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Sample records for bovine pancreatic trypsin

  1. A preliminary neutron crystallography on the trypsin-bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, K; Yamada, T; Kurihara, K; Tamada, T; Kuroki, R; Tanaka, I; Takahashi, H; Niimura, N, E-mail: niimura@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp

    2010-11-01

    Trypsin is one of serine proteases. BPTI (Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor) is a protein inhibitor, which binds trypsin tightly and inhibits cleavage of peptide bonds. X-ray structure determination of trypsin-BPTI complex could make clear the overview of the active site. However, information of hydrogen atoms related to catalytic mechanism has not been satisfied. In this study, the trypsin-BPTI complex structure has been determined by neutron diffraction data at 2.0 A resolution. Deuterium atoms of catalytic triad, hydration structures in the binding pocket of trypsin and hydrogen bonds were observed. We would like to discuss details of hydrogen bonds in the interface between trypsin and BPTI and the adjacent water molecules including hydrogen atoms involved in the enzymatic reaction.

  2. Structural Basis for Accelerated Cleavage of Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (BPTI) by Human Mesotrypsin

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    Salameh,M.; Soares, A.; Hockla, A.; Radisky, E.

    2008-01-01

    Human mesotrypsin is an isoform of trypsin that displays unusual resistance to polypeptide trypsin inhibitors and has been observed to cleave several such inhibitors as substrates. Whereas substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine 193 in the trypsin active site has been implicated as a critical factor in the inhibitor resistance of mesotrypsin, how this substitution leads to accelerated inhibitor cleavage is not clear. Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) forms an extremely stable and cleavage-resistant complex with trypsin, and thus provides a rigorous challenge of mesotrypsin catalytic activity toward polypeptide inhibitors. Here, we report kinetic constants for mesotrypsin and the highly homologous (but inhibitor sensitive) human cationic trypsin, describing inhibition by, and cleavage of BPTI, as well as crystal structures of the mesotrypsin-BPTI and human cationic trypsin-BPTI complexes. We find that mesotrypsin cleaves BPTI with a rate constant accelerated 350-fold over that of human cationic trypsin and 150,000-fold over that of bovine trypsin. From the crystal structures, we see that small conformational adjustments limited to several side chains enable mesotrypsin-BPTI complex formation, surmounting the predicted steric clash introduced by Arg-193. Our results show that the mesotrypsin-BPTI interface favors catalysis through (a) electrostatic repulsion between the closely spaced mesotrypsin Arg-193 and BPTI Arg-17, and (b) elimination of two hydrogen bonds between the enzyme and the amine leaving group portion of BPTI. Our model predicts that these deleterious interactions accelerate leaving group dissociation and deacylation.

  3. Combining a polarizable force-field and a coarse-grained polarizable solvent model: application to long dynamics simulations of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Michel; Borgis, Daniel; Cuniasse, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    The dynamic coupling between a polarizable protein force field and a particle-based implicit solvent model is described. The polarizable force field, TCPEp, developed recently to simulate protein systems, is characterized by a reduced number of polarizable sites, with a substantial gain in efficiency for an equal chemical accuracy. The Polarizable Pseudo-Particle (PPP) solvent model represents the macroscopic solvent polarization by induced dipoles placed on mobile Lennard-Jones pseudo-particles. The solvent-induced dipoles are sensitive to the solute electric field, but not to each other, so that the computational cost of solvent-solvent interactions is basically negligible. The solute and solvent induced dipoles are determined self-consistently and the equations of motion are solved using an efficient iterative multiple time step procedure. The solvation cost with respect to vacuum simulations is shown to decrease with solute size: the estimated multiplicative factor is 2.5 for a protein containing about 1000 atoms, and as low as 1.15 for 8000 atoms. The model is tested for six 20 ns molecular dynamics trajectories of a traditional benchmark system: the hydrated Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (BPTI). Even though the TCPEp parameters have not been refined to be used with the solvent PPP model, we observe a good conservation of the BPTI structure along the trajectories. Moreover, our approach is able to provide a description of the protein solvation thermodynamic at the same accuracy as the standard Poisson-Boltzman continuum methods. It provides in addition a good description of the microscopic structural aspects concerning the solute/solvent interaction. PMID:18351600

  4. Trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio and serum immunoreactive trypsin in digestive and pancreatic diseases.

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    Del Favero, G; Fabris, C; Bonvicini, P; Piccoli, A; Baccaglini, U; Pedrazzoli, S; Burlina, A; Naccarato, R

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio (Ctr/Ccr) and serum immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was evaluated in a total of 168 subjects with pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis and non-pancreatic digestive diseases. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (Cam/Ccr) and serum amylase levels were also evaluated in order to establish their possible relationship with Ctr/Ccr and IRT values. Elevated Ctr/Ccr and IRT values were observed in several patients with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. Abnormal IRT and Ctr/Ccr values were found in 28.2 and 4% of non-pancreatic digestive diseases, respectively. IRT and amylase serum levels showed consensual modifications, while Ctr/Ccr showed a behavior different from that of Cam/Ccr. Liver damage seems to play a role in increasing serum IRT levels of patients without pancreatic involvement, while the increased Ctr/Ccr seems to depend on other factors, for instance renal tubular dysfunction.

  5. Tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor, TATI, in patients with pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis and benign biliary diseases.

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    Haglund, C.; Huhtala, M L; Halila, H.; Nordling, S.; Roberts, P. J.; Scheinin, T. M.; Stenman, U H

    1986-01-01

    The serum and urine concentrations of a tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor, TATI, were determined by radioimmunoassay in patients with pancreatic cancer and with benign pancreatic and biliary diseases. Elevated serum levels (greater than 20 micrograms l-1) were found in 85% of the patients with pancreatic cancer, and elevated urine levels (greater than 50 micrograms g-1 creatinine) in 96% of the patients. Thus low TATI level, especially in urine, makes the possibility of pancreatic cancer le...

