamate dehydrogenase,GDH and M-like protein respectively),and type specific genes(capsular polysaccharide,CPS,CPS1I,CPS2J,CPS7H,CPS9H respectively for SS1,SS2,SS7 and SS9).The novel multiplex PCR assay could clearly produce the 7 expected bands with correct sizes and sequences at 61 ℃ as annealing temperature.Specificity and accuracy were confirmed by expected bands when detecting standard SS strains and Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus strain 555,and even further proven by 100% in agreement with bacteriological and PCR results when detecting 16 Streptococcus isolates.Sensitivity reached 0.08 ng/μL and stability was verified by same performance in 5 separate tests.The multiplex PCR are the only assay up to date which could detect pig-pathogenic Streptococcus at genus,species and type levels by a single PCR with high specificity,accuracy,sensitivity and stability,suiting for Streptococcus surveillance on pig farm and fast epidemiological survey.%根据GenBank中登录的链球菌属保守基因(EF-TU)、猪链球菌种保守基因(GDH)、C群马链球菌兽疫亚种保守基因(M-like)、猪链球菌型特异性基因(SS1型CPS1I、SS2型CPS2J、SS7型CPS7H和SS9型CPS9H)的序列设计合成7对引物,建立了一次性在属、种、型3个水平上检测链球菌猪主要致病种和型(C群马链球菌兽疫亚种和猪链球菌1、2、7、9型)的多重PCR方法。结

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae PR06

    OpenAIRE

    MZ, Irma Syakina; L. K. Teh; Salleh, M. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium that was first recognized as a causative agent of bovine mastitis. S. agalactiae has subsequently emerged as a significant cause of human diseases. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. agalactiae PR06, which was isolated from a septicemic patient in a local hospital in Malaysia.

  9. THE DIRECT SALE OF RAW MILK: PREVALENCE OF PATHOGENS IN RAW MILK AND BOVINE FAECES COLLECTED IN FARMS WITHIN THE PROVINCE OF PESARO-URBINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tonucci

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, direct sale of raw milk by vending machines has largely increased in several European Countries and Italy. As a consequence, adequate hygienic measures and correct consumer’s information is required in order to reduce any potential risk linked to this product. In the present study, the occurrence of pathogens (Salmonella spp., verocytotoxigenic E.coli, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, S.aureus in raw milk and bovine faeces collected in 4 farms in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy, between January 2007 and March 2009 has been investigated; 99.5% of milk samples resulted negative for the pathogens considered and complying with the regulation S. aureus limits. Campylobacter has been found in 0.44% of the samples, collected during summer, while only one sample resulted positive to a non-verocytotoxigenic E.coli O157. In respect to faeces, 62.6% of the samples resulted negative, 33.6% were contaminated by Campylobacter spp. (68% Campylobacter coli and 32% Campylobacter jejuni and 3.8% by E.coli O157. No samples resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria monocytogenes. The results highlight the necessity of a strict plan of hygienic and sanitary controls, with particular attention to milking process hygiene and raw milk storage, to reduce the risk of contamination of the product.

  10. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  11. Non-infectivity of Cattle Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as a Lancefield’s group B Streptococcus (GBS). It is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis that is responsible for severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish, worldwide. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis. Only limited comparativ...

  12. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  13. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Moatamedi, Azar; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Mirshokraei, Pejhman

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6%) isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases. PMID:25568683

  14. Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René; Gaïni, Shahin; Kjaeldgaard, Poul;

    2008-01-01

    Meningitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus suis is a rare disease which is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs. We report a 54-y-old pig-farm worker with S. suis meningitis and septicaemia complicated with thoracal and lumbar spine spondylodiscitis. The S. suis strain involved...

  15. 库伦驴血液白细胞抗菌肽提取及其对牛乳腺炎主要致病菌的抗菌活性研究%Antibacterial activity of antibacterial peptides from Kulun Donkey blood leukocytes against the major pathogens responsible for bovine mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布日额; 吴金花; 卢雅生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To verify the in vitro activity of antibacterial peptides from Kulun Donkey blood leukocytes a-gain.st bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichiacoli. Methods Antibacterial peptides were extracted from Kulun Donkey blood leukocytes using acetic acid extraction. Drug susceptibility test strips were prepared and antibacterial activity was determined using the agar plate method. Results Antibacterial peptides from Kulun Donkey blood leukocytes had activity against bovine mastitis caused by S. Agalactiae, S. Aureus, and E. Coli. The bacterial inhibition ring diameter was 14 mm, 15 mm, and 17mm, respectively, with 43. 60 mg/ml antibacterial peptides 24 h after incubation. Conclusion Antibacterial peptides from Kulun Donkey blood leukocytes inhibited the bacterial activity of S. Agalactiae. S. Aureus, and E. Coli. These peptides could be used to treat bovine mastitis caused by these pathogens.%目的 验证库伦驴血液白细胞抗菌肽对牛乳腺炎无乳链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌及大肠埃希菌的体外抗菌活性.方法 利用乙酸萃取法提取库伦驴血液白细胞抗菌肽,制备药敏试纸片,用平皿药敏纸片法检测其抗菌活性. 结果 库伦驴血液白细胞抗菌肽对无乳链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌及大肠埃希菌具有抑菌效果,43.60 mg/ml抗菌肽作用24 h抑菌环直径分别为14、15和17 mm. 结论 库伦驴白细胞抗菌肽对无乳链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠埃希菌有抑菌活性,可用于上述致病菌感染所致奶牛乳腺炎的治疗.

  16. Lactoferrin affects the adherence and invasion of Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Fiona; Beecher, Christine; Chaurin, Valerie; Sweeney, Torres; Giblin, Linda

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae is an important causative agent of bovine mastitis worldwide. Lactoferrin is an innate immune protein that is associated with many functions including immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, and antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to investigate the interactions between lactoferrin and a clinical bovine mastitis isolate, Strep. dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae DPC5345. Initially a deliberate in vivo bovine intramammary challenge was performed with Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345. Results demonstrated a significant difference in lactoferrin mRNA levels in milk cells between the control and infused quarters 7h postinfusion. Milk lactoferrin levels in the Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345 infused quarters were significantly increased compared with control quarters at 48h postinfusion. In vitro studies demonstrated that lactoferrin had a bacteriostatic effect on the growth of Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345 and significantly decreased the ability of the bacteria to internalize into HC-11 mammary epithelial cells. Confocal microscopy images of HC-11 cells exposed to Strep. dysgalactiae and lactoferrin further supported this effect by demonstrating reduced invasion of bacteria to HC-11 cells. The combined data suggest that a bovine immune response to Strep. dysgalactiae infection includes a significant increase in lactoferrin expression in vivo, and based on in vitro data, lactoferrin limits mammary cell invasion of this pathogen by binding to the bacteria and preventing its adherence. PMID:27016824

  17. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens. PMID:26826230

  18. Distribution of Phylogenetic Groups among Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from Bovine in Heilongjiang%黑龙江奶牛肠外致病大肠埃希菌种系分类群研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟春玉; 曹宏伟; 朱战波; 刘振华; 崔玉东

    2013-01-01

    研究黑龙江省奶牛主要肠外致病(奶牛乳房炎、子宫内膜炎)大肠埃希菌的种系分类群。用PCR扩增具有种系分类群标记的chuA、yjaA基因和TSPE4.C2 DNA片段的方法,对黑龙江省84株来源于奶牛乳房炎和41株来源于奶牛子宫内膜炎的大肠埃希菌进行种系进化群分类。奶牛乳房炎所检测菌株中A进化种系群占11.90%。B1种系进化群占88.10%。奶牛子宫内膜炎所检测菌株中A种系进化群占14.63%,B1种系进化亚群占85.37%。未检测到属于B2和D群的肠外强毒力株。大肠杆菌分离株接种小鼠剖检可见明显病变。通过遗传进化分析,引起黑龙江奶牛肠外致病大肠埃希菌主要属于B1种系进化群,为奶牛乳房炎和子宫内膜炎疫苗的研制提供理论依据。%Researched distribution of phylogenetic groups among extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from bovine mastitis,Bovine endometritis in Heilongjiang. 84 E.coli isdates from bovine mastitis and 41 E.coli isdates from Bovine endometritis in Heilongjiang were PCR amplified for genetic markers of chuA,yjaA and TSPE4.C2. The result showed that 11.90% E.coli isolates belonged to group A and 88.10%to group B1 from bovine mastitis,14.63%E.coli isolates belonged to group A and 85.37%to group B1 from Bovine endometritis,no-one belonged to B2 and D groups. Obviously pathological changes were observed in internal organs of dissected experiment mouse. Extraintestinal pathogenic E.coli isolates from bovine for the predominant Phylogenetic group was group B1,this research provided a theoretical basis to prepare bovine mastitis and endometritis vaccine.

  19. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  20. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases for Control of Mastitis Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis results in annual losses between $1.7 billion and $2 billion in the United States alone. Among the most relevant causative agents of this disease are Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B; GBS) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Group C; GCS) streptococci as well as Staphylococcus aureus. ...

  1. Infections Associated with Streptococcus intermedius in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, Howard S

    2016-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a viridans Streptococcus belonging to the Anginosus group. In the past 7 years, it has been associated with abscesses in 48 children, 40% of whom had complicated and/or life-threatening illness. It was the sole pathogen in 35 cases. Seventy-five percent of the infections occurred in winter and spring. None occurred in infants younger than 1 year.

  2. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosini

    Full Text Available The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  3. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosini, Roberto; Campisi, Edmondo; De Chiara, Matteo; Tettelin, Hervé; Rinaudo, Daniela; Toniolo, Chiara; Metruccio, Matteo; Guidotti, Silvia; Sørensen, Uffe B Skov; Kilian, Mogens; Ramirez, Mario; Janulczyk, Robert; Donati, Claudio; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  4. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  5. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    OpenAIRE

    Delannoy Christian MJ; Crumlish Margaret; Fontaine Michael C; Pollock Jolinda; Foster Geoff; Dagleish Mark P; Turnbull James F; Zadoks Ruth N

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmi...

  6. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, G P

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae continues to be a major cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle and a source of economic loss for the industry. Veterinarians are often asked to provide information on herd level control and eradication of S. agalactiae mastitis. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. The literature search was conducted in 1993 on the Agricola database. Articles related to S. agalactiae epidemiology, pathogen identification techniques, milk quali...

  7. Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Joyce J.; Klesius, Phillip H.; Pasnik, David J.; Bohnsack, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

  8. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  9. Evaluation of Bovine Feces-Associated Microbial Source Tracking Markers and Their Correlations with Fecal Indicators and Zoonotic Pathogens in a Brisbane, Australia, Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, W.; Sritharan, T.; Palmer, A.; Sidhu, J. P. S.; Toze, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the host specificity and host sensitivity of two bovine feces-associated bacterial (BacCow-UCD and cowM3) and one viral [bovine adenovirus (B-AVs)] microbial source tracking (MST) markers by screening 130 fecal and wastewater samples from 10 target and nontarget host groups in southeast Queensland, Australia. In addition, 36 water samples were collected from a reservoir and tested for the occurrence of all three bovine feces-associated markers along with fec...

  10. NATURAL MUTATION IN THE GENE OF RESPONSE REGULATOR BgrR RESULTING IN REPRESSION OF Bac PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, A PATHOGENICITY FACTOR OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rozhdestvenskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause variety of diseases of newborns and adults. For successful colonization of different human tissues and organs as well as for suppression of the host immune system S. agalactiae expresses numerous virulence factors. For coordinated expression of the virulence genes S. agalactiae employs regulatory molecules including regulatory proteins of two-component systems. Results of the present study demonstrated that in S. agalactiae strain A49V the natural mutation in the brgR gene encoding for BgrR regulatory protein, which is component of regulatory system BgrRS, resulted in the repression of Bac protein synthesis, a virulence factor of S. agalactiae. A single nucleotide deletion in the bgrR gene has caused a shift of the reading frame and the changes in the primary, secondary and tertiary structures of the BgrR protein. The loss of functional activity of BgrR protein in A49V strain and repression of Bac protein synthesis have increased virulence of the strain in experimental animal streptococcal infection.

  11. 内蒙古无乳链球菌耐药性及四环素耐药基因检测%Drug resistance and tetracycline resistance gene identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from bovine in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜琳; 郝永清

    2016-01-01

    为了解内蒙古地区隐性乳房炎无乳链球菌分离株耐药性及耐药基因,采集内蒙古不同地区的规模化养殖场隐性乳房炎乳样,采用 Kirby-Bauer(K-B)纸片扩散法测试分离株对16种抗菌药物的敏感性,PCR 方法检测其耐药基因.结果显示:无乳链球菌对大部分抗生素较敏感.对其有较强抑菌作用的药物为:青霉素 G、头孢噻肟、头孢唑啉、阿莫西林、红霉素、环丙沙星、恩诺沙星、氧氟沙星、林可霉素、呋喃妥因、万古霉素.其敏感性达到90%~100%.该菌株对四环素有较强的耐药性,耐药率达77.27%.PCR 扩增四环素耐药基因 tetM 、tetO 、tetK 、tetL ,结果显示22株无乳链球菌均含有 tetM 基因,其基因的检出率为100%.其中7株同时含有 tetK 基因,tetO 、tetL 基因未检出.%In order to understand drug resistance and tetracycline resistance gene of Streptococcus agalactiae epidemic strains,the prevalent strains of S .agalactiae from the main bovine culture area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were detected through Kirby-B auer(K-B)method and PCR.Drug susceptibility testing indicated that the S .agalactiae isolated strains were sensitive to most antibiotics. The S .agalactiae isolates were susceptible to penicillin,cefotaxime,cefazolin,amoxicillin,erythromy-cin,ciprofloxacin,enrofloxacin,ofloxacin,clindamycin,nitrofurantoin,and vancomycin with susceptibili-ties rates of 90% to 100%.In contrast,the S .agalactiae isolates were resistant to tetracycline with re-sistance rates of 77.27%.Four resistance genes including tetM ,tet O ,tetK ,and tetL were characterized by PCR.All strains carried the resistance gene tetM and 7 strains also carried the resistance gene tetK . The resistance genes tetO and tetL were not detected.The results indicated that the resistance gene were related to the resistant type of antimicrobial agents and was important for further research and clinical therapy resistance mechanisms.

  12. Interactions between Streptococcus pneumoniae and the human host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, S.P. van

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, is an important human pathogen causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. This thesis addresses several interactions between pneumococcus and man. The first part of the thesis deals with the host immune response against pneumococci. We studied

  13. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 2. Label-free relative quantitative proteomics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6mb00290k Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaliar, Manikhandan; Tassi, Riccardo; Thomas, Funmilola C.; McNeilly, Tom N.; Weidt, Stefan K.; McLaughlin, Mark; Wilson, David; Burchmore, Richard; Herzyk, Pawel; Eckersall, P. David

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle in the western world. It is primarily caused by bacteria, with Streptococcus uberis as one of the most prevalent causative agents. To characterize the proteome during Streptococcus uberis mastitis, an experimentally induced model of intramammary infection was used. Milk whey samples obtained from 6 cows at 6 time points were processed using label-free relative quantitative proteomics. This proteomic analysis complements clinical, bacteriological and immunological studies as well as peptidomic and metabolomic analysis of the same challenge model. A total of 2552 non-redundant bovine peptides were identified, and from these, 570 bovine proteins were quantified. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed clear clustering of results by stage of infection, with similarities between pre-infection and resolution stages (0 and 312 h post challenge), early infection stages (36 and 42 h post challenge) and late infection stages (57 and 81 h post challenge). Ingenuity pathway analysis identified upregulation of acute phase protein pathways over the course of infection, with dominance of different acute phase proteins at different time points based on differential expression analysis. Antimicrobial peptides, notably cathelicidins and peptidoglycan recognition protein, were upregulated at all time points post challenge and peaked at 57 h, which coincided with 10 000-fold decrease in average bacterial counts. The integration of clinical, bacteriological, immunological and quantitative proteomics and other-omic data provides a more detailed systems level view of the host response to mastitis than has been achieved previously. PMID:27412694

  14. Short communication: Antimicrobial efficacy of intramammary treatment with a novel biphenomycin compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli-induced mouse mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demon, Dieter; Breyne, Koen; Schiffer, Guido; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis undermines udder health, jeopardizes milk production, and entails prohibitive costs, estimated at $2 billion per year in the dairy industry of the United States. Despite intensive research, the dairy industry has not managed to eradicate the 3 major bovine mastitis-inducing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of a newly formulated biphenomycin compound (AIC102827) was assessed against intramammary Staph. aureus, Strep. uberis, and E. coli infections, using an experimental mouse mastitis model. Based on its effective and protective doses, AIC102827 applied into the mammary gland was most efficient to treat Staph. aureus, but also adequately reduced growth of Strep. uberis or E. coli, indicating its potential as a broad-spectrum candidate to treat staphylococcal, streptococcal, and coliform mastitis in dairy cattle.

  15. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell profileration and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E;

    2009-01-01

    Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and....../or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated) differentially expressed genes (DEG). Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each), the majority of which were...

  16. Biological Characteristics of PathogenicStreptococcus agalactiae Isolated FromAequidens rivulatus%红尾皇冠鱼(Aequidens rivulatus)病原无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定与特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚学良; 徐晓丽; 李贺密; 钟文慧; 臧莉; 李灏; 杨超敬

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of ornamental fish has been gaining more and more popularity and commercial importance. Consequently ornamental fish diseases have also caught attentions.Aequidens rivulatus is one of the most important ornamental fish in commercial fisheries in Tianjin of China. In recent years mass death ofA. rivulatus has caused heavy economic losses. In this study we aimed to identify the biological characteristics of the pathogens which caused diseases inA. rivulatus. A dominant bacterium 071901 was isolated from the kidney of diseasedA. rivulatus and was confirmed to be pathogenic toA. rivulatus in artificial challenge test. We examined the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of this bacterium, and analyzed 16S rRNA andcfb gene (GBS-specific gene cfb, CAMP factor) for further identification. The 16S rRNA gene andcfb gene were partially sequenced and compared with data from the GenBank database. BLAST showed that 16S rRNA gene andcfb gene of strain 071901 were highly similar to their counterparts registered in GenBank. Based on the morphological observation and physiological and biochemical characterization, strain 071901 was identified asStreptococcus agalactiae. Phylogenetic trees ofS. agalactiae based on 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain 071901 was branched into the same cluster asS. agalactiae and showed the highest similarity to S. agalactiae.The results of molecular analysis ofcfb gene were consistent with the previous results from the biochemical assays.We then performed antimicrobial susceptibility assay for 30 antimicrobial agents and found that strain 071901 was susceptible to 19 agents including erythromycin, azithromycin and florfenicol, and was highly resistant to 11 agents including enrofloxacin, bacitracin and furazolidone. In conclusion our results demonstrated thatS. agalactiae was the pathogen that caused high mortality inA. rivulatus.%为查明天津地区养殖红尾皇冠鱼(Aequidens rivulatus)大量死亡的原

  17. Greater expression of TLR2, TLR4, and IL6 due to negative energy balance is associated with lower expression of HLA-DRA and HLA-A in bovine blood neutrophils after intramammary mastitis challenge with Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E;

    2010-01-01

    Our objectives were to compare gene expression profiles in blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) during a Streptococcus uberis intramammary challenge between lactating cows subjected to feed restriction to induce negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive ener...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae CNCTC 10/84, a Hypervirulent Sequence Type 26 Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Hooven, Thomas A.; Randis, Tara M.; Sean C Daugherty; Narechania, Apurva; Planet, Paul J.; Tettelin, Hervé; Ratner, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a human pathogen with a propensity to cause neonatal infections. We report the complete genome sequence of GBS strain CNCTC 10/84, a hypervirulent clinical isolate frequently used to study GBS pathogenesis. Comparative analysis of this sequence may shed light on novel pathogenic mechanisms.

  19. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that ...

  20. STREPTOCOCCUS: A WORLDWIDE FISH HEALTH PROBLEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent pathogens that affect many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. ...

  1. Economic assessment and pathogenic bacteria inhibition of bovine hide presoaking solutions formulated with enzymes that can remove adobe-type manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presoaking formulations that have recently been developed are effective in removing the damaging adobe type bovine manure and eco-friendly because the ingredients used are recycled and required only a quarter of the amount of biocide and surfactant that the industry is commonly using. The goal ...

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) and their cousins the HoBi-like viruses: Multi symptom, multi host, multi tasking pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has come to refer to a diverse collection of clinical presentations that include respiratory, enteric and reproductive symptoms accompanied by immunosuppression. While the majority of cases are subclinical in nature two forms exist, mucosal disease and hemorrhag...

  3. 1株致病性兔无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定与系统发育分析%Isolation, identification and phylogenetic analysis of a pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思宇; 耿毅; 汪开毓; 罔赵英; 刘星星; 吴春艳

    2013-01-01

    从患病家兔肝、肺、脑和心血中分离到1株链状革兰阳性球菌P110323,以1×106 CFU/mL菌液灌胃感染健康家兔后,表现出站立不稳、四肢划动、惊厥和呼吸障碍等症状,感染96 h后,死亡率为60%.解剖见肺淤血、出血;肝、脾和肾肿大,坏死;大脑肿胀,脑膜充血,脑回肿胀扁平,脑沟变浅.分离菌在BHI平板上形成湿润、边缘整齐的灰白色菌落;在5%的脱纤维羊血平板上形成透明的β溶血环;V-P试验、水解精氨酸与马脲酸等为阳性;水解七叶苷和利用甘露醇、山梨醇和乳糖产酸为阴性.16S rDNA系统发育分析显示分离菌与Streptococcus difficilis和Streptococcus agalactiae聚在一簇.gyrB基因系统发育分析表明分离菌属于无乳链球菌(S.agalactiae),结合细菌形态特点和生理生化特性鉴定该病原菌为无乳链球菌(S.agalactiae),多重PCR方法确定该菌荚膜多糖类型为Ia型.%A pathogenic bacterium (P110323) was isolated from the liver,lung,cerebrum and heart blood of the diseased rabbit.Artificial infection of rabbits with P110323 proved that it was the pathogen of the disease,disease signs and a mortality rate of 60% were noted after 96 h postinoculation with 106 CFU/mL bacterium.The clinical symptoms of infected rabbits included incoordination,lateral prostration,paddling and convulsions with acute respiratory distress syndrome.Necropsy revealed degeneration and necrotic changes in many organs,especially,serious lesions occurred in the liver and kidney.Hemorrhage and swelling of the lung and spleen were considerable;The surfece of gyri was swollen and flattened with the shallow cerebullar sulci,hyperemia of meninges was obvious.The isolated bacterium was a Gram-positive cocci which possessed β-hemolytic activity on agar media with 5% sterile sheep's blood and had moistening and gray colonies in BHI.Arginine,hippuric acid and V-P test were positive; esculin,sorbitol,lactose and mannitol were

  4. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Zas Sandra L; Bionaz Massimo; Morin Dawn E; Drackley James K; Moyes Kasey M; Everts Robin E; Lewin Harris A; Loor Juan J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decrease economic losses to dairy farmers. The main objective of this study was to determine the most affected gene networks and pathways in mammary tissue in response to an intramammary infection...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Nonhemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype V Strain 1, Isolated from the Buccal Cavity of a Canine

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, Leeanne K.; Morales, Karina M.; Hughey, Jeffery R.

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence from a nonhemolytic strain of Streptococcus agalactiae from the oral cavity of a canine was assembled. The genome is 2,165,968 bp, contains 2,055 genes, and is classified as group B streptococcus (GBS) serotype V, strain 1. A comparison to other S. agalactiae sequences shows high gene synteny with human and bovine strains.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Nonhemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype V Strain 1, Isolated from the Buccal Cavity of a Canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Leeanne K; Morales, Karina M; Hughey, Jeffery R

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence from a nonhemolytic strain of Streptococcus agalactiae from the oral cavity of a canine was assembled. The genome is 2,165,968 bp, contains 2,055 genes, and is classified as group B streptococcus (GBS) serotype V, strain 1. A comparison to other S. agalactiae sequences shows high gene synteny with human and bovine strains. PMID:26823579

  7. Development of PCR Methods for Detection of Three Main Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis%3种奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉霞; 林峰

    2012-01-01

    Bovine mastitis was an important bacterial disease that influences the development of milk industry. To improve rapid and accurate diagnosis of mastitis in diary, establishment of a sensitive and special method was necessary. The primers were designed according to the special sequence of the 16S to 23S rRNA spacer regions, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus dysgalactiae which were three major bacterial causes of bovine mastitis. Then, the pathogenic bacteria strain was isolated from the 31 milk samples and detected by PCR. The results indicated that PCR assay could detected three main pathogenic bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis and confirm the pathogen. The sensitivity of the method for detecting the Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus dysgalactiae was lxl06cfu/mL, lxl05 cfu/mL and lxl03 cfu/mL, respectively, These data suggested the method could be used as an alternative in routine diagnosis.%奶牛乳房炎是影响奶业健康发展的一种重要细菌性疾病,迫切需要建立一种敏感、特异的检测方法,以实现奶牛乳房炎的快速、准确诊断.现根据奶牛乳房炎主要致病菌16~23S rRNA之间的序列设计引物,建立检测金黄色葡萄球菌、无乳链球菌、停乳链球菌等3种奶牛乳房炎主要致病茵的PCR检测方法.用建立好的PCR检测方法对临床患病奶牛获取的31份样品进行特异性和敏感性检测.结果显示:PCR检测方法能快速、特异地检测出3种奶牛乳房炎主要致病茵,从而确定致病茵型.对金黄色葡萄球菌、无乳链球菌、停乳链球菌的检测灵敏度分别为1×106 cfu/mL、1×106 cfu/mL、1×103cfu/mL.因此,该方法可作为一种常规检测的替代方法.

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Faro

    1993-01-01

    Статья посвящена исследованию степени колонизации Streptococcus agalactiae мочеполовых (СГВ) органов и прямой кишки беременных на раннем сроке беременности и исходов беременности для матери и плода в зависимости от применения антибиотикопрофилактики. Частота колонизации СГВ составила 15,9 %, при этом в моче СГВ выявлялись с частотой 8,6 %, в отделяемом влагалища 3,5 %, в прямой кишке 10 %. Эффективность амоксициллина клавуланата, назначаемого во II триместре беременности при выявлении СГВ, со...

  9. Biofilm formation by Streptococcus agalactiae: influence of environmental conditions and implicated virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma eMargarit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS is an important human pathogen that colonizes the urogenital and/or the lower gastro-intestinal tract of up to 40% of healthy women of reproductive age and is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonates. GBS can also infect the elderly and immuno-compromised adults, and is responsible for mastitis in bovines. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS can form biofilm-like three-dimensional structures that could enhance its ability to colonize and persist in the host. Biofilm formation by GBS has been investigated in vitro and appears tightly controlled by environmental conditions. Several adhesins have been shown to play a role in the formation of GBS biofilm-like structures, among which are the protein components of pili protruding outside the bacterial surface. Remarkably, antibodies directed against pilus proteins can prevent the formation of biofilms. The implications of biofilm formation in the context of GBS asymptomatic colonization and dissemination to cause invasive disease remain to be investigated in detail.

