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Sample records for bovine parotid acinar

  1. Ultrastructural morphometry of parotid acinar cells following fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grehn, A.-L.; Gustafsson, H.; Franzen, L.; Thornell, L.-E.; Henriksson, R.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects on the ultrastructure of parotid glands after fractionated irradiation. The method implemented involved 5 x 6 Gy and 5 x 8 Gy, Monday to Friday 6 MV photons. By unilateral irradiation, the contralateral parotid gland served as a control. Although irradiation diminished the acinar cell density in light microscopic sections from 75 to 32% after 5 x 8 Gy of irradiation, ultrastructural morphometry could not detect any statistically significant differences in acinar cell size, nuclear size, nuclear density, granule area, mean granule size, or granule density. In general, greater differences were seen between rats receiving 30 or 40 Gy, on both the irradiated and the control side, than between the irradiated side and the control side. This was interpreted as due to differences in the nutritional state of the animals. This analysis concluded that individual acinar cells that survive irradiation seem not to be damaged in the long term when evaluated at the ultrastructural level. The study further stresses the importance of adequate sampling sizes and the use of adequate controls. (author)

  2. An electron microscopic study on the effects of irradiation on the acinar cells of rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kwang Jun; Lee, Sang Rae

    1988-01-01

    The author studies the histopathologic changes according to a single or a split does and the time after irradiation on the acinar cells of rat parotid gland. 99 Sprague Dawley rats, weighing about 120 gm, were divided into control and 3 experimental groups. In experimental groups, Group I and II were delivered a single does of 15 Gy, 18 Gy and Group III and IV were delivered two equal split doses of 9 Gy, 10.5 Gy for a 4 hours interval, respectively. The experimental groups were delivered by a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit with a dose rate of 222 cGy/min, source-skin di stance of 50 cm, depth of 1 cm and a field size of 12 X 5 cm. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 hours, 1, 3, 7 days after irradiation and examined by light and electro n microscopy. The results were as follows: 1. As the radiation dose increased and acinar cells delivered a single dose exposure were more damaged, and the change of acinar cells appeared faster than those of a split does exposure. 2. The histopathologic change of acinar cells appeared at 1 hour after irradiation. The recovery from damaged acinar cells appeared at 1 day after irradiation and there was a tendency that the recovery from damage of a split dose exposure was somewhat later than of a single dose exposure. 3. Light microscope showed atrophic change of acinar cells and nucleus, degeneration and vesicle formation of cytoplasm, widening of intercellular space and interlobular space. 4. Electron microscope showed loss of nuclear membrane, degeneration of nucleus and nucleoli, clumping of cytoplasm, widening and degeneration of rough endoplasmic reticulum, loss of cristae of mitochondria, lysosome, autophagosome and lipid droplet. 5. Electron microscopically, the change of rough endoplasmic reticulum was most prominent and this appeared at 1 hour after irradiation as early changes of acinar cells. The nuclear change appeared at 2 hours after irradiation and the loss of cristae of mitochondria was observed at 2 hours after

  3. An electron microscopic study on the effects of irradiation on the acinar cells of rat parotid gland

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    Ko, Kwang Jun; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    The author studies the histopathologic changes according to a single or a split does and the time after irradiation on the acinar cells of rat parotid gland. 99 Sprague Dawley rats, weighing about 120 gm, were divided into control and 3 experimental groups. In experimental groups, Group I and II were delivered a single does of 15 Gy, 18 Gy and Group III and IV were delivered two equal split doses of 9 Gy, 10.5 Gy for a 4 hours interval, respectively. The experimental groups were delivered by a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit with a dose rate of 222 cGy/min, source-skin di stance of 50 cm, depth of 1 cm and a field size of 12 X 5 cm. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 hours, 1, 3, 7 days after irradiation and examined by light and electro n microscopy. The results were as follows: 1. As the radiation dose increased and acinar cells delivered a single dose exposure were more damaged, and the change of acinar cells appeared faster than those of a split does exposure. 2. The histopathologic change of acinar cells appeared at 1 hour after irradiation. The recovery from damaged acinar cells appeared at 1 day after irradiation and there was a tendency that the recovery from damage of a split dose exposure was somewhat later than of a single dose exposure. 3. Light microscope showed atrophic change of acinar cells and nucleus, degeneration and vesicle formation of cytoplasm, widening of intercellular space and interlobular space. 4. Electron microscope showed loss of nuclear membrane, degeneration of nucleus and nucleoli, clumping of cytoplasm, widening and degeneration of rough endoplasmic reticulum, loss of cristae of mitochondria, lysosome, autophagosome and lipid droplet. 5. Electron microscopically, the change of rough endoplasmic reticulum was most prominent and this appeared at 1 hour after irradiation as early changes of acinar cells. The nuclear change appeared at 2 hours after irradiation and the loss of cristae of mitochondria was observed at 2 hours after

  4. Early events of secretory granule formation in the rat parotid acinar cell under the influence of isoproterenol. An ultrastructural and lectin cytochemical study

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    F D’Amico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The events involved in the maturation process of acinar secretory granules of rat parotid gland were investigated ultrastructurally and cytochemically by using a battery of four lectins [Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I, Glycine max agglutinin (SBA, Arachys hypogaea agglutinin (PNA]. In order to facilitate the study, parotid glands were chronically stimulated with isoproterenol to induce secretion. Specimens were embedded in the Lowicryl K4M resin. The trans-Golgi network (TGN derived secretory granules, which we refer to as immature secretory granules, were found to be intermediate structures in the biogenesis process of the secretory granules in the rat parotid acinar cell. These early structures do not seem to be the immediate precursor of the mature secretory granules: in fact, a subsequent interaction process between these early immature granule forms and TGN elements seems to occur, leading, finally, to the mature granules. These findings could explain the origin of the polymorphic subpopulations of the secretory granules in the normal acinar cells of the rat parotid gland. The lectin staining patterns were characteristic of each lectin. Immature and mature secretory gran- ules were labelled with WGA, SBA, PNA, and lightly with UEA-I. Cis and intermediate cisternae of the Golgi apparatus were labelled with WGA, and trans cisternae with WGA and SBA.

  5. New saliva secretion model based on the expression of Na+-K+ pump and K+ channels in the apical membrane of parotid acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almássy, János; Siguenza, Elias; Skaliczki, Marianna; Matesz, Klara; Sneyd, James; Yule, David I; Nánási, Péter P

    2018-04-01

    The plasma membrane of parotid acinar cells is functionally divided into apical and basolateral regions. According to the current model, fluid secretion is driven by transepithelial ion gradient, which facilitates water movement by osmosis into the acinar lumen from the interstitium. The osmotic gradient is created by the apical Cl - efflux and the subsequent paracellular Na + transport. In this model, the Na + -K + pump is located exclusively in the basolateral membrane and has essential role in salivary secretion, since the driving force for Cl - transport via basolateral Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransport is generated by the Na + -K + pump. In addition, the continuous electrochemical gradient for Cl - flow during acinar cell stimulation is maintained by the basolateral K + efflux. However, using a combination of single-cell electrophysiology and Ca 2+ -imaging, we demonstrate that photolysis of Ca 2+ close to the apical membrane of parotid acinar cells triggered significant K + current, indicating that a substantial amount of K + is secreted into the lumen during stimulation. Nevertheless, the K + content of the primary saliva is relatively low, suggesting that K + might be reabsorbed through the apical membrane. Therefore, we investigated the localization of Na + -K + pumps in acinar cells. We show that the pumps appear evenly distributed throughout the whole plasma membrane, including the apical pole of the cell. Based on these results, a new mathematical model of salivary fluid secretion is presented, where the pump reabsorbs K + from and secretes Na + to the lumen, which can partially supplement the paracellular Na + pathway.

  6. Homer2 protein regulates plasma membrane Ca²⁺-ATPase-mediated Ca²⁺ signaling in mouse parotid gland acinar cells.

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    Yang, Yu-Mi; Lee, Jiae; Jo, Hae; Park, Soonhong; Chang, Inik; Muallem, Shmuel; Shin, Dong Min

    2014-09-05

    Homer proteins are scaffold molecules with a domain structure consisting of an N-terminal Ena/VASP homology 1 protein-binding domain and a C-terminal leucine zipper/coiled-coil domain. The Ena/VASP homology 1 domain recognizes proline-rich motifs and binds multiple Ca(2+)-signaling proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors, ryanodine receptors, and transient receptor potential channels. However, their role in Ca(2+) signaling in nonexcitable cells is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Homer2 on Ca(2+) signaling in parotid gland acinar cells using Homer2-deficient (Homer2(-/-)) mice. Homer2 is localized at the apical pole in acinar cells. Deletion of Homer2 did not affect inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor localization or channel activity and did not affect the expression and activity of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase pumps. In contrast, Homer2 deletion markedly increased expression of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) pumps, in particular PMCA4, at the apical pole. Accordingly, Homer2 deficiency increased Ca(2+) extrusion by acinar cells. These findings were supported by co-immunoprecipitation of Homer2 and PMCA in wild-type parotid cells and transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We identified a Homer-binding PPXXF-like motif in the N terminus of PMCA that is required for interaction with Homer2. Mutation of the PPXXF-like motif did not affect the interaction of PMCA with Homer1 but inhibited its interaction with Homer2 and increased Ca(2+) clearance by PMCA. These findings reveal an important regulation of PMCA by Homer2 that has a central role on PMCA-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in parotid acinar cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltoff, S.P.; McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca 2+ entry and the elevation of [Ca 2+ ]i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca 2+ entry to more than 25-times the basal rate and elevated [Ca 2+ ]i to levels more than three times the basal value. Brilliant Blue G and Reactive Blue 2 greatly reduced the entry of 45 Ca 2+ into parotid cells, but the potency of Brilliant Blue G (IC50 approximately 0.4 microM) was about 100-times that of Reactive Blue 2. Fura 2 studies demonstrated that inhibitory concentrations of these compounds did not block the cholinergic response of these cells, thus demonstrating the selectivity of the dye compounds for purinergic receptors. Unlike Reactive Blue 2, effective concentrations of Brilliant Blue G did not substantially quench Fura 2 fluorescence. The greater potency of Brilliant Blue G suggests that it may be very useful in identifying P2-type purinergic receptors, especially in studies which utilize fluorescent probes

  8. Difference in distribution of membrane proteins between low- and high-density secretory granules in parotid acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Katsumata, Osamu; Matsuki, Miwako; Yoshigaki, Tomoyoshi; Furuyama, Shunsuke; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Secretory granules (SGs) are considered to be generated as immature granules and to mature by condensation of their contents. In this study, SGs of parotid gland were separated into low-, medium-, and high-density granule fractions by Percoll-density gradient centrifugation, since it was proposed that the density corresponds to the degree of maturation. The observation with electron microscopy showed that granules in the three fractions were very similar. The average diameter of high-density granules was a little but significantly larger than that of low-density granules. Although the three fractions contained amylase, suggesting that they are all SGs, distribution of membrane proteins was markedly different. Syntaxin6 and VAMP4 were localized in the low-density granule fraction, while VAMP2 was concentrated in the high-density granule fraction. Immunoprecipitation with anti-syntaxin6 antibody caused coprecipitation of VAMP2 from the medium-density granule fraction without solubilization, but not from Triton X-100-solubilized fraction, while VAMP4 was coprecipitated from both fractions. Therefore, VAMP2 is present on the same granules, but is separated from syntaxin6 and VAMP4, which are expected to be removed from immature granules. These results suggest that the medium-density granules are intermediates from low- to high-density granules, and that the membrane components of SGs dynamically change by budding and fusion during maturation

  9. Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen; Tritsaris, Katerina

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused...... a strong increase in NO synthesis that was not seen after parasympathetic stimulation with acetylcholine. In rat parotid acinar cells, we furthermore investigated to which extent the NOS activity was dependent on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by simultaneously measuring NO synthesis...

  10. Transplantable pancreatic acinar carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.R.; Reddy, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Fragments of the nafenopin-induced pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma of rat have been examined in vitro for patterns of intracellular protein transport and carbamylcholine-induced protein discharge. Continuous incubation of the fragments with [3H]-leucine for 60 minutes resulted in labeling of rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi cisternae, and mature zymogen granules, revealed by electron microscope autoradiography. This result indicates transport of newly synthesized protein from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to mature zymogen granules in approximately 60 minutes. The secretagogue carbamylcholine induced the discharge of radioactive protein by carcinoma fragments pulse-chase labeled with [3H]-leucine. A maximal effective carbamylcholine concentration of 10(-5) M was determined. The acinar carcinoma resembles normal exocrine pancreas in the observed rate of intracellular protein transport and effective secretagogue concentration. However, the acinar carcinoma fragments demonstrated an apparent low rate of carbamylcholine-induced radioactive protein discharge as compared with normal pancreatic lobules or acinar cells. It is suggested that the apparent low rate of radioactive protein discharge reflects functional immaturity of the acinar carcinoma. Possible relationships of functional differentiation to the heterogeneous cytodifferentiation of the pancreatic acinar carcinoma are discussed

  11. Evidence of a generalized defect of acinar cell function in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

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    Stormon, Michael O; Ip, Wan F; Ellis, Lynda; Schibli, Susanne; Rommens, Johanna M; Durie, Peter R

    2010-07-01

    : Because the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are severely depleted, we hypothesized that a similar deficiency may be present in acinar cells of the parotid gland. : We determined serum pancreatic isoamylase and parotid amylase activities in 16 patients with SDS, 13 healthy controls, and 13 disease controls (cystic fibrosis or fibrosing pancreatitis). Parotid amylase and electrolyte concentrations were measured in stimulated parotid gland secretions. Starch digestion was assessed by breath hydrogen testing in patients with SDS (with and without enzyme supplements) and healthy controls. : Serum pancreatic and parotid isoamylase values were lower in the patients with SDS than in the healthy controls (P gland amylase concentration (units per milligram of protein) in patients with SDS was lower than that in the healthy controls (P = 0.04), whereas the disease controls were comparable to the healthy subjects (P = 0.09). Secreted parotid chloride concentration was inversely correlated with amylase concentration in the patients with SDS (P = 0.01), but no correlation was seen in the healthy controls or disease controls. When patients with SDS ingested starch without enzyme supplementation, their breath hydrogen excretion was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls (P = 0.009). Following starch ingestion with enzymes, breath hydrogen in the patients with SDS was lower (P functional abnormality of exocrine acinar cells.

  12. Parotid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Schultz, Joyce H; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2003-01-01

    -year recurrence-free survival of the entire study group was 63%, disease-specific survival was 69%, and crude survival was 52%. In univariate analysis, tumor size, histological appearance, T status, stage, the presence of lymph node metastases, distant metastases, pain, and facial nerve dysfunction had...... a significant influence on survival. CONCLUSIONS: A thorough histological revision is pivotal in retrospective parotid carcinoma studies, and tumor size; histological appearance; T, N, and M status; stage; facial nerve dysfunction; and pain from the face and/or neck seem to be significant prognostic indicators...

  13. Radioprotective effect of vitamin E in parotid glands: a morphometric analysis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Carolina Cintra; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Novaes, Pedro Duarte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E on rat parotid glands by morphometric analysis. Sixty male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6): control, in which animals received olive oil solution; olive oil/irradiated, in which animals received olive oil and were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy of gamma radiation; irradiated, in which animals were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy gamma radiation; vitamin E, which received α-tocopherol acetate solution; vitamin E/irradiated, which received α-tocopherol acetate solution before irradiation with a dose of 15 Gy gamma rays. Half of the animals were euthanized at 8 h, and the remaining at 30 days after irradiation. Both parotid glands were surgically removed and morphometric analysis of acinar cells was performed. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of parotid acinar cells at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups. In groups evaluated over time a significant reduction was shown at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups, indicating that ionizing radiation caused tissue damage. The vitamin E/irradiated group presented more acinar cells than the irradiated group, but no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, vitamin E seems to have failed as a radioprotective agent on acinar cells in rat parotid glands. (author)

  14. Radioprotective effect of vitamin E in parotid glands: a morphometric analysis in rats

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    Gomes, Carolina Cintra; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico Oral; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz, E-mail: flavia.ramosperez@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Novaes, Pedro Duarte [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E on rat parotid glands by morphometric analysis. Sixty male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6): control, in which animals received olive oil solution; olive oil/irradiated, in which animals received olive oil and were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy of gamma radiation; irradiated, in which animals were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy gamma radiation; vitamin E, which received {alpha}-tocopherol acetate solution; vitamin E/irradiated, which received {alpha}-tocopherol acetate solution before irradiation with a dose of 15 Gy gamma rays. Half of the animals were euthanized at 8 h, and the remaining at 30 days after irradiation. Both parotid glands were surgically removed and morphometric analysis of acinar cells was performed. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test ({alpha}=0.05). Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of parotid acinar cells at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups. In groups evaluated over time a significant reduction was shown at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups, indicating that ionizing radiation caused tissue damage. The vitamin E/irradiated group presented more acinar cells than the irradiated group, but no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, vitamin E seems to have failed as a radioprotective agent on acinar cells in rat parotid glands. (author)

  15. Structural differences between alcoholic and diabetic parotid sialosis.

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    Carda, Carmen; Carranza, Miriam; Arriaga, Adriana; Díaz, Anselmo; Peydró, Amando; Gomez de Ferraris, Maria Elsa

    2005-01-01

    Between the sialosis' etiologic agents, we can find the chronic alcoholism and diabetes. Both nosologic entities are described using a similar histopathologic pattern. The purpose of this work has been analyzing and comparing the histopathological differences between the diabetic and alcoholic sialosis. We studied 7 parotid glands samples of diabetic patients and 4 samples of normal glands obtained from surgical material were used as a control. For the comparative study, we used 12 parotid glands from chronic alcoholic patients with clinical diagnosis of cirrhosis and 6 autopsies on individuals who had died from alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis. This material was fixed in formaline, processed for embedding in paraffin, standard coloration techniques and immunotechnique for cytokeratin EA/1 y EA/3. In the cases of diabetics, the parotid gland was characterised by the presence of small acini, a bigger number of lipid intracytoplasmic droplets in the acinar and ductal cells, as well as an abundant adipose infiltration in the stroma when compared to the alcoholics. We observed that the cytokeratins' expression was heterogeneous at the acinar level, and very positive in the hyperplasic ducts, compared to the alcoholic and control groups. These qualitative valorations indicate the differences between the histopathologic pattern of sialosis with different origins.

  16. Effect of ionizing radiation on rat parotid gland

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    Boraks, George; Tampelini, Flavio Silva; Pereira, Kleber Fernando; Chopard, Renato Paulo [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. of Biomedical Sciences. Dept. of Anatomy]. E-mail: rchopard@usp.br

    2008-01-15

    A common side effect of radiotherapy used in the treatment of oral cancer is the occurrence of structural and physiological alterations of the salivary glands due to exposure to ionizing radiation, as demonstrated by conditions such as decreased salivary flow. The present study evaluated ultrastructural alterations in the parotid glands of rats receiving a fractionated dose (1,500-cGy) of radiation emitted by a Cesium-137 source and rats that were not subjected to ionizing radiation. After sacrifice, the parotid glands were removed and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Damage such as cytoplasmic vacuolisation, dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum and destruction of mitochondria, as well as damage to the cellular membrane of acinar cells, were observed. These findings lead to the conclusion that ionizing radiation promotes alterations in the glandular parenchyma, and that these alterations are directly related to the dose level of absorbed radiation. Certain phenomena that appear in the cytoplasm and nuclear material indicate that ionizing radiation causes acinar cell death (apoptosis). (author)

  17. Visualizing form and function in organotypic slices of the adult mouse parotid gland.

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    Warner, Jennifer D; Peters, Christian G; Saunders, Rudel; Won, Jong Hak; Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Gunning, William T; Yule, David I; Giovannucci, David R

    2008-09-01

    An organotypic slice preparation of the adult mouse parotid salivary gland amenable to a variety of optical assessments of fluid and protein secretion dynamics is described. The semi-intact preparation rendered without the use of enzymatic treatment permitted live-cell imaging and multiphoton analysis of cellular and supracellular signals. Toward this end we demonstrated that the parotid slice is a significant addition to the repertoire of tools available to investigators to probe exocrine structure and function since there is currently no cell culture system that fully recapitulates parotid acinar cell biology. Importantly, we show that a subpopulation of the acinar cells of parotid slices can be maintained in short-term culture and retain their morphology and function for up to 2 days. This in vitro model system is a significant step forward compared with enzymatically dispersed acini that rapidly lose their morphological and functional characteristics over several hours, and it was shown to be long enough for the expression and trafficking of exogenous protein following adenoviral infection. This system is compatible with a variety of genetic and physiological approaches used to study secretory function.

  18. Histopathologic correlation of parotid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Valverde, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Malignization percentage of parotid pleomorphic adenoma is defined with fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), prior negative in patients operated by parotid tumor in the Hospital San Juan de Dios between 2008-2012. Patients diagnosed with pleomorphic adenoma by FNAB are described in time, place and person. The histological type of parotid tumors diagnosed are defined. Management offered to patients diagnosed with parotid tumors is understood in the Hospital San Juan de Dios. Complications associated with surgical procedure in patients are specified. A quarter part the of parotid tumors from the series analyzed have been malignant, a similar percentage described in the literature [es

  19. Parotid hybrid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo C, Gustavo; Seymour M, Camila; Fernandez R, Lara; Villanueva I, Maria Elena; Scott C, Carlos; Celedon L, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands represent 33%-10% of head and neck neoplasms. The most common location is the parotid gland, accounting for 50%-85% of the cases, with 20%-30% of them being malignant. The following are known to be indicative of a malignant tumor: fast growing, painless mass, associated facial paralysis and lymphadenopathy. Most parotid neoplasm derive from a single histological type but eventually the development of more than one type on the same gland can occur. This paper presents a case of a parotid neoplasm with two different histological tumors, with uncharacteristic clinical presentation. The patient presented initially with ear pain and otorrhoea, in the clinical examination highlighted an external auditory canal tumor. The complementary study revealed a parotid neoplasm and a total resection of the gland was performed. The biopsy revealed an adenoid-cystic carcinoma with differentiated basaloid areas. Adjuvant radio-chemotherapy was administered, and the imaging control with PET-CT showed no evidence of recurrence or dissemination of the tumor

  20. Radiological study on the change of duct-ligated parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    The change of the parotid gland with time following ligation of the main duct was investigated. The duct-ligated parotid gland in rabbit was examined by salivary gland scintigraphy with 99m Tc-pertechnetate ( 99m TcO 4 - ), sialography and microscopic observation. The third day after ligation of the main duct, the outward form of the parotid gland on the static scintigram was not well-defined. On the seventh day, 99m TcO 4 - accumulation was decreased slightly. On the 14th day, atrophy of the parotid gland occurred. The degree of atrophy produced by ligation increases as the duration of the ligation increases. On the 42nd day, the presence of the parotid gland was not recorded practically. The main duct was dilated on the third day. On the seventh day, the intraglandular ducts were bent and strictured. Disappearance of the peripheral duct and atrophy of the parotid gland parenchyma was observed. On microscopic observation, the intraglandular tributaries and the lumen were dilated on the third day. And the reticular fiber was observed that was irregularly formed in parts. The acinar cells were pressed by large and small dilated lumen on the seventh day. On the 14th day, the collagenous fiber around the acini and the duct was increased still more. In addition, fibrosis of the lobule interspace was observed. The degree of atrophy of the acini and lobule was increased maximally on the 42nd day. These results of the salivary gland scintigraphy closely connected with sialograms and microscopic findings. The parotid gland tissue decreases and changings of the duct system were indicated by these imaging methods in detail. (author)

  1. [Epidemic parotiditis, a reportable disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverhoff, J C; Baart, J A

    2013-01-01

    Three consecutive patients with an acute swelling of one of the cheeks, were diagnosed with epidemic parotiditis. The first phase of the diagnostic procedure for an acute cheek swelling is to eliminate the possibility of odontogenic causes. When odontogenic problems have been excluded, non-dentition-related causes may be considered. An acute, progressive swelling in the preauricular area can often be attributed to an inflammation of the parotid gland, but epidemic parotiditis should also be considered. Epidemic parotiditis, or mumps, is caused by the mumps virus. Contamination occurs aerogenically. In the Netherlands, mumps vaccine is an ingredient of the governmental combined mump-measles-rubella inoculation programme. However, in recent years several small-scale parotiditis epidemics have broken out, predominantly among young, inoculated adults. Oropharyngeal mucus and blood samples are needed to diagnose the disease. Each case of the disease should be reported to the community healthcare service.

  2. Monoclonal antibody localization of Na+-K+-ATPase in the exocrine pancreas and parotid of the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Z.D.J.; Caplan, M.J.; Forbush, B. III; Jamieson, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody specific to the β-subunit of the canine 125 I-labeled-Na + -K + -ATPase has been characterized and used to directly localize the enzyme in thin frozen sections of dog pancreas and parotid. The antibody, 7-2M, recognizes only the β-subunit of the sodium pump as determined by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot and is not directed against an oligosaccharide determinant. 7-2M immunolocalizes to the same cellular and subcellular domains of renal tubular cells as do other, previously characterized, antibodies directed to the α-subunit of the sodium pump. In the pancreas the preponderance of the Na + -K + -ATPase is found on the basolateral membranes of centroacinar and intralobular duct cells. Interlobular duct cells also express a large component of basolaterally located enzyme, although comparatively little pump is seen on acinar cells. In the parotid a large amount of Na + -K + -ATPase is seen on the striated cut cells, with high levels also noted on cells of the intercalated ducts and serous demilunes. Again the acinar cells show comparatively low levels of Na + -K + -ATPase. In no instance is Na + -K + -ATPase found on the apical membranes of pancreas or parotid cells. These data suggest that Na + -K + -ATPase, located on the basolateral plasmalemma of duct-derived cells, may be involved in water and electrolyte secretion from the pancreas and parotid

  3. Acinar Cell Cystadenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Aoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acinar cell cystadenocarcinoma is a rare malignant epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas with a diffusely cystic, gross architecture in which the cysts are lined with neoplastic epithelial cells that demonstrate evidence of pancreatic exocrine enzyme production. This is the 10th case that has been reported in the literature. A 77-year-old male complaining of left hypochondrial pain was referred to our hospital for treatment of a pancreatic tumor. A huge, honeycomb-structured tumor was detected in the pancreatic tail. Distal pancreatectomy with total resection of the residual stomach and partial resection of the transverse colon were performed. Microscopically, there were variably sized cystic lesions in the tumor. Immunohistochemical examinations revealed that tumor cells were positive for alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and alpha 1-trypsin, showing that tumor cells had features of pancreatic acinar cells. Thus, the tumor was diagnosed as acinar cell cystadenocarcinoma. Herein, we report a rare case with acinar cell cystadenocarcinoma, which is the 10th case reported in the literature based on a PubMed search. We managed to resect the tumor completely by distal pancreatectomy with total resection of the residual stomach and partial resection of the transverse colon. The patient is still alive 26 months after surgery without any recurrence after 1 year of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1.

  4. Acinar Cell Cyst adenoma (Acinar Cystic Transformation) of the Pancreas: the Radiologic-Pathologic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Algin, Oktay; Gundogdu, Haldun [Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Ugras, Serdar [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Medical Faculty, Konya (Turkmenistan)

    2011-02-15

    Acinar cystic transformation of the pancreas is also known as acinar cell cystadenoma (ACC), and this is an extremely rare benign lesion that was first described in April 2002. We report here on a case of a previously asymptomatic patient with pancreatic ACC and this was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report concerning the CT or MRI features of ACC in the medical literature. We present here the CT, MRI and pathological findings of pancreatic ACC

  5. Acinar Cell Cyst adenoma (Acinar Cystic Transformation) of the Pancreas: the Radiologic-Pathologic Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Algin, Oktay; Gundogdu, Haldun; Ugras, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Acinar cystic transformation of the pancreas is also known as acinar cell cystadenoma (ACC), and this is an extremely rare benign lesion that was first described in April 2002. We report here on a case of a previously asymptomatic patient with pancreatic ACC and this was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report concerning the CT or MRI features of ACC in the medical literature. We present here the CT, MRI and pathological findings of pancreatic ACC

  6. Parotid lymphomas - clinical and computed tomogrphic imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To review the clinical presentation and computed tomography (CT) imaging characteristics of all parotid lymphomas diagnosed at the study institution over a 7-year period. Design. Retrospective chart review of parotid lymphomas diagnosed between 1997 and 2004. Subjects. A total of 121 patients with parotid ...

  7. assessment Of the effect Of low Level Laser Therapy on Parotid glands of gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction has a major deleterious effect on oral health. Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the possible effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on radiation induced oxidative stress in rats’ salivary glands. Material and Methods: Sixty four male Albino rats were divided into two groups. One group where the left parotid gland was exposed to 3 sessions of LLL, then rats were subjected to 3 sessions of whole body gamma-radiation. In the other group, rats were subjected to 3 sessions of gamma-radiation; each was followed by a session of LLL to the left parotid gland. The right gland of both groups was used as irradiated control. Parotid glands were collected 1 day, 3 days, 1 week and 2 weeks after the end of treatment and were subjected to histological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The parotid gland of both laser groups showed less intra cytoplasmic vacuolisation, slight alteration of acinar architecture and almost even size nuclei as compared to the irradiated gland. LLL either before or parallel to gamma-irradiation was effective in increasing cell proliferation on the third and seventh day, respectively as compared to the gamma irradiated group (P<0.05). Statistically, results revealed significant decrease in optical density of caspase 3 activity in the lased groups on the first week as compared to the control. Conclusion: LLLT attenuates the harmful effect of gamma irradiation on the parotid glands of the rats. Also, it improves gland regeneration through modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis inflammation

  8. Parotid enlargement in children with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soberman, N.; Leonidas, J.C.; Berdon, W.E.; Haller, J.O.; Posner, M.; Bonagura, V.

    1990-01-01

    PURPOSE: Painless parotid enlargement has been recently reported as a sign of AIDS, but little is known of the imaging characteristics of parotid involvement in affected children. The aim of this paper is to use US, CT and MR imaging to determine the anatomic changes of the parotid; study their possible association with pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH); and define the immunologic parameters and clinical course. Eighteen children were evaluated clinically, radiologically, and immunologically. All patients underwent US of the parotids and chest radiography; some children had CT of the chest and MR imaging of the parotids

  9. Role of alveolar topology on acinar flows and convective mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josué

    2014-06-01

    Due to experimental challenges, computational simulations are often sought to quantify inhaled aerosol transport in the pulmonary acinus. Commonly, these are performed using generic alveolar topologies, including spheres, toroids, and polyhedra, to mimic the complex acinar morphology. Yet, local acinar flows and ensuing particle transport are anticipated to be influenced by the specific morphological structures. We have assessed a range of acinar models under self-similar breathing conditions with respect to alveolar flow patterns, convective flow mixing, and deposition of fine particles (1.3 μm diameter). By tracking passive tracers over cumulative breathing cycles, we find that irreversible flow mixing correlates with the location and strength of the recirculating vortex inside the cavity. Such effects are strongest in proximal acinar generations where the ratio of alveolar to ductal flow rates is low and interalveolar disparities are most apparent. Our results for multi-alveolated acinar ducts highlight that fine 1 μm inhaled particles subject to alveolar flows are sensitive to the alveolar topology, underlining interalveolar disparities in particle deposition patterns. Despite the simplicity of the acinar models investigated, our findings suggest that alveolar topologies influence more significantly local flow patterns and deposition sites of fine particles for upper generations emphasizing the importance of the selected acinar model. In distal acinar generations, however, the alveolar geometry primarily needs to mimic the space-filling alveolar arrangement dictated by lung morphology.

  10. Effects of radiation on parotid salivary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.E.; Davis, C.C.; Gottsman, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    Postoperative electron beam irradiation of patients with parotid cancer has been used regularly at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to spare the opposite parotid and to preserve salivary function. Only anecdotal reports of amount of radiation required to ablate salivary function exist. To establish a dose-response curve for the human parotid, selective measurements of right and left parotid salivary flow were done for 15 age-matched control patients whose parotids were not irradiated, 17 patients who had both parotids irradiated, and 12 whose parotids were irradiated by unilateral electron beam technique. Point calculations of absorbed dose 1 cm below the surface were done for all 88 parotids and correlated with stimulated parotid salivary flow, pH, and secretory IgA (SIgA). Increasing doses of radiation resulted in progressive reduction of parotid salivary flow, pH, and SIgA. The technique, dosimetry, and clinical application of unilateral electron beam irradiation to spare the opposite parotid will be discussed

  11. K+ transport and membrane potentials in isolated rat parotid acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauntofte, B.; Dissing, S.

    1988-01-01

    42K+ transport properties of isolated rat parotid acini were characterized concomitant with measurements of membrane potentials (Em) by means of the fluorescent dye diSC3-(5). In unstimulated acini suspended in a 5 mM K+ buffer, Em was governed by the K+ and Cl- gradients and amounted to about -59 mV, a value that remained unaffected on cholinergic stimulation. In unstimulated acini, 42K+ influx was largely mediated by the Na+-K+ pump, and the residual influxes were mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component (cotransport system) and by K+ channels. Efflux of 42K+ was largely mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component and by K+ channels. In the unstimulated state, the cotransport system was mediating K+-K+ exchange without contributing to the net uptake of K+. Within 10 s after stimulation, a approximately 10-fold increase in the acinar K+ conductance (gK) occurred, resulting in a rapid net efflux of K+ that amounted to approximately 3.8 mmol.l cells-1.s-1. Measurements of 42K+ fluxes as a function of the external K+ concentration revealed that in the stimulated state gK increases when external K+ is raised from 0.7 to 10 mM, consistent with an activation of acinar gK by the binding of external K+ to the channel. 42K+ flux ratios as well as the effect of the K+ channel inhibitor from scorpion venom (LQV) suggest that approximately 90% of K+ transport in the stimulated state is mediated by ''maxi'' K+ channels

  12. A STUDY ON PAROTID SWELLINGS

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    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Swellings of the parotid gland are of special interest to a surgeon’s keen eye. These lesions are not only involved in diseases isolated to the parotid, but can also present as a part of a generalised systemic disorder, medical or surgical. For a surgeon, the interests lie in the probable origin of the swelling, its involvement of the facial nerve, the variability in behaviour, regarding the operability criteria and its postoperative complications. 1 A comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of the parotid and the prediction of the swelling behaviour can help not only in the diagnosis, but also in ensuring an apt management of the lesion and the patient. 2 This cohort study was conducted to analyse the following in our institution. The incidence of various parotid swellings to discuss accuracy of FNAC in comparison to the histopathological reports. The various surgical modalities of treatment of parotid swellings applied. MATERIALS AND METHODS The cohort study, which included 45 patients was conducted at Kilpauk Medical College Hospital and Government Royapettah Hospital from September 2010 to October 2012. Data was collected from the patients after obtaining an informed consent. The demographic details of the patients and history of their swelling was taken. The patients were examined and basic investigations performed. Details regarding the FNAC report, surgical and nonsurgical management were noted. Postoperative complications were documented. The final histopathological report was analysed and compared with the FNAC report. RESULTS Parotid lesions are commonest cases in our study. Benign tumours are more common than malignant lesions. This study found to correlate with world statistics. Investigations, clinical findings and treatment correlate well with world statistical records. CONCLUSION The analysis of the data of the study conducted at our institution provided us with the following results- Parotid lesions comprised of the

  13. Monoclonal antibody localization of Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase in the exocrine pancreas and parotid of the dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Z.D.J.; Caplan, M.J.; Forbush, B. III; Jamieson, J.D. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1987-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody specific to the {beta}-subunit of the canine {sup 125}I-labeled-Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase has been characterized and used to directly localize the enzyme in thin frozen sections of dog pancreas and parotid. The antibody, 7-2M, recognizes only the {beta}-subunit of the sodium pump as determined by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot and is not directed against an oligosaccharide determinant. 7-2M immunolocalizes to the same cellular and subcellular domains of renal tubular cells as do other, previously characterized, antibodies directed to the {alpha}-subunit of the sodium pump. In the pancreas the preponderance of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase is found on the basolateral membranes of centroacinar and intralobular duct cells. Interlobular duct cells also express a large component of basolaterally located enzyme, although comparatively little pump is seen on acinar cells. In the parotid a large amount of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase is seen on the striated cut cells, with high levels also noted on cells of the intercalated ducts and serous demilunes. Again the acinar cells show comparatively low levels of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase. In no instance is Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase found on the apical membranes of pancreas or parotid cells. These data suggest that Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase, located on the basolateral plasmalemma of duct-derived cells, may be involved in water and electrolyte secretion from the pancreas and parotid.

  14. Acinic cell carcinoma of parotid gland metastasis to left cavernous sinus: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Xiao-yan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and pathological features of parotid gland papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Methods The clinical manifestations, pathological features and differential diagnosis were studied in one case of parotid papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Related literatures were also reviewed. Results The patient was a 50-year-old female who presented paroxysmal dizziness for 5 months and blurred vision in her left eye for 10 months. The MRI examination showed left parasellar space-occupying mass in the cavernous sinus. In operation, the tumor was located in the superior wall of left cavernous sinus, soft and red-grey in color, with abundant blood supply. The histomorphological examination revealed the tumor cells were arranged in solid, acinar or papillary pattern. The tumor cells were large, with eosinophilic cytoplasm, round or oval nuclei and small nucleoli. Immunohistochemical staining found that the tumor cells expressed cytokeratin (CK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, vimentin (Vim and S-100 protein (S-100, and showed weak positive expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and focal positive expression of P53 protein. Ki-67 labeling index was about 5%-10% . The tumor cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers and pituitary hormone protein markers. This case was difficult to differentiate from other primary intracalvarium tumors, including papillary meningioma, papillary tumor of choroid plexus, papillary ependymoma, papillary glioneuronal tumors as well as chordoma. According to the medical history and the comparison of histomorphology and immunophenotyping between parotid gland tumor cells and left cavernous sinus tumor cells, the final diagnosis was metastatic papillary parotid acinar cell carcinoma of the left cavernous sinus. The patient was followed for 21 months and no recurrence was seen. Conclusion It is very rare and

  15. SOX2 regulates acinar cell development in the salivary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Elaine; May, Alison J; Nathan, Sara; Cruz-Pacheco, Noel; Lizama, Carlos O; Maliskova, Lenka; Zovein, Ann C; Shen, Yin; Muench, Marcus O; Knox, Sarah M

    2017-01-01

    Acinar cells play an essential role in the secretory function of exocrine organs. Despite this requirement, how acinar cells are generated during organogenesis is unclear. Using the acini-ductal network of the developing human and murine salivary gland, we demonstrate an unexpected role for SOX2 and parasympathetic nerves in generating the acinar lineage that has broad implications for epithelial morphogenesis. Despite SOX2 being expressed by progenitors that give rise to both acinar and duct cells, genetic ablation of SOX2 results in a failure to establish acini but not ducts. Furthermore, we show that SOX2 targets acinar-specific genes and is essential for the survival of acinar but not ductal cells. Finally, we illustrate an unexpected and novel role for peripheral nerves in the creation of acini throughout development via regulation of SOX2. Thus, SOX2 is a master regulator of the acinar cell lineage essential to the establishment of a functional organ. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26620.001 PMID:28623666

  16. Unique cellular structures in the parotid gland of an Old world fruit bat, Pteropus lylei (Lyle's flying fox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanlua, Passara; Sricharoenvej, Sirinush; Niyomchan, Apichaya; Chico, Diane E

    2007-01-01

    Pteropus lylei (Lyle's flying fox), an Old World fruit bat, consumes only ripe fruit, which contains low protein and sodium. The carpophagous diet of P. lylei presents an adaptive challenge for salivary glands to conserve sufficient nutrition for living. Therefore, the parotid glands in both sexes were investigated by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. No structural difference was observed in the parotid glands between sexes. The acinar cell contained dense serous secretory granules, prominent luminal microvilli and intercellular canaliculi. The intercalated duct exhibited simple cuboidal epithelium with no secretory granule. Striated duct consisted of simple columnar epithelium with basal striation, numerous elongated mitochondria, and apical vesicles. In the interlobular duct, simple tall columnar epithelium and apocrine secretion were found. The interlobar and excretory ducts surprisingly contained continuous capillaries that intervened in stratified cuboidal epithelium. In addition, there were several blood vessels around the interlobular, interlobar and excretory ducts. The morphological adaptation of the parotid gland observed in P. lylei enables this species to obtain sufficient nutrients from the preferred consumption of ripe fruit. Serous secretory granule was suitable for digestion of ripe fruit. A well-developed striated duct, continuous capillaries among the epithelial cells of interlobar and excretory ducts, and numerous blood vessels around these ducts enhanced the reabsorption of amino acids and ions. Structural variations in the parotid gland can indicate not only a correlation to diet and survival but also a close relationship of the Old World fruit bat to other kinds of bats.

  17. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy.

  18. Ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, H E; Greisen, O; Hastrup, N

    1987-06-01

    A case of ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland is described. The medical literature contains only 13 previous reports on this kind of adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The tumour is characterized by its histologic resemblance to ductal carcinomas of the breast and prostate. The course of previously described cases suggests that this tumour has a highly aggressive biological behaviour.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of parotid tumors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akihiko; Yamashita, Toshio; Inoue, Toshiya; Kumazawa, Tadami; Kato, Tsutomu; Sawada, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    1987-01-01

    We compared the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with that of X-ray computed tomography in the preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumors. We performed in 13 patients with parotid tumors and 10 of them were operated. The MRI equipment had a magnetic fild of 0.15 Tesla. We used the spine echo acquisition technique and a repetition time of 600, 1000 and 2000 milli-seconds, and echo time of 40 and 80 milli-seconds. We found that the T 1 weighted image well visualized the duct of the parotid gland, the T 2 weighted image provided fine pictures of the parotid tumor. The facial nerve of normal parotid glands could not be visualized by MRI. (author)

  20. Irradiation of metastatic carcinoma parotid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinomas of the parotid should be considered distinct malignancies despite descriptions of low-grade malignant potential and innocuous histologic patterns. Benign-appearing tumors frequently have a clinically malignant course. Blood-borne metastases may oocur early despite gross and microscopic innocence. Indolent growth may be a characteristic of local disease, which may then be approached with less than radical parotidectomy and sacrifice of the facial nerve. These tumors prove to be radiosensitive. More agressive postoperative irradiation and palliative irradiation is recommended. Two cases of successful palliation of spinal metastases are presented as examples of radiosensitivity of this tumor

  1. Metabolic Profile of Pancreatic Acinar and Islet Tissue in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M.; Mueller, Kathryn; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2016-01-01

    The amount and condition of exocrine impurities may affect the quality of islet preparations especially during culture. In this study, the objective was to determine the oxygen demandand viability of islet and acinar tissue post-isolation and whether they change disproportionately while in culture. We compare the OCR normalized to DNA (OCR/DNA, a measure of fractional viability in units nmol/min/mg DNA), and percent change in OCR and DNA recoveries between adult porcine islet and acinar tissue from the same preparation (paired) over a 6-9 days of standard culture. Paired comparisons were done to quantify differences in OCR/DNA between islet and acinar tissue from the same preparation, at specified time points during culture; the mean (± standard error) OCR/DNA was 74.0 (±11.7) units higher for acinar (vs. islet) tissue on the day of isolation (n=16, p<0.0001), but 25.7 (±9.4) units lower after 1 day (n=8, p=0.03), 56.6 (±11.5) units lower after 2 days (n=12, p=0.0004), and 65.9 (±28.7) units lower after 8 days (n=4, p=0.2) in culture. DNA and OCR recoveries decreased at different rates for acinar versus islet tissue over 6-9 days in culture (n=6). DNA recovery decreased to 24±7% for acinar and 75±8% for islets (p=0.002). Similarly, OCR recovery decreased to 16±3% for acinar and remained virtually constant for islets (p=0.005). Differences in the metabolic profile of acinarand islet tissue should be considered when culturing impure islet preparations. OCR-based measurements may help optimize pre-IT culture protocols. PMID:25131082

  2. Pancreatic ductal bicarbonate secretion: challenge of the acinar acid load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHegyi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Acinar and ductal cells of the exocrine pancreas form a close functional unit. Although most studies contain data either on acinar or ductal cells, an increasing number of evidence highlights the importance of the pancreatic acinar-ductal functional unit. One of the best examples for this functional unit is the regulation of luminal pH by both cell types. Protons co-released during exocytosis from acini cause significant acidosis, whereas, bicarbonate secreted by ductal cells cause alkalization in the lumen. This suggests that the first and probably one of the most important role of bicarbonate secretion by pancreatic ductal cells is not only to neutralize the acid chyme entering into the duodenum from the stomach, but to neutralize acidic content secreted by acinar cells. To accomplish this role, it is more than likely that ductal cells have physiological sensing mechanisms which would allow them to regulate luminal pH. To date, four different classes of acid-sensing ion channels have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract (transient receptor potential ion channels, two-pore domain potassium channel, ionotropic purinoceptor and acid-sensing ion channel, however, none of these have been studied in pancreatic ductal cells. In this mini-review, we summarize our current knowledge of these channels and urge scientists to characterize ductal acid-sensing mechanisms and also to investigate the challenge of the acinar acid load on ductal cells.

  3. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandali, Danny; Heilingoetter, Ashley; Ghai, Ritu; Jeffe, Jill; Al-Khudari, Samer

    2018-01-01

    Lipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager. A 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence. This is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  4. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Jandali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager.Case presentationA 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence.ConclusionThis is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  5. Branchial cysts within the parotid salivary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Cystic lesions within the parotid gland are uncommon and clinically they are frequently misdiagnosed as tumours. Many theories have been proposed as to their embryological origin. A 20-year retrospective review was undertaken of all pathological codes (SNOMED) of all of patients presenting with any parotid lesions requiring surgery. After analysis seven subjects were found to have histopathologically proven parotid branchial cysts in the absence of HIV infection and those patients are the aim of this review. Four of the most common embryological theories are also discussed with regard to these cases, as are their management. PMID:22607735

  6. Factors influencing the parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with parotid-sparing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenshan; Lee Jongkang; Su Maochang; Lee, S.P.; Chen Ginden; Lee Hongshen; Lee Huei

    2006-01-01

    The background of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing post-irradiation parotid gland function in nasopharyngeal cancer treated with parotid-sparing radiotherapy. This study consisted of 45 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy including 3D conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The mean follow-up time was 37.5 months (range: 15-50 months). Objective parotid gland function was assessed by series sialoscintigraphy pre-irradiation and post-irradiation at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. Subjective salivary function was recorded by the LENT/SOMA system. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the secretion ratio (SR) of parotid gland before and after treatment. Mann-Whitney rank-sum test was used to determine the factors influencing the post-irradiated SR. Chi-square test was used to compare the correlation between subjective grading of xerostomia and objective grading of parotid glands. There was a significant difference between the pre-irradiation and post-irradiation parotid gland's SR at 1 (0.30 versus 0.01, P 0.05) and 18 months (0.30 versus 0.18, P>0.05). There was significant correlation between subjective and objective salivary function (P=0.024) at 12 months after radiotherapy. The factor that impacted the preservation of parotid function was mean dose to the parotid gland >38.0 Gy (P<0.05). Our results demonstrated that parotid function could recover 1 year after treatment with parotid-sparing radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. The most important factor that influenced parotid function was the mean dose to the parotid gland. (author)

  7. Ca2+ signaling in pancreatic acinar cells: physiology and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Petersen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreatic acinar cell is a classical model for studies of secretion and signal transduction mechanisms. Because of the extensive endoplasmic reticulum and the large granular compartment, it has been possible - by direct measurements - to obtain considerable insights into intracellular Ca2+ handling under both normal and pathological conditions. Recent studies have also revealed important characteristics of stimulus-secretion coupling mechanisms in isolated human pancreatic acinar cells. The acinar cells are potentially dangerous because of the high intra-granular concentration of proteases, which become inappropriately activated in the human disease acute pancreatitis. This disease is due to toxic Ca2+ signals generated by excessive liberation of Ca2+ from both the endoplasmic reticulum and the secretory granules.

  8. Combined effects of x-irradiation and bleomycin on the proliferation of isoproterenol-stimulated mouse parotid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoju, Masumi

    1977-01-01

    Effects of x-irradiation and bleomycin (BLM) on DNA synthesis in isoproterenol (IPR)-stimulated mouse parotid glands were investigated. The incorporation of thymidine- 3 H into DNA in parotid glands increased remarkably in 16 hours with a peak at 22 hours after the injection of IPR. When x-irradiation (250 rads) was given at 1 hour after IPR (early G 1 phase), the stimulation of DNA synthesis was inhibited by about 50%, and the beginning of DNA synthesis was delayed nearly 6 hours. BLM injected in the early G 1 phase was also effective in inhibiting DNA synthesis. However, the injection of BLM in the late G 1 or S phase did not interfere with DNA synthesis. Combined x-irradiation and BLM inhibited DNA synthesis and delayed the beginning of the S phase far more strikingly than did x-irradiation alone. When BLM was injected at various intervals before and after x-irradiation, the greatest inhibition was found just after irradiation. Therefore, a longer interval between x-irradiation and BLM injection had a tendency to decrease the rate of inhibiting DNA synthesis. These findings were confirmed by measuring the labeling index and the mitotic index in the acinar cells of the mouse parotid gland. These results suggest that simultaneous application of x-irradiation and BLM has the greatest effect. (Evans, J.)

  9. Structural and histochemical considerations of parotid gland from adult rats (Holtzmann) submitted to x-rays exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sposto, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    A histomorphological and histochemical study of the parotid gland of adult rats was carried out after subjecting the animals to a single X-ray irradiation dose of 900 R directed to the cervical region. The samples for the histological analysis were obtained at 2, 7, 15, 21, 30 and 45 days after radiation through desiccation and removal of the glands. The results showed clearly that the parotid gland is quite sensitive to X-ray irradiation with the serous acinar cells presenting heavier injuries than the mucous ones. A maximum in the deleterial action of the irradiation was detected at 15 days during the observation period. A comparative analysis of the glandular ducts showed that both of the types intercalated and striated were damaged, with the last presenting severe alterations in morphology and volume. By interpretation of the histochemical results it was concluded that a reduction in protein metabolism of the parotid gland occurred as a consequence of the X-ray irradiation. (author)

  10. Computed tomographic diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Hitoki; Nishimura, Tadao; Takasu, Akihiko; Yagizawa, Mikio; Suzuki, Akio

    1983-01-01

    Investigation with CT has been performed on 20 cases of parotid gland tumors. The intravenous contrast enhancement method was performed in all cases. Six cases were examined by CT and simultaneous sialography. The results were as follows: 1) If and when the margin of the tumor was indistinct and irregular, malignancy was suspected. However, it was difficult to diagnose malignancy by CT examination only. 2) CT for parotid gland tumor was effective in indentifying invasion of tumor into the parapharyngeal space and intracranial space. 3) CT with simultaneous sialography was very effective in locating the parotid gland tumor. 4) CT of axial sections for parotid gland tumor was more reliable if coronaly sections are taken together. 5) CT of malignant and benign tumors were diffusely enhanced by the intravenous contrast enhancement method. However, this was not an indispensable method. (author)

  11. Parotid lymphomas - clinical and computed tomogrphic imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parotid lymphomas - clinical and computed tomogrphic imaging features. ... South African Journal of Surgery ... Lymphoma has a clinical presentation similar ... CT scanning is a useful adjunctive investigation to determine the site and extent of ...

  12. Benign Fibrous Tumour of the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Sreetharan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 44-year-old man with left parotid enlargement that was initially diagnosed as cementifying fibroma is presented. The lesion was found in the deep lobe of the parotid gland and was successfully removed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered well with intact facial nerve function and remained asymptomatic after 1 year. Subsequent histology revealed the mass to be a benign fibrous tumour. The diagnosis and management of this rare entity are discussed.

  13. Bilateral parotid gland tuberculosis: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Takhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parotid gland tuberculosis is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, even in countries where tuberculosis is endemic like India; however, it should be included as one of the differentials of discrete parotid swelling as it generally presents as a slow-growing mass indistinguishable from a malignancy and even imaging too, can’t differentiate these clearly. The majority of the previously reported cases were mostly unilateral and diagnosed by histopathological examination of post parotidectomy specimens. Here we are describing a case of tuberculosis of both parotid glands in a 25 year-old male who was referred to us with bilateral parotid region swelling of two month duration. Tubercular parotiditis was confirmed by demonstration of epithelioid granuloma and caseous necrosis compatible with TB on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. He was treated with four drug anti-TB regimen (2HERZ + 4HR leading to full recovery and complete disappearance of swelling and symptoms with no recurrence till one year of follow up. Apart from rarity due to bilateral involvement, this case report highlights the clinical presentation, ultrasonography and other imaging findings, and significance of FNAC in diagnosis of this uncommon entity reinforcing the fact that the diagnosis of parotid gland tuberculosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion.

  14. Acute parotiditis after cesarean section; case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Moisei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the parotid gland develops in inflammatory or stenotic conditions but after Cesarean section the symptomatology is unusual. A 38 year old patient with no obstetrical history referred to our clinic for pregnancy, which followed our national program of prenatal care. The outcome of the pregnancy was favorable for both mother and fetus. During labor the fetus developed bradycardia and the patient delivered by Cesarean section a 3400 g baby-boy with 8 Apgar Score; the anesthesia was spinal. 18 hours after delivery the patient presented mild respiratory distress. The symptomatology was caused by the enlargement of the parotid gland. The treatment was supportive and the remission occurred 10 hours after the onset. The initial discussion that raised this case was caused by the viral, infection and stenotic cause of the parotiditis. All these reasons had no medical argument. It was also debated about the anesthesia but, until now, the medical literature didn’t report any case of association between parotiditis and spinal anesthesia. It is also impossible to correlate the parotiditis with IVF procedure. As a conclusion, this case is unique because it represents the parotiditis without unknown case that appeared after Cesarean section and spinal anesthesia in a healthy woman.

  15. Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, M.A.; Yusuf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinicopathological presentation and treatment options in epithelial parotid tumours with emphasis on surgery. Subjects and Methods: Epithelial parotid tumours diagnosed and operated by an ENT surgeon and a general surgeon in 10 years during their posting in different teaching hospitals were included in the study. Clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, operative procedure, histopathology report, postoperative complications and further management were recorded. The data was collected and reviewed from the records of all the patients maintained by the authors. Results: Fifty-two patients presented with parotid tumour. Average age was 38 years. Commonest presentation was painless lump over the parotid region (85%), pain (15%), facial palsy, and enlarged neck nodes. Majority of tumours were benign, only two were recurrent. Parotid pleomorphic Adenoma (PPA) was the commonest benign tumour, others being Warthin's tumour and monomorphic adenoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour 29% followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Others were carcinoma in PPA squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed tumour, malignant Iymphoepithelioma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Superficial parotidectomy (SP) was the commonest operation performed in 69%. Other procedures were total conservative parotidectomy in 11%, total radical surgery in 9% and enucleation in only one patient earliest in the series. Neck node dissection was done in 2 patients. Except for one child, rest of the 13 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient of Iymphoepithelioma received chemotherapy in addition. Commonest postoperative complication was temporary facial weakness in 35% (18/52). Permanent facial palsy occurred in 08 patients. Of these 07 had a malignant process and only one patient had excision biopsy. Conclusion: Benign and malignant epithelial parotid tumours can be diagnosed by there clinical presentation . supplemented with

  16. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... included in sterile parotid saliva collection. Parotid saliva was collected using a sterile Lashley cup, placed over the papilla of the Stensen´s duct, as well as sterile tubes and syringes for collection. All collections were followed by collection of a positive control sample where some of the sterile...... obtained parotid saliva had been exposed to the contralateral mucosal membranes. All samples parotid saliva, as well as the positive controls, were cultivated, and 10 randomly selected parotid saliva samples underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. RESULTS: In 33 of 40 parotid saliva samples...

  17. Parotid gland lipoma: two case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islim, F.; Ors, S.; Salik, A.; Selcuk, H.; Sever, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Lipoma is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the human body but very rarely in the parotid gland. Objective: The aim of this study was to document retrospectively the imaging findings of lipomas with the use of computed tomography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Material and methods: Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging were performed to the patients after clinical evaluation and physical examination. Both for two patients after fine needle aspiration biopsy, surgical excisions were practiced. Case 1: 14-wear-old woman was applied to the hospital with swelling of the right jaw. In physical examination a palpable mass was detected on the parotid gland. In sonography, heterogeneous, hypoechoic solid lesion was observed. This tumor produced strong signals on T1- and T2-weighted MR images and weak signals on fat suppression images. Case 2: 65-wear-old man presented with a 10 month history of a painless, slow growing mass in the left preauricular area. In sonography, heterogeneous, hypoechoic solid lesion with hyperechoic areas was observed. Also this tumor produced strong signals on T1- and T2-weighted MR images and weak signals on fat suppression images with low ADC level. Both for two patients after fine-needle aspiration biopsy, surgical excisions were practiced, superficial parotidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed parotid lipoma. Conclusion: Lipomas are common soft tissue neoplasms but found very rarely in the parotid gland, and so, are after not considered in the initial differential diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

  18. Dosimetry of parotid glands in IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jiancheng; Yu Xinsheng; Jiang Guoliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan on the dosimetry of parotid in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Under the same constraints and objections, the IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid and the IMRT plan added plan tumor volume (PTV) margin for parotid gland was investigated. Results: Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan spared unilateral parotid, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. On PTV 60 , D min in the plan of sparing one parotid gland was more than that in normal IMRT plan (P 95 in the plan of sparing one parotid gland have improved (P 50%VOL and D mean of parotid gland were similar between the two plans. Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan added 2 or 3 mm margin for parotid gland, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. D min , D mean and D 95 of PTV 60 have decreased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. D max of brainstem and spine cord have increased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. Conclusions: The IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid may be adopted not to protect both two parotids, while PTV margin for parotid added as parotid move. (authors)

  19. Effects of different tastants on parotid saliva flow and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyraud, E.; Heinzerling, C.I.; Bult, J.H.F.; Mesmin, C.; Dransfield, E.

    2009-01-01

    Saliva from parotid glands plays a role in taste perception. Parotid saliva is also stimulated by tastants. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of different tastants on the parotid salivary response in six subjects. Five tastants were given in different concentrations in solution and

  20. Parotid gland tumours: a six years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    To find out the different types of Parotid tumours in out setup and their prevalence in different age groups. All patients admitted with Parotid swellings, irrespective of age and sex. The detailed data of the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 15 to 65 years were included in the study. Most of the patients were in the 31-50 years of age group. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign tumour with an incidence of 66.6%, while Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with an incidence of 11.11% was the most common malignant tumour. Parotid gland is the principal site of salivary gland tumours. Males are affected more and Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant tumour. (author)

  1. A RARE CASE OF PAROTID CYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 28 years old male presented with a case of painless soft fluctuant swelling of right parotid gland is reported to our hospital. The lesion was found to be a cystic lesion through the pre - operative examinations and investigations. The cyst was completely excised, taking care not to injure the lower division of the facial nerve. Po st recovery was uneventful with no defect of the facial nerve functions. The histologic picture confirmed that the cyst was lymphoepithelial cyst which is so called “branchial cyst”. Through the literature reviews of parotid lymphoepit h elial cyst the discu ssions on prevalence, origin, diagnosis, histological finding, investigation and the modes of treatment are made. The ultra sound was found to be valuable in the pre - operative evaluation of the parotid swelling furthermore it is non - invasive, harmless, pai nless and relatively quick

  2. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Neirai, Carlos; Gonzalez Gomez, Juan Manuel; Arredondo Lopez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  3. MR imaging of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.; Dresel, S.; Lissner, J.; Grevers, G.; Riederer, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this study MR imaging combined with Gd-DTPA as a new effective diagnostic tool is compared with plain MR imaging. Seventy-two patients with lesions of the parotid gland were examined. In the author's patient group, they found 25 malignant tumors, 19 benign lesions, 20 Sjogren syndromes, and eight inflamed parotid glands. Axial and coronal images were acquired with long (TR = 1,600 msec, TE = 25/90 msec) and short (TR = 500 msec, TE = 25 msec) spin-echo sequences before and after Gd-DTPA

  4. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Leticia Rodrigues; Moreira, Carla Ruffeil; Cestari, Tania Mary; Taga, Rumio; Damante, José Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG). MATERIAL AND METHODSs: Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group), 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv) and total volume (Vt) of intact (ia) and autolyzed (aa) acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p0.05), respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm³ at 0 h to 38.17 mm³ at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm³ to 0 mm³ between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning Vtaa were adjusted by two-variable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54+3.38x (r²=0.90). The Vtaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm³/h between 0-12 h. Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h.

  5. ANF and exocrine pancreas: ultrastructural autoradiographic localization in acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.G.; Morel, G.; Belles-Isles, M.; Jeandel, L.; Heisler, S.

    1988-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) binding sites have been recently demonstrated to be present in exocrine pancreas by an in vitro autoradiographic approach. An autoradiographic study was carried out to identify the exocrine cells containing ANF binding sites and to monitor the fate of 125 I-labeled ANF in acinar cells after removal of pancreas at specific time intervals (1-30 min) after intravenous administration. At the light microscopic level, silver grains were found over acinar and centroacinar cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled ANF inhibited the binding of labeled peptide by approximately 60%. At the electron microscopic level, the time-course study in acinar cells has revealed that of the cell compartments examined, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and zymogen granules, the nucleus had distinct labeling patterns. Plasma membrane was maximally labeled 1 and 2 min after injection with 125 I-ANF. Golgi apparatus was significantly labeled from 2 to 30 min after injection, mitochondria from 1 to 30 min after injection, zymogen granules at 1 and 15 min, and the nucleus only at 30 min. The lysosomal compartment was not labeled during the 30-min observation period. These results suggest that after binding to the plasma membrane, ANF is rapidly internalized and distributed to the intracellular organelles as a function of time. Labeling of the zymogen granules suggests that they may bind ANF and that the atrial peptide may be secreted by acinar cells. The significance of association of radioactivity with mitochondria and nuclei remains to be elucidated but may represent intracellular sites of action of ANF complementary to those on plasma membranes

  6. COMPUTER-AIDED DETECTION OF ACINAR SHADOWS IN CHEST RADIOGRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the technological advances in medical diagnosis, accurate detection of infectious tuberculosis (TB still poses challenges due to complex image features and thus infectious TB continues to be a public health problem of global proportions. Currently, the detection of TB is mainly conducted visually by radiologists examining chest radiographs (CXRs. To reduce the backlog of CXR examination and provide more precise quantitative assessment, computer-aided detection (CAD systems for potential lung lesions have been increasingly adopted and commercialized for clinical practice. CADs work as supporting tools to alert radiologists on suspected features that could have easily been neglected. In this paper, an effective CAD system aimed for acinar shadow regions detection in CXRs is proposed. This system exploits textural and photometric features analysis techniques which include local binary pattern (LBP, grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG to analyze target regions in CXRs. Classification of acinar shadows using Adaboost is then deployed to verify the performance of a combination of these techniques. Comparative study in different image databases shows that the proposed CAD system delivers consistent high accuracy in detecting acinar shadows.