  6. From Acute to Chronic Pancreatitis: The Role of Mutations in the Pancreatic Secretory Trypsin Inhibitor Gene

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    Hirota M

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI is a potent natural inhibitor of trypsin. We proposed the hypothesis that, if the function of the PSTI is impaired by its genetic mutation, trypsin may easily promote autodigestion causing pancreatitis and we performed a mutational analysis of the PSTI gene in patients with pancreatitis. Two exonic mutations (N34S and R67C were thought to be associated with a predisposition to pancreatitis. The N34S mutation was co-segregated with two intronic mutations, IVS1-37T>C and IVS3-69insTTTT. Although we analyzed the function of the recombinant N34S protein, we could not demonstrate the loss of function of this protein. Intronic mutations, rather than N34S itself (IVS1-37T>C + N34S + IVS3-69insTTTT complex, may be associated with the decreased function of the PSTI. Alternatively, increased digestion of N34S in vivo may be applicable. As for R67C, the conformational alteration of the protein by forming intra-molecular or inter-molecular disulfide bonds with 67Cys was strongly suggested. These results, along with the brand-new findings in PSTI knockout mice, suggest that the genetic mutation of the PSTI is one of the important mechanisms for predisposition to pancreatitis by lowering the trypsin inhibitory function.

  7. Digestion of atopic allergens with trypsin α-chymotrypsin and pancreatic kallikrein, and influence of the allergens upon the proteolytic and esterolytic activity of these enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrens, L.

    1968-01-01

    The action of bovine trypsin, α-chymotrypsin and pancreatic kallikrein upon a number of atopic allergens has been studied by pH-stat measurements during short-term incubation. Most atopic allergens proved chemically resistant towards these enzymes. Graphs of enzyme susceptibility vs. the ratio of ex

  8. Framework for interpretation of trypsin-antitrypsin imbalance and genetic heterogeneity in pancreatitis

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    Kun Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early intracellular premature trypsinogen activation was interpreted as the key initiator of pancreatitis. When the balance in the homeostasis of trypsin and antitrypsin system is disequilibrated, elevated aggressive enzymes directly attack the pancreatic tissue, which leads to pancreatic destruction and inflammation. However, trypsin alone is not enough to cause complications in pancreatitis, which may play a crucial role in modulating signaling events in the initial phase of the disease. NFκB activation is the major inflammatory pathway involved in the occurrence and development of pancreatitis and it can be induced by intrapancreatic activation of trypsinogen. Synthesis of trypsinogen occurs in endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and ER stress is an important early acinar cell event. Components of ER stress response are known to be able to trigger cell death as well as NFκB signaling cascade. The strongest evidence supporting the trypsin-centered theory is that gene mutations, which lead to the generation of more trypsin, or reduce the activity of trypsin inhibitors or trypsin degradation, are associated with pancreatitis. Thus, trypsin–antitrypsin imbalance may be the first step leading to pancreatic autodigestion and inducing other pathways. Continued experimental studies are necessary to determine the specific relationships between trypsin–antitrypsin imbalance and genetic heterogeneity in pancreatitis. In this article, we review the latest advances that contributed to the understanding of the basic mechanisms behind the occurrence and development of pancreatitis with a focus on the interpretation of trypsin–antitrypsin imbalance and their relationships with other inflammation pathways. We additionally highlight genetic predispositions to pancreatitis and possible mechanisms associated with them.

  9. Evolution of serum amylase, lipase and immunoreactive trypsin during pancreatitis attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, P; Art, G; Vertongen, F; Franckson, J R

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the blood curves of alpha-amylase (SA), pancreatic lipase (SL) and immunoreactive trypsin (SIT) have been analyzed in a series of patients daily explored throughout the evolution of pancreatitis attacks; urines were also collected to estimate the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR). The following results were obtained. a). The 3 enzymes profiles ran roughly parallel during an acute attack. b). SL rose far higher than SA at the onset of the attack but its decay displayed a shorter half-life than the latter; these features resulted in an absence of systematic difference between their times of return to normal levels at the end of the attack. c). SIT more closely correlated with SL than with SA. d). In common hospital practice, simultaneous SA and SL determinations were proving a more reliable help to diagnose pancreatitis attack than ACCR. PMID:3878108

  10. Crystal structure of bovine duodenase, a serine protease, with dual trypsin and chymotrypsin-like specificities.

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    Pletnev, V Z; Zamolodchikova, T S; Pangborn, W A; Duax, W L

    2000-10-01

    The three-dimensional structure of duodenase, a serine protease from bovine duodenum mucosa, has been determined at 2.4A resolution. The enzyme, which has both trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities, most closely resembles human cathepsin G with which it shares 57% sequence identity and similar specificity. The catalytic Ser195 in duodenase adopts the energetically favored conformation typical of serine proteinases and unlike the strained state typical of lipase/esterases. Of several waters in the active site of duodenase, the one associated with Ser214 is found in all serine proteinases and most lipase/esterases. The conservation of the Ser214 residue in serine proteinase, its presence in the active site, and participation in a hydrogen water network involving the catalytic triad (His57, Asp107, and Ser195) argues for its having an important role in the mechanism of action. It may be referred to as a fourth member of the catalytic triad. Duodenase is one of a growing family of enzymes that possesses trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activity. Not long ago, these activities were considered to be mutually exclusive. Computer modeling reveals that the S1 subsite of duodenase has structural features compatible with effective accommodation of P1 residues typical of trypsin (Arg/Lys) and chymotrypsin (Tyr/Phe) substrates. The determination of structural features associated with functional variation in the enzyme family may permit design of enzymes with a specific ratio of trypsin and chymotrypsin activities. PMID:10944388