  10. Deletion of a Cation Transporter Promotes Lysis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, Jolanda; Andisi, Vahid Farshchi; Kim, Kwang S.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Weiser, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant human pathogen which causes respiratory and serious invasive diseases. Mg(2+) is essential for life, and its concentration varies throughout the human body. Magnesium uptake plays an important role in the virulence of many bacterial pathogens. To study the M

  11. 卵形鲳鲹感染无乳链球菌与海豚链球菌的研究%Pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae and S. iniae in diseased ovate pompano Trachinotus ovatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 梁万文; 陈明; 李莉萍; 王瑞; 张彬; 甘西; 罗洪林; 陈福艳; 蔡小辉; 杨传萍

    2014-01-01

    于2011年8月对广西北海疑似链球菌感染的卵形鲳鲹Trachinotus ovatus进行病原分离鉴定,经人工感染试验,确定分离的两株病原菌(编号为TSG002和TSG004)为卵形鲳鲹的致病菌,然后对两株病原菌进行形态学、生理生化特征、16S rRNA基因序列和二重PCR快速检测综合鉴定,构建系统进化树,最后对两株菌进行药敏分析。根据染色形态特征和二重PCR快速检测,初步鉴定菌株TSG002和TSG004分别为无乳链球菌和海豚链球菌,菌株TSG002和TSG004的16S rRNA基因序列(登录号分别为KF826095和KF826094)分别与无乳链球菌 ATCC13813 strain JCM 5671基因(登录号 NR040821.1)和海豚链球菌ATCC29178基因(登录号AF335572.1)的相似性最高,均达99%。药敏试验结果表明,两株菌对头孢曲松、头孢呋辛、头孢哌酮、恩诺沙星、氧氟沙星、阿莫西林、多粘菌素B、头孢噻吩和头孢他啶均敏感。研究表明,感染无乳链球菌和海豚链球菌的卵形鲳鲹可发病死亡,在病鱼中同时分离到两种链球菌尚属首例。%Two bacterial strains TSG002 and TSG004 were isolated from the diseased ovate pompano Trachinotus ovatus collected in Beihai,Guangxi Province,China in August of 2011,and were confirmed to be the pathogens of the diseased ovate pompano by animal challenge test, and by morphology, physiological and biochemical examina-tion and 16S rRNA genetic analysis. In addition,the sensitivity of both strains to twenty-two antibiotics were stud-ied. The results showed that strains TSG002 and TSG004 were similar to bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae and S. in-iae, based on the morphology, physiology and biochemistry examinations. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the l6 S rRNA sequence of strains TSG002 ( KF826095 ) and TSG004 ( KF826094 ) has high similarity ( 99%) to S. agalactiae (NR040821. 1) and S. iniae (AF335572. 1) in GenBank. Phylogenetic tree of Streptococcus spp. built

  12. 广东新兴地区致病性A组链球菌病种分布及耐药性分析%Pathogenic group A streptococcus distribution of diseases and drug resistance analysis in Xinxing Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎国强; 李云; 谭志伟; 欧国生

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical diseases distribution and drug re-sistance of the pathogenicity of group A Streptococcus (GAS) from Xinxing area in Guangdong and guide the clinical use.Methods 85 GAS isolates were collected from 2063 cases of school-age children's throat swab,pus and other specimens in Xinxing area during January 2007 to June 2009.Drug sensitivity tests were evaluated by the K-B disk diffusion method containing 5% fiber blood to the M-H agar.Resusts Pathogenicity of 85 GAS acute pharyngitis 36,suppurative tonsillitis 25,acute rheumatic fever 5,acute glomerulonephritis 6,psoriasis 4,Other diseases 9.The resistance rates to erythromycin and other macrolides was more than 77.65 percent,Except Clindamycin,GAS resistant to other antibiotics compared with the macrolides (P<0.05),There was significant difference.Acute rheumatic fever and suppurative tonsillitis,acute pharyngitis cases of GAS resistant to the cephalosporins rate (P<0.05),There was significant difference.Conclusions GAS pathogenicity is wider distribution in this area,Penicillins and cephalosporins should still be the first choice for the treatment or prevention of GAS infection.%目的 了解致病性A组链球菌(GAS)在广东新兴地区的病种分布及其耐药情况,以便指导临床用药.方法 2007年1月至2009年6月间,采集新兴地区学龄期儿童咽拭子、脓液等标本2063例,共分离出致病性GAS菌株85例,药物敏感性试验用含5%去纤维羊血的M-H琼脂培养基.按K-B纸片扩散法进行.结果 85株致病性GAS菌株中急性咽炎36株,化脓性扁桃腺炎25株,急性风湿热5株,急性肾小球肾炎6株,银屑病4株,其他病种9株;对红霉素等大环内酯为耐药达77.65%以上,除克林霉素外,GAS对其他类抗生素耐药率与大环内酯类比较(P<0.05),差异有显著性;急性风湿热与化脓性扁桃腺炎、急性咽炎病例中的GAS对头孢菌类耐药率比较(P<0.05),差异有显著性.结论 本地区致病

  13. Bovine Necrotic Vulvovaginitis Associated with Porphyromonas levii

    OpenAIRE

    Elad, Daniel; Friedgut, Orly; Alpert, Nir; Stram, Yehuda; Lahav, Dan; Tiomkin, Doron; Avramson, Miriam; Grinberg, Kalia; Bernstein, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis associated with Porphyromonas levii, an emerging animal and human pathogen, affected 32 cows on a dairy farm in the northeast of Israel. Five animals had to be culled. This report appears to be the first that associates P. levii with bovine necrotic vulvovagnitis.

  14. Characterisation of bovine testicular hyaluronidase and a hyaluronate lyase from Streptococcus agalactiae. Investigations on the effect of pH on hyaluronan degradation and preclinical studies on the adjuvant administration of the enzymes in cancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoechstetter, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceutical preparations of bovine testicular hyaluronidase (BTH) have been therapeutically applied in several medical fields for many years. In the context with the risk of BSE, companies stopped the production of BTH preparations resulting in a shortage of this drug, which is the only highly effective antidote in the treatment of extravasations of vinca alkaloids. To find a substitute for the poorly characterised BTH preparations, two BTH preparations (Neopermease®; Hylase® �Dessau�)...

  15. 杂交鳢海豚链球菌病病原分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation and identification of pathogen Streptococcus iniae in diseased hybrid snakehead (Channa argus♂× Channamaculata♀)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈言峰; 周爱国; 邹青; 陈冠锋; 陈建酬; 张继平; 张辉华

    2015-01-01

    【目的】对广东省中山市某养殖场的患病濒死杂交鳢进行病原分离鉴定及药敏试验,旨在确定病因,为今后生产中有效防控该病提供参考。【方法】从濒死杂交鳢体内分离致病菌,通过其生理生化特征与16S rRNA基因序列分析进行菌株鉴定,并采用纸片扩散法进行药敏试验。【结果】从患病濒死的杂交鳢体内分离获得两株优势菌(ZS2013711-1和ZS2013711-2),根据其生理生化鉴定结果与16S rRNA基因序列分析结果,可鉴定为海豚链球菌(Streptococcusiniae)。两株分离菌株对杂交鳢的半致死剂量(LD50)分别为2.7×105和6.7×105 CFU/g。药敏试验结果显示,该致病菌对头孢噻肟、头孢拉定、头孢唑啉、林可霉素等抗生素高度敏感。【结论】杂交鳢是海豚链球菌的一种新发现宿主,生产中可选用头孢噻肟、头孢拉定、头孢唑啉、林可霉素等药物进行防治。%Objective]The pathogens from diseased hybrid snakehead (Channa argus♂×Channa maculata♀) in an aquafarm in Zhongshan City of Guangdong Province were isolated and identified and antibiotic sensitivity test was per-formed in order to determine the causes and provide references for preventing and controlling this disease effectively.[Method]Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from moribund hybrid snakehead , and they were identified through physio-logical and biochemical characteristics test and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Furthermore , antibiotic sensitivity test was performed through Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. [Result]Two dominant bacterias (ZS2013711-1, ZS2013711-2) were isolated from moribund hybrid snakehead , and they were identified to be Streptococcus iniae according to their physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The half lethal dose values for the iso-lates to healthy hybrid snakehead were 2.7 ×105 and 6.7 ×105 CFU/g, respectively. The results of

  16. Interactions of Lactobacilli with Pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Westbroek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether (1 a decreased concentration of Lactobacilli allows S. pyogenes to grow; (2 S. pyogenes is able to grow in the presence of healthy Lactobacillus concentrations; (3 S. pyogenes is capable of inhibiting Lactobacilli. Methods. One hundred fifty patient samples of S. pyogenes were mixed with four different concentrations of L. crispatus and L. jensenii. Colony counts and pH measurements were taken from these concentrations and compared using t-tests and ANOVA statistical analyses. Results. Statistical tests showed no significant difference between the colony counts of S. pyogenes by itself and growth when mixed with Lactobacilli, and no significant difference between the colony counts of S. pyogenes in the four different concentrations of Lactobacilli. Conclusion. The statistical data representing the growth of these two organisms suggests that Lactobacilli did not inhibit the growth of S. pyogenes. Also, S. pyogenes did not inhibit the growth of Lactobacilli.

  17. Biochemistry Identification and Drug Sensitivity Test of Pathogenic Streptococcus from Tilapia in Guangxi%广西罗非鱼链球菌病病原的生化鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 陈明; 李莉萍; 陈汉忠; 徐增辉; 李超; 黄维义; 梁万文

    2008-01-01

    从来自南宁、北海等地的十几个暴发疾病的罗非鱼养殖场发病罗非鱼中,分离得到了8株链球菌.通过生化鉴定及药敏试验,结果表明,分离到的8株致病性链球菌,有6株为海豚链球菌(streptococcus iniae),2株为无乳链球菌(streptococcus agalactiae).

  18. Group B Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H. Adriaanse

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae is an important cause of neonatal sepsis. Prevention is possible by intrapartum screening for maternal GBS carriership and antimicrobial treatment of colonized women with risk factors during labor. The conflicting results of diagnostic performance are reported both for the newly developed rapid GBS antigen tests and Gram's stain.

  19. 无乳链球菌检测及其奶牛乳腺炎防治的研究进展%Research Progress of the Detection Method of Streptococcus agalactiae and Control of Bovine Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞萍; 刘磊; 边艳青; 赵宝华

    2008-01-01

    本文就近年来国内外在无乳链球菌的鉴定、检测方法、防御等方面的研究进展进行了系统性的综述,为控制该病原微生物的传播、蔓延和由无乳链球菌引起的奶牛乳腺炎的防治提供参考.无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)属于B群链球菌,是影响人畜健康的重要病原微生物之一.它可以引起新生儿脑膜炎、肺炎、败血病等,又是奶牛乳腺炎的主要病原体之一,给奶牛业造成了巨大的损失.

  20. Effect of carryover and presampling procedures on the results of real-time PCR used for diagnosis of bovine intramammary infections with Streptococcus agalactiae at routine milk recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser; Mweu, Marshal Mutinda; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2014-01-01

    with Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in dairy herds with conventional milking parlours. Misclassification may result in unnecessary costs for treatment and culling. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the effect of carryover on PCR-positivity for S. agalactiae at different PCR cycle threshold...... (Ct) cut-offs by estimating the between-cow correlation while accounting for the milking order, and (2) evaluate the effect of aseptic presampling procedures (PSP) on PCR-positivity at the different Ct-value cut-offs. The study was conducted in four herds with conventional milking parlours at routine...... milk recordings. Following the farmers' routine pre-milking preparation, 411 of 794 cows were randomly selected for the PSP treatment. These procedures included removing the first streams of milk and 70% alcohol teat disinfection. Composite milk samples were then collected from all cows and tested...

  1. Capsular Gene Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae Compared to Serotyping by Latex Agglutination

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, K.; Poulsen, K.; Maione, D.; Rinaudo, C. D.; Baldassarri, L.; Telford, J L; Sorensen, U. B. S.; Kilian, M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated three different PCR-based capsular gene typing methods applied to 312 human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) isolates and compared the results to serotyping results obtained by latex agglutination. Among 281 human isolates 27% could not be typed by latex agglutination. All 312 isolates except 5 could be typed by the three PCR methods combined. Two of these methods were multiplex assays. Among the isolates that were typeable by both latex agglutina...

  2. Novel molecular method for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae applicable to clinical microbiology and 16S rRNA sequence-based microbiome studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Christian F. P.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered spe...... occurred in previous reports and in reference sequence databases. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved....

  3. 齐口裂腹鱼无乳链球菌的分离鉴定及其感染的病理损伤%Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae from Schizothorax prenanti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余泽辉; 张佳; 耿毅; 邓梦玲; 汪开毓; 黄小丽; 陈德芳; 王均

    2014-01-01

    In 2012-2013, a serious infectious disease characterized by exophthalmia, hemorrhage, and neurological symptoms emerged in Schizothorax prenanti farms in Sichuan Province. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was found in liver and kidney smears. Two strains of Gram-positive, chain-forming cocci were isolated from the diseased fish. The colonies had a smooth-surface and were white, circular, regular and pin-head sized after incubation at 28℃for 48 h on brain heart infusion (BHI). Artificial infection proved that the isolates were the pathogen of the disease. It was primarily identified to be Streptococcus agalactiae according to morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis by BLAST in GenBank indicated that the two isolates showed high levels of similarity to S. agalactiae (more than 96.5%). A phylogenetic tree was constructed comparing the 16S rDNA sequences of both isolates (GenBank accession number KF773744 and KF761304) to other related bacterial species in the GenBank database. In the phylogenetic tree the two isolates and other S. agalactiae strains constituted a branch. In addition, the two isolates were positive in a specific PCR detection of S. agalactiae based on the cfb gene. Based on the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and specific PCR detection, both isolates were identified as S. agalactiae. The sensitivity results showed that both strains were sensitive to doxycycline, amoxicillin, cephalothin V, ofloxacin and levofloxacin, but showed some difference in sensitivity to neomycin and amikacin. Histopathologically, the S. agalactiae infection could cause serious pathological changes in multi-organs and tissues, especially in liver, kidney and brain. The main pathologic lesions were degeneration, necrosis and infiltration of the inflammation cells. Electron microscopical examination found that bacteria could invade hepatocytes, renal cells and

  4. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Zas Sandra L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decrease economic losses to dairy farmers. The main objective of this study was to determine the most affected gene networks and pathways in mammary tissue in response to an intramammary infection (IMI with S. uberis and relate these with other physiological measurements associated with immune and/or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated differentially expressed genes (DEG. Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each, the majority of which were signaling pathways. Among the most inhibited were LXR/RXR Signaling and PPARα/RXRα Signaling. Pathways activated by IMI were IL-10 Signaling and IL-6 Signaling which likely reflected counter mechanisms of mammary tissue to respond to infection. Of the 2,102 DEG, 1,082 were up-regulated during IMI and were primarily involved with the immune response, e.g., IL6, TNF, IL8, IL10, SELL, LYZ, and SAA3. Genes down-regulated (1,020 included those associated with milk fat synthesis, e.g., LPIN1, LPL, CD36, and BTN1A1. Network analysis of DEG indicated that TNF had positive relationships with genes involved with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2 and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL and antioxidant activity (SOD1. Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary tissue that are associated with the innate immune response to S. uberis infection. Our study indicated that IMI challenge with S. uberis (strain O140J elicited

  5. Biochemical and antigenic properties of Streptococcus bovis isolated from pigeons.

    OpenAIRE

    De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F; DEVRIESE, L.A.; Ducatelle, R.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical and serological properties of 60 strains of Streptococcus bovis isolated from healthy pigeons and from pigeons that died from S. bovis septicemia were determined. On the basis of the hemolysis of bovine erythrocytes, the production of polysaccharides on saccharose-containing media, and the fermentation of mannitol, inulin, trehalose, and L-arabinose, the isolates were classified in five biotypes and two subbiotypes. Slide agglutination and microagglutination tests using monospecif...

  6. 罗非鱼致病性无乳链球菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation, identification and drug susceptibility test of tilapia pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳华; 彭亚; 刘杰; 彭民毅; 黄钧; 胡大胜; 陈明; 马旦梅; 曾桂忠

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]Pathogenic bacteria strains were isolated and identified from diseased tilapia cultured in a fish farm in Santang Town, Nanning City, Guangxi. A drug sensitivity test was conducted to seek out the aetiological agent and provide references for effective prevention and control. [Method]The strains were separated from the brain tissue in dying tilapias using routine method. Pathogenicity of the strains was determined by an artificial infection experiment. The strains were identi-fied using API20Strep and the 16S rRNA sequences. K-B was applied to test the drug sensitivity. [Result]Four Gram-positive cocci (GXN01, GXN02,GXN03 and GXN04) possessed strong pathogenicity against healthy tilapia and they might be the aetiological agent causing tilapia to death. The four strains were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae. All the strains shared 99.2%-99.7% similarities with those S. agalactiae strains reported in GenBank (JQ039365,JQ039376,JQ990156, JQ039366, JF423948, HQ645984 and GU217535). These four strains also shared high similarities(99.9%) with each other. Drug susceptibility test results showed that the four strains were sensitive to ofloxacin, cephalosporinVI, cefobid and sarafloxacin hydrochloric,but resistant to gentamicin, norfloxacin, sulfadoxine-6-methoxymethoxypyrimidine and sulfa-methoxy-pyrimidine. [Conclusion]The deaths of tilapia might be caused by S. agalactiae infection. Four kinds of drugs (CephalosporinVI, Ofloxacin, Cefobid and Sarafloxacin hydrochloric) could be used for prevention and treatment.%【目的】对广西南宁市郊三塘镇某养殖场患病罗非鱼进行病原菌分离鉴定及药敏试验,旨在找出罗非鱼的发病原因,为该病的有效防治提供依据。【方法】用常规方法从患病濒死罗非鱼脑部分离病原菌,通过人工感染试验确定分离菌株的致病性,用API20 Strep生化鉴定系统和16S rRNA鉴定病原菌,并采用K-B纸片扩散法进行药敏试验

  7. CONCURRENT EXPERIMENTAL Streptococcus SPP. INFECTIONS AND NATURAL PARASITISM IN CHANNEL CATFISH Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  8. Bath immersion, booster vaccination strategy holds potential for protecting juvenile tilapia against Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is a significant bacterial pathogen that causes hemorrhagic septicemia and meningoencephalitis in tilapia, hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout, olive flounder, yellowtail, barramundi and other species of cultured and wild fish worldwide. In tilapia production, vaccination of fry ...

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae arginine synthesis genes promote growth and virulence in pneumococcal meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Piet; M. Geldhoff; B.D.C. van Schaik; M.C. Brouwer; M. Valls Seron; M.E. Jakobs; K. Schipper; Y. Pannekoek; A.H. Zwinderman; T. van der Poll; A.H.C. van Kampen; F. Baas; A van der Ende; D. van de Beek

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and bacterial meningitis. Using a clinical phenotype based approach with bacterial whole-genome sequencing we identified pneumococcal arginine biosynthesis genes to be associated with outcome in patients with

  10. Bovine mastitis in selected areas of southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dego, O Kerro; Tareke, F

    2003-06-01

    A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian. were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.21%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples. Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%. Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area. PMID:12797409

  11. covR Mediated Antibiofilm Activity of 3-Furancarboxaldehyde Increases the Virulence of Group A Streptococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy Ashwinkumar Subramenium; Dharmaprakash Viszwapriya; Prasanth Mani Iyer; Krishnaswamy Balamurugan; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

    2015-01-01

    Background Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes), a multi-virulent, exclusive human pathogen responsible for various invasive and non-invasive diseases possesses biofilm forming phenomenon as one of its pathogenic armaments. Recently, antibiofilm agents have gained prime importance, since inhibiting the biofilm formation is expected to reduce development of antibiotic resistance and increase their susceptibility to the host immune cells. Principal Findings The current study demo...

  12. [Streptococcus intermedius: a rare cause of brain abscess in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhadi, Z; Sadiki, H; Hafid, I; Najib, J

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group, also known as the Streptococcus milleri group. Although this is a commensal agent of the mouth and upper airways, it has been recognized as an important pathogen in the formation of abscesses. However, it has rarely been involved in the formation of brain abscess in children. We report 4 pediatric cases of brain abscess caused by S. intermedius. Three boys and 1 girl, all aged over 2 years, were admitted for a febrile meningeal syndrome and seizures, caused by a S. intermedius brain abscess. Diagnosis was obtained by brain imaging combined with culture of cerebrospinal fluid. The outcome was favorable after antibiotic therapy and abscess puncture. S. intermedius should be considered a potential pathogen involved in the development of brain abscess in children.

  13. Prophage-Cured Derivatives of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris

    OpenAIRE

    Gasson, Michael J.; Davies, F. Lyndon

    1980-01-01

    Prophage curing was achieved in Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris, and the cured derivatives were shown to be indicators for their temperate bacteriophages. Relysogenization of these cured derivatives completed the first formal demonstration of the lysogenic state in lactic streptococci.

  14. Study on the antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae causing bovine mastitis in China%我国奶牛乳房炎无乳链球菌抗生素耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏胜; 罗金印; 王旭荣; 李新圃; 王玲; 杨峰; 张世栋; 苗小楼

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to inves e the antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus tiae causing cow mastitis in China, and guide reasonahle clinical prescription. 115 strains of polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime/clavulanic acid and ceftazidime/clavulanic acid, and resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, streptomycin, enroiloxacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid/sulfamethoxazole compound with resistance rate of 50%-100%.%为了查明我国奶牛乳房炎无乳链球菌对抗生素耐药情况,指导临床合理用药,从我国部分地区奶牛场采集的临床型奶牛乳房炎病乳中分离鉴定出无乳链球菌115株,采用K—B纸片法测定了这些菌株对抗生素的耐药情况,结果表明,无乳链球菌对目前临床上使用的大部分抗生素,如头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟、丁胺卡那霉素、卡那霉素、庆大霉素、四环素、强力霉素、麦迪霉素、林可霉素、氟苯尼考、多黏菌素B、环丙沙星、氟哌酸、氨苄青霉素/舒巴坦、头孢噻肟,棒酸和头抱他啶,棒酸均比较敏感;但对青霉素G、氨苄青霉素、链霉素、恩诺沙星、阿莫西林,棒酸和复方新诺明等有一定耐药性,其耐药率迭50%-100%。

  15. Genome Sequence of the Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius JF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterium and the predominant colonizer of the oral microbiota. It finds a wide application in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, also reducing the frequency of other main pathogens. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the oral probiotic S. salivarius JF. PMID:27660775

  16. The Ecology of Bacteriocin-producing Strains of Streptococcus salivarius

    OpenAIRE

    Tompkins, G R; Tagg, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in bacteriocin-producing components of the human normal oral microbiota centres on their possible interference with colonisation by potentially pathogenic bacteria. Certain strains of Streptococcus salivarius produce bacteriocin-like agents displaying exceptional inhibitory activity toward Lancefield Group A streptococci. Four individuals were identified as naturally harbouring high proportions (> 90 per cent) of bacteriocin-producing strains of S. salivarius. Bacteriocinogenic is...

  17. Bullous impetigo caused by Streptococcus salivarius: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, I

    1980-01-01

    A 19-month-old child presented with bullous impetigo around the perineal region, penis, and left foot. Streptococcus salivarius was the only isolate recovered from the lesions. The child was treated with parenteral penicillin, debridement of the bulli, and local application of silver sulphadiazine cream. This case of bullous impetigo illustrates another aspect of the pathogenicity of Strep. salivarius.

  18. Genome Sequence of the Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius JF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterium and the predominant colonizer of the oral microbiota. It finds a wide application in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, also reducing the frequency of other main pathogens. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the oral probiotic S. salivarius JF. PMID:27660775

  19. A commercial rapid optical immunoassay detects Streptococcus agalactiae from aquatic cultures and clinical specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BioStar STREPT B Optical ImmunoAssay (OIA) (BioStar® OIA® Strep B Assay Kit; Biostar Incorporation; Louisville, CO, USA) was used to identify 32 known group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates of fish, dolphin, bovine, and human origin. Thirteen non-GBS isolates from fish and other animals were test...

  20. Identification and characterization of novel virulence factors in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Wartha, Florian

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Increased antibiotic resistance and insufficient vaccination contribute to the re-emerging of this pathogen. Identifying novel virulence factors could lead to a better understanding of the pathology of pneumococcal disease and result in novel therapeutic approaches. We were able to show the presence of a surface-exposed pilus structure in pneumococci, made u...

  1. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ105 PREGNANCY Group B Strep and Pregnancy • What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? • What does it mean to be ... a planned cesarean birth? •Glossary What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? Group B streptococcus is one of ...

  2. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs. PMID:26233445

  3. BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

  4. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Vermani Archa; Navneet; Prabhat

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water) of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated) and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated). Materials and Methods: The cup-plate method was used ...

  5. Fluoroquinolone Resistance among Clonal Complex 1 Group B Streptococcus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatero, Sarah; Patel, Samir N.

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in group B Streptococcus is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here, we correlated fluoroquinolone resistance with mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, identified by mining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 190 clonal complex 1 group B Streptococcus strains recovered from patients with invasive diseases in North America. We report a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (12%) among GBS strains in our collection. Our approach is the first step towards accurate prediction of fluoroquinolone resistance from WGS data in this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27559344

  6. Fluoroquinolone Resistance among Clonal Complex 1 Group B Streptococcus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neemuchwala, Alefiya; Teatero, Sarah; Patel, Samir N; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in group B Streptococcus is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here, we correlated fluoroquinolone resistance with mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, identified by mining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 190 clonal complex 1 group B Streptococcus strains recovered from patients with invasive diseases in North America. We report a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (12%) among GBS strains in our collection. Our approach is the first step towards accurate prediction of fluoroquinolone resistance from WGS data in this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27559344

  7. Status of research and development of vaccines for Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Andrew C; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Dale, James B; Fraser, John D; Good, Michael F; Guilherme, Luiza; Moreland, Nicole J; Mulholland, E Kim; Schodel, Florian; Smeesters, Pierre R

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an important global pathogen, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, especially in low and middle income countries where rheumatic heart disease and invasive infections are common. There is a number of promising vaccine candidates, most notably those based on the M protein, the key virulence factor for the bacterium. Vaccines against Streptococcus pyogenes are considered as impeded vaccines because of a number of crucial barriers to development. Considerable effort is needed by key players to bring current vaccine candidates through phase III clinical trials and there is a clear need to develop a roadmap for future development of current and new candidates. PMID:27032515

  8. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  9. Mechanisms of genome evolution of Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Cheryl P; Hanage, William P

    2015-07-01

    The genus Streptococcus contains 104 recognized species, many of which are associated with human or animal hosts. A globally prevalent human pathogen in this group is Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). While being a common resident of the upper respiratory tract, it is also a major cause of otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis, accounting for a high burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent findings demonstrate the importance of recombination and selection in driving the population dynamics and evolution of different pneumococcal lineages, allowing them to successfully evade the impacts of selective pressures such as vaccination and antibiotic treatment. We highlight the ability of pneumococci to respond to these pressures through processes including serotype replacement, capsular switching and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance genes. The challenge in controlling this pathogen also lies in the exceptional genetic and phenotypic variation among different pneumococcal lineages, particularly in terms of their pathogenicity and resistance to current therapeutic strategies. The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, which target only a small subset of the more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes, provides us with a unique opportunity to elucidate how the processes of selection and recombination interact to generate a remarkable level of plasticity and heterogeneity in the pneumococcal genome. These processes also play an important role in the emergence and spread of multi-resistant strains, which continues to pose a challenge in disease control and/or eradication. The application of population of genomic approaches at different spatial and temporal scales will help improve strategies to control this global pathogen, and potentially other pathogenic streptococci. PMID:25461843

  10. Activation of TAFI on the Surface of Streptococcus pyogenes Evokes Inflammatory Reactions by Modulating the Kallikrein/Kinin System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Bengtson; C. Sanden; M. Morgelin; P.F. Marx; A.I. Olin; L.M.F. Leeb-Lundberg; J.C.M. Meijers; H. Herwald

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria-controlled regulation of host responses to infection is an important virulence mechanism that has been demonstrated to contribute to disease progression. Here we report that the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes employs the procarboxypeptidase TAR (thrombin-activatablefibrinolysis inhib

  11. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Patras, Kathryn A.; Wescombe, Philip A.; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D.; Tagg, John R.; Kelly S. Doran

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to cont...