  7. Preservation of parotid function with uncomplicated conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Annelies; Weltens, Caroline; Flamen, Patrick; Lambin, Philippe; Bogaerts, Ria; Liu, Xuan; Baetens, Jan; Hermans, Robert; Van den Bogaert, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate (1) parotid function, (2) subjective xerostomia and (3) pattern of relapses after conformal parotid-sparing radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. (4) To study dose-response curves of parotid glands. Material and methods: From September 1999 to November 2000, 39 head and neck cancer patients requiring bilateral neck RT were treated with a fairly simple conformal RT technique (three-field set-up+anterior lower neck field; two opposed oblique boost fields). The contralateral parotid was spared. Parotid function was assessed by salivary gland scintigraphies performed before, early (median 4 weeks) and late (median 28 weeks) after RT. Xerostomia was monitored by visual analogue scales (VAS) and LENT SOMA scores. Location of locoregional recurrences was studied in relation to the radiation fields. A dose-response curve of parotids was created using logistic regression. Results: (1) Early after RT, on salivary gland scintigraphy, the mean loss of secretion function in the spared parotid was 67% and total in the non-spared. Late after RT, the mean loss remained 19% in the spared and total in the non-spared parotid. Normal excretion function was regained in 75% of the spared parotids. (2) Late after RT, 78% of patients had no, minimal or acceptable subjective xerostomia. (3) No recurrence was seen near the spared parotid (11/39 locoregional recurrences). (4) The dose-response curve of parotids showed that the mean parotid dose should preferentially be ≤20 Gy, to obtain a good chance (≥70%) for preservation of its function on scintigraphy. Conclusions: An easy conformal parotid-sparing RT technique prevents moderate or severe subjective xerostomia in 78% of patients. In the spared parotids, nearly complete to complete recovery is obtained after 6-12 months

  8. Unilateral Duplication Of Parotid Duct. A Rare Anatomical Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ferreira Arquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paired parotid glands are the largest of the major salivary glands and produces mainly serous secretions. The secretion of this gland reaches the oral cavity through single parotid duct (Stensen’s duct. The parotid duct begins at the anterior border of the gland, crosses the masseter muscle, and then pierces the buccinator muscle to reach the mucosa lining the mouth at the level of the cheek. The purpose of this study is determine the morphologic features of the parotid duct and describe an anatomical variation until now unreported. Methods and Findings: A total of 17 cadavers were used for this study in the Morphology Laboratory at the University of Pamplona. In a cadaver were findings: The main parotid duct originated two conducts: Left superior parotid duct and Left inferior parotid duct, is observed the criss-cross of the ducts, and then perforated the buccinator muscle and entered the oral cavity at a double parotid papilla containing a double opening, separated from each other in 0,98 mm. In the remaining  33 parotid regions (97.06% the parotid duct is conformed to the classical descriptions given in anatomical textbooks. Conclusions: The parotid duct anatomy is important for duct endoscopy, lithotripsy, sialography and trans-ductal facial nerve stimulation in the early stage of facial palsy in some cases. The anatomical variations also has clinical importance for parotid gland surgery and facial cosmetic surgery. To keep in mind the parotid duct variation will reduce iatrogenic injury risks and improve diagnosis of parotid duct injury.

  9. Iodine-131 therapy for parotid oncocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuda, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Tamura, K.; Mukai, M.; Kubo, A.; Hashimoto, S.

    1988-06-01

    We present a rare case of a patient with coexisting parotid oncocytoma and chronic thyroiditis who received two therapeutic doses of (/sup 131/I)iodide for a recurrent oncocytoma (oxyphilic granular cell adenoma), resulting in a definite reduction in tumor volume. We suggest that radioiodine therapy for a recurrent oncocytoma is an effective form of tumor therapy.

  10. Prostate specific antigen and acinar density: a new dimension, the "Prostatocrit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Simon; Laniado, Marc; Montgomery, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen densities have limited success in diagnosing prostate cancer. We emphasise the importance of the peripheral zone when considered with its cellular constituents, the "prostatocrit". Using zonal volumes and asymmetry of glandular acini, we generate a peripheral zone acinar volume and density. With the ratio to the whole gland, we can better predict high grade and all grade cancer. We can model the gland into its acinar and stromal elements. This new "prostatocrit" model could offer more accurate nomograms for biopsy. 674 patients underwent TRUS and biopsy. Whole gland and zonal volumes were recorded. We compared ratio and acinar volumes when added to a "clinic" model using traditional PSA density. Univariate logistic regression was used to find significant predictors for all and high grade cancer. Backwards multiple logistic regression was used to generate ROC curves comparing the new model to conventional density and PSA alone. Prediction of all grades of prostate cancer: significant variables revealed four significant "prostatocrit" parameters: log peripheral zone acinar density; peripheral zone acinar volume/whole gland acinar volume; peripheral zone acinar density/whole gland volume; peripheral zone acinar density. Acinar model (AUC 0.774), clinic model (AUC 0.745) (P=0.0105). Prediction of high grade prostate cancer: peripheral zone acinar density ("prostatocrit") was the only significant density predictor. Acinar model (AUC 0.811), clinic model (AUC 0.769) (P=0.0005). There is renewed use for ratio and "prostatocrit" density of the peripheral zone in predicting cancer. This outperforms all traditional density measurements. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  11. The effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G mobile phone on the parotid gland of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Filiz; Unlu, Ilhan; Aydin, Emine; Yumusak, Nihat; Devrim, Erdinc; Samim, Ethem Erdal; Ozgur, Elcin; Unsal, Velid; Tomruk, Arin; Ozturk, Goknur Guler; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation on the parotid gland of rats in short and relatively long terms. Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Groups A and B served as the control groups (for 10 days and 40 days, respectively), and each group included six rats. Groups C and D were composed of nine rats each, and they were the exposure groups. The rats were exposed to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted by a generator, simulating a third generation mobile phone for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 10 or 40 days. Following exposure, the rats were sacrificed and parotid glands were removed. Histopathological and biochemical examinations were performed. Although there were no histopathological changes in the control groups except for two animals in group A and three animals in group B, the exposure groups C (10 days) and D (40 days) showed numerous histopathological changes regarding salivary gland damage including acinar epithelial cells, interstitial space, ductal system, vascular system, nucleus, amount of cytoplasm and variations in cell size. The histopathological changes were more prominent in group D compared to group C. There was statistically significant different parameter regarding variation in cell size between the groups B and D (p=0.036). The parotid gland of rats showed numerous histopathological changes after exposure to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation, both in the short and relatively long terms. Increased exposure duration led to an increase in the histopathological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differentiation between Superficial and Deep Lobe Parotid Tumors by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Usefulness of the Parotid Duct Criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, A.; Kuribayashi, A.; Okochi, K.; Yoshino, N.; Kurabayashi, T.; Ishii, J.; Sumi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The location of a parotid tumor affects the choice of surgery, and there is a risk of damaging the facial nerve during surgery. Thus, differentiation between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors is important for appropriate surgical planning. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of using the parotid duct, in addition to the retromandibular vein, for differentiating between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors on MR images. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance images of 42 parotid tumors in 40 patients were reviewed to determine whether the tumor was located in the superficial or deep lobe. In each case, the retromandibular vein and the parotid duct were used to locate the tumor. The parotid duct was only used in cases where the tumor and the duct were visualized on the same image. Results: Using the retromandibular vein criterion, 71% of deep lobe and 86% of superficial lobe tumors were correctly diagnosed, providing an accuracy of 81%. However, the accuracy achieved when using the parotid duct criterion was 100%, although it could be applied to only 28 of the 42 cases. Based on these results, we defined the following diagnostic method: the parotid duct criterion is first applied, and for cases in which it cannot be applied, the retromandibular vein criterion is used. The accuracy of this method was 88%, which was better than that achieved using the retromandibular vein criterion alone. Conclusion: The parotid duct criterion is useful for determining the location of parotid tumors. Combining the parotid duct criterion with the retromandibular vein criterion might improve the diagnostic accuracy of parotid tumor location compared to using the latter criterion alone

  13. Differentiation between Superficial and Deep Lobe Parotid Tumors by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Usefulness of the Parotid Duct Criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, A.; Kuribayashi, A.; Okochi, K.; Yoshino, N.; Kurabayashi, T. (Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Ishii, J. (Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Sumi, Y. (Division of Oral and Dental Surgery, Dept. of Advanced Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi (Japan))

    2009-08-15

    Background: The location of a parotid tumor affects the choice of surgery, and there is a risk of damaging the facial nerve during surgery. Thus, differentiation between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors is important for appropriate surgical planning. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of using the parotid duct, in addition to the retromandibular vein, for differentiating between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors on MR images. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance images of 42 parotid tumors in 40 patients were reviewed to determine whether the tumor was located in the superficial or deep lobe. In each case, the retromandibular vein and the parotid duct were used to locate the tumor. The parotid duct was only used in cases where the tumor and the duct were visualized on the same image. Results: Using the retromandibular vein criterion, 71% of deep lobe and 86% of superficial lobe tumors were correctly diagnosed, providing an accuracy of 81%. However, the accuracy achieved when using the parotid duct criterion was 100%, although it could be applied to only 28 of the 42 cases. Based on these results, we defined the following diagnostic method: the parotid duct criterion is first applied, and for cases in which it cannot be applied, the retromandibular vein criterion is used. The accuracy of this method was 88%, which was better than that achieved using the retromandibular vein criterion alone. Conclusion: The parotid duct criterion is useful for determining the location of parotid tumors. Combining the parotid duct criterion with the retromandibular vein criterion might improve the diagnostic accuracy of parotid tumor location compared to using the latter criterion alone

  14. Nicotine as a mitogenic stimulus for pancreatic acinar cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimal Chowdhury; Kodetthoor B Udupa

    2006-01-01

    Cell proliferation is an important process in life for growth of normal and cancer cells. The signal transduction pathways activated during this process are strictly regulated. This editorial focuses on the role of nicotine,a mitogen, in the induction of signaling pathways resulting in proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells and compares these events with those in normal acinar cells isolated from the rat pancreas. The data shows striking similarities between these two cellular systems.In addition, the editorial reviews very recent literature of the contribution of MAPK signaling in cell lines associated with human diseases. A prospective cellular model of nicotine induced activation of MAPK cascade is presented.

  15. Nitric oxide-induced signalling in rat lacrimal acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia Karen; Tritsaris, K.; Dissing, S.

    2002-01-01

    -adrenergic stimulation and not by a rise in [Ca2+]i alone.   We show that in rat lacrimal acinar cells, NO and cGMP induce Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via G kinase activation. However, the changes in [Ca2+]i are relatively small, suggesting that this pathway plays a modulatory role in Ca2+ signalling, thus...... not by itself causing fast transient increases in [Ca2+]i. In addition, we suggest that endogenously produced NO activated by ß-adrenergic receptor stimulation, plays an important role in signalling to the surrounding tissue....

  16. Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Takenori; Adachi, Tosihide; Enomoto, Kenichi; Ishii, Hidenori; Yoshida, Chikako; Hokunan, Kazuhiko; Bando, Nobuyuki; Shigyo, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin's tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

  17. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland with calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Haeng Eun; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    A 78-year-old woman was referred to Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital complaining of facial palsy and palpable mass on the right parotid gland area. Clinical examination showed non-specific findings of the intraoral region, but showed asymmetrical facial appearance. Panoramic view showed a large amorphous calcified mass on the posterior to the mandibular ramus and thin cortical plate of the posterior ramus. Sialogram showed constriction of the main duct and no further filling of striated, intercalated ducts and parenchymal areas. CT scans demonstrated an irregular, infiltrating mass with slight enhancement in the right parotid gland. The mass showed necrotic areas and calcifications. Bone scan showed marked accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP on the right posterior maxilla. Microscopic findings demonstrated the minimal morphologic alterations and rare mitotic figures within tumor cells, and diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (NOS, Grade II). This report could be aid in the diagnosis of calcified lesions of the salivary gland.

  18. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland with calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Haeng Eun; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2002-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman was referred to Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital complaining of facial palsy and palpable mass on the right parotid gland area. Clinical examination showed non-specific findings of the intraoral region, but showed asymmetrical facial appearance. Panoramic view showed a large amorphous calcified mass on the posterior to the mandibular ramus and thin cortical plate of the posterior ramus. Sialogram showed constriction of the main duct and no further filling of striated, intercalated ducts and parenchymal areas. CT scans demonstrated an irregular, infiltrating mass with slight enhancement in the right parotid gland. The mass showed necrotic areas and calcifications. Bone scan showed marked accumulation of 99m Tc-MDP on the right posterior maxilla. Microscopic findings demonstrated the minimal morphologic alterations and rare mitotic figures within tumor cells, and diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (NOS, Grade II). This report could be aid in the diagnosis of calcified lesions of the salivary gland.

  19. [Acute parotiditis after tracheostomy in Intensive Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serviá Goixart, L; Badía, M; Campi, D; Trujillano, J; Alcega, R; Vilanova, J

    2006-01-01

    Post-anesthesic parotiditis is a little known entity related with anesthesic procedures but described in any situation that motivates manipulation of the oropharyngeal cavity. Its physiopathological mechanism is not well-defined, although it could have a multifactorial origin. A case of a male who was admitted for post-operative control of brain tumor exeresis and who had preauricular and submaxillary inflammation after a routinely performed tracheostomy is presented. Coincidence with the performing of a tracheostomy required us to propose the differential diagnosis with the complications associated to said surgical act. Post-anesthesic parotiditis, even though it is a rare complication and has no clinical significance, should be kept in mind when there is facial edema after any manipulation of the oropharyngeal cavity.

  20. Parotid gland as an initial site of metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Martin F.

    2004-01-01

    The parotid gland is an uncommon site of metastasis from carcinomas arising outside the head and neck region. Involvement of the parotid gland as an initial site of metastasis or presentation is rare. The present case report is the first, to our knowledge, to describe the management and outcome of an elderly man whose first presentation of an asymptomatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was that of a rapidly growing fungating left parotid mass Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  1. Morphological pattern of parotid gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musani, M.A.; Zafar, A.; Malik, S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the morphological pattern of parotid tumours. During this study, 204 patients with parotid tumours were registered. The patients of all ages and both gender were included in this study. All patients were evaluated by history, clinical examination, F.N.A.C. and ultrasound, C.T/MRI was done in selected cases. All patients were surgically managed and their tumour specimen was sent for histopathology. Classification of individual tumour was based on 1991 World Health Organization Classification. Discrete data was presented in percentage and proportions. Out of 204 cases, 152 (74.5%) were benign and 52 (25.5%) were malignant. Of these, 117 (57.35%) patients were females and 87 (42.65%) males. Benign tumours were more common in females whereas malignant tumours were common in males. The mean age of patients was 34 years and 42 years for benign and malignant tumours respectively. Pleomorphic adenoma was most common benign tumor (83.5%), followed by Warthins tumour. The most common malignant tumour was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (60%), followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma. Superficial lobe of parotid gland was the commonest site, 120 benign and all 52 malignant tumours arising from it while 32 benign tumours originated from deep lobe. Parotid swelling for years was main feature of benign tumours, whereas malignant tumours presented with pain, fixation to skin or underlying structure, cervical lymphadenopathy and facial palsy. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was most common malignant tumour. The morphological patterns and distribution followed the known pattern. (author)

  2. Acute parotiditis after cesarean section; case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Moisei; Romina M. Sima; Liana Pleş

    2017-01-01

    The enlargement of the parotid gland develops in inflammatory or stenotic conditions but after Cesarean section the symptomatology is unusual. A 38 year old patient with no obstetrical history referred to our clinic for pregnancy, which followed our national program of prenatal care. The outcome of the pregnancy was favorable for both mother and fetus. During labor the fetus developed bradycardia and the patient delivered by Cesarean section a 3400 g baby-boy with 8 Apgar Score; the anesthesi...

  3. CT evaluation of mass lesions in the parotid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shunichi; Kishikawa, Takashi; Kudo, Sho; Miyaji, Hiroshi; Kuwano, Haruo; Kaneko, Kuniyuki; Ohuchida, Toshiyuki

    1988-01-01

    CT findings of 35 patients with proven 31 parotid gland mass lesions (23 benign tumors, 5 malignant tumors, 3 inflammatory diseases) and 4 infraauricular lymphadenopathy (2 inflammatory nodes, 2 neoplastic nodes) were reviewed. CT accurately diagnosed the parotid origin in 29 of 31 parotid gland diseases. In all four patients with infraauricular lymphadenopathy, differentiation from parotid tumor was difficult. CT differentiation between superficial and deep lobe tumors agreed with surgical findings in 18 of 21 parotid gland tumors. Twenty out of 23 benign parotid gland tumors appeared as discrete masses with smooth margins. All five malignant parotid gland tumors appeared as poorly defined masses. It is concluded that when a tumor is located in the superficial lobe and appears as a sharply circumscribed mass on plain CT, it should be diagnosed as a benign lesion and contrast CT is not required. Secondly, contrast CT would be beneficial when a tumor is indistinct, or located in the deep portion of the parotid gland on plain CT. Finally, CT-sialography is considered unnecessary in the diagnosis of parotid masses. (author)

  4. Primary parotid gland lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Katsaronis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas are the most common lymphomas of the salivary glands. The benign lymphoepithelial lesion is also a lymphoproliferative disease that develops in the parotid gland. In the present case report, we describe one case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion with a subsequent low transformation to grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma appearing as a cystic mass in the parotid gland. Case presentation A 78-year-old Caucasian female smoker was referred to our clinic with a non-tender left facial swelling that had been present for approximately three years. The patient underwent resection of the left parotid gland with preservation of the left facial nerve through a preauricular incision. The pathology report was consistent with a low-grade marginal-zone B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma following benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the gland. Conclusions Salivary gland mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic or bilateral salivary gland lesions. Parotidectomy is recommended in order to treat the tumor and to ensure histological diagnosis for further follow-up planning. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered in association with surgery in disseminated forms or after removal.

  5. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Colon Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Asayama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas with colon involvement that was difficult to distinguish from primary colon cancer. A 60-year-old man was admitted with a 1-month history of diarrhea. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT revealed a large tumor (10.6×11.6 cm at the splenic flexure of the colon. Colonoscopy showed completely round ulcerative lesions, and biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Left hemicolectomy, resection of the jejunum and pancreas body and tail, and splenectomy were performed based on a diagnosis of descending colon cancer (cT4N0M0, stage IIB, and surgery was considered to be curative. Diagnosis was subsequently confirmed as moderately differentiated acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas by immunohistochemical staining (pT3N0M0, stage IIA. Multiple liver metastases with portal thrombosis were found 8 weeks postoperatively. Despite combination chemotherapy with oral S-1 and gemcitabine, the patient died of hepatic failure with no effect of chemotherapy 14 weeks postoperatively. Correct diagnosis was difficult to determine preoperatively from the clinical, CT, and colonoscopy findings. Moreover, the disease was extremely aggressive even after curative resection. Physicians should consider pancreatic cancer in the differential diagnosis of similar cases.

  6. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguerie, N.; Tahiri-Jouti, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Clerc, P.; Logsdon, C.; Svoboda, M.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A.

    1988-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 ± 20 fmol/10 6 cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibition of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein N i to inhibit adenylate cyclase

  7. Giant Parotid Pleomorphic Adenoma Involving Parapharyngeal Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri Rahman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pleomorfik adenoma parotis merupakan tumor jinak kelenjar liur yang paling sering ditemukan, namun pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang sangat besar sehingga melibatkan ruang parafaring (RPF sangat jarang. Diagnosis ini sulit ditegakkan karena gejala klinisnya tidak khas. Penatalaksanaanya harus hati-hati mengingat banyak struktur vital yang beresiko mengalami trauma. Tujuan: Bagaimana menegakkan diagnosis dan penatalaksanaan pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang melibatkan RPF. Kasus: Seorang pasien perempuan 27 tahun ditegakkan diagnosis pleomorfik adenoma parotis kanan dengan melibatkan RPF. Terdapat pembengkakan pada leher yang bersifat asimtomatis dan gejala pendorongan faring dan laring yang menyebabkan disfonia, disfagia, dan defisit saraf kranial IX,X,XII. Penatalaksanaan: Pasien telah dilakukan operasi parotidektomi pendekatan transervikal–transparotid dengan preservasi arteri karotis eksterna dan saraf fasialis. Kesimpulan: Biopsi Aspirasi Jarum Halus (BAJAH dan radiologi merupakan pemeriksaan yang penting untuk menegakkan diagnosis. Penatalaksanaan pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang melibatkan RPF adalah bedah ekstirpasi komplit dengan beberapa pendekatan. .Kata kunci: tumor jinak kelenjar liur, pleomorfik adenoma, ruang parafaringAbstractBackground: Parotid pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland tumor, while giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving the parapharyngeal space (PPS is rare. It was difficult to diagnose because the clinical presentation of this tumor can be subtle. The management must be performed carefully due to anatomy relation to complex vital structure lead to traumatic injury highrisk. Purposes: How to make diagnosis and management parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving PPS. Case: A female 27 years old with diagnosis was giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving PPS. There was asymptomatic swelling of the neck and presence of pushing the pharynx and larynx medially causes

  8. Calcium signalling in the acinar environment of the exocrine pancreas: physiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryshchenko, Oleksiy; Gerasimenko, Julia V; Peng, Shuang; Gerasimenko, Oleg V; Petersen, Ole H

    2018-02-09

    Ca 2+ signalling in different cell types in exocrine pancreatic lobules was monitored simultaneously and signalling responses to various stimuli were directly compared. Ca 2+ signals evoked by K + -induced depolarization were recorded from pancreatic nerve cells. Nerve cell stimulation evoked Ca 2+ signals in acinar but not in stellate cells. Stellate cells are not electrically excitable as they, like acinar cells, did not generate Ca 2+ signals in response to membrane depolarization. The responsiveness of the stellate cells to bradykinin was markedly reduced in experimental alcohol-related acute pancreatitis, but they became sensitive to stimulation with trypsin. Our results provide fresh evidence for an important role of stellate cells in acute pancreatitis. They seem to be a critical element in a vicious circle promoting necrotic acinar cell death. Initial trypsin release from a few dying acinar cells generates Ca 2+ signals in the stellate cells, which then in turn damage more acinar cells causing further trypsin liberation. Physiological Ca 2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells control fluid and enzyme secretion, whereas excessive Ca 2+ signals induced by pathological agents induce destructive processes leading to acute pancreatitis. Ca 2+ signals in the peri-acinar stellate cells may also play a role in the development of acute pancreatitis. In this study, we explored Ca 2+ signalling in the different cell types in the acinar environment of the pancreatic tissue. We have, for the first time, recorded depolarization-evoked Ca 2+ signals in pancreatic nerves and shown that whereas acinar cells receive a functional cholinergic innervation, there is no evidence for functional innervation of the stellate cells. The stellate, like the acinar, cells are not electrically excitable as they do not generate Ca 2+ signals in response to membrane depolarization. The principal agent evoking Ca 2+ signals in the stellate cells is bradykinin, but in experimental alcohol

  9. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the parotid gland associated with polycythemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, J. J.; van Rensburg, P. G.; Coetzee, B. P.

    1986-01-01

    Although malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is thought to be the most common soft tissue tumor of late adult life, it is extremely uncommon in the parotid gland. A case of MFH in the parotid is reported, associated with polycythemia, which remitted following surgical extirpation of the tumor

  10. Ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of parotid abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US has been used as a tool for parotid abscess diagnosis and treatment. The present article aimed to report a case of 72-year-old woman with parotid abscess treated by US-guided needle aspiration and conventional surgical drainage. Along with the clinical report, indications, advantages, and limitations of the method are discussed.

  11. Postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Keun Yong; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Jae Sung; Park, Charn Il; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Chae Seo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Ah [Bundang Seoul National University Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy, and determine prognostic factors for locoregional control and survival. Between 1980 and 2002, 130 patients with parotid malignancy were registered in the database of the Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital. The subjects of this analysis were the 72 of these 130 patients who underwent postoperative irradiation. There were 42 males and 30 females, with a median age of 46.5 years. The most common histological type was a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. There were 6, 23, 23 and 20 patients in Stages I, II, III and IV, respectively. The median dose to the tumor bed was 60 Gy, with a median fraction size of 1.8 Gy. The overall 5 and 10 year survival rates were 85 and 76%, respectively. The five-year locoregional control rate was 85%, which reached a plateau phase after 6 years. Sex and histological type were found to be statistically significant for overall survival from a multivariate analysis. No other factors, including age, facial nerve palsy and stage, were related to overall survival. For locoregional control, nodal involvement and positive resection margin were associated with poor local control. Histological type, tumor size, perineural invasion and type of surgery were not significant for locoregional control. A high survival rate of parotid gland malignancies, with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, was confirmed. Sex and histological type were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Nodal involvement and a positive resection margin were associated with poor locoregional control.

  12. Radiation-induced parotid gland changes in oral cancer patients. Correlation between parotid volume and saliva production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Keiko; Murakami, Ryuji; Tomitaka, Etsuji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether saliva production reflects the parotid volume during the course of radiation therapy (RT) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Twenty patients with advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas, who were treated with preoperative chemo-RT, underwent morphological assessment with CT or MRI and functional assessment with the Saxon test. For the Saxon test, saliva production was measured by weighing a gauze pad before and 2 min after chewing without swallowing; the low-normal value is 2 g. Saliva production and parotid volumes before and 2 weeks after RT were compared with the paired t-test, the Spearman rank correlation test and the Fisher exact test. After 30 Gy irradiation, mean saliva production was decreased from 4.2 to 1.0 g (P 3 (P<0.01); the post-RT: pre-RT parotid volume ratio ranged from 54% to 85% (mean 71%). Although the initial parotid volume was correlated with initial saliva production (r=0.47, P=0.04), no significant correlation was noted after RT (r=0.08, P=0.71), and there were considerable individual variations. The parotid volume ratio was inversely correlated with the saliva-reduction amount (r=-0.79, P<0.01). There was a correlation between decreased parotid gland volume and decreased saliva production in patients with head-and-neck cancer undergoing RT. Parotid volume reduction may predict parotid gland function. (author)

  13. Lipomatosisof the parotid gland in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, Abdullatif A.; Arora, Roopa K.; El-Hassan, Abdulla Y.; Al-Metwalli, Roshdi R.

    2003-01-01

    Parotid lipomatosis is extremely rare in children. Only four cases have previously been reported in English language medical literature. Surgical excision is frequetly complicated by recurrence. We report a fifth case, on a five- month- old girl with rapidly progressivelipomatosis. Emphasis is laid on importance of preserving the unusually delicate tumor capsule to prevent tissue spillage and recurrance. The creation of appropriate cleavage between the mass and expanded skin with sparse subcutaneous fat, safeguarding the tumor capsule on one side and the skin blood supply on the other represents a rewarding technical challenge. (author)

  14. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SEC23B is required for pancreatic acinar cell function in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoriaty, Rami; Vogel, Nancy; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Sans, M. Dolors; Zhu, Guojing; Everett, Lesley; Nelson, Bradley; Durairaj, Haritha; McKnight, Brooke; Zhang, Bin; Ernst, Stephen A.; Ginsburg, David; Williams, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Mice with germline absence of SEC23B die perinatally, exhibiting massive pancreatic degeneration. We generated mice with tamoxifen-inducible, pancreatic acinar cell–specific Sec23b deletion. Inactivation of Sec23b exclusively in the pancreatic acinar cells of adult mice results in decreased overall pancreatic weights from pancreatic cell loss (decreased pancreatic DNA, RNA, and total protein content), as well as degeneration of exocrine cells, decreased zymogen granules, and alterations in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ranging from vesicular ER to markedly expanded cisternae with accumulation of moderate-density content or intracisternal granules. Acinar Sec23b deletion results in induction of ER stress and increased apoptosis in the pancreas, potentially explaining the loss of pancreatic cells and decreased pancreatic weight. These findings demonstrate that SEC23B is required for normal function of pancreatic acinar cells in adult mice. PMID:28539403

  16. A computer-based automated algorithm for assessing acinar cell loss after experimental pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Eisses

    Full Text Available The change in exocrine mass is an important parameter to follow in experimental models of pancreatic injury and regeneration. However, at present, the quantitative assessment of exocrine content by histology is tedious and operator-dependent, requiring manual assessment of acinar area on serial pancreatic sections. In this study, we utilized a novel computer-generated learning algorithm to construct an accurate and rapid method of quantifying acinar content. The algorithm works by learning differences in pixel characteristics from input examples provided by human experts. HE-stained pancreatic sections were obtained in mice recovering from a 2-day, hourly caerulein hyperstimulation model of experimental pancreatitis. For training data, a pathologist carefully outlined discrete regions of acinar and non-acinar tissue in 21 sections at various stages of pancreatic injury and recovery (termed the "ground truth". After the expert defined the ground truth, the computer was able to develop a prediction rule that was then applied to a unique set of high-resolution images in order to validate the process. For baseline, non-injured pancreatic sections, the software demonstrated close agreement with the ground truth in identifying baseline acinar tissue area with only a difference of 1% ± 0.05% (p = 0.21. Within regions of injured tissue, the software reported a difference of 2.5% ± 0.04% in acinar area compared with the pathologist (p = 0.47. Surprisingly, on detailed morphological examination, the discrepancy was primarily because the software outlined acini and excluded inter-acinar and luminal white space with greater precision. The findings suggest that the software will be of great potential benefit to both clinicians and researchers in quantifying pancreatic acinar cell flux in the injured and recovering pancreas.

  17. Parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Preserved parotid function after IMRT on quantitative salivary scintigraphy, and comparison with historical data after conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, C.-Y.; Ting, H.-M.; Huang, H.-Y.; Lee, C.-H.; Huang, E.-Y.; Hsu, H.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the parotid function after parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From March 2003 to May 2004, 16 patients with nonmetastatic NPC underwent parotid-sparing IMRT. Eight of these patients had Stage III or IV NPC based on the 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. The post-IMRT parotid function was evaluated by quantitative salivary scintigraphy and represented by the maximal excretion ratio (MER) of the parotid gland after sialogogue stimulation. The parotid function of 16 NPC patients who were previously treated with conventional radiotherapy was reviewed as the historical control. Results: In the parotid-sparing IMRT group, all 16 patients were alive and without cancer at the end of follow-up period (median, 24.2 months). The mean parotid MER was 53.5% before radiotherapy, 10.7% at 1 month post-IMRT, and 23.3% at 9 months post-IMRT. In the conventional radiotherapy group, the mean parotid MER was 0.6% at 6 to 12 months postradiotherapy. The difference was statistically significant (23.3% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). In the IMRT group, the mean parotid doses ranged from 33.2 Gy to 58.8 Gy (average, 43.9 Gy). The correlation between the mean parotid dose and the percentage decrease of parotid MER at 9 months post-IMRT (dMER) was statically significant (p = 0.008, Pearson correlation). Conclusions: Although the mean parotid doses are relatively high, the significant preservation of parotid function is achieved with IMRT for NPC patients. The significant correlation between mean parotid dose and parotid dMER demonstrates the dose-function relationship of the parotid gland

  18. Parotid Duct Repair with Intubation Tube: Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Muhammed Beşir; Barutca, Seda Asrufoğlu; Keskin, Elif Seda; Atik, Bekir

    2017-01-01

    The parotid duct can be damaged in traumatic injuries and surgical interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment of a duct injury is of great importance because complications such as sialocele and salivary gland fistula may develop if the duct is not surgically repaired. We think the cuff of an intubation tube is an ideal material in parotid duct repair, because of its technical characteristics, easiness of availability, and low-cost. In this paper, we described the use of the cuff cannula of an intubation tube for the diagnosis and treatment of parotid duct laceration, as a low-cost and easy to access material readily available in every operating room. PMID:28713751

  19. Radiation effects on the parotid gland of mammals. Pt. 2. Modifications of plasma and parotid amylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Tomassi, I; Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia; Pelu, G [I.N.R.C.A., Florence (Italy). Inst. of Radiology

    1979-08-01

    The early modifications of the activity of plasma and parotid amylase have been evaluated in rats after whole-body irradiation in different experimental conditions. The modifications observed in the rat are less evident than in humans. The results have shown an initial decrease and a subsequent increase appearing significant 74 hours after irradiation. This could be due to a direct action of ionizing radiation on the parotid glands. However we cannot exclude that the increase of ..cap alpha..-amylase could be determined by the intestinal radiation syndrome. In fact, this syndrome leads to a reduced food uptake, and consequently ..cap alpha..-amylase could accumulate in parotids.

  20. Acinar cell-specific knockout of the PTHrP gene decreases the proinflammatory and profibrotic responses in pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vandanajay; Rastellini, Cristiana; Han, Song; Aronson, Judith F; Greeley, George H; Falzon, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    Pancreatitis is a necroinflammatory disease with acute and chronic manifestations. Accumulated damage incurred during repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis (AP) can lead to chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pancreatic parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels are elevated in a mouse model of cerulein-induced AP. Here, we show elevated PTHrP levels in mouse models of pancreatitis induced by chronic cerulein administration and pancreatic duct ligation. Because acinar cells play a major role in the pathophysiology of pancreatitis, mice with acinar cell-specific targeted disruption of the Pthrp gene (PTHrP(Δacinar)) were generated to assess the role of acinar cell-secreted PTHrP in pancreatitis. These mice were generated using Cre-LoxP technology and the acinar cell-specific elastase promoter. PTHrP(Δacinar) exerted protective effects in cerulein and pancreatic duct ligation models, evident as decreased edema, histological damage, amylase secretion, pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Treating acinar cells in vitro with cerulein increased IL-6 expression and NF-κB activity; these effects were attenuated in PTHrP(Δacinar) cells, as were the cerulein- and carbachol-induced elevations in amylase secretion. The cerulein-induced upregulation of procollagen I expression was lost in PSCs from PTHrP(Δacinar) mice. PTHrP immunostaining was elevated in human CP sections. The cerulein-induced upregulation of IL-6 and ICAM-1 (human acinar cells) and procollagen I (human PSCs) was suppressed by pretreatment with the PTH1R antagonist, PTHrP (7-34). These findings establish PTHrP as a novel mediator of inflammation and fibrosis associated with CP. Acinar cell-secreted PTHrP modulates acinar cell function via its effects on proinflammatory cytokine release and functions via a paracrine pathway to activate PSCs. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Optimization of radiologic technique in parotid sialography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scribano, E.; Vitulo, F.; Raffaele, L.; Blandino, G.

    1988-01-01

    A suitable choice of film-screen combination is certainly the essential condition for achieving diagnostically reliable results together with the benefit of a low dosage for patients. In parotid sialography, the choice of one particular film-screen combination depends on the different thickness of various glandular areas and on the particular anatomical site of the gland which inevitably causes the superimposition of the thinnest canalicular ducts with the adjacent areas. An experimental-clinical study has been performed in order to evaluate the combination which can guarantee the most elevated diagnostic increase. The analysis of the rasults shows useful indication as far as the use of mammographic systems is concerned. These allow more diagnostic information together with a sufficiently low dosage for the patients

  2. [Parotid involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, R; Bertin, H; Delemazure, A S; Clairand, R; Mercier, J; Corre, P

    2014-06-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic vascularitis. This disease causes eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The most frequent manifestations are cortico-dependent asthma, mono- or polyneuropathy, paranasal sinus polyposis, and digestive and renal dysfunction. Salivary glands are very rarely involved. We describe a case of CSS in a patient presenting with bilateral parotid swelling. The morphological study of salivary glands revealed an unusual thickening of the salivary duct walls. Salivary gland involvement in Churg and Strauss syndrome can be difficult to demonstrate histologically; it does not usually present in the clinical foreground of the disease, and can be a source of misdiagnosis. The biopsy should be performed in the symptomatic gland, away from any previous corticoid treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Contemporary Management of Benign and Malignant Parotid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielker, Jovanna; Grosheva, Maria; Ihrler, Stephan; Wittig, Andrea; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2018-01-01

    To report the standard of care, interesting new findings and controversies about the treatment of parotid tumors. Relevant and actual studies were searched in PubMed and reviewed for diagnostics, treatment and outcome of both benign and malignant tumors. Prospective trials are lacking due to rarity of the disease and high variety of tumor subtypes. The establishment of reliable non-invasive diagnostics tools for the differentiation between benign and malignant tumors is desirable. Prospective studies clarifying the association between different surgical techniques for benign parotid tumors and morbidity are needed. The role of adjuvant or definitive radiotherapy in securing loco-regional control and improving survival in malignant disease is established. Prospective clinical trials addressing the role of chemotherapy/molecular targeted therapy for parotid cancer are needed. An international consensus on the classification of parotid surgery techniques would facilitate the comparison of different trials. Such efforts should lead into a clinical guideline.

  4. Marked differences in immunocytological localization of [3H]estradiol-binding protein in rat pancreatic acinar tumor cells compared to normal acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudoin, A.R.; Grondin, G.; St Jean, P.; Pettengill, O.; Longnecker, D.S.; Grossman, A.

    1991-01-01

    [ 3 H]Estradiol can bind to a specific protein in normal rat pancreatic acinar cells. Electron microscopic immunocytochemical analysis has shown this protein to be localized primarily in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Rat exocrine pancreatic tumor cell lines, whether grown in tissue culture (AR42J) or as a tumor mass after sc injection into rats (DSL-2), lacked detectable amounts of this [ 3 H]estradiol-binding protein (EBP), as determined by the dextran-coated charcoal assay. Furthermore, primary exocrine pancreatic neoplasms induced with the carcinogen azaserine contained little or no detectable [ 3 H]estradiol-binding activity. However, electron immunocytochemical studies of transformed cells indicated the presence of material that cross-reacted with antibodies prepared against the [ 3 H]EBP. The immunopositive reaction in transformed cells was localized almost exclusively in lipid granules. Such lipid organelles in normal acinar cells, although present less frequently than in transformed cells, have never been observed to contain EBP-like immunopositive material. Presumably, the aberrant localization of EBP in these acinar tumor cells results in loss of function of this protein, which in normal pancreatic acinar cells appears to exert a modulating influence on zymogen granule formation and the process of secretion

  5. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to Knock out Amylase in Acinar Cells Decreases Pancreatitis-Induced Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Yasunaga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm that originates from acinar cells. Acinar cells get reprogrammed to become duct cells, resulting in pancreatic cancer. Pancreatitis is an acinar cell inflammation, leading to “impaired autophagy flux”. Pancreatitis promotes acinar-to-ductal transdifferentiation. Expression of amylase gets eliminated during the progression of pancreatic cancer. Amylase is considered as an acinar cell marker; however, its function in cells is not known. Thus, we investigated whether amylase affects the acinar cell autophagy and whether it plays any role in development of pancreatitis. Here, we knocked out ATG12 in a pancreatic cancer cells and acinar cells using CRISPR/Cas9. Autophagy inhibition led to an increase in the expression of duct cell markers and a simultaneous decrease in that of acinar cell markers. It also caused an increase in cell viability and changes in mitochondrial morphology. Next, we knocked out amylase in acinar cells. Amylase deficiency decreased autophagy induced by pancreatitis. Our results suggest that amylase controls pancreatitis-induced autophagy. We found that eliminating amylase expression contributes to pancreatic cancer etiology by decreasing autophagy. Furthermore, our results indicate that amylase plays a role in selective pancreatitis-induced autophagy of pancreatic enzyme vesicles.

  6. Modification of parotids in case of conformal ORL irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvel, G.; Lafond, C.; Manens, J.P.; Jouyaux, F.; Williaume, D.; Le Prise, E.; Crevoisier, R. de; Cazoulat, G.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the anatomical modifications of the parotids in case of tumors irradiation of the O.R.L. area. In case of irradiation of the O.R.L. area the parotids reduce about one third of their volume, by moving inwards and backwards. The dose received by these glands at the end of irradiation can be different from this one initially planned. (N.C.)

  7. Radioprotection of the rat parotid gland by cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodicoff, M.; Conger, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Most earlier studies showing a radioprotective effect by cAMP show only slight degrees of protection. The present study demonstrates a substantial protective effect (DMF, 1.63) of exogenously administered cAMP on the rat parotid gland and supports the mechanism suggested previously for protection afforded the parotid glands by the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, which is known to elevate endogenous intracellular cAMP

  8. Diabetes insípida post-parotiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Pila Pérez, Rafael; Rivero Sánchez, Miguel; Peralta Ventura, Ricardo; Carbonell Perdomo, Diego; Pila Peláez, Rafael; Guerra Rodríguez, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Se describe un caso de diabetes insípida post parotiditis, entidad sumamente rara en nuestro medio. Se destaca el diagnóstico y la terapéutica de esta entidad, así como la causa etiológico y forma de presentación. A case of diabetes insipidus post-parotiditis is described entity totally rare in our midicu. Diagnostics and therapeutics are stressed a well as the ethiologic antecedent and way of presentation.

  9. Unexpected Detection of Parotid Gland Malignancy during Primary Extracapsular Dissection

    OpenAIRE

    Mantsopoulos, Konstantinos; Velegrakis, Stylianos; Iro, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the oncologic and functional outcome in cases in which a false preoperative working hypothesis “benign parotid tumor” led to a primary extracapsular dissection being performed rather than a traditional, more radical surgical modality. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Academic tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods The records of all patients treated for malignant tumors of the parotid gland between 2006 and 2012 were...

  10. Influence of Handheld Mobiles on Parotid: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gracelin E Ranjitha; Ravi David Austin; Sarvathikari Ramasamy; Chinnappa Saravana Bharathi; Deepthi Angeline; Sakthivel Sambasivam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile phones generate heat and radiofrequency radiation. The parotid gland is one potential target, because mobile phones are pressed against the side of the face where the gland is located. Aims and Objectives: To compare the effect of mobile phone radiation on parotid gland volume, systolic velocity, salivary flow rate, and protein concentration between the dominant and the nondominant side of mobile phone usage among heavy mobile phone users. Materials and Methods: Ultrasono...

  11. Surgical options in benign parotid tumors: a proposal for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quer, Miquel; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Takes, Robert P; Silver, Carl E; Boedeker, Carsten C; de Bree, Remco; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Sanabria, Alvaro; Shaha, Ashok R; Pujol, Albert; Zbären, Peter; Ferlito, Alfio

    2017-11-01

    Different surgical options are currently available for treating benign tumors of the parotid gland, and the discussion on optimal treatment continues despite several meta-analyses. These options include more limited resections (extracapsular dissection, partial lateral parotidectomy) versus more extensive and traditional options (lateral parotid lobectomy, total parotidectomy). Different schools favor one option or another based on their experience, skills and tradition. This review provides a critical analysis of the literature regarding these options. The main limitation of all the studies is the bias of selection for different surgical approaches. For this reason, we propose a staging system that could facilitate clinical decision making and the comparison of results. We propose four categories based on the size of the tumor and its location within the parotid gland. Category I includes tumors up to 3 cm, which are mobile, close to the outer surface and close to the parotid borders. Category II includes deeper tumors up to 3 cm. Category III comprises tumors greater than 3 cm involving two levels of the parotid gland, and category IV tumors are greater than 3 cm and involve more than 2 levels. For each category and for the various pathologic types, a guideline of surgical extent is proposed. The objective of this classification is to facilitate prospective multicentric studies on surgical techniques in the treatment of benign parotid tumors and to enable the comparison of results of different clinical studies.

  12. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo

    1996-01-01

    The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

  13. [Recurrent chronic parotiditis in childhood: An update of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso-Hofer, Francisca; Gutiérrez Díaz, Rodrigo; Ortiz Cárdenas, Rodrigo; Osorio Herrera, Gustavo; Landaeta Mendoza, Mirtha

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent childhood chronic parotiditis (RCCP) is a relevant pathology. Its diagnosis is mainly clinical, but it relies on imaging tests. The current treatment approach is diverse. The aim of this article is to update the clinical features, complementary tests, etiopathogenic models and therapeutic protocols of this disease. A bibliographic search was performed in PUBMED using the free terms and MESH terms: RCCP, recurrent parotiditis, chronic parotiditis and parotiditis. The filters used were human patients, up to 18 years old, with abstract. In SCIELO the free terms included were Parotiditis and chronic. Articles published in English, Spanish or Portuguese until 2017 were included. In PUBMED 119 articles were found and 44 were included. The exclusion of the remaining articles was due to language, access to the article or absence of relationship between the article and the proposed revision. In SCIELO 6 articles were found 6 of which 5 were selected. The multidisciplinary asses of patients with RCCP is considered the appropriate treatment. Its diagnosis is clinical but it relies on imaging tests, such as echography and sialography. The current treatment approach is conservative, and the best available evidence supports the use of sialendoscopy with irrigation and administration of antibiotics and/or corticosteroids via the parotid duct. However, there would be proper results with intraglandular lavage with physiological solutions without the need for a sialendoscope.

  14. Acinar cell ultrastructure after taurine treatment in rat acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Y.; Mas, M. R.; Taski, I.; Comert, B.; Isik, A. T.; Mas, N. M.; Yener, N.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the organelle-based changes in acinar cells in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) after taurine treatment and the association of electron microscopic findings with histopathalogical changes and oxidative stress markers. The study was performed in February 2005at Gulhane School of Medicine and Hacettepe University, Turkey. Forty-five rats were divided into 3 groups. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced in groups II and III. Groups I and II were treated with saline and Group III with taurine 1000mg/kg/day, i.p, for 48 hours. Histopathological and ultrastructural examinations were determined using one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Histopathologic findings improved significantly after taurine treatment. Degree of injury in rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulums, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and nucleus of acinar cells also decreased with taurine in correlation with biochemical and histological results. Taurine improves acinar cell organelle structure, and ultrastructural recovery in ANP reflects histological improvement. (author)

  15. Pancreatic acinar cells-derived cyclophilin A promotes pancreatic damage by activating NF-κB pathway in experimental pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ge; Wan, Rong; Hu, Yanling; Ni, Jianbo; Yin, Guojian; Xing, Miao; Shen, Jie; Tang, Maochun; Chen, Congying; Fan, Yuting; Xiao, Wenqin; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xingpeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CypA is upregulated in experimental pancreatitis. • CCK induces expression and release of CypA in acinar cell in vitro. • rCypA aggravates CCK-induced acinar cell death and inflammatory cytokine production. • rCypA activates the NF-κB pathway in acinar cells in vitro. - Abstract: Inflammation triggered by necrotic acinar cells contributes to the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), but its precise mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that Cyclophilin A (CypA) released from necrotic cells is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. We therefore investigated the role of CypA in experimental AP induced by administration of sodium taurocholate (STC). CypA was markedly upregulated and widely expressed in disrupted acinar cells, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and tubular complexes. In vitro, it was released from damaged acinar cells by cholecystokinin (CCK) induction. rCypA (recombinant CypA) aggravated CCK-induced acinar cell necrosis, promoted nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 activation, and increased cytokine production. In conclusion, CypA promotes pancreatic damage by upregulating expression of inflammatory cytokines of acinar cells via the NF-κB pathway

  16. Pancreatic acinar cells-derived cyclophilin A promotes pancreatic damage by activating NF-κB pathway in experimental pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ge [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Wan, Rong [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Hu, Yanling [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Ni, Jianbo [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Yin, Guojian; Xing, Miao [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Shen, Jie [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Tang, Maochun [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Congying [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Fan, Yuting; Xiao, Wenqin; Zhao, Yan [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Wang, Xingpeng, E-mail: wangxingpeng@hotmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); and others

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • CypA is upregulated in experimental pancreatitis. • CCK induces expression and release of CypA in acinar cell in vitro. • rCypA aggravates CCK-induced acinar cell death and inflammatory cytokine production. • rCypA activates the NF-κB pathway in acinar cells in vitro. - Abstract: Inflammation triggered by necrotic acinar cells contributes to the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), but its precise mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that Cyclophilin A (CypA) released from necrotic cells is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. We therefore investigated the role of CypA in experimental AP induced by administration of sodium taurocholate (STC). CypA was markedly upregulated and widely expressed in disrupted acinar cells, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and tubular complexes. In vitro, it was released from damaged acinar cells by cholecystokinin (CCK) induction. rCypA (recombinant CypA) aggravated CCK-induced acinar cell necrosis, promoted nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 activation, and increased cytokine production. In conclusion, CypA promotes pancreatic damage by upregulating expression of inflammatory cytokines of acinar cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  17. Establishment of functional acinar-like cultures from human salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

    2015-02-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, α-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of α-amylase secretion after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  18. Calcium signalling in the acinar environment of the exocrine pancreas: physiology and pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Gryshchenko, Oleksiy; Gerasimenko, Julia V.; Peng, Shuang; Gerasimenko, Oleg V.; Petersen, Ole Holger

    2018-01-01

    Physiological Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells control fluid and\\ud enzyme secretion, whereas excessive Ca2+ signals induced by pathological agents\\ud induce destructive processes leading to acute pancreatitis. Ca2+ signals in the periacinar\\ud stellate cells may also play a role in the development of acute pancreatitis. In\\ud this study, we have explored Ca2+ signalling in the different cell types to be found in\\ud the acinar environment of the pancreatic tissue. We have, for the firs...

  19. Interventional sialendoscopy for parotid ductal calculi: our preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P P; Gupta, Neelima; Goyal, Arun; Tomar, Sanjeev

    2012-09-01

    With this article we present our initial experience with interventional sialendoscopy of the parotid duct for the parotid calculi. We carried out a prospective study of patients of parotid calculi in a tertiary referral centre. Diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy was performed in five cases of parotid calculi. The outcome was classified on the basis of clearance of the lumen of the duct and resolution of symptoms. Diagnostic sialendoscopy was able to diagnose the calculus in all cases. Interventional sialendoscopy was done under general anesthesia in all cases and calculus was successfully removed. The average size of sialolith was 8.2 mm. No complications occurred in any of the cases. Check sialendoscopy was done in all cases after a minimum follow up of 6 months, which showed the duct lumen to be free of stone with no stricture of the duct. Sialendoscopy is an optimal technique for removal of intraductal parotid calculi and avoids removal of the gland. In our series there was no associated morbidity and complication.

  20. Preauricular infratemporal fossa approach for advanced malignant parotid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, John P; Benscoter, Brent J; Marzo, Sam J; Borrowdale, Richard W; Pontikis, George C

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to demonstrate the surgical technique involved in the preauricular infratemporal fossa (ITF) approach, outline the clinical indications for use of this technique, and present the results in using this approach in 159 patients with malignant parotid tumors. At the conclusion of this article, the reader should be able to understand the utility of the preauricular infratemporal fossa approach in the management of patients with advanced malignant parotid tumors. This was a retrospective chart review of 159 patients treated at a tertiary care academic medical center following institutional review board approval. A comprehensive medical records review was performed for all patients with malignant parotid tumors who underwent a preauricular ITF approach between July 1988 and July 2010. The most common presenting symptoms were pain and trismus, whereas the presence of a parotid mass and facial paralysis were the most common clinical signs. Mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinoma accounted for 63% of the tumors, and perineural invasion was found in nearly 71% of the patients. Despite negative surgical margins in 92% of the patients, local or regional tumor recurrence was found in 17% of the cases. The mean follow-up time was 12.8 years. The preauricular ITF approach should be used in the surgical extirpation of advanced malignant parotid neoplasms. This technique provides proximal facial nerve identification, internal carotid artery protection, and negative tumor margins at the skull base. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Tuberculosis of the Parotid Gland: Computed Tomographic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.; Xiao, J.; Pui, M.H.; Gong, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) of the parotid gland is rare, even in endemic regions. Approximately 100 cases have been reported in the English literature. The computed tomographic (CT) features, however, have seldom been studied. Purpose: To determine the diagnostic CT features of tuberculosis of the parotid gland. Material and Methods: CT studies of four histologically proven cases of tuberculosis of the parotid gland were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A total of 15 enlarged lymph nodes were found in the superficial lobes of the parotid glands. The nodes were arranged linearly within the gland. Enhancement patterns included homogeneous enhancement (9/15, 60%), homogeneous enhancement with eccentric microcysts (3/15, 20%), and thick-walled rim enhancement with central lucency (3/15, 20%). Thickened adjacent fascial plane and platysma were seen in two patients. Ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy was seen in all patients. Conclusion: In patients presenting with unilateral parotid nodules, TB should be considered when linearly arranged enhancing nodules are demonstrated in the superficial lobes of the glands on CT scan

  2. The effects of diabetes on the rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chull Jea; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe microscopic change of salivary gland tissue, which is a cause of xerostomia in diabetic condition; for this target, the author injected streptozotocin 0.1 ml/100 gm b.w. on the rat, Sprague Dawley, to induce diabetes, and then observed microscopic changes in parotid gland tissue using light microscopy and electron microscopy. The results were as follows: 1. Parotid gland tissue of the diabetic rat was atrophied or degenerated in lapse of experimental time, but began to re pair from 14 days alter diabetic induction. 2. In the basal lamina of the vessel of parotid gland tissue in the diabetic rat, lamina lucida was discontinued and la mina densa was increased in thickness, but the number of capillary was gradually increased and dilated. 3. In acinic and intercalated ductal cells of parotid gland in the diabetic rat, changes of mitochondria, RER, secretor y granule, free ribosome were prominent. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that degenerative changes of the parotid gland tissue were due to not completely thickening of the basal lamina of vessels, but many other causal factors, because thickness of the basal lamina of vessels was not related with degenerative changes.

  3. FDG PET imaging of Ela1-myc mice reveals major biological differences between pancreatic acinar and ductal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abasolo, Ibane; Pujal, Judit; Navarro, Pilar; Rabanal, Rosa M.; Serafin, Anna; Millan, Olga; Real, Francisco X.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate FDG PET imaging in Ela1-myc mice, a pancreatic cancer model resulting in the development of tumours with either acinar or mixed acinar-ductal phenotype. Transversal and longitudinal FDG PET studies were conducted; selected tissue samples were subjected to autoradiography and ex vivo organ counting. Glucose transporter and hexokinase mRNA expression was analysed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Glut2 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Transversal studies showed that mixed acinar-ductal tumours could be identified by FDG PET several weeks before they could be detected by hand palpation. Longitudinal studies revealed that ductal - but not acinar - tumours could be detected by FDG PET. Autoradiographic analysis confirmed that tumour areas with ductal differentiation incorporated more FDG than areas displaying acinar differentiation. Ex vivo radioactivity measurements showed that tumours of solely acinar phenotype incorporated more FDG than pancreata of non-transgenic littermates despite the fact that they did not yield positive PET images. To gain insight into the biological basis of the differential FDG uptake, glucose transporter and hexokinase transcript expression was studied in microdissected tumour areas enriched for acinar or ductal cells and validated using cell-specific markers. Glut2 and hexokinase I and II mRNA levels were up to 20-fold higher in ductal than in acinar tumours. Besides, Glut2 protein overexpression was found in ductal neoplastic cells but not in the surrounding stroma. In Ela1-myc mice, ductal tumours incorporate significantly more FDG than acinar tumours. This difference likely results from differential expression of Glut2 and hexokinases. These findings reveal previously unreported biological differences between acinar and ductal pancreatic tumours. (orig.)

  4. FDG PET imaging of Ela1-myc mice reveals major biological differences between pancreatic acinar and ductal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasolo, Ibane [Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Hospital del Mar, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Alta Tecnologia - CRC, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Pujal, Judit; Navarro, Pilar [Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Hospital del Mar, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Rabanal, Rosa M.; Serafin, Anna [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Barcelona (Spain); Millan, Olga [Institut d' Alta Tecnologia - CRC, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Real, Francisco X. [Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Hospital del Mar, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Barcelona (Spain); Programa de Patologia Molecular, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    The aim was to evaluate FDG PET imaging in Ela1-myc mice, a pancreatic cancer model resulting in the development of tumours with either acinar or mixed acinar-ductal phenotype. Transversal and longitudinal FDG PET studies were conducted; selected tissue samples were subjected to autoradiography and ex vivo organ counting. Glucose transporter and hexokinase mRNA expression was analysed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Glut2 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Transversal studies showed that mixed acinar-ductal tumours could be identified by FDG PET several weeks before they could be detected by hand palpation. Longitudinal studies revealed that ductal - but not acinar - tumours could be detected by FDG PET. Autoradiographic analysis confirmed that tumour areas with ductal differentiation incorporated more FDG than areas displaying acinar differentiation. Ex vivo radioactivity measurements showed that tumours of solely acinar phenotype incorporated more FDG than pancreata of non-transgenic littermates despite the fact that they did not yield positive PET images. To gain insight into the biological basis of the differential FDG uptake, glucose transporter and hexokinase transcript expression was studied in microdissected tumour areas enriched for acinar or ductal cells and validated using cell-specific markers. Glut2 and hexokinase I and II mRNA levels were up to 20-fold higher in ductal than in acinar tumours. Besides, Glut2 protein overexpression was found in ductal neoplastic cells but not in the surrounding stroma. In Ela1-myc mice, ductal tumours incorporate significantly more FDG than acinar tumours. This difference likely results from differential expression of Glut2 and hexokinases. These findings reveal previously unreported biological differences between acinar and ductal pancreatic tumours. (orig.)

  5. Replanning Criteria and Timing Definition for Parotid Protection-Based Adaptive Radiation Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

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    Wei-Rong Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate real-time volumetric and dosimetric changes of the parotid gland so as to determine replanning criteria and timing for parotid protection-based adaptive radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Fifty NPC patients were treated with helical tomotherapy; volumetric and dosimetric (Dmean, V1, and D50 changes of the parotid gland at the 1st, 6th, 11th, 16th, 21st, 26th, 31st, and 33rd fractions were evaluated. The clinical parameters affecting these changes were studied by analyses of variance methods for repeated measures. Factors influencing the actual parotid dose were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model. The cut-off values predicting parotid overdose were developed from receiver operating characteristic curves and judged by combining them with a diagnostic test consistency check. The median absolute value and percentage of parotid volume reduction were 19.51 cm3 and 35%, respectively. The interweekly parotid volume varied significantly (p<0.05. The parotid Dmean, V1, and D50 increased by 22.13%, 39.42%, and 48.45%, respectively. The actual parotid dose increased by an average of 11.38% at the end of radiation therapy. Initial parotid volume, initial parotid Dmean, and weight loss rate are valuable indicators for parotid protection-based replanning.

  6. In vitro secretion of zymogens by bovine pancreatic acini and ultra-structural analysis of exocytosis

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    Sivalingam Jayaveni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish a bovine pancreatic acinar cell culture model with longer viability and functionality. The cells could be maintained in a functional state for upto 20 days with normal morphology. Cells were positive for amylase as observed by immunofluorescence staining. Acinar cells are spherical and range about 2–3 µm in diameter. The porosome formed by exocytosis and heterogenous enzyme granules of size ranging 100–300 nm were seen on the surface of cells by electron microscopy. The activity of the enzymes was high on day 15 and the activity profile of the enzymes is in the order: protease>lipase>amylase and the enzymes were identified by SDS-PAGE. Long-term culture of bovine pancreatic acini could be useful in studying the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Since the bovine genome shares about 80% identity with the human genome, the cells derived from bovine pancreas can be engineered and used as a potential xenotransplant to treat conditions like pancreatitis as the tissue source is abundantly available.

  7. MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy

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    Andronikou, Savvas; Jadwat, Saaleeha [Institute of Child Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, 7700, Cape Town (South Africa); McHugh, Kieran; Linward, Jane [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this article is to report the MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy and highlight the diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI especially with regard to those lesions that may cause respiratory compromise. Retrospective review of MRI scans in six infants with bilateral parotid haemangiomas. The bilateral haemangiomas were symmetrical in all but one patient. On T1-weighted images the masses were isointense to muscle and on T2 they were hyperintense with numerous small vessels giving a septated appearance. There was vivid enhancement with gadolinium in all cases. In three patients, deep bilateral extensions were demonstrated involving the parapharyngeal spaces resulting in respiratory compromise which required tracheostomy. Bilateral parotid haemangiomas are rare, but when present may have deep extensions, which can result in respiratory compromise requiring tracheostomy. (orig.)

  8. MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Jadwat, Saaleeha; McHugh, Kieran; Linward, Jane

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report the MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy and highlight the diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI especially with regard to those lesions that may cause respiratory compromise. Retrospective review of MRI scans in six infants with bilateral parotid haemangiomas. The bilateral haemangiomas were symmetrical in all but one patient. On T1-weighted images the masses were isointense to muscle and on T2 they were hyperintense with numerous small vessels giving a septated appearance. There was vivid enhancement with gadolinium in all cases. In three patients, deep bilateral extensions were demonstrated involving the parapharyngeal spaces resulting in respiratory compromise which required tracheostomy. Bilateral parotid haemangiomas are rare, but when present may have deep extensions, which can result in respiratory compromise requiring tracheostomy. (orig.)