  11. Measurement of serum pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) for the evaluation as a marker for pancreatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical usefulness of measuring PSTI in sera was studied using a new RIA kit produced by Shionogi Pharmaceutical Co. The assessment of the kit performance was satisfactory with good precision (1.6-6.9% in C.V.), reproducibility (5.0-6.0%), sensitivity (>2.Ong/ml), recovery test (98-109%, m101) and linear dilution test results. Serum PSTI levels in 71 normal controls were 12.0 + 5.0 ng/ml(m+S.D.) with higher values in subjects over 60 y.o. (14.2 +- 4.2 in 60-69 y.o. and 18.9 +- 6.5 over 70 y.o.). Serum PSTI levels were measured in 183 patients with various benign diseases (BD) and 251 cancer patients (CA). Among BD relatively high positive (>30ng/ml) ratios were observed in acute pancreatitis(40%, N=15), chronic pancreatitis(23.1%,13), pneumonia(23.5%,23) in contrast to low levels in acute hepatitis (6.7%,15), chronic hepatitis (8.0%, 25), liver cirrhosis (10.3%,29) and others (11.1%,25) including 2 chronic renal failure (220 and 465 ng/ml). In a patient with acute pancreatitis followed from the onset of the attack PSTI levels revealed 2 peaks on the 1st and 4th day. Serum PSTI correlated with clinical courses better than serum amylase which declined faster than PSTI. Among CA relatively high positive ratios were seen in CA of pancreas(46.7%,30), biliary tract (52.6%,19) and primary hepatoma (58.8%,34) in contrast to low levels in CA of esophagus (18.2%,11), stomach (16.7%, 78), colon (21.6%, 37), lung (8.0%, 25) and breast (0%.17). Measurement of PSTI should provide a clinical indicator for pancreatic diseases complementing existing markers such as amylase, lipase, elastase 1 and trypsin

  12. The effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin on the bactericidal activity and specific antibody activity of bovine colostrum.

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    Brock, J H; Arzabe, R; Piñeiro, A; Olivito, A M

    1977-01-01

    Digestion of bovine colostral whey with trypsin or chymotrypsin caused a progressive loss of the complement-mediated bactericidal activity of naturally-occurring colostral antibodies of E. coli 0111. Bactericidal activity was associated primarily with IgG1 immunoglobulin and to a lesser extent with IgM. Chymotrypsin preferentially attacked IgM, destroying its antibacterial activity and producing an apparent decrease in its mol wt. Trypsin preferentially attacked IgG1, but loss of antibacterial activity was in this case not accompanied by a decrease in molecular weight. Using colostral whey with antiperoxidase activity it was shown that the kinetics of loss of specific antibody activity were similar to those of loss of bactericidal activity. It is therefore suggested that trypsin may cause a loss of specific antibody activity of colostral IgG1 without cleaving the immunoglobulin molecule. PMID:321342

  13. Pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950347 Pancreatic endorcine response to parenteralnutrition in experimental acute pancreatitis.SUN Xi-aoguang(孙晓光),et al.Dept Nucl Med,ZhongshanHosp,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai.Shanghai Med J1995;18(2),74-70.In order to study the pancreatic endocrine responseto parenteral nutrition (PN) in acute pancreatitis,thedisease was induced in dogs by injecting 4% tauro-cholate sodium 0.5ml/kg plus trypsin 0.5mg/kg into the pancreatic duct.Intravenous infusion of PN wasinitiated one hour after the establishment of the dis-

  14. Improvement of the stability and activity of immobilized trypsin on modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for hydrolysis of bovine serum albumin and its application in the bovine milk.

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    Atacan, Keziban; Çakıroğlu, Bekir; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-12-01

    Trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) was successfully immobilized on the surface of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles that had been pre-treated with gallic acid (GA). Measurements of protein load by using Bradford assay and the trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of Nα-Benzoyl-dl-arginine 4-nitroanilide hydrochloride (BApNA) were made for the immobilized enzyme. By using magnetic nanoparticles, which provides easy separation and decent support material for enzyme immobilization with high surface area to volume ratio, and by employing biocompatible material gallic acid, immobilized enzyme system was synthesized along with improving trypsin activity and stability. Immobilized trypsin (TR) was more stable than the free one and demonstrated higher enzymatic activity at elevated temperatures (45-55°C) and in the alkaline pH region (6-10.5). Fe3O4 NPs-GA-TR retained 92% of its initial activity after 120days of storage at 4°C in sodium phosphate buffer (0.1M, pH 7.5), whereas the free trypsin maintained about 64% of its initial activity during the same storage period. In addition, activity of the immobilized trypsin was preserved 54.5% of its initial activity after eight times successive reuse. The Michaelis-Menten kinetic constant (Km) and maximum reaction velocity (Vmax) for free trypsin were 5.1mM and 23mM/min, respectively, whereas Km and Vmax values of immobilized trypsin were 7.88mM and 18.3mM/min, respectively. The performance of the immobilized trypsin was demonstrated by carrying out the hydrolysis of bovine serum albumin (BSA) within 1h, and the assay was performed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. The hydrolysis of bovine milk as a real food was investigated by immobilized trypsin using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). PMID:27374556

  15. Changes in gene expression of pancreatitis-associated protein and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors in experimental pancreatitis produced by pancreatic duct occlusion in rats: comparison with gene expression of cholecystokinin and secretin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, A; Miyasaka, K; Jimi, A; Nakamura, E; Teraoka, H

    1995-08-01

    Pancreatic duct occlusion is known to produce a sustained increase in the plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentration and to affect the tissue content of CCK in the rat. The tissue content of CCK is correlated with regenerative changes in the pancreas after pancreatic duct occlusion. In the present study, we examined the changes in mRNA levels of pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors (PSTIs), pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP), and amylase in the pancreas in comparison with changes in CCK and secretin mRNA levels in the intestine and the histological changes produced by pancreatic duct ligation. Rats with an internal bile fistula and with obstruction of pancreatic flow were prepared and were sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 28 days later. Then mRNA levels of CCK, secretin, PSTIs, PAP, and amylase were determined by slot-blot analysis. The CCK mRNA level gradually increased to a peak on day 10, was slightly lower on day 14, and returned to the control level on day 28. The level of secretin mRNA did not change. The mRNA levels of PSTIs increased significantly on day 3 after occlusion. PAP mRNA was detectable on days 1 and 3, being maximal on day 1. The mRNA level of amylase was markedly decreased on days 1 and 3, then remained lower than the control level. Histological examination showed acute inflammatory changes in the pancreas on days 1 and 3 and regenerative changes from day 7. These results suggest that a change in gene expression of PAP reflects acute inflammatory changes in the pancreas most sensitively.

  16. Beneficial effects of trypsin inhibitors derived from a spider venom peptide in L-arginine-induced severe acute pancreatitis in mice.