  12. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  13. Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7% had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pathological lesions and change in udder secretion, in addition to that 276 quarters (31.4% showed subclinical mastitis. The incidence of mastitis was found to be increased in older cows. Staphylococcus aurous was considered to be the most common cause of both clinical and subclinical mastitis and followed by coli forms, streptococcus spp., corynebacterium spp., proteus spp. and pseudomonas spp. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains using tertracycline, ampicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, penicillin G and sulphamethoxazol trimethoprim.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain GBS85147 serotype of type Ia isolated from human oropharynx

    OpenAIRE

    de Aguiar, Edgar Lacerda; Mariano, Diego César Batista; Viana, Marcus Vinícius Canário; Benevides, Leandro Jesus; de Souza Rocha, Flávia; de Castro Oliveira, Letícia; Pereira, Felipe Luiz; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Leal, Carlos Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Alex Fiorini; Santos, Gabriela Silva; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Nagao, Prescilla Emy; De Castro Soares, Siomar; Hassan, Syed Shah

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, also referred to as Group B Streptococcus, is a frequent resident of the rectovaginal tract in humans, and a major cause of neonatal infection. The pathogen can also infect adults with underlying disease, particularly the elderly and immunocompromised ones. In addition, S. agalactiae is a known fish pathogen, which compromises food safety and represents a zoonotic hazard. This study provides valuable structural, functional and evolutionary genomic information of a hu...

  15. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  16. Remodeling of the Streptococcus agalactiae Transcriptome in Response to Growth Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Mereghetti; Izabela Sitkiewicz; Nicole M Green; Musser, James M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To act as a commensal bacterium and a pathogen in humans and animals, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) must be able to monitor and adapt to different environmental conditions. Temperature variation is a one of the most commonly encountered variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the extent to which GBS modify gene expression in response to temperatures encountered in the various hosts, we conducted a whole genome transcriptome analysis of orga...

  17. Streptococcus agalactiae vaginitis: nonhemolytic variant on the Liofilchem® Chromatic StreptoB

    OpenAIRE

    Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; D’Antonio, Marianna; D’Amario, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; D’Antonio, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) vaginal pathogenicity is not uniformly acknowledged throughout the literature; accordingly, in women, genital itching and burning, along with leukorrhea are commonly and almost exclusively referred to bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Conversely, GBS virulence for vagina was recognized in the past, as the organism has been observed to potentially cause local inflammation and discharge, as well as lactobacilli rarefaction...

  18. Transcriptional Activation of sclA by Mga Requires a Distal Binding Site in Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Almengor, Audry C.; McIver, Kevin S.

    2004-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus [GAS]) is a medically significant pathogen of humans, causing a range of diseases from pharyngitis to necrotizing fasciitis. Several important GAS virulence genes are under the control of a pleiotropic regulator called Mga, or the multiple gene regulator of GAS, including the gene encoding the streptococcal collagen-like protein, or sclA. Analysis of the genome sequence upstream of sclA revealed two potential Mga-binding sites with homology to...

  19. Comparison of the Effect of Recaldent and Xylitol on the Amounts of Salivary Streptococcus Mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Shila Emamieh; Hossein Goudarzi; Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban; Yosra Khaterizadeh

    2015-01-01

     Background:Dental caries is associated with oral pathogenes and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans)is one of the primary cariogenic organisms. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of sugar free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP) and Xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutan. Materials and Methods: 60 dental students, who volunteered after signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interve...

  20. Structure of N-acetyl-[beta]-D-glucosaminidase (GcnA) from the Endocarditis Pathogen Streptococcus gordonii and its Complex with the Mechanism-based Inhibitor NAG-thiazoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, David B.; Harty, Derek W.S.; Jacques, Nicholas A.; Hunter, Neil; Guss, J. Mitchell; Collyer, Charles A. (Sydney); (Westmead)

    2008-09-17

    The crystal structure of GcnA, an N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase from Streptococcus gordonii, was solved by multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using crystals of selenomethionine-substituted protein. GcnA is a homodimer with subunits each comprised of three domains. The structure of the C-terminal {alpha}-helical domain has not been observed previously and forms a large dimerization interface. The fold of the N-terminal domain is observed in all structurally related glycosidases although its function is unknown. The central domain has a canonical ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} TIM-barrel fold which harbours the active site. The primary sequence and structure of this central domain identifies the enzyme as a family 20 glycosidase. Key residues implicated in catalysis have different conformations in two different crystal forms, which probably represent active and inactive conformations of the enzyme. The catalytic mechanism for this class of glycoside hydrolase, where the substrate rather than the enzyme provides the cleavage-inducing nucleophile, has been confirmed by the structure of GcnA complexed with a putative reaction intermediate analogue, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosamine-thiazoline. The catalytic mechanism is discussed in light of these and other family 20 structures.

  1. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  2. Identification of Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius in clinical laboratories.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruoff, K L; Ferraro, M J; Holden, J; Kunz, L J

    1984-01-01

    Streptococci identified as Streptococcus bovis, S. bovis variant, and Streptococcus salivarius were examined with respect to physiological and serological characteristics and cellular fatty acid content. Similarities in physiological reactions and problems encountered in serological analysis were noted, suggesting that an expanded battery of physiological tests is needed to definitively identify these streptococci. Cellular fatty acid analysis provided an accurate method for distinguishing S....

  3. Bovine Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen that causes reproductive losses in cattle and zoonotic infections in people. An eradication program based on serologic detection and vaccination has been in place for decades in the United States. Brucella use multiple molecular mechanisms to modify th...

  4. Host-pathogen interactions in bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kelly S; Fulde, Marcus; Gratz, Nina; Kim, Brandon J; Nau, Roland; Prasadarao, Nemani; Schubert-Unkmeir, Alexandra; Tuomanen, Elaine I; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a devastating disease occurring worldwide with up to half of the survivors left with permanent neurological sequelae. Due to intrinsic properties of the meningeal pathogens and the host responses they induce, infection can cause relatively specific lesions and clinical syndromes that result from interference with the function of the affected nervous system tissue. Pathogenesis is based on complex host-pathogen interactions, some of which are specific for certain bacteria, whereas others are shared among different pathogens. In this review, we summarize the recent progress made in understanding the molecular and cellular events involved in these interactions. We focus on selected major pathogens, Streptococcus pneumonia, S. agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus), Neisseria meningitidis, and Escherichia coli K1, and also include a neglected zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus suis. These neuroinvasive pathogens represent common themes of host-pathogen interactions, such as colonization and invasion of mucosal barriers, survival in the blood stream, entry into the central nervous system by translocation of the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and induction of meningeal inflammation, affecting pia mater, the arachnoid and subarachnoid spaces. PMID:26744349

  5. Bullous impetigo caused by Streptococcus salivarius: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, I

    1980-01-01

    A 19-month-old child presented with bullous impetigo around the perineal region, penis, and left foot. Streptococcus salivarius was the only isolate recovered from the lesions. The child was treated with parenteral penicillin, debridement of the bulli, and local application of silver sulphadiazine cream. This case of bullous impetigo illustrates another aspect of the pathogenicity of Strep. salivarius. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7002959

  6. CRISPR Inhibition of Prophage Acquisition in Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Nozawa; Nayuta Furukawa; Chihiro Aikawa; Takayasu Watanabe; Bijaya Haobam; Ken Kurokawa; Fumito Maruyama; Ichiro Nakagawa

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the major human pathogens, is a unique species since it has acquired diverse strain-specific virulence properties mainly through the acquisition of streptococcal prophages. In addition, S. pyogenes possesses clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas systems that can restrict horizontal gene transfer (HGT) including phage insertion. Therefore, it was of interest to examine the relationship between CRISPR and acquisition of prophages i...

  7. Emergence of Respiratory Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Eickel; Barbara Kahl; Beatrice Reinisch; Angelika Dübbers; Peter Küster; Claudia Brandt; Barbara Spellerberg

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-known pathogen for neonates and immunocompromized adults. Beyond the neonatal period, S. agalactiae is rarely found in the respiratory tract. During 2002–2008 we noticed S. agalactiae in respiratory secretions of 30/185 (16%) of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The median age of these patients was 3–6 years older than the median age CF patients not harboring S. agalactiae. To analyze, if the S. agalactiae isolates from CF patients were clonal, further characte...

  8. Ⅰa型牛源无乳链球菌M7菌株Sip基因的分子特征分析%Characterization of the Sip Gene in the Isolate M7 of Ⅰa Serotype of Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭荣; 张世栋; 杨峰; 杨志强; 李宏胜; 李建喜

    2012-01-01

    The Sip gene of the isolate M7 of I a serotype Streptococcus agalactiae from bovine was amplified using the PCR method,cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector and then sequenced. The molecular characteristics of Sip gene and its expression protein were analyzed using a variety of biological software. The results showed that Sip gene of M7 was 1305 bp and did not appear the gene deletion, the Sip gene of nucleotide sequence derived from M7 had a 98. 0% to 100. 0% of homology and a 97. 2% to 99. 8% amino acid homology among the corresponding sequences published in GenBank. Furthermore, the Sip gene of M7 shared of 100. 0% nucleotide homology and 99. 8% of amino acid identity with that of Ly2(FJ808732)strains in China and GB00549(FJ752159)in USA, respectively. The expression protein of Sip gene was a stable outer membrane protein,which was secretion protein and hydrophobic highly. The polypeptide contained a LysM functional domain which was related to im-munoregulation between the N-terminal 52nd to 95th amino acid residues and a signal peptide consisting of 25 amino acids, which of cleavage site between 25th and 26th amino acids. Moreover there were a number of B cell and T cell epitopes on the protein. The results illustrated the Sip protein of M7 strain was conservative immune proteins without missing LysM super-family domain.%通过PCR方法扩增Ⅰa型牛源无乳链球菌地方菌株M7的Sip基因,将目的片段克隆人pGEM-T Easy载体并进行测序,采用多种生物软件对Sip基因及其表达的蛋白质进行分子特征分析.试验结果表明,M7菌株的Sip基因为1305 bp,未出现基因缺失;与GenBank中发表的不同血清型的无乳链球菌菌株的相应核苷酸序列同源性为98.0%~100.0%,推导的氨基酸同源性为97.2%~99.8%.M7的Sip基因与中国菌株Ly2(FJ808732)和美国菌株GB00549(FJ752159)的相应基因的核苷酸同源性和氨基酸同源性最高,核苷酸同源性均为100.0%,氨基酸同源性均为99.8

  9. Biological Characteristic and Pathogenicity Research of Streptococcus agalactiae in Tilapia%罗非鱼无乳链球菌生物学特性与致病力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田珂; 贾爱卿; 陈善真; 李守军; 王贵平; 石和荣

    2013-01-01

    本试验分离纯化1株致使罗非鱼具有链球菌发病症状的病原菌,药敏试验结果表明,该菌对氯霉素等10种药物敏感.PCR扩增该菌的cfb基因,将扩增片段测序后与GenBank上登录的罗非鱼无乳链球菌的cfb基因序列进行比对.同时对该病原菌的生物学特性进行研究,包括培养时间和pH对该菌生长的影响;培养温度对其致病力的影响;探讨了不同攻毒方式(腹腔、胸腔和背部肌肉注射)与鱼发病快慢的关系;并对不同规格(100和10 g左右)的罗非鱼对该菌的易感性进行分析.试验结果表明,该病原菌为无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae);该菌的最适培养时间为ll.5h,最适培养pH为7.5;腹腔、胸腔和背部肌肉注射后,其发病时间几乎一致,但胸腔注射的试验鱼死亡速度最慢,背部肌肉注射是较安全可行的攻毒方式;33℃培养的无乳链球菌攻毒的罗非鱼发病最快,死亡最集中;100 g的试验鱼比10 g的试验鱼更易感染.

  10. Studies on antibacterial effects of 10 kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs and four combinations on pathogenic Streptococcus iniae from tilapia in Vitro%10种中草药及4种组方对罗非鱼致病性海豚链球菌体外抑菌试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 黄婷; 陈福艳; 陈明; 梁万文

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of 10 Chinese herbal medicines including Coptidis rhizome, Rheum qffcinale, Radix scutellariae, Phellodendron chinense, etc. To Streptococcus iniae were detected through disc agar diffusion method ( punch method), and the minimal inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration of four kind Chinese herbs which had significant inhibitory effects to S. Iniae were measured by microdilution procedure. The results showed that 10 Chinese herbal medicine had inhibitory effects on 5. Iniae to different degree, among which four kinds of Chinese herbs including C. Rhizome, R. Scutellariae, R. Qffcinale and P. Chinense could effectively inhibit the growth of pathogenic S. Iniae, furthermore the inhibitory effect of C. Rhizome was the best, and the average diameter was (25.67 ± 0. 58) mm. Meanwhile , the experiment revealed that when used in combination, the antibacterial actions of 4 kinds of herb medicines were characterized as below: P. Chinense with C. Rhizome, R. Qffcinale with R. Scutellariae had a enhanced effect, R. Qffcinale with C. Rhizome remained unchanged, but P. Chinense with R. Scutellariae, P. Chinense with R. Qffcinale, Radix scutellariae with Coptidis rhizome depressed.%采用琼脂扩散法(打孔法)研究了黄连等10种中草药及4种组方对尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)致病性海豚链球菌(Streptococcus iniae)的抑制作用,并通过二倍稀释法测定抑菌作用较强的中草药对海豚链球菌的抑菌和杀菌浓度.结果显示:10种中草药对海豚链球菌均有不同程度的抑制作用,其中黄连、黄芩、大黄和黄柏的抑菌作用较强,而以黄连的抑菌效果最佳,抑菌圈平均直径达(25.67±0.58) mm.黄柏与黄连、大黄与黄芩联用抗菌作用增强,大黄与黄连联用不变,而黄柏与黄芩、黄柏与大黄、黄芩与黄连联用抑菌能力降低.

  11. Association of Streptococcus pluranimalium with valvular endocarditis and septicaemia in adult broiler parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedegaard, L; Christensen, H; Chadfield, M S; Christensen, J P; Bisgaard, M

    2009-04-01

    The genus Streptococcus consists of more than 60 species, but only Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus, Streptococcus gallinaceus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus suis have been isolated from poultry. During investigations of the aetiology of increased mortality in broiler parent stock at the end of production, pure cultures of streptococcal-like organisms that could not be classified among these six species were obtained from 24 cases of septicaemia or valvular endocarditis and septicaemia. Phenotypic characterization using the API20 STREP kit identified the isolates as Aerococcus viridans (10), Aerococcus urinae (2), Leuconostoc species (4), Streptococcus salivarius (2), Streptococcus bovis II 3 (1), Enterococcus avium (3), Enterococcus faecium (1) or Gemella morbillorum (1). However, this identification was misleading as subsequent genetic investigations using pulse field gel electrophoresis and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that 19 isolates were classified as Streptococcus pluranimalium, while the remaining isolates were E. avium (3), E. faecium (1) or Lactobacillus species (1). Misidentification by API20 STREP was related to the database provided by the manufacturer, as the phenotypic characteristics could identify these organisms as S. pluranimalium. The isolates of S. pluranimalium belonged to at least three different clones as determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested genomic DNA. The capacity that these isolates had to colonize the valvular endothelium was suggested by the occurrence of valvular endocarditis in 12 of 19 cases. Demonstration of the same clone in all four houses on a farm suggested the pathogenic potential of this organism. PMID:19322715

  12. Salivaricin G32, a Homolog of the Prototype Streptococcus pyogenes Nisin-Like Lantibiotic SA-FF22, Produced by the Commensal Species Streptococcus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescombe, Philip A; Dyet, Kristin H; Dierksen, Karen P; Power, Daniel A; Jack, Ralph W; Burton, Jeremy P; Inglis, Megan A; Wescombe, Anna L; Tagg, John R

    2012-01-01

    Salivaricin G32, a 2667 Da novel member of the SA-FF22 cluster of lantibiotics, has been purified and characterized from Streptococcus salivarius strain G32. The inhibitory peptide differs from the Streptococcus pyogenes-produced SA-FF22 in the absence of lysine in position 2. The salivaricin G32 locus was widely distributed in BLIS-producing S. salivarius, with 6 (23%) of 26 strains PCR-positive for the structural gene, slnA. As for most other lantibiotics produced by S. salivarius, the salivaricin G32 locus can be megaplasmid encoded. Another member of the SA-FF22 family was detected in two Streptococcus dysgalactiae of bovine origin, an observation supportive of widespread distribution of this lantibiotic within the genus Streptococcus. Since the inhibitory spectrum of salivaricin G32 includes Streptococcus pyogenes, its production by S. salivarius, either as a member of the normal oral microflora or as a commercial probiotic, could serve to enhance protection of the human host against S. pyogenes infection. PMID:22567013

  13. Salivaricin G32, a Homolog of the Prototype Streptococcus pyogenes Nisin-Like Lantibiotic SA-FF22, Produced by the Commensal Species Streptococcus salivarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Wescombe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivaricin G32, a 2667 Da novel member of the SA-FF22 cluster of lantibiotics, has been purified and characterized from Streptococcus salivarius strain G32. The inhibitory peptide differs from the Streptococcus pyogenes—produced SA-FF22 in the absence of lysine in position 2. The salivaricin G32 locus was widely distributed in BLIS-producing S. salivarius, with 6 (23% of 26 strains PCR-positive for the structural gene, slnA. As for most other lantibiotics produced by S. salivarius, the salivaricin G32 locus can be megaplasmid encoded. Another member of the SA-FF22 family was detected in two Streptococcus dysgalactiae of bovine origin, an observation supportive of widespread distribution of this lantibiotic within the genus Streptococcus. Since the inhibitory spectrum of salivaricin G32 includes Streptococcus pyogenes, its production by S. salivarius, either as a member of the normal oral microflora or as a commercial probiotic, could serve to enhance protection of the human host against S. pyogenes infection.

  14. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  15. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals. PMID:23445624

  16. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Plant-Derived Diterpenes against Bovine Mastitis Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. S. Veneziani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL−1 against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect, but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis.

  17. Epidemiological aspects of group B streptococci of bovine and human origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1996-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding rRNA (ribotyping) was used in combination with conventional epidemiological markers to study phenotypic variations among Streptococcus agalactiae of bovine origin and the possible epidemiological interrelationship between the bovine...... and human reservoirs of Streptococcus agalactiae. The bovine material constituted 53 strains (9 antigen combinations) isolated from 11 herds. Herds with a uniform as well as heterogenic antigenic pattern were included. Furthermore, strains isolated in the course of time from the same persistently infected...... quarters were examined. The human material constituted 16 strains, 4 each of 4 serotypes, isolated from healthy carriers. Finally, nine serotype- and the group reference strains were examined. All strains were serotyped by double diffusion in agarose gel, biotyped (lactose +/-), and ribotyped using two...

  18. Streptococcus mutans Out-competes Streptococcus gordonii in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzer, J M; Thompson, A; Sharma, K.; Vickerman, M M; Haase, E.M.; Scannapieco, F A

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans avidly colonize teeth. S. gordonii glucosyltransferase (GtfG) and amylase-binding proteins (AbpA/AbpB), and S. mutans glucosyltransferase (GtfB), affect their respective oral colonization abilities. We investigated their interrelationships and caries association in a rat model of human caries, examining the sequence of colonization and non- vs. high-sucrose diets, the latter being associated with aggressive decay in humans and rats. Virulence-ch...

  19. Identification of Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, K L; Ferraro, M J; Holden, J; Kunz, L J

    1984-01-01

    Streptococci identified as Streptococcus bovis, S. bovis variant, and Streptococcus salivarius were examined with respect to physiological and serological characteristics and cellular fatty acid content. Similarities in physiological reactions and problems encountered in serological analysis were noted, suggesting that an expanded battery of physiological tests is needed to definitively identify these streptococci. Cellular fatty acid analysis provided an accurate method for distinguishing S. salivarius from S. bovis and S. bovis variant. PMID:6490816

  20. A single amino acid substitution in the MurF UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide synthetase renders Streptococcus pneumoniae dependent on CO2 and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghout, Peter; Quintero, Beatriz; Bos, Linda; Beilharz, Katrin; Veening, Jan-Willem; de Jonge, Marien I.; van der Linden, Mark; van der Ende, Arie; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory tract pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae encounters different levels of environmental CO2 during transmission, host colonization and disease. About 8% of all pneumococcal isolates are capnophiles that require CO2-enriched growth conditions. The underlying molecular mechanism for caphn

  1. Potential antibiotic and anti-infective effects of rhodomyrtone from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. on Streptococcus pyogenes as revealed by proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limsuwan, Surasak; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Kayser, Oliver; Meinders, Hesseling A.

    2011-01-01

    Rhodomyrtone from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf extract has a strong antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Our previous studies indicated that the bactericidal activity of rhodomyrtone might involve intracellular targets. In the present studies we

  2. Native Valve Streptococcus bovis Endocarditis and Refractory Transfusion Dependent Iron Deficiency Anaemia Associated with Concomitant Carcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Azeez Ahamed Riyaaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is found as a commensal organism in human gut and may become opportunistically pathogenic. Infective endocarditis is one of the commonest modes of presentation of this infection. The association between Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colorectal cancer is well recognized. We report a case of Streptococcus bovis endocarditis along with a refractory iron deficiency anaemia associated with concomitant carcinoma of ascending colon in a 63-year-old male. Cooccurrence of these two conditions may cause a challenge in the management. Considering the strong association of colon cancer with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis, a detailed screening colonoscopy is mandatory following the diagnosis of the latter.

  3. Native Valve Streptococcus bovis Endocarditis and Refractory Transfusion Dependent Iron Deficiency Anaemia Associated with Concomitant Carcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed Riyaaz, Abdul Azeez; Samarasinghe, Randula; Sellahewa, Kolitha; Sivakumaran, Sabaratnam; Tampoe, Manjula Sri

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is found as a commensal organism in human gut and may become opportunistically pathogenic. Infective endocarditis is one of the commonest modes of presentation of this infection. The association between Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colorectal cancer is well recognized. We report a case of Streptococcus bovis endocarditis along with a refractory iron deficiency anaemia associated with concomitant carcinoma of ascending colon in a 63-year-old male. Cooccurrence of these two conditions may cause a challenge in the management. Considering the strong association of colon cancer with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis, a detailed screening colonoscopy is mandatory following the diagnosis of the latter. PMID:26881154

  4. Regulation of glutamine and glutamate metabolism by GlnR and GlnA in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Hendriksen, Wouter T.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Bootsma, Hester J.; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Kok, Jan; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2006-01-01

    Several genes involved in nitrogen metabolism are known to contribute to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Here, we studied the function of the nitrogen regulatory protein GlnR in the Gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We demonstrate that GlnR mediates transcriptional repress

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae GD201008-001, Isolated in China from Tilapia with Meningoencephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain GD201008-001, a pathogen causing meningoencephalitis in cultural tilapia in China. The genome sequence provides opportunities to understand the piscine GBS pathogenicity and its genetic basis associated with host tropism.

  6. Purification of bovine milk lactoperoxidase and investigation of antibacterial properties at different thiocyanate mediated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğuz, M T; Ozdemir, H

    2005-01-01

    Bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) was purified with amberlite CG 50 H+ resin, CM sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography from skim milk. The activity of lactoperoxidase was measured by using 2.2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6 sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as a choromogenic substrate at pH 6.0. Purification degree for the purified enzyme was controlled with SDS-PAGE and Rz value (A412/A280). Rz value for the purified LPO was 0.8. Km value at pH 6.0 at 20 degrees C for the LPO was 0.20 mM. Vmax value was 7.87 micromol/ml min at pH 6.0 at 20 degrees C. Bovine LPO showed high antibacterial activity in 100 mM thiocyanate--100 mM H2O2 medium for some pathogenic bacteria, such as Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Micrococcus luteus LA 2971, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Pseudomonas pyocyanea, Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 10, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 15753, Bacillus brevis FMC3, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 5, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Bacillus cereus EU, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Yersinia enterocolytica, Listeria monocytogenes scoot A, Bacillus megaterium EU, Bacillus megaterium DSM32, Klebsiella oxytocica, Staphylococcus aerogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067 and compared with well known antibacterial substances such as penicilline, ampicilline, amoxicillin-clavulanate and ceftriaxon. The LPO--100 mM thiocyanate--100 mM H2O2 system was purposed as an effective agent against many of the diseases causing organisms in human and animals.

  7. Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regianne Umeko Kamiya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virulence factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing, classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis.

  8. Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Regianne Umeko; Taiete, Tiago; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virulence factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing), classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis. PMID:24031748

  9. Limited efficacy of Fever Tag® temperature sensing ear tags in calves with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease or induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves.

  10. Bacterial respiratory pathogens in children with inherited immune and airway disorders: nasopharyngeal carriage and disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Luesink, M.; Warris, A.; Groot, R. de; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with primary immunodeficiencies, sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis are at risk to develop invasive bacterial infections caused by respiratory tract pathogens, in particular Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. This review article evaluates the ro

  11. What makes pathogens pathogenic

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Garth D.; Hiller, N.Luisa; Hu, Fen Ze

    2008-01-01

    Metazoans contain multiple complex microbial ecosystems in which the balance between host and microbe can be tipped from commensalism to pathogenicity. This transition is likely to depend both on the prevailing environmental conditions and on specific gene-gene interactions placed within the context of the entire ecosystem.

  12. Emerging trends in invasive and noninvasive isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae in a Latin American hospital: a 17-year study

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo-Ortiz, Maria del Pilar; Castañeda-Ramirez, Claudia Rocio; Recalde-Bolaños, Monica; Vélez-Londoño, Juan Diego

    2014-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) has been recognized as a lethal pathogen in neonates worldwide. S. agalactiae infections also severely affect pregnant women and immunosuppressed adults with substantial attributable morbidity and mortality. However, in Latin America, studies on the epidemiology and behaviour of S. agalactiae infections remain limited. Methods To better understand the behaviour of S. agalactiae infections in our region, we conducted a retrospe...

  13. Distribution of Pilus Islands in Streptococcus agalactiae That Cause Human Infections: Insights into Evolution and Implication for Vaccine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, E. R.; Andreu, A; Melo-Cristino, J.; Ramirez, M.

    2013-01-01

    At least one pilus island, PI-1 (70%), PI-2a (79%), or PI-2b (21%), was found among 898 Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) isolates recovered from humans, supporting the use of pilus proteins in vaccines. The stability and dominance of PI-1 and PI-2a in multiple serotypes and founder multilocus sequence types disseminated worldwide suggest it could be the PI combination present in ancestral GBS human pathogens.

  14. Restoration of Mga Function to a Streptococcus pyogenes Strain (M Type 50) That Is Virulent in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Limbago, Brandi; McIver, Kevin S.; Penumalli, Vikram; Weinrick, Brian; Scott, June R.

    2001-01-01

    The Mga protein in B514Sm, a Streptococcus pyogenes strain isolated as a mouse pathogen, contains amino acid substitutions at conserved sites that render the protein defective. Replacement of mga50 with the functional homolog mga4.1 restored full expression of Mga-regulated proteins. Restoration of Mga function did not affect fibrinogen binding, nor did it affect virulence in several mouse models of group A streptococcus infection.