  9. CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenifis in parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changfu; Wang Binjie; Zhang Heping; Jin Haiying; Nie Peng; Chang Liang; Wei Haigang; Zou Ling

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland, so as to improve the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis of parotid gland. Methods: Nine cases with tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland confirmed by surgical pathology and acid-fast bacilli after preoperative spiral CT plain scan and two phases dynamic enhancement scan were retrospectively analyzed. Imaging findings of CT were reviewed and compared with surgical pathology. Results: Seven of the 9 cases of tuberculosis of the parotid gland occurred in the left side, and 2 in the right side, and superficial lobe involvement occurred in 8 cases and deep lobe in 1 case. The lesion was classified as tumour type (8 cases) and infiltration type (1 case). In turnout type, the number of lesion was from 1 to 4, and the size was from 2.7 to 5.3 cm in diameter. One case of infiltration type measured 3.4 cm in diameter. On CT plain scan, the lesions showed homogeneous slight high-density with regular edge in 5 cases and irregular low-density in 4 cases, and 2 of them with partly blurred edge. On CT enhanced scan, uniform moderate enhancement was seen in 3 cases, circular enhancement in 4 cases, inhomogeneous enhancement in 1 case, and lace-like enhancement in 1 case. Local infiltration occurred in 6 cases. Lymphadenovarix in the same side of lesion occurred in 2 cases. Conclusion: CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland present diversification, which correlate well with pathological changes. Understanding of characteristic CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland is helpful for differential diagnosis, but final diagnosis still depends on pathology and acid-fast bacilli. (authors)

  10. Geometric changes of parotid glands caused by hydration during chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kager, Petronella M.; Weerdenburg, Sanne C. C. van; Kranen, Simon R. van; Beek, Suzanne van; Lamers-Kuijper, Elisabeth A.; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Remeijer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plan adaptation during the course of (chemo)radiotherapy of H&N cancer requires repeat CT scanning to capture anatomy changes such as parotid gland shrinkage. Hydration, applied to prevent nephrotoxicity from cisplatin, could temporarily alter the hydrogen balance and hence the captured anatomy. The aim of this study was to determine geometric changes of parotid glands as function of hydration during chemoradiotherapy compared to a control group treated with radiotherapy only. This study included an experimental group (n = 19) receiving chemoradiotherapy, and a control group (n = 19) receiving radiotherapy only. Chemoradiotherapy patients received cisplatin with 9 l of saline solution during hydration in the first, fourth and seventh week. The delineations of the parotid glands on the planning CT scan were automatically propagated to Cone Beam CT scans using deformable image registration. Relative volume and position of the parotid glands were determined at the second chemotherapy cycle (week four) and at fraction 35. When saline solution was administrated, the volume temporarily increased on the first day (7.2 %, p < 0.001), second day (10.8 %, p < 0.001) and third day (7.0 %, p = 0.016). The gland positions shifted lateral, the distance between glands increased on the first day with 1.5 mm (p < 0.001), on the second day 2.2 mm (p < 0.001). At fraction 35, with both groups the mean shrinkage was 24 % ± 11 % (1SD) and the mean medial distance between the parotid glands decreased by 0.47 cm ± 0.27 cm. Hydration significantly modulates parotid gland geometry. Unless, in the context of adaptive RT, a repeat CT scan is timed during a chemotherapy cycle, these effects are of minor clinical relevance

  11. [Sialoendoscopy-assisted sialolithectomy for large parotid stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Deng-gao; Zhang, Zu-yan; Yu, Guang-yan

    2014-02-18

    To explore the clinical application of endoscope-assisted operative retrieval of large parotid stones as a minimally invasive alternative. From January 2010 to April 2013, 6 patients (male: 5, female: 1, age from 30-62 years, and median age: 49.5 years)suffering from recurred swelling of parotid gland due to sialoliths were treated by endoscope-assisted parotid surgery in Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. All of the patients underwent clinical, ultrasonographic and cone-beam CT (CBCT) examinations to get the detailed information of the number, location and size of stones, which was recorded in the medical records. endoscope-assisted parotid surgery was performed under general anesthesia in all the 6 cases after the failure of basket or forcep retrieval firstly. During the operation, sialoendoscope was used to locate the stone exactly and then the calculus was exposed through a pre-auricular approach and released by incising the duct. The postoperative complications were recorded and observed during the follow-up periods. Preoperative radiological examinations showed that all of the sialoliths were near the hilum of parotid gland ducts in the 6 cases, which were 5-9 mm in diameter. All of the stones were removed successfully by endoscope-assisted operative retrieval. The incisions healed smoothly in all the 6 cases. There were no cases of facial nerve weakness, infection or salivary fistula. After a mean follow-up of 19 months (ranging from 6-36 months), 5 patients remained asymptomatic and 1 patient had mild obstructed or infective symptoms. The final results were satisfied. It is suggested that endoscope-assisted operative retrieval is a viable minimally invasive alternative to remove the large or recalcitrant parotid stones with a high successful rate and low complications.

  12. Influence of Handheld Mobiles on Parotid: A Cohort Study

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    Gracelin E Ranjitha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mobile phones generate heat and radiofrequency radiation. The parotid gland is one potential target, because mobile phones are pressed against the side of the face where the gland is located. Aims and Objectives: To compare the effect of mobile phone radiation on parotid gland volume, systolic velocity, salivary flow rate, and protein concentration between the dominant and the nondominant side of mobile phone usage among heavy mobile phone users. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography of the superior lobe of parotid was performed bilaterally to measure gland volume. Systolic velocity of the external carotid artery in gland was calculated bilaterally using color Doppler imaging. Saliva flow rate was measured bilaterally with modified Schrimer strip. Carlson-Crittenden device was used to collect 0.5 ml saliva sample from the duct and biuret assay was done to determine the protein concentration. Settings and Design: A cohort study was conducted with 50 undergraduate students of a dental college based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation test was used to correlate and compare changes in the parameters of parotid gland and analyzed to a significant level of 0.05. Results: The volume, systolic velocity of blood flow of the external carotid artery, the salivary flow rate, and protein concentration of the parotid gland were significantly more by 11.9, 18, 23, and 8%, respectively, on the dominant side than the nondominant side of mobile phone usage. Conclusion: The study emphasized that prolonged mobile phone usage causes biological changes in parotid gland.

  13. [Lupus erythematosus panniculitis presenting as palpebral edema and parotiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pastor, G; Valcuende, F; Tomás, G; Moreno, M

    2007-10-01

    Lupus erythematosus panniculitis or lupus erythematosus profundus is characterized by inflammation of the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It can occur in isolation or associated with chronic systemic or discoid lupus erythematosus. It usually consists of nodules and hardened subcutaneous plaques on the forehead, cheeks, proximal extremities, and buttocks. Periorbital and parotid involvement are rare and can lead to misdiagnosis. We present the case of a patient with lupus erythematosus panniculitis who presented with palpebral edema and involvement of the periocular fat and parotid gland.

  14. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN AGAINST MEASLES, PAROTIDITIS AND VITAMINOTHERAPY

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    S.M. Kharit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The researchers observed 45 children inoculated with the Russian divalent vaccine (measles–parotiditis. 25 children received mineral and vitamin complex «jungle» for a month since the date of vaccination. The application of «jungle» medication was efficient and conduced to prophylaxis of the complication of the vaccination, prevention of the inter current diseases among the vaccinated, as well as positively affected the intensity of the special antibody formation because of activation of cellular and antiviral mechanisms.Key words: vaccination, measles, parotiditis, prevention, mineral and vitamin complex, children.

  15. Parotid abscess due to salmonella enteritidis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Cesar V; Jensen, JoAnne D

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella infection of the parotid gland is rare. An instance in a 50-year-old man of Salmonella enteritidis parotiditis initially recognized by microbial culture of a fine needle aspiration cytology material is described. The identified predisposing factor was chronic alcoholic abuse. For the infection source, a carrier state of salmonella parotitis was postulated, which progressed to focal abscess and was subsequently complicated by bacteremia and hematogenous spread to the liver, spleen and lungs. Salmonella should be included in the differential consideration of head and neck abscesses in immunocompromised individuals and treated aggressively.

  16. Parotid radiosensitivity changes: a temporal relation to glandular circadian rhythms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mofty, S.K.; Hovenga, T.L.; Russell, J.E.; Simmons, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of the rat parotid gland to X-radiation increased considerably towards the end of the daily light span (0800-2000 hours) and to a lesser extent before the onset of that period. The major sensitivity peak occurred at 1600 hours and coincides with a diurnal nadir in the rates of protein and RNA synthesis. The minor peak occurred at 0400 hours and was temporally related to a daily period of maximal secretory activity. It is suggested that suboptimal repair and secretion-linked cellular perturbations might contribute to the pathogenesis of the circadian increases in radiosensitivity of parotid cells. (author)

  17. Carcinoma ex mixed tumor arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Hwang, E. H.; Lee, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma ex mixed tumor is a mixed tumor in which a second neoplasm develops from the epithelial component that fulfills the criteria for malignancy. This tumor occurs frequently in the parotid glands. Individuals in whom carcinoma ex mixed tumor have a past history of benign mixed tumor. These lesions contain both a benign mixed tumor as well as a malignant neoplasm. We report a case of carcinoma ex mixed tumor which occurred in the parotid gland. A 67-year-old woman presented with movable right mass. She complained pain and facial paralysis. The clinical presentation, several diagnostic images, and histopathologic findings are presented.

  18. Adipose Stem Cell Therapy Mitigates Chronic Pancreatitis via Differentiation into Acinar-like Cells in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen; Gou, Wenyu; Kim, Do-Sung; Dong, Xiao; Strange, Charlie; Tan, Yu; Adams, David B; Wang, Hongjun

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the capacity of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) to mitigate disease progression in an experimental chronic pancreatitis mouse model. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) was induced in C57BL/6 mice by repeated ethanol and cerulein injection, and mice were then infused with 4 × 10 5 or 1 × 10 6 GFP + ASCs. Pancreas morphology, fibrosis, inflammation, and presence of GFP + ASCs in pancreases were assessed 2 weeks after treatment. We found that ASC infusion attenuated pancreatic damage, preserved pancreas morphology, and reduced pancreatic fibrosis and cell death. GFP + ASCs migrated to pancreas and differentiated into amylase + cells. In further confirmation of the plasticity of ASCs, ASCs co-cultured with acinar cells in a Transwell system differentiated into amylase + cells with increased expression of acinar cell-specific genes including amylase and chymoB1. Furthermore, culture of acinar or pancreatic stellate cell lines in ASC-conditioned medium attenuated ethanol and cerulein-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in vitro. Our data show that a single intravenous injection of ASCs ameliorated CP progression, likely by directly differentiating into acinar-like cells and by suppressing inflammation, fibrosis, and pancreatic tissue damage. These results suggest that ASC cell therapy has the potential to be a valuable treatment for patients with pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. NFATc4 Regulates Sox9 Gene Expression in Acinar Cell Plasticity and Pancreatic Cancer Initiation

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    Elisabeth Hessmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinar transdifferentiation toward a duct-like phenotype constitutes the defining response of acinar cells to external stress signals and is considered to be the initial step in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Despite the requirement for oncogenic Kras in pancreatic cancer (PDAC development, oncogenic Kras is not sufficient to drive pancreatic carcinogenesis beyond the level of premalignancy. Instead, secondary events, such as inflammation-induced signaling activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGFR or induction of Sox9 expression, are required for tumor formation. Herein, we aimed to dissect the mechanism that links EGFR signaling to Sox9 gene expression during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in pancreatic tissue adaptation and PDAC initiation. We show that the inflammatory transcription factor NFATc4 is highly induced and localizes in the nucleus in response to inflammation-induced EGFR signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that NFATc4 drives acinar-to-ductal conversion and PDAC initiation through direct transcriptional induction of Sox9. Therefore, strategies designed to disrupt NFATc4 induction might be beneficial in the prevention or therapy of PDAC.

  20. Effect of irradiation on the acinar cells of submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2003-01-01

    To observe the histologic changes and clusterin expression in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting streptozotocin, while the control rats were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, rats in diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histologic and immunohistochemical methods. Morphologic change of acinar cells was remarkable in the diabetic group, but was not observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Necrotic tissues were observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Coloring of toluidine blue stain was most increased at 14 days in the diabetic group, however there were no significant change throughout the period of the experiment in the diabetic-irradiated group. Expression of clusterin was most significant at 14 days in the diabetic group, but gradually decreased with time after 7 days in the diabetic-irradiated group. Degeneration of clusterin was observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. This experiment suggests that the acinar cells of submandibular gland in rats are physiologically apoptosis by the induction of diabetes, but that the apoptosis is inhibited and the acinar cells necrotized after irradiation.

  1. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study

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    Luciana Reis AZEVEDO-ALANIS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated.Objective The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death.Material and Methods 186 cadavers’ glands were allocated to age groups: I (0–30 years; II (31–60, and III (61–90. Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (p<0.05.Results There was correlation between age and acinar autolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001. However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis.Conclusion Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death.

  2. Hypoxic vasoconstriction of partial muscular intra-acinar pulmonary arteries in murine precision cut lung slices

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    Goldenberg Anna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV which serves to match lung perfusion to ventilation. The underlying mechanisms are not fully resolved yet. The major vascular segment contributing to HPV, the intra-acinar artery, is mostly located in that part of the lung that cannot be selectively reached by the presently available techniques, e.g. hemodynamic studies of isolated perfused lungs, recordings from dissected proximal arterial segments or analysis of subpleural vessels. The aim of the present study was to establish a model which allows the investigation of HPV and its underlying mechanisms in small intra-acinar arteries. Methods Intra-acinar arteries of the mouse lung were studied in 200 μm thick precision-cut lung slices (PCLS. The organisation of the muscle coat of these vessels was characterized by α-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry. Basic features of intra-acinar HPV were characterized, and then the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers, inhibitors of the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle metabolites was analysed. Results Intra-acinar arteries are equipped with a discontinuous spiral of α-smooth muscle actin-immunoreactive cells. They exhibit a monophasic HPV (medium gassed with 1% O2 that started to fade after 40 min and was lost after 80 min. This HPV, but not vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane analogue U46619, was effectively blocked by nitro blue tetrazolium and diphenyleniodonium, indicating the involvement of ROS and flavoproteins. Inhibition of mitochondrial complexes II (3-nitropropionic acid, thenoyltrifluoroacetone and III (antimycin A specifically interfered with HPV, whereas blockade of complex IV (sodium azide unspecifically inhibited both HPV and U46619-induced constriction. Succinate blocked HPV whereas fumarate had minor effects on vasoconstriction. Conclusion This study establishes the first model for investigation of basic characteristics of HPV

  3. Intra-parotid dermoid cyst: excision through a face lift incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, M; Keh, S M; Chapman, A; Hussain, A

    2014-11-01

    Intra-parotid dermoid cysts are extremely rare. Clinically, they present like any other parotid lump and pre-operative diagnosis is rarely possible. A 62 years old Caucasian man presented with a painless lump in his right parotid region. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan revealed a 3 x 3 cm mass in the parotid tail. Cytological examination was unhelpful. The patient underwent successful excision of the cyst through a small face lift incision. No drain was inserted and the patient was discharged home the same day. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was highly satisfied with the aesthetic outcome. The definite histopathological diagnosis was an intra-parotid dermoid cyst.

  4. A comparison of mean parotid gland dose with measures of parotid gland function after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Implications for future trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesink, Judith M.; Schipper, Maria; Busschers, Wim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the most adequate parameter to measure the consequences of reducing the parotid gland dose. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with radiotherapy for various malignancies of the head and neck were prospectively evaluated using three methods. Parotid gland function was objectively determined by measuring stimulated parotid flow using Lashley cups and scintigraphy. To assess xerostomia-related quality of life, the head-and-neck cancer module European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ (Quality of Life Questionnaire) H and N35 was used. Measurements took place before radiotherapy and 6 weeks and 12 months after the completion of radiotherapy. Complication was defined for each method using cutoff values. The correlation between these complications and the mean parotid gland dose was investigated to find the best measure for parotid gland function. Results: For both flow and scintigraphy data, the best definition for objective parotid gland toxicity seemed to be reduction of stimulated parotid flow to ≤25% of the preradiotherapy flow. Of all the subjective variables, only the single item dry mouth 6 weeks after radiotherapy was found to be significant. The best correlation with the mean parotid gland dose was found for the stimulated flow measurements. The predictive ability was the highest for the time point 1 year after radiotherapy. Subjective findings did not correlate with the mean parotid dose. Conclusions: Stimulated flow measurements using Lashley cups, with a complication defined as flow ≤25% of the preradiotherapy output, correlated best with the mean parotid gland dose. When reduction of the mean dose to the parotid gland is intended, the stimulated flow measurement is the best method for evaluating parotid gland function

  5. Internalization and cellular processing of cholecystokinin in rat pancreatic acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.S.; Pellecchia, C.; Praissman, M.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the internalization of cholecystokinin, monoiodinated imidoester of cholecystokinin octapeptide [ 125 I-(IE)-CCK-8] was bound to dispersed pancreatic acinar cells, and surface-bound and internalized radioligand were differentiated by treating with an acidified glycine buffer. The amount of internalized radioligand was four- and sevenfold greater at 24 and 37 degree C than at 4 degree C between 5 and 60 min of association. Specific binding of radioligand to cell surface receptors was not significantly different at these temperatures. Chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent that blocks intracellular proteolysis, significantly increased the amount of CCK-8 internalized by 18 and 16% at 30 and 60 min of binding, respectively, compared with control. Dithiothreitol (DTT), a sulfhydryl reducing agent, also augmented the amount of CCK-8 radioligand internalized by 25 and 29% at 30 and 60 min, respectively. The effect of chloroquine and DTT on the processing of internalized radioligand was also considered after an initial 60 min of binding of radioligand to acinar cells. After 180 min of processing, the amount of radioligand internalized was significantly greater in the presence of chloroquine compared with controls, whereas the amount of radioligand declined in acinar cells treated with DTT. Internalized and released radioactivity from acinar cells was rebound to pancreatic membrane homogenates to determine the amount of intact radioligand during intracellular processing. Chloroquine significantly increased the amount of intact 125 I-(IE)-CCK-8 radioligand in released and internalized radioactivity while DTT increased the amount of intact radioligand only in internalized samples. This study shows that pancreatic acinar cells rapidly internalize large amounts of CCK-8 and that chloroquine and DTT inhibit intracellular degradation

  6. Age-dependent difference in the computed tomography numbers of the normal parotid gland of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    1999-01-01

    To determine normal CT number range of parotid gland by analyzing the change by age increase and the difference among individuals and between both sexes in CT number of normal parotid gland. 134 subjects who took the CT scan between the period of Jan. 1996 and Dec. 1997 at Yonsei University, Dental Hospital were selected. Criteria for selection were that the patients must be within the normal range clinically and radiologically, and the entire parotid gland on the axial view must be shown. Among the axial views, the one showing the greatest parotid gland size was selected and its CT number was recorded. Also, CT numbers from both masseter muscle were recorded as its control. There was statistically significant correlation between CT number of right and left of parotid glands and masseter muscles. With the increase of age, there is a significant decrease in the CT number of parotid gland (p 0.05). As age increases, CT number of parotid gland has a tendency to decrease, and there is no significant difference in the CT numbers between left and right parotid gland. Therefore in the CT scan of patients suspected of having an salivary gland disease of the parotid gland, to consider normal range of the age-dependent CT numbers of parotid gland and compare the CT numbers of the right and left parotid gland might be useful in diagnosing the disease.

  7. Hyperacute unilateral contrast-induced parotiditis during cerebral angiography

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    Song J. Kim, MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon complication of iodinated contrast administration is the development of bilateral sialadenitis. We report a unique case of hyperacute unilateral parotiditis during diagnostic cerebral angiography of the external carotid artery, which mimicked possible iatrogenic vascular event associated with cerebral endovascular procedures. Discussion includes the differential diagnosis, diagnostic studies, and treatments for this unusual condition.

  8. Serie de 8 casos de parotiditis supurada aguda neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    Full Text Available La parotiditis supurada aguda es una infección poco frecuente en la práctica del pediatra y neonatólogo. El objetivo es mostrar nuestra experiencia en la atención de serie de casos con parotiditis supurada aguda en el período neonatal, y describir sus características de presentación. Se presentan los hallazgos clínicos en 8 pacientes con parotiditis supurativa neonatal, quienes estuvieron ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "Juan Manuel Márquez", durante el período de 22 años (desde el año 1992 hasta el año 2013, y se contrasta con los reportes publicados en la literatura internacional. Las características de presentación de la parotiditis aguda supurada de nuestros casos concuerdan con la literatura revisada en muchos aspectos, y se demuestra que es, además, una infección poco frecuente en el período neonatal. Es la primera publicación sobre esta entidad en neonatos en Cuba, y la mayor serie de casos en el ámbito latinoamericano.

  9. Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R.; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD 50 (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD 50 . Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

  10. Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland 1985-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Bjørndal, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    -up on these topics. METHODS: The Danish Pathology Data Bank was searched for parotid pleomorphic adenoma and Ca-ex-PA in the period 1985 to 2010 and all pathology descriptions were reviewed. Ca-ex-PA specimens were reviewed by a pathologist. RESULTS: A total of 5.497 patients were identified and 2.86% had at least...

  11. Parotid lymphomas – clinical and computed tomographic imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass in the parotid region.3-5 Many centres complement this approach with ancillary investigations ... radiotherapy, alone or in combination.2 Surgical intervention for lymphoma is limited to a purely diagnostic role.9 It is therefore desirable to ...

  12. Radiotherapy of tumours of the parotid: Evaluation and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mouaaouy, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author evaluated the results of radiotherapies of patients with tumours of the parotid who had received primary or post-surgical radiotherapy in the Tuebingen Institute of Medical Radiology between 1968 and 1979. Evaluation was difficult because of the small number of cases, the different histological findings, and the observation periods which were very short in some cases. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma with Metastasis to the Parotid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Tze Ling; Tomlinson, Jeanne; Chin, Ronald; Eslick, Guy D.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare malignancy that exhibits both mesenchymal and epithelial components. It is similar to nonmelanoma skin cancers in terms of risk and prognostic factors. However, these malignancies are known to have a propensity for local recurrence and metastasis, even with adequate resection margins. Here we report a case of metastatic cutaneous carcinosarcoma to the parotid gland and review the relevant literature.

  14. Frozen section pathology for decision making in parotid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kerry D; Moore, Eric J; Lewis, Jean E

    2013-12-01

    For parotid lesions, the high accuracy and utility of intraoperative frozen section (FS) pathology, compared with permanent section pathology, facilitates intraoperative decision making about the extent of surgery required. To demonstrate the accuracy and utility of FS pathology of parotid lesions as one factor in intraoperative decision making. Retrospective review of patients undergoing parotidectomy at a tertiary care center. Evaluation of the accuracy of FS pathology for parotid surgery by comparing FS pathology results with those of permanent section. Documented changes from FS to permanent section in 1339 parotidectomy pathology reports conducted from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2009, included 693 benign and 268 primary and metastatic malignant tumors. Changes in diagnosis were found from benign to malignant (n = 11) and malignant to benign (n = 2). Sensitivity and specificity of a malignant diagnosis were 98.5% and 99.0%, respectively. Other changes were for lymphoma vs inflammation or lymphoma typing (n = 89) and for confirmation of or change in tumor type for benign (n = 36) or malignant (n = 69) tumors. No case changed from low- to high-grade malignant tumor. Only 4 cases that changed from FS to permanent section would have affected intraoperative decision making. Three patients underwent additional surgery 2 to 3 weeks later. Overall, only 1 patient was overtreated (lymphoma initially deemed carcinoma). Frozen section pathology for parotid lesions has high accuracy and utility in intraoperative decision making, facilitating timely complete procedures.

  15. Fractal Dimension Of CT Images Of Normal Parotid Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo

    1999-01-01

    This study was to investigate the age and sex differences of the fractal dimension of the normal parotid glands in the digitized CT images. The six groups, which were composed of 42 men and women from 20's, 40's and 60's and over were picked. Each group contained seven people of the same sex. The normal parotid CT images were digitized, and their fractal dimensions were calculated using Scion Image PC program. The mean of fractal dimensions in males was 1.7292 (+/-0.0588) and 1.6329 (+/-0.0425) in females. The mean of fractal dimensions in young males was 1.7617, 1.7328 in middle males, and 1.6933 in old males. The mean of fractal dimensions in young females was 1.6318, 1.6365 in middle females, and 1.6303 in old females. There was no statistical difference in fractal dimension between left and right parotid gland of the same subject (p>0.05). Fractal dimensions in male were decreased in older group (p 0.05). The fractal dimension of parotid glands in the digitized CT images will be useful to evaluate the age and sex differences.

  16. Differential Diagnosis of Parotid Lipoma in a Breast Ca Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Misirlioglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are common benign tumors usually detected on the torso, neck, upper thighs, and upper arms. However, they are rarely found in the parotid gland region. Because of their rarity at this site, they are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors. This report describes a rare case of a lipoma in the superficial lobe of parotid gland. A 71-year-old female patient admitted to our department complaining about swelling and pain in the posterior area of the left mandibular region since one month. Her medical history included mastectomy after breast CA fifteen years ago. Clinical examination revealed a smooth-surfaced, soft, and painful mass, with well-defined margins in the left mandibular region. Differential diagnosis of metastasis, inflammatory neck swellings, and benign salivary gland tumors were considered for the patient. Advanced imaging methods such as ultrasonography and contrast tomography revealed that the lesion was a lipoma of parotid gland. A surgical intervention under general anesthesia was planned for the removal of the mass; however patient refused the surgical treatment. Patient was placed on six-month periodic recall. This article reviews the radiographic appearance and differential diagnoses of lipoma in this rare location.

  17. Parotid Abscess with Involvement of Facial Nerve Branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Adile; Ors, Ceyda Hayretdag; Kosar, Sule; Ozisik Karaman, Handan Isin

    2015-08-01

    Facial nerve paresis is only rarely seen with benign diseases of the parotid gland. A 22-year male had muscle loss in the preauricular region of the right side of his face that extended towards the mandibular angle for the last 6 months. The neurological examination did not reveal any pathology other than right preauricular region muscle atrophy that was limited by the mandibular angle. The Electroneuronography (EnoG) provided a ratio of 55.38%, compared the affected side to left side. Ultrasonography of the defined region showed two mass lesions 13.5 x 7 mm and 10 x 5 mm in size in the anteromedial section of the right parotid gland that were close to each other, without internal calcific foci, and heterogenous hyperechogenic structure without internal vascularization. Fine needle aspiration obtained many polymorphonuclear leukocytes, cell debris, a few mononuclear inflammatory cells and many crystalloid structures. The lesion was diagnosed as a parotid abscess. Antibiotic treatment was started for the parotid gland abscess.

  18. Diagnosis value of parotid sialography in Sjogren's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Guo; Zhang Xue; Liu Rongxin; Wang Yali; Zhong Zhicheng; Wang Haiwen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the diagnosis value of parotid sialography in Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Methods: Two hundred and two cases were chosen in the study, 149 cases were SS, 14 cases were chronic parotitis, 2 were parotid benign hypertrophy, and 37 cases were normal. The international classification criteria (2002) for primary Sjogren's syndrome was used to perform the diagnostic test of parotid sialography. Results: In SS, the incidence rate of pathdogical changes of the twiggy canula is the highest (80.20%, 239/298 side), pathological changes of the main canula showed rough fringe(28.19%, 84/298 side), or canula cavity ectasia but not rough fringe(13.09%, 39/298 side), and also can showed mix form of the two kinds of pathological changes, but not often(2.68%, 8/298 side). The branch canula resembled as the main canula in the pathological changes, but observation effect was affected by extensive degree of the twiggy canula in the pathological changes. 0 stage to V stage was seen in SS, the cases with different stage changes in bilateral side were occupied 25.98% (33/127 side). Chronic parotitis had twiggy canula expansion (7/28 side), branch canula expansion (10/28 side), main canula expandsion (11/28 side), but had not the sign of rough fringe. Others of non-SS had no canula pathological changes. Results of the diagnostic test: diagnosis specificity of the branch canula or the main canula rough fringe was 100%, and sensitivity of the twiggy canula expansion and Youden's index were the highest. Conclusion: To diagnose SS as the pathological changes of parotid canula, the twiggy canula expansion was perfect filtration diagnosis criteria, the branch canula and the main canula rough fringe was certain diagnosis criteria. The value of parotid sialography in SS were affected by the form of canula pathological changes and whether two sides examined at the same time. (authors)

  19. 3 T MR 3D fast imaging employing steady state acquisition demonstrating branches of intraparotid facial nerve, parotid duct, and relation with parotid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yan; Li Chuanting; Zhang Dongsheng; Ai Bin; Zhang Weidong; Wu Lebin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the usefulness of 3 T MRI 3D-FIESTA in the evaluation of the intraparotid components of the facial nerve and parotid duct, and compare them with surgical findings. Methods: Twenty-two cases with parotid benign tumors were scanned with conventional and 3D-FIESTA sequences on 3 T MRI scanner. Postprocessed multiplanar images were obtained with the workstation. Parotid ducts and facial nerves and tumors were identified on these images. The relationship of the tumors to the facial nerves and Parotid ducts was confirmed at surgery. Results: Various types of parotid benign tumors had their characteristics on 3 T MR imaging. Parotid benign tumors mainly showed hypo-intensity on T 1 WI in 21 cases, and hyper-intensity on T 2 WI in 22 cases. But on 3D-FIESTA images, they appeared hypointensity (10 cases) or high intensity (12 cases) due to different types. Facial nerves in parotid appeared as linear structures with hypo-inteusity. The indication of the main trunks were 16 and 18 cases for T 1 WI and T 2 WI images, while on 3D-FIESTA images, the main trunks and cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerves were found in 22, 21,22 cases. Parotid ducts appeared as structures with hypo-intensity on T 1 WI and hyper-intensity on multiplanar images (14, 20, 22 cases). Compared with surgical results, the main trunks of the facial nerve were correctly showed by 3D-FIESTA images in 20 cases. However, in 2 cases they were not located in the operation because of shifting. Conclusion: 3 T MR 3D-FIESTA imaging could depict the extracranial facial nerve and the parotid duct in the parotid gland, which is useful for preoperative evaluation of parotid gland tumors. (authors)

  20. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This action will allow interested... importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy...

  1. BATH AND SHOWER EFFECTS IN THE RAT PAROTID GLAND EXPLAIN INCREASED RELATIVE RISK OF PAROTID GLAND DYSFUNCTION AFTER INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIOTHERAPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijk, Peter; Faber, Hette; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Meertens, Harm; Coppes, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess in a rat model whether adding a subtolerance dose in a region adjacent to a high-dose irradiated subvolume of the parotid gland influences its response (bath-and-shower effect). Methods and Materials: Irradiation of the whole, cranial 50%, and/or the caudal 50% of the parotid

  2. The exocrine pancreas: the acinar-ductal tango in physiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Peter; Petersen, Ole H

    2013-01-01

    There are many reviews of pancreatic acinar cell function and also of pancreatic duct function, but there is an almost total absence of synthetic reviews bringing the integrated functions of these two vitally and mutually interdependent cells together. This is what we have attempted to do in this chapter. In the first part, we review the normal integrated function of the acinar-ductal system, with particular emphasis on how regulation of one type of cell also influences the other cell type. In the second part, we review a range of pathological processes, particularly those involved in acute pancreatitis (AP), an often-fatal human disease in which the pancreas digests itself, in order to explore how malfunction of one of the cell types adversely affects the function of the other.

  3. An alpha-adrenergic receptor mechanism controlling potassium permeability in the rat lacrimal gland acinar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parod, R.J.; Putney, J.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Rat lacrimal gland slices, incubated in a balanced, buffered salt solution, were found to be physiologically stable for up to 2 hr with respect to 0 2 consumption, extracellular space, and water and ion content. The release of 86 Rb serves as a good substitute for 42 K in monitoring the movement of K through the cell membrane. Adrenaline appears to increase membrane permeability to K as evidenced by an increase in the rate of 86 Rb efflux. This response to adrenaline was blocked by phentolamine but not by propranolol and was mimicked by phenylephrine but not by isoprenaline. The magnitude of the 86 Rb release indicates that it is being released, at least in part, from the lacrimal gland acinar cell. It is concluded that the lacrimal gland acinar cell has an α-adrenergic receptor, activation of which leads to an increase in membrane permeability to K. (author)

  4. Intracellular mediators of Na+-K+ pump activity in guinea pig pancreatic acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, S.R.; Ochs, D.L.; Williams, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The involvement of Ca 2+ and cyclic nucleotides in neurohormonal regulation of Na + -K + -ATPase (Na + -K + pump) activity in guinea pig pancreatic acinar cells was investigated. Changes in Na+-K+ pump activity elicited by secretagogues were assessed by [3H]ouabain binding and by ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake. Carbachol (CCh) and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) each stimulated both ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake and equilibrium binding of [ 3 H]ouabain by approximately 60%. Secretin increased both indicators of Na+-K+ pump activity by approximately 40% as did forskolin, 8-bromo- and dibutyryl cAMP, theophylline, and isobutylmethylxanthine. Incubation of acinar cells in Ca 2+ -free HEPES-buffered Ringer (HR) with 0.5 mM EGTA reduced the stimulatory effects of CCh and CCK-8 by up to 90% but caused only a small reduction in the effects of secretin, forskolin, and cAMP analogues. In addition, CCh, CCK-8, secretin, and forskolin each stimulated ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake by acinar cells. The increase elicited by CCh and CCK-8 was greatly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ , while that caused by the latter two agents was not substantially altered. The effects of secretagogues on free Ca 2+ levels in pancreatic acinar cells also were investigated with quin-2, a fluorescent Ca 2+ chelator. Basal intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ]i) was 161 nM in resting cells and increased to 713 and 803 nM within 15 s after addition of 100 microM CCh or 10 nM CCK-8, respectively

  5. Lysosome associated membrane proteins maintain pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis: LAMP-2 deficient mice develop pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareninova, Olga A; Sendler, Matthias; Malla, Sudarshan Ravi; Yakubov, Iskandar; French, Samuel W; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Vagin, Olga; Oorschot, Viola; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Blanz, Judith; Dawson, David; Klumperman, Judith; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S

    2015-11-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) in pancreatitis. We analyzed changes in LAMPs in experimental models and human pancreatitis, and the underlying mechanisms: LAMP de-glycosylation and degradation. LAMP cleavage by cathepsin B (CatB) was analyzed by mass spectrometry. We used mice deficient in LAMP-2 to assess its role in pancreatitis. Pancreatic levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 greatly decrease across various pancreatitis models and in human disease. Pancreatitis does not trigger LAMPs' bulk de-glycosylation, but induces their degradation via CatB-mediated cleavage of LAMP molecule close to the boundary between luminal and transmembrane domains. LAMP-2 null mice spontaneously develop pancreatitis that begins with acinar cell vacuolization due to impaired autophagic flux, and progresses to severe pancreas damage characterized by trypsinogen activation, macrophage-driven inflammation, and acinar cell death. LAMP-2 deficiency causes a decrease in pancreatic digestive enzymes content, stimulates the basal and inhibits CCK-induced amylase secretion by acinar cells. The effects of LAMP-2 knockout and acute cerulein pancreatitis overlap, which corroborates the pathogenic role of LAMP decrease in experimental pancreatitis models. The results indicate a critical role for LAMPs, particularly LAMP-2, in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, and provide evidence that defective lysosomal function, resulting in impaired autophagy, leads to pancreatitis. Mice with LAMP-2 deficiency present a novel genetic model of human pancreatitis caused by lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction.

  6. Acinus-on-a-chip: a microfluidic platform for pulmonary acinar flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishler, Rami; Mulligan, Molly K; Sznitman, Josué

    2013-11-15

    Convective respiratory flows in the pulmonary acinus and their influence on the fate of inhaled particles are typically studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or scaled-up experimental models. However, experiments that replicate several generations of the acinar tree while featuring cyclic wall motion have not yet been realized. Moreover, current experiments generally capture only flow dynamics, without inhaled particle dynamics, due to difficulties in simultaneously matching flow and particle dynamics. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we introduce a novel microfluidic device mimicking acinar flow characteristics directly at the alveolar scale. The model features an anatomically-inspired geometry that expands and contracts periodically with five dichotomously branching airway generations lined with alveolar-like cavities. We use micro-particle image velocimetry with a glycerol solution as the carrying fluid to quantitatively characterize detailed flow patterns within the device and reveal experimentally for the first time a gradual transition of alveolar flow patterns along the acinar tree from recirculating to radial streamlines, in support of hypothesized predictions from past CFD simulations. The current measurements show that our microfluidic system captures the underlying characteristics of the acinar flow environment, including Reynolds and Womersley numbers as well as cyclic wall displacements and alveolar flow patterns at a realistic length scale. With the use of air as the carrying fluid, our miniaturized platform is anticipated to capture both particle and flow dynamics and serve in the near future as a promising in vitro tool for investigating the mechanisms of particle deposition deep in the lung. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Tolentino, Elen de Souza; de Assis, Gerson Francisco; Cestari, Tânia Mary; Lara, Vanessa Soares; Damante, José Humberto

    2015-10-01

    Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG) found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated. The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death. 186 cadavers' glands were allocated to age groups: I (0-30 years); II (31-60), and III (61-90). Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (pautolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001). However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis. Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death.

  8. Steady streaming: A key mixing mechanism in low-Reynolds-number acinar flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Haribalan; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2011-01-01

    Study of mixing is important in understanding transport of submicron sized particles in the acinar region of the lung. In this article, we investigate transport in view of advective mixing utilizing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques: tracer advection, stretch rate and dispersion analysis. The phenomenon of steady streaming in an oscillatory flow is found to hold the key to the origin of kinematic mixing in the alveolus, the alveolar mouth and the alveolated duct. This mechanism provides the common route to folding of material lines and surfaces in any region of the acinar flow, and has no bearing on whether the geometry is expanding or if flow separates within the cavity or not. All analyses consistently indicate a significant decrease in mixing with decreasing Reynolds number (Re). For a given Re, dispersion is found to increase with degree of alveolation, indicating that geometry effects are important. These effects of Re and geometry can also be explained by the streaming mechanism. Based on flow conditions and resultant convective mixing measures, we conclude that significant convective mixing in the duct and within an alveolus could originate only in the first few generations of the acinar tree as a result of nonzero inertia, flow asymmetry, and large Keulegan–Carpenter (KC) number. PMID:21580803

  9. Coupling of guanine nucleotide inhibitory protein to somatostatin receptors on pancreatic acinar membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, C.; Matozaki, T.; Nagao, M.; Baba, S.

    1987-01-01

    Guanine nucleotides and pertussis toxin were used to investigate whether somatostatin receptors interact with the guanine nucleotide inhibitory protein (NI) on pancreatic acinar membranes in the rat. Guanine nucleotides reduced 125 I-[Tyr 1 ]somatostatin binding to acinar membranes up to 80%, with rank order of potency being 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p]>GTP>TDP>GMP. Scatchard analysis revealed that the decrease in somatostatin binding caused by Gpp(NH)p was due to the decrease in the maximum binding capacity without a significant change in the binding affinity. The inhibitory effect of Gpp(NH)p was partially abolished in the absence of Mg 2+ . When pancreatic acini were treated with 1 μg/ml pertussis toxin for 4 h, subsequent 125 I-[Tyr 1 ]somatostatin binding to acinar membranes was reduced. Pertussis toxin treatment also abolished the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on vasoactive intestinal peptide-stimulated increase in cellular content of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in the acini. The present results suggest that 1) somatostatin probably functions in the pancreas to regulate adenylate cyclase enzyme system via Ni, 2) the extent of modification of Ni is correlated with the ability of somatostatin to inhibit cAMP accumulation in acini, and 3) guanine nucleotides also inhibit somatostatin binding to its receptor

  10. CT and MRI features of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas with pathological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, M.-Y.; Pan, K.-T.; Chu, S.-Y.; Hung, C.-F.; Wu, R.-C.; Tseng, J.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To document the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas and to correlate them with pathological findings to determine the unique imaging manifestations of this rare subtype tumour of the pancreas. Materials and methods: From January 1986 to August 2008, six patients (five men and one woman, mean age 61.3 years) with histologically proven acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas underwent CT (n = 6) and MRI (n = 4) examinations. The imaging features of each tumour were documented and compared with pathological findings. Results: The tumours were distributed in the head (n = 4), body (n = 1), and tail (n = 1) of the pancreas. Four masses (67%) were uniformly or partially well-defined with thin, enhancing capsules. Central cystic components were found in five tumours (83%). Two tumours (33%) exhibited intratumoural haemorrhage, and one tumour (17%) had amorphous intratumoural calcification. In both CT and MRI, the tumours enhanced less than the adjacent normal pancreatic parenchyma. The signal intensity on MRI was predominantly T1 hypointense and T2 iso- to hyperintense. Conclusion: Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas has distinct imaging features, and both CT and MRI are useful and complementary imaging methods.

  11. MR imaging of the parotid gland following sialography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Nishimura, K.; Togashi, K.; Itoh, K.; Fujisawa, I.; Itoh, H.; Abe, M.; Torizuka, K.; Naito, Y.

    1986-01-01

    MR imaging was performed after sialography (using 76% Renografin) in eight patients with parotid tumor. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T and using 16-cm-diameter surface coil and a pulse sequence of 600/25 msec. The ductal system and periductal interstitial space consistently appeared as a linear low-intensity band. MR images of two rabbits that had received parotid gland injections of 76% Renografin confirmed that the low-intensity signal arose from the edema fluid in the periductal interstitial space of the gland. Since the facial nerve follows a course immediately lateral to the major duct, an appreciation of the course of the facial nerve may allow more precise presurgical planning

  12. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of parotid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Purohit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the major salivary glands, accounting for 15.5% of all cases, benign and malignant. The aim of this article is to report a case of MEC in a 73-years-old male patient who presented with a painless firm fluctuant swelling in left preauricular area. The lesion was thoroughly examined preoperatively, and investigations were carried out. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was done for the lesion and report suggested tumor of the parotid gland. Superficial parotidectomy procedure was done, taking care not to injure the lower division of the facial nerve. Post recovery was uneventful with no defect of facial nerve functions. The histologic picture confirmed that the tumor was MEC of parotid gland. Through the literature reviews of MEC the discussions on prevalence, origin, diagnosis, histological finding, investigation and the modes of treatment are made.

  13. Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma of Parotid Gland- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A. Badge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC is most commonly seen in the nasopharynx. Very rarely it is found in the salivary gland, preferably in parotid gland followed by submandibular gland where it accounts for 0.4% of all malignant salivary gland tumours. Most commonly it is seen in fifth decade with female predominance. Significant correlation has been reported between this tumour and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV.It has a racial predilection for Inuits,Chinese and Japanese. Very rarely it is found In Indians. So we present a case of LEC of parotid gland in a 23 year old male Indian patient. As this is a very radiosensitive tumour, surgery followed by radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice.

  14. Adenoid cystic carcinoma associated with mucous retention cyst of the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbale, Manjula Advisha; Halli, Rajshekhar C; Kini, Yogesh K; Kharkar, Viraj R; Metgud, Rashmi

    2011-09-01

    Mucous retention cysts of the parotid gland are rare, and a coexistent adenoid cystic carcinoma is even an unusual occurrence. Such coexistent adenoid cystic carcinomas with mucous retention cyst of the parotid gland are difficult to diagnose clinically and, at times, stage difficulty in their management. We report a rare case of adenoid cystic carcinoma associated with mucous retention cyst of the parotid gland with its diagnostic and management dilemma in a 14-year-old adolescent girl.

  15. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  16. LE CARCINOME ONCOCYTAIRE DE LA PAROTIDE : A PROPOS D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Après chirurgie, les récidives sont fréquentes. Le rôle de la radio- thérapie et de chimiothérapie est toujours controversé.Le pronostic est mauvais. Mots clés : Carcinome oncocytaire, parotide, chirurgie, radiothérapie. SUMMARY. Introduction : Oncocyticcarcinomais a rare salivary gland tumor. its management is not codified ...

  17. Acute neonatal parotid abscess: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreesh Kolekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute suppurative parotitis is uncommon in children and is very rare in neonates. Most common organism isolated is Staphylococcus aureus. We present a 15-day-old full-term breast-fed female neonate with left-sided acute parotid abscess. The baby presented with a left preauricular swelling, pain and redness. Pus was exuded from left Stensen's duct on compression of the gland externally. Early diagnosis and proper intravenous antibiotics are the keys to the treatment.

  18. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN AGAINST MEASLES, PAROTIDITIS AND VITAMINOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Kharit; T.V. Chernyaeva; E.P. Nacharova; O.V. Goleva

    2007-01-01

    The researchers observed 45 children inoculated with the Russian divalent vaccine (measles–parotiditis). 25 children received mineral and vitamin complex «jungle» for a month since the date of vaccination. The application of «jungle» medication was efficient and conduced to prophylaxis of the complication of the vaccination, prevention of the inter current diseases among the vaccinated, as well as positively affected the intensity of the special antibody formation because of activation of cel...

  19. Acute neonatal parotid abscess: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Shreesh; Chincholi, Tejas S.; Kshirsagar, Ashok; Porwal, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis is uncommon in children and is very rare in neonates. Most common organism isolated is Staphylococcus aureus. We present a 15-day-old full-term breast-fed female neonate with left-sided acute parotid abscess. The baby presented with a left preauricular swelling, pain and redness. Pus was exuded from left Stensen's duct on compression of the gland externally. Early diagnosis and proper intravenous antibiotics are the keys to the treatment. PMID:28051052

  20. TERATOME MATURE DE LA PAROTIDE : A PROPOS D'UNE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le tératome de la parotide est une malformation tumorale vestigiale rare contenant des dérivés plus ou moins différenciés, des trois feuillets embryonnaires. A la lumière d'une nouvelle observation et des données de la littérature, on se propose de mettre l'accent sur les aspects cliniques, histologiques et thérapeutiques de ...

  1. Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma with Metastasis to the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Ling Loh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare malignancy that exhibits both mesenchymal and epithelial components. It is similar to nonmelanoma skin cancers in terms of risk and prognostic factors. However, these malignancies are known to have a propensity for local recurrence and metastasis, even with adequate resection margins. Here we report a case of metastatic cutaneous carcinosarcoma to the parotid gland and review the relevant literature.

  2. LE CARCINOME MUCOÉPIDERMOÏDE DE LA PAROTIDE : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16 juin 2006 ... INTRODUCTION. Le carcinome mucoépidermoïde représente 1 à 4% de l'en- semble des tumeurs parotidiennes. Il s'agit de la tumeur maligne la plus fréquente de la glande parotide. Il peut être observé à tout âge avec une égalité entre les 2 sexes. Il s'agit d'une tumeur à croissance lente avec une ...

  3. Whole-brain Irradiation Field Design: A Comparison of Parotid Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Chia; Wuu, Yen-Ruh; Jani, Ashish; Saraf, Anurag; Tai, Cheng-Hung; Lapa, Matthew E.; Andrew, Jacquelyn I.S.; Tiwari, Akhil; Saadatmand, Heva J.; Isaacson, Steven R.; Cheng, Simon K.; Wang, Tony J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) plays an important role in patients with diffusely metastatic intracranial disease. Whether the extent of the radiation field design to C1 or C2 affects parotid dose and risk for developing xerostomia is unknown. The goal of this study is to examine the parotid dose based off of the inferior extent of WBRT field to either C1 or C2. Patients treated with WBRT with either 30 Gy or 37.5 Gy from 2011 to 2014 at a single institution were examined. Parotid dose constraints were compared with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0615 nasopharyngeal carcinoma for a 33-fraction treatment: mean <26 Gy, volume constraint at 20 Gy (V20) < 20 cc, and dose at 50% of the parotid volume (D50) < 30 Gy. Biologically effective dose (BED) conversions with an α/β of 3 for normal parotid were performed to compare with 10-fraction and 15-fraction treatments of WBRT. The constraints are as follows: mean < BED 32.83 Gy, V15.76 (for 10-fraction WBRT) or V17.35 (for 15-fraction WBRT) < 20 cc, and D50 < BED 39.09 Gy. Nineteen patients treated to C1 and 26 patients treated to C2 were analyzed. Comparing WBRT to C1 with WBRT to C2, the mean left, right, and both parotids' doses were lower when treated to C1. Converting mean dose to BED 3 , the parotid doses were lower than BED 3 constraint of 32.83 Gy: left (30.12 Gy), right (30.69 Gy), and both parotids (30.32 Gy). V20 to combined parotids was lower in patients treated to C1. When accounting for fractionation of WBRT received, the mean corrected V20 volume was less than 20 cc when treating to C1. D50 for C1 was lower than C2 for the left parotid, right parotid, and both parotids. BED 3 conversion for the mean D50 of the left, right, and both parotids was less than 39.09 Gy. In conclusion, WBRT to C1 limits parotid dose, and parotid dose constraints are achievable compared with inferior border at C2. A possible mean parotid dose constraint with BED

  4. Whole-brain Irradiation Field Design: A Comparison of Parotid Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng-Chia; Wuu, Yen-Ruh; Jani, Ashish; Saraf, Anurag; Tai, Cheng-Hung; Lapa, Matthew E.; Andrew, Jacquelyn I.S.; Tiwari, Akhil; Saadatmand, Heva J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, BNH B-11, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Isaacson, Steven R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, BNH B-11, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Cheng, Simon K., E-mail: sc3225@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, BNH B-11, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Wang, Tony J.C., E-mail: tjw2117@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, BNH B-11, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) plays an important role in patients with diffusely metastatic intracranial disease. Whether the extent of the radiation field design to C1 or C2 affects parotid dose and risk for developing xerostomia is unknown. The goal of this study is to examine the parotid dose based off of the inferior extent of WBRT field to either C1 or C2. Patients treated with WBRT with either 30 Gy or 37.5 Gy from 2011 to 2014 at a single institution were examined. Parotid dose constraints were compared with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0615 nasopharyngeal carcinoma for a 33-fraction treatment: mean <26 Gy, volume constraint at 20 Gy (V20) < 20 cc, and dose at 50% of the parotid volume (D50) < 30 Gy. Biologically effective dose (BED) conversions with an α/β of 3 for normal parotid were performed to compare with 10-fraction and 15-fraction treatments of WBRT. The constraints are as follows: mean < BED 32.83 Gy, V15.76 (for 10-fraction WBRT) or V17.35 (for 15-fraction WBRT) < 20 cc, and D50 < BED 39.09 Gy. Nineteen patients treated to C1 and 26 patients treated to C2 were analyzed. Comparing WBRT to C1 with WBRT to C2, the mean left, right, and both parotids' doses were lower when treated to C1. Converting mean dose to BED{sub 3}, the parotid doses were lower than BED{sub 3} constraint of 32.83 Gy: left (30.12 Gy), right (30.69 Gy), and both parotids (30.32 Gy). V20 to combined parotids was lower in patients treated to C1. When accounting for fractionation of WBRT received, the mean corrected V20 volume was less than 20 cc when treating to C1. D50 for C1 was lower than C2 for the left parotid, right parotid, and both parotids. BED{sub 3} conversion for the mean D50 of the left, right, and both parotids was less than 39.09 Gy. In conclusion, WBRT to C1 limits parotid dose, and parotid dose constraints are achievable compared with inferior border at C2. A possible mean parotid dose

  5. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Ying-Che

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result.

  6. Parotidectomy for benign parotid tumors: An aesthetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.; Mostafa, A.; Rifaat, M.; Shallan, M.; Rabie, A.; Elzohairy, M.; Nabawi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The sternocleidomastoid (SCM) partial thickness muscle flap is among the various methods described to correct parotidectomy defects, but its indications and limitations are not clearly demonstrated in several reports. This study was done to test the aesthetic outcome of this method, its indications and limitations. The technique was combined with a face lift incision to further improve the outcome. Patients and methods: At the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt, 23 patients presenting with benign tumors underwent parotidectomy, 19 had superficial parotidectomy and four had total parotidectomy done. The superiorly based (SCM) muscle flap was used to correct the contour deformity. The aesthetic result was evaluated by assessing arid scoring the overall appearance of the scar, the degree of symmetry of the reconstructed parotid region and the site of the donor muscle to their contralateral normal sides. The overall aesthetic appearance was then calculated by the summation of the scores of the latter three parameters. Patients' satisfaction was assessed by patients' questionnaire. Result: The overall aesthetic appearance was good in 17 patients, and moderate in six patients. 16/23 patients had an overall deep satisfaction with the result. The residual hollowness of the parotid following reconstruction of the total parotidectomy defect and the poor quality of scars were the main reasons affecting the aesthetic outcome. Conclusion: Superficial parotidectomy through facelift incision with immediate reconstruction with superiorly based partial thickness SCM flap allows adequate resection of most benign parotid tumors with a satisfactory aesthetic outcome and minimal donor site morbidity

  7. CT findings of parotid gland tumors: benign versus malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moon Ok; Han, Chun Hwan; Kim, Mie Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Kyung Joo; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jeung Sook

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of parotid gland tumors to help in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. The CT findings of 22 patients with surgically proven parotid gland tumors were reviewed. Analysis was focused on the density and margin characteristics of the tumors, and the relationship between the tumor and surrounding structures. Those tumors were pleomorphic adenoma (n = 8), Warthin's tumor (n = 5), basal cell adenoma (n = 1), lipoma (n = 1), dermoid cyst (n = 1), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 2), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n 1), epidermoid carcinoma (n = 1), and carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma (n 1). Most of benign and malignant tumors were heterogeneous in density on contrast enhanced CT scans. In 5 of 6 malignant cases, the tumors had irregular or ill-defined margin and a tendancy to involve or cross the superficial layer of deep cervical fascia with obliteration of subcutaneous fat. Two malignant tumors invaded surrounding structures. Although the heterogeneous density of tumor is not a specific finding for malignancy at CT, following findings, such as, irregular or blurred margin of the lesion, the involvement of fascial plane, and the infiltration of surrounding structures may suggest the possibility of malignant parotid tumor

  8. Warthin's Tumor of the Parotid Gland: CT and MR Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Yu, In Kyu; Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Min Sun; Han, Moon Hee; Song, Chang Joon

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the imaging features of Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland with the use of CT and MR imaging. CT (n = 30) and MR (n = 7) images of 26 patients (M:F=23:3; age range, 38-76 years; mean age, 58 years) with surgically-proven Warthin's tumor (n = 37) were reviewed with a focus on bilaterality, multiplicity, location, size, demarcation, margin, enhancement pattern and MR signal intensity. Lesions were bilateral in seven patients (27%), multiple in nine patients (35%) and unilateral multiple in four patients (15%). Tumors were located in the superficial lobe (65%), deep lobe (24%) and both lobes (11%) of the parotid gland. Most tumors had a clear (95%) and smooth margin (95%) with a round or oval shape. Tumors mainly showed a solid and cystic composition (n = 24, 65%) and all solid stroma showed poor or weak enhancement on both CT and MR images. Papillary projections from the peripheral wall were clearly seen (n = 6, 86%). Warthin's tumor is frequently seen in the parotid superficial lobe of older males with a higher bilateral and multiple tendency. Warthin's tumor shows cystic portions with papillary projections at the wall on CT images and focal high signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted images with dense nodular enhancement on MR images

  9. Parotid gland function following accelerated and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, M.D.; Dische, S.

    1991-01-01

    The function of parotid glands in patients treated by 3 different schedules of radiotherapy was studied 9 months or more after its conclusion. All had received radiotherapy for a malignancy confined to 1 side of the head and neck region and only the gland on the side of the lesion was in the treatment volume; the contralateral gland acted as an internal control. Saliva was selectively collected from the parotid glands and the stimulated flow rate and pH of the saliva determined. Flow rates were expressed in each case as a percentage of that of the contralateral ('untreated') gland. Twelve glands that had received conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 60-66 Gy showed a mean percentage flow of 20 percent and a significant fall in the pH of the saliva produced. Six glands that had received CHART (Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated RadioTherapy) and 8 conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 35-40 Gy showed mean percentage flows of 57 and 65 percent respectively, with only slight and non-significant falls in saliva pH. The results show that in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck the use of CHART can lead to considerable less late change in the function of the parotid gland. (author). 26 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Evaluation of ultrasound in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parotid gland

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate accuracy and usefulness of sonography and choose it as preliminary investigation method in pathologic processes of parotid gland, 50 patients were studied in duration of 16 months. The lesions were evaluated with ultrasound and sonographic images were obtained before surgery and then were compared with pathologic results after surgery. All lesions were detected with sonography. This method could differentiate intraglandular from extraglandular lesions with accuracy of 100%. Except one case of lipomatosis which was hyperechoic, all other lesions of parotid gland were hypoechoic. All lesions with sharp and well-defined borders were benign whereas malignant processes had ill-defined borders. The results obtained show that sonography is a reliable diagnostic method to differentiate benign from malignant lesions and it has a high diagnostic value to detect warthin's tumor, plemorphic adenoma, Sjogren's syndrome and lipomatosis. Presence of calcification in a parotid mass of young patient with high probabye is related to cavernous hemangioma.

  11. Multifocal Adenomatous Oncocytic Hyperplasia of the Parotid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tadao K.; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuri, Takashi; Takasu, Kosho; Tsubura, Airo; Shikata, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH) is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected. PMID:25580104

  12. Multifocal Adenomatous Oncocytic Hyperplasia of the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kinoshita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected.

  13. The radioimmunoassay of biologically active compounds in parotid fluid and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.F.; Read, G.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.

    1978-01-01

    Parotid fluid collection is a simple stress-free procedure. The potential value of parotid fluid estimations of clomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, d-norgestrel, a synthetic contraceptive steroid and cortisol have been evaluated for assessment of clinical status and patient compliance. These compounds circulate bound largely to plasma proteins. Their concentration in parotid fluid, which reflects the non-protein bound fraction, is low but assay sensitivity (10, 1 and 30 pg/tube respectively) is adequate. Excellent agreement (r>0.9) was observed when parotid fluid samples were assayed with and without chromatographic purification. Clomipramine levels following oral dosage (150 mg) rose steadily to a maximum in plasma but showed wide fluctuations in parotid fluid. Clomipramine therapy can only be assessed by plasma assays, but patient compliance may be checked by parotid fluid concentrations. Following an oral dose of d-norgestrel (0.3 mg), parotid fluid levels rose steadily to a maximum but plasma response was biphasic making correlation impossible. The sensitivity and high throughput of the d-norgestrel methodology suggests its use in evaluating patient compliance in large-scale fertility control programmes. Changes in circulating cortisol concentrations were rapidly and accurately reflected in parotid fluid in normal volunteers. Parotid fluid cortisol showed a marked diurnal rhythm, suppression to low levels after dexamethasone, and elevation following Synacthen. Low levels after Synacthen stimulation in a patient with secondary adrenal atrophy and constant high levels in Cushingoid patients indicate that parotid fluid cortisol levels could be used for accurate adrenocortical evaluation. The value in rapid screening procedures is stressed since the assay can be performed directly on only 10 μl of parotid fluid. (author)

  14. Expression of human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) in murine acinar cells promotes pancreatitis and apoptotic cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athwal, T; Huang, W; Mukherjee, R; Latawiec, D; Chvanov, M; Clarke, R; Smith, K; Campbell, F; Merriman, C; Criddle, D; Sutton, R; Neoptolemos, J; Vlatković, N

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an autosomal dominant disease that displays the features of both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Mutations in human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) are associated with HP and have provided some insight into the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, but mechanisms responsible for the initiation of pancreatitis have not been elucidated and the role of apoptosis and necrosis has been much debated. However, it has been generally accepted that trypsinogen, prematurely activated within the pancreatic acinar cell, has a major role in the initiation process. Functional studies of HP have been limited by the absence of an experimental system that authentically mimics disease development. We therefore developed a novel transgenic murine model system using wild-type (WT) human PRSS1 or two HP-associated mutants (R122H and N29I) to determine whether expression of human cationic trypsinogen in murine acinar cells promotes pancreatitis. The rat elastase promoter was used to target transgene expression to pancreatic acinar cells in three transgenic strains that were generated: Tg(Ela-PRSS1)NV, Tg(Ela-PRSS1*R122H)NV and Tg(Ela-PRSS1*N29I)NV. Mice were analysed histologically, immunohistochemically and biochemically. We found that transgene expression is restricted to pancreatic acinar cells and transgenic PRSS1 proteins are targeted to the pancreatic secretory pathway. Animals from all transgenic strains developed pancreatitis characterised by acinar cell vacuolisation, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrosis. Transgenic animals also developed more severe pancreatitis upon treatment with low-dose cerulein than controls, displaying significantly higher scores for oedema, inflammation and overall histopathology. Expression of PRSS1, WT or mutant, in acinar cells increased apoptosis in pancreatic tissues and isolated acinar cells. Moreover, studies of isolated acinar cells demonstrated that transgene expression promotes apoptosis rather than necrosis. We therefore

  15. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: new clinical and pathological features in a contemporary series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run; Jih, Lily; Zhai, Jing; Nissen, Nicholas N; Colquhoun, Steven; Wolin, Edward; Dhall, Deepti

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the novel clinical and pathological features of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. This was a retrospective review of medical records and surgical pathology specimens of patients with a diagnosis of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 2005 and 2011. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed on the specimens of some patients. Five patients were identified. The median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 59-89 years), and all patients were male. The presenting symptoms were all related to tumor mass effects. The median size of the tumor was 10 cm (range, 3.9-16 cm). Preoperative clinical diagnosis aided by fine-needle aspiration biopsy was incorrect in all 5 cases. Most tumors (3/5) exhibited predominantly endocrine differentiation without hormonal production. Only 10% to 30% of cells were truly amphicrine, whereas most were differentiated into either endocrine or acinar phenotype. The clinical behavior ranged from moderate to aggressive with postoperative survival from 2.5 months to more than 3 years. Four patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with variable responses. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas appears to be not uncommon in men, may harbor predominantly endocrine component, is often misdiagnosed by cytology, and exhibits variable clinical behavior. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas should be considered in older patients with sizable pancreatic mass and may warrant aggressive surgical resection and chemotherapy.

  16. Horner’s syndrome associated with parotid duct obstruction in a sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Loste, Araceli; Ramos, Juan J.; Ferrer, Luis M.; Climent, Salvador; Latre, María V.