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    Weiwen Ning

    Full Text Available HWTI is a 55-residue protein isolated from the venom of the spider Ornithoctonus huwena. It is a potent trypsin inhibitor and a moderate voltage-gated potassium channel blocker. Here, we designed and expressed two HWTI mutants, HWTI-mut1 and HWTI-mut2, in which the potassium channel inhibitory activity was reduced while the trypsin inhibitory activity of the wild type form (approximately 5 EPU/mg was retained. Animal studies showed that these mutants were less toxic than HWTI. The effects of HWTI and HWTI-mut1 were examined in a mouse model of acute pancreatitis induced by intraperitoneal injection of a large dose of L-arginine (4 mg/kg, twice. Serum amylase and serum lipase activities were assessed, and pathological sections of the pancreas were examined. Treatment with HWTI and HWTI-mut1 significantly reduced serum amylase and lipase levels in a dose dependent manner. Compared with the control group, at 4 mg/kg, HWTI significantly reduced serum amylase level by 47% and serum lipase level by 73%, while HWTI-mut1 significantly reduced serum amylase level by 59% and serum lipase level by 72%. Moreover, HWTI and HWTI-mut1 effectively protected the pancreas from acinar cell damage and inflammatory cell infiltration. The trypsin inhibitory potency and lower neurotoxicity of HWTI-mut1 suggest that it could potentially be developed as a drug for the treatment of acute pancreatitis with few side effects.

  17. Characterization of the Interaction Between Pancreatic Trypsin and an Enteric Copolymer as a Tool for Several Biotechnological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braia, Mauricio Javier; Loureiro, Dana Belén; Tubio, Gisela; Romanini, Diana

    2015-12-01

    Protein-polyelectrolyte complexes are very interesting systems since they can be applied in many long-established and emerging areas of biotechnology. From nanotechnology to industrial processing, these complexes are used for many purposes: to build multilayer particles for biosensors; to entrap and deliver proteins for pharmaceutical applications; to isolate and immobilize proteins. The enteric copolymer poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) 1:2 (MMA) has been designed for drug delivery although its chemical properties allow to use it for other applications. Understanding the interaction between trypsin and this polymer is very important in order to optimize the mechanism of formation of this complex for different biotechnological applications.The formation of the trypsin-MMA complex was studied by spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. Structural analysis of trypsin was carried out by catalytic activity assays, circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed that the insoluble complex contains 12 trypsin molecules per MMA molecule at pH 5 and they interact with high affinity to form insoluble complexes. Both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces are involved in the formation of the complex. The structure of trypsin is not affected by the presence of MMA, although it interacts with some domains of trypsin affecting its thermal denaturation as seen in the differential scanning calorimetry experiments. Its catalytic activity is not altered. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated the presence of a soluble trypsin-copolymer complex at pH 5 and 8. Turbidimetric assays show that the insoluble complex can be dissolved by low ionic strength and/or pH in order to obtain free native trypsin. PMID:26612727

  18. X-ray structure of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A(2) at atomic resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, RA; Rozeboom, HJ; Kalk, KH; Murshudov, GN; Wilson, KS; Dijkstra, BW

    2001-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation and a CCD camera, X-ray data have been collected from wild-type bovine pancreatic phospholipase A(2) at 100 K to 0.97 Angstrom resolution allowing full anisotropic refinement. The final model has a conventional R factor of 9.44% for all reflections, with a mean standard u

  19. The modifier effects of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distribution of "N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide-bovine serum albumin" complex

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    Özyiğit, İbrahim Ethem; Karakuş, Emine; Pekcan, Önder

    2016-02-01

    Chymotrypsin and trypsin are the well known proteolytic enzymes, both of which are synthesized in the pancreas as their precursors - the inactive forms; chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen - and then are released into the duodenum to cut proteins into smaller peptides. In this paper, the effects of activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distributions of the substrat bovine serum albumin (BSA) modified with N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (PM) were examined. In the labeling study of BSA with PM, it is aimed to attach PM to the single free thiol (Cys34) and to all the free amine groups in accessible positions in order to produce excimers of pyrene planes of the possible highest amount to form the lifetime distributions in the widest range, that may show specifically distinguishing changes resulting from the activities of the proteases. The time resolved spectrofluorometer was used to monitor fluorescence decays, which were analyzed by using the exponential series method (ESM) to obtain the changes of lifetime distributions. After the exposure of the synthesized substrat PM-BSA to the enzymes, the fluorescence lifetime distributions exhibited different structures which were attributed to the different activities of the proteases.

  20. 21 CFR 862.1725 - Trypsin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... activity of trypsin (a pancreatic enzyme important in digestion for the breakdown of proteins) in blood and... treatment of pancreatic disease. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  1. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  2. The Use of Bovine Pericardial Buttress on Linear Stapler Fails to Reduce Pancreatic Fistula Incidence in a Porcine Pancreatic Transection Model

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    A. Maciver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effectiveness of buttressing the surgical stapler to reduce postoperative pancreatic fistulae in a porcine model. As a pilot study, pigs (n=6 underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy using a standard stapler. Daily drain output and lipase were measured postoperative day 5 and 14. In a second study, pancreatic transection was performed to occlude the proximal and distal duct at the pancreatic neck using a standard stapler (n=6, or stapler with bovine pericardial strip buttress (n=6. Results. In pilot study, 3/6 animals had drain lipase greater than 3x serum on day 14. In the second series, drain volumes were not significantly different between buttressed and control groups on day 5 (55.3 ± 31.6 and 29.3 ± 14.2 cc, resp., nor on day 14 (9.5 ± 4.2 cc and 2.5 ± 0.8 cc, resp., P=0.13. Drain lipase was not statistically significant on day 5 (3,166 ± 1,433 and 6,063 ± 1,872 U/L, resp., P=0.25 or day 14 (924 ± 541 and 360 ± 250 U/L. By definition, 3/6 developed pancreatic fistula; only one (control demonstrating a contained collection arising from the staple line. Conclusion. Buttressed stapler failed to protect against pancreatic fistula in this rigorous surgical model.