  15. Cross-sectional study of Streptococcus species in quarter milk samples of dairy cows in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guélat-Brechbuehl, M; Thomann, A; Albini, S; Moret-Stalder, S; Reist, M; Bodmer, M; Michel, A; Niederberger, M D; Kaufmann, T

    2010-08-01

    A total of 2538 quarter milk samples from 638 lactating dairy cows from 47 farms in the canton of Bern, Switzerland, were investigated for streptococci. A novel, simple and inexpensive laboratory method was used for the differentiation of Streptococcus species, and a risk factor analysis was carried out. The prevalence in the quarter milk samples was 0.2 per cent for Streptococcus agalactiae, 1.3 per cent for Streptococcus uberis, 1.3 per cent for Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 0.1 per cent for Enterococcus species and 2.9 per cent for minor Streptococcus species (designated Streptococcus-Lactococcus-Enterococcus [SLE] group). Based on the somatic cell count (SCC), S uberis and S dysgalactiae were classified as 'major' pathogens and the bacteria in the SLE group as 'minor' pathogens. For S uberis, S dysgalactiae and bacteria in the SLE group, the most significant risk factor was an intramammary infection (IMI) of a neighbouring quarter by the same pathogen. Other significant risk factors for S uberis infection were a positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) result and a SCC of more than 100,000 cells/ml. Significant risk factors for IMI with S dysgalactiae were a positive CMT result, teat injury and palpable abnormalities in the udder. Infection with bacteria in the SLE group was significantly associated with a SCC of more than 100,000 cells/ml, a lactation number of more than 2, the right rear quarter (as the location of infection) and a positive CMT result. PMID:20693505

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain S25 Isolated from Peritoneal Liquid of Nile Tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Rafaella Menegheti; Lima Júnior, Edson Antônio; Ribeiro Júnior, Jose Carlos; Beloti, Vanerli; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Padua, Santiago Benites

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is one of the major pathogens in fish production, especially in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The genomic characteristics of GBS isolated from fish must be more explored. Thus, we present here the genome of GBS S25, isolated from Nile tilapia from Brazil. PMID:27491974

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Ia and III Isolates from Tilapia Farms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areechon, Nontawith; Kannika, Korntip; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Unajak, Sasimanas

    2016-03-24

    Streptococcus agalactiaeserotypes Ia and III were isolated from infected tilapia in cage and pond culture farms in Thailand during 2012 to 2014, in which pathogenicity analysis demonstrated that serotype III showed higher virulence than serotype Ia. Here, we report the draft genome sequencing of piscineS. agalactiaeserotypes Ia and III.

  18. Specific serum antibody responses in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) provide limited protection against Streptococcus ictaluri challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive immunization has been shown to provide a spectrum of protection against certain piscine pathogens, and studies were conducted to determine the role of specific antibodies in immunity to Streptococcus ictaluri. Adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were injected i.p. with tryptic soy br...

  19. Severe respiratory failure due to co-infection with human metapneumovirus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Masafumi Seki; Hisao Yoshida; Kazuyoshi Gotoh; Nobuyuki Hamada; Daisuke Motooka; Shota Nakamura; Norihisa Yamamoto; Shigeto Hamaguchi; Yukihiro Akeda; Hiroshi Watanabe; Tetsuya Iida; Kazunori Tomono

    2014-01-01

    A 64-year-old male patient was admitted with respiratory failure, although chest X-rays revealed only mild bronchiolitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae, which usually presents as massive lobular pneumonia, was isolated from sputum, however, pan-pathogen screening using a next-generation sequencer also detected human metapneumovirus genome fragments.

  20. CodY of Streptococcus pneumoniae : Link between nutritional gene regulation and colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Wouter T.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Estevao, Silvia; Hoogenboezem, Theo; de Jong, Anne; de Groot, Ronald; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2008-01-01

    CodY is a nutritional regulator mainly involved in amino acid metabolism. It has been extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis. We investigated the role of CodY in gene regulation and virulence of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We constructed a codY mutant and ex

  1. Carbonic Anhydrase Is Essential for Streptococcus pneumoniae Growth in Environmental Ambient Air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghout, Peter; Cron, Lorelei E.; Gradstedt, Henrik; Quintero, Beatriz; Simonetti, Elles; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2010-01-01

    The respiratory tract pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae needs to adapt to the different levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) it encounters during transmission, colonization, and infection. Since CO(2) is important for various cellular processes, factors that allow optimal CO(2) sequestering are likely t

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain S25 Isolated from Peritoneal Liquid of Nile Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Rafaella Menegheti; Lima Júnior, Edson Antônio; Ribeiro Júnior, Jose Carlos; Beloti, Vanerli; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Padua, Santiago Benites; Pereira, Ulisses Pádua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is one of the major pathogens in fish production, especially in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The genomic characteristics of GBS isolated from fish must be more explored. Thus, we present here the genome of GBS S25, isolated from Nile tilapia from Brazil. PMID:27491974

  3. Accuracy of Phenotypic Methods for Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates Included in Surveillance Programs▿

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Sandra S.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Dohrn, Cassie L.; Riahi, Fathollah; Beekmann, Susan E.; Doern, Gary V.

    2008-01-01

    Similarities between Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans group streptococci may result in misidentification of these organisms. In surveillance programs which assess antimicrobial resistance rates among respiratory tract pathogens, such identification errors could lead to overestimates of pneumococcal resistance rates. DNA probe analysis (Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA), the bile solubility test, optochin susceptibility, colony morphology, and the capsular swelling reaction with Omni serum (State...

  4. Immunoproteomic analysis of the antibody response obtained in tilapia following immunization with a Streptococcus iniae vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is one of the most economically important Gram-positive pathogens in cultured fish species worldwide. Research has shown that vaccination is a tool that can be used in the prevention of streptococcal disease. The USDA-ARS patented S. iniae vaccine has been demonstrated to be ef...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Strain ATCC 35246

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhe; Geng, Jianing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Haiying; Yi, Li; Lei, Meng; Lu, Cheng-Ping; Fan, Hong-Jie; Hu, Songnian

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen. It has caused a very large economic loss in the swine industry of China and has become a threat to human health. We announce the complete genome sequence of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246, which provides opportunities to understand its pathogenesis mechanism and genetic basis.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhe; Geng, Jianing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Haiying; Yi, Li; Lei, Meng; Lu, Cheng-ping; Fan, Hong-jie; Hu, Songnian

    2011-10-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen. It has caused a very large economic loss in the swine industry of China and has become a threat to human health. We announce the complete genome sequence of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246, which provides opportunities to understand its pathogenesis mechanism and genetic basis. PMID:21914890

  7. Streptococcus suis infections in pigs : use of virulence-associated markers in diagnostics and vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, Hendrikus Jan

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pig pathogen which is mainly associated with meningitis, arthritis and septicaemia. Control of the disease is hampered by the lack of effective vaccines and the lack of reliable diagnostic tests with high specificity and sensitivity. The development of these tools

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Ia and III Isolates from Tilapia Farms in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Areechon, Nontawith; Kannika, Korntip; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Unajak, Sasimanas

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae serotypes Ia and III were isolated from infected tilapia in cage and pond culture farms in Thailand during 2012 to 2014, in which pathogenicity analysis demonstrated that serotype III showed higher virulence than serotype Ia. Here, we report the draft genome sequencing of piscine S. agalactiae serotypes Ia and III.

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Ia and III Isolates from Tilapia Farms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areechon, Nontawith; Kannika, Korntip; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Unajak, Sasimanas

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiaeserotypes Ia and III were isolated from infected tilapia in cage and pond culture farms in Thailand during 2012 to 2014, in which pathogenicity analysis demonstrated that serotype III showed higher virulence than serotype Ia. Here, we report the draft genome sequencing of piscineS. agalactiaeserotypes Ia and III. PMID:27013037

  10. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  11. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379... 92, 93, 94, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine...

  12. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin...

  13. Penicillin-induced lysis of Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kral, T A; Callaway, M D

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 cells with concentrations of penicillin G within a relatively narrow range resulted in substantial lysis. This penicillin-induced lysis was dependent upon cell density and pH of the lysis medium. Other oral streptococci (Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus rattus, and Streptococcus cricetus) also demonstrated substantial levels of penicillin-induced lysis under appropriate conditions. Lesser degrees of lysis were seen in a related organism, Streptococc...

  14. Role of the group B antigen of Streptococcus agalactiae a peptidoglycan-anchored polysaccharide involved in cell wall biogenesis : a Peptidoglycan-Anchored Polysaccharide involved in cell wall biogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Élise Caliot; Shaynoor Dramsi; Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier; Pascal Courtin; Saulius Kulakauskas; Christine Péchoux; Patrick Trieu-Cuot; Michel-Yves Mistou

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of infections in neonates and an emerging pathogen in adults. The Lancefield Group B carbohydrate (GBC) is a peptidoglycan-anchored antigen that defines this species as a Group B Streptococcus. Despite earlier immunological and biochemical characterizations, the function of this abundant glycopolymer has never been addressed experimentally. Here, we inactivated the gene gbcO encoding a putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-...

  15. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  16. Significance, management and prevention of Streptococcus agalactiae infection during the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Reinhard

    2004-06-01

    The highest annual death rate during the first five decades of life occurs in the first year, particularly during the perinatal period between the onset of labor and 72 h after birth. Invasive bacterial disease evoking the severe inflammatory response syndrome is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) is the most important pathogen in this period of life, although the concept of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis has impressively reduced the rate of culture-proven invasive infection in neonates. This strategy, however, has considerable limitations since group B streptococcus-related stillbirths or prematurity and late-onset sepsis cannot be prevented. Moreover, the use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis has significantly increased the use of antibiotics during labor and therefore may select for intrapartum infections caused by other bacteria, including those resistant to antibiotics. Several advances in the development of vaccines and research on virulence factors and pathways involved in the immune response to group B streptococcus have been accomplished within the last years, including complete sequencing of the group B streptococcus genome. Development of effective vaccines and implementation of vaccination strategies will be one of the key challenges in the future for prevention of neonatal group B Streptococcus infections.

  17. Fine Mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella, Ricardo; Casas, Eduardo; Snowder, Gary; Neibergs, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. BVDV infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI) and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26). The obje...

  18. 高致病性2型猪链球菌毒素-抗毒素系统SezAT的鉴定与活性研究%Identification and activity assay of the SezAT toxin-antitoxin system of highly pathogenic Streptococcus suis serotype 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 李明; 钟秋; 赵岩; 饶贤才; 黎庶; 谭银玲; 胡福泉

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对我国高致病性2型猪链球菌05ZYH33基因组的89K毒力岛序列进行生物信息学分析,发现存在一对与化脓链球菌Epsilon-zeta(ε-ζ)同源的Ⅱ型毒素-抗毒素系统(Toxin-antitoxin system,TA)-SezAT,推测该系统具有稳定89K毒力岛使其不易丢失的作用.验证SezAT为有活性的TA系统.[方法]对SezAT进行了生物信息学分析;RT-PCR验证SezAT共转录特性;在大肠杆菌中选择性地诱导表达毒素蛋白SezT和抗毒素蛋白SezA;最后通过同源重组技术敲除SezAT系统.[结果]sezAT由同一操纵子控制,SezT可抑制细菌生长,SezA可中和SezT的毒性作用,同源重组成功获得sezT敲除突变株.[结论]证实SezAT为一对有活性的毒素-抗毒素(TA)系统,为进一步研究SezAT可能发挥稳定89K毒力岛的功能,同时获得89K毒力岛缺失突变株并深入认识89K在我国高致病性SS2中的作用奠定了基础.%[Objective] Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the 89K pathogenicity island(PAI) of highly pathogenic Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) in China encodes a putative type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system named SezAT, which is homologous to the epsilon-zeta system from S. Pyogenes. SezAT is presumed to be requisite for the stability of the 89K PAI in SS2. To confirm the SezAT system is a functional TA system. [Methods] The sequence characteristics of SezAT were subjected to further bioinformatics analysis. RT-PCR was performed to analyze the transcriptions of the sezAT locus and the flanking genes. The SezT toxin and SezA antitoxin proteins were selectively overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Deletion mutagenesis was carried out to obtain a SezAT-deficient mutant. [Results] Bioinformatics analysis and RT-PCR results suggest that sezAT are in the same operon. Overexpression of SezT led to severe growth inhibition of the host bacteria, while this toxicity was counteracted by the expression of SezA. Finally, the toxin-encoding gene sezT was successfully

  19. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  20. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  1. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake...

  2. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  3. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delannoy Christian MJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26, seals (n = 6, a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host

  4. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  5. [Pathogenicity and pneumococcal capsular genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E; García, P; López, R

    1994-01-01

    Pneumococci remain to be one of the most prominent human pathogens. Increasing efforts are being dedicated to the development of improved vaccines with wider specificity. Since a clear understanding of the genetics of capsular types in Streptococcus pneumoniae is missing, our efforts are oriented to characterize, at the molecular level, the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. We have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal DNA fragment of a clinical isolate of type 3 pneumococcus and showed that it contains a type 3 specific gene as well as genes common to other serotypes.

  6. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  7. Preliminary observations on the use of latex agglutination test for the detection of mastitis due to Streptococcus agalactiae in cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, R C; Barnum, D A

    1986-01-01

    A commercial latex agglutination test for the detection of Group B streptococcal antigens was used to detect infection due to Streptococcus agalactiae in whey of bovine milk samples. Fifteen out of 17 known infections were detected, but it was necessary to incubate the wheys at 37 degrees C for 18 hours in nine of the samples. It was found that the latex agglutination test could detect Group streptococcal carbohydrate antigens in whey samples from artificially infected quarters from one to fo...

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of some Sinai medicinal plant extracts on bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamil S. G. Zeedan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis is the most economically important disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide from an economic, diagnostic and public-health point of view. The present study aimed to isolate and identify of bacteria causes mastitis in dairy cows and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of some selected medicinal plants extracts comparing antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 203 milk samples of dairy cows were collected during the period from February to June 2013 at different Governorates in Egypt. The use clinical inspection and California mastitis test examination were provided efficient diagnostic tool for detection of clinical, subclinical mastitis and apparently normal health cattle. The collected milk samples were cultured on Nutrient, Blood agar, Mannitol salt, Edward’s and MacConkey agar plates supporting the growth of various types of bacteria for their biochemical studies and isolation. The antimicrobial activity of plants extracts (Jasonia montana and Artemisia herb albawith different solvent (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and acetonewere studied in vitro against isolated bacteria from mastitis by paper desk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC. Results: The prevalence of clinical, subclinical mastitis and normal healthy animals were 34.50%, 24.7% and 40.8% respectively. The major pathogens isolated from collected milk samples were Escherichia coli (22.16%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.19%, Streptococcus spp. (13.3%, Streptococcus agalactiae (12.8%, Streptococcus dysgalactia (0.5%, Pasteurella spp. (2.45%, Klebsiella spp. (1.47%and Pseudomonas spp. (0.45%. The highest antibacterial activity of J. montana plant extracted with acetone solvent against S. agalactiae, E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococci with zone of inhibition values ± standard deviation (SD, ranging from 4.33±0.57 to 25.6±0.60 mm. The MIC values

  9. Identification and serotyping of Streptococcus agalactiae by PCR%无乳链球菌及其血清型的PCR方法鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤炜; 周雪; 于立权; 吴志军; 朱战波; 崔玉东

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important pathogen that causes bovine mastitis and life-threatening invasive infections (septicemia,pneumonia,and meningitis) during the neonatal period.To rapidly identify capsular serotypes of S.agalactiae,a total of 22 bovine Streptococcus isolates from different regions of China were typed by biochemical tests and multiplex PCR to amplify the conserved sip and cps genes of the S.agalactiae.The results shown 17 of the 22 isolates were positive for sip gene,whereas,15 of the 17 S.agalactiae were positive identified by biochemical tests.Furthermore,the multiplex PCR also revealed that among the 17 isolates,the cps gene serotypes were 4 of Ia,11 of Ⅱ and 2 of Ⅲ,repectively.This study may provide a reference for identification and serotyping of S.agalactiae.%无乳链球菌(S.agalactiae)是引起奶牛乳房炎和新生儿期侵袭性感染(包括败血症、肺炎和脑膜炎)的重要病原菌.为快速准确地鉴定S.agalactiae及其血清型,本研究对22株从国内不同地区分离的牛源链球菌进行生化鉴定以及针对S.agalactiae保守基因sip进行PCR鉴定,并采用多重PCR技术扩增sip基因阳性菌株的cps基因进行血清分型.结果显示,PCR扩增sip基因阳性17株,其中15株生化试验与PCR结果一致;多重PCR扩增cps基因显示,其中Ia型4株、Ⅱ型11株、Ⅲ型2株.本研究为鉴定S.agalactiae及其血清型提供了参考.

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Marguerite; Saab, Matthew; Heider, Luke; McClure, J Trenton; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: (1) Streptococcus uberis (n = 70), (2) Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28), (3) other Streptococci spp. (n = 35), (4), Lactococcus spp. (n = 32), and (5) Enterococcus spp. (n = 27). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible S. uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin) to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin), with a median of 82%. All S. dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible) and tetracycline (18% susceptible). The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline) to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin) to 97% (for erythromycin), median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Marguerite; Saab, Matthew; Heider, Luke; McClure, J Trenton; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: (1) Streptococcus uberis (n = 70), (2) Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28), (3) other Streptococci spp. (n = 35), (4), Lactococcus spp. (n = 32), and (5) Enterococcus spp. (n = 27). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible S. uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin) to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin), with a median of 82%. All S. dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible) and tetracycline (18% susceptible). The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline) to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin) to 97% (for erythromycin), median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice

  12. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Periodontal Streptococcus Constellatus and Streptococcus Intermedius Clinical Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Feik, Diane; Mortensen, Joel E; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius in subgingival dental plaque biofilms may contribute to forms of periodontitis that resist treatment with conventional mechanical root debridement/surgical procedures and may additionally participate in some extraoral infections. B

  13. Lung abscess due to Streptococcus pneumoniae simulating pulmonary tuberculosis: presentation of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Perazzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, anaerobes were the most common cause of community-acquired lung abscess; Streptococcus species were the second most common cause. In recent years, this has changed. Klebsiella pneumoniae is now most common cause of community- acquired lung abscess, although Streptococcus species remain pathogen of major importance. We present two cases of pulmonary cavitation due to Streptococcus pneumoniae which resembled pulmonary tuberculosis with regards to their history and radiological findings. These are examples of a common diagnosis presenting in an uncommon way. Our cases had some peculiarities: they had a clinical picture strongly suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis or lung cancer rather than necrotizing infectious pneumonia in patients with no comorbidities or underlying diseases (including oral or dental pathologies. Radiological findings did not help the clinicians: pulmonary tuberculosis was the first diagnostic hypothesis in both cases. An underlying lung cancer was excluded in the first case only after invasive pulmonary procedures.

  14. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus : immunopathology and vaccine evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Human and bovine RSVs cause severe disease in humans and in cattle respectively. They have been recognised as important respiratory pathogens in the last five decades, and this has resulted in significant research activities on the pathogenesis and intervention strategies around the world. Physician

  15. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  16. Human and bovine viruses and bacteria at three Great Lakes beaches: Environmental variable associations and health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Lutz, Michelle A.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Busse, Kimberly M.; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65–87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13–35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 3 × 10–5, 7 × 10–9, and 3 × 10–7 for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  17. Human and Bovine Viruses and Bacteria at Three Great Lakes Beaches: Environmental Variable Associations and Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Borchardt, Mark A; Carvin, Rebecca B; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K; Lutz, Michelle A; McDermott, Colleen M; Busse, Kimberly M; Kleinheinz, Gregory T; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-19

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65-87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13-35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 2 × 10(-5), 8 × 10(-6), and 3 × 10(-7) [corrected] for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  18. Chromosomal Islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: Molecular Switches for Survival and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Van Nguyen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI. S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5’ end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13-20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI. Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges.

  19. Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Scott V; McShan, William M

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5' end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13 to 20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges. PMID:25161960

  20. Genetic diversity of geographically distinct Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates from fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdelsalam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish. Clinically, infection is characterized by the development of necrotic lesions at the caudal peduncle of infected fishes. The pathogen has been recently isolated from different fish species in many countries. Twenty S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia were molecularly characterized by biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE using SmaI enzyme, and tuf gene sequencing analysis. DNA sequencing of ten S. dysgalactiae revealed no genetic variation in the tuf amplicons, except for three strains. The restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA measured by BSFGE were differentiated into six distinct types and one subtype among collected strains. To our knowledge, this report gives the first snapshot of S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from different countries that are localized geographically and differed on a multinational level. This genetic unrelatedness among different isolates might suggest a high recombination rate and low genetic stability.

  1. Clinical analysis of cases of neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S J; Tang, X S; Zhao, W L; Qiu, H X; Wang, H; Feng, Z C

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of antibiotic resistance, pathogenic bacteria have become a major threat in cases of neonatal sepsis; however, guidelines for treatment have not yet been standardized. In this study, 15 cases of neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae sepsis from our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, nine cases showed early-onset and six cases showed late-onset sepsis. Pathogens were characterized by genotyping and antibiotic sensitivity tests on blood cultures. Results demonstrated that in cases with early-onset sepsis, clinical manifestations affected mainly the respiratory tract, while late-onset sepsis was accompanied by intracranial infection. Therefore, we suggest including a cerebrospinal fluid examination when diagnosing neonatal sepsis. Bacterial genotyping indicated the bacteria were mainly type Ib, Ia, and III S. agalactiae. We recommend treatment with penicillin or ampicillin, since bacteria were resistant to clindamycin and tetracycline. In conclusion, our results provide valuable information for the clinical treatment of S. agalactiae sepsis in neonatal infants. PMID:27323190

  2. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stärk Katharina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146 for the period 2003–2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories in European countries based on validated and harmonised methodologies. Available summary data of the susceptibility testing of the bacterial pathogens from the different laboratories were collected. Method Antimicrobial susceptibility data for several bovine pathogens were obtained over a three year period (2002–2004. Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excel-file templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species. A proficiency test (EQAS – external quality assurance system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted each year to test the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the participating laboratories. The data from this testing demonstrated that for the species included in the EQAS the results are comparable between countries. Results Data from 25,241 isolates were collected from 13 European countries. For Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis major differences were apparent in the occurrence of resistance between countries and between the different antimicrobial agents tested. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin. For Mannheimia haemolytica resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphonamide were observed in France, the Netherlands and Portugal. All isolates of Pasteurella multocida isolated in Finland and most of those from Denmark, England (and Wales, Italy and Sweden were susceptible to the majority of the antimicrobials. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from Sweden were fully susceptible. For the other countries some resistance was observed to

  3. Effect of dietary bovine colostrum on the responses of immune cells to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that ingestion of bovine colostrum is effective in preventing pathogens from invading through the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and modulating the mucosal immunity of the GI tract, indicating that its effect is principally local. Thus it is unclear if ingestion of bovine colostrum can affect the systemic immune system. In this study, we investigated the effect of taking bovine colostrum (vs phosphate-buffered saline) for 14 days on the behavior of the immune cells of mice. Isolated splenocytes, which are pivotal cells of systemic immunity, were then stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Bovine colostrum significantly reduced NK cell and monocyte activities and lymphoproliferaltive responses to LPS stimulation. Thus dietary bovine colostrum renders immune cells less responsive to LPS stimulation. Dietary bovine colostrum thus affects the systemic immune system and may have anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:24234910

  4. Antibacterial activity of Iranian medicinal plants against Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirbalouti Ghasemi Abdollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems. Ten Iranian medicinal plants were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus iniae isolates obtained from diseased Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmonidae; Walbaum, 1972 collected from fish farms in Iran. The antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum, Quercus branti, Glycyrrhiza glabra and essential oils of Heracleum lasiopetalum, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis, Myrtus communis, Echinophora platyloba, Kelussia odoratissima and Stachys lavandulifolia against Steptococcus iniae was evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts and essential oils showed a relatively high antibacterial activity against Streptococcus iniae. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of Satureja bachtiarica, Echinophora platyloba, Thymus daenensis and the ethanol extract of Quercus branti. Some of the extracts were active against Streptococcus iniae. Two essential oils showed lower MIC values; Heracleum lasiopetalum (78 μg/ml and Satureja bachtiarica (39 μg/ml. The essential oil of Satureja bachtiarica could be an important source of antibacterial compounds against the Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout.

  5. Mga Is Sufficient To Activate Transcription In Vitro of sof-sfbX and Other Mga-Regulated Virulence Genes in the Group A Streptococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Almengor, Audry C.; Walters, Matthew S; McIver, Kevin S.

    2006-01-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS), or Streptococcus pyogenes, is a strict human pathogen of medical significance, causing infections ranging from pharyngitis (strep throat) to necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease). Several virulence genes that encode factors important for colonization, internalization, and immune evasion are under the control of the multiple gene regulator of the GAS, or Mga. Mga functions as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with sites both proximal (Pemm and PscpA) ...

  6. Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Dragojlović Julijana; Milošević Branko; Šašić Neda; Pelemiš Miomir; Šašić Milan

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestat...

  7. Bacterial meningitis by streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal-Velásquez Tatiana Paola; Cortés-Daza César Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: bacterial meningitis is an infectious disease considered a medicalemergency. The timely management has an important impact on the evolution of thedisease. Streptococcus agalactiae, a major causative agent of severe infections innewborns can colonize different tissues, including the central nervous system.Case report: Male patient 47 years old from rural areas, with work activity as amilker of cattle, referred to tertiary care, with disorientation, neck stiffness, and grandmal se...

  8. Genetic parameters of pathogen-specific incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Barkema, H.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalacti

  9. 奶牛乳房炎病原菌的分离和PCR方法快速鉴定%Pathogens Isolation From Bovine Mastitis Samples and the Rapid Identification by PCR Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘露; 李姝; 徐君; 黄品; 蔡亚非; 王根林

    2012-01-01

    Cow mastitis is one of the most important serious problems in the dairy farms. It is caused by many different microorganisms. In this study, forty milk samples were collected from clinical mastitis cows. Mastitis pathogens are isolated by the traditional bacterial culture method. DNA was extracted from bacterial colonies. Then the types of bacteria was identified by using Polymerase Chain Reaction method (PCR). The main pathogens were isolated, including Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Acinetobacter junii, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sp. , Enterobacter sp. , Klebsiella sp. , Pseudomonas sp. , Staphylococcus aureus. Successfully establish a rapid, sensitive and specific identification method of mastitis pathogens. It also lays the technical foundation for the rapid diagnosis of dairy mastitis cows.%奶牛乳房炎是奶牛养殖场中最严重的疾病之一.为了确定奶牛乳房炎主要致病菌,本实验对采自养殖场临床乳房炎40个病例的乳样,用传统细菌培养方法分离奶牛乳房炎病原菌进行形态学鉴定;用纯化培养后细菌单菌落提取DNA作为模板,利用已报道的细菌通用引物,采用PCR方法进行分子鉴定.结果共分离得到10种主要致病菌,它们是嗜酸氧化硫硫杆菌,琼氏不动杆菌,农杆菌,蜡状芽孢杆菌,地衣芽胞杆菌,芽孢杆菌,大肠杆菌,克雷伯菌,假单胞菌,金黄色葡萄球菌.本研究成功建立了一种快速、特异性强的奶牛乳房炎致病菌的鉴定方法.