    2006-01-01

    A 9-year old, Rasa Aragonesa ewe was presented with a left-sided, facial, soft fluctuant swelling. The postmortem examination showed grass awns filling the entire length of the parotid gland duct. The presence of parotid duct obstruction with Horner’s syndrome, previously unreported in sheep, is discussed.

  17. Texture analysis for the assessment of structural changes in parotid glands induced by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalco, Elisa; Fiorino, Claudio; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: During radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer, parotid glands undergo significant anatomic, functional and structural changes which could characterize pre-clinical signs of an increased risk of xerostomia. Texture analysis is proposed to assess structural changes of parotids induced by RT, and to investigate whether early variations of textural parameters (such as mean intensity and fractal dimension) can predict parotid shrinkage at the end of treatment. Material and methods: Textural parameters and volumes of 42 parotids from 21 patients treated with intensity-modulated RT for nasopharyngeal cancer were extracted from CT images. To individuate which parameters changed during RT, a Wilcoxon signed-rank test between textural indices (first and second RT week; first and last RT week) was performed. Discriminant analysis was applied to variations of these parameters in the first two weeks of RT to assess their power in predicting parotid shrinkage at the end of RT. Results: A significant decrease in mean intensity (1.7 HU and 3.8 HU after the second and last weeks, respectively) and fractal dimension (0.016 and 0.021) was found. Discriminant analysis, based on volume and fractal dimension, was able to predict the final parotid shrinkage (accuracy of 71.4%). Conclusion: Textural features could be used in combination with volume to characterize structural modifications on parotid glands and to predict parotid shrinkage at the end of RT

  18. An intraoperative diagnosis of parotid gland tumors using Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bing; Wen, Zhining; Li, Yi; Li, Longjiang; Xue, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of parotid gland tumors is difficult, but is important for their surgical management. In order to explore an intraoperative diagnostic method, Raman spectroscopy is applied to detect the normal parotid gland and tumors, including pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin’s tumor and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In the 600–1800 cm −1 region of the Raman shift, there are numerous spectral differences between the parotid gland and tumors. Compared with Raman spectra of the normal parotid gland, the Raman spectra of parotid tumors show an increase of the peaks assigned to nucleic acids and proteins, but a decrease of the peaks related to lipids. Spectral differences also exist between the spectra of parotid tumors. Based on these differences, a remarkable classification and diagnosis of the parotid gland and tumors are carried out by support vector machine (SVM), with high accuracy (96.7∼100%), sensitivity (93.3∼100%) and specificity (96.7∼100%). Raman spectroscopy combined with SVM has a great potential to aid the intraoperative diagnosis of parotid tumors and could provide an accurate and rapid diagnostic approach. (paper)

  19. Geometric factors influencing dosimetric sparing of the parotid glands using IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Margie A.; Jackson, Andrew; Narayana, Ashwatha; Lee, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the relationship between the parotid volume, parotid-planning target volume (PTV) overlap, and dosimetric sparing of the parotid with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Parotid data were collected retrospectively for 51 patients treated with simultaneous boost IMRT. Unresectable patients received 54 or 59.4 Gy to subclinical disease, 70 Gy to gross disease. Patients treated postoperatively received 54, 60, and 66 Gy to low-risk, high-risk, and tumor bed regions. Volume and mean dose of each gland and gland segments outside of and overlapping the PTV were collected. Proximity of each gland to each PTV was recorded. Results: Dosimetric sparing (mean dose ≤26.5 Gy) was achieved in 66 of 71 glands with ≤21% parotid-PTV overlap and 8 of 23 glands with >21% overlap (p = 21%. Median mean dose was 25.9 Gy to glands overlapping PTV 54 or PTV 59 alone and 30.0 Gy to those abutting PTV 7 (p 7 was associated with higher parotid dose, satisfactory sparing was achieved in 24 of 43 ipsilateral glands. Conclusions: Dosimetric sparing of the parotid is feasible when the parotid-PTV overlap is less than approximately 20%. With more overlap, sparing may result in low doses within the overlap region, possibly leading to inadequate PTV coverage. Gland proximity to the high-dose PTV is associated with higher mean dose but does not always preclude dosimetric sparing

  20. The radioimmunoassay of biologically active compounds in parotid fluid and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.F.; Read, G.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential value of parotid fluid estimations of clomipramine, d-norgestrel, and cortisol have been evaluated for assessment of clinical status and patient compliance. Excellent agreement (r > 0.9) was observed when parotid fluid samples were assayed with and without chromatographic purification. Clomipramine levels following oral dosage (150mg) rose steadily to a maximum in plasma but showed wide fluctuations in parotid fluid. Following an oral dose of d-norgestrel(0.3mg), parotid fluid levels rose steadily to a maximum but plasma response was biphasic making correlation impossible. The sensitivity and high throughput of the d-norgestrel methodology suggests its use in evaluating patient compliance in large scale fertility control programmes. Changes in circulating cortisol concentrations were rapidly and accurately reflected in parotid fluid in normal volunteers. Parotid fluid cortisol showed a market diurnal rythm, suppression to low levels after dexamethasone, and elevation following Synacthen. Low levels after Synacthen stimulation in a patient with secondary adrenal atrophy and constant high levels in Cushingoid patients indicate that parotid fluid cortisol levels could be used for accurate adrenocortical evaluation. The value in rapid screening procedures is stressed since the assay can be performed directly on only 10μl of parotid fluid. (orig./AJ) [de

  1. Sirtuin-1 regulates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and supports cancer cell viability in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Elke; Sanchez-Arévalo Lobo, Victor J; Pinho, Andreia V; Mawson, Amanda; Herranz, Daniel; Wu, Jianmin; Cowley, Mark J; Colvin, Emily K; Njicop, Erna Ngwayi; Sutherland, Rob L; Liu, Tao; Serrano, Manuel; Bouwens, Luc; Real, Francisco X; Biankin, Andrew V; Rooman, Ilse

    2013-04-01

    The exocrine pancreas can undergo acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), as in the case of pancreatitis where precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can arise. The NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) has been implicated in carcinogenesis with dual roles depending on its subcellular localization. In this study, we examined the expression and the role of Sirt1 in different stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis, i.e. ADM models and established PDAC. In addition, we analyzed the expression of KIAA1967, a key mediator of Sirt1 function, along with potential Sirt1 downstream targets. Sirt1 was co-expressed with KIAA1967 in the nuclei of normal pancreatic acinar cells. In ADM, Sirt1 underwent a transient nuclear-to-cytoplasmic shuttling. Experiments where during ADM, we enforced repression of Sirt1 shuttling, inhibition of Sirt1 activity or modulation of its expression, all underscore that the temporary decrease of nuclear and increase of cytoplasmic Sirt1 stimulate ADM. Our results further underscore that important transcriptional regulators of acinar differentiation, that is, Pancreatic transcription factor-1a and β-catenin can be deacetylated by Sirt1. Inhibition of Sirt1 is effective in suppression of ADM and in reducing cell viability in established PDAC tumors. KIAA1967 expression is differentially downregulated in PDAC and impacts on the sensitivity of PDAC cells to the Sirt1/2 inhibitor Tenovin-6. In PDAC, acetylation of β-catenin is not affected, unlike p53, a well-characterized Sirt1-regulated protein in tumor cells. Our results reveal that Sirt1 is an important regulator and potential therapeutic target in pancreatic carcinogenesis. ©2012 AACR.

  2. Unilateral parotid concentration of radiogallium: Comparison with bilateral uptake and with pertechnetate imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, H.A.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-12-01

    Unilateral parotid accumulation of radioactivity was noted in 4 elderly (80-95 years) patients after intravenous administration of /sup 67/Ga citrate. In 2 of these individuals, it was possible to carry out pertechnetate salivary gland imaging. The involved glands were functional in terms of pertechnetate accumulation, although no drainage was noted after lemon stimulation. A retrospective analysis of 72 radiogallium studies failed to show unilateral parotid uptake in any of them. However, ten cases (14%) had bilateral parotid accumulation of radiogallium. Probable causes of the bilateral parotid concentration of /sup 67/Ga were discussed. These were compared with poor oral hygiene and dehydration as possible contributing factors to unilateral parotid radiogallium concentration in the elderly.

  3. Unilateral parotid concentration of radiogallium: Comparison with bilateral uptake and with pertechnetate imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, H.A.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Unilateral parotid accumulation of radioactivity was noted in 4 elderly (80-95 years) patients after intravenous administration of 67 Ga citrate. In 2 of these individuals, it was possible to carry out pertechnetate salivary gland imaging. The involved glands were functional in terms of pertechnetate accumulation, although no drainage was noted after lemon stimulation. A retrospective analysis of 72 radiogallium studies failed to show unilateral parotid uptake in any of them. However, ten cases (14%) had bilateral parotid accumulation of radiogallium. Probable causes of the bilateral parotid concentration of 67 Ga were discussed. These were compared with poor oral hygiene and dehydration as possible contributing factors to unilateral parotid radiogallium concentration in the elderly. (orig.) [de

  4. CT-diagnosis for mass lesions in the parotid gland and cervical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Fumihiko; Taniguchi, Satomi; Horii, Masaru; Suzuki, Shigemi; Shiba, Yuko

    1982-01-01

    Thirty patients suffering from mass lesion in the parotid gland or cervical region were examined by computed tomography (CT). The photographed images were compared with the findings and pathological diagnoses obtained by surgical procedures. The conclusions were as follows: 1) Plain CT demonstrated the location of the parotid tumor. Contrast enhancement seemed to delineate the margin of the tumor more clearly. 2) By contrast enhancement, the branchiogenic cyst was differentiated from the parotid tumor, as a low density mass with an enhanced cyst wall. 3) Parotid tumors enhanced by contrast material did not always appear as solid tumors. 4) In some cases, CT numbers indicated the contents of the tumor. 5) The extension of the tumor to the parapharyngeal space was clearly depicted on CT. 6) It seemed to be difficult to evaluate the relationship of the parotid tumor to the facial nerve on plain CT. (author)

  5. Two cases of cystic lesions in the parotid region diagnosed by CT sialogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Masahiko; Ukai, Kotaro; Itoh, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Yasuro; Itoh, Yukiko; Kohdera, Urara; Taki, Norio; Furukawa, Yuichi.

    1985-01-01

    This is a case report of two patients with cystic lesions in the parotid region. The diagnostic value of CT sialogram is discussed. A 62-year-old male had a swelling in the left parotid region which felt cystic on manual palpation. A CT sialogram clearly demonstrated a cystic mass superficial to the parotid gland. Histologically, the mass was an epidermoid cyst. A 9-year-old male had pain and swelling in the right parotid region which was not reduced by antibiotic therapy. An extraparotid abscess was diagnosed by CT sialogram 14 days after the onset. CT sialogram is effective in differentiating intrinsic from extrinsic parotid lesions and also shows the relationship of the tumor mass to the facial nerve and helps to differentiate between benign and malignant neoplasms. (author)

  6. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the parotid gland associated with facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, P; Ben Slama, L; Goudot, P; Schouman, T

    2017-02-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign inflammatory lesion involving most frequently the minor salivary gland of the hard palate. Involvement of the parotid gland is rare, involvement of the parotid gland associated with facial palsy is exceptional. A 56-year-old male patient with Marfan syndrome presented with swelling and inflammation of the left parotid gland associated with progressively complete facial nerve paralysis. CT scan and MRI showed a parotid collection with hyper signal of the nearest tissues associated with erosion of the styloid process. A malignant tumor was suspected. The histological examination of a biopsy showed a lobulocentric process with necrosis, squamous metaplasia, and inflammation. The immunohistochemical examination supported a final diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the parotid gland associated with facial nerve paralysis presents like a malignant neoplasm, both clinically and histologically. Only advanced immunohistochemical examination can really confirm the diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. CT-diagnosis for mass lesions in the parotid gland and cervical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, F.; Taniguchi, S.; Horii, M.; Suzuki, S.; Shiba, Y. (Kobe Central Municipal Hospital (Japan))

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients suffering from mass lesion in the parotid gland or cervical region were examined by computed tomography (CT). The photographed images were compared with the findings and pathological diagnoses obtained by surgical procedures. The conclusions were as follows: 1) Plain CT demonstrated the location of the parotid tumor. Contrast enhancement seemed to delineate the margin of the tumor more clearly. 2) By contrast enhancement, the branchiogenic cyst was differentiated from the parotid tumor, as a low density mass with an enhanced cyst wall. 3) Parotid tumors enhanced by contrast material did not always appear as solid tumors. 4) In some cases, CT numbers indicated the contents of the tumor. 5) The extension of the tumor to the parapharyngeal space was clearly depicted on CT. 6) It seemed to be difficult to evaluate the relationship of the parotid tumor to the facial nerve on plain CT.

  8. Facial Nerve Morbidity Following Surgery for Benign Parotid Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musani, M. A.; Suhail, Z.; Zafar, A.; Malik, S.; Mirza, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and severity of facial nerve dysfunction following surgery for benign parotid gland tumours. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Ziauddin University Hospital, from 1990 to 2010. Methodology: Data was collected of all patients who were surgically managed for benign parotid tumours from 1990 to 2010. Data was reviewed for presentation of tumour, age and gender of the patient, site of tumour, nature and morphology of the tumour, primary or recurrent, surgical procedure adopted and the complications of the surgery especially the facial nerve dysfunction, its severity, complete or partial paresis and transient or permanent and time of recovery. Results were described as frequency percentages. Results: Out of 235 patients, 159 (67.65%) were female and 76 (32.35%) were male. Age ranged from 18 to 70 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (n=194, 82.6%), followed by Warthin's tumour. Superficial parotidectomy was done in 188 cases and extended parotidectomy in 47 cases. In the immediate postoperative period facial nerve function was normal in 169 (72%) patients and nerve dysfunction was observed in 66 (28%) patients. Complete paresis involving all the branches of facial nerve was seen in 25 (10.6%) patients and 41 (17.4%) patients were having incomplete dysfunction. Of these, 62 (26.3%) recovered and 04 (1.7%) had permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was involved in 57 (86.3%) cases. Conclusion: The frequency of temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunction was 26.3% and 1.7% respectively in 235 consecutive parotidectomies for benign parotid gland tumours. Higher frequency of facial nerve dysfunction was found in recurrent and deep lobe tumours. (author)

  9. Activating transcription factor 3 promotes loss of the acinar cell phenotype in response to cerulein-induced pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Elena N; Young, Claire C; Toma, Jelena; Levy, Michael; Berger, Kurt R; Johnson, Charis L; Mehmood, Rashid; Swan, Patrick; Chu, Alphonse; Cregan, Sean P; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Howlett, Christopher J; Pin, Christopher L

    2017-09-01

    Pancreatitis is a debilitating disease of the exocrine pancreas that, under chronic conditions, is a major susceptibility factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Although down-regulation of genes that promote the mature acinar cell fate is required to reduce injury associated with pancreatitis, the factors that promote this repression are unknown. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a key mediator of the unfolded protein response, a pathway rapidly activated during pancreatic insult. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing, we show that ATF3 is bound to the transcriptional regulatory regions of >30% of differentially expressed genes during the initiation of pancreatitis. Of importance, ATF3-dependent regulation of these genes was observed only upon induction of pancreatitis, with pathways involved in inflammation, acinar cell differentiation, and cell junctions being specifically targeted. Characterizing expression of transcription factors that affect acinar cell differentiation suggested that acinar cells lacking ATF3 maintain a mature cell phenotype during pancreatitis, a finding supported by maintenance of junctional proteins and polarity markers. As a result, Atf3 -/- pancreatic tissue displayed increased tissue damage and inflammatory cell infiltration at early time points during injury but, at later time points, showed reduced acinar-to-duct cell metaplasia. Thus our results reveal a critical role for ATF3 as a key regulator of the acinar cell transcriptional response during injury and may provide a link between chronic pancreatitis and PDAC. © 2017 Fazio et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Incidental benign parotid lesions on FDG-PET: prevalence and clinico-pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Il Han; Lee, Won Woo; Chung, Jin Haeng; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Incidental parotid lesions on F-18 FDG-PET can mimic distant metastasis of underlying malignancy. The prevalence and the clinico-pathologic findings of PET positive parotid lesions have not been known. We investigated how often incidental parotid lesions are found on clinical FDG-PET studies and what the clinico-pathologic characteristics of those parotid lesions are in the present study. We retrospectively reviewed 3,344 cases of FDG-PET which had been obtained in our hospital from May 2003 to Dec 2006. The indications of FDG-PET were: evaluation of known/suspected cancer (n = 3,212) or screening of cancer in healthy subjects (n = 132). Incidental parotid lesion on FDG-PET was defined as an un-expected FDG uptake in one of parotid glands which was not primary target lesion of current FDG/PET. FDG uptake was represented by maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV). Final diagnosis was made by pathologic analysis or clinical follow-up assessment. Fifteen (0.45% = 15/3,344) incidental parotid lesions were found and they were all benign lesions. The maxSUV ranged from 1.7 to 8.6 (mean ± s.d. = 3.7 ± 1.9). Final diagnoses of the incidental parotid lesions were; Warthin's tumor (n = 2), pleomorphic adenoma (n = 1), other un-specified benign lesion (n 1), and benign lesions under bases of imaging studies (n = 3) and of clinical follow-up (n = 8). All of incidentally found parotid lesions in clinical FDG-PET studies were confirmed as benign lesions with prevalence of 0.45%. Close follow up using PET or CT might be a reasonable approach for determining the nature of incidentally found parotid lesions

  11. Immunocytochemical localization of the [3H]estradiol-binding protein in rat pancreatic acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.; Oppenheim, J.; Grondin, G.; St Jean, P.; Beaudoin, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Significant amounts of an estradiol-binding protein (EBP) are present in pancreatic acinar cells. This protein differs from the one found in female reproductive tissues and secondary sex organs (which is commonly referred to as estrogen receptor). EBP has now been purified from rat pancreas and was used as an antigen to induce polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. The antiserum obtained was purified initially by ammonium sulfate fractionation and then still further by interaction with a protein fraction from pancreas that was devoid of estradiol-binding activity. The latter procedure was used to precipitate nonspecific immunoglobulin Gs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the anti-EBP antibody reacted specifically with a doublet of protein bands having mol wt of 64K and 66K. When this purified antibody was used as an immunocytochemical probe in conjunction with protein-A-gold, acinar cells were labeled on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, on the plasma membrane, and in mitochondria. This specific labeling pattern was not observed when preimmune serum was used. No labeling was observed over the nucleus, Golgi apparatus, or zymogen granules with purified anti-EBP antibodies. The unexpected distribution of EBP in both the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria is discussed

  12. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β ablation limits pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Liou, Geou-Yarh; Schmitt, Daniel M; Storz, Peter; Zhang, Jin-San; Billadeau, Daniel D

    2017-09-01

    Acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a reversible epithelial transdifferentiation process that occurs in the pancreas in response to acute inflammation. ADM can rapidly progress towards pre-malignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions in the presence of mutant KRas and ultimately pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In the present work, we elucidate the role and related mechanism of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β) in ADM development using in vitro 3D cultures and genetically engineered mouse models. We show that GSK-3β promotes TGF-α-induced ADM in 3D cultured primary acinar cells, whereas deletion of GSK-3β attenuates caerulein-induced ADM formation and PanIN progression in Kras G12D transgenic mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GSK-3β ablation influences ADM formation and PanIN progression by suppressing oncogenic KRas-driven cell proliferation. Mechanistically, we show that GSK-3β regulates proliferation by increasing the activation of S6 kinase. Taken together, these results indicate that GSK-3β participates in early pancreatitis-induced ADM and thus could be a target for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis and the prevention of PDAC progression. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Duct- and Acinar-Derived Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Show Distinct Tumor Progression and Marker Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute M.M. Ferreira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell of origin of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC has been controversial. Here, we show that identical oncogenic drivers trigger PDAC originating from both ductal and acinar cells with similar histology but with distinct pathophysiology and marker expression dependent on cell of origin. Whereas acinar-derived tumors exhibited low AGR2 expression and were preceded by pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs, duct-derived tumors displayed high AGR2 and developed independently of a PanIN stage via non-mucinous lesions. Using orthotopic transplantation and chimera experiments, we demonstrate that PanIN-like lesions can be induced by PDAC as bystanders in adjacent healthy tissues, explaining the co-existence of mucinous and non-mucinous lesions and highlighting the need to distinguish between true precursor PanINs and PanIN-like bystander lesions. Our results suggest AGR2 as a tool to stratify PDAC according to cell of origin, highlight that not all PanIN-like lesions are precursors of PDAC, and add an alternative progression route to the current model of PDAC development.

  14. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  15. Parotid duct laceration repair in two horses : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olivier

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Repair of parotid duct lacerations in 2 horses is described using intraluminal silastic tubing as a stent. The duct was lacerated traumatically at the facial vessel notch (incisura vasorum facialium in the 1st horse, and iatrogenically after removal of an intraluminal sialolith after development of infection within the duct in the 2nd horse. In both cases, a silastic tube was passed retrograde into the duct via the salivary papilla, past the wound until the end lay rostroventral to the parotid salivary gland. The severed salivary ducts and the wounds were sutured. The external portion of the silastic tube was sutured to the skin and the tube left in place. Recovery in the 1st case was uneventful. In the 2nd case a salivary duct/cutaneous fistula formed at a wound distant from the sutured wound, which healed spontaneously. This technique differs from a similar described technique in that the stent tube exits the oral cavity and is attached to the outer skin surface.

  16. Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma of the Parotid in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Khosla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA is a rare salivary gland neoplasm with an indolent course. It occurs primarily in the minor salivary glands but can rarely occur in the major salivary glands. It usually occurs in the fifth to seventh decades of life with female preponderance.   Case Report: A 16-year-old male presented with recurrent painless swelling in the right preauricular region and with a history of surgical intervention at the same site in the past. His histopathology report was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma. The swelling recurred after one year of excision and a superficial parotidectomy was performed. The detailed histopathological examination was suggestive of Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. In view of close margins, the patient was given adjuvant radiotherapy. Thirty-three months post-surgery, he is alive and disease-free. We describe a rare case of PLGA of the parotid gland in a teenager with its clinical characteristics, histopathological features, and treatment.   Conclusion: The occurrence of PLGA in the parotid gland is rare with only a few cases reported in literature. The diagnosis of PLGA is challenging due to morphological diversity.

  17. Multiple Myopericytoma of the Face and Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ik Jung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Myopericytoma is a benign tumor that is composed of myoid-appearing oval to spindle-shaped cells with a concentric perivascular pattern of growth. The tumor is morphologically heterogeneous and can exhibit a broad histologic spectrum. We describe a case of multiple myopericytoma occurring in the head and neck skin region with involvement of the parotid gland where it is known to occur very rarely. A 40-year-old woman noticed multiple enlarging, painless, round-shaped masses on her left cheek. The patient had experienced a similar lesion of the same area 8 years earlier which was completely excised and the pathological diagnosis was spindle cell type myoepithelioma. On a computed tomographic image, one mass involved the superficial parotid gland and was well encapsulated. Excision of the facial masses and superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation were performed. A diagnosis of myopericytoma was established in light of the immunohistochemical pattern with the histopathological findings. Over the 4-year follow-up period, there was no evidence of recurrence. As many perivascular myoid neoplasms share common morphologic features with myopericytoma, we should consider the differential diagnosis, and confirm the histological findings with appropriate immunohistochemical staining. After identifying myopericytoma, it should be treated with wide surgical excision to prevent local recurrence.

  18. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma parotid sparing with euivalent uiform dose optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Weiyou; Dai Jianrong; Gao Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of an euivalent uiform dose (EUD) based optimization algorithm in sparing the parotids of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) when they are treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: 12 patients were randomly selected from the NPC patients who received IMRT treatments. For these patients, the treatment plans were designed with physical optimization constraints (dose/dose-volume constraints). Based on these plans, new plans were designed through replacing the physical constraints with maximum EUD for parotids, while keeping the physical objectives for targets and other organs at risk(OARs) unchanged. Comparison was then made between the new plan, which had EUD constraints to parotids, and the former for each individual patient. Results: While maintaining the dose to the targets and the other OARs un- changed, optimization with EUD constraints to parotids decreased the mean dose and V 30 of parotids significantly, simultaneously, the dose of target volume and other organs at risk keep stable, the values of probability were less than 0.05 by T-test. Conclusions: The doses to parotids can be reduced through optimization with EUD constraints. This finding is quite helpful to reduce the occurrence rate of parotid complications, and to provide spaces for escalating target dose. (authors)

  19. New models of experimental parotitis and parotid gland distension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Iwata, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A significant reduction of the escape threshold to mechanical stimulation of the lateral facial skin was observed bilaterally at days 2 and 3 after unilateral complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) administration into parotid gland. A slight reduction of mechanical escape threshold was also observed in rats with saline administration. The parotid gland inflammation was verified and quantified by measuring the tissue Evans' blue dye extravasation. The Evans' blue concentration in the parotid gland tissues was significantly greater in the CFA-injected rats than that of the saline-injected rats at 72 h after treatment. On day 10 after CFA administration into the parotid gland, the Evans' blue concentration was recovered to the control level. The administration of capsaicin into the parotid gland did not alter neuronal activities in the transition zone between the trigeminal spinal subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis (Vi/Vc). In contrast, capsaicin administration induced significant increases in the receptive field size and mechanical and cold responses of neurons located in superficial laminae of the C1/C2. The subgroup of C1/C2 neurons responded to mechanical distension of the parotid gland, whereas no Vi/Vc neurons responded to parotid distension.

  20. Cell phone use and parotid salivary gland alterations: no molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabrício T A; Correia-Silva, Jeane F; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Siqueira, Elisa C; Duarte, Alessandra P; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Ricardo S; Gomes, Carolina C

    2014-07-01

    The association between cell phone use and the development of parotid tumors is controversial. Because there is unequivocal evidence that the microenvironment is important for tumor formation, we investigated in the parotid glands whether cell phone use alters the expression of gene products related to cellular stress. We used the saliva produced by the parotid glands of 62 individuals to assess molecular alterations compatible with cellular stress, comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to the saliva from the opposite, unexposed parotid gland (contralateral) of each individual. We compared salivary flow, total protein concentration, p53, p21, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and salivary levels of glutathione (GSH), heat shock proteins 27 and 70, and IgA between the ipsilateral and contralateral parotids. No difference was found for any of these parameters, even when grouping individuals by period of cell phone use in years or by monthly average calls in minutes. We provide molecular evidence that the exposure of parotid glands to cell phone use does not alter parotid salivary flow, protein concentration, or levels of proteins of genes that are directly or indirectly affected by heat-induced cellular stress. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Isolated Light Chain Amyloidosis Involving the Parotid Gland: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareb, Barzi; Perry, Michael; Tadrous, Paul Joseph

    2018-03-08

    Amyloidosis in the parotid gland is rare and is usually associated with systemic amyloidosis. Localized amyloidosis in the parotid gland is extremely rare. We present a case of localized light chain amyloidosis of the parotid gland without systemic involvement. A 70-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic swelling of the right parotid region. The findings of a physical examination, hematologic and biochemical investigations, imaging, and cytology were inconclusive. The patient underwent an extracapsular dissection of the right parotid gland. Histologic analysis showed that the tissue of the right parotid gland mostly consisted of amyloid deposition. The amyloid stained with antibodies to lambda light chains. Additional investigations showed no systemic involvement. The patient is asymptomatic 5 months after surgery. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of localized amyloid light chain amyloidosis in the parotid gland, especially if magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography imaging, and ultrasound findings are inconclusive, and they should recognize, evaluate, and treat it accordingly. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  2. Position modification and actual radiation dose in parotids for head and neck cancers treated with TomoTherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Huayong; Zhang Yongqian; Wang Yadi; Xu Weidong; Gao Junmao; Zhang Fuli; Yao Bo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the impact of parotid's position and volume changing on radiation dose for head and neck cancer treated with TomoTherapy. Methods: Totally 12 patients with head and neck cancer were treated with TomoTherapy. Before the treatment, the dose distribution was recalculated with MVCT images, which would obtain the parameters of position, volume and actual radiation dose for parotids. Results: The volume of parotids in Plan2 was significantly lower than in Plan1, and the percentage reduction was 29.06% and 31.78% for left and right parotid, respectively (Z = 6.77, 3.06, P < 0.05). Distance between the COM(center of mass) of parotids and the midline of body was significantly smaller in Plan2 than in Plan1, and the percentage reduction was 6.72% and 6.19% (t = 5.14, 5.80, P < 0.05) at left and right side, respectively. Average dose and V_2_6 for both parotids were higher than those in Plan1, increasing by an average of 37.74%, 25.08% (Z = -6.03, -5.31, P < 0.05) for left parotid and 30.45%, 19.33% (Z = -5.43, -3.26, P < 0.05) for right parotid, respectively. Conclusions: The actual radiation dose to parotids was significantly increased during the radiation therapy for patients with head and neck cancer. There was a linear correlation between the decrease of distance between the COM of parotids and the midline of body and the percentage increase of parotids' radiation dose. No correlation between the reduction of parotids' volume and dose to parotids. In order to reduce the parotids' radiation dose, modification of treatment plan at the appropriate time is essential. (authors)

  3. 3D-FIESTA MRI at 3 T demonstrating branches of the intraparotid facial nerve, parotid ducts and relation with benign parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanting; Li Yan; Zhang Dongsheng; Yang Zhenzhen; Wu Lebin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) fast imaging employing steady state precession (FIESTA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 T in evaluating the intraparotid components of the facial nerve and parotid ducts, and to compare the MRI images with surgical findings. Materials and methods: Thirty-one cases of benign parotid tumours were studied with conventional and 3D FIESTA MRI sequences at 3T using a head coil. The most clinically useful 3D FIESTA images were acquired at parameters of 4.9 ms repetition time (TR); 1.5 effective echo time (TEeff); a flip of 55°, a field of view of 18 to 20 cm, a matrix of 512 × 320, an axial plane, no gaps, and a section thickness of 1 mm. Post-processed multiplanar images were obtained with an Advantage Windows (AW sdc 4.3) workstation. Parotid ducts, facial nerves, and tumours were identified on these images. The relationship of the tumours to the facial nerves and parotid ducts was confirmed at surgery. Results: The facial nerves appeared as linear structures of low intensity. The main trunk of the facial nerve was identified bilaterally in 93.5% of the 3D-FIESTA sequence images. Parotid ducts appeared as structures of high intensity on multiplanar 3D-FIESTA images (100%). The relationships of the tumours with the cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerve were correctly diagnosed in 26 of 31 cases (83.9%) using 3D-FIESTA sequence images. Conclusion: 3D-FIESTA MRI at 3 T depicted the main trunk, cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerve, and the main parotid duct. It is useful for preoperative evaluation of parotid gland tumours.

  4. Paraganglioma with unusual presentation in parotid gland: A diagnostic dilemma in fine needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagh A Vora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas (PGLs are uncommon tumors. Although PGLs are known to occur in the head and neck region, especially the carotid body, middle ear, and larynx, involvement of the parotid glands has not been reported. In this article, we report the fine needle aspiration features of tumor in an unusual location, presenting as a parotid gland mass, submitted to pathology for initial diagnosis. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology, and the immunohistochemical features for the diagnosis are described. To our knowledge, this is the first case of paraganglioma of the parotid gland reported in the literature.

  5. SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN HUMAN PAROTID FLUID FLOW RATE IN A SUBTROPICAL CLIMATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parotid fluid was collected under conditions of very minimal stimulation from 3,868 systemically healthy young adult males over a period of two...calendar years. The study was carried out in a subtropical climate in which the only thermal discomfort resulted from the summer heat. Parotid flow rate...fall. During the summer months the mean rate of parotid flow was 0.031 ml./minute; during the winter the flow rate mean increased by 35% to 0.042 ml

  6. Malignant tumor of the parotid gland with metastasis into the cervical vertebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Keiichi; Utsumi, Takehiko; Furuki, Shin; Asano, Hisashi.

    1979-01-01

    A patient with malignant tumor of the parotid gland with metastasis into the cervical vertebra was found. Because spinal symptoms were observed at first and the symptoms and the course of the disease were not typical, it was so difficult to diagnose it. For this patient, a parotid gland scintigram with sup(99m)Tc was very useful to diagnose the lesion. The patient was treated with chemotherapy, 60 Co beam therapy and immuno-chemo-therapy and survived about one year and two months more. Cyclo-C (cyclocytidine) was very effective to control the primary lesion in the parotid gland. (Nishio, M.)

  7. The novel cytokine interleukin-33 activates acinar cell proinflammatory pathways and induces acute pancreatic inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Kempuraj

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is potentially fatal but treatment options are limited as disease pathogenesis is poorly understood. IL-33, a novel IL-1 cytokine family member, plays a role in various inflammatory conditions but its role in acute pancreatitis is not well understood. Specifically, whether pancreatic acinar cells produce IL-33 when stressed or respond to IL-33 stimulation, and whether IL-33 exacerbates acute pancreatic inflammation is unknown.In duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice and rats, we found that (a IL-33 concentration was increased in the pancreas; (b mast cells, which secrete and also respond to IL-33, showed degranulation in the pancreas and lung; (c plasma histamine and pancreatic substance P concentrations were increased; and (d pancreatic and pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were increased. In isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells, TNF-α stimulation increased IL-33 release while IL-33 stimulation increased proinflammatory cytokine release, both involving the ERK MAP kinase pathway; the flavonoid luteolin inhibited IL-33-stimulated IL-6 and CCL2/MCP-1 release. In mice without duct ligation, exogenous IL-33 administration induced pancreatic inflammation without mast cell degranulation or jejunal inflammation; pancreatic changes included multifocal edema and perivascular infiltration by neutrophils and some macrophages. ERK MAP kinase (but not p38 or JNK and NF-kB subunit p65 were activated in the pancreas of mice receiving exogenous IL-33, and acinar cells isolated from the pancreas of these mice showed increased spontaneous cytokine release (IL-6, CXCL2/MIP-2α. Also, IL-33 activated ERK in human pancreatic tissue.As exogenous IL-33 does not induce jejunal inflammation in the same mice in which it induces pancreatic inflammation, we have discovered a potential role for an IL-33/acinar cell axis in the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages and the exacerbation of acute pancreatic inflammation

  8. β-catenin is selectively required for the expansion and regeneration of mature pancreatic acinar cells in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Keefe

    2012-07-01

    The size of the pancreas is determined by intrinsic factors, such as the number of progenitor cells, and by extrinsic signals that control the fate and proliferation of those progenitors. Both the exocrine and endocrine compartments of the pancreas undergo dramatic expansion after birth and are capable of at least partial regeneration following injury. Whether the expansion of these lineages relies on similar mechanisms is unknown. Although we have shown that the Wnt signaling component β-catenin is selectively required in mouse embryos for the generation of exocrine acinar cells, this protein has been ascribed various functions in the postnatal pancreas, including proliferation and regeneration of islet as well as acinar cells. To address whether β-catenin remains important for the maintenance and expansion of mature acinar cells, we have established a system to follow the behavior and fate of β-catenin-deficient cells during postnatal growth and regeneration in mice. We find that β-catenin is continuously required for the establishment and maintenance of acinar cell mass, extending from embryonic specification through juvenile and adult self-renewal and regeneration. This requirement is not shared with islet cells, which proliferate and function normally in the absence of β-catenin. These results make distinct predictions for the relative role of Wnt–β-catenin signaling in the etiology of human endocrine and exocrine disease. We suggest that loss of Wnt–β-catenin activity is unlikely to drive islet dysfunction, as occurs in type 2 diabetes, but that β-catenin is likely to promote human acinar cell proliferation following injury, and might therefore contribute to the resolution of acute or chronic pancreatitis.

  9. The nuclear hormone receptor family member NR5A2 controls aspects of multipotent progenitor cell formation and acinar differentiation during pancreatic organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Michael A; Swift, Galvin H; Hoang, Chinh Q; Deering, Tye G; Masui, Toshi; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Xue, Jumin; MacDonald, Raymond J

    2014-08-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 is necessary for the stem-like properties of the epiblast of the pre-gastrulation embryo and for cellular and physiological homeostasis of endoderm-derived organs postnatally. Using conditional gene inactivation, we show that Nr5a2 also plays crucial regulatory roles during organogenesis. During the formation of the pancreas, Nr5a2 is necessary for the expansion of the nascent pancreatic epithelium, for the subsequent formation of the multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) population that gives rise to pre-acinar cells and bipotent cells with ductal and islet endocrine potential, and for the formation and differentiation of acinar cells. At birth, the NR5A2-deficient pancreas has defects in all three epithelial tissues: a partial loss of endocrine cells, a disrupted ductal tree and a >90% deficit of acini. The acinar defects are due to a combination of fewer MPCs, deficient allocation of those MPCs to pre-acinar fate, disruption of acinar morphogenesis and incomplete acinar cell differentiation. NR5A2 controls these developmental processes directly as well as through regulatory interactions with other pancreatic transcriptional regulators, including PTF1A, MYC, GATA4, FOXA2, RBPJL and MIST1 (BHLHA15). In particular, Nr5a2 and Ptf1a establish mutually reinforcing regulatory interactions and collaborate to control developmentally regulated pancreatic genes by binding to shared transcriptional regulatory regions. At the final stage of acinar cell development, the absence of NR5A2 affects the expression of Ptf1a and its acinar specific partner Rbpjl, so that the few acinar cells that form do not complete differentiation. Nr5a2 controls several temporally distinct stages of pancreatic development that involve regulatory mechanisms relevant to pancreatic oncogenesis and the maintenance of the exocrine phenotype. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.O.; Lam, A.H. [Saint Vincent`s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia); Martin, H.C.O. [Royal Alexandria Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Depts of Radiology and Surgery

    1997-02-01

    The imaging findings of two children with acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland are presented. Ultrasonic and computed tomography features are emphasized. One of these children, a 6 year old boy, suffers from the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe, a rare congenital, inherited condition manifested by defects of the nervous system (mental retardation, hypotonia), eyes (cataracts, glaucoma) and kidneys. To date, no known association exists between these two rare entities. The other child, a 10 year old girl, was otherwise well. The ultrasound findings of both cases demonstrate features more classic for a benign intraparotid mass than for a potentially malignant lesion. The possibility of acinic cell carcinoma should be considered if a well-defined, relatively homogeneously hypo-echoic intraparotid mass is encountered in a child, especially if cystic spaces are present. It was estimated that computed tomography findings reflected features already demonstrated by ultrasound and added little to characterization of the primary mass in this case. 12 refs.,5 figs.

  11. Treatment planning aspects for tumours in the region of parotid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, S.S.; Saju, Sherly; Deshpande, D.D.; Agarwal, J.P.; Dinshaw, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of carcinoma of parotid/external ear needs careful planning in respect of dose to the normal organs surrounding the tumour such as eye(s), pituitary and normal brain. In many centres, generally, manual contours are generated for a two dimensional planning, wherein Anterior-Posterior (A-P) oblique fields (patient in Lateral Position) are planned. However, such a field orientation is not always useful in terms of minimum possible dose to the said normal organs, especially for eye. In this centre, a different field arrangement has been attempted, which helps in dose reduction to the normal structures to a large extent in comparison with the conventional 2D planning method

  12. Rat parotid gland pathophysiology following 137Cs irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, J.C.; Izutsu, K.T.; Truelove, E.L.; Menard, T.W.; Anderson, M.C.; Morton, T.H.; Siegel, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in rat parotid gland function were measured between 3 and 30 days following exposure to 1800 R of 137 Cs irradiation to the head. Glandular fluid secretion capability as indicated by volume of secretion, maximum rate of secretion, and duration of secretion following pilocarpine stimulation decreased concomitantly with gland weight following irradiation. Thus gland weight is probably indicative of residual glandular-potential for fluid secretion following irradiation. The relation between salivary sodium concentration and flow rate was assumed to be indicative of glandular electrolyte transport capability. Salivary sodium concentrations were not elevated over control values at any flow rate. Therefore, there is no evidence for an irradiation-induced defect in the ductal sodium resorption mechanism. Rather, the observed salivary sodium changes are consistent with a decrease in the relative glandular proportion of acini to ducts

  13. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma over the parotid gland: a pathologic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verret, D J; Kabbani, Wareef; DeFatta, Robert J

    2007-02-01

    Nodular hidradenocarcinoma (NHAC), an eccrine carcinoma, has been reported in the dermatology and pathology literature, but few references have been made in the otolaryngology literature even though the head and neck is a common site of occurrence. A case report of a 37-year-old Hispanic man with a right-sided neck mass diagnosed preoperatively as a parotid mass by imaging and fine-needle aspiration is presented. After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision of the mass was undertaken. Final pathology revealed a NHAC, which is presented in our report. NHAC is an aggressive malignant tumor that is often misdiagnosed preoperatively and that must be treated with aggressive multimodality therapy for increased survival.

  14. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Gaiko-Shcherbak

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  15. Ethanol exerts dual effects on calcium homeostasis in CCK-8-stimulated mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Marcela; del Castillo-Vaquero, Angel; Salido, Ginés M; González, Antonio

    2009-10-30

    A significant percentage of patients with pancreatitis often presents a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the patho-physiological effect of ethanol on pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the early effects of acute ethanol exposure on CCK-8-evoked Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Changes in [Ca2+]i and ROS production were analyzed employing fluorescence techniques after loading cells with fura-2 or CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. Ethanol, in the concentration range from 1 to 50 mM, evoked an oscillatory pattern in [Ca2+]i. In addition, ethanol evoked reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) production. Stimulation of cells with 1 nM or 20 pM CCK-8, respectively led to a transient change and oscillations in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ethanol a transformation of 20 pM CCK-8-evoked physiological oscillations into a single transient increase in [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells was observed. Whereas, in response to 1 nM CCK-8, the total Ca2+ mobilization was significantly increased by ethanol pre-treatment. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM 4-MP, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, or 10 microM of the antioxidant cinnamtannin B-1, reverted the effect of ethanol on total Ca2+ mobilization evoked by 1 nM CCK-8. Cinnamtannin B-1 blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. ethanol may lead, either directly or through ROS generation, to an over stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells in response to CCK-8, resulting in a higher Ca2+ mobilization compared to normal conditions. The actions of ethanol on CCK-8-stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis.

  16. Ethanol exerts dual effects on calcium homeostasis in CCK-8-stimulated mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salido Ginés M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant percentage of patients with pancreatitis often presents a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the patho-physiological effect of ethanol on pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the early effects of acute ethanol exposure on CCK-8-evoked Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Changes in [Ca2+]i and ROS production were analyzed employing fluorescence techniques after loading cells with fura-2 or CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. Results Ethanol, in the concentration range from 1 to 50 mM, evoked an oscillatory pattern in [Ca2+]i. In addition, ethanol evoked reactive oxygen species generation (ROS production. Stimulation of cells with 1 nM or 20 pM CCK-8, respectively led to a transient change and oscillations in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ethanol a transformation of 20 pM CCK-8-evoked physiological oscillations into a single transient increase in [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells was observed. Whereas, in response to 1 nM CCK-8, the total Ca2+ mobilization was significantly increased by ethanol pre-treatment. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM 4-MP, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, or 10 μM of the antioxidant cinnamtannin B-1, reverted the effect of ethanol on total Ca2+ mobilization evoked by 1 nM CCK-8. Cinnamtannin B-1 blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. Conclusion ethanol may lead, either directly or through ROS generation, to an over stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells in response to CCK-8, resulting in a higher Ca2+ mobilization compared to normal conditions. The actions of ethanol on CCK-8-stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis.

  17. Radiotherapy for a cystadenolymphoma of the parotid gland (Warthin's tumor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, C.; Vacha, P.; Vesely, H.; Richter, E.; Feyerabend, T.

    2001-01-01

    Background: With 17.6% of all primary parotid neoformations the benign Warthin's tumor (cystadenolymphoma) is the second common parotid gland tumor. Males > 50 years are affected predominantly. After surgery the recurrence rate is less than 5%. Histomorphologically the tumor is characterized by cystoid ducts lined by epithelial cells as well as lymphoid stroma. The lymphoid component has been described as radioresponsive whereas the epithelial parts are less radiosensitive. Since 1960 only one patient treated by primary radiotherapy has been published. Case report: A 77-year-old woman suffered from cystadenolymphoma (maximal diameter 7 cm). Because of its extension and the reduced performance status of the patient surgery was no option. Radiotherapy was performed with a total dose of 50 Gy. Clinically, the tumor regressed completely after 30 Gy, which was confirmed by CT at 6 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. After 6 and 12 months the patient stayed free of tumor. Epicrisis: In our case the cystadenolymphoma was unusually large (7 cm). Radiotherapy with 50 Gy induced complete tumor regression. The good clinical response after 30 Gy suggests that the necessary dose may be lower for less extended cystadenolymphomas. Conclusion: We present a case of cystadenolymphoma treated by radiotherapy with 50 Gy resulting in a complete remission. Due to missing published experiences no common recommendation for the total dose can be given. In the following situations radiotherapy should be considered: 1. high surgical risk of damage to the facial nerve, 2. unfavorable cosmetic outcome after surgery, 3. inoperability for internal risks, 4. refusal of operation. (orig.) [de

  18. Parotiditis crónicas recidivantes: Nuestra experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Estrada Sarmiento

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación observacional, prospectiva y descriptiva de 27 pacientes con el diagnóstico clínico e histopatológico de parotiditis crónica, con el objetivo de conocer su comportamiento en nuestro medio durante el período 1994-1995. De los 27 pacientes, 19 eran femeninos (70,4 % y 8 masculinos. En el 3,7 % se observó una edad inferior a los 10 años; la parótida izquierda fue la más afectada. La técnica quirúrgica de Blair se empleó en 19 pacientes (70,4 % y la mortalidad operativa fue nula. Cuatro pacientes (14,8 % presentaron complicaciones. Esta entidad es frecuente en niños, su cuadro clínico oscila entre meses y años, por lo cual no es poco frecuente después de las primeras décadas de la vida.An observational prospective and descriptive study of 27 patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with chronic parotitis was performed with the objective of finding out the behaviour of such disease in our context from 1994- to 1995. 19 were females (70.4 % and 8 were males. 3.7 % were under 10 years and the laft parotid gland was the most affected. Blair’s surgical technique was successfully used in 19 patients (70.4 % and none of them died. Complications occured in 4 patients (14.8 %. This disease is common in children, its clinical pattern ranges from months to years, so, it is not an uncommon disease after the first decades of life.

  19. Allometric and radioautographic study on developing parotid gland of the golden hamster at early postnatat period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, I M.S. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1989-02-01

    The post-natal development of golden hamster parotid gland and the rate of proliferation of the cells are studied in the first month of the life. A comparative evaluation with other rodents is presented. (M.A.C.).

  20. Submandibular gland function and parotid gland function in Bell's palsy, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kato, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1986-01-01

    With the use of sup(99m)Tc, we attempted to measure simultaneously submandibular gland function and parotid gland function, which is thought not to be controlled by the facial nerve, in patients with unilateral Bell's palsy. For comparison, the lachrymal gland function of some patients was measured by the thread method. We found that facial palsy sometimes affects parotid gland function as well as submandibular gland function. In 60 % of the patients the function of the two glands tended to be affected in the same way. Lachrymal gland function tended to be affected in a similar way to parotid gland function. We conclude that the chorda tympani and the greater petrosal nerve may influence parotid gland function. (author)

  1. A type II first branchial cleft cyst masquerading as an infected parotid Warthin's tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Feng; Ueng, Shir-Hwa; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chen, Yao-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of a parotid mass usually depends on thorough history taking and physical examination. Diagnostic modalities, including ultrasonographic examinations, computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, may also provide substantial information but their accuracy for diagnosis is sometimes questionable, especially in differentiating some rare neoplasms. First branchial cleft cysts (FBCCs) are rare causes of parotid swelling and comprise less than 1% of all branchial anomalies. They are frequently misdiagnosed due to their rarity and unfamiliar clinical signs and symptoms. We present a case of type II FBCC masquerading as an infected parotid Warthin's tumor. We also review the clinical signs and symptoms of FBCCs in order to remind clinicians that this rare branchial anomaly can mimic an infected Warthin's tumor and may be seated in the deep lobe of the parotid gland. By making an accurate pre-operative diagnosis of type II FBCC, we can minimize surgical morbidity and avoid incomplete resection and possible recurrence.

  2. Caso clínico: Un tratamiento alternativo a la parotiditis crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Arregui V,Rodrigo; Tamblay N,Natalia; Esquivel C,Patricia

    2008-01-01

    La parotiditis crónica conocida también como parotiditis juvenil recurrente, se define como la inflamación recurrente de la glándula parótida, asociada a la aparición de sialectasias o dilataciones no obstructivas de los conductos glandulares. Como tratamiento se emplea habitualmente la sialografía que tiene una tasa de éxito que va de 62% a 94%. Se presenta aquí un caso de un niño de 4 años de edad con parotiditis crónica, que persiste con episodios de parotiditis, pese a la realización de d...

  3. [Acute neonatal suppurative parotiditis: about three clinical cases and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfaoun, Zineb; Radouani, Mohammed Amine; Azzaoui, Sihame; Knouni, Houria; Aguenaou, Hassan; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The following case study reports three cases of neonatal bacterial parotiditis observed over a period of seven months. Diagnosis is often based on patient's clinical features: they typically include hyperthermia, swelling, erythema, warmth as well as local tenderness and purulent discharge at Stensen duct during the massage of the parotid. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by ultrasound and by culture of parotid purulent secretion. They are mainly of nosocomial origin and are generally caused by prematurity and dehydration. Early treatment improves patient outcome. Risk factors such as age should lead clinicians to start empiric antibiotic therapy first and then antibiotic therapy based on direct examination of pus extracted from Stensen duct. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Viridans and anaerobic germs are most commonly isolated. Acute parotiditis are extremely rare in the neonatal period: less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature. We here report three rather peculiar cases. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of signs of local inflammation.

  4. Contemporary management of benign parotid tumours - the increasing evidence for extracapsular dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, P A; Ammar, M; Matharu, J

    2017-01-01

    Benign parotid tumours have historically often been managed surgically by superficial parotidectomy. While this approach usually gives a generous cuff of surrounding normal parotid tissue to increase tumour margins, it requires a much larger incision than the increasingly used extracapsular dissection (ECD) technique. Furthermore, superficial parotidectomy can result in marked facial hollowing, Frey syndrome and an increased risk of both temporary and permanent facial nerve weakness. ECD has been popularised as a safe alternative to parotidectomy primarily for the removal of mobile, benign parotid tumours with safe outcomes and reduced risk to the facial nerve. In this article, we review the growing body of evidence for ECD and include our own experience confirming the move away from superficial parotidectomy in contemporary practice for the treatment of benign parotid tumours. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Primary hydatid disease of the infratemporal fossa and the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Andreou, I.; Levett, J.; Vlahos, I.; Papavasiliou, C.; Ioannovits, I.

    1985-01-01

    Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions causing swelling of the parotid area or exophthalmos in patients originating from countries where the incidence of the disease is high. An unusual case of hydatid disease located in the infratemporal fossa and the anterior parotid region is presented. Computed Tomography is a valuable tool for establishment of the diagnosis, before any surgical approach to the lesion is initiated and for postoperative follow-up and evaluation. (orig.) [de

  6. Primary hydatid disease of the infratemporal fossa and the parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Andreou, I.; Levett, J.; Vlahos, I.; Papavasiliou, C.; Ioannovits, I.

    1985-05-01

    Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions causing swelling of the parotid area or exophthalmos in patients originating from countries where the incidence of the disease is high. An unusual case of hydatid disease located in the infratemporal fossa and the anterior parotid region is presented. Computed Tomography is a valuable tool for establishment of the diagnosis, before any surgical approach to the lesion is initiated and for postoperative follow-up and evaluation.

  7. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  8. Influence of intensity-modulated radiation therapy on parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Tiantian; Wu Shaoxiong; Han Fei; Lu Lixia; Huang Shaomin; Deng Xiaowu; Lu Taixiang; Zhao Chong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Eighty-three NPC patients received prima- ry IMRT between 2001 and 2003. Xerostomia before radiotherapy, at the end of radiotherapy, at 6-month, 1-, 2-,3-,4- and 5-year after radiotherapy were investigated, respectively. The relation between xerostomia and parotid dose distribution was analyzed. Results: Of all the patients, 4, 31, 31 and 17 had stage I, II, III and IV A disease, respectively. Sixteen patients received chemo-radiotherapy. The median followed-up time was 65 months. The 5-year local control and regional control rate were 96% and 95%, respectively. The 5- year overall survival rate was 80%. The mild xerostomia rate at the seven time points was 42%, 51%, 71%, 77%, 58%, 38% and 26%. The corresponding moderate xerostomia rate was 52%, 53%, 21%, 8%, 3%, 2% and 2%, respectively. No serious xerostomia was observed. The mean dose of the bilateral parotid glands was 34.34 Gy. Xerostomia at 6-month after radiotherapy was positively correlated with the mean dose of the parotid glands, and D 50 was the independent factor in predicting the xerostomia. Parotid function was well protected when the mean dose and D 50 were no more than 33 Gy and 29 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: IMRT can improve the local-regional control of NPC and protect the parotid glands from radiation-induced injury. (authors)

  9. Parasympathetic denervation increases responses to VIP in isolated rat parotid acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter found in the salivary glands of many species, including the rat parotid gland. Parasympathetic denervation has been reported to deplete VIP in the rat parotid gland and to lead to supersensitivity to this peptide in vivo. We have compared the effects of VIP on acini isolated from parasympathetically denervated and unoperated parotid glands to examine possible supersensitivity to the peptide in vitro. VIP normally produced responses similar to those obtained with a low concentration of the beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO), but strikingly different from the effects obtained with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (CARB). In parotid membrane preparations, VIP stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Dissociated acini treated with VIP showed increases in cAMP accumulation and amylase release which were potentiated by forskolin and also by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. After parasympathetic denervation, maximal effects of VIP on adenylate cyclase, cAMP accumulation and amylase release in intact cells were increased two- to five-fold over contralateral control (or unoperated) parotid responses. The increase in adenylate cyclase-mediated responses after denervation was specific to VIP; there was no increased response nor increased sensitivity of any of these responses to ISO. Specific [125I]VIP binding to parotid acini increased two-fold per gland and three-fold per mg of protein after denervation; this probably explains the observed increases in the response to VIP

  10. Self-induced parapharyngeal and parotid emphysema: A case of pneumoparotitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González Lagunas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Swelling of the parotid suggests pathological change. Enlargement of the parotid gland may result from infections, duct obstruction, benign or malignant tumors, allergies, autoimmune or systemic disease syndromes or lymphoproliferative diseases. Acute swelling is typically associated with viral infection or recurrent chronic parotitis. A rare cause of acute swelling is insufflation of air from the mouth via Stensen’s duct into the parotid region. We report a case of recurrent self-induced chronic pneumoparotitis with parapharyngeal extension in a teenager. Pneumoparotitis is rare and is often misdiagnosed and mistreated. Patients typically present with unilateral or bilateral painless swelling and tenderness in the parotid region. Imaging, including computer tomography scans, shows air within the parotid system that extends into the neighboring areas in cases of rupture of the parotid fascia. Salivary gland enlargement resolves spontaneously over 1–3 days. Some authors recommend anti-inflammatory drugs and prophylactic antibiotics to avoid superinfection. Several surgical treatments have been suggested for chronic and recurrent pneumoparotid. However, the primary challenge is to educate the patient to prevent an increase in intraoral pressure. Keywords: Pneumoparotitis, Pneumoparotiditis, Teenager, Head-and-neck emphysema

  11. Individual radiation response of parotid glands investigated by dynamic 11C-methionine PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buus, Simon; Grau, Cai; Munk, Ole Lajord; Rodell, Anders; Jensen, Kenneth; Mouridsen, Kim; Keiding, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Previously, we showed that the net metabolic clearance of 11 C-methionine of the parotid gland, K, calculated from dynamic 11 C-methionine PET, can be used as a measure of parotid gland function. The aim of this study was to investigate by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET the individual radiation dose response relationship of parotid glands in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and methods: Twelve head and neck cancer patients were examined by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET after radiotherapy. Parametric images of K were generated, co-registered and compared voxel-by-voxel with the 3D radiation dose plan within the parotid gland to assess the individual radiation dose-function relationship. Results: In each patient, voxel-values of K decreased with increasing radiation dose. Population based analysis showed a sigmoid dose response relationship of parotid gland, from which we estimated a threshold radiation dose of 16 Gy and a mean TD 5 of 30 Gy. TD 5 ranged from 7 to 50 Gy in the group of patients. Conclusions: Individual radiation dose response of parotid glands can be measured by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET. The dose response analysis revealed a sigmoid relationship, a threshold radiation dose of 16 Gy, and a mean TD 5 of 30 Gy

  12. Postoperative treatment of malignant tumors of the parotid gland: radiotherapy, concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy; Tumeurs malignes de la parotide: prise en charge multidisciplinaire, role de la radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyon, A.; Durdux, C.; Housset, M. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Service d' Oncoradiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Hans, S. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Service d' ORL et de Chirurgie de la Face et du Cou, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-12-15

    The low incidence, the wide histological spectrum and the natural, sometimes slow, evolution of malignant parotid gland tumours do not allow to easily establish the impact of their treatments. At present, clinical data come from retrospective cohort analysis, whereas randomized phase II-III trials are confidential. Moreover conclusions from these studies are controversial. We present here the therapeutic highlights of parotid cancers: surgery, with the particular concern of facial nerve preservation; and adjuvant treatment essentially based on radiotherapy. This review focused on adjuvant care explores the indications and the technical aspects of radiation, as well as the role of concurrent chemotherapy. (authors)

  13. Congenital agenesis of unilateral parotid gland with ipsilateral type I first branchial cleft anomaly: A rare presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Tripti Maithani; Apoorva Pandey; Seema Acharya

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To report a rare case of unilateral parotid agenesis with ipsilateral type I first branchial cleft anomaly. Material and methods: A case study with special emphasis on the embryology, outlining the complex developmental process of parotid and branchial arches and highlighting the probable reason for development of such anomalies. Results: The literature states that unilateral parotid agenesis is a rare entity with few reported cases occurring solely or in conjunction with other hea...

  14. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  15. Parotid metastasis--an independent prognostic factor for head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, S; Maitra, A; Lea, R; Brasch, H; Tan, S T

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic parotid cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common parotid gland malignancy in New Zealand and Australia. The current AJCC TNM staging system does not account for the extent of nodal metastasis. A staging system that separates parotid (P stage) from neck disease (N stage) has been proposed recently. To review the outcome of patients with metastatic head and neck cutaneous SCC treated at our multidisciplinary Head and Neck Service using the proposed staging system. Consecutive patients were culled from our Head and Neck/Skull Base Database, 1990-2004. These patients were restaged according to the proposed staging system: P stage: P0 = no disease in the parotid (i.e., neck disease only); P1 = metastatic node P2=metastatic node > 3 cm and 6 cm, or disease involving the facial nerve or skull base. N stage: N0=no disease in the neck (i.e., parotid disease only); N1 = single ipsilateral metastatic node 3 cm, or contralateral neck involvement. Loco-regional recurrence and disease-specific survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and comparison of graphs made with the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model was carried out to assess the impact of various parameters. Sixty-seven patients with metastatic head and neck cutaneous SCC were identified. Thirty-seven patients had parotid metastasis (of whom 13 also had neck disease) while 21 had neck metastasis alone. Nine patients had dermal or soft tissue metastasis. These nine patients were excluded from this series, and data analysis was carried out on the remaining 58 (46 men, 12 women, mean age 71 years) patients. Sixty-seven percent of the patients underwent post-operative adjuvant radiotherapy. The five-year disease-specific survival rate was 54%. Among 56 patients followed up to disease recurrence or for a minimum period of 18 months, the loco-regional recurrence rate was 52%. The presence of parotid disease was an independent prognostic factor on

  16. Growth Factor Independence-1 (Gfi1) Is Required for Pancreatic Acinar Unit Formation and Centroacinar Cell Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Nyeng, Pia; Xiao, Fan

    2015-01-01

    of granulocytes, inner ear hair cells, and the development of secretory cell types in the intestine. As GFI1/Gfi1 is expressed in human and rodent pancreas, we characterized the potential function of Gfi1 in mouse pancreatic development. METHODS: Gfi1 knockout mice were analyzed at histological and molecular...... levels, including qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Loss of Gfi1 impacted formation and structure of the pancreatic acinar/centroacinar unit. Histologic and ultrastructural analysis of Gfi1-null pancreas revealed specific defects at the level...... was correlated with an exocrine organ defect. Postnatally, Gfi1 deficiency resulted in severe pancreatic acinar dysplasia, including loss of granulation, autolytic vacuolation, and a proliferative and apoptotic response. CONCLUSIONS: Gfi1 plays an important role in regulating the development of pancreatic CACs...

  17. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development

    OpenAIRE

    Beucher, Anthony; Martín, Mercè; Spenle, Caroline; Poulet, Martine; Collin, Caitlin; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    During mouse pancreas development, the transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in uncommitted pancreas progenitors is required to determine endocrine destiny. However it has been reported that Neurog3-expressing cells can eventually adopt acinar or ductal fates and that Neurog3 levels were important to secure the islet destiny. It is not known whether the competence of Neurog3-induced cells to give rise to non-endocrine lineages is an intrinsic property of these progenitors or depends o...