  3. Nutritional significance of a rice bran concentrate with trypsin inhibitor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Z; Tashiro, M

    1983-06-01

    A rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was prepared from de-fatted rice bran by extraction with a 1% sodium chloride solution and by acetone-precipitation. This protein concentrate contained 45% protein, which was as good as casein in terms of protein quality being judged from the results of amino acid analysis. On the other hand, RBPC possessed the trypsin inhibitor activity corresponding to the complete inhibition of about 6 mg of bovine trypsin per 1 g of dry material. The activity was, however, completely destroyed by autoclaving RBPC for 30 min at 121 degrees C. In vitro digestion tests showed that RBPC was easily digested by pepsin but was resistant to the attack by trypsin, compared with autoclaved RBPC. Concerning in vivo digestion, however, there was no significant difference in apparent nitrogen digestibility between RBPC and the heated RBPC. In growth experiments with weanling rats fed a 10% level of protein diet, growth depression and the tendency of slight pancreatic hypertrophy were observed in rats receiving a RBPC diet. It is presumed that one of the reasons which explains these phenomena is the presence of trypsin inhibitor in RBPC. PMID:6619992

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and pancreatic trypsin in the intestinal wall:a contribution to the understanding of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Rosário, Henrique Baptista Colaço Sobral do, 1971-

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Medicina (Bioquímica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina, 2009 Ischemia reperfusion of the intestine produces a set of inflammatory mediators, the origin of which has recently been shown to involve pancreatic digestive enzymes. Matrix metalloproteinase‐9 (MMP‐9) participates in a variety of inflammatory processes including myocardial, hepatic, and pancreatic ischemia reperfusion. In the present study, we explore the role of neutrophil‐derived MMP‐9 in acut...

  5. HYDROLYSIS OF CHEESEWHEY PROTEINSWITH TRYPSIN, CHYMOTRYPSINAND CARBOXYPEPTIDASEA

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    M. F. CUSTÓDIO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This work presents a method for adding value to cheese whey residues by whey proteins hydrolysis, using trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase A as catalysts. Sweet cheese whey was dialyzed and filtered in kaolin. Lactose and protein contents were analyzed after each step. The activities of bovine pancreas trypsin and chymotrypsin were measured at different pHs and temperatures. The optimal pH for the hydrolysis of whey proteins was 9.0 for both enzymes. Optima temperatures were 60ºC for trypsin, and 50ºC for chymotrypsin. Trypsin exhibited typical Michaelis-Menten behavior, but chymotrypsin did not. Electrophoretic analysis showed that neither trypsin nor chymotrypsin alone hydrolyzed whey proteins in less than three hours. Hydrolysis rates of -lactalbumin by trypsin, and of bovine serum albumin by chymotrypsin were low. When these enzymes were combined, however, all protein fractions were attacked and rates of hydrolysis were enhanced by one order of magnitude. The addition of carboxypeptidase A to the others enzymes did not improve the process yield.

  6. Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is ...

  7. Pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970359 CT diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma andchronic pancreatitis. LUAN Baoqing(栾宝庆), et al,Dept Radiol, Beijing Friendship Hosp, Capital Med U-niv, Beijing, 100050. Chin J Radiol 1997; 31(2): 114-118. Objective: To improve the diagnostic accuracy ofpancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. Materi-

  8. Hereditary pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard M Charnley

    2003-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis is an autosomal dominant condition,which results in recurrent attacks of acute pancreatitis,progressing to chronic pancreatitis often at a young age.The majority of patients with hereditary pancreatitis expressone of two mutations (R122H or N29I) in the cationictrypsinogen gene (PRSS1 gene). It has been hypothesisedthat one of these mutations, the R122H mutation causespancreatitis by altering a trypsin recognition site sopreventing deactivation of trypsin within the pancreas andprolonging its action, resulting in autodigestion. Families withthese two mutations have been identified in many countriesand there are also other rarer mutations, which have alsobeen linked to hereditary pancreatitis.Patients with hereditary pancreatitis present in the sameway as those with sporadic pancreatitis but at an earlierage. It is common for patients to remain undiagnosed formany years, particularly ifthey present with non-specificsymptoms. Hereditary pancreatitis should always beconsidered in patients who present with recurrent pancreatitiswith a family history of pancreatic disease. If patients withthe 2 common mutations are compared, those with theR122H mutation are more likely to present at a younger ageand are more likely to require surgical intervention than thosewith N29I. Hereditary pancreatitis carries a 40 % lifetimerisk of pancreatic cancer with those patients aged between50 to 70 being most at risk in whom screening tests maybecome important.

  9. Pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010355 Oxymatrine enhances the expression of collagen I and α-SMA in rat chronic pancreatitis. WANG Yuliang(王昱良),et al. Dept Gastroenterol ,Huanghe Hosp,Sanmenxia 472000. World Chin J Digestol 2010;18(13):1331-36. Objective To investigate the treatment effects of oxymatrine (OM) against chronic pancreatitis in rats and to explore the potential

  10. Atomic resolution structure of the double mutant (K53,56M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic resolution crystal structure of the double mutant (K53,56M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 is reported. The structure of the double mutant K53,56M has previously been refined at 1.9 Å resolution using room-temperature data. The present paper reports the crystal structure of the same mutant K53,56M refined against 1.1 Å data collected using synchrotron radiation. A total of 116 main-chain atoms from 29 residues and 44 side chains are modelled in alternate conformations. Most of the interfacial binding residues are found to be disordered and alternate conformations could be recognized. The second calcium ion-binding site residue Glu92 adopts two alternate conformations. The minor and major conformations of Glu92 correspond to the second calcium ion bound and unbound states