  10. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Ayako; Furukawa, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; Morinaga, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2011-03-01

    The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity. PMID:21239559

  11. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Ayako; Furukawa, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; Morinaga, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2011-01-01

    The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity. PMID:21239559

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Auxotrophs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altabe, Silvia; Lopez, Paloma; de Mendoza, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis is essential for the maintenance of membrane structure and function in many groups of anaerobic bacteria. Like Escherichia coli, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids. In E. coli UFA synthesis requires the action of two gene products, the essential isomerase/dehydratase encoded by fabA and an elongation condensing enzyme encoded by fabB. S. pneumoniae lacks both genes and instead employs a single enzyme with only an isomerase function encoded by the fabM gene. In this paper we report the construction and characterization of an S. pneumoniae 708 fabM mutant. This mutant failed to grow in complex medium, and the defect was overcome by addition of UFAs to the growth medium. S. pneumoniae fabM mutants did not produce detectable levels of monounsaturated fatty acids as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography analysis of the radiolabeled phospholipids. We also demonstrate that a fabM null mutant of the cariogenic organism Streptococcus mutants is a UFA auxotroph, indicating that FabM is the only enzyme involved in the control of membrane fluidity in streptococci. Finally we report that the fabN gene of Enterococcus faecalis, coding for a dehydratase/isomerase, complements the growth of S. pneumoniae fabM mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that FabM is a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents against streptococci and that S. pneumoniae UFA auxotrophs could help identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in UFA biosynthesis. PMID:17827283

  13. Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragojlović Julijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. Material and methods This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. Results All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awareness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairemnt, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characeteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatment with

  14. Slaughterhouse Pigs Are a Major Reservoir of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capable of Causing Human Infection in Southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.H Ngo; T.B.C. Tran; T.T.N. Tran; V.D. Nguyen; J. Campbell; H.A. Pham; H.T. Huynh; V.V.C. Nguyen; J.E. Bryant; T.H. Tran; J. Farrar; C. Schultsz

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serot

  15. SMC is recruited to oriC by ParB and promotes chromosome segregation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, Anita; Attaiech, Laetitia; Thon, Maria; Gruber, Stephan; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2011-01-01

    Segregation of replicated chromosomes is an essential process in all organisms. How bacteria, such as the oval-shaped human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, efficiently segregate their chromosomes is poorly understood. Here we show that the pneumococcal homologue of the DNA-binding protein ParB re

  16. Immunoproteomic analysis of the antibody response obtained in Nile tilapia following vaccination with a Streptococcus iniae vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is one of the most economically important Gram-positive pathogens in cultured fish species worldwide. The USDA-ARS Aquatic Animal Health Research Unit developed a modified (contains concentrated culture supernatant) S. iniae bacterin that has been demonstrated to be efficacious,...

  17. Rapid Detection and Identification of Streptococcus Iniae Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems . The traditional plate culture technique to detect and identify S. iniae is time consuming and may be problematic due to phenotypic variations...

  18. Quarter, cow, and farm risk factors for intramammary infections with major pathogens relative to minor pathogens in Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2011 on 35 smallholder dairy farms in Chiang Mai, Thailand, to identify the quarter, cow, and farm factors that relate to intramammary infections (IMI) from major specified pathogens, compared to infections from minor pathogens. Data on general farm management, milking management, and dry cow management were recorded for each herd. Quarter milk samples were collected from either clinical or subclinical mastitis quarters. Dependent variables were binary data defining the specified major pathogens, including Streptococcus agalactiae (7.1 %), Streptococcus uberis (9.4 %), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.0 %), and other streptococci (16.7 %), as a case, and all minor pathogens as a control, in each dependent variable. The occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI was lower in first-parity cows and cows with short milking time. Cows with body condition score (BCS) cow with manual milking after detaching milking cluster, and farms with high bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC >500,000 cells/ml) had higher occurrence of S. dysgalactiae IMI. For other streptococci, quarters having clinical mastitis, BCS milking cluster while milking increased occurrence of other streptococci IMI relative to minor pathogen IMI. These results highlight the importance of individual cow factors, milking characteristics, and BMSCC in determining the risk of IMI from major pathogens.

  19. Construction of Eukaryotic Expression Vector of cfb Gene from Bovine Streptococcus agalactiaee%牛源性无乳链球菌分离鉴定及 cfb 基因的克隆和真核表达载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚威; 王华; 马友记; 赵兴绪; 张勇

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop genetic engineering subunit vaccine ,milk samples of cows with subclinic mastitis were collected .THB ( Todd-Hewitt Broth ) solid selective medium and pigment test were adopted , combined with species specific gene cfb to isolate and identify Streptococcus agalactiae.ORF and B cell epitope analysis were car-ried out according to the cfb gene sequences published in GenBank .Primers designed with Primer 5 in cfb′s B cell epitope enriched sequence and eukaryotic expression elements and restriction enzyme sites were added .Genome DNA of the isolates were extracted and served as PCR templates for cfb amplification,prior to link with the T-A clo-ning vector for sequencing.Correctly cloned cfb sequence were then linked to the pcDNATM 3.1 V5-His A(pcDNA-cfb) and transformed to DH5αcompetent cell for plasmid proliferation and sequencing .Results showed 8 strains of Streptococcus agalactiaee were characterized from 89 milk samples,and the pcDNA-cfb was successfully constructed . Primary selection by THB selective medium and pigment test could be used for quick isolation of Streptococcus aga-lactiae.Analysis of the cfb sequence by Bcepred and Lasergene-Protean software showed the cloned cfb sequence contained multiple dominant B cell epitope ,thus had the potential to serve as target gene sequence for genetic engi-neering subunit vaccine of Streptococcus agalactiae.This work could served as the basis for further developing genet-ic engineering subunit vaccine for Streptococcus agalactiae.%为研制奶牛乳房炎无乳链球菌的基因工程疫苗,采集隐性奶牛乳房炎奶样,利用THB ( Todd-Hewitt Broth )固体选择培养基和色素试验,并结合无乳链球菌种属特异性基因cfb,采用PCR技术从隐性乳房炎奶样中分离和鉴定无乳链球菌。根据GenBank已报道的链球菌cfb基因序列,经ORF分析和B细胞表位预测,利用Primer 5.0软件设计cfb因子富含B细胞表位区域引物,添加酶

  20. Histophathologic and Immunohistochemical Findings in Two White-tail Deer Fawns Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of domestic cattle. Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine speci...

  1. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  2. Zinc disrupts central carbon metabolism and capsule biosynthesis in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y; Walker, Mark J; McEwan, Alastair G

    2015-06-01

    Neutrophils release free zinc to eliminate the phagocytosed bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underpinning zinc toxicity towards this human pathogen, responsible for diseases ranging from pharyngitis and impetigo, to severe invasive infections. Using the globally-disseminated M1T1 GAS strain, we demonstrate that zinc stress impairs glucose metabolism through the inhibition of the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. In the presence of zinc, a metabolic shift to the tagatose-6-phosphate pathway allows conversion of D-galactose to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate, partially bypassing impaired glycolytic enzymes to generate pyruvate. Additionally, zinc inhibition of phosphoglucomutase results in decreased capsule biosynthesis. These data indicate that zinc exerts it toxicity via mechanisms that inhibit both GAS central carbon metabolism and virulence pathways.

  3. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  4. Group A Streptococcus endometritis following medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-07-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  5. Streptococcus pyogenes toxic-shock syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, R.; M Diogo; Carvalho, A.; Pimentel, T.; J. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been an exponential increase in invasive infections caused by Streptococcus ß hemolyticcus group A. In about one third of cases they are complicated by toxic shock syndrome, characterized by septic shock and multiorgan failure. The authors, by their rarity, report a case of bacteraemia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes complicated by toxic shock syndrome.

  6. Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Noronha Frey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade, e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5, e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5 and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

  7. Establishment of bovine prion peptide-based monoclonal antibodies for identifying bovine prion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To obtain high titer monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) which can react with mammalian prion protein(PrP),Balb/C mice were immunized with bovine(Bo) PrP peptide(BoPrP 209-228 aa) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin(KLH).The hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against the peptide were established by cell fusion and cloning.The obtained McAbs were applied to detect recombinant human,bovine and hamster PrP,cellular prion protein(PrPc) in normal bovine brain and pathogenic scrapie prion protein(PrPSc) accumulated in the medulla oblongata of bovine spongiform encephalopathy(BSE)specimen with Western blot and immunohistochemical detection,respectively.The current procedure might offer a simple,feasible method to raise high titer antibodies for studying biological features of PrP in mammals,as well as detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy(TSE) and diagnosis of BSE,in particular.

  8. Reconstruction of a genome-scale metabolic network for Streptococcus pneumoniae R6

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Saraiva; Pinto, Francisco; Rocha, I

    2013-01-01

    The gram-positive, lancet-shaped bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae thrives in almost any environment. Under certain conditions this pathogen can cause several infections such as meningitis, otitis media, endocarditis or pneumonia. Genome-scale metabolic networks (GSMs) are commonly used to study phenotype-genotype relationships using biochemical, physiological and genomic information. These relationships might shed some light on identification of targets for metabolic engineering or, in t...

  9. rgf Encodes a Novel Two-Component Signal Transduction System of Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Spellerberg, Barbara; Rozdzinski, Eva; Martin, Simone; Weber-Heynemann, Josefine; Lütticken, Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    The adhesion of gram-positive bacteria to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is regarded as an important determinant of pathogenicity. A comparison of the adhesion of Streptococcus agalactiae strain O90R to different ECM proteins showed that the most pronounced binding could be observed for immobilized fibrinogen. To investigate the genetic determinants of S. agalactiae fibrinogen binding, a pGhost9:ISS1 mutant library was screened for mutants displaying reduced agglutination of fibrinogen-c...

  10. Structural characterization of the virulence factor nuclease A from Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Andrea F.; Gaudu, Philippe; Pedersen, Lars C.

    2014-01-01

    The group B pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae commonly populates the human gut and urogenital tract, and is a major cause of infection-based mortality in neonatal infants and in elderly or immunocompromised adults. Nuclease A (GBS_NucA), a secreted DNA/RNA nuclease, serves as a virulence factor for S. agalactiae, facilitating bacterial evasion of the human innate immune response. GBS_NucA efficiently degrades the DNA matrix component of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which attempt to ...

  11. PTS Phosphorylation of Mga Modulates Regulon Expression and Virulence in the Group A Streptococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Hondorp, Elise R.; Hou, Sherry C.; Hause, Lara L.; Gera, Kanika; Lee, Ching-En; McIver, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of a bacterial pathogen to monitor available carbon sources in host tissues provides a clear fitness advantage. In the group A streptococcus (GAS), the virulence regulator Mga contains homology to phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulatory domains (PRDs) found in sugar operon regulators. Here we show that Mga was phosphorylated in vitro by the PTS components EI/HPr at conserved PRD histidines. A ∆ptsI (EI-deficient) GAS mutant exhibited decreased Mga activity. However, PTS-mediate...

  12. Occurence of Streptococcus canis, Staphylococcus aureus and intermedius in dog breeding in Berlin and surround areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mellert, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus canis are suspected as the most important bacterial pathogens for puppies losses. In the presented study the occurrence of these bacterial species was investigated in newborn puppies, their bitches and in the environment of these animals. Fourteen bitches and their litters were included in the study. The animals were sampled at a number of sites using swabs. Further environmental samples were collected. The bitches were s...

  13. Identification of Pneumococcal Surface Protein A as a Lactoferrin-Binding Protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerschmidt, Sven; Bethe, Gesina; H. Remane, Petra; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.

    1999-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-sequestering glycoprotein, predominates in mucosal secretions, where the level of free extracellular iron (10−18 M) is not sufficient for bacterial growth. This represents a mechanism of resistance to bacterial infections by prevention of colonization of the host by pathogens. In this study we were able to show that Streptococcus pneumoniae specifically recognizes and binds the iron carrier protein human Lf (hLf). Pretreatment of pneumococci with proteases reduced hL...

  14. Immunization with Polyamine Transport Protein PotD Protects Mice against Systemic Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, P.; Swiatlo, E.

    2006-01-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae contains genes for a putative polyamine ABC transporter which are organized in an operon and designated potABCD. Polyamine transport protein D (PotD) is an extracellular protein which binds polyamines and possibly other structurally related molecules. PotD has been shown to contribute to virulence in both a murine sepsis model and a pneumonia model with capsular type 3 pneumococci. The protective efficacy of recombinant PotD was evaluated by active ...

  15. R-roscovitine Reduces Lung Inflammation Induced by Lipoteichoic Acid and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Duitman, JanWillem; van Lieshout, Miriam H. P.; Blok, Dana C; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. The gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important proinflammatory component of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall. R-roscovitine, a purine analog, is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, −2, −5 and −7 inhibitor that has the ability to inhibit the cell cycle and to induce polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis. We ...

  16. Molecular characterization of a Streptococcus gallolyticus genomic island encoding a pilus involved in endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Danne, Camille; Entenza, José M.; Mallet, Adeline; Briandet, Romain; Débarbouillé, Michel,; Nato, Farida,; Glaser, Philippe; Jouvion, Grégory; Moreillon, Philippe; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2011-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: Streptococcus gallolyticus is a causative agent of infective endocarditis associated with colon cancer. Genome sequence of strain UCN34 revealed the existence of 3 pilus loci (pil1, pil2, and pil3). Pili are long filamentous structures playing a key role as adhesive organelles in many pathogens. The pil1 locus encodes 2 LPXTG proteins (Gallo2178 and Gallo2179) and 1 sortase C (Gallo2177). Gallo2179 displaying a functional collagen-binding domain was refer...

  17. Multiple Evolutionary Selections Involved in Synonymous Codon Usages in the Streptococcus agalactiae Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Ping Ma; Hao Ke; Zhi-Ling Liang; Zhen-Xing Liu; Le Hao; Jiang-Yao Ma; Yu-Gu Li

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important human and animal pathogen. To better understand the genetic features and evolution of S. agalactiae, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in S. agalactiae were analyzed in this study. A- and U-ending rich codons were used in S. agalactiae function genes through the overall codon usage analysis, indicating that Adenine (A)/Thymine (T) compositional constraints might contribute an important role to the synonymous codon usage patte...

  18. Comparison of transmission dynamics between Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of study were to determine the transmission parameters (β), durations of infection, and basic reproductive numbers (R0) of both Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis as pathogens causing mastitis outbreaks in dairy herds. A 10-mo longitudinal study was performed using 2 smallholder dairy herds with mastitis outbreaks caused by Strep. agalactiae and Strep. uberis, respectively. Both herds had poor mastitis control management and did not change their milking management during the entire study period. Quarter milk samples were collected at monthly intervals from all lactating animals in each herd for bacteriological identification. The durations of infection for Strep. uberis intramammary infection (IMI) and Strep. agalactiae IMI were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the Kaplan-Meier survival functions for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were compared using log rank survival-test. The spread of Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae through the population was determined by transmission parameter, β, the probability per unit of time that one infectious quarter will infect another quarter, assuming that all other quarters are susceptible. For the Strep. uberis outbreak herd (31 cows), 56 new infections and 28 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. For the Strep. agalactiae outbreak herd (19 cows), 26 new infections and 9 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. The duration of infection for Strep. agalactiae (mean=270.84 d) was significantly longer than the duration of infection for Strep. uberis (mean=187.88 d). The transmission parameters (β) estimated (including 95% confidence interval) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were 0.0155 (0.0035-0.0693) and 0.0068 (0.0008-0.0606), respectively. The R0 (including 95% confidence interval) during the study were 2.91 (0.63-13.47) and 1.86 (0.21-16.61) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI, respectively. In conclusion, the transmission

  19. Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pinto Loguercio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis.The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (94.4% and Streptococcus sp. (85.2% showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

  20. Streptococcus milleri in the appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, P M; Wilson, G

    1977-10-01

    The appendix was investigated as a possible habitat of Streptococcus milleri. Both normal and inflamed appendices were examined and the isolation rates compared. S. milleri was present in a quarter of the normal appendices and more than half of those associated with apendicitis--a difference that was statistically highly significant. The isolation rates throughout were indepencent of age. There was a pronounced connection between the presence of S. milleri in the appendix and the purulent manifestations of appendicitis. S. milleri was isolated from other abdominal sites associated with appendicitis. The frequency of isolation was increased by culture in an enrichment broth containing nalidixic acid and sulphadimidine.

  1. A preliminary study on the pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis bacteria in immunodepressed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, N.E.; Giese, Steen Bjørck;

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenicity of 13 strains of Bacillus licheniformis was studied in immunodepressed mice. The strains had been isolated from cases of bovine abortions (n=5), bovine feedstuffs (n=3), soil (n=l), and grain products (n=2). The origin of two strains was unknown. Groups of 10 mice were inoculated...

  2. Identifikasi Carrier Bakteri Streptococcus β hemolyticus Group A pada Murid SD Negeri 13 Padang Berdasarkan Perbedaan Umur dan Jenis Kelamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhila Aini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakStreptococcus β hemolyticus Grup A atau yang disebut juga Streptococcus pyogenes merupakan salah satu bakteri patogen yang banyak menginfeksi manusia.Bakteri ini dapat ditemukan sebagai carrier di saluran pernafasan terutama pada anak-anak, tidak menimbulkan penyakit tetapi berisiko untuk menyebarkan penyakit. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan jumlah carrier  bakteri Streptococcus β hemolyticus Grup A pada murid berdasarkan perbedaan umur dan jenis kelamin. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif cross-sectional dengan menggunakan sampel seluruh murid SD Negeri 13 Padang. Hasil penelitian adalah didapatkan 2 orang murid yang menderita carrier, yaitu pada kelompok usia>8-9 tahun dan >11 tahun. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin yang terdiri dari 54 orang laki-laki dan 50 orang perempuan, didapatkan 2 orang carrier yaitu hanya pada anak laki-laki. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa carrier bakteri Streptococcus β hemolyticus Group  A terdapat pada anak usia tersebut karena masih kurangnya pengetahuan tentang kebersihan. Carrier yang ditemukan hanya pada anak laki-laki kemungkinan disebabkan mereka lebih sering bermain di luar rumah dan terpapar dengan berbagai bakteri patogen dan kurang memperhatikan kebersihan diri.Kata kunci: carrier, streptococcus β hemolyticus grup A, umur, jenis kelamin AbstractGroup A Streptococcus β hemolyticus or also called Streptococcus pyogenes is one of many pathogenic bacteria that infect humans. These bacteria can be found as a carrier in the respiratory tract especially in children, do not cause disease but can be a risk for spreading the disease. This objective of this study was to determine the amount of the carrier of bacteria group A Streptococcus β hemolyticus based on age and gender differences. This research is a descriptive cross - sectional study using a sample of all students of SD Negeri 13 Padang. Based on the age of 104 students found that students who suffer 2 carrier, which is in the age

  3. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., ``Analysis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk to the U.S. Cattle Population from Importation of... final rule did not limit the importation of bovine-derived meat from Canada to that derived from cattle... meat from bovines 30 months of age or older while continuing to prohibit the importation of live...

  4. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria of bovine subclinical mastitis in Harbin%哈尔滨地区奶牛隐性乳房炎病原菌的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 高学军

    2011-01-01

    通过BMT法、乳汁pH检验法和体细胞直接计数法等方法相结合,对哈尔滨市3个大型奶牛场、10户奶牛养殖户选取的1 000头奶牛,4000个乳区进行隐性乳房炎的流行病学调查,以及致病菌的分离鉴定.结果表明,其中隐性乳房炎的发病率为47.7%(477/1 000);乳区发病率为27.3%(1092/4000),从477头的隐性乳房炎奶牛的1 092个阳性乳区乳样中分得细菌共9种541株.其中葡萄球菌183株,占33.8%,革兰氏阴性杆菌113株,占20.1%.,链球菌132株,占24.4%.%According to the method of BMT, pH detection and count of the somatic cells, the epidemiologic investigation of recessive mastitis, isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria were studied on 4 000 breast areas of 1 000 subclinical cows from ten cow farms and three large cow factories in Harbin. The result showed that incidence rates of recessive mastitis and breast area were 47.7% (447/1 000) and 27.3% (1 092/4 000), respectively. And 12 species of the bacteria and 541 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from 1 092 breast areas of 477 subclinical mastitis cows. The main bacteria included 183 strains of Staphylococcus, 113 strains of Gram negative bacteria and 132 strains of Staphylococcus, with the proportion of 33.8%, 20.1%, and 24.4%, respectively.

  5. Pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius that shows the diagnostic importance of evaluating the microbiota in the lower respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Shingo; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yamasaki, Kei; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Naito, Keisuke; Akata, Kentarou; Nagata, Shuya; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial species in the Streptococcus anginosus group (S. constellatus, S. anginosus, S. intermedius) are important causative pathogens of bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary abscesses and empyema. However, the bacteria in this group are primarily oral resident bacteria and unable to grow significantly on ordinary aerobic culture media. We experienced a case of pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius detected using a 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and pleural effusion, but not sputum. Even when applying the molecular method, sputum samples are occasionally unsuitable for identifying the causative pathogens of lower respiratory tract infections.

  6. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  7. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  8. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  9. Presence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of contagious mastitis agents (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae) isolated from milks of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    İKİZ, Serkan; BAŞARAN, Beren; BİNGÖL, Enver Barış; ÇETİN, Ömer; KAŞIKÇI, Güven; ÖZGÜR, Naciye Yakut; UÇMAK, Melih; Yilmaz, Özge; GÜNDÜZ, Mehmet Can; SABUNCU, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is recognized as one of the most important diseases affecting the dairy industry. The antibiotic susceptibility test is important to achieve accurate treatment in subclinical mastitis. This study was conducted to determine the presence of contagious mastitis agents (Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus) in 270 bovine milk samples collected from 132 dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in 15 different dairy farms located in the Marmara Region of Turkey. A total of 256 ba...

  10. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Javed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra, characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi.

  11. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, R.; Taku, A. K.; Gangil, Rakhi; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi. PMID:27651677

  12. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Clinical Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, Laura; Blasco, Lucia; Lopez, Maria; Bou, German; García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Wood, Thomas; Tomas, María

    2016-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are prevalent in bacteria and archaea. Although not essential for normal cell growth, TA systems are implicated in multiple cellular functions associated with survival under stress conditions. Clinical strains of bacteria are currently causing major human health problems as a result of their multidrug resistance, persistence and strong pathogenicity. Here, we present a review of the TA systems described to date and their biological role in human pathogens belonging to the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) and others of clinical relevance (Escherichia coli, Burkholderia spp., Streptococcus spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Better understanding of the mechanisms of action of TA systems will enable the development of new lines of treatment for infections caused by the above-mentioned pathogens. PMID:27447671

  13. Antibody binding to Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis cell fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Katherine A.; Bowden, George H.; Richmond, Dorothy A.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Cole, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine which cell fraction(s) of Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 serve as the best source of antigens recognized by salivary SIgA antibodies in infants. Design Whole cells of 38 reference and wild-type isolates of Streptococcus mitis, S. oralis, S. gordonii, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and E. faecalis were fractionated into cell walls CW), protease-treated cell walls (PTCW), cell membranes (CM) and cell protein (CP). Whole cells and these fractions were tested for binding by rabbit anti-S. mitis SK145 and anti-S. oralis SK100 sera, and also by salivary SIgA antibodies from infants and adults. Results Anti-SK145 and anti-SK100 sera bound whole cells and fractions of all strains of S. mitis and S. oralis variably. Cluster analysis of antibody binding data placed the strains into S. mitis, S. oralis and ‘Non-S. mitis/non-S. oralis’ clusters. Antigens from CW and CM best discriminated S. mitis from S. oralis. CM bound the most infant salivary SIgA antibody and PTCW bound the least. In contrast, adult salivary SIgA antibody bound all of the cell fractions and at higher levels. Conclusions Presumably the relatively short period of immune stimulation and immunological immaturity in infants, in contrast to adults, result in low levels of salivary SIgA antibody that preferentially bind CM of S. mitis but not PTCW. By utilizing isolated cell walls and membranes as sources of antigens for proteomics it may be possible to identify antigens common to oral streptococci and dissect the fine specificity of salivary SIgA antibodies induced by oral colonization by S. mitis. PMID:17904095

  14. Pathogen intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  15. Solitary Pyomyositis of the Left Rhomboideus Muscle Caused by Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius in an Immunocompetent Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Takaya, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Go; Shinzato, Isaku; Takafuta, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Primary pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle commonly affecting children with Staphylococcus aureus most often isolated as a pathogen. However, pyomyositis caused by anaerobic bacteria is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of solitary Pyomyositis of the left rhomboideus muscle in an immunocompetent person. A 70-year-old Japanese male presented with high fever and left shoulder pain. His muscle below the lower edge of the left scapula was tender and swollen. His laboratory examinations revealed severe inflammation. Computed tomography showed a solitary low-density area around a contrast enhancement in the left rhomboideus muscle. He was diagnosed as having solitary pyomyositis. Although his symptoms did not improve despite empiric intravenous administration of antibiotics, an incision was performed. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from the culture of drainage fluid. His symptoms gradually disappeared after the incisional drainage and continuous administration of antibiotics. Pyomyositis did not recur after his discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anaerobic pyomyositis of the shoulder muscle.

  16. Solitary Pyomyositis of the Left Rhomboideus Muscle Caused by Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius in an Immunocompetent Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle commonly affecting children with Staphylococcus aureus most often isolated as a pathogen. However, pyomyositis caused by anaerobic bacteria is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of solitary Pyomyositis of the left rhomboideus muscle in an immunocompetent person. A 70-year-old Japanese male presented with high fever and left shoulder pain. His muscle below the lower edge of the left scapula was tender and swollen. His laboratory examinations revealed severe inflammation. Computed tomography showed a solitary low-density area around a contrast enhancement in the left rhomboideus muscle. He was diagnosed as having solitary pyomyositis. Although his symptoms did not improve despite empiric intravenous administration of antibiotics, an incision was performed. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from the culture of drainage fluid. His symptoms gradually disappeared after the incisional drainage and continuous administration of antibiotics. Pyomyositis did not recur after his discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anaerobic pyomyositis of the shoulder muscle.

  17. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from horses are a genetically distinct population within the Streptococcus dysgalactiae taxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Marcos D; Erol, Erdal; Ribeiro-Gonçalves, Bruno; Mendes, Catarina I; Carriço, João A; Matos, Sandra C; Preziuso, Silvia; Luebke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H; Melo-Cristino, Jose; Ramirez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic role of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae in the equine host is increasingly recognized. A collection of 108 Lancefield group C (n = 96) or L (n = 12) horse isolates recovered in the United States and in three European countries presented multilocus sequence typing (MLST) alleles, sequence types and emm types (only 56% of the isolates could be emm typed) that were, with few exceptions, distinct from those previously found in human Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Characterization of a subset of horse isolates by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that most equine isolates could also be differentiated from S. dysgalactiae strains from other animal species, supporting the existence of a horse specific genomovar. Draft genome information confirms the distinctiveness of the horse genomovar and indicates the presence of potentially horse-specific virulence factors. While this genomovar represents most of the isolates recovered from horses, a smaller MLST and MLSA defined sub-population seems to be able to cause infections in horses, other animals and humans, indicating that transmission between hosts of strains belonging to this group may occur. PMID:27530432

  18. Caratterizzazione fenotipica di ceppi di Streptococcus agalactiae (streptococco di gruppo B di origine umana e bovina isolati nel Nord Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Calzolari

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Serotype, haemolytic activity and CAMP reaction of 466 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae (269 of human origin and 197 of bovine origin isolated in the North of Italy (Lombardia, Emilia were evaluated.The presence of the rare serotype VII was recorded in 3 human strains and in 1 bovine isolates. In human strains serotype III (32% was the most common followed by serotypes Ia (17.1%,V (13.8%, II (9.7%, Ib (3.7%, IV (3%,VII (1.1%; 19.6% of strains resulted nontypeable. Between bovine strains the most abundant was serotype IV (22.3%, followed by Ib and III (5.6%, II (5.1%, Ia (3.6%,V (3% and VII (0.5%, a large number was nontypeable (54.3%. Stains belonging to serotype of VI or VIII were not observed. 43 strains were anhemolytic (15 of humane origin and 28 bovine origin and 5 strains were CAMP-negative (2 humane and 3 bovine.