  18. Label retaining cells (LRCs with myoepithelial characteristic from the proximal acinar region define stem cells in the sweat gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Leung

    Full Text Available Slow cycling is a common feature shared among several stem cells (SCs identified in adult tissues including hair follicle and cornea. Recently, existence of unipotent SCs in basal and lumenal layers of sweat gland (SG has been described and label retaining cells (LRCs have also been localized in SGs; however, whether these LRCs possess SCs characteristic has not been investigated further. Here, we used a H2BGFP LRCs system for in vivo detection of infrequently dividing cells. This system allowed us to specifically localize and isolate SCs with label-retention and myoepithelial characteristics restricted to the SG proximal acinar region. Using an alternative genetic approach, we demonstrated that SG LRCs expressed keratin 15 (K15 in the acinar region and lineage tracing determined that K15 labeled cells contributed long term to the SG structure but not to epidermal homeostasis. Surprisingly, wound healing experiments did not activate proximal acinar SG cells to participate in epidermal healing. Instead, predominantly non-LRCs in the SG duct actively divided, whereas the majority of SG LRCs remained quiescent. However, when we further challenged the system under more favorable isolated wound healing conditions, we were able to trigger normally quiescent acinar LRCs to trans-differentiate into the epidermis and adopt its long term fate. In addition, dissociated SG cells were able to regenerate SGs and, surprisingly, hair follicles demonstrating their in vivo plasticity. By determining the gene expression profile of isolated SG LRCs and non-LRCs in vivo, we identified several Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway genes to be up-regulated and confirmed a functional requirement for BMP receptor 1A (BMPR1A-mediated signaling in SG formation. Our data highlight the existence of SG stem cells (SGSCs and their primary importance in SG homeostasis. It also emphasizes SGSCs as an alternative source of cells in wound healing and their plasticity for

  19. Stromal ETS2 Regulates Chemokine Production and Immune Cell Recruitment during Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pitarresi, Jason R.; Liu, Xin; Sharma, Sudarshana M.; Cuiti?o, Maria C.; Kladney, Raleigh D.; Mace, Thomas A.; Donohue, Sydney; Nayak, Sunayana G.; Qu, Chunjing; Lee, James; Woelke, Sarah A.; Trela, Stefan; LaPak, Kyle; Yu, Lianbo; McElroy, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical studies have suggested that the pancreatic tumor microenvironment both inhibits and promotes tumor development and growth. Here we establish the role of stromal fibroblasts during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initiating event in pancreatic cancer formation. The transcription factor V-Ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2) was elevated in smooth muscle actin?positive fibroblasts in the stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient tissue...

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits IL-6 expression via PPARγ-mediated expression of catalase in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun Ah; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2017-07-01

    Cerulein pancreatitis mirrors human acute pancreatitis. In pancreatic acinar cells exposed to cerulein, reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate inflammatory signaling by Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, and cytokine induction. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) acts as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which mediates the expression of some antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesized that DHA may induce PPARγ-target catalase expression and reduce ROS levels, leading to the inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 activation and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated acinar cells. Pancreatic acinar AR42J cells were treated with DHA in the presence or absence of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, or treated with the PPARγ agonist troglitazone, and then stimulated with cerulein. Expression of IL-6 and catalase, ROS levels, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and nuclear translocation of PPARγ were assessed. DHA suppressed the increase in ROS, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and IL-6 expression induced nuclear translocation of PPARγ and catalase expression in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Troglitazone inhibited the cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression, but induced catalase expression similar to DHA in AR42J cells. GW9662 abolished the inhibitory effect of DHA on cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression in AR42J cells. DHA-induced expression of catalase was suppressed by GW9662 in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Thus, DHA induces PPARγ activation and catalase expression, which inhibits ROS-mediated activation of JAK2/STAT3 and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Parotid gland shrinkage during IMRT predicts the time to Xerostomia resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Ricchetti, Francesco; Wu, Binbin; McNutt, Todd; Fiorino, Claudio

    2015-01-17

    To assess the impact of mid-treatment parotid gland shrinkage on long term xerostomia during IMRT for oropharyngeal SCC. All patients treated with IMRT at a single Institution from November 2007 to June 2010 and undergoing weekly CT scans were selected. Parotid glands were contoured retrospectively on the mid treatment CT scan. For each parotid gland, the percent change relative to the planning volume was calculated and combined as weighted average. Patients were considered to be xerostomic if developed GR2+ dry mouth according to CTCAE v3.0. Predictors of the time to xerostomia resolution or downgrade to 1 were investigated at both uni- and multivariate analysis. 85 patients were selected. With a median follow up of 35.8 months (range: 2.4-62.6 months), the actuarial rate of xerostomia is 26.2% (SD: 5.3%) and 15.9% (SD: 5.3%) at 2 and 3 yrs, respectively. At multivariate analysis, mid-treatment shrink along with weighted average mean parotid dose at planning and body mass index are independent predictors of the time to xerostomia resolution. Patients were pooled in 4 groups based on median values of both mid-treatment shrink (cut-off: 19.6%) and mean WA parotid pl-D (cut-off: 35.7 Gy). Patients with a higher than median parotid dose at planning and who showed poor shrinkage at mid treatment are the ones with the outcome significantly worse (3-yr rate of xerostomia ≈ 50%) than the other three subgroups (3-yr rate of xerostomia ≈ 10%). For a given planned dose, patients whose parotids significantly shrink during IMRT are less likely to be long-term supplemental fluids dependent.

  2. Parotid-Absorbed Doses: A Comparison Between Spiral Tomography and Panoramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Hekmatian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Jaws spiral tomography and panoramic radiography have wide applications in dentistry, and the parotid gland is one of the most sensitive organs of the head and neck. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the parotid-absorbed dose in spiral tomography and panoramic radiographs using a thermoluminescent dosimeter. Materials and Methods A radiation analog dosimetry phantom was placed in a Cranex Tome radiograph device, and a parotid absorbed dose was measured in both techniques. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed bilaterally in the parotid region (on the tube side and the opposite side. Spiral tomography dosimetry was done for the upper and lower jaws in the anterior and posterior regions. Each region contained four slices of 2 mm and four slices of 4 mm in thickness. The results were analyzed by a Wilcoxon test. Results For the tube side parotid, the average absorbed doses in spiral tomography of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxilla and mandible, with the 2 mm slice thickness, were 1.70/1.40 and 1.65/1.60 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses with the 4mm slices were 1.65/1.70 and 1.75/1.57 mGy, respectively. For the opposite parotid, the average absorbed dose in spiral tomography of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxilla and mandible, with the 2 mm slice thickness, were 1.40/1.30 and 1.40/1.67 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses with the 4mm slices were 1.50/1.66 and 1.40/1.50 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed dose of the panoramic radiograph was 1.40 mGy. Conclusions There was no statistically significant difference in the parotid absorbed dose between spiral tomography and a panoramic radiograph (P value = 0.18. The overall results of this study were similar to other studies.

  3. [Predictors of malignancy in the management of parotid tumors: about 76 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumor pathology is complex and poses a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. A good analysis of predictive factors for malignancy in parotid tumors seems currently necessary for better therapeutic planning. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors for malignancy in parotid tumors through a retrospective study of 76 cases of parotid tumor treated in a service of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico Facial Surgery of Avicenne military hospital of Marrakech between January 2000 and December 2012. The study involved 40 women and 36 men. The average age was 44 years for benign tumours whereas it was 50 years for malignant tumours. The median of consultation time was 24 months for benign tumors and 16 month for malignant tumours. Swelling in the area of the parotid was always a patient detecting sign. Malignancy is clinically suspected based on pain, facial paralysis, surface structure and deeper structure fixity and on the presence of adenopathy. MRI has become the methodology of choice for evaluating parotid tumors due to its good diagnostic value in the assessment of benignity and malignancy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has no value unless it is positive. Explorative parotidectomy with extemporaneous anatomopathological examination remains the key to positive diagnosis. Parotid benign tumors represent the most frequent entity (80%) and pleomorphic adenoma remains the predominant histologic type (61%). With regard to malignant tumors, they are rare, mainly dominated by mucoepidermoid carcinomas (6,5%). Surgical treatment is the first choice and it is often associated with lymph node dissection and radiation therapy for malignant tumors. Facial paralysis is the most common complication of parotid surgery.

  4. Targeted Inhibition of Pancreatic Acinar Cell Calcineurin Is a Novel Strategy to Prevent Post-ERCP PancreatitisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahim I. Orabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: There is a pressing need to develop effective preventative therapies for post–endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP. We showed that early PEP events are induced through the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin and that global calcineurin deletion abolishes PEP in mice. A crucial question is whether acinar cell calcineurin controls the initiation of PEP in vivo. Methods: We used a mouse model of PEP and examined the effects of in vivo acinar cell-specific calcineurin deletion by either generating a conditional knockout line or infusing a novel adeno-associated virus–pancreatic elastase improved Cre (I–iCre into the pancreatic duct of a calcineurin floxed line. Results: We found that PEP is dependent on acinar cell calcineurin in vivo, and this led us to determine that calcineurin inhibitors, infused within the radiocontrast, largely can prevent PEP. Conclusions: These results provide the impetus for launching clinical trials to test the efficacy of intraductal calcineurin inhibitors to prevent PEP. Keywords: Adeno-Associated Virus, Calcineurin B1, FK506, Cyclosporine A, Intraductal Delivery

  5. Parotiditis por Streptococcus Pyogenes: Presentacion de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila del S. López-Díaz

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available La glándula parótida es generalmente afectada por procesos inflamatorios. Su etiología se debe a infecciones primarias de la glándula o como complicación de infecciones sistémicas. Se reporta el Stafilococcus aureus como el agente causal más frecuente de parotiditis aguda supurada, y se señalan además otras bacterias y virus. Se presenta un niño de 9 años de edad con un proceso supurativo agudo de la parótida izquierda de un mes de evolución, con salida de abundante pus por el conducto de Stenon. Se realizó cultivo de la secreción e identificación de Streptococcus B hemolítico grupo A, a pesar de haber recibido antibioticoterapia previa. Se utilizó ampicillina y se tuvo en cuenta la sensibilidad in vitro; no presentó mejoría clínica, por lo que se decidió el empleo de la sialografía como alternativa terapéutica en este caso. Se obtuvo la resolución del proceso supurativo infeccioso y además se evidenció en este estudio la pérdida del estroma parotídeo.

  6. Magnetic Resonance of Parotid and Submandibular Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina HERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Salivary glands are divided in major and minor, including tissue distributed by the upper airway. There are numerous entities which can affect these structures conditioning various types of pathology. Given the greater importance of the submandibular and parotid gland, this article focuses on their study. Method: A retrospective review of patients underwent MRI studies with known or suspected pathology of salivary glands was made, over five years (2011-2015, assuming a total of 123 patients. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI identified pathology in most patients, including inflammatory and infectious disorders, benign and malignant neoplasms and even autoimmune disease. Conclusions: Through these studies performed in our Hospital it was possible to get a complete vision of the glandular anatomy and pathology in most cases, including long-term monitoring of patients with known disease, optimizing scans by using fat saturation sequences and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, with the added advantage of the absence of ionizing radiation. However, in some cases it was not possible to reach an accurate diagnostic imaging and biopsy was necessary.

  7. The computed tomographic evaluation of diseases involving parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyo In; Kim, Dong Ik; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Jung Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    During 1983.3.-1986.8., CT findings of 35 cases of parotid lesions were retrospectively reviewed together with their surgical and histologic findings to determine its value in 3 points. 1) Anatomical localization of the lesion 2) Differentiation between benign and malignant tumors 3) The relationship with the facial nerve And also CT Sialography was done in 4 cases. The results were as follows. 1) The age distribution was 1 month-66 years of age. Male to female ratio was 4:3. 2) The most common benign tumor was pleomorphic adenoma (15%) and the most common malignant tumor was carcinoma (15%). 3) Anatomical localization was possible in all cases by noticing the direction toward the fat plane was displaced. 4) Invasion to facial nerve was determined by obliteration of the normal 'bull's 'eye'. 5) Malignancy was rather suggested when the lesion shows ill-defined border, necrotic central low density, lymphadenopathy, and ductal obstruction without a stone. Most of the diagnosis difficulties were in cases of inflammatory mass lesions and sialography was more useful than CT in such cases.

  8. G protein in stimulation of PI hydrolysis by CCK [cholecystokinin] in isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matozaki, Takashi; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Nagao, Munehiko; Nishizaki, Hogara; Baba, Shigeaki

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the possible role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) in the signal transducing system activated by cholecystokinin (CCK), actions of CCK on rat pancreatic acini were compared with those of fluoride, a well-known activator of stimulatory (G s ) or inhibitory (G i ) G protein. When acini were incubated with increasing concentrations of either CCK-octapeptide (CCK8) or NaF, a maximal stimulation of amylase release from acini occurred at 100 pM CCK8 or 10 mM NaF, respectively; this secretory rate decreased as CCK8 or NaF concentration was increased. NaF caused an increase in cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration from the internal Ca 2+ store and stimulated accumulation of inositol phosphates in acini, as observed with CCK. Guanylimidodiphosphate activated the generation of inositol phosphates in the [ 3 H]inositol-labeled pancreatic acinar cell membrane preparation, with half-maximal and maximal stimulation at 1 and 10 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of submaximal CCK concentrations on inositol phosphate accumulation in membranes were markedly potentiated in the presence of 100 μM GTP, which alone was ineffective. Combined findings of the present study strongly suggest that pancreatic CCK receptors are probably coupled to the activation of polyphosphoinositide (PI) breakdown by a G protein, which appears to be fluoride sensitive but is other than G s - or G i -like protein

  9. Mixed acinar-neuroendocrine-ductal carcinoma of the pancreas: a tale of three lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark J; Kwong, Christina A; Atieh, Mohammed; Pappas, Sam G

    2016-06-02

    Most pancreatic cancers arise from a single cell type, although mixed pancreatic carcinomas represent a rare exception. The rarity of these aggressive malignancies and the limitations of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) pose significant barriers to diagnosis and appropriate management. We report a case of a 54-year-old man presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and a hypodense lesion within the uncinate process on CT. FNA suggested poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, which was subsequently resected via pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pathological analysis yielded diagnosis of invasive mixed acinar-neuroendocrine-ductal pancreatic carcinoma. Given the rare and deadly nature of these tumours, clinicians must be aware of their pathophysiology and do practice with a high degree of clinical suspicion, when appropriate. Surgical resection and thorough pathological analysis with immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy remain the standards of care for mixed pancreatic tumours without gross evidence of metastasis. Diligent characterisation of the presentation and histological findings associated with these neoplasms should continue in order to promote optimal diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Water permeability of acinar cell membranes in the isolated perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, M C; Seo, Y; Rawlings, J M; Case, R M

    1990-01-01

    1. The diffusive water permeability of epithelial cell membranes in the perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland was measured at 37 degrees C by a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation method using an extracellular relaxation reagent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd(DTPA)). 2. In glands perfused with a HEPES-buffered solution containing 10 mmol l-1 Gd(DTPA), the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of the water protons showed two exponential components. The water compartment responsible for the slower component corresponded in magnitude to 71 +/- 5% of the wet weight of the gland, and was attributed to the exchangeable intracellular water of the acinar cells. 3. The rate constant for water efflux from the cells was estimated to be 4.1 +/- 0.1 s-1 which would be consistent with a diffusive membrane permeability (Pd) of approximately 3 x 10(-3) cm s-1. Stimulation with acetylcholine (10(-6) mol l-1) did not cause any detectable change in membrane water permeability. 4. Since the basolateral membrane probably provides the main pathway for water efflux, the osmotic water permeability of this barrier (expressed per gland) was estimated to be less than 6.2 cm3 s-1. This would be insufficient to account for the generation of a near-isosmotic fluid at the flow rates observed during secretion, and suggests that a substantial fraction of the flow of water occurs via a paracellular route. PMID:1966053

  11. Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Josipovic, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses of isoflur......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses...... of isoflurane in a crossover study design. Increasing the isoflurane concentration from 1% to 2% was associated with a 19% decrease in saliva secretion rate, and the lag to saliva secretion was increased by 155%. To clarify whether the effect of isoflurane (1.5%) on the parotid flow varied with stimulus...... intensity, we measured the parotid flow induced by seven different doses of pilocarpine on sham-irradiated rats and rats irradiated with single doses of 15 Gy. A maximal pilocarpine response was obtained with 1.5 mg/kg in both irradiated and sham-irradiated rats; however, the parotid flow of the irradiated...

  12. Quantitative gammagraphie and sialometry of the parotid in patients irradiated in the cervico-facial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaztelu, R.; Rodriguez, R.; Fernandez Garcia, M.C.; Cobo Plana, J.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in parotid function in patients presenting with tumors of the cervico-facial area, in whom the whole of the parotid gland was within the irradiation field were assesse by means of saliva secretion determinations and quantitative gammagrams of the parotid. The following aims were pursued: a) To evaluate and to compare the sensitivity of both methods. b) To compare the radiotracer agent uptake in normal parotid glands, as well as the variations that occur in relation to the number of received, and with the time duration of irradiation. The conclusions were as follows: -Both methods are sensitive, but the gammagraphic method has the advantages of being non-invasive, easily performed and not causing discomfort to the patient. -The quantification of the parotied uptake in a control group of patients, as compared with the variations occuring in relation to the number of rads racived, show that at the end of the treatment with 5.000 rads, uptake reaches 15% of that of the control group. One year later, function is very little restored, not reaching 20% of that of the control group. -Decrease of both parotid secretion and uptake is directly proportional to the dose received. (Author)

  13. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  14. The study of parotid function with radionuclide imaging after radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanbin; Zhang Qi; Wang Ling; Wu Shixiu; Xie Congying

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the uptake and excretion function of parotid by radionuclide imaging after simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) in nasopharyngeal cancer. Methods: Forty-eight nasopharyngeal cancer cases, 38 of them were treated by SMART with 2.5 Gy/fraction at tumor and enlarged lymph node to a total dose of 70 Gy, and 2.0 Gy/fraction at subclinical foci and prophy laxtic area volume to a total dose of 56 Gy in 38 d. The other 10 cases were treated by traditional radiation therapy (RT). After treatment, all patients performed parotid imaging and both uptake index (UI) and excretion index (EI) after acid stimulation were calculated. Clinical manifestation such as grade of mouth dryness was also analyzed. Results: Average UI and EI in SMART group decreased 21.9% and 37.3% respectively, with 12 cases moderate and severe mouth dryness, whereas in traditional RT group, mean UI and El decreased 56.1% and 96.1% respectively, with 9 cases moderate and severe mouth dryness. There was significant difference between them (P<0.05). Conclusion: Parotid imaging is sensitive for monitoring parotid function, and it is also reliable to evaluate the safety of SMART to parotid.. (authors)

  15. Actual Dose Variation of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients During Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Chunhui; Chen Yijen; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: For intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer, accurate dose delivery is crucial to the success of treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of daily image-guided patient setup corrections and to quantify the parotid gland volume and dose variations for nasopharyngeal cancer patients using helical tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Five nasopharyngeal cancer patients who underwent helical tomotherapy were selected retrospectively. Each patient had received 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Daily megavoltage CT scans were registered with the planning CT images to correct the patient setup errors. Contours of the spinal cord and parotid glands were drawn on the megavoltage CT images at fixed treatment intervals. The actual doses delivered to the critical structures were calculated using the helical tomotherapy Planned Adaptive application. Results: The maximal dose to the spinal cord showed a significant increase and greater variation without daily setup corrections. The significant decrease in the parotid gland volume led to a greater median dose in the later phase of treatment. The average parotid gland volume had decreased from 20.5 to 13.2 cm 3 by the end of treatment. On average, the median dose to the parotid glands was 83 cGy and 145 cGy for the first and the last treatment fractions, respectively. Conclusions: Daily image-guided setup corrections can eliminate significant dose variations to critical structures. Constant monitoring of patient anatomic changes and selective replanning should be used during radiotherapy to avoid critical structure complications

  16. Ten-year study on varieties of parotid tumors in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdecia Cannizares, Caridad; Cubero Melendez, Osiris; Alonso Pirez, Magda; Portugues Diaz, Andres Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Parotid tumors are uncommon because they account for 0.5 % of all types of cancer in pediatrics. They generally occur as increased local asymptomatic volume, occasionally accompanied by pain and inflammatory signs. A retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was carried out to determine the frequency and forms of presentation of parotid tumors diagnosed in 0-18 years-old patients, who had been admitted to the oncological surgery service of 'William Soler' pediatric hospital from February 2001 to December 2010. The variables taken into account were sex, forms of presentation, response to treatment as well as the histological variants presented, with the objective of giving information about these variants of parotid tumors in pediatrics, which, despite their rareness, represent a high risk group when occur. Seven patients were diagnosed, of whom 3 were pleomorphic adenomas, one adenocarcinoma, one mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the gland, one parotid Hodgkin lymphoma and one mixed tumor with atypical cells of the gland. The onset of all the tumors was the presence of a parotid mass in 6 asymptomatic cases and in one case suffering local pain. They were all performed gland ultrasound and aspiration fine needle biopsy. Males prevailed over the females (ratio of 5:2) and the average age of presentation was 12.3 years. Surgery is the main therapeutic weapon in most of cases. It was recommended to closely follow the patients because of their high rate of local recurrence

  17. Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.; Read, G.F.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-μl volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone

  18. Parotiditis crónica recidivante con trastornos inmunológicos asociados Chronic recurrent parotiditis with associated immunological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Esther Vives Iglesias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el departamento de ultrasonido diagnóstico fue atendida una paciente, de tres años de edad, que presentaba inflamación de ambas glándulas parótidas y que había presentado varios episodios de dolor, tumefacción unilateral o bilateral y fiebre. Había sido valorada en varias ocasiones por pediatría y había recibido múltiples tratamientos con antibióticos. Se le indicó ultrasonido de partes blandas y se valoró por inmunología. Se encontró un retardo en la fagocitosis y una disminución de la inmunidad celular. Se puso tratamiento con inmunomoduladores y antihistamínicos.A 3-year-old female patient with swelling of both parotid glands that had presented various episodes of pain, unilateral or bilateral tumefaction and fever was seen at the diagnostic ultrasound department. She had been evaluated on several occasions by the pediatric department and had received multiple treatments with antibiotics. An ultrasound of soft tissues was indicated and she was assessed at the immunology service. A phagocytosis retardation and a reduction of cellular immunity were found. A treatment with immunomodulators and antihistamines was applied.

  19. Up-regulation of Store-operated Ca2+ Entry and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Promote the Acinar Phenotype of the Primary Human Salivary Gland Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shyh-Ing; Ong, Hwei Ling; Liu, Xibao; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu S

    2016-04-15

    The signaling pathways involved in the generation and maintenance of exocrine gland acinar cells have not yet been established. Primary human salivary gland epithelial cells, derived from salivary gland biopsies, acquired an acinar-like phenotype when the [Ca(2+)] in the serum-free medium (keratinocyte growth medium, KGM) was increased from 0.05 mm (KGM-L) to 1.2 mm (KGM-H). Here we examined the mechanism underlying this Ca(2+)-dependent generation of the acinar cell phenotype. Compared with cells in KGM-L, those in KGM-H display enhancement of Orai1, STIM1, STIM2, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) expression together with an increase in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), SOCE-dependent nuclear translocation of pGFP-NFAT1, and NFAT-dependent but not NFκB-dependent gene expression. Importantly, AQP5, an acinar-specific protein critical for function, is up-regulated in KGM-H via SOCE/NFAT-dependent gene expression. We identified critical NFAT binding motifs in the AQP5 promoter that are involved in Ca(2+)-dependent up-regulation of AQP5. These important findings reveal that the Ca(2+)-induced switch of salivary epithelial cells to an acinar-like phenotype involves remodeling of SOCE and NFAT signaling, which together control the expression of proteins critically relevant for acinar cell function. Our data provide a novel strategy for generating and maintaining acinar cells in culture. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Up-regulation of Store-operated Ca2+ Entry and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Promote the Acinar Phenotype of the Primary Human Salivary Gland Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shyh-Ing; Ong, Hwei Ling; Liu, Xibao; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu S.

    2016-01-01

    The signaling pathways involved in the generation and maintenance of exocrine gland acinar cells have not yet been established. Primary human salivary gland epithelial cells, derived from salivary gland biopsies, acquired an acinar-like phenotype when the [Ca2+] in the serum-free medium (keratinocyte growth medium, KGM) was increased from 0.05 mm (KGM-L) to 1.2 mm (KGM-H). Here we examined the mechanism underlying this Ca2+-dependent generation of the acinar cell phenotype. Compared with cells in KGM-L, those in KGM-H display enhancement of Orai1, STIM1, STIM2, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) expression together with an increase in store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), SOCE-dependent nuclear translocation of pGFP-NFAT1, and NFAT-dependent but not NFκB-dependent gene expression. Importantly, AQP5, an acinar-specific protein critical for function, is up-regulated in KGM-H via SOCE/NFAT-dependent gene expression. We identified critical NFAT binding motifs in the AQP5 promoter that are involved in Ca2+-dependent up-regulation of AQP5. These important findings reveal that the Ca2+-induced switch of salivary epithelial cells to an acinar-like phenotype involves remodeling of SOCE and NFAT signaling, which together control the expression of proteins critically relevant for acinar cell function. Our data provide a novel strategy for generating and maintaining acinar cells in culture. PMID:26903518

  1. Metastatic Parotid Myoepithelial Carcinoma in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Saliba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare malignancy of the parotid gland that is usually seen in adults. We report the first case in children of myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland with massive invasion of the facial nerve and metastasis to cervical lymph nodes. Due to its rarity, the treatment and the clinical course of this tumor are not well defined yet. We performed a total parotidectomy, a modified neck dissection, and a postoperative radiotherapy in 7-year-old boy. Sparing of the facial nerve was impossible; it was sacrificed and grafted with a sural nerve. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a parotid gland carcinoma and immunohistochemical markers showed that the tumor cells express cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin 7, smooth muscle actin, P63, CEA, and S100. This pattern of immunostaining is consistent with the diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma. On the postoperative tenth month he presented with a pulmonary and lumbar vertebra metastasis.

  2. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult.

  3. A forgotten facial nerve tumour: granular cell tumour of the parotid and its implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerut, B; Vosbeck, J; Linder, T E

    2011-04-01

    We present a rare case of a facial nerve granular cell tumour in the right parotid gland, in a 10-year-old boy. A parotid or neurogenic tumour was suspected, based on magnetic resonance imaging. Intra-operatively, strong adhesions to surrounding structures were found, and a midfacial nerve branch had to be sacrificed for complete tumour removal. Recent reports verify that granular cell tumours arise from Schwann cells of peripheral nerve branches. The rarity of this tumour within the parotid gland, its origin from peripheral nerves, its sometimes misleading imaging characteristics, and its rare presentation with facial weakness and pain all have considerable implications on the surgical strategy and pre-operative counselling. Fine needle aspiration cytology may confirm the neurogenic origin of this lesion. When resecting the tumour, the surgeon must anticipate strong adherence to the facial nerve and be prepared to graft, or sacrifice, certain branches of this nerve.

  4. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis can evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict late xerostomia degree in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Guo, Tingting; Zheng, Huanhuan; Pan, Xia; Chu, Chen; Dou, Xin; Li, Ming; Liu, Song; Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Baorui; Chen, Weibo; He, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-09-19

    We investigated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict xerostomia degrees in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving radiotherapy. The imaging of bilateral parotid glands in NPC patients was conducted 2 weeks before radiotherapy (time point 1), one month after radiotherapy (time point 2), and four months after radiotherapy (time point 3). From time point 1 to 2, parotid volume, skewness, and kurtosis decreased ( P histogram parameters increased (all P histogram parameters. Early mean change rates for bilateral parotid SD and ADC max could predict late xerostomia degrees at seven months after radiotherapy (three months after time point 3) with AUC of 0.781 and 0.818 ( P = 0.014, 0.005, respectively). ADC histogram parameters were reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.830 - 0.999). ADC histogram analysis could be used to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage noninvasively, and predict late xerostomia degrees of NPC patients treated with radiotherapy.

  5. Xerostomia after radiotherapy. What matters - mean total dose or dose to each parotid gland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribius, S.; Sommer, J.; Prosch, C.; Bajrovic, A.; Kruell, A.; Petersen, C.; Muenscher, A.; Blessmann, M.; Todorovic, M.; Tennstedt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a debilitating side effect of radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. We undertook a prospective study of the effect on xerostomia and outcomes of sparing one or both parotid glands during radiotherapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and materials: Patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received definitive (70 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) or adjuvant (60-66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) curative-intent radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy if appropriate. Group A received < 26 Gy to the left and right parotids and group B received < 26 Gy to either parotid. Results: The study included 126 patients; 114 (55 in group A and 59 in group B) had follow-up data. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in disease stage. Xerostomia was significantly reduced in group A vs. group B (p = 0.0381). Patients in group A also had significantly less dysphagia. Relapse-free and overall survival were not compromised in group A: 2-year relapse-free survival was 86% vs. 72% in group B (p = 0.361); 2-year overall survival was 88% and 76%, respectively (p = 0.251). Conclusion: This analysis suggests that reducing radiotherapy doses to both parotid glands to < 26 Gy can reduce xerostomia and dysphagia significantly without compromising survival. Sparing both parotids while maintaining target volume coverage and clinical outcome should be the treatment goal and reporting radiotherapy doses delivered to the individual parotids should be standard practice. (orig.)

  6. Features of Parotid Gland Diseases and Surgical Results in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiang Chan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Various parotid gland diseases are seen clinically, including inflammation, sialolithiasis, and benign and malignant tumors. It is important to differentiate between these to make a correct diagnosis and for proper management. Here, we investigated the relationship between tumor characteristics and pathology, and considered whether the former could be used to differentiate malignant from benign parotid gland diseases. We retrospectively reviewed the charts and data of 316 patients who underwent surgery in Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2008. Two hundred and eighty-one patients (88.9% had benign disease, and 35 (11.1% had malignant disease. The most common benign disease was pleomorphic adenoma (115 cases, 36.4%, but the most common disease in male patients was Warthin's tumor, a finding which, as far as we aware, has not been previously been reported in the literature. The incidence of Warthin's tumor seems to be increasing. In malignant disease, the most common was acinic cell carcinoma (8 cases, 22.9%. Compared with benign disease, malignant parotid gland disease more often presents as a hard, painful, fixed and large mass (> 3 cm, and more often involves the deep lobe of the parotid gland. Partial parotidectomy was adequate for most tumors, including pleomorphic adenoma. The most common postoperative complication was temporary facial palsy, followed by permanent facial palsy. However, there was no difference in transient facial palsy rate between benign and malignant parotid gland disease, although parotid gland cancer had a higher incidence of permanent facial palsy postoperatively.

  7. Sonographic Assessment of Parotid and Submandibular Glands in Patients Undergoing 3D Conformal Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johari M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate sonographic changes in parotid and submandibular salivary glands in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. In addition, salivary changes subsequent to radiotherapy were evaluated objectively and subjectively. Twenty patients(13males and 7females with head and neck malignancies, who had been referred to the Radiotherapy/Oncology Department of the Shahid Madani Hospital in Tabriz, Iran, were included in the study. Length, width, echotexture, echogenicity and margins of parotid and submandibular glands were evaluated before and after radiotherapy using sonography. Peak-systolic velocity(PSV,end-diastolic velocity(EDV and resistive index(RI were also assessed by Doppler sonography. Xerostomia subsequent to radiotherapy was evaluated with the use of two techniques: patients’ self-reported scoring and objective measurement of resting saliva. There was a significant decrease in the width of the parotid gland after radiotherapy compared to baseline(P=0.005.Although the length of the parotid gland and the dimensions of submandibular gland decrease, the differences were not significant. In addition, the echogenicity, echotexture and the margin of the glands change to hypoechoic, heterogenic and irregular, respectively, subsequent to radiotherapy. The Doppler technique showed decrease in PSV and RI and an increase in EDV; however, only the decrease in RI in the submandibular gland was statistically significant(P=0.002.The results showed a significant decrease in salivary flow after radiotherapy(P<0.001.In addition, based on the patients reports, the severity of xerostomia increased significantly after radiotherapy(P<0.001. Songraphic changes of parotid and submandibular glands after radiotherapy should be considered in ultrasound examinations. The damages to the parotid and submandibular glands had significant influence in patient post 3D-CRT.

  8. Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho; de Souza, Fabrício Tinôco Alvim; Ferreira, Efigênia; Souza, Renan Pedra; Macedo, Samuel Costa; Friedman, Eitan; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2016-10-01

    There is controversy on the effects of the non-ionizing radiation emitted by cell phones on cellular processes and the impact of such radiation exposure on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cell phone use alters cytokine expression in the saliva produced by the parotid glands. Cytokine expression profile was determined by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) in the saliva produced by the parotid glands in healthy volunteers, and correlated with self-reported cell phone use and laterality. The following parameters were determined, in 83 Brazilian individuals in saliva produced by the parotid glands comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to that from the contralateral parotid: salivary flow, total protein concentration, interleukin 1 β (IL-1 β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interferon γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) salivary levels by ELISA. After multiple testing correction, decreased IL-10 and increased IL-1β salivary levels in the ipsilateral side compared with the contralateral side (P cell phones for more than 10 years presented higher differences between IL-10 levels in ipsilateral versus contralateral parotids (P = 0.0012). No difference was observed in any of the tested parameters in correlation with cell phone monthly usage in minutes. The exposure of parotid glands to cell phones can alter salivary IL-10 and IL-1β levels, consistent with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment that may be related to heat production. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Paediatric parotid neoplasms: a 10 year retrospective imaging and pathology review of these rare tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamlouk, M.D.; Rosbe, K.W.; Glastonbury, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relative incidence of benign and malignant paediatric parotid gland tumours and whether particular presenting symptoms or imaging characteristics were more likely to predict malignancy. Materials and methods: Hospital records were reviewed for all patients <18 years with histopathology-proven parotid neoplasms over the 10 year period from 2003–2013. Infantile haemangiomas and patients with neurofibromatosis type I were excluded. The presenting clinical symptoms for each patient were recorded. All available CT and MRI examinations for these patients were evaluated for tumour imaging characteristics. Results: Seventeen patients (nine boys, eight girls; age range 2–17 years) were identified with neoplastic parotid masses; 11 tumours were malignant (65%) and six were benign (35%). The malignant tumours consisted of three acinic cell carcinomas, two mucoepidermoid carcinomas, one alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, one poorly differentiated carcinoma, one low-grade adenocarcinoma, and three metastases (two melanoma, one orbital medulloepithelioma). The benign tumours consisted of five pleomorphic adenomas and one schwannoma. Presenting clinical symptoms were similar between benign and malignant tumours. Twelve MRI and six CT examinations were available for review with five patients undergoing both techniques. MRI features commonly identified with malignant tumours included: hypointense T2 signal, restricted diffusion, ill-defined borders, and focal necrosis. Only four of the six tumours imaged at CT were visualized, and of those, the margins were indeterminate in three patients. Conclusion: Paediatric parotid masses are more likely to be malignant than benign. Presenting clinical symptoms and CT are not helpful for distinguishing benign and malignant disease. MRI features such as T2 hypointensity, restricted diffusion, ill-defined borders, and focal necrosis, although not specific, should raise concern for malignancy. - Highlights: • Pediatric parotid

  10. Xerostomia after radiotherapy. What matters - mean total dose or dose to each parotid gland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribius, S.; Sommer, J.; Prosch, C.; Bajrovic, A.; Kruell, A.; Petersen, C. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Muenscher, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery; Blessmann, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Todorovic, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics; Tennstedt, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a debilitating side effect of radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. We undertook a prospective study of the effect on xerostomia and outcomes of sparing one or both parotid glands during radiotherapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and materials: Patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received definitive (70 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) or adjuvant (60-66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) curative-intent radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy if appropriate. Group A received < 26 Gy to the left and right parotids and group B received < 26 Gy to either parotid. Results: The study included 126 patients; 114 (55 in group A and 59 in group B) had follow-up data. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in disease stage. Xerostomia was significantly reduced in group A vs. group B (p = 0.0381). Patients in group A also had significantly less dysphagia. Relapse-free and overall survival were not compromised in group A: 2-year relapse-free survival was 86% vs. 72% in group B (p = 0.361); 2-year overall survival was 88% and 76%, respectively (p = 0.251). Conclusion: This analysis suggests that reducing radiotherapy doses to both parotid glands to < 26 Gy can reduce xerostomia and dysphagia significantly without compromising survival. Sparing both parotids while maintaining target volume coverage and clinical outcome should be the treatment goal and reporting radiotherapy doses delivered to the individual parotids should be standard practice. (orig.)

  11. Parotid tumor statistics for the past five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Soichi; Sueno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Asano, Yukimi; Shiba, Kazutaka; Sekiguchi, Nao; Masuda, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed the case of 40 patients with parotid tumor who underwent an operation in the past five years. The patients included 23 (57.5%) males and 17 (42.5%) females. The average age was 53.4 years old with a range of 19 to 71 years. Thirty eight (95.0%) had benign tumor, and 2 (5.0%) had malignant tumor. Tc scintigraphy was performed in 37 out of the 40 patients, and 9 patients showed positive results. Six patients had warthin's tumor, and 3 had pleomorphic adenoma. In other words, 66.7% were positive for warthin's tumor. Ga scintigraphy was performed in 31 out of the 40 patients. Nine were positive out of the 10 benign tumor that showed a positive result. None of the cases had permanent facial palsy as a postoperative complication. Transient facial palsy was exhibited by 13 patients (32.5%), but they all improved 2 weeks to 6 months. In addition, we experienced 1 case of salivary fistula. Pleomorphic adenoma was noted in 63.2%, and warthin's tumor in 23.7%. There was no gender difference for pleomorphic adenoma, but 8 out of the 9 patients with warthin's tumor were men. The average age was 47.0 for pleomorphic adenoma and 58.7 for warthin's tumor which was in accordance with conventional reports. The Tc scintigraphy positive rate of warthin's tumor was low, 66.7%, in comparison with that in conventional reports. In addition, 90% of the tumors that showed positive results in Ga scintigraphy were preoperatively positive tumors, indicating the diagnostic usefulness of this. Transient facial palsy was a complication in 32.5% of the patients, which was similar to the rate in the conventional report. We experienced 1 case salivary fistula, which did not improve with conservative treatment. We opened the wounded area, and drained it by pressing. (author)

  12. Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland with cystic degeneration: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Dhir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma, also called benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. Usually they are found as solitary, unilateral, firm and mobile, painless, slow growing masses. Only 10% of them occur in the minor salivary glands and 90% of them occur in the parotid gland. The incidence of parotid tumor is about 2.4 in 100000/year of all neoplasia of head and neck region, the right side being commonly involved and seen more often in males. Management involves surgical resection by superficial or total parotidectomy. This case report illustrates clinical features, imaging characteristics and histopathological features in a case of pleomorphic adenoma.

  13. Parotid Gland Sparing With Helical Tomotherapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voordeckers, Mia; Farrag, Ashraf; Everaert, Hendrik; Tournel, Koen; Storme, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the ability of helical tomotherapy to spare the function of the parotid glands in patients with head-and-neck cancer by analyzing dose–volume histograms, salivary gland scintigraphy, and quality of life assessment. Methods and Materials: Data from 76 consecutive patients treated with helical tomotherapy (Hi-Art Tomotherapy) at University Hospital Brussel were analyzed. During planning, priority was given to planning target volume (PTV) coverage: ≥95% of the dose must be delivered to ≥95% of the PTV. Elective nodal regions received 54 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). A dose of 70.5 Gy (2.35 Gy/fraction) was prescribed to the primary tumor and pathologic lymph nodes (simultaneous integrated boost scheme). Objective scoring of salivary excretion was performed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Subjective scoring of salivary gland function was evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaires Quality of Life Questionnaire—C30 (QLQ-C30) and Quality of Life Questionnaire—Head and Neck 35 (H and N35). Results: Analysis of dose–volume histograms (DVHs) showed excellent coverage of the PTV. The volume of PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (V95%) was 99.4 (range, 96.3–99.9). DVH analysis of parotid gland showed a median value of the mean parotid dose of 32.1 Gy (range, 17.5–70.3 Gy). The median parotid volume receiving a dose <26 Gy was 51.2%. Quality of life evaluation demonstrated an initial deterioration of almost all scales and items in QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H and N35. Most items improved in time, and some reached baseline values 18 months after treatment. Conclusion: DVH analysis, scintigraphic evaluation of parotid function, and quality of life assessment of our patient group showed that helical tomotherapy makes it possible to preserve parotid gland function without compromising disease control. We recommend mean parotid doses of <34 Gy and doses <26 Gy to a maximum 47% of the

  14. Peptide-evoked release of amylase from isolated acini of the rat parotid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goll, R; Poulsen, J H; Schmidt, P

    1994-01-01

    on isolated acini of the rat parotid gland. Furthermore, the occurrence and location of the peptides in the gland was studied. Finally, binding of 125I-BH-SP to isolated acini were studied in order to characterize their tachykinin receptor(s) and their binding kinetics. Only SP, NKA, NPK and VIP stimulated...... of NK1-receptors. Thus, the results of the present study support previous suggestions that the tachykinins and VIP are likely to be involved in amylase secretion in the rat parotid gland....

  15. Benign lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands in HIV-positive patients. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piqueras, R.M.; Marco, S.F.; Lazaro, S.; Gonzlez, M.

    1997-01-01

    Benign parotid lymphoepithelial cysts (BPLEC) with cervical lymph node involvement are a recently reported radiological sign of HIV infection in head and neck in patients ar risk for developing AIDS. These cysts lesions present in the parotid glands of HIV-positive individuals and are associated with cervical lymph node involvement. We present a case of BPLEC in a HIV-positive patients that was studied by ultrasound and computerized tomography. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy. We describe the radiological signs of this lesion as detected by the imaging techniques employed and we establish the differential diagnosis. (Author) 14 refs

  16. Tumors in the parotid are not relatively more often malignant in children than in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, E; Andreasen, S; Bjørndal, K

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tumors of the parotid gland in children are rare and very little data has been published regarding the incidence of these tumors. We present a nationwide survey on this topic. METHODS: Data regarding benign and malignant tumors in the parotid gland in children from January 1st, 1990......) followed by the mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=3) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (n=2). The overall female-to-male ratio was 1.18, with a ratio of 1.08 and 2.0 in the benign and malignant groups, respectively. At the end of follow-up (August 1st, 2014) two patients had died, one with adenoid cystic carcinoma...

  17. Radiation effects on the parotid gland of mammals. Pt. 3. Behaviour of enzyme activity after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomassi, I; Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia; Pelu, G [I.N.R.C.A., Florence (Italy). Inst. of Radiology

    1979-08-01

    Modifications of some enzyme activities in parotid tissue homogenates have been studied in animals which were also examined for morphological changes and for plasma and parotid amylase activity. Results from irradiated animals show a certain increase in maltase activity. Alkaline phosphatase and LAP show no significant variations; a similar behaviour is shown by lysosomal enzymes and protein content. A different pattern was seen by comparing the curves of these enzymes with those of the same activity in the small intestine. This result appears to be due to the different radiosensitivity of these tissues.

  18. la tumeur de warthin de la parotide : a propos de 11 cas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 mai 2013 ... Nodule de densité tissulaire à contours nets du pôle infé- rieur de la glande parotide gauche avec prise de contraste hétérogène. L'iRM réalisée pour 3 autres patients a posé le diagnos- tic de tumeur bénigne de la parotide dans tous les cas en montrant des tumeurs aux contours réguliers et biens définis.

  19. Functional imaging of parotid glands: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, C.R.; Cramer, M.C.; Gossrau, P.; Adam, G. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Graessner, J. [Siemens AG, Hamburg (Germany). Medical Solutions; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Oto-, Rhino-, Laryngology; Fiehler, J. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Neuroradiology; Schoder, V. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) for measuring different functional conditions of the parotid gland and to compare different measurement approaches. Materials and Methods: Parotid glands of 27 healthy volunteers were examined with a DW EPI sequence (TR 1,500 msec, TE 77 msec, field-of-view 250 x 250 mm, pixel size 2.10 x 1.95 mm, section thickness 5 mm) before and after oral stimulation with commercially available lemon juice. The b factors used were 0, 500, and 1,000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain) and evaluated with a manually placed circular region of interest (ROI) containing 100-200 pixel. Additional ROIs including the entire parotid gland were placed on either side. The results of both measurements were compared, using the Student's t test based on the median ADC values for each person. A two-tailed p-value of less than.05 was determined to indicate statistical significance. To compare both measurement approaches, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was calculated. Results: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging successfully visualized the parotid gland of all volunteers. In a first step, the median ADC value per person was computed. Using ROIs of 100-200 pixels, the mean was calculated to be 1.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands prior to simulation. After stimulation, the mean ADC was measured at 1.15 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands. Evaluating the entire parotid gland, the ADC was 1.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec prior to simulation, whereas the ADC increased to 1.18 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec after simulation with lemon juice. For both types of measurements, the increase in ADC after

  20. Canine mammary minute oncocytomas with neuroendocrine differentiation associated with multifocal acinar cell oncocytic metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Rei; Kimura, Masayuki; Itahashi, Megu; Sugahara, Go; Kawashima, Masashi; Murayama, Hirotada; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Two solitary and minute tumors of 1 and 1.5 mm diameter were identified by microscopy in the left fourth mammary gland of a 13-year-old female Labrador Retriever dog, in addition to multiple mammary gland tumors. The former tumors were well circumscribed and were composed of small-to-large polyhedral neoplastic oncocytes with finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and were arranged in solid nests separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Scattered lumina of variable sizes containing eosinophilic secretory material were evident. Cellular atypia was minimal, and no mitotic figures were visible. One tumor had several oncocytic cellular foci revealing cellular transition, with perivascular pseudorosettes consisting of columnar epithelial cells surrounding the fine vasculature. Scattered foci of mammary acinar cell hyperplasia showing oncocytic metaplasia were also observed. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells of the 2 microtumors showed diffuse immunoreactivity to anti-cytokeratin antibody AE1/AE3, and finely granular immunoreactivity for 60-kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase complex V beta subunit, and chromogranin A. One tumor also had oncocytic cellular foci forming perivascular pseudorosettes showing cellular membrane immunoreactivity for neural cell adhesion molecule. The tumors were negative for smooth muscle actin, neuron-specific enolase, vimentin, desmin, S100, and synaptophysin. Ultrastructural observation confirmed the abundant mitochondria in the cytoplasm of both neoplastic and hyperplastic cells, the former cells also having neuroendocrine granule-like electron-dense bodies. From these results, our case was diagnosed with mammary oncocytomas accompanied by neuroendocrine differentiation. Scattered foci of mammary oncocytosis might be related to the multicentric occurrence of these oncocytomas. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucher, Anthony; Martín, Mercè; Spenle, Caroline; Poulet, Martine; Collin, Caitlin; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2012-01-15

    During mouse pancreas development, the transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in uncommitted pancreas progenitors is required to determine endocrine destiny. However it has been reported that Neurog3-expressing cells can eventually adopt acinar or ductal fates and that Neurog3 levels were important to secure the islet destiny. It is not known whether the competence of Neurog3-induced cells to give rise to non-endocrine lineages is an intrinsic property of these progenitors or depends on pancreas developmental stage. Using temporal genetic labeling approaches we examined the dynamic of endocrine progenitor differentiation and explored the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells throughout development. We found that Neurog3(+) progenitors develop into hormone-expressing cells in a fast process taking less then 10h. Furthermore, fate-mapping studies in heterozygote (Neurog3(CreERT/+)) and Neurog3-deficient (Neurog3(CreERT/CreERT)) embryos revealed that Neurog3-induced cells have different potential over time. At the early bud stage, failed endocrine progenitors can adopt acinar or ductal fate, whereas later in the branching pancreas they do not contribute to the acinar lineage but Neurog3-deficient cells eventually differentiate into duct cells. Thus these results provide evidence that the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells becomes restricted during development. Furthermore these data suggest that during the secondary transition, endocrine progenitor cells arise from bipotent precursors already committed to the duct/endocrine lineages and not from domain of cells having distinct potentialities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early to Late Endosome Trafficking Controls Secretion and Zymogen Activation in Rodent and Human Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott W; Thomas, Diana Dh; Cooley, Michelle M; Jones, Elaina K; Falkowski, Michelle A; August, Benjamin K; Fernandez, Luis A; Gorelick, Fred S; Groblewski, Guy E

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells have an expanded apical endosomal system, the physiological and pathophysiological significance of which is still emerging. Phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P 2 ) is an essential phospholipid generated by PIKfyve, which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P). PI(3,5)P 2 is necessary for maturation of early endosomes (EE) to late endosomes (LE). Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking enhances anterograde endosomal trafficking and secretion at the plasma membrane by default through a recycling endosome (RE) intermediate. We assessed the effects of modulating PIKfyve activity on apical trafficking and pancreatitis responses in pancreatic acinar cells. Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking was achieved using pharmacological inhibitors of PIKfyve, expression of dominant negative PIKfyve K1877E, or constitutively active Rab5-GTP Q79L. Anterograde endosomal trafficking was manipulated by expression of constitutively active and dominant negative Rab11a mutants. The effects of these agents on secretion, endolysosomal exocytosis of lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP1), and trypsinogen activation in response to high-dose CCK-8, bile acids and cigarette toxin was determined. PIKfyve inhibition increased basal and stimulated secretion. Adenoviral overexpression of PIKfyve decreased secretion leading to cellular death. Expression of Rab5-GTP Q79L or Rab11a-GTP Q70L enhanced secretion. Conversely, dominant-negative Rab11a-GDP S25N reduced secretion. High-dose CCK inhibited endolysosomal exocytosis that was reversed by PIKfyve inhibition. PIKfyve inhibition blocked intracellular trypsin accumulation and cellular damage responses to high CCK-8, tobacco toxin, and bile salts in both rodent and human acini. These data demonstrate that EE-LE trafficking acutely controls acinar secretion and the intracellular activation of zymogens leading to the pathogenicity of acute pancreatitis.

  3. Incidental focal FDG uptake in the parotid glands on PET/CT in patients with head and neck malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Lan; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Yun, Eun Joo; Cho, Young Kwon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Sora [Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Woo Jin; Chung, Eun Jae; Kwon, Kee Hwan [Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ilsong Memorial Institute of Head and Neck Cancer, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of focal parotid lesions identified by {sup 18} F- FDG PET/CT in patients with nonparotid head and neck malignancies. From 3,638 PET/CT examinations using {sup 18} F-FDG conducted on 1,342 patients with nonparotid head and neck malignancies, we retrospectively identified patients showing incidental focal FDG uptake in the parotid glands. The diagnosis of parotid lesions was confirmed histopathologically or on imaging follow-up. Patient demographics, clinical features, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) on PET images, size and attenuation on corresponding contrast-enhanced CT images were assessed and correlated with the final diagnosis. The prevalence of incidental focal parotid FDG uptake on PET/CT was 2.1 % (95 % CI 1.4 - 3.0 %). Among 21 patients with focal parotid lesions confirmed histologically or on imaging follow-up, 7 (33.3 %) had malignant lesions (all metastases) and 14 (66.7 %) had benign lesions (four pleomorphic adenomas, two Warthin's tumours, one benign lymph node, one granulomatous lesion, six lesions without histopathological confirmation). There were no significant differences in age, sex, SUV{sub max} or CT findings between patients with benign and those with malignant lesions. Focal parotid FDG uptake on PET/CT in patients with head and neck malignancy warrants further investigations to ensure adequate therapy for incidental parotid lesions. (orig.)

  4. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to β-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland β-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland β-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by [ 3 H]-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with [ 3 H]-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed

  5. Continuous analysis of parotid saliva during resting and short-duration simulated chewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyraud, E.; Bult, J.H.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parotid saliva flow is increased by mastication and its composition is also modified. The aim of this work was to clarify the relationships between flow rate, pH and protein concentration, during resting and short-duration simulated chewing, using continuous and fractional saliva

  6. carcinome adénoïde kystique de la parotide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    veuses. Les auteurs rapportent trois cas de CAK de la glande parotide diagnostiqués et traités entre l'année 2000 et 2007. ... any cervical lymph nodes in the clinical exam. All the ... une tuméfaction parotidienne droite de 1,5 cm de dia- mètre ...

  7. Histomorphologic study of the parotide glands of young rats exposed of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslindo, E.B.; Utrilla, L.S.; Roslindo, N.C.; Onofre, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed on rats to verify the effects of ionizing radiation on the structure of the parotid glands of young rats. Thirty twenty five-day old rats (Holtzman) were equally distributed into two experimental groups: Group 1 - irradiated; Group II - control. Using a conventional X-ray apparatus, the region of the parotid glands was irradiated with a dose of 300 R, this procedure was repeated every 48 hours up to an exposition of 1200 R. After periods of 3, 8, 13, 18, and 28 days, the animals belonging to both groups were sacrificed and the parotid glands removed and fixed in 10% formalin and Bouin liquid for 24 hours. The sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Mallory's Thricromic, allowing analysis through the usual optical microscope. The following conclusions may be drawn through the methodology used: the Group 1 - rats gained body weight uniformly after the 13 sup(th) day, although this was not equivalent to the control group; the critical phase of glandular disorganization determined by irradiation corresponded to the experimental period of 8 days, decreasing in the subsequent days; the serous acini and the striated ducts showed to be more radium sensitive even under the use of low fractionated doses; the parotid glands showed indications of gradual morphological recovery after the last exposition to X-rays. (author)

  8. Whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases: The technique of irradiation influences the dose to parotid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, G.; Paulon, R.; Verrelle, P.; Lapeyre, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of brain metastases, whole brain radiotherapy can be carried out according two distinct methods: one using multi-leaf collimator for field shaping and protection of organs at risk, and a second one is to make a rotation of the field to avoid the eyes. The aim of the study was to compare for 10 patients the dose distributions at organs at risk for each method. Patients received 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Except for parotid glands, the dose received by organs at risk and the planning target volume was the same with each method. For whole brain radiotherapy, excluding the cisterna cerebellomedullaris, the mean parotid dose was 9.63 Gy using the multi-leaf collimator versus 12.32 Gy using the field rotation (P = 0.04). For whole brain radiotherapy including the cisterna cerebellomedullaris, the mean parotid dose was 11.12 Gy using the multi-leaf collimator versus 20.06 Gy using field rotation (P < 0.001). Using the multi-leaf collimator seems recommended for whole brain radiotherapy, to reduce the dose to the parotids. (authors)

  9. The feasibility of sugammadex for general anesthesia and facial nerve monitoring in patients undergoing parotid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I-Cheng; Chang, Pi-Ying; Su, Miao-Pei; Chen, Po-Nien; Chen, Hsiu-Ya; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Wu, Che-Wei

    2017-08-01

    The use of neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) during anesthesia may interfere with facial nerve monitoring (FNM) during parotid surgery. Sugammadex has been reported to be an effective and safe reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) during surgery. This study investigated the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of sugammadex for NMB reversal during FNM in Parotid surgery. Fifty patients undergoing parotid surgery were randomized allocated into conventional anesthesia group (Group C, n = 25) and sugammadex group (Group S, n = 25). Group C did not receive any NMBA. Group S received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg at anesthesia induction and sugammadex 2 mg/kg at skin incision. The intubating condition and influence on FNM evoked EMG results were compared between groups. The intubation condition showed significantly better in group S patients than C group patients (excellent in 96% v.s. 24%). In group S, rapid reverse of NMB was found and the twitch (%) recovered from 0 to >90% within 10 min. Positive and high EMG signals were obtained in all patients at the time point of initial facial nerve stimulation in both groups. There was no significant difference as comparing the EMG amplitudes detected at the time point of initial and final facial nerve stimulation in both groups. Implementation of sugammadex in anesthesia protocol is feasible and reliable for successful FNM during parotid surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  10. Treatment of primary parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: an analysis of 29 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wendong; Feng Yan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of primary parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods: From March 1988 to February 2001, twenty-nine patients with primary parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The data were analyzed according to the following factors: sex, age, stage, pathologic classification, chemotherapy given or not, cycles of chemotherapy, radiotherapy given or not, and the dose at the parotid. Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank method were used in the statistic analysis. Results: The overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 73.3% and 51.0%. Stage and pathologic classification were prognostic factors in our statistic analysis. The 5-year survival rates were 81.6% and 25.0% for early stage (I E + II E) and advanced stage (III E + IV E) patients, with the difference significant (P<0.01). The 5-year survival rate for patients with the pathologic classification of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) was 100% as compared to 42.2% for patients with diffused large B cell lymphoma, with the difference also significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: The prognosis of primary parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is satisfactory. Surgery should only be used as a diagnostic method. Radiotherapy should be the first choice for patients with MALT lymphoma and stage I E and II E follicular lymphoma, but comprehensive treatment including chemotherapy is necessary to the diffuse large B cell lymphoma

  11. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma originating in the parotid gland: MRI features with histopathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Kashiwagi, N.; Chikugo, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Tomita, Y.; Murakami, T.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and corresponding histopathological features of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating in the parotid gland. Materials and methods: The MRI images of seven patients with histopathologically proven SCC originating in the parotid gland were reviewed retrospectively, with an emphasis on tumour size, shape, contour definition, extraparotid infiltration, signal characteristics, and the presence of central necrosis. These were correlated with the microscopic findings of the surgical specimens. Results: The tumours ranged in size from 3.9–7 cm (mean 4.7 cm). All tumours had an ill-defined margin with extraparotid infiltration, which seemed to reflect the invasive growth of the tumour cells on histopathological examination. The solid portions of the tumours showed predominantly low to intermediate signal intensities on T2-weighted images, which seemed to reflect the high cellularity, intercellular bridges, and/or keratin pearl formation observed at histopathological examination. Five of the seven tumours had central necrosis. Conclusion: A relatively large tumour with central necrosis is a useful imaging feature of SCCs originating in the parotid gland, in addition to the well-recognized indicators of parotid malignancy, such as an ill-defined margin, extraparotid infiltration, and low to intermediate signal intensity on T2-weighted images

  13. Introducing the Jacobian-volume-histogram of deforming organs: application to parotid shrinkage evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Maggiulli, Eleonora; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Calandrino, Riccardo; Liberini, Simone; Faggiano, Elena; Rizzo, Giovanna; Dell'Oca, Italo; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The Jacobian of the deformation field of elastic registration between images taken during radiotherapy is a measure of inter-fraction local deformation. The histogram of the Jacobian values (Jac) within an organ was introduced (JVH-Jacobian-volume-histogram) and first applied in quantifying parotid shrinkage. MVCTs of 32 patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy for head-neck cancers were collected. Parotid deformation was evaluated through elastic registration between MVCTs taken at the first and last fractions. Jac was calculated for each voxel of all parotids, and integral JVHs were calculated for each parotid; the correlation between the JVH and the planning dose-volume histogram (DVH) was investigated. On average, 82% (±17%) of the voxels shrinks (Jac 50% (Jac < 0.5). The best correlation between the DVH and the JVH was found between V10 and V15, and Jac < 0.4-0.6 (p < 0.01). The best constraint predicting a higher number of largely compressing voxels (Jac0.5<7.5%, median value) was V15 ≥ 75% (OR: 7.6, p = 0.002). Jac and the JVH are promising tools for scoring/modelling toxicity and for evaluating organ/contour variations with potential applications in adaptive radiotherapy.

  14. A functional and chemical study of radiation effects on rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissink, A.; S-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor composition and rate of secretion of rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva following local single doses of X-rays ranging from 5 to 20 Gy. Pilocarpine-stimulated samples of parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva were simultaneously collected with miniaturized Lashley cups before and 1-30 days after irradiation. The lag phase (period between injection of pilocarpine and start of the secretion) and flow rate were recorded and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and amylase were measured. With increasing dose and time, the salivary flow rate as well as sodium concentration decreased, while potassium concentrations increased throughout the follow-up period. The lag phase and the concentration of amylase reached their maximum at 3 and 10 days after irradiation, respectively. The changes in lag phase and flow rate were most obvious after doses of 15 or 20 Gy and showed a great similarity for parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva. No dose-response relationship was observed for the changes in concentrations of calcium and phosphate. It is concluded that for radiation doses of 10 Gy and above, irreversible changes (lag phase, flow rate, potassium, sodium) were observed. A saturation of the irradiation effects (lag phase, flow rate) seems to exist at doses larger than 15 Gy. No significant differences were observed between the radiation-induced functional changes in parotid and submandibular/sublingual salivary gland tissue

  15. A comparative study of the ultrastructure of submandibular, parotid and exocrine pancreas in diabetes and fasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Take, G.; Ilgaz, C.; Erdogan, D.; Ozogul, C.; Elmas, C.

    2007-01-01

    To comparatively analyze the ultrastructural changes in the submandibular and parotid glands and in the exocrine pancreas following diabetes induced by Streptozotocin exposure and the effects of fasting and insulin treatment on these alterations. For experimental procedure, we included 48 Sprague-Dawley type rats in July 2001-March 2002 at Gazi University, Turkey. We divided the rats into 8 groups following the infusion of Streptozotocin. While the degeneration manifested itself as accumulation of secretions within the mucous cells in the submandibular gland, lipid droplets were absent, being replaced by vacuolar structures. The parotid gland and exocrine pancreas, having similar properties, were affected similarly. Diabetes-induced loss of granules was observed in the serous cells in both glands. There was diffuse lipid accumulation within these cells. Regarding granule content, we observed the most prominent degenerative changes in the parotid gland. While cellular loss was observed in neither the submandibular, nor the parotid gland, we noted presence of apoptotic cells was noted in the pancreas. State of fasting was found to cause alterations within the glands indicating increased activity. While insulin treatment was seen to restore the structure to normal in general was in both of the 3 glands. This study demonstrated that both of the 3 glands are affected by diabetes and concomitant fasting, and this effect manifests itself via the granule content. (author)

  16. Longitudinal assessment of parotid function in patients receiving tomotherapy for head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voordeckers, M.; Tournel, K.; Verellen, D.; Esch, G. van; Storme, G.; Everaert, H.; Vanhove, C.; Baron, I.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: conventional radiotherapy is associated with high doses to the salivary glands which causes xerostomia and adverse effects on quality of life. The study aims to investigate the potential of helical tomotherapy (Hi-Art Tomotherapy registered ) to preserve parotid function in head-and-neck cancer patients. Patients and methods: seven consecutive patients treated with helical tomotherapy at the UZ Brussel, Belgium, were included. During planning, priority was attributed to planning target volume (PTV) coverage: ≥ 95% of the dose must be delivered to ≥ 95% of the PTV. Elective nodal regions received 54 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). A dose of 70.5 Gy (2.35 Gy/fraction) was prescribed to the primary tumor and pathologic lymph nodes = simultaneous integrated boost scheme. If possible, the mean parotid dose was kept below 26 Gy. Salivary gland function was assessed by technetium scintigraphy. Results: there was a significant dose-response relationship between mean parotid dose and functional recuperation. If the mean dose was kept 26 %). In order to preserve 75% of SE, 46% of the parotid volume should receive a dose 26 Gy can be reduced. (orig.)