  11. Analysis and Optimization of Nutritional Set-up for Murine Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurup S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Pancreatic acinar cell cultivation poses a serious problem due to limitations in the in vitro survival time despite variations of dissociation protocols, culture media and nutrient supplements. OBJECTIVE: To establish a long term culture of murine pancreatic acinar cells which retain their viability, monolayer formation and responsiveness to secretagogues. In order to investigate the mechanism of the short-life of acinar cells studied in vitro, we studied their survival under the influence of different supplements on nutrient media. INTERVENTIONS: Dissociated pancreatic acini were prepared from BALB/c mice pancreata by collagenase digestion supplemented with bovine serum albumin fraction V and soybean trypsin inhibitor. A nutrient set-up was designed for their long term survival in vitro. RESULTS: It was observed that mouse pancreatic acinar cells dissociated in presence of bovine serum albumin fraction V and soybean trypsin inhibitor result in 95% viability. Further cultivation of these acinar cells in Waymouth's MB 752/1 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (v/v, soybean trypsin inhibitor, bovine serum albumin, dexamethasone, and epidermal growth factor results in their survival for more than 6 days in culture with 85% viability, retention of the secretagogue responsiveness and formation of a monolayer without any extracellular matrix coating. CONCLUSIONS: Our study clearly demonstrates that the addition of soybean trypsin inhibitor to culture medium reduces zymogen granule fragility and acinar cell death, thus increasing their viability for sufficiently long periods. The present study offers an excellent, in vitro model for the investigation of exocrine dysfunction in response to acinar cell injury.

  12. Acute pancreatitis: Etiology and common pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Jun Wang; Chun-Fang Gao; Dong Wei; Cun Wang; Si-Qin Ding

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas. The etiology and pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis have been intensively investigated for centuries worldwide. Many causes of acute pancreatitis have been discovered, but the pathogenetic theories are controversial. The most common cause of acute pancreatitis is gallstone impacting the distal common bile-pancreatic duct. The majority of investigators accept that the main factors for acute billiary pancreatitis are pancreatic hyperstimulation and bile-pancreatic duct obstruction which increase pancreatic duct pressure and active trypsin reflux. Acute pancreatitis occurs when intracellular protective mechanisms to prevent trypsinogen activation or reduce trypsin activity are overwhelmed. However, little is known about the other acute pancreatitis. We hypothesize that acute biliary pancreatitis and other causes of acute pancreatitis possess a common pathogenesis. Pancreatic hyperstimulation and pancreatic duct obstruction increase pancreatic duct pressure, active trypsin reflux, and subsequent unregulated activation of trypsin within pancreatic acinar cells. Enzyme activation within the pancreas leads to auto-digestion of the gland and local inflammation. Once the hypothesis is confirmed, traditional therapeutic strategies against acute pancreatitis may be improved. Decompression of pancreatic duct pressure should be advocated in the treatment of acute pancreatitits which may greatly improve its outcome.

  13. Pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008318 Proteomics of hyperlipidemia-associated pancreatitis using differential gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry: experiment with rats. ZHANG Wei(张伟), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Shanghai 1st Hosp, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200080. Natl Med J China 2008;88(16):1132-1131.Objective To analyze the injury mechanismof hyperlipidemia-associated acute pancreatitis utilizing pro-teomics.Methods Ten SD rats were fed with high fat feed to establish hyperlipidemic models,and 10 SD rats were fed with normal feed to be used as control group.

  14. Serum pancreatic lipase activity in cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Junglee, D; Penketh, A; Katrak, A; Hodson, M.E.; Batten, J C; Dandona, P

    1983-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have been found to have abnormal serum concentrations of immunoreactive trypsin and abnormal activities of pancreatic isoamylase. A study was undertaken to discover whether activity of pancreatic lipase is also altered in cystic fibrosis. Serum from 23 patients with cystic fibrosis was assayed for immunoreactive trypsin and pancreatic lipase. Median serum pancreatic lipase activity was significantly lower in patients with cystic fibrosis than in controls, as was ...

  15. Induction of pancreatic duct cells of neonatal rats into insulin-producing cells with fetal bovine serum: A natural protocol and its use for patch clamp experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-Hua Leng; Fu-Er Lu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To induce the pancreatic duct cells into endocrine cells with a new natural protocol for electrophysiological study.METHODS: The pancreatic duct cells of neonatal rats were isolated, cultured and induced into endocrine oells with 15% fetal bovine serum for a period of 20 d. During this period, insulin secretion, MTT value, and morphological change of neonatal and adult pancreatic islet cells were comparatively investigated. Pancreatic β-cells were identified by morphological and electrophysiological characteristics, while ATP sensitive potassium channels(KATP), voltage-dependent potassium channels (KV), and voltage-dependent calcium channels (KCA) in β-cells were identified by patch clamp technique.RESULTS: After incubation with fetal bovine serum, the neonatal duct cells budded out, changed from duct-like cells into islet clusters. In the first 4 d, MTT value and insulin secretion increased slowly (MTT value from 0.024±0.003 to0.028±0.003, insulin secretion from 2.6±0.6to 3.1±0.8 mIU/L). Then MTT value and insulin secretion increased quickly from d 5 to d 10 (MTT value from 0.028±0.003 to 0.052±0.008, insulin secretion from 3.1±0.8to 18.3±2.6 mIU/L), then reached high plateau (MTT value >0.052±0.008, insulin secretion >18.3±2.6 mIU/L).In contrast, for the isolated adult pancreatic islet cells,both insulin release and MTT value were stable in the first 4 d (MTT value from 0.029±0.01 to 0.031±0.011,insulin secretion from 13.9±3.1 to 14.3±3.3 mIU/L), but afterwards they reduced gradually (MTT value <0.031±0.011, insulin secretion <8.2±1.5 mIU/L), and the pancrearic islet cells became dispersed, broken or atrophied correspondingly. The differentiated neonatal cells were identified as pancreatic islet cells by dithizone staining method, and pancreatic β-cells were further identified by both morphological features and electrophysiological characteristics, i.e. the existence of recording currents from KATP KV, and KCA.CONCLUSION: Islet

  16. Porphyrin Induced Laser Deactivation of Trypsinogen-Trypsin Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perido, Joanna; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatitis is caused by the inflammation of the pancreas, where the digestive enzyme trypsin is activated from the precursor enzyme trypsinogen while still in the pancreas. The presence of trypsin in the pancreas causes auto-activation of trypsinogen, resulting in greater inflammation and auto-digestion of the pancreas. In severe cases, this cascade effect can lead to organ failure, diabetes, and pancreatic cancer. Our hypothesis is that if trypsinogen is prevented from auto-activating into trypsin, then this cascade can be stopped. We propose to do this by inducing conformational changes in trypsinogen when bound to a photoactive porphyrin dye. Porphyrins are comprised of four linked heterocyclic groups forming a flat ring, and bind well with proteins such as trypsinogen. In this study we used spectroscopic techniques to probe the binding of meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatephenyl) porphyrin (TSPP) to trypsinogen in vitro, as a preliminary step to then prompt and characterize conformational changes of trypsinogen through irradiation. If conformational changes are detected the trypsinogen will be tested for trypsin inactivation. This investigation may provide promising initial results to the possible use of porphyrins as an inhibitor of the self-activation of trypsinogen into trypsin, and a potential inhibitor of pancreatitis. MARC*U-STAR.