  19. The role of Streptococcus intermedius in brain abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Fournier, P-E

    2013-04-01

    Brain abscess represents a significant medical problem, despite recent advances made in detection and therapy. Streptococcus intermedius, a commensal organism, has the potential to cause significant morbidity. S. intermedius expresses one or more members of a family of structurally and antigenically related surface proteins termed antigen I/II, which plays a potential role in its pathogenesis. It is involved in binding to human fibronectin and laminin and in inducing IL-8 release from monocytes, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. There are few published data on the role of this organism in brain abscess. This review focuses on the clinical evidence, pathogenic role, mechanism of predisposition, and currently employed strategies to fight against S. intermedius associated to brain abscess.

  20. An Unusual Cause of Flexor Tenosynovitis: Streptococcus mitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Anil Bingol, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Streptococcus mitis is a commensal organism of the human oropharynx that rarely causes infection in healthy individuals. Herein, we describe a previously healthy 35-year-old woman who presented with acute pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis of the left index finger due to S. mitis infection. The patient’s infection was treated successfully via surgical and medical interventions, and during follow-up, it was determined that she was complement component C3 deficient. Tenosynovitis is an emergent clinical syndrome that can result in permanent disability or amputation. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe tenosynovitis due to S. mitis; in addition, it highlights the importance of initiating therapy with antibiotics that are effective against this rare pathogen.

  1. Third Case of Streptococcus suis Infection in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianneta Chatzopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus that can cause severe disease to both pigs and humans. Its zoonotic potential was first recognized in 1968 when the first human case of meningitis was reported in Denmark. Since then, over 1600 human cases have been reported worldwide, the vast majority of which originated in Southeast Asia, and, thus, S. suis has been fairly characterized as an emerging pathogen. Infection in humans presents most commonly as bacteremia and/or meningitis while less common clinical manifestations such as endocarditis and septic arthritis can occur. S. suis infection is extremely uncommon in Greece and this is the third human case to be reported. Correct identification is of importance for optimization of antimicrobial treatment and epidemiological monitoring.

  2. Chronic mastitis in cows caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojkić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in dairy cows is an economically important disease because it makes up 38% of all diseases that occur in intensive cattle breeding. Mastitis affects milk production, either temporarily or permanently, depending on the course of infection and type of pathogen agent. Regular and timely therapy of mastitis based on the application antimicrobials, apart from prophylaxis, is very important for good health of breeding stock. This paper presents the case of repeated mastitis in a cow, Holstein-Friesian breed, 5 years old, which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Milk samples from each separate quarter of the udder were collected under aseptic conditions and sent to the laboratory for further bacteriological tests, for isolation and identification of pathogens, as well as to test pathogen resistance to some antibiotics. On the basis of bacteriological examinations, there was confirmed the presence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, which showed sensitivity to ampicillin, cloxacillin and augmentin, intermediate resistance to tetracycline and resistance to kotrimeksazol.(cotrimoxazole-proveriti [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31085

  3. Structural and Functional Analysis of Cell Wall-anchored Polypeptide Adhesin BspA in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Sara; Heal, Timothy J; Pidwill, Grace R; Till, Marisa; Robson, Alice; Lamont, Richard J; Sessions, Richard B; Jenkinson, Howard F; Race, Paul R; Nobbs, Angela H

    2016-07-29

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is the predominant cause of early-onset infectious disease in neonates and is responsible for life-threatening infections in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Clinical manifestations of GBS infection include sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Here, we describe BspA, a deviant antigen I/II family polypeptide that confers adhesive properties linked to pathogenesis in GBS. Heterologous expression of BspA on the surface of the non-adherent bacterium Lactococcus lactis confers adherence to scavenger receptor gp340, human vaginal epithelium, and to the fungus Candida albicans Complementary crystallographic and biophysical characterization of BspA reveal a novel β-sandwich adhesion domain and unique asparagine-dependent super-helical stalk. Collectively, these findings establish a new bacterial adhesin structure that has in effect been hijacked by a pathogenic Streptococcus species to provide competitive advantage in human mucosal infections. PMID:27311712

  4. Diverse Virulent Pneumophages Infect Streptococcus mitis

    OpenAIRE

    Siham Ouennane; Philippe Leprohon; Sylvain Moineau

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mitis has emerged as one of the leading causes of bacterial endocarditis and is related to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance has also increased among strains of S. mitis and S. pneumoniae. Phages are being reinvestigated as alternatives to antibiotics for managing infections. In this study, the two virulent phages Cp-1 (Podoviridae) and Dp-1 (Siphoviridae), previously isolated from S. pneumoniae, were found to also infect S. mitis. Microbiological assays showed tha...

  5. Cloning of Minor Autolysin of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboobi, R. (MSc); Fallah Mehrabadi, J. (PhD); MR Pourmand; R Mashhadi; Haddadi, A. (MD

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Increased antibiotic resistant strains and inadequacy of current vaccines against pneumococcal infections necessitate the study of novel protein antigens. It seems that minor autolysin of Streptococcus pneumoniae may have antigenicity. Thus, we aimed at cloning its gene for the first time. Material and Methods: After DNA extraction of Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619), Specific primers were designed for amplifying minor autolysin gene fragment, using PCR. The pur...

  6. Cervicale spondylodiscitis veroorzaakt door Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Weynants, Luc; Weynants, Laurens; Rimbaut, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The medical history of a previously perfectly healthy 45-year-old male patient with acute cervical pain is presented. From cultures of the discus C5-C6, Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated. The patient was treated with penicillin and clindamycin, and recovered quickly. Streptococcus agalactiae is reported as a cause of invasive infections in neonati and pregnant women, but in recent years, an increasing number of infections have been reported in adults. One of the reasons may be that, nowad...

  7. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there i...

  8. Experimental bovine genital ureaplasmosis. I. Granular vulvitis following vulvar inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, P A; Ruhnke, H L; Palmer, N C

    1980-07-01

    Granular vulvitis was reproduced in ten virgin heifers following vulvar inoculation with strains of ureaplasma previously isolated from natural cases. The disease appeared one to three days postinoculation and was characterized by vulvar swabs but not from the upper mucopurulent discharge. At necropsy 13 to 41 days later, ureaplasmas were recovered consistently from vulvar swabs but not from the upper reproductive tract. It was concluded that some strains of ureaplasma are pathogenic and should be viewed as a cause of bovine granular vulvitis.

  9. The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. Materials and Methods: The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4°C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.

  10. High prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus 'bovine genotype' in faecal samples from domestic pigs at a farm where bovine trichomonosis has not been reported for over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kai; Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Gilchrist, Katrina; Brown, Graeme; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-09-15

    Bovine venereal trichomonosis caused by the flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is a notifiable disease in Australia. While, T. foetus is pathogenic in both cattle and cats, it has long been established that the same T. foetus colonises the stomach, caecum and nasal cavity of pigs without apparent clinical significance. Multi-locus genotyping grouped the non-pathogenic porcine T. foetus with the pathogenic 'bovine genotype', rather than with the 'feline genotype' T. foetus. Bovine trichomonosis is now uncommon due to wide-spread use of artificial insemination, however, whether T. foetus remains prevalent in pigs where bovine trichomonosis has been eradicated remains unknown. We surveyed faecal samples from pigs farmed in close proximity with T. foetus-negative cattle. The Modified Diamond's Medium assay used were 77.4% (24/31) positive for trichomonads and 64.50% (20/31) were T. foetus-positive based on real-time PCR and conventional PCR. An axenic reference strain of T. foetus, designated PIG30/1 was established. In addition, a novel trichomonad ITS rDNA, PIG12, closely related to sequences from Trichomitus spp is reported. Multi-locus genotyping at nine loci matched PIG30/1 to the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus. In conclusion, cross-species transmission of T. foetus between pigs and cows from environmental exposure of T. foetus-contaminated pig faeces is unlikely. Domestic T. foetus-positive pigs possess a negligible risk of a successful T. foetus transmission event to cattle. PMID:26315128

  11. Functional variation of the antigen I/II surface protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, FC; Assev, S; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Scheie, AA

    2002-01-01

    Although Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus mutans are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, S. intermedius is often associated with deep-seated purulent infections, whereas S. mutans is frequently associated with dental caries. In this study, we investigated the role

  12. Penetration of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguinis into dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Susanne; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küpper, Harald; Raser, Gerhard; Willershausen, Brita; Callaway, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference in virulence of acidogenic and aciduric oral streptococci in an in vitro caries model using their penetration depths into dental enamel. 30 caries-free extracted molars from 11- to 16-year-olds were cleaned ultrasonically for 1 min with de-ionized water and, after air-drying, embedded in epoxy resin. After 8-h of setting at room temperature, the specimens were ground on the buccal side with SiC-paper 1200 (particle size 13-16 μm). Enamel was removed in circular areas sized 3 mm in diameter; the mean depth of removed enamel was 230 ± 60 μm. 15 specimens each were incubated anaerobically under standardized conditions with 24 h-cultures of Streptococcus sanguinis 9S or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 in Balmelli broth at 37 ± 2 °C; the pH-values of the broths were measured at the beginning and end of each incubation cycle. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks 3 teeth each were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer for 24 h, washed 3× and dehydrated 30-60min by sequential washes through a series of 30-100% graded ethanol. The teeth were cut in half longitudinally; afterward, two slits were made to obtain fracture surfaces in the infected area. After critical-point-drying the fragments were gold-sputtered and viewed in a scanning electron microscope at magnifications of ×20-20,000. After 10 weeks of incubation, penetration of S. sanguinis of 11.13 ± 24.04 μm below the break edges into the enamel was observed. The invasion of S. sobrinus reached depths of 87.53 ± 76.34 μm. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test: p = 0.033). The experimental penetration depths emphasize the importance of S. sanguinis versus S. sobrinus in the context of the extended ecological plaque hypothesis.

  13. PREVALENCE, PATHOLOGY, AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH STREPTOCOCCUS PHOCAE INFECTION IN SOUTHERN SEA OTTERS (ENHYDRA LUTRIS NEREIS), 2004-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Georgina; Smith, Woutrina; Dominik, Clare; Batac, Francesca; Dodd, Erin; Byrne, Barbara A; Jang, Spencer; Jessup, David; Chantrey, Julian; Miller, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated beta-hemolytic streptococci as opportunistic pathogens of marine mammals, including southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis), but little is known about their prevalence or pathophysiology. Herein, we focus on risk factors for sea otter infection by a single beta-hemolytic streptococcal species, Streptococcus phocae. Streptococcus phocae was first identified as a marine mammal pathogen in 1994, and the first report in southern sea otters was in 2009. Its broad host range encompasses fish, pinnipeds, cetaceans, and mustelids, with S. phocae now recognized as an important pathogen of marine species worldwide. We assessed risk factors and lesion patterns for S. phocae infection in southern sea otters. Using archival necropsy data, S. phocae prevalence was 40.5% in fresh dead otters examined 2004-10. Skin trauma of any type was identified as a significant risk factor for S. phocae infection. The risk of infection was similar regardless of the cause and relative severity of skin trauma, including mating or fight wounds, shark bite, and anthropogenic trauma. Streptococcus phocae-infected sea otters were also more likely to present with abscesses or bacterial septicemia. Our findings highlight the importance of S. phocae as an opportunistic pathogen of sea otters and suggest that the most likely portal of entry is damaged skin. Even tiny skin breaks appear to facilitate bacterial colonization, invasion, abscess formation, and systemic spread. Our data provide important insights for management and care of marine species. PMID:26555115

  14. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevarathan J; Deepti A; Muthu M; Rathna Prabhu V; Chamundeeswari G

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free childr...

  15. Serological evidences of bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in bovines of organized farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, M; Yadav, V; Chander, V

    2011-04-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle causing a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, a highly infectious disease of cattle and buffaloes, occurs throughout the world including India. The present study based on micro-serum neutralization test reports the sero-epidemiology of BHV-1 infection in cattle and buffaloes from different parts of India. Serum samples from cattle, bulls, buffalo bulls and yaks were screened for BHV-1 antibodies. A total of 1115 serum samples were screened, and a total of 437 (39.2%) serum samples were found positive and 678 (60.8%) serum samples were found negative. Overall 168 (38.0%) cattle, 17 (85.0%) buffalo, 212 (38.6%) bulls, 8 (13.5%) buffalo bulls and 32 (71.1%) yaks were found positive for BHV-1 antibodies. State wise, Assam had highest seropositivity of 71.1% for yaks, Madhya Pradesh had 68.9% for cattle and Meghalaya was negative for the presence of antibodies to BHV-1 in cattle. PMID:21156033

  16. Pathogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Irudayaraj

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence, in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...

  17. Antibacterial activity and immunomodulatory effects on a bovine mammary epithelial cell line exerted by nisin A-producing Lactococcus lactis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvisi, M; Stuknytė, M; Magro, G; Minozzi, G; Giardini, A; De Noni, I; Piccinini, R

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-nine strains of mastitis pathogens were used to study the antibacterial activity of the cell-free supernatants (CFS) of 25 strains of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis. Out of the tested strains, only the CFS of L. lactis LL11 and SL153 were active, inhibiting and killing most of the pathogens. By means of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry, they were shown to produce nisin A, a class I bacteriocin. A variable sensitivity to nisin A-containing CFS was observed among Streptococcus uberis and Enterococcus faecalis strains. Nonetheless, Streptococcus agalactiae, Strep. uberis, and E. faecalis displayed high minimum inhibitory concentration values, reaching 384 arbitrary units/mL. Interestingly, the minimum inhibitory values and the bactericidal concentrations were almost identical among them for each of the 2 stains, LL11 and SL153. Staphylococci were, on average, less sensitive than streptococci, but the 2 CFS inhibited and killed, at different dilutions, strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The immune response to nisin A-containing CFS was tested using the bovine mammary epithelial cell line BME-UV1. Application of CFS did not damage epithelial integrity, as demonstrated by the higher activity of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and lysozyme inside the cells, in both treated and control samples. On the other hand, the increase of released NAGase after 15 to 24h of treatment with LL11 or SL153 live cultures demonstrated an inflammatory response of epithelial cells. Similarly, a significantly higher lysozyme activity was detected in the cells treated with LL11 live culture confirming the stimulation of lysosomal activity. The treatment of epithelial cells with SL153 live culture induced a significant tumor necrosis factor-α downregulation in the cells, but did not influence IL-8 expression. The control of tumor necrosis factor-α release could be an interesting approach to reduce the symptoms linked

  18. Incidence of Bacteriocins Produced by Food-Related Lactic Acid Bacteria Active towards Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Papadimitriou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the incidence of bacteriocins produced by 236 lactic acid bacteria (LAB food isolates against pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic oral bacteria. This set of LAB contained several strains (≥17% producing bacteriocins active against food-related bacteria. Interestingly only Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, while Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC 179 and Lactobacillus plantarun ACA-DC 269 produced bacteriocins solely against Streptococcus oralis. Thus, the percentage of strains that were found to produce bacteriocins against oral bacteria was ~1.3%. The rarity of bacteriocins active against oral LAB pathogens produced by food-related LAB was unexpected given their close phylogenetic relationship. Nevertheless, when tested in inhibition assays, the potency of the bacteriocin(s of S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against the three oral streptococci was high. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis revealed that exposure of the target cells to the antimicrobial compounds caused major alterations of key cellular constituents. Our findings indicate that bacteriocins produced by food-related LAB against oral LAB may be rare, but deserve further investigation since, when discovered, they can be effective antimicrobials.

  19. NanA, a Neuraminidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae, Shows High Levels of Sequence Diversity, at Least in Part through Recombination with Streptococcus oralis

    OpenAIRE

    King, Samantha J.; Whatmore, Adrian M.; Dowson, Christopher G.

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, contains at least two genes, nanA and nanB, that express sialidase activity. NanA is a virulence determinant of pneumococci which is important in animal models of colonization and middle ear infections. The gene encoding NanA was detected in all 106 pneumococcal strains screened that represented 59 restriction profiles. Sequencing confirmed a high level of diversity, up to 17.2% at the nucleotide level and 14.8% at the amino acid level. N...

  20. Assessing the Metabolic Diversity of Streptococcus from a Protein Domain Point of View.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Saccenti

    Full Text Available Understanding the diversity and robustness of the metabolism of bacteria is fundamental for understanding how bacteria evolve and adapt to different environments. In this study, we characterised 121 Streptococcus strains and studied metabolic diversity from a protein domain perspective. Metabolic pathways were described in terms of the promiscuity of domains participating in metabolic pathways that were inferred to be functional. Promiscuity was defined by adapting existing measures based on domain abundance and versatility. The approach proved to be successful in capturing bacterial metabolic flexibility and species diversity, indicating that it can be described in terms of reuse and sharing functional domains in different proteins involved in metabolic activity. Additionally, we showed striking differences among metabolic organisation of the pathogenic serotype 2 Streptococcus suis and other strains.

  1. Septicemia with Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae: report of three cases with an apparent hepatic or bile duct association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Littauer, Pia Jeanette; Greve, Thomas; Scholz, Christian F P

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was described in 2004 as a new human pathogen, acknowledged in a range of clinical infections typically associated to the respiratory tract. This report demonstrates that S. pseudopneumoniae has the potential to cause invasive infection. In blood cultures from three patients, growth of an atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae (non-capsular, non-serotypeable, optochin susceptible under ambient atmosphere and bile-intermediately soluble) was recovered. All three patients had a history of a haematological disease (myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma) and an apparent origin of infection related to the liver or bile duct. All isolates were genome sequenced and subsequently identified as S. pseudopneumoniae by multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA). Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) based on the S. pneumoniae scheme revealed unknown sequence types and the antibiogram and resistome revealed no antibiotic resistance. PMID:27100044

  2. The Use of Microarray Technology for the Analysis of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Mitchell

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen associated with pneumonia, septicaemia, meningitis and otitis media. It is estimated to result in over 3 million child deaths worldwide every year and an even greater number of deaths among the elderly. Prior to the complete sequencing of the genomes of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 (serotype 4 and S. pneumoniae R6 (serotype 2, we designed a custom miniarray consisting of 497 pneumococcal genes. The overall objectives of our microarray investigations were, first, to assess the genetic diversity between different S. pneumoniae serotypes, clinical isolates and also different Streptococcus species; second, we aimed to use microarray technology to examine the mechanisms by which environmental factors influence pneumococcal gene expression, and ultimately to further the understanding of how these changes in gene expression are achieved and how they may alter the virulence of the organism.

  3. [Culture media for the detection and the identification of Streptococcus agalactiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, M; Pérez, M; Carazo, C; Pareja, L; Orts, A; Cantudo, P

    1994-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, a Group B streptococcus, is the main cause of bacterial perinatal infection and is also an important opportunistic pathogen. Detection and identification of S. agalactiae are straight forward with special culture media, where Group B streptococci show a specific, typical pink or red pigment. To quickly and easily detect the pigment, culture media should contain: (i) starch; (ii) an inhibitor of the folate pathway; (iii) animal serum; (iv) a pepsic proteic hydrolysate; and (v) glucose, together with a high-capacity buffer. When selective antibiotics are added to culture media designed in this way, it is possible to detect S. agalactiae directly from clinical samples by observation of its pigment after less than 12 hours of aerobic incubation.

  4. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Increases the Virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Binding to Penicillin Binding Protein 1a A New Paradigm in Respiratory Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Claire M.; Sandrini, Sara; Datta, Sumit; Freestone, Primrose; Shafeeq, Sulman; Radhakrishnan, Priya; Williams, Gwyneth; Glenn, Sarah M.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Hirst, Robert A.; Easton, Andrew J.; Andrew, Peter W.; O'Callaghan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major respiratory pathogens. Coinfection with RSV and S. pneumoniae is associated with severe and often fatal pneumonia but the molecular basis for this remains unclear. ObjeOtives: Todetermine if interaction between RSV a

  5. A Conserved UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase Encoded outside the hasABC Operon Contributes to Capsule Biogenesis in Group A Streptococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, J.N.; Aziz, R.K.; Kuipers, K.; Timmer, A.M.; Nizet, V.; Sorge, N.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific bacterial pathogen responsible for serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule of GAS is a major virulence factor, contributing to bloodstream survival through resistance to neutrophil and antimicrobial peptide killing a

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  7. Cellobiose-Mediated Gene Expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae : A Repressor Function of the Novel GntR-Type Regulator BguR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Leite, Luciana C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has the ability to use the carbon-and energy source cellobiose due to the presence of a cellobiose-utilizing gene cluster (cel locus) in its genome. This system is regulated by the cellobiose-dependent transcriptional activator CelR, which has been previou

  8. GacA is essential for Group A Streptococcus and defines a new class of monomeric dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductases (RmlD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, Samantha L.; Le Breton, Yoann; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; Chapman, Robert N.; van Aalten, Daan M F; Navratilova, Iva; Boons, Geert Jan; Mciver, Kevin S.; van Sorge, Nina M.; Dorfmueller, Helge C.

    2015-01-01

    The sugar nucleotide dTDP-L-rhamnose is critical for the biosynthesis of the Group A Carbohydrate, the molecular signature and virulence determinant of the human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS). The final step of the four-step dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis pathway is catalyzed by dTDP-4-dehydror

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Garlic Extract Against some Pathogenic Animal Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    M. Safithri; M. Bintang; M. Poeloengan

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates was well studied. However, reports on antibacterial activity of garlic extract against some pathogenic bacteria in animals in Indonesia, are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts of garlic against Salmonella typhimurium in chickens, and Streptococcus agalactie, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus caus...

  10. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  11. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...

  12. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  13. SHELF LIFE OF BOVINE MEAT TREATED WITH FOOD GRADE TRISSODIC PHOSPHATE VIDA DE PRATELEIRA DA CARNE BOVINA TRATADA PELO FOSFATO TRISSÓDICO GRAU ALIMENTÍCIO

    OpenAIRE

    Albenones José de Mesquita; Moacir Evandro Lage; Romão da Cunha Nunes; Edmar Soares Nicolau; Adriana Silveira de Souza

    2007-01-01

    To the present study, the capacity of food grade trissodic phosphate to reduce bacterial spoiling and pathogenic effect on bovine meat from three different categories of abattoirs was estimated, as well as shelf life of bovine meat kept under refrigeration. Trissodic phosphate was efficient to reduce bacterial spoiling and pathogenic effect, represented by mesophils and psychr...

  14. Real-time PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Real-time PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus SWEDEN (B?verud, V.) SWEDEN Received: 2006-10-03 Revised: 2007-03-27 Accepted: 2007-04-05

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  16. 昆明地区奶牛临床型乳房炎病原菌分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation,identification and drug sensitivity of pathogen causingbovine clinical mastitis in Kunming area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 荀来武; 杨玉艾; 王桂瑛

    2012-01-01

    对昆明地区多个奶牛场的奶牛临床型乳房炎病原菌进行分离、鉴定,从114份乳样中共分离出细菌13种305株,经培养特性、染色镜检、生化鉴定等,鉴定出金黄色葡萄球菌63株,占20.66%;表皮葡萄球菌26株,占8.52%;无乳链球菌53株,占17.38%;停乳链球菌23株,占7.54%;乳房链球菌19株,占6.23%;乳链球菌14株,占4.59%;粪链球菌15株,占4.92%;化脓链球菌14株,占4.59%;大肠杆菌48株,占15.74%;真菌12株,占3.93%。分别对分离菌株进行17种药物的敏感性试验,除真菌外,所有菌株对庆大霉素、新霉素、环丙沙星、诺氟沙星、林可霉素、乳肿康均高度敏感,对临床常用的青霉素、链霉素、鱼腥草等具有较强的耐药性。%305 strains of pathogen causing bovine clinical mastitis in Kunming area was isolated from 114 milk samples and belonged to 13 species after cultivation,staining identification and biochemical test.Among these pathogen,Staphylococcus aureus was 63 strains(20.66%),Staphylococcus epidermidis was 26 strains(8.52%),Streptococcus agalactiae was 53 strains(17.38%),Streptococcus dysgalactiae was 23 strains(7.54%),Streptococcus uberis was 19 strains(6.23%),Streptococcus lactis was 14 strains(4.59%),Streptococcus faecium was 15 strains(4.92%),Streptococcus pyogenes was 14 strains(4.59%),Escherichia coli was 48 strains(15.74%)and the fungus was 12 strains(3.93%).Drug sensitive test showed that all bacteria except the fungus were sensitive to Gentamicin,Neomycin,Ciprofloxacin,Norfloxacin,Lincomycin etc.,and resistant to Penicilin,Streptomycin and Houttuynia cordata.

  17. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are...

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Dairy Cows with Clinical Mastitis in Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古通辽市某奶牛场乳房炎无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚团莲

    2016-01-01

    旨在调查引起内蒙古通辽地区奶牛乳房炎发生的优势病原菌。采用常规方法对采集自该地区某奶牛场的3份临床型乳房炎患牛奶样进行优势致病菌的分离鉴定,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)评价分离菌对兽医临床常用抗菌药物的敏感性。结果表明,从3份乳样中共分离到14株菌,经生化试验鉴定为无乳链球菌;药敏试验结果表明,分离菌对链霉素及磺胺嘧啶表现出较强的耐药性,而卡那霉素、庆大霉素及麦迪霉素对分离菌则表现出较好的抑菌效果。%The aim of the present study was to determine the dominant species of bacteria associated with bovine mastitis in Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia. Three quarter milk samples were collected from dairy cows with clinical mastitis and were used to isolate pathogenic bacteria by conventional method. The antimicrobial susceptibility test of the isolates was conducted using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The results revealed that a total of 14 strains were isolated from the 3 samples and they were subsequently phenotypically identified as Streptococcus agalactiae. While reduced susceptibility to streptomycin and sulfadiazine were observed, kanamycin, gentamicin and midecamycin are found as susceptible drugs for the isolated Streptococcus strains.

  19. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  20. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms – formation, biology,and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eFiedler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS is an exclusive human bacterial pathogen. The virulence potential of this species is tremendous. Interactions with humans range from asymptomatic carriage over mild and superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes up to systemic purulent toxic-invasive disease manifestations. Particularly the latter are a severe threat for predisposed patients and lead to significant death tolls worldwide. This places GAS among the most important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Many recent reviews have highlighted the GAS repertoire of virulence factors, regulators and regulatory circuits/networks that enable GAS to colonize the host and to deal with all levels of the host immune defense. This covers in vitro and in vivo studies, including animal infection studies based on mice and more relevant, macaque monkeys. It is now appreciated that GAS, like many other bacterial species, do not necessarily exclusively live in a planktonic lifestyle. GAS is capable of microcolony and biofilm formation on host cells and tissues. We are now beginning to understand that this feature significantly contributes to GAS pathogenesis. In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on GAS biofilm formation, the biofilm-phenotype associated virulence factors, regulatory aspects of biofilm formation, the clinical relevance, and finally contemporary treatment regimens and future treatment options.