  17. Parotid duct injury secondary to shark bite injury: Repair with a Crawford stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory Highstein

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Clinicians should have a high level of suspicion for parotid duct injury in a patient presenting with injury to the face, particularly with laceration type injuries. Our patient had a unique injury that required a novel Crawford stent repair over traditional silicone catheters.

  18. Infratemporal fossa extension of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma: a rare entity with diagnosis dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaf, J.H.; Gendeh, B.S.; Yunus, M.R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of parotid gland is rare but it is an aggressive neoplasm that can have extension into the infratemporal fossa. We report a 60-year-old female presenting with toothache over left lower molar causing a diagnostic dilemma. (author)

  19. Radioprotective effect of amifostine on parotid gland functioning is region dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Faber, H; Vissink, A; Coppes, RP

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigation the protective ability of amifostine during partial irradiation of the rat parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Single-dose X-ray irradiation was performed by use of collimators with conformal radiation portals for either the 100% volume (15 Gy) or the 50% cranial/caudal

  20. Can sparing of the superficial contralateral parotid lobe reduce xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevens, Daan; Nuyts, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to see whether sparing the superficial contralateral parotid lobe can help limiting xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. 88 patients that were included in two prospective randomized studies were analysed in the current study. Using the dosimetry of both the parotid glands, we divided our patients in four groups. Group 1 includes patients where we were able to reduce the radiation dose below the threshold in order to spare both the ipsilateral and contralateral parotid glands, Group 2 consists of patients where only the contralateral parotid gland could be spared. Group 3 consists of patients where only the contralateral superficial parotid lobe could be spared, while in Group 4 not even the contralateral superficial lobe could be spared. When we compared Group 1 and Group 2, we did not observe a significant difference between both groups in terms of xerostomia scores at 6 or 12 months. When we compared these groups with Group 3, we observed significant differences with more xerostomia in Group 3 where only the contralateral superficial lobe was spared. A significant difference was also observed between Group 3 and Group 4 with more xerostomia in Group 4. Sparing of just one superficial parotid lobe results in less xerostomia when compared to not sparing any lobe of both parotid glands. Advances in knowledge: When sparing of the whole contralateral parotid gland is not possible, delineating both the superficial parotid glands and trying to spare at least one of them can mean a way forward in limiting xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy.

  1. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic......Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  2. Outcome, general, and symptom-specific quality of life after various types of parotid resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuman, Raphael Richard; Oels, Wolfgang; Jaussi, Rolf; Dost, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    To document the outcome and impact on general and symptom-specific quality of life (QOL) after various types of parotid resection. General and symptom-specific QOL assessment at least 1 year after performed surgery. Retrospective data and outcome analysis of patients. Between 2004 and 2010, 353 parotid resections in 337 patients were conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Teaching Hospital, St. Mary's Hospital Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen, Germany. A total of 196 patients fit the inclusion criteria and were available for postoperative evaluation. The general QOL assessment was based on both the global health status and global QOL scales of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life Questionnaire in 34 patients. Symptom-specific QOL was assessed with the Parotidectomy Outcome Inventory-8 (POI-8). In addition, aesthetic outcome was evaluated with an ordinal scale. Outcome of parotidectomies in benign disease has little impact on general QOL and global health status. However, hypoesthesia or dysesthesia, Frey's syndrome, and cosmetic discontent are quite common and may affect symptom-specific and general QOL. Correlation with extent of surgery and statistically significant differences of patient evaluation for aesthetic outcome, sensory impairment, and Frey's syndrome between various types of limited parotid surgery (enucleation, extracapsular dissection, partial superficial parotidectomy) and superficial parotidectomy could be shown. An adequate parotid resection technique must be chosen to achieve the least disturbing outcome. In addition, in our patient collective, there was no increased recurrence rate found after limited parotid resection for pleomorphic adenoma or cystadenolymphoma. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Induction of salivary polypeptides associated with parotid hypertrophy by gallotannins administered topically into the mouse mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gho, Francesca; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio O

    2007-02-01

    Isoproterenol-induced salivary polypeptides (IISP), a group of proline-rich proteins synthesized by mouse parotids, have been considered as markers for isoproterenol-induced parotid hypertrophy. Rodents fed diets containing high-tannin cereals (sorghum), also develop parotid hypertrophy. To test whether tannins are directly involved in provoking sialotrophic growth, we studied the effect of intraperitoneal and topical oral administrations of tannic acid (TA) on the induction of IISP polypeptides in endogamic mice (A/Snell). TA was characterized by HPLC chromatography and spectral analysis and shown to be composed solely of gallotannins, a complex family of glucose and gallic acid esters. IISP polypeptides were monitored in saliva by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis during 36 h after ending TA stimulation. Single daily intraperitoneal administrations of TA for 3 consecutive days (0.033 mg/g bw/day), at variance of parallel administrations of isoproterenol (0.042 mg/g bw/day) failed to induce IISP polypeptides. However, repeated topical applications of TA into the mouse mouths (1.21 mg/g bw divided into three equal doses given at 4-h intervals within a single day) resulted in unequivocal induction of IISP polypeptides. That response was clearly intensified by increasing the stimulation frequency to eight equivalent doses given at 1.5-h intervals within a single day (corresponding to 3.23 mg/g bw) and even further by repeating this protocol for 3 days. Under these productive schemes of stimulations by TA, electrophoretic fractionation of parotid homogenates showed new polypeptide bands migrating in parallel to salivary IISP. These results suggest that topically administered gallotannins are effective inducers of trophic growth in mouse parotids.

  4. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Aisha B; Gulliford, Sarah L; Bhide, Shreerang A; Zaidi, Shane H; Newbold, Kate L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. The incidence of high grade (≥G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D₅₀) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100mg/m(2) was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ≥G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p=0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p=0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p=0.15). D₅₀ for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7-28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8-30.3) for c-IMRT. Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oncocytic carcinoma of parotid gland: a case report with clinical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Giovanna

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncocytic carcinoma is an extremely rare neoplasm of the salivary glands. We report a case of oncocytic carcinoma arising in a parotid gland in a 66-year-old female. Method An excisional biopsy of the parotid tumor was performed. The specimen was submitted for histology and after fixation in formalin solution and inclusion in paraffin, 3–5 μm sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for conventional evaluation and Periodic acid Schiff stain. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies against mitochondrial antigen, keratin, S-100, alpha-actin, vimentin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin as well as an ultrastructural analysis was performed. Results Frozen sections revealed an infiltrative growth pattern and the diagnosis of a malignant epithelial lesion was made. Permanent sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin revealed a neoplasm that had replaced a wide area of the parotid gland and had invaded subcutaneous adipose tissue. Perineural invasion was evident, but vascular invasion was not found. Neoplastic elements were large, round or polyhedral cells and were arranged in solid sheets, islands and cords. The cytoplasm was abundant, eosinophilic and finely granular. The nuclei were large and located centrally or peripherally. The nucleoli were distinct and large. Periodic acid Schiff stain demonstrated a granular cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated mithochondrial antigen, keratin, and chymotrypsin immunoreactivity in the neoplastic cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed numerous mitochondria packed into the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. Thus, the final diagnosis was that of oncocytic carcinoma of parotid gland. Conclusion This neoplasm shows clinical, microscopical, histological and ultrastructural features of oncocytic carcinoma and this must be considered in the differential diagnosis of other proliferations in the parotid gland with abundant granular cytoplasm and metastatic oncocytic

  6. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Aisha B.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Zaidi, Shane H.; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. Materials and methods: The incidence of high grade (⩾G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D 50 ) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Results: Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ⩾G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p = 0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p = 0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p = 0.15). D 50 for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7–28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8–30.3) for c-IMRT. Conclusion: Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone

  7. Polymer coated liposomes for dental drug delivery--interactions with parotid saliva and dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S; Hiorth, M; Rykke, M; Smistad, G

    2013-09-27

    The interactions between pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva and dental enamel were studied to investigate their potential to mimic the protective biofilm formed naturally on tooth surfaces. Different pectin coated liposomes with respect to pectin type (LM-, HM- and AM-pectin) and concentration (0.05% and 0.2%) were prepared. Interactions between the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were studied by turbidimetry and imaging by atomic force microscopy. The liposomes were adsorbed to hydroxyapatite (HA) and human dental enamel using phosphate buffer and parotid saliva as adsorption media. A continuous flow was imposed on the enamel surfaces for various time intervals to examine their retention on the dental enamel. The results were compared to uncoated, charged liposomes. No aggregation tendencies for the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were revealed. This makes them promising as drug delivery systems to be used in the oral cavity. In phosphate buffer the adsorption to HA of pectin coated liposomes was significantly lower than the negative liposomes. The difference diminished in parotid saliva. Positive liposomes adsorbed better to the dental enamel than the pectin coated liposomes. However, when subjected to flow for 1h, no significant differences in the retention levels on the enamel were found between the formulations. For all formulations, more than 40% of the liposomes still remained on the enamel surfaces. At time point 20 min the retention of HM-pectin coated and positive liposomes were significantly higher. It was concluded that pectin coated liposomes can adsorb to HA as well as to the dental enamel. Their ability to retain on the enamel surfaces promotes the concept of using them as protective structures for the teeth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Ghrelin miRNA on Inflammation and Calcium Pathway in Pancreatic Acinar Cells of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiping; Tang, Guodu; Liang, Zhihai; Qin, Mengbin; Fang, Chunyun; Zhang, Luyi

    The study investigated the effects of endogenous targeted inhibition of ghrelin gene on inflammation and calcium pathway in an in vitro pancreatic acinar cell model of acute pancreatitis. Lentiviral expression vector against ghrelin gene was constructed and transfected into AR42J cells. The mRNA and protein expression of each gene were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentration of intracellular calcium ([Ca]i) was determined by calcium fluorescence mark probe combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy. Compared with the control group, cerulein could upregulate mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory factors, calcium pathway, ghrelin, and [Ca]i. mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory factors increased significantly in cells transfected with ghrelin miRNA compared with the other groups. Intracellular calcium and expression of some calcium pathway proteins decreased significantly in cells transfected with ghrelin miRNA compared with the other groups. Targeted inhibition of ghrelin gene in pancreatic acinar cells of acute pancreatitis can upregulate the expression of the intracellular inflammatory factors and alleviate the intracellular calcium overload.

  9. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1,PARAINFLUENZA-3,BOVINE ROTAVIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA, BOVINE ADENOVIRUS-7,BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS AND BLUETONGUE VIRUS ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    SUZAN, Victor M.; ONUMA, Misao; AGUILAR, Romero E.; MURAKAMI, Yosuke

    1983-01-01

    Sera were collected from dairy and beef cattle in 19 different states of Mexico. These sera were tested for bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV-3), bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seropositive rates for each virus for dairy cattle tested were 158/277(57.0%) for BHV-1,217/286(75.0%) for PIV-3,541/1498(36.1%) for BLV, 134/144(93.1%) for BRV, 39/90(43.3%) for BTV,...

  10. Clinical Analysis of Parotid Tumors in Patients Over 60-year-old: A Retrospective Study of 78 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Warthin tumor was the most common benign tumor, and salivary duct carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumor in this study. Surgical treatment is the mainstay treatment for benign and malignant parotid tumors.

  11. Importance of the initial volume of parotid glands in xerostomia for patients with head and neck cancers treated with IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasumasa; Nakamatsu, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Toru; Kanamori, Shuichi; Koike, Ryuta; Okumura, Masahiko; Suzuki, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate predictors of xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Thirty-three patients with pharyngeal cancer were evaluated for xerostomia after having been treated with IMRT. All patients were treated with whole-neck irradiation of 46-50 Gy by IMRT, followed by boost IMRT to the high-risk clinical target volume to a total dose of 56-70 Gy in 28-35 fractions (median, 68 Gy). For boost IMRT, a second computed tomography (CT-2) scan was done in the third to fourth week of IMRT. Xerostomia was scored 3-4 months after the start of IMRT. The mean doses to the contralateral and ipsilateral parotid glands were 24.0±6.2 and 30.3±6.6 Gy, respectively. Among the 33 patients, xerostomia of grades 0, 1, 2 and 3 was noted in one, 18, 12 and two patients, respectively. Although the mean dose to the parotid glands was not correlated with the grade of xerostomia, the initial volume of the parotid glands was correlated with the grade of xerostomia (P=0.04). Of 17 patients with small parotid glands (≤38.8 ml) on initial CT (CT-1), 11 (65%) showed grade 2 or grade 3 xerostomia, whereas only three (19%) of 16 patients with larger parotid glands showed grade 2 xerostomia (P<0.05). The mean volume of the parotid glands on CT-1 was 43.1±15.2 ml, but decreased significantly to 32.0±11.4 ml (74%) on CT-2 (P<0.0001). Initial volumes of the parotid glands are significantly correlated with the grade of xerostomia in patients treated with IMRT. The volume of the parotid glands decreased significantly during the course of IMRT. (author)

  12. Bilateral painful parotid lumps and a lump in the groin: An uncommon presentation of common Kikuchi's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Prakash Mirgh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD is an under-recognized disease most commonly presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, and cytopenias in young females. Bilateral parotid enlargement is usually caused by infections (e.g., mumps and autoimmune conditions (e.g., Sjogren syndrome. Parotid enlargement, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and pyrexia of unknown origin are uncommon presenting features of KFD and should be suspected in the appropriate setting.

  13. Density variation of parotid glands during IMRT for head–neck cancer: Correlation with treatment and anatomical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Rizzo, Giovanna; Scalco, Elisa; Broggi, Sara; Belli, Maria Luisa; Dell’Oca, Italo; Dinapoli, Nicola; Ricchetti, Francesco; Rodriguez, Aldo Mejia; Di Muzio, Nadia; Calandrino, Riccardo; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring parotid density changes in patients treated with IMRT for head–neck cancer (HNC) and assessing correlation with treatment-related parameters. Patients and materials: Data of 84 patients treated with IMRT for different HNC were pooled from three institutions. Parotid deformation and average Hounsfield number changes (ΔHU) were evaluated through MVCT (with Helical Tomotherapy) or diagnostic kVCT images taken at the treatment start/end. Parotids were delineated in the first image and propagated to the last using a previously validated algorithm based on elastic registration. The correlation between ΔHU and several treatment-related parameters was tested; then, logistic uni- and multi-variate analyses taking “large” ΔHU as end-point were carried out. Due to the better image quality, analyses were repeated considering only kVCT data. Results: ΔHU was negative in 116/168 parotids (69%; for kVCT patients: 72/92, 78%). The average ΔHU was significantly different from zero (−7.3, 0.20–0.25 HU/fraction, p m ean), and with neck thickness variation; these correlations were much stronger for kVCT data. Logistic analyses considering ΔHU m ean < 0.68) and initial neck thickness to be the most predictive variables (p < 0.0005, AUC = 0.683; AUC = 0.776 for kVCT); the odd ratio of large vs moderate/small parotid deformation was 3.8 and 8.0 for the whole and the kVCT population respectively. Conclusions: Parotid density reduced in most patients during IMRT and this phenomenon was highly correlated with parotid deformation. The individual assessment of density changes was highly reliable just with diagnostic KvCT. Density changes should be considered as an additional objective measurement of early parotid radiation-induced modifications; further research is warranted.

  14. Parotid gland mean dose as a xerostomia predictor in low-dose domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabryś, Hubert Szymon; Buettner, Florian; Sterzing, Florian; Hauswald, Henrik; Bangert, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Xerostomia is a common side effect of radiotherapy resulting from excessive irradiation of salivary glands. Typically, xerostomia is modeled by the mean dose-response characteristic of parotid glands and prevented by mean dose constraints to either contralateral or both parotid glands. The aim of this study was to investigate whether normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on the mean radiation dose to parotid glands are suitable for the prediction of xerostomia in a highly conformal low-dose regime of modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques. We present a retrospective analysis of 153 head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. The Lyman Kutcher Burman (LKB) model was used to evaluate predictive power of the parotid gland mean dose with respect to xerostomia at 6 and 12 months after the treatment. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and precision-recall (PR) curves. Average mean doses to ipsilateral and contralateral parotid glands were 25.4 Gy and 18.7 Gy, respectively. QUANTEC constraints were met in 74% of patients. Mild to severe (G1+) xerostomia prevalence at both 6 and 12 months was 67%. Moderate to severe (G2+) xerostomia prevalence at 6 and 12 months was 20% and 15%, respectively. G1 + xerostomia was predicted reasonably well with area under the ROC curve ranging from 0.69 to 0.76. The LKB model failed to provide reliable G2 + xerostomia predictions at both time points. Reduction of the mean dose to parotid glands below QUANTEC guidelines resulted in low G2 + xerostomia rates. In this dose domain, the mean dose models predicted G1 + xerostomia fairly well, however, failed to recognize patients at risk of G2 + xerostomia. There is a need for the development of more flexible models able to capture complexity of dose response in this dose regime.

  15. Parotid gland sparing radiotherapy technique using 3-D conformal radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Gwi Eon; Keum, Ki Chang; Suh, Chang Ok; Lee, Sang Wook; Park, Hee Chul; Cho, Jae Ho; Chang, Sei Kyung; Loh, Juhn Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Although using the high energy photon beam with conventional parallel-opposed beams radio-therapy for nasopgaryngeal carcinoma, radiation-induced xerostomia is a troublesome problem for patients. We conducted this study to explore a new parotid gland sparing technique in 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3-DCRT) in an effort to prevent the radiation-induced xerostomia. We performed three different planning for four clinically node-negative nasopharyngeal cancer patients with different location of tumor(intracranial extension, nasal cavity extension, oropharyngeal extension, parapharyngeal extension), and intercompared the plans. Total prescription dose was 70.2 Gy to the isocenter. For plan-A, 2-D parallel opposing fields, a conventional radiotherapy technique, were employed. For plan-B, 2-D parallel opposing fields were used up until 54 Gy and afterwards 3-D non-coplanar beams were used. For plan-C, the new technique, 54Gy was delivered by 3-D conformal 3-port beams (AP and both lateral ports with wedge compensator, shielding both superficial lobes of parotid glands at the AP beam using BEV) from the beginning of the treatment and early spinal cord block (at 36 Gy) was performed. And bilateral posterior necks were treated with electron after 36 Gy. After 54 Gy, non-coplanar beams were used for cone-down plan. We intercompared dose statistics (Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D95, D05, V95, V05, Volume receiving 46 Gy) and dose volume histograms (DVH) of tumor and normal tissues and NTCP values of parotid glands for the above three plans. For all patients, the new technique (plan-C) was comparable or superior to the other plans in target volume isodose distribution and dose statistics and it has more homogenous target volume coverage. The new technique was most superior to the other plans in parotid glands sparing (volume receiving 46 Gy: 100, 98, 69% for each plan-A, B and C). And it showed the lowest NTCP value of parotid glands in all patients (range of NTCP; 96-100%, 79-99%, 51

  16. Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on histological characteristics of parotid gland of albino rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, N.Q.; Tahir, M.; Sami, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on the histological structure of parotid salivary gland of the rat. Methods: Twenty male albino rats, weighing between 130-150 grams, were used which were divided into two groups; control group (A) and an experimental group (B), each containing 10 animals. Group B was rendered hypothyroid by giving methimazole (MMI) as 0.02% solution in drinking water daily for 3 weeks. On day 22 parotid and thyroid glands were removed, weighed and processed for light microscopy. Salivary gland was fixed in Bouin's solution, H and E and Toluidine blue stains were used for histological examination. Serum T /sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results: In group A, serum concentration of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH was 12.58+-3.05 mu g/ml, 4.72 +- 1.20 macro g/dl, and 0.25 +- 0.24 macro IU/ml respectively, where as in group B it was 2.14+-1.83 mu g/ml, 1.04 +- 0.44 macro g/dl and 1.44+-0.20 mu U/ml respectively. When differences between T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH of the groups were compared, the p-value was <0.000, <0.000, and <0.000 respectively. Mean thyroid weight significantly increased in group B (44.1 0+-1.66 mg) when compared to that in group A (33.70+-1.56 mg). These findings established the occurrence of hypothyroid state in the experimental group. There was a statistically significant reduction in the parotid gland weight in the animals of the experimental group (38.30 +- 1.15 mg) when compared to the control group (39.60 +- 0.84 mg), (p<0.01). With light microscopy, group A showed a normal structure of parotid salivary gland, whereas multiple histological changes were observed in parotrid gland of the experimental group. Number of mast cells in parotid gland was also significantly higher (p<0.017) in group B (3.70 +- 1.11/mm/sup 2/) than in group A (2.25 +- 1.34/mm/sup 2/). Conclusion: The level of T/sub 3/ T/sub 4/ decreased and that of TSH increased

  17. Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

    2014-03-01

    We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses.

  18. The accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology for diagnosis of parotid gland masses: a clinicopathological study of 114 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Kristjan GUDMUNDSSON

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a valuable method for preoperative assessment of head and neck tumors. However, its accuracy in detection of salivary gland masses is controversial compared with other methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses. Material and Methods Over a 10-year period, 126 parotid gland masses were resected. Retrospective chart reviews of 114 patients were performed. The results of FNAC and final histological diagnosis were compared and the accuracy of FNAC was determined. Results Final histological evaluation revealed 11 malignant tumors and 103 benign lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm (63%, followed by Warthin’s tumor (17.5%. The sensitivity of FNAC in detecting malignant tumors was 73% and the specificity was 97%. Positive predictive value (PPV was 73% and negative predictive value (NPV was 97%. The overall accuracy of FNAC in detecting parotid masses was 95%. False-negative diagnosis was found in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma whereas there was false-positive diagnosis in cases of pleomorphic adenoma and normal parotid gland tissue. Conclusion FNAC is a reliable minimally invasive diagnostic method with a high sensitivity in diagnosis of lesions in parotid glands. The sensitivity of detection of malignant tumors in parotid glands was low due to the biopsy technique used, and depended on tumor location. Postoperative complications decreased after superficial parotidectomy.

  19. Perfusion characteristics of late radiation injury of parotid glands: quantitative evaluation with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Chun-Jung; Chen, Cheng-Yu.; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Huang, Guo-Shu; Jen, Yee-Min; Liu, Hua-Shan; Wang, Chao-Ying; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chai, Yao-Te

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to quantitatively investigate the alteration of parotid perfusion after irradiation using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) based on a two-compartment tracer kinetic model. This study enrolled 19 patients (53.2±14.9 years) treated by head and neck radiotherapy and 19 age-relevant and sex-matched subjects as a control group. Perfusion parameters (K el , k 21 and A) of parotid glands were analyzed based on the Brix model from T1-weighted DCE-MRI. Suitability of the Brix model was evaluated via Monte Carlo simulation for the goodness-of-fit. Analysis of nonlinear goodness-of-fit showed that the Brix model is appropriate in evaluating the parotid perfusion (R 2 = 0.938±0.050). The irradiated parotid glands showed significantly lower K el (P 21 (P < 0.05) and consequently significantly higher value of peak enhancement (P<0.0005) and time-to-peak (P<0.0005) compared with non-irradiated ones, suggestive of gradual and prolonged accumulation and delayed wash-out of contrast agent due to increased extracellular extravascular space and decreased vascular permeability in the irradiated glands. Linear regression analysis showed dose-dependent perfusion changes of the irradiated parotid glands. We conclude that quantitative DCE-MRI is a potential tool in investigating parotid gland perfusion changes after radiotherapy. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of geometric changes of parotid glands during head and neck cancer radiotherapy using daily MVCT and automatic deformable registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonik; Langen, Katja M.; Lu, Weiguo; Haimerl, Jason; Schnarr, Eric; Ruchala, Kenneth J.; Olivera, Gustavo H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Shellenberger, Thomas D.; Manon, Rafael R.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess and evaluate geometrical changes in parotid glands using deformable image registration and megavoltage CT (MVCT) images. Methods: A deformable registration algorithm was applied to 330 daily MVCT images (10 patients) to create deformed parotid contours. The accuracy and robustness of the algorithm was evaluated through visual review, comparison with manual contours, and precision analysis. Temporal changes in the parotid gland geometry were observed. Results: The deformed parotid contours were qualitatively judged to be acceptable. Compared with manual contours, the uncertainties of automatically deformed contours were similar with regard to geometry and dosimetric endpoint. The day-to-day variations (1 standard deviation of errors) in the center-of-mass distance and volume were 1.61 mm and 4.36%, respectively. The volumes tended to decrease with a median total loss of 21.3% (6.7-31.5%) and a median change rate of 0.7%/day (0.4-1.3%/day). Parotids migrated toward the patient center with a median total distance change of -5.26 mm (0.00 to -16.35 mm) and a median change rate of -0.22 mm/day (0.02 to -0.56 mm/day). Conclusion: The deformable image registration and daily MVCT images provide an efficient and reliable assessment of parotid changes over the course of a radiation therapy

  1. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  3. Bilateral Parotid Sialadenosis Associated with Long-Standing Bulimia: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garcia, Blas; Dean Ferrer, Alicia; Diaz Jimenez, Nelida; Alamillos Granados, Francisco Jesus

    2018-06-01

    Bulimia is a common cause of sialadenosis. This paper presents a case of bilateral parotid sialadenosis associated with long-standing bulimia, and reviews the relevant literature and current treatment options. A 32-year-old woman had severe bilateral parotid sialomegaly for the last 6 years, which had occurred secondary to bulimia nervosa, which she had since 14 years. Treatment with pilocarpine was unsuccessful, so she underwent bilateral conservative parotidectomy. This procedure not only improved the aesthetic appearance of the patient but also improved her social and work life and overall quality of life. Sialomegaly secondary to bulimia results in a major alteration of the aesthetics of a patient's face. Conservative measures are not enough in many cases, and parotidectomy may be the only viable option, as it can also significantly improve adherence to psychiatric treatment for bulimia, in addition to correcting the facial aesthetics.

  4. A Type I first branchial cleft cyst masquerading as a parotid tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramshanker, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are caused by incomplete regression of the cervical sinus of “His” during the 6th and 7th weeks of embryologic development. Although congenital in origin, first branchial cleft cysts (FBCCs) can present later in life. FBCCs are rare causes of parotid swellings, accounting for branchial cleft abnormalities. The diagnosis of FBCCs is a clinical challenge; the condition is often overlooked and mismanaged. We report a case of Type 1 FBCC in a 22-year-old female with an asymptomatic 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm sized cystic mass. It was removed completely under the impression of a cystic tumor of the parotid. On histopathology, the cyst had a squamous epithelium-lined wall with lymphoid aggregation which was characteristic of a branchial cleft cyst. A good understanding of the regional anatomy and embryology can lead to an early diagnosis and thereby effective management of FBCC. PMID:25298726

  5. A Type I first branchial cleft cyst masquerading as a parotid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramshanker, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are caused by incomplete regression of the cervical sinus of "His" during the 6(th) and 7(th) weeks of embryologic development. Although congenital in origin, first branchial cleft cysts (FBCCs) can present later in life. FBCCs are rare causes of parotid swellings, accounting for branchial cleft abnormalities. The diagnosis of FBCCs is a clinical challenge; the condition is often overlooked and mismanaged. We report a case of Type 1 FBCC in a 22-year-old female with an asymptomatic 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm sized cystic mass. It was removed completely under the impression of a cystic tumor of the parotid. On histopathology, the cyst had a squamous epithelium-lined wall with lymphoid aggregation which was characteristic of a branchial cleft cyst. A good understanding of the regional anatomy and embryology can lead to an early diagnosis and thereby effective management of FBCC.

  6. Pre-operative irradiation of eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Satoshi; Toda, Yukio; Nakajima, Hisami; Takeyama, Isamu; Sodemoto, Yukio; Endo, Masaru

    1983-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is thought to originate in the reticuloendothelial system and cannot clearly be distinguished from the surrounding tissue during operation. An eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area was removed after 25 days of irradiation at a dosage of 10.0 Gy per 3 days. A thin capsule of connective tissue was observed after the tumor was cut in half. Then, histopathological studies were performed on this connective tissue to determine the effect of the irradiation. Histopathologically, at the periphery of the tissue, atrophy of lymphocytes and destruction of the lymphoid tissue, which were thought to result in an increase in the connective tissue, were observed. It was concluded that a small dose of pre-operative radiation on eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area made the tumor small and produced a capsule around the tumor. (author)

  7. Stationary facial nerve paresis after surgery for recurrent parotid pleomorphic adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Anders; Andreasen, Simon; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to assess degree of permanent facial nerve dysfunction after surgery for recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (RPA) of the parotid gland, including variables that might influence re-operation outcomes. Nationwide retrospective longitudinal cohort study including a questionnaire survey...... of patients undergoing surgery for RPA. Of 219 living patients, 198 (92 %) responded and 127 (63 %) reported no facial dysfunction. Statistically significant associations were found between number of surgeries and permanent facial nerve dysfunction of all degrees (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.16-1.78, p = 0.......001). A not significant tendency for females to be associated with worse outcome was found (p = 0.073). Risks of different degrees of paresis after the second-fourth surgeries were found (OR 1.86-2.19, p RPA of the parotid...

  8. X radiation in parotid gland of young rats. Histopathological comparative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslindo, E.B.; Utrilla, L.S.; Lia, R.C.C.; Roslindo, N.C.; Cerri, P.S.; Azoubel, R.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of X radiation on the structure of the parotid glands of young rats are studied by means of morphologic technique. Seventy male rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus Holtzman) were distributed in two experimental groups: Group 1- irradiated and Group 2- control. The region of the parroted glands was irradiated with a dose of 300 rads from 48 to 48 hours up to an exposition of 1.200 rads. After predetermined periods the animals belonging to both groups were sacrificed and the parotid glands were removed for histopathologic evaluation. The serous acini showed to be radium sensitive and in the periods closer to the radiation, the glandular structure des organization and degeneration was noted. (M.A.C.)

  9. Primary unclassified sarcoma of the parotid gland: a case of diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravakos, Panagiotis; Hartwein, Joerg; Fayyazi, Afshin

    2017-05-01

    Malignant salivary gland sarcomas represent a clinically and histologically diagnostic challenge. Primary unclassified sarcomas of the parotid gland consist a rare salivary gland tumor. We report an unusual case of such a tumor, which occurred in the right parotid gland of a 54-year-old male and presented as an asymptomatic painless mass. The pathologoanatomical examination revealed a rhabdoid large-cell unclassified sarcoma. The patient was treated with superficial parotidectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was noted in a 10-year follow-up period. Due to the rare occurrence of primary unclassified sarcomas, there is no evidence-based treatment of choice. An optimal approach is best planned in a multidisciplinary setting, taking into consideration the resectability of the tumor, individual patient characteristics, presence of local or distant metastatic activity, local infiltrative behavior and tumor stage. A close follow-up of the patient is strongly recommended.

  10. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rij, CM; Oughlane-Heemsbergen, WD; Ackerstaff, AH; Lamers, EA; Balm, AJM; Rasch, CRN

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192). Overall response was 85% (n = 163); 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75) and 77% in the control group (n = 88) the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Results Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the "spared" parotid below 26 Gy. Conclusion Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT. PMID:19068126

  11. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Molls, Christoph; Luers, Jan C; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens P; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors in therapy and prognosis for patients with parotid gland cancer. Nevertheless, the extent of the primary tumor resection and the necessity of a neck dissection still is a common issue. Since little is known about lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymph node metastases in T1 and T2 carcinomas and its impact on local control and survival. We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients with early-stage (T1 and T2) primary parotid gland cancer. All patients were treated with parotidectomy and an ipsilateral neck dissection from 1987 to 2009. Clinicopathological and survival parameters were calculated. The median follow-up time was 51.7 months. A positive pathological lymph node stage (pN+) was found in 21.4% of patients with a significant correlation to the clinical lymph node stage (cN) (p = 0.061). There were no differences in the clinical and histopathological data between pN- and pN+ patients. In 73.3% of pN+ patients, the metastases were located intraparotideal. The incidence of occult metastases (pN+/cN-) was 17.2%. Of all patients with occult metastases, 30.0% had extraparotideal lymphatic spread. A positive lymph node stage significantly indicated a poorer 5-year overall as well as 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to pN- patients (p = 0.048; p = 0.011). We propose total parotidectomy in combination with at least a level II-III selective neck dissection in any case of early-stage parotid gland cancer.

  12. An experimental study of the irradiation effects on rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the irradiation effects on the rat parotid gland, applied to the head and neck region. For this experiment, twenty-four rat, feeded under the even condition, were used as experimental animals. Twenty rat were used for experimental group and the rest were assigned to the control group. The experimental group was singly irradiated with 10 Gray through Cobalt-60 radiotherapy device, Pickre model 4M 60 (Field size; 12x5 cm, SSD; 50 cm, Depth; 1 cm). The experimental animals of both group were sacrificed each four animals in 2 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after irradiation. The specimens were examined through the light microscope using the H-E stain and H stain by routine procedure. The other specimens were observed under the fluorescence microscope using the B-O dichroic mirror and Y 45 5 barrier filter after PA-ACH stain. The results of this study were obtained as follows: 1. The parotid acini were severely degenerated and intraacinar space were widened. Within the acini, retained secretory granules and increased fibrosis were observed. Also the shape and the size of the acini showed very irregular atrophic degeneration. 2. The nuclei showed severe pyknosis, displacement and irregular aggregated appearance. 3. The tissue changes of the parotid acini were initiated after 2 days of irradiation and most severely appeared at the second week of irradiation, but almost returned to normal. 4. The salivary ducts of the parotid gland were severely atrophied, discontinued but initiated to regenerated after 3 weeks of irradiation.

  13. Parotid salivary parameters in bulimic patients – a controlled clinical trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Paszyńska; Agnieszka Słopień; Monika Węglarz; Roger W.A. Linden

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with purging-type bulimia and/or non-bulimic patients, treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitor SI-5-HT (fluoxetine), have dental erosion and changes in selected buffer components of parotid saliva (bicarbonates, phosphates, urea), compared with the healthy population. Methods A controlled clinical trial was designed for three, age-matched, female groups of 94 patients: 1) bulimic patients treated with fluoxetin...

  14. Efectividad comunitaria de las vacunas frente a la Parotiditis Infecciosa. Estudio de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limón Mora Juan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: En nuestro país existen dos tipos de vacunas disponibles frente a la parotiditis infecciosa. En los últimos tiempos se han planteado dudas sobre la eficacia global de estas vacunas y de la eficacia comparada entre ambas (cepa Rubini y cepa Jeryl Lynn. En el distrito sanitario de A.P. "Sevilla Este" se registraron 256 casos durante 1997 (90,1 casos por 100.000 habitantes. Con este estudio se pretende aprovechar la aparición de casos de parotiditis para evaluar poblaciones afectadas e incidencia comparada según tipo de vacuna recibida durante la infancia. MÉTODOS: Análisis descriptivo de los casos (edad, distribución territorial, antecedentes vacunales,... y análisis evolutivo (tasas de incidencia anuales en el distrito sanitario y su entorno. Se evalúa la efectividad global de las vacunas frente a la parotiditis. Igualmente se estiman las tasas de incidencia de casos entre los vacunados con cepa Rubini y Jeryl Lynn. RESULTADOS: Se observan las tasas de incidencias más elevadas en niños entre 1 y 4 años. Se han estimado niveles de efectividad global para estas vacunas. Además se observa una incidencia de casos significativamente más elevada entre los niños vacunados con cepa Rubini que en los que lo hicieron con Jeryl Lynn (riesgo relativo de 6,5 con Intervalo de confianza 95% 3,6-11,8. CONCLUSIONES: La efectividad que se desprende de este estudio no parece ser tan buena como la eficacia teórica preconizada para las vacunas frente a la parotiditis. Se plantea la conveniencia de realizar otros estudios de casos según tipos de vacunas utilizadas. Igualmente son de gran interés los datos a suministrar por estudios seroepidemiológicos.

  15. Low dose radiation in the treatment of HIV related benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchelebi, Anca E.; Ming Teng; Moscatello, Augustine; Moorthy, Chitti R.; Kaufmann, Thomas; Ahmed, Tauseef

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the effectiveness of Radiation Therapy (RT) in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related benign lymphoepithelial (BLL) of the parotid gland. Materials and Methods: The records of 16 patients treated between 1991 to 1995 with BLL were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients had bilateral disease, thus 19 parotid glands were radiated. Only (2(16)) had AIDS. Virtually all patients were on antiretroviral therapy. There were 11 males and 5 females. The median age was 38 years (range 31 to 58 years). The median duration of parotid enlargement was 1.5 years (range 1 month to 6 years). All patients had biopsy prior to treatment. Histopathology revealed two patterns: solid or cystic. Patient were treated using electron beam RT. The beam energy was determined by computed transaxial tomography. The median dose delivered was 1000 cGy in 5 fractions over 5 days (range 600 cGy to 2160 cGy in daily fractions ranging from 180 cGy to 200 cGy). Results: Six parotid glands achieved a complete response (CR), 5 a partial response (PR), while 8 were non-responders (NR). Our overall response rate was therefore 58% Of the NR's, 3 patients were re-treated. Two achieved a PR, one was an NR. Toxicity was minimal and limited to mild xerostomia. Conclusion: RT in patients with HIV related BLL is well tolerated. Our preliminary results show that while this modality of treatment has marked activity in the solid pattern. Higher doses may be required for large lesions or cystic in nature

  16. Changes in human parotid salivary protein and sialic acid levels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, S; Curbelo, H M; Tumilasci, O R; Tessler, J A; Houssay, A B

    1989-01-01

    Saliva was collected with a Carlson-Crittenden device, under citric acid stimulation, in 107 pregnant women, 9 puerperal and 7 non-pregnant controls. No significant changes were found in salivary flow rate, pH and amylase levels. The total protein levels were decreased during pregnancy and the puerperium. The sialic acid levels decreased gradually but markedly during pregnancy, returning to normal levels in the puerperium. These changes in parotid saliva may be related to the hormonal changes of pregnancy.

  17. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balm AJM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192. Overall response was 85% (n = 163; 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75 and 77% in the control group (n = 88 the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Results Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the "spared" parotid below 26 Gy. Conclusion Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT.

  18. Prospective assessment of the salivary function by parotid scintigraphy after radiotherapy of 27 nasopharyngeal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnejja, W.; Ghorbal, L.; Daoud, J.; Kallel, F.; Guermazi, F.; Frikha, M.

    2011-01-01

    As xerostomia is the main complication after radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and affects life quality, this study aims at objectively assess the salivary function after radiotherapy of a nasopharyngeal cancer by parotid scintigraphy. 27 seven patients have been treated by radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Results are analyzed in terms of salivary toxicity, change of secretion function. No correlation was found between the xerostomia severity and scintigraphy results. Short communication

  19. Parotid lipoblastoma in a child: Rare presentation as huge infratemporal mass with cervical extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharajan Natarajan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoblastomas arising within the parotid gland and extending into the infratemporal fossa are very rare. They are common in children < 3 years of age. Access to the tumour requires careful planning and interpretation of imaging studies. Lipoblastomas tend to recur. Meticulous dissection of the tumour is needed to prevent recurrence. By adopting the appropriate approach, complete removal is possible with minimal morbidity.

  20. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rij, CM van; Oughlane-Heemsbergen, WD; Ackerstaff, AH; Lamers, EA; Balm, AJM; Rasch, CRN

    2008-01-01

    To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192). Overall response was 85% (n = 163); 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75) and 77% in the control group (n = 88) the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the 'spared' parotid below 26 Gy. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT

  1. Megamitochondria in the serous acinar cells of the submandibular gland of the neotropical fruit bat, Artibeus obscurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandler, B; Nagato, T; Phillips, C J

    1997-05-01

    As part of a continuing investigation of the comparative ultrastructure of chiropteran salivary glands, we examined the submandibular glands of eight species of neotropical fruit bats in the genus Artibeus. We previously described secretory granules of unusual substructure in the seromucous demilunar cells of this organ in some species in this genus. In the present study, we turned our attention to the serous acinar cells in the same glands. Specimens of eight species of Artibeus were collected in neotropical localities. Salivary glands were extirpated in the field and thin slices were fixed by immersion in triple aldehyde-DMSO or in modified half-strength Karnovsky's fixative. Tissues were further processed for electron microscopy by conventional means. In contrast to seromucous cells, which exhibit species-specific diversification in bats of this genus, the secretory apparatus and secretory granules in the serous acinar cells are highly conserved across all seven species. The single exception involves the mitochondria in one species. In this instance, some of the serous cell mitochondria in Artibeus obscurus are modified into megamitochondria. Such organelles usually have short, peripheral cristae; a laminar inclusion is present in the matrix compartment of every outsized organelle. Inclusions of this nature never are present in normal-size mitochondria in the serous cells. None of the megamitochondria were observed in the process of degeneration. The giant mitochondria in A. obscurus have a matrical structure that is radically different from that of the only other megamitochondria reported to occur in bat salivary glands. The factors that lead to variation in megamitochondrial substructure in different species, as well as the functional capacities of such giant organelles, are unknown.

  2. Regulation of CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation by PKC epsilon in rat pancreatic acinar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenwei Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK1/2 is activated in pancreatic acinar cells by cholecystokinin (CCK and other secretagogues with this activation mediated primarily by protein kinase C (PKC. To identify the responsible PKC isoform, we utilized chemical inhibitors, cell permeant inhibitory peptides and overexpression of individual PKC dominant negative variants by means of adenoviral vectors. While the broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor GF109203X strongly inhibited ERK1/2 activation induced by 100 pM CCK, Go6976 which inhibits the classical PKC isoforms (alpha, beta and gamma, as well as Rottlerin, a specific PKC delta inhibitor, had no inhibitory effect. To test the role of PKC epsilon, we used specific cell permeant peptide inhibitors which block PKC interaction with their intracellular receptors or RACKs. Only PP93 (PKC epsilon peptide inhibitor inhibited CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation, while PP95, PP101 and PP98, which are PKC alpha, delta and zeta peptide inhibitors respectively, had no effect. We also utilized adenovirus to express dominant negative PKC isoforms in pancreatic acini. Only PKC epsilon dominant negative inhibited CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation. Dominant negative PKC epsilon expression similarly blocked the effect of carbachol and bombesin to activate ERK1/2. Immunoprecipitation results demonstrated that CCK can induce an interaction of c-Raf-1 and PKC epsilon, but not that of other isoforms of Raf or PKC. We conclude that PKC epsilon is the isoform of PKC primarily involved with CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation in pancreatic acinar cells.

  3. Effects of Baicalin on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis in rats with sever acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zhang xiping

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of Baicalin and Octreotide on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic acinar cells apoptosis of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP.
    • METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into sham operated group (I group, model control group (II group, Baicalin treated group (III group and Octreotide treated group (IV group. Each group was also divided into subgroup of 3, 6 and 12 h (n = 15. The mortality rate, ascites/body weight ratio as well as the level of endotoxin, NO and ET-1 in blood were measured. The pathological severity score of pancreas, apoptotic indexes, and expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in each group were investigated.
    • RESULTS: The survival rate of III and IV group has a significant difference compared with II group (P12 h < 0.05. The ascites volume, contents of inflammatory mediators in blood and pathological severity score of pancreas of III and IV group declined at different degrees compared to II group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001. Apoptotic index in III group was significantly higher than that in II group at 3 and 6 h (P3, 6 h < 0.05. Apoptotic index in IV group was significantly higher than that in II group at pancreatic tail at 6 h (P6 h < 0.05. Expression level of Bax in III group was significantly higher than that in II group (pancreatic head P3 h,6 h < 0.01, pancreatic tail P3 h < 0.001.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Compared with Octreotide in the treatment of SAP, the protective mechanisms of Baicalin include reducing the excessive inflammatory mediators’ release, inducing the pancreatic acinar cells apoptosis.
    • KEY WORDS: Severe acute pancreatitis, baicalin, octreotide, inflammatory mediators, apoptosis, tissue microarrays.

  4. Quantitative dose-volume response analysis of changes in parotid gland function after radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesink, Judith M.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Battermann, Jan J.; Hordijk, Gerrit Jan; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the radiation tolerance of the parotid glands as a function of dose and volume irradiated. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various malignancies in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Stimulated parotid flow rate was measured before radiotherapy and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after radiotherapy. Parotid gland dose-volume histograms were derived from CT-based treatment planning. The normal tissue complication probability model proposed by Lyman was fit to the data. A complication was defined as stimulated parotid flow rate 50 (the dose to the whole organ leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 31, 35, and 39 Gy at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year postradiotherapy, respectively. The volume dependency parameter n was around 1, which means that the mean parotid dose correlates best with the observed complications. There was no steep dose-response curve (m=0.45 at 1 year postradiotherapy). Conclusions: This study on dose/volume/parotid gland function relationships revealed a linear correlation between postradiotherapy flow ratio and parotid gland dose and a strong volume dependency. No threshold dose was found. Recovery of parotid gland function was shown at 6 months and 1 year after radiotherapy. In radiation planning, attempts should be made to achieve a mean parotid gland dose at least below 39 Gy (leading to a complication probability of 50%)

  5. Chemoradioprotection of the rat parotid gland by the beta-sympathomimetic agonist, terbutaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinesi, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of the beta-adrenergic stimulator known as terbutaline in providing increased radioresistance to the normal, (i.e. nonmalignant) rat parotid salivary gland. Radiation damage was assessed by gland weight and microscopic examination of saline-treated and terbutaline-treated groups during days 1 to 10 and at 60 days post-irradiation. Terbutaline-treated groups exhibited both a sparing of gland weight loss as well as better preservation of glandular microstructure at all periods examined post-irradiation. Radioprotection of human parotid glands would provide relief from the xerostomia and its severe sequelae which often follow radiotherapy to the head and neck region in cancer patients. Terbutaline, with its preferential affinity for the beta-2 adrenergic receptor may provide a therapeutic advantage without the cardiac effects which normally accompany less specific (beta-1 + beta-2) adrenergic stimulation. In addition to providing a model for clinical protection of the salivary glands, this demonstration of protection of the rat parotid may also serve as a model for investigation of the mechanisms of action of terbutaline and other radioprotective compounds

  6. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation induced parotid stimulation on salivary flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasulu Pattipati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the duration of stimulation over the parotid salivary flow following the use of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS in different age groups. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three different age groups. Under group A individuals from 21 to 35 years of age, group B 36-50 years and group C above 51 years were considered. In each group 30 subjects were taken of whom 15 were males and 15 were females. The placement of pads was approximated bilaterally over the parotid glands. The working parameters of TENS unit were fixed at 50 Hz and the unit was in normal mode. Results: Subjects belonging to group B were showing statistically significant increases in the duration of stimulated parotid salivary flow following the use of TENS. Conclusion: TENS can be considered as a non-pharmacological alternative to improve salivation for longer period in xerostomia patients.

  7. Geometric Image Biomarker Changes of the Parotid Gland Are Associated With Late Xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Lisanne V; Brouwer, Charlotte L; van der Laan, Hans Paul; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Langendijk, Johannes A; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Sijtsema, Nanna M

    2017-12-01

    To identify a surrogate marker for late xerostomia 12 months after radiation therapy (Xer 12m ), according to information obtained shortly after treatment. Differences in parotid gland (PG) were quantified in image biomarkers (ΔIBMs) before and 6 weeks after radiation therapy in 107 patients. By performing stepwise forward selection, ΔIBMs that were associated with Xer 12m were selected. Subsequently other variables, such as PG dose and acute xerostomia scores, were added to improve the prediction performance. All models were internally validated. Prediction of Xer 12m based on PG surface reduction (ΔPG-surface) was good (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.82). Parotid gland dose was related to ΔPG-surface (Pxerostomia scores to the ΔPG-surface improved the prediction of Xer 12m significantly, and vice versa. The final model including ΔPG-surface and acute xerostomia had outstanding performance in predicting Xer 12m early after radiation therapy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.90). Parotid gland surface reduction was associated with late xerostomia. The early posttreatment model with ΔPG-surface and acute xerostomia scores can be considered as a surrogate marker for late xerostomia. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recurrent parotid swelling secondary to masseter muscle hypertrophy: a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Gaffuri, Michele; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Assandri, Fausto; Pereira, Pollyanna; Farronato, Giampietro

    2016-11-01

    To present a patient with an atypical recurrent parotid swelling due to masseter muscle hypertrophy and the diagnostic/therapeutic assessment to treat this condition. A patient referring recurrent right facial swelling underwent a complete multidisciplinary assessment of the parotid region that revealed masseter muscle hypertrophy, confirmed by means of clinical (otolaryngological and gnathological evaluation), radiological (utrasonography, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, and cone beam computed tomography), instrumental (electromyography to evaluate the right masseter muscle function and kinesiography to evaluate maximum right deflection - MaxRDefl and maximum opening - MaxMO) and sialendoscopy assessment where T0 indicates the pre-treatment values. All electromyographic and kinesiographic parameters were evaluated six months after the orthodontic application of a neuromuscular orthosis at T1. At T1, the effectiveness of the orthodontic therapy was demonstrated by the complete resolution of symptoms, and instrumental results documented more efficient muscle activity at rest and during clenching and a better mandibular position. At EMG T1, the resting and post-TENS values were, respectively, 1.2 and 1.8 microV. At kinesiography, MaxRDefl increased from 10.2 (T0) to 10.5 mm (T1); maxMO increased from 41.2 (T0) to 48 mm (T1). The proposed multidisciplinary assessment based on otolaryngological, gnathological, and radiological evaluation may be useful in the case of recurrent parotid swelling secondary to masseter muscle hypertrophy to plan an appropriate management with a removable neuromuscular orthosis.

  9. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the secretory process of the rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandborg, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil for three days. The total volume, amylase and protein content of cannulated parotid saliva were determined following stimulation with either 5 mg/kg pilocarpine or 5 mg/kg isoproterenol in experimental, pair-fed , and control animals. Saliva from experimental animals was significantly lower in volume, amylase and protein content than both control groups. 5-fluorouracil treatment reduced the total glandular amylase per unit DNA in both unstimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated parotid glands. Decreased protein synthesis may be the mechanism underlying depleted secretory protein stores since the contents of isolated secretory granules from experimental parotid glands contained less radiolabelled protein than either control group and whole gland homogenates showed marked reductions in the activities of three lysosomal enzymes and total RNA content. Experimental animals contained less labelled protein in their secretory granules than controls, but secreted a greater proportion of their total glandular radiolabelled secretory protein into saliva relative to amylase suggesting that newly synthesized secretory proteins are preferentially secreted

  10. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the secretory process of the rat parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandborg, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil for three days. The total volume, amylase and protein content of cannulated parotid saliva were determined following stimulation with either 5 mg/kg pilocarpine or 5 mg/kg isoproterenol in experimental, pair-fed , and control animals. Saliva from experimental animals was significantly lower in volume, amylase and protein content than both control groups. 5-fluorouracil treatment reduced the total glandular amylase per unit DNA in both unstimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated parotid glands. Decreased protein synthesis may be the mechanism underlying depleted secretory protein stores since the contents of isolated secretory granules from experimental parotid glands contained less radiolabelled protein than either control group and whole gland homogenates showed marked reductions in the activities of three lysosomal enzymes and total RNA content. Experimental animals contained less labelled protein in their secretory granules than controls, but secreted a greater proportion of their total glandular radiolabelled secretory protein into saliva relative to amylase suggesting that newly synthesized secretory proteins are preferentially secreted.

  11. Electron microscopic study of the spilt irradiation effects on the rat parotid ductal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Rae

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of split irradiation on the salivary ductal cells, especially on the intercalated cells of the rat parotid glands. For this study, 24 Sprague-Dawley strain rats were irradiated on the head and neck region with two equal split doses of 9 Gy for a 4 hours interval by Co-60 teletherapy unit, Picker's mode l 4M 60. The conditions of irradiation were that field size, dose rate, SSD and depth were 12 X 5 cm, 222 cGy/min, 50 cm and 1 cm, respectively. The experimental animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, hours and 1, 3, 7, days after the irradiation and the changes of the irradiated intercalated cells of the parotid glands were examined under light and electron microscope. The results were as follows: 1. By the split irradiation, the degenerative changes of intercalated cells of the parotid glands appeared at 3 hours after irradiation and the most severe cellular degeneration observed at 6 hours after irradiation. The repair processes began from 12 hours after irradiation and have matured progressively. 2. Under electron microscope, loss of nuclear membrane, microvilli and secretory granules, derangement of chromosomes, degeneration of cytoplasm, atrophy or reduction of intracytoplasmic organelles were observed in the intercalated ductal cells after split irradiation. 3. Under light microscope, derangement of ductal cells, widening of cytoplasms and nuclei, hyperchromatism and proliferation of ductal cells were observed in intercalated ducts after split irradiation.

  12. Induction of parotitis by fine-needle aspiration in parotid Warthin's tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kensuke; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Toshihiko; Sakaguchi, Mariko; Hoshino, Shoichi; Inaba, Muneo

    2009-08-01

    To estimate parotitis caused by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in parotid Warthin tumor. Case series with chart review. Hospital records were reviewed for 104 parotid tumors (103 patients) including 35 Warthin tumors, which underwent FNA within our department. Three patients with four Warthin tumors among them noticed parotid pain, swelling, and abscess formation as a consequence of acute parotitis after FNA. Examinations of the materials obtained from tumor puncture or drainage before the start of antibiotic therapy showed no bacterial association in any patient. Two of the patients with Warthin tumor underwent parotidectomy, and the surgical specimens indicated histopathological changes with necrosis, abscess, granuloma, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells including Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. It is conceivable that Warthin tumor bears the characteristics of inflammation induced by the FNA procedure without any relation to infection. Therefore, it may be better to avoid routine FNA and give priority to diagnostic imagings over FNA in the diagnosis of tumors strongly suspected as Warthin tumor.

  13. Perfusion characteristics of parotid gland tumors evaluated by contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, Laura V., E-mail: Laura.Klotz@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gürkov, Robert [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Eichhorn, Martin E. [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Siedek, Vanessa; Krause, Eike [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Jauch, Karl-Walter [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Clevert, Dirk-Andre [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CE-US) is a promising imaging modality for non-invasive analysis of parotid gland lesions because their vascularisation differs from normal gland tissue. This clinical study should further investigate CE-US as a diagnostic tool for parotid gland tumors. Materials and methods: 39 patients underwent CE-US measurements after intravenous application of a contrast agent (SonoVue, Bracco, Italy) before surgical tumor resection. Time–intensity curves gradients were calculated and parameters of intratumoral microcirculation were analysed. The vascularisation parameters were compared among the different tumor entities as defined per definitive histological diagnosis. Results: Histological analyses revealed 17 pleomorphic adenoma, 15 cystadenolymphoma and 7 malignoma. A significant difference of area below intensity time curve (AUC) and mean transit time (MTT) was measured in the malignant lesions compared to benign tumors (p < 0.05). A significant difference of AUC and maximum of signal increase (ΔSI{sub max}) for pleomorphic adenoma versus cystadenolymphoma was found (p < 0.05). Conclusion: CE-US seems to be a quantitative and independent method for the assessment of malign and benign parotid gland tumors. Further studies and clinical experience will have to validate this method as a reliable diagnostic tool that facilitates preoperative planning.

  14. Histomorphological study of parotid gland from young rats (Holtzman) submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslindo, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed on rats to verify v the effects of ionizing radiation on the structure of the parotid glands of young rats. Thirty twenty five-day old rats - Rattus norvegicus, albinus, Holtzman - with a medium body weight of 54,20 g were equally distributed in two experimental groups: group I - irradiated; group II - control. After intraperitoneal anesthetics with sodium Pentobarbital in 3% gad been applied, the group I - rats were immobilized in a dorsal position on special surgery tables. The region of the parotid glands were irradiated with a dose of 300 R, this procedure was repeated every 48 hours up to an exposition of 1200 R. The Group II - animals received a simulated treatment as control. The following conclusions may be drawn through the methodology used: the group I - rats gained body weight uniformly after the 13th day, this was not equivalent to the control group; the critical phase of glandular disorganization determined by irradiation corresponded to the experimental period of 8 days, decreasing in the subsequent days; the serous acini and the streated ducts showed to be more radium sensitive even under the use of low fractionated doses; the parotid gland showed indications of gradual morphological recovery after the last exposition to X-rays. (author)

  15. Leiomyosarcoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Coulter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is only one previously reported incident in the English literature of sarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid and there are only 8 cases of primary parotid leiomyosarcoma. In our case, a 79-year-old female patient presented to our care with left preauricular pain, swelling, and facial weakness. After CT imaging, she underwent left total parotidectomy. A spindle cell lesion was identified intraoperatively and the facial nerve was sacrificed. Subsequent analysis of the lesion yielded a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. After 30 fractions of radiation therapy, scans were negative for tumor. However, 18 months after first experiencing symptoms, she was found to have metastases to the brainstem and lung. When diagnosing sarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, it is important to perform thorough immunohistochemical staining and exclude a previous history of sarcoma or other sources of metastases. Complete resection is critical due to the tumor’s local aggressiveness and metastatic potential. Although these tumors are not very responsive to chemotherapy or radiation, adjuvant treatment is commonly used when margins are unclear.

  16. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  17. Comparison of semi-quantitative parotid scintigraphy with biopsy of labial gland in the patiens with Sjogren's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jingxiong; He Xiaojiang; Yu Hao; Wu Hua; Chen Guibing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Labial gland biopsy is one of major diagnostic methods for Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Meanwhile, 99 Tc m O 4 - parotid scintigraphy has been proven useful for the clinical evaluation of SS. This study was performed to investigate the correlation between the two examinations and evaluate the semi-quantitative parotid scintigraphy in the early diagnosis and staging for SS patients.Methods: There were 135 SS patients and 30 normal subjects as control group in this study. They all underwent 99 Tc m O 4 - parotid scintigraphy. Semi-quantitative analyses of parotid scintigraphy were conducted with parameters including maximum accumulation ratio (MAR), maximum secretion ratio (MSR), time interval from stimulation to minimum count (t parotid ), prestimulatory oral activity index (PRI) and poststimulatory oral activity index (POI). For comparison, the biopsy of labial gland was performed in each patient and the pathological se-verity was classified into grade 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 (also defined as subgroups). One-way ANOVA and q-teat were applied for the correlation analyses between the two examinations. Results: There was significant difference between pathological subgroup 3 or subgroup 4 and the control in all the semi-quantitative parameters (q=6.79-38.64, P parotid (r=0.364, P 99 Tc m aO 4 - parotid scintigraphy may be well correlated with the pathological severity of labial gland biopsy in SS patients. Further, the semi-quantitative indices especially PRI and POI may be helpful for the early diagnosis and staging of SS patients. (authors)

  18. Capsule of parotid gland tumor: evaluation by 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging using surface coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Mana; Fujii, Shinya; Nishihara, Keisuke; Matsusue, Eiji; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide; Kawamoto, Katsuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of parotid gland tumors has been widely reported, although few reports have evaluated the capsule of parotid gland tumors in detail. Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of 3.0 T MR imaging with surface coils for detection of the parotid gland tumor capsule, and to clarify the characteristics of the capsules. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight patients with parotid gland tumors (63 benign and 15 malignant) were evaluated. Axial and coronal T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained using a 3.0 T MR scanner with 70 mm surface coils. It was retrospectively assessed whether each parotid gland tumor was completely surrounded by a capsule. The capsule was classified as regular or irregular in terms of capsular thickness, and as none, mildly, or strongly enhancing in terms of contrast enhancement. Visual interpretations were compared with histopathological findings to evaluate the diagnostic ability of MR imaging to detect parotid gland tumor capsules. Statistical evaluation was conducted concerning the presence of capsules, capsular irregularity, and the difference in contrast enhancement between benign and malignant tumors, and that between pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin's tumors. Results: Capsules completely surrounding the tumor on MR imaging yielded a sensitivity of 87.7% (50/57), specificity of 90.5% (19/21), and accuracy of 88.5% (69/78). Benign tumors had a capsule completely surrounding the tumor significantly more often than malignant tumors (P = 0.009). Concerning capsular irregularity, malignant tumors tended to have more irregular capsules than benign tumors, although there were no significant differences. The capsules of malignant tumors enhanced significantly more strongly than those of benign tumors (P = 0.018). Conclusion: 3.0 T MR imaging using surface coils could correctly depict parotid gland tumor capsules in most cases. Most benign and some malignant tumors had capsules

  19. Influence of Parotid from Various Dose Rate in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Joo Wan; Jeong, Yun Ju; Won, Hui Su; Chang, Nam Jun; Choi, Ji Hun; Seok, Jin Yong

    2010-01-01

    There are various beam parameter in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The aim of this study is to investigate how various dose rate affect the parotid in treatment plan of IMRT. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 10 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who have undergone IMRT. CT images were scanned 3 mm of thickness in the same condition and the treatment plan was performed by Eclipse (Ver.7.1, Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The parameters for planning used 6 MV energy and 8 beams under the same dose volume constraint. The variation of dose rates were used 300, 400, 500 MU/min. The mean dose of both parotid was accessed from the calculated planning among the 10 patients. The mean dose of parotid was verificated by 2D diode array (Mapcheck from Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, Florida). Also, Total monitor unit (MU) and beam-on time was analysed. Results: According to the dose rate, the mean dose of parotid was increased by 0.8%, 2.0% each, when dose rate was changed from 300 MU/min to 400, 500 MU/min, moreover Total MU was increased by 5.4% and 10.6% each. There was also a dose upward trend in the dose measurement of parotid by 2D diode array. However, beam - on time difference of 1-2 minutes was no significant in the dose rate increases. From this study, when the dose rates increase, there was a significant increase of Total MU and the parotid dose accordingly, however the shortened treatment time was not significant. Hence, it is considered that there is a significant decrease of late side effect in parotid radiation therapy, if the precise dose rate in IMRT is used.