  17. [Defense mechanism to prevent ectopic activation of pancreatic digestive enzymes under physiological conditions and its breakdown in acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Midori; Otsuko, Makoto

    2004-11-01

    Independent of the etiology, acute pancreatitis is associated with significant morbidity and the potential for mortality. In most patients, acute pancreatitis follows an uncomplicated or mild course. Recent studies in hereditary pancreatitis have clearly revealed that trypsin is the key enzyme at the onset of pancreatitis. However, there are several defense mechanisms to prevent ectopic activation of trypsin under physiological conditions. If the defense mechanisms failed or activation of trypsin occurred over defense ability, trypsin would activate other digestive enzymes and self-digestion of the pancreas would occur.

  18. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... in plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that enteral feeding can be given without stimulating pancreatic trypsin secretion provided it is delivered into the mid-distal jejunum. The mechanism may involve activation of the ileal brake mechanism....

  19. Atomic resolution (0.97 Å) structure of the triple mutant (K53,56,121M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a triple mutant (K53,56,121M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 has been solved at atomic resolution (0.97 Å) and the refined model features the presence of a second calcium ion and a chloride ion. The enzyme phospholipase A2 catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 acyl chain of phospholipids, forming fatty acids and lysophospholipids. The crystal structure of a triple mutant (K53,56,121M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 in which the lysine residues at positions 53, 56 and 121 are replaced recombinantly by methionines has been determined at atomic resolution (0.97 Å). The crystal is monoclinic (space group P2), with unit-cell parameters a = 36.934, b = 23.863, c = 65.931 Å, β = 101.47°. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and has been refined to a final R factor of 10.6% (Rfree = 13.4%) using 63 926 unique reflections. The final protein model consists of 123 amino-acid residues, two calcium ions, one chloride ion, 243 water molecules and six 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol molecules. The surface-loop residues 60–70 are ordered and have clear electron density

  20. Purification and characterization of trypsins from the digestive tract of Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakal, E; Applebaum, S W; Birk, Y

    1989-12-01

    Two trypsin-like enzymes were isolated from the digestive tract of the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Primary purification was carried out on a DEAE-cellulose column, from which the two trypsins emerged in the anionic fraction. Further purification was achieved by affinity chromatography on a p-aminobenzamidine (PABA)-Sepharose column, which also separated the two trypsins (TLEAff.1. and TLEAff.2.), or by HPLC on an anion exchange column. The purity and homogeneity of the trypsins were demonstrated by electrophoresis of cellulose acetate strips and in polyacrylamide gels, with and without SDS. The molecular weights of TLEAff.1 and TLEAff.2, as determined by SDS-PAGE, were 17,000 and 24,000 respectively. The amino acid compositions of the locust trypsins were similar to those of trypsins from the digestive systems of other insects, which are characterized by the lack or low content of half cystines. The isoelectric points were 3.2 for TLEAff.1 and 3.5 fold for TLEAff.2. Since most of the locust trypsin comprised TLEAff.2, the latter served as the main object of this study. TLEAff.2 was unstable at low pH, differing in this respect from mammalian trypsins. The optimum activity was at pH 8.5-9.0. The Km and kcat, values were similar to those for bovine trypsin. Activation by substrate, a phenomenon in bovine trypsin, was also observed for TLEAff.2. The locust trypsin was full inhibited by the proteinaceous trypsin inhibitors Bowman-Birk (BBI) and Kunitz from soybeans, CI from chickpeas, chicken ovomucoid (COM), and turkey ovomucoid (TOM). It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), indicating the involvement of serine and histidine in the active site. PMID:2635697

  1. Sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsinczky, Michael L J; Schirra, Horst Joachim; Craik, David J

    2004-10-01

    SFTI-1 is a bicyclic 14 amino acid peptide that was originally isolated from the seeds of the sunflower Helianthus annuus. It is a potent inhibitor of trypsin, with a sub-nanomolar K(i) value and is homologous to the active site region of the well-known family of serine protease inhibitors known as the Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitors. It has a cyclic backbone that is cross-braced by a single disulfide bridge and a network of hydrogen bonds that result in a well-defined structure. SFTI-1 is amenable to chemical synthesis, allowing for the creation of synthetic variants. Alterations to the structure such as linearising the backbone or removing the disulfide bridge do not reduce the potency of SFTI-1 significantly, and minimising the peptide to as few as nine residues results in only a small decrease in reactivity. The creation of linear variants of SFTI-1 also provides a tool for investigating putative linear precursor peptides. The mechanism of biosynthesis of SFTI-1 is not yet known but it seems likely that it is a gene-coded product that has arisen from a precursor protein that may be evolutionarily related to classic Bowman-Birk inhibitors. PMID:15544530

  2. Exocrine pancreatic enzyme and calcium secretion in health and pancreatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Clain, J E; Barbezat, G O; Marks, I N

    1981-01-01

    Calcium, enzyme, and total protein secretion were measured in secretin stimulated pancreatic juice in health, "early" chronic pancreatitis, and in chronic calcific pancreatitis. Increased concentrations of trypsin, total protein, and calcium, and increased outputs of calcium and protein were shown to be present in the "early" stages of the disease, indicating that an environment conducive to the formation of protein plugs and possibly later calcification already exists.