  1. Purification and preliminary crystallization of alanine racemase from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Im Hookang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past fifteen years, antibiotic resistance in the Gram-positive opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has significantly increased. Clinical isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia or otitis media often display resistance to two or more antibiotics. Given the need for new therapeutics, we intend to investigate enzymes of cell wall biosynthesis as novel drug targets. Alanine racemase, a ubiquitous enzyme among bacteria and absent in humans, provides the essential cell wall precursor, D-alanine, which forms part of the tetrapeptide crosslinking the peptidoglycan layer. Results The alanine racemases gene from S. pneumoniae (alrSP was amplified by PCR and cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The 367 amino acid, 39854 Da dimeric enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and preliminary crystals were obtained. Racemic activity was demonstrated through complementation of an alr auxotroph of E. coli growing on L-alanine. In an alanine racemases photometric assay, specific activities of 87.0 and 84.8 U mg-1 were determined for the conversion of D- to L-alanine and L- to D-alanine, respectively. Conclusion We have isolated and characterized the alanine racemase gene from the opportunistic human pathogen S. pneumoniae. The enzyme shows sufficient homology with other alanine racemases to allow its integration into our ongoing structure-based drug design project.

  2. Structure of the Response Regulator NsrR from Streptococcus agalactiae, Which Is Involved in Lantibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi Khosa; Astrid Hoeppner; Holger Gohlke; Lutz Schmitt; Smits, Sander H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides produced by Gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, several clinically relevant and human pathogenic strains are inherently resistant towards lantibiotics. The expression of the genes responsible for lantibiotic resistance is regulated by a specific two-component system consisting of a histidine kinase and a response regulator. Here, we focused on a response regulator involved in lantibiotic resistance, NsrR from Streptococcus agalactiae, and determined ...

  3. Identification of Residues Responsible for the Defective Virulence Gene Regulator Mga Produced by a Natural Mutant of Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Vahling, Cheryl M.; McIver, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Mga is a transcriptional regulator in the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes that positively activates several important virulence genes involved in colonization and immune evasion in the human host. A naturally occurring mutant of Mga that is defective in its ability to activate transcription has been identified in the serotype M50 strain B514-Sm. Sequence alignment of the defective M50 Mga with the fully functional Mga from serotypes M4 and M49 revealed only three amino acid changes that might...

  4. Inhibition activity of wild berry juice fractions against Streptococcus pneumoniae binding to human bronchial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen, Sanna; Toivanen, Marko; Arkko, Satu; Ruponen, Marika; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial adhesion to the cell surface is a crucial step before infection can take place. Inhibition of bacterial binding offers a novel preventive approach against infections. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) juice has been found to have anti-adhesive activity against different bacteria. Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen and the most common cause for pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. In this study the inhibitory activity of cranberry (Vacciniu...

  5. Molecular Characterization of Equine Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Natural Disruption of Genes Encoding the Virulence Factors Pneumolysin and Autolysin

    OpenAIRE

    Whatmore, Adrian M.; King, Samantha J.; Doherty, Neil C.; Sturgeon, Daniel; Chanter, Neil; Dowson, Christopher G.

    1999-01-01

    Although often considered a strict human pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae has been reported to infect and cause pneumonia in horses, although the pathology appears restricted compared to that of human infections. Here we report on the molecular characterization of a group of S. pneumoniae isolates obtained from horses in England and Ireland. Despite being obtained from geographically distinct locations, the isolates were found to represent a tight clonal group, virtually identical to each o...

  6. beta-lactamase-producing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae fails to protect Streptococcus pneumoniae from amoxicillin during experimental acute otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, E.; Lundin, S.; Hermansson, Ann; Melhus, Åsa

    2004-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common reason for outpatient antimicrobial therapy. Mixed infections pose a potential problem, since the first-line drug used for the treatment of AOM, amoxicillin, can be neutralized by ß-lactamase-producing pathogens of the upper respiratory tract. To study the effects of a 5-day course of amoxicillin on a mixed middle ear infection, rats were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae alone or in combination with ß-lactamase-producing nontypeable Haemophi...

  7. β-Lactamase-Producing Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Fails To Protect Streptococcus pneumoniae from Amoxicillin during Experimental Acute Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, Eva; Lundin, Susanne; Hermansson, Ann; Melhus, Åsa

    2004-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common reason for outpatient antimicrobial therapy. Mixed infections pose a potential problem, since the first-line drug used for the treatment of AOM, amoxicillin, can be neutralized by β-lactamase-producing pathogens of the upper respiratory tract. To study the effects of a 5-day course of amoxicillin on a mixed middle ear infection, rats were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae alone or in combination with β-lactamase-producing nontypeable Haemophi...

  8. Quarter, cow, and farm risk factors for intramammary infections with major pathogens relative to minor pathogens in Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2011 on 35 smallholder dairy farms in Chiang Mai, Thailand, to identify the quarter, cow, and farm factors that relate to intramammary infections (IMI) from major specified pathogens, compared to infections from minor pathogens. Data on general farm management, milking management, and dry cow management were recorded for each herd. Quarter milk samples were collected from either clinical or subclinical mastitis quarters. Dependent variables were binary data defining the specified major pathogens, including Streptococcus agalactiae (7.1 %), Streptococcus uberis (9.4 %), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.0 %), and other streptococci (16.7 %), as a case, and all minor pathogens as a control, in each dependent variable. The occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI was lower in first-parity cows and cows with short milking time. Cows with body condition score (BCS) mastitis test (CMT) score 2, score 3, and having clinical mastitis and in farms with increasing age of vacuum system. Quarters with CMT score 3, having clinical mastitis, cow with manual milking after detaching milking cluster, and farms with high bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC >500,000 cells/ml) had higher occurrence of S. dysgalactiae IMI. For other streptococci, quarters having clinical mastitis, BCS <2.5, and pulling down of milking cluster while milking increased occurrence of other streptococci IMI relative to minor pathogen IMI. These results highlight the importance of individual cow factors, milking characteristics, and BMSCC in determining the risk of IMI from major pathogens. PMID:24823898

  9. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  10. Identification of organic acids in Cichorium intybus inhibiting virulence-related properties of oral pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Papetti; D. Mascherpa; C. Carazzone; M. Stauder; D.A. Spratt; M. Wilson; J. Pratten; L. Ciric; P. Lingström; E. Zaura; E. Weiss; I. Ofek; C. Signoretto; C. Pruzzo; G. Gazzani

    2013-01-01

    The low molecular mass (LMM) extract of Cichorium intybus var. silvestre (red chicory) has been shown to inhibit virulence-linked properties of oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Prevotella intermedia. In the present study HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS2 was used to investiga

  11. A longitudinal study of lung bacterial pathogens in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Alanin, M.; G. Nielsen, K.; von Buchwald, C.;

    2015-01-01

    from 107 patients with PCD (median age 17 years, range 0–74 years) (median age at diagnosis 7.8 years, range 0–63 years). Haemophilus influenzae was the most frequent microorganism. Other common pathogens were P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus...

  12. Intracellular α-Amylase of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Christine L.; Russell, Roy R. B.

    1998-01-01

    Sequencing upstream of the Streptococcus mutans gene for a CcpA gene homolog, regM, revealed an open reading frame, named amy, with homology to genes encoding α-amylases. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a strong similarity (60% amino acid identity) to the intracellular α-amylase of Streptococcus bovis and, in common with this enzyme, lacked a signal sequence. Amylase activity was found only in S. mutans cell extracts, with no activity detected in culture supernatants. Inactivation of a...

  13. Fascitis necrotitzant i miositis per streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Casares, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    Existeixen tres tipus d'infeccions greus causades per Streptococcus del grup A (GAS): la fascitis necrotitzant (FN), la miositis i la síndrome de xoc tòxic estreptocòccica (SST). Es tracta d'un estudi retrospectiu en el qual es van revisar les històries clíniques de cinc casos de FN per Streptococcus pyogenes. Es descriuen dades epidemiològiques, característiques clíniques del pacient i de la infecció, paràmetres de laboratori, mètodes diagnòstics, tractaments rebuts i curs evolutiu dels paci...

  14. Comparative analysis of whole-genome sequences of Streptococcus suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pengli; WEI Wu; LI Yixue; MA Yuanyuan; DING Guohui; LI Xiaoping; WANG Xiaojing; ZHANG Liwen; SUN Jingchun; WANG Yong; TU Kang; WANG Ningning; HAO Pei; WANG Chuan; CAO Zhiwei; SHI Tieliu

    2006-01-01

    The outbreak of Streptococcus suis recently in some districts of Sichuan Province in China has caused over 30 deaths and over 200 infections in human beings. In order to study the pathogenicity mechanism and to prevent the bacteria from spreading and infecting human beings and swine, we have annotated and analyzed the genomes of two strains, Streptococcus suis P1/7 and 89-1591 respectively. The whole length of P1/7 is 2.007 Mb,and has 1969 ORFs. In contrast, the partial genome sequence of 89-1591 is 1.98 Mb in length and exists in 177 contigs with 1918 ORFs. Analysis shows that the average lengths of CDSs in two genomes are very close, and the numbers of the homolog ORFs are 1306 between those two strains. Most of the toxicity factors of the two strains are homologeous, but there are still some significant differences between those two strains. For example, among the 11 genes (cps2A-cps2K) encoding for the capsules in P1/7, 4(cps2A, 2B, 2I, 2J) are not detected in strain 89-1591.At the same time, the genes encoding EF and Haemolysin in P1/7 are also not found in strain 89-1591. Besides, the genes related to DNA replication, repair and recombination differ from each other significantly and there also exist certain differences among the surface proteins. Those characteristics indicate that those two strains have evolved their own specific functions to adapt to the different environments and that the pathogenesis of the two strains is different. We have accumulated comprehensive genomics information for future systematic studies of S.sui. Our results are helpful for disease prevention,vaccine development, as well as drug design for S.suis.

  15. Characterization of a Multipeptide Lantibiotic Locus in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Maricic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities are established through a combination of cooperative and antagonistic interactions between the inhabitants. Competitive interactions often involve the production of antimicrobial substances, including bacteriocins, which are small antimicrobial peptides that target other community members. Despite the nearly ubiquitous presence of bacteriocin-encoding loci, inhibitory activity has been attributed to only a small fraction of gene clusters. In this study, we characterized a novel locus (the pld locus in the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae that drives the production of a bacteriocin called pneumolancidin, which has broad antimicrobial activity. The locus encodes an unusual tandem array of four inhibitory peptides, three of which are absolutely required for antibacterial activity. The three peptide sequences are similar but appear to play distinct roles in regulation and inhibition. A modification enzyme typically found in loci encoding a class of highly modified bacteriocins called lantibiotics was required for inhibitory activity. The production of pneumolancidin is controlled by a two-component regulatory system that is activated by the accumulation of modified peptides. The locus is located on a mobile element that has been found in many pneumococcal lineages, although not all elements carry the pld genes. Intriguingly, a minimal region containing only the genes required for pneumolancidin immunity was found in several Streptococcus mitis strains. The pneumolancidin-producing strain can inhibit nearly all pneumococci tested to date and provided a competitive advantage in vivo. These peptides not only represent a unique strategy for bacterial competition but also are an important resource to guide the development of new antimicrobials.

  16. PCR assay with host specific internal control forStaphylococcus aureus from bovine milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Cantekin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of the most important and common pathogens of bovine mastitis. Polymerase Chain Reaction is frequently proposed in the diagnosis of S. aureus directly from milk samples instead of classical culture. However, false-negative results may occur in the polymerase chain reaction analysis performed directly from clinical material. For the purpose of disclosing the false negative results, the use of internal amplification controls can be beneficial. Therefore, in this study a new polymerase chain reaction technique with host specific internal amplification control was developed by optimizing S. aureus-specific primers in combination with bovine specific primers. The effectiveness of the developed technique in this study was attempted in milk samples from bovine subclinical mastitis. This technique has the potential to detect S. aureus from bovine milk samples or dairy products.

  17. Comparative genomic analyses of Streptococcus mutans provide insights into chromosomal shuffling and species-specific content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakai Kenta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, and it occasionally causes infective endocarditis. While the pathogenicity of this species is distinct from other human pathogenic streptococci, the species-specific evolution of the genus Streptococcus and its genomic diversity are poorly understood. Results We have sequenced the complete genome of S. mutans serotype c strain NN2025, and compared it with the genome of UA159. The NN2025 genome is composed of 2,013,587 bp, and the two strains show highly conserved core-genome. However, comparison of the two S. mutans strains showed a large genomic inversion across the replication axis producing an X-shaped symmetrical DNA dot plot. This phenomenon was also observed between other streptococcal species, indicating that streptococcal genetic rearrangements across the replication axis play an important role in Streptococcus genetic shuffling. We further confirmed the genomic diversity among 95 clinical isolates using long-PCR analysis. Genomic diversity in S. mutans appears to occur frequently between insertion sequence (IS elements and transposons, and these diversity regions consist of restriction/modification systems, antimicrobial peptide synthesis systems, and transporters. S. mutans may preferentially reject the phage infection by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs. In particular, the CRISPR-2 region, which is highly divergent between strains, in NN2025 has long repeated spacer sequences corresponding to the streptococcal phage genome. Conclusion These observations suggest that S. mutans strains evolve through chromosomal shuffling and that phage infection is not needed for gene acquisition. In contrast, S. pyogenes tolerates phage infection for acquisition of virulence determinants for niche adaptation.

  18. Structure and molecular characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide 10F by carbohydrate engineering in Streptococcus oralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinghua; Shelat, Nirav Y; Bush, C Allen; Cisar, John O

    2010-07-30

    Although closely related at the molecular level, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of serotype 10F Streptococcus pneumoniae and coaggregation receptor polysaccharide (RPS) of Streptococcus oralis C104 have distinct ecological roles. CPS prevents phagocytosis of pathogenic S. pneumoniae, whereas RPS of commensal S. oralis functions as a receptor for lectin-like adhesins on other members of the dental plaque biofilm community. Results from high resolution NMR identified the recognition region of S. oralis RPS (i.e. Galfbeta1-6GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha) in the hexasaccharide repeat of S. pneumoniae CPS10F. The failure of this polysaccharide to support fimbriae-mediated adhesion of Actinomyces naeslundii was explained by the position of Galf, which occurred as a branch in CPS10F rather than within the linear polysaccharide chain, as in RPS. Carbohydrate engineering of S. oralis RPS with wzy from S. pneumoniae attributed formation of the Galf branch in CPS10F to the linkage of adjacent repeating units through sub terminal GalNAc in Galfbeta1-6GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha rather than through terminal Galf, as in RPS. A gene (wcrD) from serotype 10A S. pneumoniae was then used to engineer a linear surface polysaccharide in S. oralis that was identical to RPS except for the presence of a beta1-3 linkage between Galf and GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha. This polysaccharide also failed to support adhesion of A. naeslundii, thereby establishing the essential role of beta1-6-linked Galf in recognition of adjacent GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha in wild-type RPS. These findings, which illustrate a molecular approach for relating bacterial polysaccharide structure to function, provide insight into the possible evolution of S. oralis RPS from S. pneumoniae CPS. PMID:20507989

  19. Antagonistic action of Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus faecalis to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, C L; Hart, G D

    1976-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus faecalis were found to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 agars, but not on the latter medium when antibacterial drugs were added. S. faecalis was found to be more inhibitory than S. salivarius to 15 strains of M. tuberculosis. S. salivarius produced little or no inhibition of growth of Runyon group III organisms but was very antagonistic to Runyon group I mycobacteria. Images PMID:824304

  20. Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Actinomyces viscosus in the Presence of Human Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Germaine, Greg, R.; Tellefson, Lois M.

    1982-01-01

    Glucose uptake was examined by using whole-cell suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (strains BHT, Ingbritt, and GS-5), Streptococcus mitis (strains 9811 and 72×41), and Actinomyces viscosus (strains T6 and WVU626) incubated for up to 90 min in 0 to 82% (vol/vol) human whole salivary supernatant. Glucose uptake by the S. mutans strains was completely inhibited at all saliva concentrations. Dithiothreitol (DTT), present during saliva incubation, prevented saliva inhibition. Glucose uptake was a...

  1. Simultaneous concentration of bovine viruses and agricultural zoonotic bacteria from water using sodocalcic glass wool filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration and runoff from manured agricultural fields can result in livestock pathogens reaching groundwater and surface waters. Here, we measured the effectiveness of glass wool filters to simultaneously concentrate enteric viruses and bacteria of bovine origin from water. The recovery efficienc...

  2. Social isolation may influence responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Mars, M.H.; Leushuis, I.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was performed to develop a model to study the impact of stress on responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in veal calves. Social isolation after previous group-housing was used as a putatively stressful treatment. Group-housed specific pathogen-free veal calves (n=

  3. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis.

  4. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis. PMID:25908141

  5. Assessment of bovine immunoprotecion against Rhipicephalus microplus using Bm86-CG antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is a major pest of cattle in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In addition to direct effects associated with its obligate parasitic way of life, R. microplus also transmits the pathogens that cause bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Commercially ...

  6. Preparations of antigens and immunoadsorbents corresponding to the Streptococcus group A cell-wall polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzanneau, F I; Pinto, B M

    1996-11-01

    The allyl glycosides of a tri-, penta- and hexasaccharide corresponding to the Streptococcus Group A cell-wall polysaccharide were coupled to solid or soluble supports to give immunoaffinity columns and neoglycoproteins, respectively. Cysteamine hydrochloride was added to the allyl glycosides and the resulting cysteamine adducts were used for subsequent coupling to linkers via the amine functionality. The tri- and penta-saccharide cysteamine adducts were coupled directly to the azalactone-derivatized 3M Emphase Biosupport Medium AB 1 to yield two affinity columns. The penta- and hexa- saccharides were coupled to bovine serum albumin or ovalbumin via the conjugate addition of the epsilon-amino groups of lysines on the proteins with the N-acryloylated sugars or the oligosaccharide-squarate adducts, derived in turn from the cysteamine adducts. The efficiency of the above methods is compared. PMID:9007283

  7. Population diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the upper respiratory tracts of adults, determined by a nonculture strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, H; Hance, I;

    2008-01-01

    We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat...... with loss and acquisition from contacts. These findings provide a platform for understanding the mechanisms that govern the balance within the complex microbiota at mucosal sites and between the microbiota and the mucosal immune system of the host....

  8. 鱼源无乳链球菌致病机理研究进展%Review on Pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae from Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝璟琳; 杨弘

    2013-01-01

    从无乳链球菌的感染与传播途径,引起的病理学变化,致病机制,毒力因子和理化因子的影响等5个方面对鱼源无乳链球菌的致病机理作一综述。%The studies on pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae from fish were summarized as viewed from the following five factors: transmission studies, pathogenic mechanism, Group B Streptococcus (GBS) virulence and environmental factors.

  9. Dual role for pilus in adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoan Konto-Ghiorghi; Emilie Mairey; Adeline Mallet; Guillaume Duménil; Elise Caliot; Patrick Trieu-Cuot; Shaynoor Dramsi

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a common human commensal and a major life-threatening pathogen in neonates. Adherence to host epithelial cells is the first critical step of the infectious process. Pili have been observed on the surface of several gram-positive bacteria including S. agalactiae. We previously characterized the pilus-encoding operon gbs1479-1474 in strain NEM316. This pilus is composed of three structural subunit proteins: Gbs1478 (PilA), Gbs1477 (PilB), and Gbs1474 (PilC), and its ...

  10. Chromosomal Islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: Molecular Switches for Survival and Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Van Nguyen; William Michael Mcshan

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5’ end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logari...

  11. Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Scott V.; McShan, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5′ end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithm...

  12. Septic Osteoarthritis Due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies equisimilis in a Three-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a three-year-old toddler with an acute and severe osteoarticular infection of her left hip and proximal thigh. In the first 24 hours she underwent an arthrotomy and during the intravenous phase of antibiotic treatment multiple teeth were removed because of an extensive periodontal disease. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE was identified in her blood culture samples. The paper discusses the clinical spectrum of the disease caused by this pathogen and briefly reviews the literature. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first case of septic osteomyelitis and arthritis caused by SDSE in a child.

  13. Variation in the Group B Streptococcus CsrRS Regulon and Effects on Pathogenicity▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Sheng-Mei; Ishmael, Nadeeza; Hotopp, Julie Dunning; Puliti, Manuela; Tissi, Luciana; Kumar, Nikhil; Cieslewicz, Michael J.; Tettelin, Hervé; Wessels, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    CsrRS (or CovRS) is a two-component regulatory system that controls expression of multiple virulence factors in the important human pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS). We now report global gene expression studies in GBS strains 2603V/R and 515 and their isogenic csrR and csrS mutants. Together with data reported previously for strain NEM316, the results reveal a conserved 39-gene CsrRS regulon. In vitro phosphorylation-dependent binding of recombinant CsrR to promoter regions of both positi...

  14. Serotypes of Streptococcus agalactiae cultured from dairy milk samples in Québec

    OpenAIRE

    Daignault, Danielle; Guévremont, Evelyne; Guillemette, Jean-Marc; Messier, Serge; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Higgins, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae remains an important pathogen of dairy herds in Québec, but data about antigenic characteristics of this microorganism are sparse. This study was conducted to determine the variety of S. agalactiae serotypes in dairy herds in Québec. Two hundred and ninety-five isolates cultured from the milk of individual cows from 7 regions of Québec were serotyped. Sixty-two percent of the isolates were untypeable. Among the 38% of typeable isolates, serotype III was found most fre...

  15. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  16. Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette Marie;

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of...... Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing....

  17. Dual Functions of Streptococcus salivarius Urease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Weaver, Cheryl A.; Burne, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A urease-deficient derivative of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I was constructed by allelic exchange at the ureC locus. The wild-type strain was protected against acid killing through hydrolysis of physiologically relevant concentrations of urea, whereas the mutant was not. Also, S. salivarius could use urea as a source of nitrogen for growth exclusively through a urease-dependent pathway.

  18. [Streptococcus pyogenes--much more than the aetiological agent of scarlet fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2009-11-01

    The grampositive bacterium S. pyogenes (beta-haemolytic group A Streptococcus) is a natural colonizer of the human oropharynx mucous membrane and one of the most common agents of infectious diseases in humans. S. pyogenes causes the widest range of disease in humans among all bacterial pathogens. It is responsible for various skin infections such as impetigo contagiosa and erysipelas, and localized mucous membrane infections of the oropharynx (e. g. tonsillitis and pharyngitis). Betahaemolytic group A Streptococcus causes also invasive diseases such as sepses including puerperal sepsis. Additionally, S. pyogenes induces toxin-mediated syndromes, i. e. scarlet fever, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF). STSS and NF are severe, frequently fatal diseases that have emerged in Europe and Northern America during the last two decades. Finally, some immunpathological diseases such as acute rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis also result from S. pyogenes infections. Most scientists recommend penicillins (benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicllin) as drugs of first choice for treatment of Streptococcus tonsillopharyngitis and scarlet fever. Erysipelas and some other skin infections should be treated with benzylpenicillin. Intensive care measurements are needed for treatment of severe toxin-mediated S. pyogenes diseases. These measurements include the elimination of internal bacterial foci, concomitant application of clindamycin and benzylpenicillin and suitable treatment of shock symptoms. Management of immunpathological diseases requires antiphlogistical therapy. Because of the wide distribution of S. pyogenes in the general population and the lack of an effective vaccine, possibilities for prevention allowing a suitable protection for diseases due to S. pyogenes are very limited.

  19. Competitive displacement of mutans streptococci and inhibition of tooth decay by Streptococcus salivarius TOVE-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, J M; Kurasz, A B; Clive, J

    1985-01-01

    The ability of Streptococcus salivarius TOVE-R to displace virulent representatives of the most prevalent human mutans streptococci from the teeth of rats, and thereby to inhibit caries, was studied. Streptococcus mutans 10449S- or Streptococcus sobrinus 6715-13WT-infected specific-pathogen-free rats consuming a high-sucrose diet were inoculated by TOVE-R. The infectants were differentially recovered from swabs of the teeth over the time course of infection and from sonically treated material of extracted teeth and excised tongues. Despite initial colonization of the teeth by the mutans streptococci, TOVE-R colonized the teeth, unlike other essentially nonvirulent plaque formers already described. It did not colonize the tongues of the rats. TOVE-R emerged and persisted as a prominent member of the plaque ecology. There was an associated decline in the mutans streptococci on the teeth, and this decline was associated with significant inhibition of the caries component attributable to 10449S infection (56%) and to 6715-13WT infection (52%). TOVE-R did not reliably inhibit the component of fissure caries attributable to the nonmutans indigenous flora of the rats. TOVE-R itself induced no detectable decay. The data suggest the potential therapeutic utility of TOVE-R to inhibit caries by displacement of mutans streptococci from the teeth. These results supplement the already reported ability of TOVE-R to preempt initial colonization of teeth by the mutans streptococci. PMID:3980093

  20. Comparison of the Effect of Recaldent and Xylitol on the Amounts of Salivary Streptococcus Mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Emamieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  Background:Dental caries is associated with oral pathogenes and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutansis one of the primary cariogenic organisms. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of sugar free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP and Xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutan. Materials and Methods: 60 dental students, who volunteered after signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP, (B Chewing gum containing Xylitol. Subjects within the experimental groups chewed gum for 20 minutes, three times a day after meals for 3 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention unstimulated saliva samples were quantified for Streptococcus mutans count. Results: A statistically significant reduction (p<0.05 of salivary S. mutans was displayed in both groups A and B after the intervention. When results compared with baseline, and group A shows more statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans than group B.Conclusion: In conclusion, daily chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and xylitol reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way, but chewing gum containing CPP-ACP can reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way than Xylitol chewing gum.

  1. A Genome-Wide Profiling Strategy as an Aid for Searching Unique Identification Biomarkers for Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Prasun; Koul, Shikha

    2016-03-01

    The use of rrs (16S rRNA) gene is widely regarded as the "gold standard" for identifying bacteria and determining their phylogenetic relationships. Nevertheless, multiple copies of this gene in a genome is likely to give an overestimation of the bacterial diversity. In each of the 50 Streptococcus genomes (16 species, 50 strains), 4-7 copies of rrs are present. The nucleotide sequences of these rrs genes show high similarity within and among genomes, which did not allow unambiguous identification. A genome-wide search revealed the presence of 27 gene sequences common to all the Streptococcus species. Digestion of these 27 gene sequences with 10 type II restriction endonucleases (REs) showed that unique RE digestion in purH gene is sufficient for clear cut identification of 30 genomes belonging to 16 species. Additional gene-RE combinations allowed identification of another 15 strains belonging to S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. suis. For the rest 5 strains, a combination of 2 genes was required for identifying them. The proposed strategy is likely to prove helpful in proper detection of pathogens like Streptococcus. PMID:26843696

  2. Vaccination against δ-Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerónimo Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukemia virus (BLV and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 are closely related d-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia. Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of d-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy.