  20. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanzadeh, H; Sharafi, A; Verdi, M Allah; Nikoofar, A

    2006-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 ± 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 ± 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 ± 15.1 cGy, 9.15 ± 3.89 cGy, 0.47 ± 0.3 cGy and 0.53 ± 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours

  1. Irradiation Effect on Secreting Function, Amylase Activity and Nucleic Acid Contents of Rat Parotid Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Jin; Park, Tae Won

    1990-01-01

    This experiment was performed to clarify the effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation on secretory function, amylase activity and contents of nucleic acids of parotid gland in rat. Experimental animals were divided into 6th hours, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th days after irradiation and control. The experimental animals are singly irradiated with 20 Gy (2,000 rad) through protective lead block. Secretory function of parotid gland was evaluated by uptake and clearance of 99m TcO 4 . 99m TcO 4 , 0.2μ ci/gm, was injected into peritonium in uptake groups. Rats were sacrificed with cervical dislocation after 30 minutes and gland was excised. In the clearance group, pilocarpine nitrate (8 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 30 minutes after 99m TcO 4 injection and rats were sacrificed 30 minutes after pilocarpine infection. Radioactivity of excised parotid gland was measured by using of gamma counter and stimulation-secretion coefficient, uptake radioactivity divided by clearance radioactivity, was calculated. Amylase activity and contents of DNA and RNA were determined by spectrophotometry. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In the uptake test, the radioactivity of 99m TcO 4 per unit weight increase in experimental group except 6th hours group, compared with control groups and showed a peak at 3rd days after irradiation. 2. In the clearance test, the radioactivity of 99m TcO 4 per unit weight rose to a peak at 3rd days after irradiation and gradually recovered thereafter. 3. Stimulation-secretion coefficient of parotid gland decreased at 6th hours, 3rd and 7th days after irradiation, and gradually increased. 4. Amylase activity of parotid gland decreased in 3rd and 7th days group, and especially lowest in 3rd days after irradiation. 5. The contents of DNA showed no definite difference in all the experimental groups, but RNA was seemed to decrease with time after irradiation.

  2. Impact of patient positioning on radiotherapy dose distribution: An assessment in parotid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We intended to study the impact of patient positioning on the dose distribution within target volume and organs at risk in patients with parotid malignancies treated with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT with photon wedge pair (WP or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT.Methods: Three patients with a non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the right parotid gland were consecutively immobilized using thermoplastic cast in 2 positions: supine with head in neutral position (HN and with head turned 90° to the left side (HT. Images for treatment planning purpose were acquired in both positions. For both positions, photon WP plans and 5 field IMRT plans were generated, after contouring clinical target volume (CTV, planning target volume (PTV= CTV + 5 mm margin and organs at risk (OAR. All plans were evaluated for target coverage and dose to OARs.Results: Both CTV and PTV were apparently larger in HN compared with HT (31.76±8.89 cc, 30.31±7.83 cc and 62.49±19.01 cc, 58.89±15.33 cc respectively. The CI value for PTV was slightly better for HT compared to HN position in both the WP and IMRT plans. The homogeneity was comparable in both the head positions in case of WP plan. The mean HI of PTV was increased in case of IMRT plan at HT versus HN position (1.108 vs. 1.097. A change in head position from HN to HT with wedge pair plan resulted in a reduction of brainstem Dmax and Dmean. Lesser dose was observed in HN position for contralateral parotid. A difference of 0.9 Gy in the average Dmax to spinal cord was seen. The values of Dmean to mandible, oral cavity, ipsilateral and contralateral cochlea were higher in the HT position. A change in head position from HN to HT with IMRT plan resulted in a dose reduction in average Dmax to brainstem. The spinal cord Dmax increased at the HT position by 1.2 Gy. The dose to contralateral parotid and cochlea was comparable in both the positions. However, the Dmean to oral cavity was reduced at HT position. Whereas

  3. Inhibitors of ORAI1 Prevent Cytosolic Calcium-Associated Injury of Human Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Acute Pancreatitis in 3 Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Voronina, Svetlana; Javed, Muhammad A.; Awais, Muhammad; Szatmary, Peter; Latawiec, Diane; Chvanov, Michael; Collier, David; Huang, Wei; Barrett, John; Begg, Malcolm; Stauderman, Ken; Roos, Jack; Grigoryev, Sergey; Ramos, Stephanie; Rogers, Evan; Whitten, Jeff; Velicelebi, Gonul; Dunn, Michael; Tepikin, Alexei V.; Criddle, David N.; Sutton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Sustained activation of the cytosolic calcium concentration induces injury to pancreatic acinar cells and necrosis. The calcium release–activated calcium modulator ORAI1 is the most abundant Ca2+ entry channel in pancreatic acinar cells; it sustains calcium overload in mice exposed to toxins that induce pancreatitis. We investigated the roles of ORAI1 in pancreatic acinar cell injury and the development of acute pancreatitis in mice. Methods Mouse and human acinar cells, as well as HEK 293 cells transfected to express human ORAI1 with human stromal interaction molecule 1, were hyperstimulated or incubated with human bile acid, thapsigargin, or cyclopiazonic acid to induce calcium entry. GSK-7975A or CM_128 were added to some cells, which were analyzed by confocal and video microscopy and patch clamp recordings. Acute pancreatitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by ductal injection of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate or intravenous' administration of cerulein or ethanol and palmitoleic acid. Some mice then were given GSK-7975A or CM_128, which inhibit ORAI1, at different time points to assess local and systemic effects. Results GSK-7975A and CM_128 each separately inhibited toxin-induced activation of ORAI1 and/or activation of Ca2+ currents after Ca2+ release, in a concentration-dependent manner, in mouse and human pancreatic acinar cells (inhibition >90% of the levels observed in control cells). The ORAI1 inhibitors also prevented activation of the necrotic cell death pathway in mouse and human pancreatic acinar cells. GSK-7975A and CM_128 each inhibited all local and systemic features of acute pancreatitis in all 3 models, in dose- and time-dependent manners. The agents were significantly more effective, in a range of parameters, when given at 1 vs 6 hours after induction of pancreatitis. Conclusions Cytosolic calcium overload, mediated via ORAI1, contributes to the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. ORAI1 inhibitors might be developed

  4. ptf1a+, ela3l− cells are developmentally maintained progenitors for exocrine regeneration following extreme loss of acinar cells in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitner, Nicole; Kohno, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The exocrine pancreas displays a significant capacity for regeneration and renewal. In humans and mammalian model systems, the partial loss of exocrine tissue, such as after acute pancreatitis or partial pancreatectomy induces rapid recovery via expansion of surviving acinar cells. In mouse it was further found that an almost complete removal of acinar cells initiates regeneration from a currently not well-defined progenitor pool. Here, we used the zebrafish as an alternative model to study cellular mechanisms of exocrine regeneration following an almost complete removal of acinar cells. We introduced and validated two novel transgenic approaches for genetically encoded conditional cell ablation in the zebrafish, either by caspase-8-induced apoptosis or by rendering cells sensitive to diphtheria toxin. By using the ela3l promoter for exocrine-specific expression, we show that both approaches allowed cell-type-specific removal of >95% of acinar tissue in larval and adult zebrafish without causing any signs of unspecific side effects. We find that zebrafish larvae are able to recover from a virtually complete acinar tissue ablation within 2 weeks. Using short-term lineage-tracing experiments and EdU incorporation assays, we exclude duct-associated Notch-responsive cells as the source of regeneration. Rather, a rare population of slowly dividing ela3l-negative cells expressing ptf1a and CPA was identified as the origin of the newly forming exocrine cells. Cells are actively maintained, as revealed by a constant number of these cells at different larval stages and after repeated cell ablation. These cells establish ela3l expression about 4-6 days after ablation without signs of increased proliferation in between. With onset of ela3l expression, cells initiate rapid proliferation, leading to fast expansion of the ela3l-positive population. Finally, we show that this proliferation is blocked by overexpression of the Wnt-signaling antagonist dkk1b. In

  5. ptf1a+ , ela3l- cells are developmentally maintained progenitors for exocrine regeneration following extreme loss of acinar cells in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitner, Nicole; Kohno, Kenji; Meyer, Dirk

    2017-03-01

    The exocrine pancreas displays a significant capacity for regeneration and renewal. In humans and mammalian model systems, the partial loss of exocrine tissue, such as after acute pancreatitis or partial pancreatectomy induces rapid recovery via expansion of surviving acinar cells. In mouse it was further found that an almost complete removal of acinar cells initiates regeneration from a currently not well-defined progenitor pool. Here, we used the zebrafish as an alternative model to study cellular mechanisms of exocrine regeneration following an almost complete removal of acinar cells. We introduced and validated two novel transgenic approaches for genetically encoded conditional cell ablation in the zebrafish, either by caspase-8-induced apoptosis or by rendering cells sensitive to diphtheria toxin. By using the ela3l promoter for exocrine-specific expression, we show that both approaches allowed cell-type-specific removal of >95% of acinar tissue in larval and adult zebrafish without causing any signs of unspecific side effects. We find that zebrafish larvae are able to recover from a virtually complete acinar tissue ablation within 2 weeks. Using short-term lineage-tracing experiments and EdU incorporation assays, we exclude duct-associated Notch-responsive cells as the source of regeneration. Rather, a rare population of slowly dividing ela3l- negative cells expressing ptf1a and CPA was identified as the origin of the newly forming exocrine cells. Cells are actively maintained, as revealed by a constant number of these cells at different larval stages and after repeated cell ablation. These cells establish ela3l expression about 4-6 days after ablation without signs of increased proliferation in between. With onset of ela3l expression, cells initiate rapid proliferation, leading to fast expansion of the ela3l -positive population. Finally, we show that this proliferation is blocked by overexpression of the Wnt-signaling antagonist dkk1b In conclusion, we

  6. High-resolution magnetic resonance of the extracranial facial nerve and parotid duct: demonstration of the branches of the intraparotid facial nerve and its relation to parotid tumours by MRI with a surface coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Okamoto, K.; Ohkubo, M.; Kawana, M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of high-resolution MR imaging in the evaluation of the extracranial facial nerve, compared with surgical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with benign parotid tumours were studied on a 1.5-T MR system with a 3 in circular surface coil. High-resolution T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast spin-echo, and three-dimensional gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in the axial planes. Oblique reformatted images were generated. Tumours, parotid ducts and facial nerves were identified on these images. The relationship of the tumours to the facial nerves was confirmed at surgery. RESULTS: Facial nerves appeared as linear structures of low intensity on all pulse sequences. The main trunks and cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerves were identified in 100%, 84.1% and 53.8% of GRASS images, respectively. Parotid ducts appeared as structures of low intensity on T1-weighted (66.6%) and GRASS images (81.8%), and as structures of very high intensity on T2-weighted images (91.7%). The relationships of the tumours to the facial nerves were correctly diagnosed in 11 (91.7%) of 12 cases. CONCLUSION: High-resolution MR imaging depicts the extracranial facial nerve and the parotid duct, and is useful for preoperative evaluation of parotid gland tumours

  7. High-resolution magnetic resonance of the extracranial facial nerve and parotid duct: demonstration of the branches of the intraparotid facial nerve and its relation to parotid tumours by MRI with a surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan) and Department of Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, Niigata (Japan)]. E-mail: nandtr@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp; Okamoto, K. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Ohkubo, M. [Department of Radiotechnology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Kawana, M. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of high-resolution MR imaging in the evaluation of the extracranial facial nerve, compared with surgical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with benign parotid tumours were studied on a 1.5-T MR system with a 3 in circular surface coil. High-resolution T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast spin-echo, and three-dimensional gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in the axial planes. Oblique reformatted images were generated. Tumours, parotid ducts and facial nerves were identified on these images. The relationship of the tumours to the facial nerves was confirmed at surgery. RESULTS: Facial nerves appeared as linear structures of low intensity on all pulse sequences. The main trunks and cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerves were identified in 100%, 84.1% and 53.8% of GRASS images, respectively. Parotid ducts appeared as structures of low intensity on T1-weighted (66.6%) and GRASS images (81.8%), and as structures of very high intensity on T2-weighted images (91.7%). The relationships of the tumours to the facial nerves were correctly diagnosed in 11 (91.7%) of 12 cases. CONCLUSION: High-resolution MR imaging depicts the extracranial facial nerve and the parotid duct, and is useful for preoperative evaluation of parotid gland tumours.

  8. Early evaluation of radiation-induced parotid damage in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma by T2 mapping and mDIXON Quant imaging: initial findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Chu, Chen; Dou, Xin; Chen, Weibo; He, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2018-02-08

    Radiation-induced parotid damage is a common complication in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with radiotherapy to head and neck region, which severely reduce the life quality of those patients. The aim of this study was to early evaluate the changes of irradiated parotid glands with T2 mapping and mDIXON Quant imaging. Forty-one patients with NPC underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging for nasopharynx and neck, and T2 mapping and mDIXON Quant imaging for bilateral parotid glands within 2 weeks before radiotherapy (pre-RT), 5 weeks after the beginning of radiotherapy (mid-RT), and 4 weeks after radiotherapy (post-RT). Parotid volume, T2 values, fat fraction (FF) values, and mean radiation dose were recorded and analyzed. From pre-RT to mid-RT, parotid volume decreased (atrophy rate, 27.0 ± 11.5%), while parotid T2 and FF values increased (change rate, 6.0 ± 6.2% for T2 value and 9.1 ± 9.9% for FF value) significantly. From mid-RT to post-RT, parotid T2 value continuously increased (change rate, 4.6 ± 7.7%), but parotid FF value decreased (change rate, - 9.9 ± 18.2%) significantly. Change rate of parotid T2 value significantly correlated with parotid atrophy rate from pre-RT to post-RT (r = 0.313, P = 0.027). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that parotid T2 value (standardized coefficient [SC] = - 0.259, P = 0.001) and FF value (SC = - 0.320, P = 0.014) negatively correlated with parotid volume, while parotid T2 value positively correlated with MR scan time point (SC = 0.476, P = 0.001) significantly. Parotid T2 and FF values showed excellent reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.935-0.992). T2 mapping and mDIXON Quant imaging is useful for noninvasive evaluation of radiation-induced parotid damage.

  9. Parotid gland sparing effect by computed tomography-based modified lower field margin in whole brain radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Oyeon; Chun, Mi Son; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Mi Hwa; Park, Hae Jin; Nam, Sang Soo; Heo, Jae Sung; Noh, O Kyu; Park, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Parotid gland can be considered as a risk organ in whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the parotid gland sparing effect of computed tomography (CT)-based WBRT compared to 2-dimensional plan with conventional field margin. From January 2008 to April 2011, 53 patients underwent WBRT using CT-based simulation. Bilateral two-field arrangement was used and the prescribed dose was 30 Gy in 10 fractions. We compared the parotid dose between 2 radiotherapy plans using different lower field margins: conventional field to the lower level of the atlas (CF) and modified field fitted to the brain tissue (MF). Averages of mean parotid dose of the 2 protocols with CF and MF were 17.4 Gy and 8.7 Gy, respectively (p 98% of prescribed dose were 99.7% for CF and 99.5% for MF. Compared to WBRT with CF, CT-based lower field margin modification is a simple and effective technique for sparing the parotid gland, while providing similar dose coverage of the whole brain.

  10. Modified Functional Superficial Parotidectomy With Ligation of the Major Branch of the Parotid Duct Extending to the Superficial Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung Woo; Leem, Soo Seong; Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Jang Hyun

    2017-05-01

    A functional superficial parotidectomy can maintain salivary function by preserving the Stensen duct. However, this technique still brings the possibility of salivary leakage, because major branches of the parotid duct from the resected site do not get ligated. To reduce this complication, this study introduces a modified technique with major branch ligation. From December 2008 to February 2015, 14 patients who underwent superficial parotidectomy were divided into 2 groups. Group A was treated with the modified functional superficial parotidectomy involving the major branch between the superficial lobe and parotid duct. Group B was treated with the conventional superficial parotidectomy without involving the major branch of the parotid duct. The clinical complications, period of Hemovac usage, and surgical duration were noted in each group. Two of 8 patients in group A had a major branch from Stensen duct that was ligated, and there was no evidence of salivary leakage or sialocele in any of the patients of group A, whereas group B contained 2 cases of salivary leakage, one of which became sialocele. Group A had a significantly longer Hemovac maintenance period than group B (P < 0.05), and the duration of surgery was also significantly different between the 2 groups (P < 0.05). Because a solitary major branch of the main parotid duct occasionally extends toward the superficial lobe, our modified technique-functional superficial parotidectomy with ligation of the major branch toward the superficial lobe-is a useful option for treatment of a benign parotid mass in such cases.

  11. Perfusion imaging of parotid gland tumours: usefulness of arterial spin labeling for differentiating Warthin's tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki [Philips Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    To assess prospectively the efficacy of arterial spin labelling (ASL) against conventional and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for differentiating parotid gland tumours. We included 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 12 Warthin's tumours, and nine malignant tumours of the parotid glands. Only tumours larger than 10 mm were included in this study. All parotid gland tumours underwent T1-weighted, T2-weighted, DW, and ASL imaging. Tumour-to-parotid gland signal intensity ratios (SIRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of solid components were correlated with these pathologies. SIRs on T2-weighted images and ADCs were higher in pleomorphic adenomas than in Warthin's tumours (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.01). SIRs on ASL were higher in Warthin's tumours than in pleomorphic adenomas (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.05). Az value of SIRs on ASL for differentiating Warthin's tumours from the other pathologies was 0.982. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SIRs on ASL for the diagnosis of Warthin's tumours at an optimal SIR threshold of over 8.70 were 91.7 %, 94.7 %, and 93.5 %, respectively. ASL with SIR measurements could non-invasively evaluate tumour blood flow of parotid gland tumours and differentiate Warthin's tumours from pleomorphic adenomas and malignant tumours. (orig.)

  12. Recurrence in Region of Spared Parotid Gland After Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Donald M.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the implications of three examples of periparotid recurrence after definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We present 3 patients with HNC who underwent definitive IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy and later had treatment failure in or near a spared parotid gland. Two patients had bilateral multilevel nodal disease, and all had Level II nodal disease ipsilateral to the site of recurrence. The patients were treated using dose-painting IMRT with a dose of 70 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 59.4 Gy or 54 Gy to the high-risk or low-risk clinical tumor volume, respectively. The parotid glands were spared bilaterally. The patients had not undergone any surgical treatment for HNC before radiotherapy. Results: All patients had treatment failure in the region of a spared parotid gland. Failure in the 2 patients with bilateral multilevel nodal involvement occurred in the periparotid lymph nodes. The third patient developed a dermal metastasis near the tail of a spared parotid gland. On pretreatment imaging, the 2 patients with nodal failure had small nonspecific periparotid nodules that showed no hypermetabolic activity on positron emission tomography. Conclusion: For HNC patients receiving definitive IMRT, nonspecific positron emission tomography-negative periparotid nodules on pretreatment imaging should raise the index of suspicion for subclinical disease in the presence of multilevel or Level II nodal metastases. Additional evaluation of such nodules might be indicated before sparing the ipsilateral parotid gland

  13. Successful Salvage Chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX for Recurrent Mixed Acinar Cell Carcinoma and Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas in an Adolescent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pfrommer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are rare in children and adolescents. Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a mixed acinar cell carcinoma/ductal adenocarcinoma with blastomatous components. He received multimodal treatment including various chemotherapy regimens and multistep surgery including liver transplantation. Introduction of FOLFIRINOX after relapse repeatedly achieved a durable metabolic and clinical response with good quality of life.

  14. Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia Induced by Transforming Growth Factor Beta Facilitates KRASG12D-driven Pancreatic TumorigenesisSummary

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    Nicolas Chuvin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ acts either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogene, depending on the cellular context and time of activation. TGFβ activates the canonical SMAD pathway through its interaction with the serine/threonine kinase type I and II heterotetrameric receptors. Previous studies investigating TGFβ-mediated signaling in the pancreas relied either on loss-of-function approaches or on ligand overexpression, and its effects on acinar cells have so far remained elusive. Methods: We developed a transgenic mouse model allowing tamoxifen-inducible and Cre-mediated conditional activation of a constitutively active type I TGFβ receptor (TβRICA in the pancreatic acinar compartment. Results: We observed that TβRICA expression induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM reprogramming, eventually facilitating the onset of KRASG12D-induced pre-cancerous pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. This phenotype was characterized by the cellular activation of apoptosis and dedifferentiation, two hallmarks of ADM, whereas at the molecular level, we evidenced a modulation in the expression of transcription factors such as Hnf1β, Sox9, and Hes1. Conclusions: We demonstrate that TGFβ pathway activation plays a crucial role in pancreatic tumor initiation through its capacity to induce ADM, providing a favorable environment for KRASG12D-dependent carcinogenesis. Such findings are highly relevant for the development of early detection markers and of potentially novel treatments for pancreatic cancer patients. Keywords: Pancreas, Cancer, TGFβ, Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia, KRASG12D

  15. Lysosome-Associated Membrane Proteins (LAMP Maintain Pancreatic Acinar Cell Homeostasis: LAMP-2–Deficient Mice Develop PancreatitisSummary

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    Olga A. Mareninova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs in pancreatitis. Methods: We analyzed changes in LAMPs in experimental models and human pancreatitis, and the underlying mechanisms: LAMP deglycosylation and degradation. LAMP cleavage by cathepsin B (CatB was analyzed by mass spectrometry. We used mice deficient in LAMP-2 to assess its role in pancreatitis. Results: Pancreatic levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 greatly decrease across various pancreatitis models and in human disease. Pancreatitis does not trigger the LAMPs’ bulk deglycosylation but induces their degradation via CatB-mediated cleavage of the LAMP molecule close to the boundary between luminal and transmembrane domains. LAMP-2 null mice spontaneously develop pancreatitis that begins with acinar cell vacuolization due to impaired autophagic flux, and progresses to severe pancreas damage characterized by trypsinogen activation, macrophage-driven inflammation, and acinar cell death. LAMP-2 deficiency causes a decrease in pancreatic digestive enzymes content, and stimulates the basal and inhibits cholecystokinin-induced amylase secretion by acinar cells. The effects of LAMP-2 knockout and acute cerulein pancreatitis overlap, which corroborates the pathogenic role of LAMP decrease in experimental pancreatitis models. Conclusions: The results indicate a critical role for LAMPs, particularly LAMP-2, in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis and provide evidence that defective lysosomal function, resulting in impaired autophagy, leads to pancreatitis. Mice with LAMP-2 deficiency present a novel genetic model of human pancreatitis caused by lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction. Keywords: Amylase Secretion, Autophagy

  16. Restoration of CFTR Activity in Ducts Rescues Acinar Cell Function and Reduces Inflammation in Pancreatic and Salivary Glands of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mei; Szymczak, Mitchell; Ahuja, Malini; Zheng, Changyu; Yin, Hongen; Swaim, William; Chiorini, John A; Bridges, Robert J; Muallem, Shmuel

    2017-10-01

    Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune pancreatitis are disorders with decreased function of salivary, lacrimal glands, and the exocrine pancreas. Nonobese diabetic/ShiLTJ mice and mice transduced with the cytokine BMP6 develop Sjögren's syndrome and chronic pancreatitis and MRL/Mp mice are models of autoimmune pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ductal Cl -  channel essential for ductal fluid and HCO 3 - secretion. We used these models to ask the following questions: is CFTR expression altered in these diseases, does correction of CFTR correct gland function, and most notably, does correcting ductal function correct acinar function? We treated the mice models with the CFTR corrector C18 and the potentiator VX770. Glandular, ductal, and acinar cells damage, infiltration, immune cells and function were measured in vivo and in isolated duct/acini. In the disease models, CFTR expression is markedly reduced. The salivary glands and pancreas are inflamed with increased fibrosis and tissue damage. Treatment with VX770 and, in particular, C18 restored salivation, rescued CFTR expression and localization, and nearly eliminated the inflammation and tissue damage. Transgenic overexpression of CFTR exclusively in the duct had similar effects. Most notably, the markedly reduced acinar cell Ca 2+ signaling, Orai1, inositol triphosphate receptors, Aquaporin 5 expression, and fluid secretion were restored by rescuing ductal CFTR. Our findings reveal that correcting ductal function is sufficient to rescue acinar cell function and suggests that CFTR correctors are strong candidates for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome and pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated Segmentation of the Parotid Gland Based on Atlas Registration and Machine Learning: A Longitudinal MRI Study in Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofeng [Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wu, Ning; Cheng, Guanghui [Radiation Oncology, Jilin University, Chuangchun, Jilin (China); Zhou, Zhengyang [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing (China); Yu, David S.; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Curran, Walter J. [Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Liu, Tian, E-mail: tliu34@emory.edu [Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parotid segmentation method to monitor radiation-induced parotid gland changes in patients after head and neck radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The proposed method combines the atlas registration method, which captures the global variation of anatomy, with a machine learning technology, which captures the local statistical features, to automatically segment the parotid glands from the MRIs. The segmentation method consists of 3 major steps. First, an atlas (pre-RT MRI and manually contoured parotid gland mask) is built for each patient. A hybrid deformable image registration is used to map the pre-RT MRI to the post-RT MRI, and the transformation is applied to the pre-RT parotid volume. Second, the kernel support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the subject-specific atlas pair consisting of multiple features (intensity, gradient, and others) from the aligned pre-RT MRI and the transformed parotid volume. Third, the well-trained kernel SVM is used to differentiate the parotid from surrounding tissues in the post-RT MRIs by statistically matching multiple texture features. A longitudinal study of 15 patients undergoing head and neck RT was conducted: baseline MRI was acquired prior to RT, and the post-RT MRIs were acquired at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. The resulting segmentations were compared with the physicians' manual contours. Results: Successful parotid segmentation was achieved for all 15 patients (42 post-RT MRIs). The average percentage of volume differences between the automated segmentations and those of the physicians' manual contours were 7.98% for the left parotid and 8.12% for the right parotid. The average volume overlap was 91.1% ± 1.6% for the left parotid and 90.5% ± 2.4% for the right parotid. The parotid gland volume reduction at follow-up was 25% at 3 months, 27% at 6 months, and 16% at 12 months. Conclusions: We have validated

  18. Arginase-II Promotes Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Release From Pancreatic Acinar Cells Causing β-Cell Apoptosis in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuyan; Yepuri, Gautham; Necetin, Sevil; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong

    2017-06-01

    Aging is associated with glucose intolerance. Arginase-II (Arg-II), the type-II L -arginine-ureahydrolase, is highly expressed in pancreas. However, its role in regulation of pancreatic β-cell function is not known. Here we show that female (not male) mice deficient in Arg-II (Arg-II -/- ) are protected from age-associated glucose intolerance and reveal greater glucose induced-insulin release, larger islet size and β-cell mass, and more proliferative and less apoptotic β-cells compared with the age-matched wild-type (WT) controls. Moreover, Arg-II is mainly expressed in acinar cells and is upregulated with aging, which enhances p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activation and release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Accordingly, conditioned medium of isolated acinar cells from old WT (not Arg-II -/- ) mice contains higher TNF-α levels than the young mice and stimulates β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction, which are prevented by a neutralizing anti-TNF-α antibody. In acinar cells, our study demonstrates an age-associated Arg-II upregulation, which promotes TNF-α release through p38 MAPK leading to β-cell apoptosis, insufficient insulin secretion, and glucose intolerance in female rather than male mice. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

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    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  20. The effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands: an immunohistochemical study

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    Tatiana Maria Folador Mattioli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on the quantity of myoepithelial cells and on the proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands. INTRODUCTION: Hyposalivation, xerostomia, and alterations in saliva composition are important clinical side effects related to the use of antidepressants. METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats were allocated to nine groups. The control groups received saline for 30 (group C30 or 60 days (group C60 or pilocarpine for 60 days (group Pilo. The experimental groups were administered fluoxetine (group F30 or venlafaxine for 30 days (group V30; fluoxetine (group FS60 or venlafaxine (group VS60 with saline for 60 days; or fluoxetine (group FP60 or venlafaxine (group VP60 with pilocarpine for 60 days. Parotid gland specimens were processed, and the immunohistochemical expression of calponin and proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen on the myoepithelial and parenchymal cells, respectively, was evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey HSD and Games-Howell tests were applied to detect differences among groups (p<0.05. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, chronic exposure to antidepressants was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for calponin. In addition, venlafaxine administration for 30 days was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen. Fluoxetine and pilocarpine (group FP60 induced a significant decrease in the number of positively stained cells for calponin compared with all other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The number of positively stained cells for calponin increased after chronic administration of antidepressants. The proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands was not altered by the use of antidepressants for 60 days.

  1. The influence of parotid gland sparing on radiation damages of dental hard tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Jeremias; Seidel, Johannes; Schweyen, Ramona; Paelecke-Habermann, Yvonne; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether radiation damage on dental hard tissue depends on the mean irradiation dose the spared parotid gland is subjected to or on stimulated whole salivary flow rate. Between June 2002 and October 2008, 70 patients with neck and cancer curatively irradiated were included in this study. All patients underwent dental treatment referring to the guidelines and recommendations of the German Society of Dental, Oral and Craniomandibular Sciences prior, during, and after radiotherapy (RT). During the follow-up period of 24 months, damages on dental hard tissues were classified according to the RTOG/EORTC guidelines. The mean doses (D(mean)) during spared parotid gland RT were determined. Stimulated whole saliva secretion flow rates (SFR) were measured before RT and 1, 6, 12, 24 months after RT. Thirty patients showed no carious lesions (group A), 18 patients developed sporadic carious lesions (group B), and 22 patients developed general carious lesions (group C). Group A patients received a D mean of 21.2 ± 11.04 Gy. Group B patients received a D(mean) of 26.5 ± 11.59 Gy and group C patients received a D(mean) of 33.9 ± 9.93 Gy, respectively. The D(mean) of group A was significantly lower than the D(mean) of group C (p dental hard tissue correlates with increased mean irradiation doses as well as decreased salivary flow rates. Parotid gland sparing resulting in a dose below 20 Gy reduces radiation damage on dental hard tissues, and therefore, the dose may act as a predictor for the damage to be expected.

  2. Brote de parotiditis vírica en un colegio de Bizkaia en 2006

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    Eduardo Millán Ortuondo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Recientemente se han registrado brotes de parotiditis en España y en otros países desarrollados. Los motivos barajados son la baja cobertura vacunal de las poblaciones afectadas y/o la baja efectividad de las cepas vacunales empleadas. Este trabajo describe un brote de parotiditis ocurrido en Bizkaia y valora la efectividad de las cepas vacunales y la utilidad de las pruebas diagnósticas actualmente empleadas. Métodos: Se etiquetaron como casos aquéllos con clínica compatible y vínculo epidemiológico en el periodo de estudio (febrero-mayo-2006. Se recogieron muestras de sangre para estudio de IgM e IgG y de saliva para detección de RNA y genotipo. Se averiguó el estado vacunal y la cepa empleada mediante los registros del reparto vacunal. Se realizó un análisis univariante de los datos y se obtuvieron riesgos relativos según las cepas vacunales empleadas. Resultados: Se detectaron 63 casos; 52 eran alumnos del mismo colegio. El 50% tenía entre 9 y 13 años. El 88,5% de los casos del colegio estaba correctamente vacunado. La sensibilidad de la IgM fue del 9% y la de la PCR del 37%. El riesgo relativo de los alumnos vacunados con una primera dosis de cepa Rubini frente a los vacunados con cepa Jeryl-Lynn fue de 3,8 (IC95% 2,27-6,49. Conclusiones: La elevada cobertura vacunal no impide el desarrollo de brotes en lugares con un alto grado de exposición. La IgM se muestra poco sensible para el diagnóstico de parotiditis. Parece necesario replantearse las estrategias vacunales y los métodos diagnósticos actuales.

  3. Outcomes of Direct Facial-to-Hypoglossal Neurorrhaphy with Parotid Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Joel; Rihani, Jordan; Lin, Karen; Miller, Phillip J; Roland, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Lesions of the temporal bone and cerebellopontine angle and their management can result in facial nerve paralysis. When the nerve deficit is not amenable to primary end-to-end repair or interpositional grafting, nerve transposition can be used to accomplish the goals of restoring facial tone, symmetry, and voluntary movement. The most widely used nerve transposition is the hypoglossal-facial nerve anastamosis, of which there are several technical variations. Previously we described a technique of single end-to-side anastamosis using intratemporal facial nerve mobilization and parotid release. This study further characterizes the results of this technique with a larger patient cohort and longer-term follow-up. The design of this study is a retrospective chart review and the setting is an academic tertiary care referral center. Twenty-one patients with facial nerve paralysis from proximal nerve injury at the cerebellopontine angle underwent facial-hypoglossal neurorraphy with parotid release. Outcomes were assessed using the Repaired Facial Nerve Recovery Scale, questionnaires, and patient photographs. Of the 21 patients, 18 were successfully reinnervated to a score of a B or C on the recovery scale, which equates to good oral and ocular sphincter closure with minimal mass movement. The mean duration of paralysis between injury and repair was 12.1 months (range 0 to 36 months) with a mean follow-up of 55 months. There were no cases of hemiglossal atrophy, paralysis, or subjective dysfunction. Direct facial-hypoglossal neurorrhaphy with parotid release achieved a functional reinnervation and good clinical outcome in the majority of patients, with minimal lingual morbidity. This technique is a viable option for facial reanimation and should be strongly considered as a surgical option for the paralyzed face.

  4. Comparison of doses received in the mandibular condyle, cochlea, and parotid gland in neuroaxial treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernanda L.; Lima, Fabiana F. de; Vilela, Eudice, E-mail: fluoliveira@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fo, Joao Antonio, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common side effect in patients who undergo radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer tumors in the head and neck. In fractioned doses of radiotherapy, in the majority of intracranial tumors, the cochlea is the most affected organ. In addition to the cochlea, the mandible and the parotid glands are also exposed to radiation, which commonly leads to Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible and Xerostomia. In the head and neck regions, this can be complicated by the semi-independence of the positioning in this region, as regards the rigid cranium, connected to the semi-rigid mandible, and successive levels of the upper cervical spine and thoracic spine, which can lead to uncertainty in rotation as well as in head-neck movements, both up and down and side to side. The present study performed an intercomparison of the doses applied through four radiotherapy planning techniques for the neuro axial regions of the cochlea, mandible, and parotid glands, considering the changes carried out in each planning technique, including the protective shield, the angulations gantry and the field size. The results obtained by applying the half beam and angled field techniques varied in the cochlea by an average of 113.8% from the prescribed dose, whereas when applying the angled field technique with and without the mobile gap, the results varied in 104.5%. In the mandible, the half beam and angled field techniques showed that the dose varied an average of 16.5%, while in the techniques with and without the mobile gap, the variation showed an average of 116.4%. These values were also received by the parotid glands, which overlap the mandible. It can therefore be concluded that the protection shields of the first two techniques were less efficient in protecting the mandible due to its modeling. (author)

  5. Indications of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy for parotid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Tomohisa; Yonezawa, Kouichiro; Morimoto, Koichi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Otsuki, Naoki; Nishimura, Hideki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Regional lymph node metastases significantly influence the prognosis of patients with parotid cancer. To assess our indications of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy for parotid cancer, a retrospective chart review was performed. Between 2001 and 2009, 35 patients with parotid cancer were initially treated at our department. The median follow-up was 30 months (range, 10-90 months). Out of all patients, 31 (89%) patients were preoperatively diagnosed as malignant, while 4 (11%) patients were initially diagnosed as benign. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common histological type (10 patients). Twenty-two tumors (63%) were pathologically diagnosed as high-grade. The numbers of patients with Stages I, II, III, and IVA were 3, 10, 7, and 15, respectively. Ipsilateral neck dissection (Level II-V) was performed in seven patients with clinically positive neck metastasis (cN+), and in ten patients without lymph node metastasis who had T4 disease, high-grade malignancy, or positive neck (Level II) metastasis during intraoperative evaluation. Postoperative radiotherapy was performed in 24 patients with pathological T4, high-grade malignancy, positive surgical margin, multiple neck metastasis and/or extranodal extension (ENI). Seven of 28 (25%) patients with clinically N0 had pathologically positive neck metastasis (pN+). Regional recurrence developed in one patient with high-grade malignancy and ENI (T4N2b). Disease-specific survival rates for Stages I, II, III, and IVA at 3 years were 100%, 73%, 100%, and 37%, respectively. Loco-regional control rates for pN0 (21 patients) and pN+ (14 patients) at 3 years were 90% and 95%, respectively. Our present favorable loco-regional control supported our current indications of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy. We also recommend intraoperative biopsy of level IIB nodes to study the need for elective neck dissection. (author)

  6. Parotid gland tumours: MR tractography to assess contact with the facial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attyé, Arnaud; Karkas, Alexandre; Troprès, Irène; Roustit, Matthieu; Kastler, Adrian; Bettega, Georges; Lamalle, Laurent; Renard, Félix; Righini, Christian; Krainik, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of intraparotid facial nerve (VIIn) tractographic reconstructions in estimating the presence of a contact between the VIIn and the tumour, in patients requiring surgical resection of parotid tumours. Patients underwent MR scans with VIIn tractography calculated with the constrained spherical deconvolution model. The parameters of the diffusion sequence were: b-value of 1000 s/mm(2); 32 directions; voxel size: 2 mm isotropic; scan time: 9'31'. The potential contacts between VIIn branches and tumours were estimated with different initial fractional anisotropy (iFA) cut-offs compared to surgical data. Surgeons were blinded to the tractography reconstructions and identified both nerves and contact with tumours using nerve stimulation and reference photographs. Twenty-six patients were included in this study and the mean patient age was 55.2 years. Surgical direct assessment of VIIn allowed identifying 0.1 as the iFA threshold with the best sensitivity to detect tumour contact. In all patients with successful VIIn identification by tractography, surgeons confirmed nerve courses as well as lesion location in parotid glands. Mean VIIn branch FA values were significantly lower in cases with tumour contact (t-test; p ≤ 0.01). This study showed the feasibility of intraparotid VIIn tractography to identify nerve contact with parotid tumours. • Diffusion imaging is an efficient method for highlighting the intraparotid VIIn. • Visualization of the VIIn may help to better manage patients before surgery. • We bring new insights to future trials for patients with VIIn dysfunction. • We aimed to provide radio-anatomical references for further studies.

  7. Utilization of intensity modulated beam radiotherapy (IMBXRT) to diminish dose to the parotid gland in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, W. Woo; Grant, Walter H.; Butler, E. Brian

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine if intensity conformal modulated radiotherapy could diminish the radiation dose to the parotid gland in the treatment of primary head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: The NOMOS Peacock treatment system was utilized in the planning and delivery of conformal radiotherapy for the following diseases: 1) an oropharyngeal cancer that extends from the soft palate to the tonsillar fossa without nodal disease, 2) laryngeal hypopharyngeal cancer without nodal disease, 3) and adenocystic carcinoma, that originated in the hard palate. Patients were treated to areas suspicious for microscopic disease (nodal disease in 1 and 2, perineural spread in 3) at 2 Gy per fraction for a tc of 50 Gy in five weeks. The primary disease was treated at 2.4 Gy per fraction for a total of 60 Gy over five weeks. The percent of the volume of each parotid gland receiving < 20 Gy, <25 Gy and <30 Gy retrospectively was determined for each of the above mentioned optimized plans. The patients were observed for the clinical development of xerostomia. Results: No patient developed clinically apparent xerostomia within one month of completion of radiotherapy. Conclusion: IMBXRT could reduce the volume to parotid glands receiving high radiation doses. Sparing of the parotid glands appear to be most easily accomplished when irradiating head and neck tumors that do not require regional nodal treatment. For head and neck cancer that requires nodal treatment it is possible to spare a significant portion of the parotid glands if the disease originates below the hyoid bone where the primary site is not in close proximity to the parotid glands. Objective salivary flow data are being obtained pre ar post treatment, to confirm the subjective impression of lack of clinical xerostomia. IMBXRT is potentially beneficial in decreasing the morbidity of xerostomia related to head and neck irradiation

  8. High-risk factors of parotid lymph node metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong-zhi; Cao, Cai-neng; Luo, Jing-wei; Yi, Jun-lin; Huang, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Shi-ping; Wang, Kai; Qu, Yuan; Xiao, Jian-ping; Li, Su-yan; Gao, Li; Xu, Guo-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Although parotid-sparing IMRT decreased the dose distribution of parotid, parotid region recurrence has been reported. Prophylactic irradiation in parotid area would be necessary in patients with high risk of parotid lymph node metastasis (PLNM). This study was to detect the high-risk factors of PLNM in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This was a 1:2 case-control study. All patients in this study were newly diagnosed NPC with N2-3 classification from January 2005 to December 2012. Cases were 22 sides with ipsilateral PLNM. Controls were 44 patients who were randomly selected from N2-3 disease in database. 20/1096 (1.82 %) NPC patients were found PLNM. Sum of the longest diameter for multiple lymph nodes (SLD) in level II was larger in case group than that in control group (6.0 cm vs. 3.6 cm, p = 0.003). Level II lymph node necrosis, level Va/b involvement, and rare neck areas involvement were more common in case group (p = 0.016, p = 0.034, and p < 0.001, respectively). RPN, level III, and level IV metastases showed no significant difference between the two groups. Multivariate analysis in logistic regression showed that only SLD ≥5 cm in II area (OR = 4.11, p = 0.030) and rare neck areas involvement (OR = 3.95, p = 0.045) were associated with PLNM in NPC patients. PLNM was an uncommon event in NPC patients. SLD ≥5 cm in level II and involvement in rare-neck areas may be potentially high-risk factors for PLNM. Sparing parotid in IMRT was not recommended for NPC patients with high risks of PLNM

  9. Function protection of the parotid gland after intensity modulated radiotherapy for thirty-six patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zemin; Liao Yuping; Jiang Wuzhong; Wu Tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the parotid gland function protection of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) Methods: Thirty-six NPC patients were divided into IMRT group (therapy group) and conventional fraction (CF) group (control group) by random balanced design. Each group had 18 patients. The planning gross tumor volume (pGTV) of nasopharyngeal was treated with a total dose of 72.0 in therapy group, with a total dose of 70.0 Gy in control group (with daily 2.0 Gy/fraction and 5 times/week). Before treatment and at 3, 6, and 9 months, 1 and 2 years after therapy, all patients performed parotid imaging and both uptake index (UI) and excretion index (EI) after acid stimulation were calculated. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) was used to analyse the dose of parotid. Results: The values of UI were 77.6% and 96.2% at the end of therapy and after tow years in therapy group and 56.8% and 7.0% in contrast group. The values of EI were 64.1% and 95.3% at the end of therapy and after tow years in therapy group and 19.4% and 0 in control group. The mean doses of normal side and the trouble side of parotid gland were 20.0 Gy and 31.0 Gy in therapy group and 61.0 Gy and 68.2 Gy in control group. Conclusions: IMRT can reduce radiation dose of parotid glands compared with CF distinctly and thus protect parotid function effectively. (authors)

  10. Parotid Gland Dose in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: Is What You Plan What You Get?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C.; Garden, Adam S.; Schwartz, David L.; Wang He; Ang, Kian K.; Ahamad, Anesa; Rosenthal, David I.; Morrison, William H.; Asper, Joshua A.; Zhang Lifei; Tung Shihming; Mohan, Radhe; Dong Lei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the differences between planned and delivered parotid gland and target doses, and to assess the benefits of daily bone alignment for head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Eleven head and neck cancer patients received two CT scans per week with an in-room CT scanner over the course of their radiotherapy. The clinical IMRT plans, designed with 3-mm to 4-mm planning margins, were recalculated on the repeat CT images. The plans were aligned using the actual treatment isocenter marked with radiopaque markers (BB) and bone alignment to the cervical vertebrae to simulate image-guided setup. In-house deformable image registration software was used to map daily dose distributions to the original treatment plan and to calculate a cumulative delivered dose distribution for each patient. Results: Using conventional BB alignment led to increases in the parotid gland mean dose above the planned dose by 5 to 7 Gy in 45% of the patients (median, 3.0 Gy ipsilateral, p = 0.026; median, 1.0 Gy contralateral, p = 0.016). Use of bone alignment led to reductions relative to BB alignment in 91% of patients (median, 2 Gy; range, 0.3-8.3 Gy; 15 of 22 parotids improved). However, the parotid dose from bone alignment was still greater than planned (median, 1.0 Gy, p = 0.007). Neither approach affected tumor dose coverage. Conclusions: With conventional BB alignment, the parotid gland mean dose was significantly increased above the planned mean dose. Using daily bone alignment reduced the parotid dose compared with BB alignment in almost all patients. A 3- to 4-mm planning margin was adequate for tumor dose coverage

  11. Regional radiation dose susceptibility within the parotid gland: Effects on salivary loss and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Haley, E-mail: hdclark@phas.ubc.ca; Reinsberg, Stefan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hovan, Allan [Oral Oncology/Dentistry, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Thomas, Steven [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Wu, Jonn [Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia is one of the most likely late toxic effects of radiotherapy treatment in patients with head-and-neck cancers. Modern treatment techniques can incorporate knowledge of complication risk into treatment plans. To this end, the authors attempt to quantify the regional radiotherapy dose-dependence of salivary output loss and recovery in a prospective study. Methods: Salivary output was collected from patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment for head-and-neck cancers at the BC Cancer Agency between February 2008 and May 2013. Regional dose-dependence (i.e., dose susceptibility) of loss and recovery is quantified using nonparametric (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, local linear regression) and parametric (least-sum of squares, least-median of squares) techniques. Results: Salivary flow recovery was seen in 79 of 102 patients considered (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon sign rank test). Output loss was strongly correlated with left- and right parotid combined dose φ = min (D{sub L},  45 Gy) + min (D{sub R},  45 Gy), and can be accurately predicted. Median early loss (three months) was 72% of baseline, while median overall loss (1 yr) was 56% of baseline. Fitting an exponential model to whole parotid yields dose sensitivities A{sub 3m} = 0.0604 Gy{sup −1} and A{sub 1y} = 0.0379 Gy{sup −1}. Recovery was not significantly associated with dose. Hints of lateral organ sub-segment dose–response dimorphism were observed. Conclusions: Sub-segmentation appears to predict neither loss nor recovery with any greater precision than whole parotid mean dose, though it is not any worse. Sparing the parotid to a combined dose φ of <50 Gy is recommended for a patient to keep ≈40% of baseline function and thus avoid severe xerostomia at 12 months post-treatment. It seems unlikely that a population’s mean recovery will exceed 20%–30% of baseline output at 1 yr after radiotherapy treatment using current (whole-organ based) clinical guidelines.

  12. Rules of parotid gland dose variations and shift during intensity modulated radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Haihua; Mi, Yucheng; Hu, Wei; Ding, Weijun; Xie, Youyou; Cai, Yujie; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    To determine the position and dose delivery changes rules of parotid gland (PG) during the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients (NPC). One hundred and forty one competed tomography (CT) images from 47 NPC patients (three images for each patient were acquired before treatment, at the 15th and 25th fraction during the treatment) who underwent radical IMRT were selected for this study. A total of 70-76Gy at 2.12–2.3 Gy/fraction/d was given to the GTVnx in 33 fractions. The distances between the lateral/medial aspects of PG and midline (DLM and DMM) at the level of odontoid process were measured. The dose differences between plan and actual delivery were calculated. The volume reductions of PGs between fractions 15 and 25 were larger than those in the first 15 fractions (4.68 ± 3.23 cc vs. 2.46 ± 4.55 cc for the right PG and 5.96 ± 2.99 cc vs. 2.06 ± 2.99 cc for the left PG). However, the percentage of gland volume receiving ≥30 Gy (V30) of bilateral PGs decreased more significantly in the first 15 fractions than that between fractions 15 and 25 (5.61 ± 16.04% vs. 1.14 ± 21.54% for the right PG and 6.87 ± 15.58% vs. 0.81 ± 15.94% for the left PG). The gross tumor volume of the nasopharynx (GTVnx) decreased more significantly in the first 15 fractions than that between the 15th and 25th fraction (8.23 ± 13.61 cc vs. 3.30 ± 8.09 cc). The DMM of ipsilateral PGs reduced in the first 15 fractions (0.80 ± 2.96 mm) but increased between fraction 15 and 25 (−2.19 ± 3.96 mm). While ipsilateral PG shifted into target volume but shifted out target volume between fraction 15 and 25. Parotid glands V30 was correlated with GTVnx, GTVnx reduction and DMM reduction (p < 0.01). Our results indicate that the reduction of GTVnx leads to the positional change of the parotid gland, which results in more significant dose change of the parotid gland in the first 15 fractions than that between fraction 15 and 25

  13. Parotid gland pathophysiology after mixed gamma and neutron irradiation of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.W.; Izutsu, K.T.; Rice, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Electrolyte and protein concentrations were measured in parotid saliva samples obtained from patients receiving localized, fractionated, neutron and gamma irradiation for the treatment of cancer. Salivary sodium chloride concentration increased transiently but then usually decreased to preirradiation values after 2 weeks of therapy. There were concurrent decreases in salivary flow rate, pH, and bicarbonate concentration. The decreases in sodium chloride concentration and flow rate are inconsistent with a previously suggested, irradiation-induced ductal sodium resorption defect. The findings contribute toward understanding how salivary gland physiology is altered in irradiation injury

  14. Early evaluation of irradiated parotid glands with intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging: correlation with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Nan; Chu, Chen; Dou, Xin; Li, Ming; Liu, Song; Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Baorui; Guo, Tingting; Chen, Weibo; He, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced parotid damage is one of the most common complications in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) undergoing radiotherapy (RT). Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been reported for evaluating irradiated parotid damage. However, the changes of IVIM perfusion-related parameters in irradiated parotid glands have not been confirmed by conventional perfusion measurements obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging. The purposes of this study were to monitor radiation-induced parotid damage using IVIM and DCE MR imaging and to investigate the correlations between changes of these MR parameters. Eighteen NPC patients underwent bilateral parotid T1-weighted, IVIM and DCE MR imaging pre-RT (2 weeks before RT) and post-RT (4 weeks after RT). Parotid volume; IVIM MR parameters, including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f); and DCE MR parameters, including maximum relative enhancement (MRE), time to peak (TTP), Wash in Rate, and the degree of xerostomia were recorded. Correlations of parotid MR parameters with mean radiation dose, atrophy rate and xerostomia degree, as well as the relationships between IVIM and DCE MR parameters, were investigated. From pre-RT to post-RT, all of the IVIM and DCE MR parameters increased significantly (p < 0.001 for ADC, D, f, MRE, Wash in Rate; p = 0.024 for D*; p = 0.037 for TTP). Change rates of ADC, f and MRE were negatively correlated with atrophy rate significantly (all p < 0.05). Significant correlations were observed between the change rates of D* and MRE (r = 0.371, p = 0.026) and between the change rates of D* and TTP (r = 0.396, p = 0.017). The intra- and interobserver reproducibility of IVIM and DCE MR parameters was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.633–0.983). Early radiation-induced changes of parotid glands could be evaluated by IVIM and

  15. Radiation effects on the parotid gland of mammals. Pt. 4. Biochemical and morphological changes after local irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Tomassi, I; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia; Pelu, G

    1980-01-01

    A morphological and biochemical study was done on rat parotids to evaluate the modifications after 2400 rad in the parotid area only. As previously observed, whole-body irradiation with lower doses produced only slight effects on the gland. The enzymes peculiar to glandular function decreased significantly 3 days after irradiation, later they fluctuated on control values. Increase in alkaline phosphatase, LAP, and decrease in protein content was a constant result, ..beta..-glucuronidase only among lysosomal enzymes increased significantly at some intervals. Morphological alterations in the glandular sections of the sacrificed animals appeared modest and mostly consisted of progressive fibrosis.

  16. Racial Variation in the Outcome of Subsequent Prostate Biopsies in Men With an Initial Diagnosis of Atypical Small Acinar Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Libby, Robert; Kramer, Jordan J; Tue Nguyen, Hoang Minh; Feibus, Allison; Thomas, Raju; Silberstein, Jonathan L

    2017-12-01

    African American (AA) men are known to have more aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) compared with Caucasian American men. We sought to determine predictors of subsequent detection and risk stratification of PCa in a racially diverse group of men with atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) on initial prostate biopsy. A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from men with ASAP on initial prostate biopsy who subsequently received confirmatory biopsies between September 2000 and July 2015. Biopsies with more than 3 years between initial and confirmatory biopsies were excluded. Race, age, body mass index, transrectal ultrasound volume, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA velocity, PSA density, and elapsed time between biopsies were assessed for predictive value in subsequent PCa diagnosis after an initial finding of ASAP. Of 106 men analyzed, 75 (71%) were AA and 31 (29%) were non-AA. Baseline variables revealed AA men had higher PSA levels, PSA velocity, and PSA density (all P level, and PSA density were significant predictors of PCa. AA men diagnosed with ASAP on initial prostate biopsy do not have increased risk of PCa on confirmatory biopsy compared with non-AA men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. No Effect of Dietary Aspartame or Stevia on Pancreatic Acinar Carcinoma Development, Growth, or Induced Mortality in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James; Lagou, Vasiliki; Dresselaers, Tom; van Dongen, Katinka A.; Himmelreich, Uwe; Liston, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis, largely due to a poor record for early detection. Known risk factors for pancreatic cancer include obesity, diet, and diabetes, implicating glucose consumption and regulation as a key player. The role of artificial sweeteners may therefore be pertinent to disease kinetics. The oncogenic impact of artificial sweeteners is a highly controversial area. Aspartame, one of the most studied food additives, is widely recognized as being generally safe, although there are still specific areas where research is incomplete due to study limitations. Stevia, by contrast, has been the subject of relatively few studies, and the potential health benefits are based on extrapolation rather than direct testing. Here, we used longitudinal tracking of pancreatic acinar carcinoma development, growth, and lethality in a sensitized mouse model. Despite exposure to aspartame and stevia from the in utero stage onward, we found no disease modification activity, in either direction. These results contribute to the data on aspartame and stevia safety, while also reducing confidence in several of the purported health benefits. PMID:28232906

  18. CT and MR imaging of multilocular acinar cell cystadenoma: comparison with branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMNs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavaud, Christophe; Assignies, Gaspard d' ; Vilgrain, Valerie; Vullierme, Marie-Pierre [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Radiologie, Clichy (France); Cros, Jerome [Hopital Beaujon, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Clichy (France); Ruszniewski, Philippe; Hammel, Pascal; Levy, Philippe [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Pancreato-Gastro-Enterologie, Clichy (France); Couvelard, Anne [Hopital Bichat, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Paris (France); Sauvanet, Alain; Dokmak, Safi [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Chirurgie Hepato-Pancreato-Biliaire, Clichy (France)

    2014-09-15

    To describe CT and MR imaging findings of acinar cell cystadenoma (ACC) of the pancreas and to compare them with those of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (BD-IPMN) to identify distinctive elements. Five patients with ACC and the 20 consecutive patients with histologically proven BD-IPMN were retrospectively included. Clinical and biological information was collected and histological data reviewed. CT and MR findings were analysed blinded to pathological diagnosis in order to identify imaging diagnostic criteria of ACC. Patients with ACC were symptomatic in all but one case and were younger than those with BD-IPMN (p = 0.006). Four radiological criteria allowed for differentiating ACC from IPMN: five or more cysts, clustered peripheral small cysts, presence of cyst calcifications and absence of communication with the main pancreatic duct (p < 0.05). Presence of at least two or three of these imaging criteria had a strong diagnostic value for ACC with a sensitivity of 100 % and 80 % and a specificity of 85 % and 100 %, respectively. Preoperative differential diagnosis between ACC and BD-IPMN can be achieved using a combination of four CT and/or MR imaging criteria. Recognition of ACC patients could change patient management and lead to more conservative treatment. (orig.)

  19. Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas presenting as diffuse pancreatic enlargement: Two case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaping; Hu, Guilan; Ma, Yanru; Guo, Ning; Li, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of exocrine pancreas. It is typically a well-marginated large solid mass arising in a certain aspect of the pancreas. Diffuse involvement of ACC in the pancreas is very rare, and may simulate pancreatitis in radiological findings. We report 2 cases of ACC presenting as diffuse enlargement of the pancreas due to tumor involvement without formation of a distinct mass. The patients consisted of a 41-year-old man with weight loss and a 77-year-old man who was asymptomatic. Computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT showed diffuse enlargement of the pancreas forming a sausage-like shape with homogenously increased FDG activity. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the pancreatic lesion was performed. Histopathology results from the pancreas confirmed the diagnosis of pancreatic ACC. Because diffuse enlargement of the pancreas is a common imaging feature of pancreatitis, recognition of this rare morphologic pattern of ACC is important for radiological diagnosis of this tumor.

  20. Activated macrophages create lineage-specific microenvironments for pancreatic acinar- and β-cell regeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscimanna, Angela; Coudriet, Gina M; Gittes, George K; Piganelli, Jon D; Esni, Farzad

    2014-11-01

    Although the cells that contribute to pancreatic regeneration have been widely studied, little is known about the mediators of this process. During tissue regeneration, infiltrating macrophages debride the site of injury and coordinate the repair response. We investigated the role of macrophages in pancreatic regeneration in mice. We used a saporin-conjugated antibody against CD11b to reduce the number of macrophages in mice following diphtheria toxin receptor-mediated cell ablation of pancreatic cells, and evaluated the effects on pancreatic regeneration. We analyzed expression patterns of infiltrating macrophages after cell-specific injury or from the pancreas of nonobese diabetic mice. We developed an in vitro culture system to study the ability of macrophages to induce cell-specific regeneration. Depletion of macrophages impaired pancreatic regeneration. Macrophage polarization, as assessed by expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, and CD206, depended on the type of injury. The signals provided by polarized macrophages promoted lineage-specific generation of acinar or endocrine cells. Macrophage from nonobese diabetic mice failed to provide signals necessary for β-cell generation. Macrophages produce cell type-specific signals required for pancreatic regeneration in mice. Additional study of these processes and signals might lead to new approaches for treating type 1 diabetes or pancreatitis. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nicotine promotes initiation and progression of KRAS-induced pancreatic cancer via Gata6-dependent dedifferentiation of acinar cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Patrick C; Sancho, Patricia; Cañamero, Marta; Martinelli, Paola; Madriles, Francesc; Michl, Patrick; Gress, Thomas; de Pascual, Ricardo; Gandia, Luis; Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano; Wagner, Martin; Vieira, Catarina R; Aicher, Alexandra; Real, Francisco X; Sainz, Bruno; Heeschen, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Although smoking is a leading risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), little is known about the mechanisms by which smoking promotes initiation or progression of PDAC. We studied the effects of nicotine administration on pancreatic cancer development in Kras(+/LSLG12Vgeo);Elas-tTA/tetO-Cre (Ela-KRAS) mice, Kras(+/LSLG12D);Trp53+/LSLR172H;Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) mice (which express constitutively active forms of KRAS), and C57/B6 mice. Mice were given nicotine for up to 86 weeks to produce blood levels comparable with those of intermediate smokers. Pancreatic tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; cells were isolated and assayed for colony and sphere formation and gene expression. The effects of nicotine were also evaluated in primary pancreatic acinar cells isolated from wild-type, nAChR7a(-/-), Trp53(-/-), and Gata6(-/-);Trp53(-/-) mice. We also analyzed primary PDAC cells that overexpressed GATA6 from lentiviral expression vectors. Administration of nicotine accelerated transformation of pancreatic cells and tumor formation in Ela-KRAS and KPC mice. Nicotine induced dedifferentiation of acinar cells by activating AKT-ERK-MYC signaling; this led to inhibition of Gata6 promoter activity, loss of GATA6 protein, and subsequent loss of acinar differentiation and hyperactivation of oncogenic KRAS. Nicotine also promoted aggressiveness of established tumors as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, increasing numbers of circulating cancer cells and their dissemination to the liver, compared with mice not exposed to nicotine. Nicotine induced pancreatic cells to acquire gene expression patterns and functional characteristics of cancer stem cells. These effects were markedly attenuated in K-Ras(+/LSL-G12D);Trp53(+/LSLR172H);Pdx-1-Cre mice given metformin. Metformin prevented nicotine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis and tumor growth by up-regulating GATA6 and promoting

  2. Prognostic relevance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and proliferation in surgically treated primary parotid gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Alina; Bauer, Larissa; Wardelmann, Eva; Rudack, Claudia; Grünewald, Inga; Stenner, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Cancer of the major salivary glands comprises a morphologically diverse group of rare tumours of largely unknown cause. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to play a significant prognostic role in various human cancers. The aim was to assess the expression of EMT markers in different histological subtypes of parotid gland cancer (PGC) and analyse their prognostic value. We examined 94 PGC samples (13 histological subtypes) for the expression of MIB-1, epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), β-catenin, vimentin and cytokeratin 8/18 (CK8/18) by means of immunohistochemistry. The experimental findings were correlated with clinicopathological and survival parameters. We detected all analysed EMT and proliferation markers in specifically different constellations within the examined histological subtypes of PGC. We found high epithelial marker expressions (CK8/18, E-cadherin, membranous β-catenin) only in a distinct variety of carcinomas. A high proliferation rate (high MIB-1 expression) as well as a combination of high CK8/18 and low vimentin expression was associated with a significantly worse survival. Our findings indicate that activation of the EMT pathway is a relevant explanation for tumour progression in individual histological subtypes of malignant parotid gland lesions, but by far not in all. Evidence of EMT activation in PGC cannot be seen as an isolated prognostic factor. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Dose-response analysis of parotid gland function: what is the best measure of xerostomia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Aisha B; Gulliford, Sarah L; Clark, Catharine H; Bhide, Shreerang A; Zaidi, Shane H; Newbold, Kate L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    To describe the dose-response relationships for the different measures of salivary gland recovery following radical radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers (LA-HNSCC). Dosimetric analysis of data from the PARSPORT trial, a Phase III study of conventional RT (RT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for LA-HNSCC was undertaken to determine the relationship between parotid gland mean dose and toxicity endpoints: high-grade subjective and objective xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life scores. LKB-NTCP parameters (TD50, m and n) were generated and tolerance doses (D50) reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Data were available on 63 patients from the PARSPORT trial. Parotid saliva flow rate provided the strongest association between mean dose and recovery, D50=23.4 Gy (20.6-26.2) and k=3.2 (1.9-4.5), R(2)=0.85. Corresponding LKB parameters were TD50=26.3 Gy (95% CI: 24.0-30.1), m=0.25 (0.18-1.0 and n=1). LENTSOMA subjective xerostomia also demonstrated a strong association D50=33.3 Gy (26.7-39.8), k=2.8 (91.4-4.4), R(2)=0.77). We recommend using the LENT SOMA subjective xerostomia score to predict recovery of salivation due to its strong association with dosimetry and ease of recording. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. VALIDITY OF CORE NEEDLE BIOPSY IN THE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL VERIFICATION OF PAROTID GLAND LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oroz Aleksandar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: An adequate diagnosis of a parotid gland enlargement is crucial for an appropriate treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate effectiveness and minimal invasiveness of diagnostic procedures of core-needle biopsy. Materials and Methods: This study involved 67 patients, aged 40 to 90 years, with a tumor mass in the submandibular and parotid region. Method used for taking samples of pathological masses was BD Disposable guillotine spring-loaded needle for biopsies on soft tissues. Final diagnoses were established on the basis of surgical-pathological results in 67 cases, and on the basis of histopathological analysis of core-biopsy samples. Results: Compared with results of surgical biopsy, core-needle biopsy had sensitivity of 100% in differentiating benign from malignant lesions and in setting up an adequate diagnosis. Its positive predictive values were 100% in diagnosing malignancy. There were found 28 non-malignant and 39 malignant lesions with fewer disadvantages for patients.

  5. Late radiation side-effects in three patients undergoing parotid irradiation for benign disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, A; Ghanna, P; O'Rielly, B; Habeshaw, T; Symonds, P

    2000-01-01

    We report three patients in whom standard radiation therapy was given and serious late radiation damage was seen. The first patient suffered recurrent parotiditis and a parotid fistula. He was treated initially with 20 Gy in ten fractions via a 300 kV field. Further irradiation was required 1 year later and 40 Gy was given in 2 Gy fractions by an oblique anterior and posterior wedged photon pair. Ten years later he developed localized temporal bone necrosis. The second patient, with pleomorphic salivary adenoma, developed localized temporal bone necrosis 6 years after 60 Gy had been given using standard fractionation and technique. The third patient received 55 Gy in 25 fractions for a pleomorphic salivary adenoma and after 3 years developed temporal bone necrosis. Sixteen years later the same patient developed cerebellar and brainstem necrosis. All patients developed chronic persistent infection during or shortly after the radiation therapy, which increased local tissue sensitivity to late radiation damage. As a result, severe bone, cerebellar and brainstem necrosis was observed at doses that are normally considered safe. We therefore strongly recommend that any infection in a proposed irradiated area should be treated aggressively, with surgical debridement if necessary, before radiotherapy is administered, or that infection developing during or after irradiation is treated promptly.

  6. The feasibility of sugammadex for general anesthesia and facial nerve monitoring in patients undergoing parotid surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Cheng Lu

    2017-08-01

    Fifty patients undergoing parotid surgery were randomized allocated into conventional anesthesia group (Group C, n = 25 and sugammadex group (Group S, n = 25. Group C did not receive any NMBA. Group S received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg at anesthesia induction and sugammadex 2 mg/kg at skin incision. The intubating condition and influence on FNM evoked EMG results were compared between groups. The intubation condition showed significantly better in group S patients than C group patients (excellent in 96% v.s. 24%. In group S, rapid reverse of NMB was found and the twitch (% recovered from 0 to >90% within 10 min. Positive and high EMG signals were obtained in all patients at the time point of initial facial nerve stimulation in both groups. There was no significant difference as comparing the EMG amplitudes detected at the time point of initial and final facial nerve stimulation in both groups. Implementation of sugammadex in anesthesia protocol is feasible and reliable for successful FNM during parotid surgery.

  7. Function of the parotid gland in juvenile recurrent parotitis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-song; Pu, Yi-ping; Zheng, Ling-yan; Yu, Chuang-qi; Wang, Zhi-jun; Shi, Huan

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to find out how the parotid gland functions in 44 patients with juvenile recurrent parotitis, and to assess the value of measuring the serum amylase activity. Clinical and personal details were recorded, and all patients had their serum amylase activity measured together with sialography during the chronic phase. The function of the gland was classified by sialographic images. The chi square test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used in the statistical analyses. There was a significant association between the degree of glandular function and serum amylase activity (p=0.014). The patients with unilateral and bilateral disease differed significantly in their degree of glandular function (p=0.020), those with bilateral disease having poorer function. There were no significant correlations between other clinical variables and glandular function. Serum amylase activity is an important diagnostic variable in juvenile recurrent parotitis, and poor parotid function reflects the severity of the disease. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parotid saliva composition during and after irradiation of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funegaard, U.; Franzen, L.; Ericson, Th.; Henriksson, R.

    1994-01-01

    Parotid saliva composition was studied before, during and up to 18 months after the irradiation period in 16 cancer patients treated for malignancies in the head and neck region. Stimulated parotid saliva was collected prior to radiotherapy and, when possible, weekly during treatment. New samples were taken 2, 4, 6, 12 and 18 months after the end of radiotherapy. Nine of the 16 patients were treated with bilateral irradiation fields and 7 patients with unilateral irradiation fields, with a total dose not exceeding 52 Gy. During the entire irradiation period the fraction of glands producing measurable volumes of saliva decreased to 40%. In the post irradiation period the number of active glands gradually increased and saliva secretion rate returned to an average of 72% of the initial value 18 months after the end of irradiation. The concentrations of the measured variables increased already during the first week of radiotherapy and at the end of the treatment period the concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase, hexosamine and salivary IgA were significantly increased. The concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase and salivary IgA were still increased 6 months after the end of irradiation. At the 18-months observation all concentrations had returned to normal. (author)

  9. Transmasseteric anterior parotid approach for condylar fractures: experience of 129 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vinod; Ramadorai, Ashok; Ravi, Poornima; Nirvikalpa, Natarajan

    2012-07-01

    We have evaluated the transmasseteric anterior parotid (TMAP) approach in the treatment of 163 condylar fractures in 129 patients. Ninety-five patients presented with unilateral, and 34 with bilateral, fractures. The inclusion criteria were patient's choice for open reduction and internal fixation, displaced unilateral condylar fractures with occlusal derangement, and displaced bilateral condylar fractures with anterior open bite. Mean (SD) maximum interincisal opening after 3 months was 44(5)mm. There were no differences in lateral movements during the reviews 6 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. Protrusive movement at the end of 3 months was 7(2)mm. All patients achieved functional occlusion identical to the pretraumatic occlusion and good reduction of the condyles. No patient developed temporary or permanent facial palsy, sialocele, salivary fistula, or Frey syndrome. The mean (SD) operating time was 46(11)min. The TMAP approach avoids the complications of incision of the parotid gland, minimises the risk of facial nerve palsy, and offers excellent access to the fractured condyle. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment and prognosis of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma: study of 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Jinling; Gao Li; Yi Junlin; Huang Xiaodong; Luo Jingwei; Xu Guozhen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma through 16 patients. Methods: Sixteen such patients treated in our hospital from 1984 to 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. There were T1 2 patients, T2 and T3 5 patients each and T4 4. Ten patients had NO, and 6 N + lesions. Six patients were treated by monotherapy, ie-mono group (surgery alone or radiotherapy alone), the other 10 patients by surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy. Results: The overall neck metastastic lymph nodes was observed in 12 patients (75%). The 3- and 5-year local control, overall survival and disease-free survival for the whole group was 45% and 30%, 58% and 58%; 36% and 27%, respectively. The 5-year survival for T1-T2 and T3-T4 patients was 100% and 29% (χ 2 =4.50, P=0.034), respectively. The 3-year overall survival of NO and N + patients was 80%, and 20% (χ 2 =8.70, P=0.003), with a disease-free survival of 54% and 0 (χ 2 =9.83, P=0.002), respectively. Conclusions: The choice of suitable treatment for locally advanced primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma is surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy. Prophylactic ipsilateral neck irradiation is necessary e- ven for N0 patients for the sake of high risk of neck node metastasis. (authors)

  11. Parotid gland-recovery after radiotherapy in the head and neck region - 36 months follow-up of a prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vordermark Dirk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery potential of the parotid glands after using either 3D-conformal-radiotherapy (3D-CRT or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT by sparing one single parotid gland. Methods Between 06/2002 and 10/2008, 117 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this prospective, non-randomised clinical study. All patients were treated with curative intent. Salivary gland function was assessed by measuring stimulated salivary flow at the beginning, during and at the end of radiotherapy as well as 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after treatment. Measurements were converted to flow rates and normalized relative to rates before treatment. Mean doses (Dmean were calculated from dose-volume histograms based on computed tomographies of the parotid glands. Results Patients were grouped according to the Dmean of the spared parotid gland having the lowest radiation exposure: Group I - Dmean mean 26-40 Gy (n = 45, and group III - Dmean > 40 Gy (n = 36. 15/117 (13% patients received IMRT. By using IMRT as compared to 3D-CRT the Dmean of the spared parotid gland could be significantly reduced (Dmean IMRT vs. 3D-CRT: 21.7 vs. 34.4 Gy, p Conclusions If a Dmean mean of the parotids, and thus on the saliva flow and recovery of parotid gland.

  12. Prospective longitudinal assessment of parotid gland function using dynamic quantitative pertechnate scintigraphy and estimation of dose–response relationship of parotid-sparing radiotherapy in head-neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Hotwani, Chandni; Kannan, Sadhana; Master, Zubin; Rangarajan, Venkatesh; Murthy, Vedang; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Agarwal, Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    To estimate dose–response relationship using dynamic quantitative 99m Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy in head-neck cancer patients treated with parotid-sparing conformal radiotherapy. Dynamic quantitative pertechnate salivary scintigraphy was performed pre-treatment and subsequently periodically after definitive radiotherapy. Reduction in salivary function following radiotherapy was quantified by salivary excretion fraction (SEF) ratios. Dose–response curves were modeled using standardized methodology to calculate tolerance dose 50 (TD50) for parotid glands. Salivary gland function was significantly affected by radiotherapy with maximal decrease in SEF ratios at 3-months, with moderate functional recovery over time. There was significant inverse correlation between SEF ratios and mean parotid doses at 3-months (r = −0.589, p < 0.001); 12-months (r = −0.554, p < 0.001); 24-months (r = −0.371, p = 0.002); and 36-months (r = −0.350, p = 0.005) respectively. Using a post-treatment SEF ratio <45% as the scintigraphic criteria to define severe salivary toxicity, the estimated TD50 value with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the parotid gland was 35.1Gy (23.6-42.6Gy), 41.3Gy (34.6-48.8Gy), 55.9Gy (47.4-70.0Gy) and 64.3Gy (55.8-70.0Gy) at 3, 12, 24, and 36-months respectively. There is consistent decline in parotid function even after conformal radiotherapy with moderate recovery over time. Dynamic quantitative pertechnate scintigraphy is a simple, reproducible, and minimally invasive test of major salivary gland function. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0371-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  13. Selective fine needle aspiration of parotid masses. FNA should be performed in all patients older than 60 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, S M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The exact role of fine needle aspiration in the pre-operative assessment of patients presenting with parotid masses is controversial. Some surgeons propose that fine needle aspiration be performed only selectively in those patients with likely malignant disease, whilst others recommend it for all patients presenting with such a mass. Intuitively, one would expect older patients to be more likely to suffer from primary malignant parotid tumours and secondary deposits of malignant skin tumours. Therefore, we hypothesised that older patients with a parotid mass should undergo fine needle aspiration regardless of their medical history. DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed 197 consecutive parotidectomies to test this hypothesis. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-one patients (61.4 per cent) were diagnosed with benign disease, whilst 76 (38.6 per cent) were diagnosed with malignant disease. Eighty-three per cent of patients aged 60 years or younger had benign disease, as opposed to 35.6 per cent of patients aged more than 60 years. Malignant disease occurred more commonly in patients older than 60 years (odds ratio 8.962, 95 per cent confidence interval 4.607-17.434). CONCLUSION: In patients with a parotid mass, fine needle aspiration should be performed on all those aged 60 years or older.

  14. Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and the pathologic basis of parotid Warthin's tumor in 46 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jianpeng; Huang Suiqiao; Xie Bangkun; Zhong Jinglian; Li Yong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize MR manifestations of parotid Warthin's tumor and to investigate their pathological fundament. MR findings of parotid Warthin's tumor including shape, margin, signal intensity on T 1 WI and T 2 WI, homogeneity of the signal, enhancement were analyzed retrospectively in this study. Methods: In total 46 cases (54 lesions) of parotid Warthin's tumor proved by surgery were enrolled. MRI manifestations were comparatively studied with pathological findings. T 1 WI and T 2 WI sequence were used in non-contrast scan, while both non-contrast and enhanced scan were performed in 50 lesions out of 54. Results: The shapes of Warthin's tumor were regular (51/54); the edges were clear (54/54); more than half of the lesions (33/54) presented with low or equal signal intensity on T 2 WI; 50 Warthin's tumors enhanced slightly. The MR features of Warthin's tumors were different from pleomorphic adenoma and other parotid benign tumors. Conclusion: There are certain characteristics of Warthin's tumors on MR images, and these are helpful in determining the histological nature of the tumor

  15. Three-dimensional verification of 125I seed stability after permanent implantation in the parotid gland and periparotid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yi; Huang, Ming-Wei; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Yi-Jiao; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate seed stability after permanent implantation in the parotid gland and periparotid region via a three-dimensional reconstruction of CT data. Fifteen patients treated from June 2008 to June 2012 at Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology for parotid gland tumors with postoperative adjunctive 125 I interstitial brachytherapy were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Serial CT data were obtained during follow-up. Mimics and Geomagic Studio software were used for seed reconstruction and stability analysis, respectively. Seed loss and/or migration outside of the treated area were absent in all patients during follow-up (23–71 months). Total seed cluster volume was maximized on day 1 post-implantation due to edema and decreased significantly by an average of 13.5 % (SD = 9.80 %; 95 % CI, 6.82–17.68 %) during the first two months and an average of 4.5 % (SD = 3.60 %; 95 % CI, 2.29–6.29 %) during the next four months. Volume stabilized over the subsequent six months. 125 I seed number and location were stable with a general volumetric shrinkage tendency in the parotid gland and periparotid region. Three-dimensional seed reconstruction of CT images is feasible for visualization and verification of implanted seeds in parotid brachytherapy

  16. [The value of high resolution diffusion weighted imaging in differentiating benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, B H; Cheng, J L; Zhang, H X; Zhang, Z X; Wang, F F; Xue, K K

    2018-05-08

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of RESOLVE DWI in the evaluation of benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland. Methods: A total of 106 patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University with epithelial tumors of parotid gland confirmed by pathology from July 2015 to October 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent preoperative routine MRI and RESOLVE DWI, the ADC average values were calculated, t test were used to compare the ADC values of benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland. Diagnostic performance of ADC value was compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curves. Results: All lesions were solitary, including 69 benign epithelial tumors and 37 malignant epithelial tumors. The mean ADC values of pleomorphic adenoma and basal cell adenoma, adenolymphoma and malignant epithelial tumors were (1.47±0.16)×10(-3) mm(2)/s, (0.83±0.19)×10(-3) mm(2)/s and(1.14±0.14)×10(-3) mm(2)/s, the mean ADC value of adenolymphoma lower than the rest of the two groups, there were statistically significant differences among them ( P benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland.

  17. Early radiation effects on muscarinic receptor-induced secretory responsiveness of the parotid gland in the freely moving rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Roffel, AF; Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT

    Although the salivary glands have a low rate of cell turnover, they are relatively radiosensitive. To study the possible mechanism behind this inherent radiosensitivity, a rat model was developed in which saliva can be collected after local irradiation of the parotid gland without the use of

  18. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  19. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    OpenAIRE

    I.T. Rotta; M.B.A.M. Torres; R.G. Motta

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  20. Ionizing irradiation induces apoptotic damage of salivary gland acinar cells via NADPH oxidase 1-dependent superoxide generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Yoshihisa; Sasabe, Eri; Ueta, Eisaku; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in various physiological processes. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the Nox family. We investigated the involvement of Nox family proteins in ionizing irradiation-induced ROS generation and impairment in immortalized salivary gland acinar cells (NS-SV-AC), which are radiosensitive, and immortalized ductal cells (NS-SV-DC), which are radioresistant. Nox1-mRNA was upregulated by γ-ray irradiation in NS-SV-AC, and the ROS level in NS-SV-AC was increased to approximately threefold of the control level after 10 Gy irradiation. The increase of ROS level in NS-SV-AC was suppressed by Nox1-siRNA-transfection. In parallel with the suppression of ROS generation and Nox1-mRNA expression by Nox1-siRNA, ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis was strongly decreased in Nox1-siRNA-transfected NS-SV-AC. There were no large differences in total SOD or catalase activities between NS-SV-AC and NS-SV-DC although the post-irradiation ROS level in NS-SV-AC was higher than that in NS-SV-DC. In conclusion, these results indicate that Nox1 plays a crucial role in irradiation-induced ROS generation and ROS-associated impairment of salivary gland cells and that Nox1 gene may be targeted for preservation of the salivary gland function from radiation-induced impairment

  1. Chronic Nicotine Exposure In Vivo and In Vitro Inhibits Vitamin B1 (Thiamin Uptake by Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabhan Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Thiamin (vitamin B1, a member of the water-soluble family of vitamins, is essential for normal cellular functions; its deficiency results in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pancreatic acinar cells (PAC obtain thiamin from the circulation using a specific carrier-mediated process mediated by both thiamin transporters -1 and -2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; encoded by the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes, respectively. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of chronic exposure of mouse PAC in vivo and human PAC in vitro to nicotine (a major component of cigarette smoke that has been implicated in pancreatic diseases on thiamin uptake and to delineate the mechanism involved. The results showed that chronic exposure of mice to nicotine significantly inhibits thiamin uptake in murine PAC, and that this inhibition is associated with a marked decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein, mRNA and hnRNAs level. Furthermore, expression of the important thiamin-metabolizing enzyme, thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPKase, was significantly reduced in PAC of mice exposed to nicotine. Similarly, chronic exposure of cultured human PAC to nicotine (0.5 μM, 48 h significantly inhibited thiamin uptake, which was also associated with a decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 proteins and mRNAs. This study demonstrates that chronic exposure of PAC to nicotine impairs the physiology and the molecular biology of the thiamin uptake process. Furthermore, the study suggests that the effect is, in part, mediated through transcriptional mechanism(s affecting the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes.

  2. Longitudinal changes over 2 years in parotid glands of patients treated with preoperative 30-Gy irradiation for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomitaka, Etsushi; Murakami, Ryuji; Teshima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in parotid volumes and saliva production over 2 years after 30 Gy irradiation. We retrospectively evaluated 15 assessable patients treated for advanced oral cancer. Eligibility criteria were a pathologic diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, preoperative radiation therapy with a total dose of 30 Gy delivered in 15 fractions, and the availability of longitudinal data of morphological assessments by computed tomography and functional assessments with the Saxon test spanning 2 years after radiation therapy. In the Saxon test, saliva production was measured by weighing a folded sterile gauze pad before and after chewing; the low-normal value is 2 g/2 min. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was used to determine the longitudinal changes. The normalized ipsilateral parotid volumes 2 weeks and 6-, 12- and 24 months after radiation therapy were found to be 72.5, 63.7, 66.9 and 78.1%, respectively; the normalized contralateral volumes were 69.8, 64.6, 72.2 and 82.0%, respectively. The bilateral parotid volumes were significantly decreased after radiation therapy (P<0.01). The nadir appeared at 6 months post-radiation therapy and the volumes substantially recuperated 24 months after radiation therapy (P<0.01). Mean saliva production before radiation therapy was 3.7 g; the longitudinal changes after radiation therapy were 31.3, 38.0, 43.3 and 69.6%, respectively. Substantial recuperation of saliva production was observed 24 months after radiation therapy (P=0.01). Although parotid volumes and saliva production were decreased after 30 Gy irradiation, we observed the recuperation of morphological and functional changes in the parotid glands 2 years after radiation therapy. (author)

  3. Radiation Therapy for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Involving the Parotid Area Lymph Nodes: Dose and Volume Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Grekin, Roy C.; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, Mary K.; Margolis, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes are the most commonly involved when skin cancer of the head and neck metastasizes beyond the primary site. We sought to report the clinical outcome of patients treated with radiation therapy for parotid-area metastases from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: The records of 36 patients treated with radiation therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma involving the parotid-area lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients had clinically N0 necks and were without evidence of distant disease. Thirty patients (83%) were treated postoperatively after gross total tumor resection. Median dose to the parotid area was 60 Gy (range, 50-72 Gy). Treatment of clinically N0 necks consisted of surgical dissection (7 patients), irradiation (15 patients), and observation (14 patients). Results: The 5-year estimate of local (parotid) control was 86% in patients treated using surgery with postoperative therapy and 47% in patients treated using radiation therapy alone. Three of 4 patients with tumors that relapsed locally after surgery and postoperative radiation received a dose of less than 60 Gy. Elective neck irradiation decreased the incidence of subsequent nodal failures from 50% to 0% and significantly improved neck control (p < 0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate was 63%. Conclusions: Surgery followed by radiation therapy to doses of at least 60 Gy results in effective local control for patients with parotid area metastasis from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Routine irradiation of the clinically N0 neck is recommended

  4. Calculation of the uncertainty in complication probability for various dose-response models, applied to the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilstra, C.; Meertens, H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Usually, models that predict normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) are fitted to clinical data with the maximum likelihood (ML) method. This method inevitably causes a loss of information contained in the data. In this study, an alternative method is investigated that calculates the parameter probability distribution (PD), and, thus, conserves all information. The PD method also allows the calculation of the uncertainty in the NTCP, which is an (often-neglected) prerequisite for the intercomparison of both treatment plans and NTCP models. The PD and ML methods are applied to parotid gland data, and the results are compared. Methods and Materials: The drop in salivary flow due to radiotherapy was measured in 25 parotid glands of 15 patients. Together with the parotid gland dose-volume histograms (DVH), this enabled the calculation of the parameter PDs for three different NTCP models (Lyman, relative seriality, and critical volume). From these PDs, the NTCP and its uncertainty could be calculated for arbitrary parotid gland DVHs. ML parameters and resulting NTCP values were calculated also. Results: All models fitted equally well. The parameter PDs turned out to have nonnormal shapes and long tails. The NTCP predictions of the ML and PD method usually differed considerably, depending on the NTCP model and the nature of irradiation. NTCP curves and ML parameters suggested a highly parallel organization of the parotid gland. Conclusions: Considering the substantial differences between the NTCP predictions of the ML and PD method, the use of the PD method is preferred, because this is the only method that takes all information contained in the clinical data into account. Furthermore, PD method gives a true measure of the uncertainty in the NTCP

  5. c-MYC amplification and c-myc protein expression in pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas. New insights into the molecular signature of these rare cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Stefano; Bernasconi, Barbara; Vanoli, Alessandro; Sciarra, Amedeo; Notohara, Kenji; Albarello, Luca; Casnedi, Selenia; Billo, Paola; Zhang, Lizhi; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Sessa, Fausto

    2018-05-02

    The molecular alterations of pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) and mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) are not completely understood, and the possible role of c-MYC amplification in tumor development, progression, and prognosis is not known. We have investigated c-MYC gene amplification in a series of 35 ACCs and 4 MANECs to evaluate its frequency and a possible prognostic role. Gene amplification was investigated using interphasic fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis simultaneously hybridizing c-MYC and the centromere of chromosome 8 probes. Protein expression was immunohistochemically investigated using a specific monoclonal anti-c-myc antibody. Twenty cases had clones with different polysomies of chromosome 8 in absence of c-MYC amplification, and 5 cases had one amplified clone and other clones with chromosome 8 polysomy, while the remaining 14 cases were diploid for chromosome 8 and lacked c-MYC amplification. All MANECs showed c-MYC amplification and/or polysomy which were observed in 54% pure ACCs. Six cases (15.3%) showed nuclear immunoreactivity for c-myc, but only 4/39 cases showed simultaneous c-MYC amplification/polysomy and nuclear protein expression. c-myc immunoreactivity as well as c-MYC amplification and/or chromosome 8 polysomy was not statistically associated with prognosis. Our study demonstrates that a subset of ACCs shows c-MYC alterations including gene amplification and chromosome 8 polysomy. Although they are not associated with a different prognostic signature, the fact that these alterations are present in all MANECs suggests a role in the acinar-neuroendocrine differentiation possibly involved in the pathogenesis of MANECs.

  6. Early to Late Endosome Trafficking Controls Secretion and Zymogen Activation in Rodent and Human Pancreatic Acinar CellsSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. Messenger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Pancreatic acinar cells have an expanded apical endosomal system, the physiologic and pathophysiologic significance of which is still emerging. Phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5P2] is an essential phospholipid generated by phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve, which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P. PI(3,5P2 is necessary for maturation of early endosomes (EE to late endosomes (LE. Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking enhances anterograde endosomal trafficking and secretion at the plasma membrane by default through a recycling endosome (RE intermediate. We assessed the effects of modulating PIKfyve activity on apical trafficking and pancreatitis responses in pancreatic acinar cells. Methods: Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking was achieved using pharmacologic inhibitors of PIKfyve, expression of dominant negative PIKfyve K1877E, or constitutively active Rab5-GTP Q79L. Anterograde endosomal trafficking was manipulated by expression of constitutively active and dominant negative Rab11a mutants. The effects of these agents on secretion, endolysosomal exocytosis of lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP1, and trypsinogen activation in response to supramaximal cholecystokinin (CCK-8, bile acids, and cigarette toxin was determined. Results: PIKfyve inhibition increased basal and stimulated secretion. Adenoviral overexpression of PIKfyve decreased secretion leading to cellular death. Expression of Rab5-GTP Q79L or Rab11a-GTP Q70L enhanced secretion. Conversely, dominant-negative Rab11a-GDP S25N reduced secretion. High-dose CCK inhibited endolysosomal exocytosis that was reversed by PIKfyve inhibition. PIKfyve inhibition blocked intracellular trypsin accumulation and cellular damage responses to supramaximal CCK-8, tobacco toxin, and bile salts in both rodent and human acini. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that EE-LE trafficking acutely controls acinar secretion and the intracellular

  7. Cytopathology and exocrine dysfunction induced in ex vivo rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cell models by chronic exposure to histamine or serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michelle L; Wang, Yanru; Selvam, Shivaram; Nakamura, Tamako; Chow, Robert H; Schechter, Joel E; Yiu, Samuel C; Mircheff, Austin K

    2009-07-01

    Lacrimal immunohistopathology has diverse clinical presentations, suggesting that inflammatory mediators exert diverse influences. Chronic exposure to agonistic acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies has been studied previously; the present work addressed mediators that signal through other G protein-coupled receptors. Acinus-like structures and reconstituted acinar epithelial monolayers from rabbit lacrimal glands were exposed to varying concentrations of histamine or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) for 20 hours. Net and vectorial beta-hexosaminidase secretion, cytosolic Ca(2+) (Ca(i)) elevation, apical recruitment of p150(Glued), actin microfilament meshwork organization, and ultrastructure were assessed. Histamine and 5-HT acutely stimulated beta-hexosaminidase secretion at lower, but not higher, concentrations. Neither of them acutely elevated Ca(i) levels. Both recruited p150(Glued) at concentrations that failed to induce secretion. Chronic exposure to 10 mM histamine inhibited carbachol (CCh)-induced beta-hexosaminidase secretion and prevented the formation of continuous monolayers; 1 mM 5-HT partially inhibited secretion at the apical medium. Neither altered secretion to the basal medium. Chronic exposure to histamine or 5-HT partially decreased CCh induced Ca(i) elevations and p150(Glued) recruitment, even at concentrations that did not inhibit secretion. Both expanded acinar lumina and thickened microfilament meshworks, and both caused homotypic fusion of secretory vesicles and formation of aqueous vacuoles in the apical and basal cytoplasm. Chronic exposure to forskolin, which activates adenylyl cyclase, induced similar cytopathologic changes but impaired secretion modestly and only at the highest concentration tested. Inflammatory mediators that signal through G protein-coupled receptors cause acinar cell cytopathology and dose-dependent reductions of CCh-induced beta-hexosaminidase secretion. Although agonistic acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies may cause

  8. DEAR1 is a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis and an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Lott

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in young women tends to have a natural history of aggressive disease for which rates of recurrence are higher than in breast cancers detected later in life. Little is known about the genetic pathways that underlie early-onset breast cancer. Here we report the discovery of DEAR1 (ductal epithelium-associated RING Chromosome 1, a novel gene encoding a member of the TRIM (tripartite motif subfamily of RING finger proteins, and provide evidence for its role as a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis in the mammary gland and as an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer.Suppression subtractive hybridization identified DEAR1 as a novel gene mapping to a region of high-frequency loss of heterozygosity (LOH in a number of histologically diverse human cancers within Chromosome 1p35.1. In the breast epithelium, DEAR1 expression is limited to the ductal and glandular epithelium and is down-regulated in transition to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, an early histologic stage in breast tumorigenesis. DEAR1 missense mutations and homozygous deletion (HD were discovered in breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Introduction of the DEAR1 wild type and not the missense mutant alleles to complement a mutation in a breast cancer cell line, derived from a 36-year-old female with invasive breast cancer, initiated acinar morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D basement membrane culture and restored tissue architecture reminiscent of normal acinar structures in the mammary gland in vivo. Stable knockdown of DEAR1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs recapitulated the growth in 3D culture of breast cancer cell lines containing mutated DEAR1, in that shDEAR1 clones demonstrated disruption of tissue architecture, loss of apical basal polarity, diffuse apoptosis, and failure of lumen formation. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray from a cohort of 123 young

  9. Parotid Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma in a Big-eared Opossum (Didelphis aurita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Delgado, J; Coimbra, A A C; Dos Santos-Cirqueira, C; Sanches, T C; Guerra, J M; de Oliveira, A S; Di Loretto, C; Zwarg, T; Ressio, R; Rivas, L; Sansone, M; Nagamori, F O; Kanamura, C; Gonçalves, P S; Fernandes, N C C A; Groch, K R; Catão-Dias, J L

    2018-02-01

    The opossum (family Didelphidae) is a marsupial endemic to the Americas. Apart from the South American short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), there is considerable lack of knowledge about the health and diseases of most opossum species. Among these, the big-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita) is found in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Natural and experimental studies have shown this species to be susceptible to infectious agents with zoonotic potential and the animals may play a role in transmission of such agents. However, neoplasia appears to be uncommon in this species. We describe the gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of a parotid salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinoma in a free-living big-eared opossum. This case represents the first report of salivary gland neoplasia in opossums. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Image analysis of microsialograms of the mouse parotid gland using digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiura, K.; Ohki, M.; Yamada, N.

    1991-01-01

    The authors compared two digital-image feature-extraction methods for the analysis of microsialograms of the mouse parotid gland following either overfilling, experimentally induced acute sialoadenitis or irradiation. Microsialograms were digitized using a drum-scanning microdensitometer. The grey levels were then partitioned into four bands representing soft tissue, peripheral minor, middle-sized and major ducts, and run-length and histogram analysis of the digital images performed. Serial analysis of microsialograms during progressive filling showed that both methods depicted the structural characteristics of the ducts at each grey level. However, in the experimental groups, run-length analysis showed slight changes in the peripheral duct system more clearly. This method was therefore considered more effective than histogram analysis

  11. Primary intraosseous carcinoma arising from odontogenic keratocyst with parotid lymph node metastasis. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Shenoy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising from odontogenic cyst lining is rare. The exact incidence of carcinoma arising in odontogenic cyst is unknown, but it is estimated to vary between 1 and 2/1000. The pathogenesis is unknown, but a long-standing inflammation and continuous intracystic pressure have been suggested as possible causative factors. Metastasis from these lesions is not common (< 20%, and most of the carcinomas are moderately to well differentiated. To qualify as a primary intraosseous carcinoma, there must be no initial connection with the oral mucosa, overlying skin, or antral or nasal mucosa. This paper presents a case of primary intraosseous carcinoma arising from odontogenic keratocyst in the anterior mandible with metastasis to left parotid lymph nodes.

  12. Parotiditis crónica recurrente infantil: una revisión actualizada de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso-Hofer, Francisca; Gutiérrez Díaz, Rodrigo; Ortiz Cárdenas, Rodrigo; Osorio Herrera, Gustavo; Landaeta Mendoza, Mirtha

    2017-01-01

    La parotiditis crónica recurrente infantil (PCRI) es una patología relevante. Su diagnóstico es principalmente clínico, pero se apoya en exámenes imagenológicos. El enfoque actual del tratamiento es diverso. El objetivo es realizar una revisión actualizada sobre las características clínicas, exámenes complementarios, modelos etiopatogénicos y protocolos terapéuticos. Material y Método: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en PUBMED utilizando los términos libres y términos MESH: PCRI, paroti...

  13. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland in AIDS patients: CT characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holiday, R.A.; Cohen, W.A.; Schinella, R.A.; Rothstein, S.G.; Persky, M.S.; Jacobs, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast agent-enhanced CT scans in nine male patients with histologically proved benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the perotid gland were reviewed. All scans showed cystic-appearing masses with peripheral rim enhancement corresponding to the macroscopic appearance of the lesion. Five patients were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or had infections seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Three patients were members of high-risk groups. Only one patient had symptoms of the SICCA syndrome. Once a rare cause of parotid gland enlargement, benign lymphoepithelial lesions have recently been seen with increasing frequency in patients with HIV infection. Although the CT appearance is not pathognomic, correlation results of aspiration cytology and with clinical history can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of a benign lymphoepithelial lesion

  14. A case of parotid tumor showing remarkable regression following hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Takashi; Yonemura, Yutaka; Kamata, Toru

    1987-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman developed adenocarcinoma of the left parotid gland. Because of the excessive size of her tumor and the fact that she suffered from severe liver dysfunction, she was treated by hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy (HCR therapy). After ten sessions of radiofrequency hyperthermia with HEH 500 (13.56 MHz radiofrequency wave), 50-Gy irradiation from a linac and administration of 33.0 g of tegafur in suppository form, the tumor mass showed remarkable regression decreasing in size by as much as 84 % on computed tomography. Histologically, the tumor which was resected under local anesthesia, showed almost total necrosis. The multidisciplinary HCR therapy was well tolerated and effective as a therapy for cancer in this case. (author)

  15. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma presenting as a painless lump in the parotid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Emma; Bashyam, Anthony; Derbyshire, Stephen; Di Palma, Silvana

    2018-05-30

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a rare neoplasm of the antigen presenting cells of the immune system. The majority occur in lymph nodes but around 30% can occur extranodally including in the spleen, lungs, head and neck and liver. We present an unusual case of an FDCS of the parotid gland in a 51-year-old woman with a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with combination chemotherapy and modified mantle radiotherapy. Only four cases of an intraparotid FDCS have been previously reported. The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy and level 2/3 neck dissection. A diagnosis of an intraparotid FDCS (25 mm) with no nodal disease was made. Given this patient's history of radiotherapy 20 years previously, we speculate the possibility of postradiation sarcoma. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Conventional megavoltage radiotherapy in the management of malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Bataini, J.P.; Colin, P.; Jaulerry, C.; Brunin, F.; Pontvert, D.; Durand, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This is an evaluation of definitive conventional megavoltage radiotherapy in a consecutive series of 35 patients presenting malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland. In this series, the 5-year actuarial locoregional control rate was 41% with a 5-year crude survival rate of 36%. The results are analyzed according to tumour presentation and tumour doses. Six of 15 patients with tumours larger than 6 cm have had a lasting locoregional control. During the same period 43 other patients received radiotherapy as a post-operative modality. Results obtained in this group confirm the previously published data. While recent studies tend to demonstrate the specific efficacy of high LET radiation in the management of locally advanced salivary gland tumours, radical conventional radiotherapy can still be employed with a curative intent when neutron facilities are not available. (author). 34 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  17. Maintenance Therapy with Trastuzumab in Her2 Positive Metastatic Parotid Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary ductal carcinomas (SDCs are extremely rare and aggressive malignancies, accounting for approximately 6% of all salivary gland malignancies. One distinct feature is their resemblance to ductal carcinomas of breast. A significant percentage of SDCs overexpress Her2 and the use of targeted therapy with trastuzumab can be considered in these patients. We report a rare case of long term disease control with trastuzumab in Her2 positive metastatic parotid ductal carcinoma. Our case also highlights that isolated brain metastasis should be managed aggressively to allow optimal local control when systemic disease is under remission with trastuzumab. We have also reviewed the published literature on the use of trastuzumab in SDCs.

  18. Dose–response analysis of parotid gland function: What is the best measure of xerostomia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Aisha B.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Clark, Catharine H.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Zaidi, Shane H.; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the dose–response relationships for the different measures of salivary gland recovery following radical radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers (LA-HNSCC). Methods and materials: Dosimetric analysis of data from the PARSPORT trial, a Phase III study of conventional RT (RT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for LA-HNSCC was undertaken to determine the relationship between parotid gland mean dose and toxicity endpoints: high-grade subjective and objective xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life scores. LKB-NTCP parameters (TD50, m and n) were generated and tolerance doses (D50) reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Results: Data were available on 63 patients from the PARSPORT trial. Parotid saliva flow rate provided the strongest association between mean dose and recovery, D50 = 23.4 Gy (20.6–26.2) and k = 3.2 (1.9–4.5), R 2 = 0.85. Corresponding LKB parameters were TD50 = 26.3 Gy (95% CI: 24.0–30.1), m = 0.25 (0.18–1.0 and n = 1). LENTSOMA subjective xerostomia also demonstrated a strong association D50 = 33.3 Gy (26.7–39.8), k = 2.8 (91.4–4.4), R 2 = 0.77). Conclusion: We recommend using the LENT SOMA subjective xerostomia score to predict recovery of salivation due to its strong association with dosimetry and ease of recording

  19. Noninvasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A difficult diagnosis on fine needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Scognamiglio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA is a rare epithelial malignancy that arises from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA. It may be noninvasive (NI or invasive. NI CXPA is extremely rare. Preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA of CXPA may be difficult and poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Herein, we describe the FNA findings of a case of NI-CXPA. A 69-year-old woman presented with rapid enlargement of a stable parotid mass of 25 years. Cytologically, malignant cells were focally associated with metachromatic fibromyxoid matrix that was homogeneous and dense with a vague fibrillary quality. There were cell groups, papillary-like clusters and single malignant cells. The nuclei were pleomorphic with irregularly dispersed chromatin, and the cytoplasm was ill-defined and granular. Nucleoli were small to inconspicuous. Mitoses and necrosis were not seen. Cytological features were not specific for any type of salivary gland carcinoma. The FNA diagnosis was primary high-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, not otherwise specified. Facial nerve-sparing total parotidectomy was performed, which histologically showed PA interspersed with ducts and nests composed of pleomorphic atypical nuclei surrounded by extensive hyalinization. Single cells were also noted. No capsular infiltration was seen in the entirely sampled tumor. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 showed a higher proliferation rate in the malignant ducts and p63 positive cells focally surrounded some of the malignant ducts. Histological diagnosis was NI-CXPA. Accurate diagnosis is important for proper surgical management; however, the preoperative diagnosis of NI-CXPA is difficult to make on FNA.

  20. Noninvasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A difficult diagnosis on fine needle aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Theresa; Joshi, Rohan; Kuhel, William I.; Tabbara, Sana O.; Rezaei, M. Katayoon; Hoda, Rana S.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare epithelial malignancy that arises from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA). It may be noninvasive (NI) or invasive. NI CXPA is extremely rare. Preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA) of CXPA may be difficult and poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Herein, we describe the FNA findings of a case of NI-CXPA. A 69-year-old woman presented with rapid enlargement of a stable parotid mass of 25 years. Cytologically, malignant cells were focally associated with metachromatic fibromyxoid matrix that was homogeneous and dense with a vague fibrillary quality. There were cell groups, papillary-like clusters and single malignant cells. The nuclei were pleomorphic with irregularly dispersed chromatin, and the cytoplasm was ill-defined and granular. Nucleoli were small to inconspicuous. Mitoses and necrosis were not seen. Cytological features were not specific for any type of salivary gland carcinoma. The FNA diagnosis was primary high-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, not otherwise specified. Facial nerve-sparing total parotidectomy was performed, which histologically showed PA interspersed with ducts and nests composed of pleomorphic atypical nuclei surrounded by extensive hyalinization. Single cells were also noted. No capsular infiltration was seen in the entirely sampled tumor. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 showed a higher proliferation rate in the malignant ducts and p63 positive cells focally surrounded some of the malignant ducts. Histological diagnosis was NI-CXPA. Accurate diagnosis is important for proper surgical management; however, the preoperative diagnosis of NI-CXPA is difficult to make on FNA. PMID:25972908

  1. Comparison of different deep learning approaches for parotid gland segmentation from CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsch, Annika; Schwier, Michael; Gass, Tobias; Morgas, Tomasz; Haas, Benjamin; Klein, Jan; Hahn, Horst K.

    2018-02-01

    The segmentation of target structures and organs at risk is a crucial and very time-consuming step in radiotherapy planning. Good automatic methods can significantly reduce the time clinicians have to spend on this task. Due to its variability in shape and often low contrast to surrounding structures, segmentation of the parotid gland is especially challenging. Motivated by the recent success of deep learning, we study different deep learning approaches for parotid gland segmentation. Particularly, we compare 2D, 2D ensemble and 3D U-Net approaches and find that the 2D U-Net ensemble yields the best results with a mean Dice score of 0.817 on our test data. The ensemble approach reduces false positives without the need for an automatic region of interest detection. We also apply our trained 2D U-Net ensemble to segment the test data of the 2015 MICCAI head and neck auto-segmentation challenge. With a mean Dice score of 0.861, our classifier exceeds the highest mean score in the challenge. This shows that the method generalizes well onto data from independent sites. Since appropriate reference annotations are essential for training but often difficult and expensive to obtain, it is important to know how many samples are needed to properly train a neural network. We evaluate the classifier performance after training with differently sized training sets (50-450) and find that 250 cases (without using extensive data augmentation) are sufficient to obtain good results with the 2D ensemble. Adding more samples does not significantly improve the Dice score of the segmentations.

  2. Asistolia por compresión del seno carotídeo: una complicación potencialmente fatal de la parotiditis vírica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Novoa-Gómez

    2015-07-01

    Presentamos una rara complicación, no descrita en la literatura, de asistolias recurrentes provocadas por la compresión del seno carotídeo, debido a la inflamación local producida por la parotiditis.

  3. Parotid gland-recovery after radiotherapy in the head and neck region - 36 months follow-up of a prospective clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery potential of the parotid glands after using either 3D-conformal-radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by sparing one single parotid gland. Methods Between 06/2002 and 10/2008, 117 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this prospective, non-randomised clinical study. All patients were treated with curative intent. Salivary gland function was assessed by measuring stimulated salivary flow at the beginning, during and at the end of radiotherapy as well as 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after treatment. Measurements were converted to flow rates and normalized relative to rates before treatment. Mean doses (Dmean) were calculated from dose-volume histograms based on computed tomographies of the parotid glands. Results Patients were grouped according to the Dmean of the spared parotid gland having the lowest radiation exposure: Group I - Dmean 40 Gy (n = 36). 15/117 (13%) patients received IMRT. By using IMRT as compared to 3D-CRT the Dmean of the spared parotid gland could be significantly reduced (Dmean IMRT vs. 3D-CRT: 21.7 vs. 34.4 Gy, p < 0.001). The relative salivary flow rates (RFSR) as a function of the mean parotid dose after 24 and 36 months was in group I 66% and 74%, in group II 56% and 49%, and in group III 31% and 24%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the parotid gland dose and the tumor site were the independent determinants 12 and 36 months after the end of RT. Patients of group I and II parotid gland function did recover at 12, 24, and 36 months after the end of RT. Conclusions If a Dmean < 26 Gy for at least one parotid gland can be achieved then this is sufficient to reach complete recovery of pre-RT salivary flow rates. The radiation volume which depends on tumor site did significantly impact on the Dmean of the parotids, and thus on the saliva flow and recovery of parotid gland. PMID:21951317

  4. Parotid gland-recovery after radiotherapy in the head and neck region - 36 months follow-up of a prospective clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Janich, Martin; Hildebrandt, Guido; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery potential of the parotid glands after using either 3D-conformal-radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by sparing one single parotid gland. Between 06/2002 and 10/2008, 117 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this prospective, non-randomised clinical study. All patients were treated with curative intent. Salivary gland function was assessed by measuring stimulated salivary flow at the beginning, during and at the end of radiotherapy as well as 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after treatment. Measurements were converted to flow rates and normalized relative to rates before treatment. Mean doses (D mean ) were calculated from dose-volume histograms based on computed tomographies of the parotid glands. Patients were grouped according to the D mean of the spared parotid gland having the lowest radiation exposure: Group I - D mean < 26 Gy (n = 36), group II - D mean 26-40 Gy (n = 45), and group III - D mean > 40 Gy (n = 36). 15/117 (13%) patients received IMRT. By using IMRT as compared to 3D-CRT the D mean of the spared parotid gland could be significantly reduced (D mean IMRT vs. 3D-CRT: 21.7 vs. 34.4 Gy, p < 0.001). The relative salivary flow rates (RFSR) as a function of the mean parotid dose after 24 and 36 months was in group I 66% and 74%, in group II 56% and 49%, and in group III 31% and 24%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the parotid gland dose and the tumor site were the independent determinants 12 and 36 months after the end of RT. Patients of group I and II parotid gland function did recover at 12, 24, and 36 months after the end of RT. If a D mean < 26 Gy for at least one parotid gland can be achieved then this is sufficient to reach complete recovery of pre-RT salivary flow rates. The radiation volume which depends on tumor site did significantly impact on the D mean of the parotids, and thus on the saliva flow and recovery of

  5. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  6. Impact of residual setup error on parotid gland dose in intensity-modulated radiation therapy with or without planning organ-at-risk margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delana, Anna; Menegotti, Loris; Valentini, Aldo; Bolner, Andrea; Tomio, Luigi; Vanoni, Valentina; Lohr, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the dosimetric impact of residual setup errors on parotid sparing in head-and-neck (H and N) intensity-modulated treatments and to evaluate the effect of employing an PRV (planning organ-at-risk volume) margin for the parotid gland. Patients and methods: Ten patients treated for H and N cancer were considered. A nine-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was planned for each patient. A second optimization was performed prescribing dose constraint to the PRV of the parotid gland. Systematic setup errors of 2 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were simulated. The dose-volume histograms of the shifted and reference plans were compared with regard to mean parotid gland dose (MPD), normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP), and coverage of the clinical target volume (V 95% and equivalent uniform dose [EUD]); the sensitivity of parotid sparing on setup error was evaluated with a probability-based approach. Results: MPD increased by 3.4%/mm and 3.0%/mm for displacements in the craniocaudal and lateral direction and by 0.7%/mm for displacements in the anterior-posterior direction. The probability to irradiate the parotid with a mean dose > 30 Gy was > 50%, for setup errors in cranial and lateral direction and 95% and EUD variations < 1% and < 1 Gy). Conclusion: The parotid gland is more sensitive to craniocaudal and lateral displacements. A setup error of 2 mm guarantees an MPD ≤ 30 Gy in most cases, without adding a PRV margin. If greater displacements are expected/accepted, an adequate PRV margin could be used to meet the clinical parotid gland constraint of 30 Gy, without affecting target volume coverage. (orig.)

  7. Scintigraphic assessment of salivary function after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: correlations with parotid dose and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hsuan; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Hung, Chao-Hsiung; Liu, Kuo-Chi; Tsai, Ming-Fong; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chen, Hungcheng; Fang, Fu-Ming; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated salivary function using quantitative scintigraphy and sought to identify functional correlations between parotid dose and quality of life (QoL) for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Between August, 2007 and June, 2008, 31 patients treated IMRT for HNC were enrolled in this prospective study. Salivary excretion function (SEF) was previously measured by salivary scintigraphy at annual intervals for 2 years after IMRT. A dose-volume histogram of each parotid gland was calculated, and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was used to determine the tolerance dose. QoL was longitudinally assessed by the EORTC QLQ-C30 and H&N35 questionnaires prior to RT, and at one, three, 12 and 24 months after RT. A significant correlation was found between the reduction of SEF and the mean parotid dose measured at 1 year (correlation coefficient, R(2)=0.651) and 2 years (R(2)=0.310) after IMRT (pwestern countries. We further found that contralateral parotid and submandibular gland function preservation was correlated with reduced sticky saliva and a better QoL compared to the functional preservation of both parotid glands, as determined by the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire. A significant correlation was found between the reduction of SEF and the mean parotid dose. Preservation of contralateral parotid and submandibular gland function predicts a better QoL compared to preservation of the function of both parotid glands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. External beam radiotherapy for head and neck carcinomas with preservation of parotid function: indications, techniques and long term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding-Jen, Lee; Fairbanks, Robert; Lee, Frank C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To reduce the incidence of radiotherapy induced xerostomia, we developed techniques of external beam irradiation with preservation of parotid function for patients with early to intermediate stage carcinomas of the head and neck. This analysis reports the efficacy of our methods. Materials and Methods: From 1985 to 1993, 42 patients with early to intermediate stage (T 1-3 N 0-2 M 0 ) head and neck carcinomas received a course of external beam radiotherapy. There were 13 patients with carcinoma of the oropharynx, 26 with carcinomas of the oral cavity and 3 with carcinomas of the hypopharynx (lateral wall). 7 patients received a course of definitive radiotherapy (66 to 72 Gy), while 35 patients received a course of postoperative radiotherapy (60-66 Gy). The fraction size was 2 Gy per day. In terms of treatment planning, the primary site (plus a margin) and the ipsilateral neck were covered by the irradiation volume. The ipsilateral parotid gland was within the treatment volume while the contralateral parotid gland was not. The most frequently used field arrangement was a paired wedge fields with an AP (medially just across the mid-line) and an ipsilateral posterior oblique field (usually 30 deg. off vertical axis with a spinal cord block). Multiple level of contours were taken and transmission blocks were used to improve dose homogeneity. In all patients, the ipsilateral parotid gland (and the neck) was irradiated while the contralateral parotid gland (and the neck) was not. Results: With a median follow up of 4 years (ranged from 1.5 to 9 years), only one patient developed symptomatic xerostomia. None had radiation induced dental caries. No patient developed recurrent disease in the contralateral neck. The local control rate was (38(42)) (90%) in the primary site and(41(42)) (98%) in the ipsilateral neck. Conclusion: With appropriate treatment planning, external beam irradiation with parotid function preservation can be achieved. Our results

  9. Incorporating single-side sparing in models for predicting parotid dose sparing in head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Lulin; Wu, Q. Jackie; Yin, Fang-Fang; Yoo, David; Jiang, Yuliang; Ge, Yaorong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Sparing of single-side parotid gland is a common practice in head-and-neck (HN) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning. It is a special case of dose sparing tradeoff between different organs-at-risk. The authors describe an improved mathematical model for predicting achievable dose sparing in parotid glands in HN IMRT planning that incorporates single-side sparing considerations based on patient anatomy and learning from prior plan data. Methods: Among 68 HN cases analyzed retrospectively, 35 cases had physician prescribed single-side parotid sparing preferences. The single-side sparing model was trained with cases which had single-side sparing preferences, while the standard model was trained with the remainder of cases. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the best criterion that separates the two case groups using the physician's single-side sparing prescription as ground truth. The final predictive model (combined model) takes into account the single-side sparing by switching between the standard and single-side sparing models according to the single-side sparing criterion. The models were tested with 20 additional cases. The significance of the improvement of prediction accuracy by the combined model over the standard model was evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Using the ROC analysis, the best single-side sparing criterion is (1) the predicted median dose of one parotid is higher than 24 Gy; and (2) that of the other is higher than 7 Gy. This criterion gives a true positive rate of 0.82 and a false positive rate of 0.19, respectively. For the bilateral sparing cases, the combined and the standard models performed equally well, with the median of the prediction errors for parotid median dose being 0.34 Gy by both models (p = 0.81). For the single-side sparing cases, the standard model overestimates the median dose by 7.8 Gy on average, while the predictions by the combined

  10. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chiu, Hui-Chu; Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chung, Hsiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  11. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  12. Optimisation and evaluation of the foetal dose during a radiotherapy of the right parotid; Optimisation et evaluation de la dose foetale pendant une radiotherapie de la parotide droite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, V.; Noel, A. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Unite de Radiophysique Medicale, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Graff, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Noel, A. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, CRAN, CNRS UMR-7039, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2008-09-15

    Purpose was to optimize and to estimate the dose delivered to the foetus during a postoperative irradiation of a 5-month twin pregnant woman presenting with adenocarcinoma of the right parotid. The treatment protocol aimed to deliver 66 Gy conformal radiation therapy on the tumour bed associated to a prophylactic irradiation of 50 Gy on the upper cervical nodes. A series of measurements allowed to estimate the delivered dose in the abdomen by the means of an ion chamber inserted in a water phantom placed side by side of an anthropomorphic Alderson Rando phantom simulating the body of the patient from the head to the pelvis. An appropriate optimisation of the number and orientation of beams were performed in order to minimize the peripheral dose, which is mostly dependent of the total number of monitor unit per fraction: cervical nodes and tumour site included in the same fields, limitation of the irradiated volume, 6 MV X-ray beams rather than Cobalt beams. The measured doses at the upper, in the middle and at the lower part of the abdomen were 17.0, 11.0 and 11.9 mGy, respectively, for the entire treatment, representing 0.025, 0.016 and 0.017%, respectively of the prescribed dose. The actions conducted to optimise the treatment allowed to lower doses delivered to the foetus under the limits proposed by international recommendations (100 mGy). Thus, the treatment of the pregnant patient had been performed with a minimized risk for the foetus. (authors)

  13. A case report of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas treated with S-1 chemotherapy: Does it work or induce endocrine differentiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokode, Masataka; Itai, Ryosuke; Yamashita, Yukimasa; Zen, Yoh

    2017-11-01

    Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) and mixed acinar-endocrine carcinomas (MAECs) of the pancreas are rare, accounting for only 1% of pancreatic tumors. Although both typically present at an advanced stage, chemotherapeutic regimes have not yet been standardized. A 65-year-old man presented with a large mass in the pancreatic tail with multiple liver metastases. He was initially treated with gemcitabine for suspected ductal carcinoma of the pancreas, but no response was observed. S-1, administered as second-line chemotherapy, showed an approximately 38% reduction in the size of the primary tumor and metastatic deposits with therapeutic effects being maintained for 12 months. When the tumor progressed again, he underwent a percutaneous liver biopsy, which led to the diagnosis of MAEC. Combination therapy with cisplatin and etoposide targeting the endocrine component was administered, and this was based on the endocrine component potentially being less sensitive to S-1 than the ACC element. However, therapy was stopped due to the development of neutropenia, and the patient is currently receiving best supportive care. Given the previous studies suggested that S-1 is more effective for ACCs than gemcitabine, MAECs may also respond to S-1 chemotherapy, similar to ACCs. Another potential interpretation is that S-1 was effective when the condition was ACC, and eventually showed decreased effectiveness when the condition shifted to MAEC. Future studies are needed to conclude whether S-1 chemotherapy truly works against MAECs or induces endocrine differentiation in ACCs as a part of the drug-resistance process.

  14. Phosphorylated intermediate of (Ca2+ + K+)-stimulated Mg2+-dependent transport ATPase in endoplasmic reticulum from rat pancreatic acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, K.; Schulz, I.

    1985-01-01

    Formation and decomposition of the phosphorylated intermediate of endoplasmic reticulum (Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ )-ATPase from pancreatic acinar cells have been studied using lithium dodecyl sulfate- and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Incorporation of 32 P from [gamma- 32 P]ATP is Ca 2+ -dependent (approximate Km for free [Ca 2+ ] = 2-3 x 10(-8) mol/liter). Formation of the 100-kDa phosphoprotein is rapid, reaching maximal 32 P incorporation within 1 s at room temperature. At 4 degrees C, phosphorylation is slower and dephosphorylation is drastically decreased. For dephosphorylation, Mg 2+ and monovalent cations such as K + or Na + are necessary. Vanadate inhibits both 32 P incorporation and 32 P liberation dose dependently (Km = 3 x 10(-6) mol/liter), whereas mitochondrial inhibitors and ouabain have no effect. The phosphoprotein is stable at pH 2 and destabilizes with increasing pH being completely decomposed at pH 9. Reduction of 32 P incorporation in the presence of high concentrations of cold ATP and hydroxylamine suggests formation of acylphosphate present in the ATPase intermediate. The characteristics of Ca 2+ , cation, and pH dependencies of the ATPase activity are similar to those previously described for MgATP-dependent Ca 2+ transport into rough endoplasmic reticulum from pancreatic acinar cells. The data suggest that the 100-kDa phosphoprotein as described in this study is the intermediate of this Ca2+ transport ATPase

  15. Multimodal approach and long-term survival in a patient with recurrent metastatic acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Sarah F; Morris, Van K; Jensen, Corey T; Kaseb, Ahmed O

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm of the exocrine pancreas associated with a poor prognosis, especially when found to be metastatic. Since there are a lack of large studies and prospective, randomized data, no consensus treatment guidelines are available. Here, we report a case of a patient with recurrent metastatic acinar cell carcinoma involving the liver who had presented initially with pancreatic panniculitis. She received chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin prior to resection of her primary tumor and liver metastases, after which she experienced a 30 months recurrence-free survival. Upon relapse, she was treated with a combination of capecitabine and oxaliplatin followed by maintenance capecitabine. Now, more than seven years after initial diagnosis, the patient remains stable without evidence of active disease. This case highlights the possibility of therapeutic success even for a patient initially deemed unresectable due to a poor performance status who responded to fluoropyrimidine-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative characterization of the protein contents of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell by soft x-ray microscopy and advanced digital imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Jr., Billy W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The study of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell has been central to the development of models of many cellular processes, especially of protein transport and secretion. Traditional methods used to examine this system have provided a wealth of qualitative information from which mechanistic models have been inferred. However they have lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements, particularly of the distribution of protein in the cell, information critical for grounding of models in terms of magnitude and relative significance. This dissertation describes the development and application of new tools that were used to measure the protein content of the major intracellular compartments in the acinar cell, particularly the zymogen granule. Soft x-ray microscopy permits image formation with high resolution and contrast determined by the underlying protein content of tissue rather than staining avidity. A sample preparation method compatible with x-ray microscopy was developed and its properties evaluated. Automatic computerized methods were developed to acquire, calibrate, and analyze large volumes of x-ray microscopic images of exocrine pancreatic tissue sections. Statistics were compiled on the protein density of several organelles, and on the protein density, size, and spatial distribution of tens of thousands of zymogen granules. The results of these measurements, and how they compare to predictions of different models of protein transport, are discussed.

  17. Estimation of the fetal dose by dose measurement during an irradiation of a parotid tumor; Estimation de la dose foetale par mesure de dose lors d'une irradiation d'une tumeur de la parotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, V.; Graff-Cailleaud, P.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Noel, A. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, CRAN CNRS UMR-7039, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-11-15

    The irradiation of a five months pregnant patient has been made for a right parotid attack. In conformation with the legislative texts relative to radiation protection ( publication 84 of the ICRP) an estimation of the dose received for the fetus has been led by dose measurement on phantom. With the dose limit ( 100 mGy) recommended in the publication 84 of the ICRP neither modification of the treatment nor abortion was necessary. (N.C.)

  18. Effects of continuous hyperfractionated accelerated and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy on the parotid and submandibular salivary glands of rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.E.; Ang, K.K.; Stephens, L.C.; Peters, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a major treatment modality for head and neck cancer. It is often not possible to exclude the salivary glands from the treatment fields. The unique susceptibility of the serous cells of the salivary glands to irradiation often results in xerostomia with ensuing secondary complications and discomfort to the patients. Recent reports have suggested that continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART) can lead to considerably less reduction in salivary flow of the parotid salivary gland than conventional radiotherapy. This study was undertaken to assess histologic changes of salivary glands induced by CHART and conventional radiation fractionation schedules. The parotid and submandibular salivary glands of adult rhesus monkeys were irradiated with cobalt-60 γ radiation at 50 Gy/20 fractions/4 weeks, 55 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks, or 54 Gy/36 fractions/12 days (CHART). Salivary tissues were harvested at 16 weeks following irradiation and evaluated histopathologically. Microscopically, the glands receiving 50 Gy, 55 Gy, or CHART were virtually indistinguishable. There was severe atrophy and fibrosis of all glands. Quantitative analysis revealed that 50 Gy, 55 Gy, and CHART induced a reduction of serous acini in parotid glands by 86.4%, 84.8%, and 88.8%, respectively. In submandibular glands, serous acini were reduced by 99.4%, 99.0%, and 100%, respectively. The corresponding reduction in mucous acini were 98.4%, 98.4%, and 99.2%, respectively. These histopathologic and quantitative morphologic studies show that the magnitude of serous gland atrophy in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands of rhesus monkeys was similar at 16 weeks after receiving 50 Gy in 20 fractions, 55 Gy in 25 fractions, or CHART

  19. Radiotherapy in treatment of carcinoma of the parotid gland, an approach for the medically or technically inoperable patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthiesen, Chance; Thompson, Spencer; Steele, Alisha; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Bogardus Jr, Carl; Thompson, David

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Initial surgical resection is considered the standard of care for patients diagnosed with tumours involving the salivary glands. We reviewed our institutional outcomes of patients treated with initial radiation therapy (RT) for diagnosed carcinoma of the parotid gland. Methods: This review examined seventeen patients that received RT as initial therapy for tumours involving the parotid gland. Fifteen patients had primary salivary gland cancer, and two patients had metastatic carcinoma to the parotid gland. Sixteen patients (94.1%) following surgical evaluation had operative risk of facial nerve impairment or sacrifice with initial surgery, four (23.5%) had clinical objective evidence of nerve involvement at evaluation, five (29.4%) were poor