  3. 奥尼罗非鱼无乳链球菌的鉴定、致病性及药物敏感性研究%Identification, Pathogenicity and Drug Sensitivity of Streptococcus agalactiae from Hybrid Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus×Oreochromis aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晶晶; 陈昌福; 高宇; 刘振兴; 王美珍; 李革雷

    2010-01-01

    从海南省某水产养殖场患病奥尼罗非鱼(Oreochromis aureus×Oreochromis niloticus)中,分离到1个编号为LFY-08-23的菌株.经过对分离菌株进行生理生化特性鉴定、Biolog系统鉴定以及利用原核生物16S rRNA基因通用引物进行 16S rRNA基因的克隆及序列分析,结果发现LFY-08-23菌株与无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)的生理生化特性相似,16S rRNA基因克隆及序列分析结果与S.agalactiae(EF092913,DQ303183,AF459432)自然构成一个分支,相似性高达99.8%.用分离的S.agalactiae LFY-08-23菌株对异育银鲫和斑点叉尾鮰进行人工感染试验,结果表明,当注射菌浓度达到1.0×109cfu/mL时,2种鱼全部死亡.S.agalactiae LFY-08-23菌株对头孢氨噻肟、丙氟哌酸、利福平等13种药物高度敏感,对呋喃妥因、新生霉素、强力霉素等7种药物中度敏感,对卡那霉素、链霉素、磺胺异恶唑等5种药物不敏感.

  4. Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Madsen, P.; Mark, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    . uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations among the pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered...... as the overall pleiotropic effect of genes affecting resistance to a specific pathogen, and highest for bacteria sharing characteritics regarding immune response. The genetic correlations between the groups of pathogens were high, 0.73 and 0.83. Results showed that the pathogen-specific traits used in this study......The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus...

  5. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Saman Soleimanpour; Fereshteh Sadat Sedighinia; Akbar Safipour Afshar; Reza Zarif; Kiarash Ghazvini

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibit...

  6. Antigen I/II encoded by integrative and conjugative elements of Streptococcus agalactiae and role in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuzeville, Sarah; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Madec, Jean-Yves; Haenni, Marisa; Payot, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (i.e. Group B streptococcus, GBS) is a major human and animal pathogen. Genes encoding putative surface proteins and in particular an antigen I/II have been identified on Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) found in GBS. Antigens I/II are multimodal adhesins promoting colonization of the oral cavity by streptococci such as Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans. The prevalence and diversity of antigens I/II in GBS were studied by a bioinformatic analysis. It revealed that antigens I/II, which are acquired by horizontal transfer via ICEs, exhibit diversity and are widespread in GBS, in particular in the serotype Ia/ST23 invasive strains. This study aimed at characterizing the impact on GBS biology of proteins encoded by a previously characterized ICE of S. agalactiae (ICE_515_tRNA(Lys)). The production and surface exposition of the antigen I/II encoded by this ICE was examined using RT-PCR and immunoblotting experiments. Surface proteins of ICE_515_tRNA(Lys) were found to contribute to GBS biofilm formation and to fibrinogen binding. Contribution of antigen I/II encoded by SAL_2056 to biofilm formation was also demonstrated. These results highlight the potential for ICEs to spread microbial adhesins between species. PMID:26232503

  7. Antimicrobial effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts Teucrium polium L. on Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium polium L. (Labiatae has long been recognized in folk medicine in the treatment of many pathophysiological implications, such as gastrointestinal disorders, inflammations, diabetes and rheumatism. In this study antimicrobial activity of two crude extracts obtained from Teucrium polium L. was tested against bacterial species. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined using a microdilution analysis method. The antimicrobial effects of extracts were evaluated on Streptococcus pyogenes PTCC 1447, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1310 and Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1435 by “using the method of Collins” and “disk agar diffusion method”. The results showed that aqueous and ethanolic extracts were quite effective in 2000 μg/ml concentration on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and were prevented from growth them on medium, while both extracts have no certain antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In “disk agar diffusion method”, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous and alcoholic extracts concentrations, was inhibition effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous and ethanolic extracts concentrations, has inhibition effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevent them growing, but at 10 and 20 mg/ml concentrations, no inhibitory effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed. The results indicate that ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Teucrium polium L. have the greatest effect on gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (p Results showed, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Teucrium polium L., have been strong antimicrobial activity against many food pathogen bacteria.

  8. Antimicrobial effect of Satureja bachtiarica extracts aqueous, ethanol, methanol and glycerin on streptococcus pyogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Heidari Sureshjani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian medicinal plants, such as Satureja bachtiarica have been utilized as traditional medicines by the indigenous people of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari in Iran. In this study, Satureja bachtiarica were dried in suitable condition (in shadow after extraction with watery, ethanol 96 %, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin antimicrobial effect of extract were determined by “screening antimicrobial activity” and “disk agar diffusion test” in 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml concentration of the extract against Streptococcus pyogenes PTCC 1447, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1310 and Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1435. The results showed that aqueous, ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extracts were quite effective in 2 mg/ml concentration on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and were prevented from growth them on medium, while extracts have no certain antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In “disk agar diffusion method”, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous, ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extract concentrations, was inhibited effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, but 40 mg/ml  aqueous and 30 and 40 mg/ml ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extract concentrations, has inhibited effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevent them growing. The results indicate that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Satureja bachtiarica have the greatest effect on gram positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. As a result, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Satureja bachtiarica, have been strong antimicrobial activity against many food pathogen bacteria.

  9. ETIOLOGY OF THE BOVINE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN GOIÂNIA ETIOLOGIA DA MASTITE CLÍNICA BOVINA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Moreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    There is an estimate that the mastitis in dairy herds causes production losses between 5 and 35%, equivalent from 85 to 500 million dollars per year. 231 milk samples from 231 cows on different stages of lactation, with clinic mastitis, from 35 farms of Goiânia, were analyzed in order to map the pathogens implicated in these process and to discover the microorganisms with major prevalence. All the samples had positive growth. The principal agents were Staphylococcus coagulase positive (32.90%, Streptococcus sp. (22.07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12.12%, Enterobacter sp. (10.38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8.65%, Escherichia coli (8.22%, Bacillus sp. (8.22%, Proteus sp. (6.49%, Klebsiella sp. (4.32% and Staphylococcus coagulase negative (3.46%. The Nocardia genus was isolated in 0.86% of the cases.

    KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; etiology; isolated microorganisms.

    Estima-se que a presença de mastite bovina em rebanhos produtores provoque perdas de produção entre 5 e 35%, o que equivale de 85 a 500 milhões de dólares ao ano. Com o objetivo de mapear os patógenos envolvidos nesse processo e evidenciar os microrganismos com maior freqüência foram examinadas amostras de leite de 231 vacas, em diferentes estágios de lactação, que apresentaram sinais de mastite clínica e eram pertencentes a 35 propriedades rurais da bacia leiteira de Goiânia. Todas as amostras tiveram crescimento bacteriano positivo. Os principais agentes isolados foram o Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (32,90%, Streptococcus sp. (22,07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12,12%, Enterobacter sp. (10,38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8,65%, Escherichia coli (8,22%, Bacillus sp. (8,22%,

  10. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  11. Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas; Sørensen, M.K.;

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5...... different pathogen-specific mastitis traits and lactation average somatic cell count from 5 to 170 d after first calving (LASCC170) with another index consisting of 1 unspecific mastitis trait and LASCC170. Economic values were estimated for mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus...... dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus uberis using a stochastic simulation model (SimHerd IV). Mastitis incidences for SimHerd IV were from incidences of mastitis treatments in primiparous Danish Holstein cows calving in 2007. Estimated costs ranged from 149 euro...

  12. Development and evaluation of a replicon particle vaccine expressing the E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating...

  13. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  14. Analysis of Streptococcus bovis infections at a monographic oncological centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano TG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, catalase and oxidase negative coccus belonging to the genus Streptococcus. It is part of Streptoccus bovis/ equinus complex and it express the Lancefield antigen D on the surface.This complex has been characterized by molecular biology techniques and specifically by 16S rRNA and sodA gene. Phylogenetic trees based on these techniques are complex and therefore the routine work in laboratories, biochemical techniques are used to identify subspecies if it is necessary.The complex is divided into two subtypes based on biochemical properties: positive mannitol fermentation (biotype I including S. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus and S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus, mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase negative (biotype II/ 1, which includes more species (S. infantarius subsp. coli and S. lutetiensis and mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase positive (biotype II/ 2, with a single species called S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus.Owing to the relationship between colon cancer tumour and Streptococcus bovis, we intend to analyse all isolates in our hospital between the periods of 2010 until March 2013 and analyse tumor epidemiology at our center, in patients infected with this pathogen.Despite the different types of samples and out of the possibility of identification of subspecies, were isolated 14 S. bovis of 14 different patients. The isolates patients were (at the beginning: 4 blood (blood culture, 5 urine, 4 multiple exudates and 1 bronchoalveolar lavage. The proportion of men and women was 8/6. The mean age was 67 years (56±91. Malignant tumor distribution was: 6 prostate cancer, 1 breast cancer, 1 biliary tract, 1 skin, 1, stomach, 1 uterus, 1 vulvar, 1 pyriform sinus and other reproductive organs without specify.The study of antimicrobial in vitro susceptibility was performed by microdilution (MicroScan® WalkAway, Siemens, Sacramento, CA, USA and the

  15. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  16. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    OpenAIRE

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M. S.; LeVine, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

  17. Antibiofilm activity of coral-associated bacteria against different clinical M serotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenmozhi, Ramalingam; Nithyanand, Paramasivam; Rathna, Janarthanam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2009-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is the frequent cause of purulent infections in humans. Formation of a biofilm is one of the important aspects of its pathogenicity. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilm communities tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobial challenge during infections. Exploring novel targets against biofilm-forming pathogens is therefore an important alternative treatment measure. We attempted to screen marine bacteria, especially coral-associated bacteria (CAB), for antibiofilm activity against streptococcal biofilm formation. The bacterial biofilms were quantified by crystal violet staining. Of 43 CAB isolates, nine clearly demonstrated antibiofilm activity. At biofilm inhibitory concentrations (BIC), biofilm formation was reduced up to 80%, and sub-BIC (0.5 and 0.25 BIC) significantly reduced biofilm formation by up to 60% and 40-60%, respectively. Extracts of Bacillus horikoshii (E6) displayed efficient antibiofilm activity. As quorum sensing (QS) and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) are crucial factors for biofilm formation in S. pyogenes, the CAB were further screened for QS inhibition properties and CSH reduction properties. This study reveals the antibiofilm and QS inhibition property of CAB. PMID:19845763

  18. Clonal Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus post breeding endometritis in thoroughbred broodmares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Söderlind, Maja; Rydemann Rudefalk, Sofia;

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is one of the most commonly isolated pathogens from the uterus of mares with infectious endometritis. Its ability to cause chronic latent infection by residing deep within the endometrial tissue has previously been described. The aim of the study was to inv......Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is one of the most commonly isolated pathogens from the uterus of mares with infectious endometritis. Its ability to cause chronic latent infection by residing deep within the endometrial tissue has previously been described. The aim of the study...... was to investigate whether clonal or genetically distinct S. zooepidemicus strains isolated from mares with endometritis were associated with mare risk factors and the outcome of natural cover. Uterine swabs were obtained from mares with intrauterine fluid after natural cover (n=31) at thoroughbred stud farms...... in Australia. Fifty two percent of the mares (n=16) were diagnosed with infectious endometritis, and S.zooepidemicus was isolated in 81% (n=13) of these mares. Up to four S. zooepidemicus isolates were selected from each mare with growth of S. zooepidemicus and isolates from an additional five mares were...

  19. Developing oral probiotics from Streptococcus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescombe, Philip A; Hale, John D F; Heng, Nicholas C K; Tagg, John R

    2012-12-01

    Considerable human illness can be linked to the development of oral microbiota disequilibria. The predominant oral cavity commensal, Streptococcus salivarius has emerged as an important source of safe and efficacious probiotics, capable of fostering more balanced, health-associated oral microbiota. Strain K12, the prototype S. salivarius probiotic, originally introduced to counter Streptococcus pyogenes infections, now has an expanded repertoire of health-promoting applications. K12 and several more recently proposed S. salivarius probiotics are now being applied to control diverse bacterial consortia infections including otitis media, halitosis and dental caries. Other potential applications include upregulation of immunological defenses against respiratory viral infections and treatment of oral candidosis. An overview of the key steps required for probiotic development is also presented. PMID:23231486

  20. Immunogenic properties of Streptococcus agalactiae FbsA fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Papasergi

    Full Text Available Several species of Gram-positive bacteria can avidly bind soluble and surface-associated fibrinogen (Fng, a property that is considered important in the pathogenesis of human infections. To gain insights into the mechanism by which group B Streptococcus (GBS, a frequent neonatal pathogen, interacts with Fng, we have screened two phage displayed genomic GBS libraries. All of the Fng-binding phage clones contained inserts encoding fragments of FbsA, a protein displaying multiple repeats. Since the functional role of this protein is only partially understood, representative fragments were recombinantly expressed and analyzed for Fng binding affinity and ability to induce immune protection against GBS infection. Maternal immunization with 6pGST, a fragment containing five repeats, significantly protected mouse pups against lethal GBS challenge and these protective effects could be recapitulated by administration of anti-6pGST serum from adult animals. Notably, a monoclonal antibody that was capable of neutralizing Fng binding by 6pGST, but not a non-neutralizing antibody, could significantly protect pups against lethal GBS challenge. These data suggest that FbsA-Fng interaction promotes GBS pathogenesis and that blocking such interaction is a viable strategy to prevent or treat GBS infections.

  1. Potential Transmission Pathways of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessika Dumke

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, a member of group D streptococci, is an inhabitant of the animal and human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen which causes e.g. endocarditis, septicemia and mastitis. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between animals and humans. However, the transmission routes are an unsolved issue. In this study, we present systematic analyses of an S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolate of an infective endocarditis patient in relation to isolates of his laying hen flock. Isolates from pooled droppings of laying hens, pooled dust samples and human blood culture were characterized by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST and DNA fingerprinting. MLST revealed the same allelic profile of isolates from the human blood culture and from the droppings of laying hens. In addition, these isolates showed clonal identity regarding a similar DNA fingerprinting pattern. For the first time, we received a hint that transmission of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus between poultry and humans may occur. This raises the question about the zoonotic potential of isolates from poultry and should be considered in future studies.

  2. Recombinant expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Yates, Laura E.; Terra, Vanessa S.; Cuccui, Jon; Wren, Brendan W.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for over 14 million cases of pneumonia worldwide annually, and over 1 million deaths, the majority of them children. The major determinant for pathogenesis is a polysaccharide capsule that is variable and is used to distinguish strains based on their serotype. The capsule forms the basis of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) that contains purified capsular polysaccharide from 23 serotypes, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 13 common serotypes conjugated to CRM197 (mutant diphtheria toxin). Purified capsule from S. pneumoniae is required for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine production, and costs can be prohibitively high, limiting accessibility of the vaccine in low-income countries. In this study, we demonstrate the recombinant expression of the capsule-encoding locus from four different serotypes of S. pneumoniae within Escherichia coli. Furthermore, we attempt to identify the minimum set of genes necessary to reliably and efficiently express these capsules heterologously. These E. coli strains could be used to produce a supply of S. pneumoniae serotype-specific capsules without the need to culture pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, these strains could be applied to synthetic glycobiological applications: recombinant vaccine production using E. coli outer membrane vesicles or coupling to proteins using protein glycan coupling technology. PMID:27110302

  3. Effects of Suilysin on Streptococcus suis-Induced Platelet Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengwei; Wang, Junping; Chen, Shaolong; Yin, Jiye; Pan, Zhiyuan; Liu, Keke; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yuling; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Blood platelets play important roles during pathological thrombocytopenia in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Streptococcus suis (S. suis) an emerging human pathogen, can cause STSS similarly to S. pyogenes. However, S. suis interactions with platelets are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), different from other bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), was the sole stimulus that induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the inside-out activation of GPIIb/IIIa of platelets mediated SLY-induced platelet aggregation. This process was triggered by Ca2+ influx that depend on the pore forming on platelets by SLY. Additionally, although SLY induced α-granule release occurred via the MLCK-dependent pathway, PLC-β-IP3/DAG-MLCK and Rho-ROCK-MLCK signaling were not involved in SLY-induced platelet aggregation. Interestingly, the pore dependent Ca2+ influx was also found to participate in the induction of platelet aggregation with pneumolysin (PLY) and streptolysin O (SLO), two other CDCs. It is possible that the CDC-mediated platelet aggregation we observed in S. suis is a similar response mechanism to that used by a wide range of bacteria. These findings might lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for S. suis-associated STSS. PMID:27800304

  4. Effect of Lactobacillus species on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayaz; Dachang, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Jianjun, Liu; Juanjuan, Qiu; Yi, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary pathogen responsible for initiating dental caries and decay. The presence of sucrose, stimulates S. mutans to produce insoluble glucans to form oral biofilm also known as dental plaque to initiate caries lesion. The GtfB and LuxS genes of S. mutans are responsible for formation and maturation of biofilm. Lactobacillus species as probiotic can reduces the count of S. mutans. In this study effect of different Lactobacillus species against the formation of S. mutans biofilm was observed. Growing biofilm in the presence of sucrose was detected using 96 well microtiter plate crystal violet assay and biofilm formation by S. mutans in the presence of Lactobacillus was detected. Gene expression of biofilm forming genes (GtfB and LuxS) was quantified through Real-time PCR. All strains of Lactobacillus potently reduced the formation of S. mutans biofilm whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the genetic expression by 60-80%. Therefore, probiotic Lactobacillus species can be used as an alternative instead of antibiotics to decrease the chance of dental caries by reducing the count of S. mutans and their gene expression to maintain good oral health.

  5. Granzyme A impairs host defense during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Vernooy, Juanita H; Medema, Jan P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Endeman, Henrik; Biesma, Douwe H; Boon, Louis; Van't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Granzyme A (GzmA) is a serine protease produced by a variety of cell types involved in the immune response. We sought to determine the role of GzmA on the host response during pneumococcal pneumonia. GzmA was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from CAP patients from the infected and contralateral uninfected side and in lung tissue slides from CAP patients and controls. In CAP patients, GzmA levels were increased in BALF obtained from the infected lung. Human lungs showed constitutive GzmA expression by both parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells. In an experimental setting, pneumonia was induced in wild-type (WT) and GzmA-deficient (GzmA(-/-)) mice by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae In separate experiments, WT and GzmA(-/-) mice were treated with natural killer (NK) cell depleting antibodies. Upon infection with S. pneumoniae, GzmA(-/-) mice showed a better survival and lower bacterial counts in BALF and distant body sites compared with WT mice. Although NK cells showed strong GzmA expression, NK cell depletion did not influence bacterial loads in either WT or GzmA(-/-) mice. These results implicate that GzmA plays an unfavorable role in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia by a mechanism that does not depend on NK cells. PMID:27343190

  6. Emergence of respiratory Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Eickel

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-known pathogen for neonates and immunocompromized adults. Beyond the neonatal period, S. agalactiae is rarely found in the respiratory tract. During 2002-2008 we noticed S. agalactiae in respiratory secretions of 30/185 (16% of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The median age of these patients was 3-6 years older than the median age CF patients not harboring S. agalactiae. To analyze, if the S. agalactiae isolates from CF patients were clonal, further characterization of the strains was achieved by capsular serotyping, surface protein determination and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. We found a variety of sequence types (ST among the isolates, which did not substantially differ from the MLST patterns of colonizing strains from Germany. However serotype III, which is often seen in colonizing strains and invasive infections was rare among CF patients. The emergence of S. agalactiae in the respiratory tract of CF patients may represent the adaptation to a novel host environment, supported by the altered surfactant composition in older CF patients.

  7. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.

  8. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevarathan J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer′s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

  9. Tobacco smoke augments Porphyromonas gingivalis-Streptococcus gordonii biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhi Bagaitkar

    Full Text Available Smoking is responsible for the majority of periodontitis cases in the US and smokers are more susceptible than non-smokers to infection by the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis colonization of the oral cavity is dependent upon its interaction with other plaque bacteria, including Streptococcus gordonii. Microarray analysis suggested that exposure of P. gingivalis to cigarette smoke extract (CSE increased the expression of the major fimbrial antigen (FimA, but not the minor fimbrial antigen (Mfa1. Therefore, we hypothesized that CSE promotes P. gingivalis-S. gordonii biofilm formation in a FimA-dependent manner. FimA total protein and cell surface expression were increased upon exposure to CSE whereas Mfa1 was unaffected. CSE exposure did not induce P. gingivalis auto-aggregation but did promote dual species biofilm formation, monitored by microcolony numbers and depth (both, p<0.05. Interestingly, P. gingivalis biofilms grown in the presence of CSE exhibited a lower pro-inflammatory capacity (TNF-α, IL-6 than control biofilms (both, p<0.01. CSE-exposed P. gingivalis bound more strongly to immobilized rGAPDH, the cognate FimA ligand on S. gordonii, than control biofilms (p<0.001 and did so in a dose-dependent manner. Nevertheless, a peptide representing the Mfa1 binding site on S. gordonii, SspB, completely inhibited dual species biofilm formation. Thus, CSE likely augments P. gingivalis biofilm formation by increasing FimA avidity which, in turn, supports initial interspecies interactions and promotes subsequent high affinity Mfa1-SspB interactions driving biofilm growth. CSE induction of P. gingivalis biofilms of limited pro-inflammatory potential may explain the increased persistence of this pathogen in smokers. These findings may also be relevant to other biofilm-induced infectious diseases and conditions.

  10. Early pathogenesis and inflammatory response in experimental bovine mastitis due to Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.H.; Aalbæk, B.; Røntved, C.M.;

    2003-01-01

    after inoculation, respectively. In contrast, increased concentrations of haptoglobin were detected after 10 h of infection, in milk only. In the blood, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TFN-alpha) was detected (0.503 ng/ml) in only one animal, at the time of euthanasia (10 h after infection). Interferon...

  11. Dual Functions of Streptococcus salivarius Urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Weaver, Cheryl A.; Burne, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A urease-deficient derivative of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I was constructed by allelic exchange at the ureC locus. The wild-type strain was protected against acid killing through hydrolysis of physiologically relevant concentrations of urea, whereas the mutant was not. Also, S. salivarius could use urea as a source of nitrogen for growth exclusively through a urease-dependent pathway. PMID:10913107

  12. Production of a highly immunogenic subunit ISCOM vaccine against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Roensholt, L.; Jensen, M.Holm;

    1999-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle in most countries. The main reservoir of virus in herds are BVDV persistently infected animals, which arise as a result of infection of the bovine fetus early in gestation. The spread of virus to the unborn fetus may be prevented......, concentration, and insertion of antigens into immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs). Vaccines based on two different Danish strains of BVDV were injected into calves and the antisera produced were tested for neutralising activity against a panel of Danish BVDV strains. The two vaccines induced different...

  13. Evolution and Diversity of the Antimicrobial Resistance Associated Mobilome in Streptococcus suis: A Probable Mobile Genetic Elements Reservoir for Other Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhu; Ma, Jiale; Shang, Kexin; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Yuan; Li, Daiwei; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Chen, Li; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a previously neglected, newly emerging multidrug-resistant zoonotic pathogen. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play a key role in intra- and interspecies horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Although, previous studies showed the presence of several MGEs, a comprehensive analysis of AMR-associated mobilome as well as their interaction and evolution has not been performed. In this study, we presented the AMR-associated mobilome and their insertion hotspots in S. suis. Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), prophages and tandem MGEs were located at different insertion sites, while 86% of the AMR-associated MGEs were inserted at rplL and rum loci. Comprehensive analysis of insertions at rplL and rum loci among four pathogenic Streptococcus species (Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and S. suis) revealed the existence of different groups of MGEs, including Tn5252, ICESp1108, and TnGBS2 groups ICEs, Φm46.1 group prophage, ICE_ICE and ICE_prophage tandem MGEs. Comparative ICE genomics of ICESa2603 family revealed that module exchange and acquisition/deletion were the main mechanisms in MGEs' expansion and evolution. Furthermore, the observation of tandem MGEs reflected a novel mechanism for MGE diversity. Moreover, an in vitro competition assay showed no visible fitness cost was observed between different MGE-carrying isolates and a conjugation assay revealed the transferability of ICESa2603 family of ICEs. Our statistics further indicated that the prevalence and diversity of MGEs in S. suis is much greater than in other three species which prompted our hypothesis that S. suis is probably a MGEs reservoir for other streptococci. In conclusion, our results showed that acquisition of MGEs confers S. suis not only its capability as a multidrug resistance pathogen, but also represents a paradigm to study the modular evolution and matryoshkas of MGEs. PMID:27774436

  14. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  15. Salivaricin D, a novel intrinsically trypsin-resistant lantibiotic from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c isolated from a healthy infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birri, Dagim Jirata; Brede, Dag Anders; Nes, Ingolf F

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we purified and characterized a newly identified lantibiotic (salivaricin D) from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c. Salivaricin D is a 34-amino-acid-residue peptide (3,467.55 Da); the locus of the gene encoding this peptide is a 16.5-kb DNA segment which contains genes encoding the precursor of two lantibiotics, two modification enzymes (dehydratase and cyclase), an ABC transporter, a serine-like protease, immunity proteins (lipoprotein and ABC transporters), a response regulator, and a sensor histidine kinase. The immunity gene (salI) was heterologously expressed in a sensitive indicator and provided significant protection against salivaricin D, confirming its immunity function. Salivaricin D is a naturally trypsin-resistant lantibiotic that is similar to nisin-like lantibiotics. It is a relatively broad-spectrum bacteriocin that inhibits members of many genera of Gram-positive bacteria, including the important human pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Thus, Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c may be a potential biological agent for the control of oronasopharynx-colonizing streptococcal pathogens or may be used as a probiotic bacterium. PMID:22101034

  16. Reactive oxygen species involved in apoptosis induction of human respiratory epithelial (A549) cells by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréia Ferreira Eduardo; Moraes, João Alfredo; de Oliveira, Jessica Silva Santos; dos Santos, Michelle Hanthequeste Bittencourt; Santos, Gabriela da Silva; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Nagao, Prescilla Emy

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus; GBS) is an important pathogen and is associated with pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis in neonates and adults. GBS infections induce cytotoxicity of respiratory epithelial cells (A549) with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ψm). The apoptosis of A549 cells by GBS was dependent on the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 with increased pro-apoptotic Bim and Bax molecules and decreased Bcl-2 pro-survival protein. Treatment of infected A549 cells with ROS inhibitors (diphenyleniodonium chloride or apocynin) prevented intracellular ROS production and apoptosis. Consequently, oxidative stress is included among the cellular events leading to apoptosis during GBS human invasive infections. PMID:26490153

  17. Chlorhexidine Digluconate Effects on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Some Field Isolates of Animal Bacterial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Hemati, Majid; Habibian Dehkordi, Saeed; Bahadoran, Shahab; Khoshnood, Sheida; Khubani, Shahin; Dokht Faraj, Mahdi; Hakimi Alni, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: To study chlorhexidine digluconate disinfectant effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some bacterial field isolates from animals. Objectives: The current study investigated chlorhexidine digluconate effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some field isolates of veterinary bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus. aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (10 isolates for ea...

  18. Inflammation-induced haemostatic response in layer chickens infected with Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus as evaluated by fibrinogen, prothrombin time and thromboelastography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Krisna; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus zooepidemicus has recently been shown to be a severe pathogen in layer chickens, where it is able to cause serious lesions in the vascular system. To evaluate the haemostatic response, 10 layer chickens were inoculated intravenously with S. zooepidemicus. Four hypotheses were tested...

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MENTHA ARVENSIS AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES OF HUMAN CARIOGENIC PATHOGENS- AN IN-VITRO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Singh et al.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic dental infection are usually treated with antibiotics. However, the value of antibiotics was decreasing because increased resistance in bacteria. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of herbal crude extract of Mentha arvensis in human Cariogenic pathogens. In this study we obtained crud extract of Mentha arvensis in different solvent 50% and 10% methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and was tested against human Cariogenic pathogens Streptococcus mutans...

  20. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.