  3. Distinct localization of FMRFamide- and bovine pancreatic polypeptide-like material in the brain, retrocerebral complex and suboesophageal ganglion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhaert, P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; De Loof, A

    1985-01-01

    -like. This peptide material was located in cerebral neuronal structures, in the SOG, in the storage site of the CC and in numerous nerve fibres throughout the neuropile regions, which suggested a neurotransmitter/modulator as well as a neurohormonal role. The FMRFamide-like peptide was also found to be present....... Application of a third FMRFamide antiserum, which was especially selected for its inability to react with bovine and avian pancreatic polypeptide, showed that more than half of the structures that were stained with the 'unspecific' BPP and FMRFamide antisera, contained material which was genuinely FMRFamide...... in the same brain sites as an adipokinetic hormone-like peptide, but double labelling revealed that these two substances were never located in the same perikarya or fibres....

  4. Innovation of the preparative process of bovine trypsin and its enzymatic degradation effect on the precursor of genetic engineering human insulin%牛胰蛋白酶制备工艺的改进及其对基因工程人胰岛素前体的酶切作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷春生; 李庆伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 对牛胰蛋白酶制备工艺进行改进,制备高纯度牛胰蛋白酶,并对其酶切基因工程人胰岛素前体的作用进行考察.方法 采用粗制后先色谱分离再活化的方法对传统工艺进行改进,对传统工艺制备样品和改进工艺制备样品中的胰蛋白酶和胰凝乳蛋白酶的比活力进行测定和比较;进一步采用这2种样品对基因工程人胰岛素前体进行酶切,对酶切作用进行比较.结果 传统工艺制备样品中胰蛋白酶比活力为212.5 U·mg-1,胰凝乳蛋白酶比活力为20.4 U·mg-1;而改进工艺样品中胰蛋白酶比活力为240.4 U·mg-1,胰凝乳蛋白酶比活力为0.14 U·mg-1.传统工艺制备样品酶切基因工程人胰岛素前体目标产物纯度质量分数为16.3%,改进工艺制备样品酶切基因工程人胰岛素前体目标产物纯度质量分数为32.2%.结论 粗制后先进行SP色谱可实现胰蛋白酶原和胰凝乳蛋白酶原较好的分离,该方法适合于高纯度胰蛋白酶的制备,制备的胰蛋白酶适合作为工具酶进行基因工程人胰岛素前体的酶切.%Objective To isolate and purify bovine trypsin with high purity and determine the activation of the genetic engineering human insulin prosoma with it. Methods The traditional preparative process of bovine trypsin was improved. The crude product was firstly separated by column chromatography and then was activated. The activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin of the samples,from the traditional method and the improved way, were assayed and compared. Then the genetic engineering human insulin precursor was enzy-matically degradated by these 2 samples and the target product was detected by HPLC. The effects of these two samples were compared. Results The specific activity was 212.5 and 20.4 U·mg-1 for trypsin and chymotrypsin in traditionally prepared sample, while that was 240.4 and 0. 14 U · mg-1 in the improved method. Conclusions Trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen

  5. Changes of amylase and trypsin activities in pancreas of rats after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of amylase and trypsin in pancreas of rats decreased significantly after irradiation. The degree of changes in both amylase and trypsin was identical, depending on radiation doses and varying with the weight of pancreas. Within a certain range of doses the weight and enzymic activity of pancreas decreased gradually. The amylase and trypsin activities of pancreas decreased markedly after 6 Gy exposure. These enzymic activities varied with time after exposure and fluctuated around low level for a long time. The recovery of enzymic activity occurred later than that of pancreas weight. These results indicated that the mechanism of decrease and recovery of pancreatic enzyme was complex

  6. [Hereditary aspects of pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Daniel; Sobczyńska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Bal, Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    Pancreatitis presents clinically as acute and chronic form. A common characteristic of these two forms is enzymatic autodigestion of pancreas in the course of the disease. It results from premature activation of pancreatic digestive enzymes and disturbance of subtle balance between proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors. The way to understand the character of mechanisms leading to development of pancreatitis has been simplified by discovery of genetic factors, which are able to initiate pathological changes at tissue level. Mutations in the PRSS1 gene (first of all R122H and N29I mutations), which encodes for cationic trypsin, cause trypsin to be protected from autodegradation. These mutations also cause precursor of trypsin - trypsinogen, to be activated easier. On the other hand mutations in the SPINK1 gene have been identified. SPINK1 gene encodes for the most important protease inhibitor of the pancreatic fluid. The most frequent mutation, namely N34S, decrease SPINK1 protein in its activity. The link between the genotype and phenotype is not clear in every case. It is probable that pancreatitis will be recognized as poligenic with many genes engaged in the disease development. Pancreatic cancer is a frequent consequence of pancreatitis. It is a very invasive cancer with high mortality. In the course of pancreatic inflammation intensive cell proliferation takes place for regeneration of pancreas damage. It is the chance for amplification of pathological changes in DNA, which have arisen as a ROS's (Reactive Oxygen Species) and RNOS's (Reactive Nitrogen Oxide Species) action effect. ROS and RNOS are generated in the course of pancreas inflammation.

  7. The changes of amylase and trypsin activities in rat after abdomen gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes of amylase and trypsin activities in rat following local abdomen gamma irradiation were studied. The results showed that within a certain dose range, the activities of pancreatic enzymes decreased with the increase of doses and reached half of the normal value five days after local and fractional radiation with 30Gy on the abdomen, and maintained at the level below normal for a long time. The complete recovery of pancreatic enzyme activities occurred 120 days after local abdomen exposure. The mechanism of the decrease and recovery of pancreatic enzyme activity after exposure to radiation is briefly discussed

  8. Isolation, structure modeling and function characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from Cassia obtusifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zubi; Zhu, Qiankun; Li, Juanjuan; Zhang, Gan; Jiamahate, Aerguli; Zhou, Jiayu; Liao, Hai

    2015-04-01

    A trypsin inhibitor gene (CoTI1) from Cassia obtusifolia was isolated and the deduced amino acid sequence was attributed to the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. The recombined CoTI1, expressed in E. coli, exhibited strong inhibitory effect on bovine trypsin and trypsin-like proteases from Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera exigua, and Spodoptera litura. CoTI1 thus presents insecticidal properties that may be useful for the genetic engineering of plants. Leu84, Arg86 and Thr88 were predicted as three key residues by molecular modeling in which Arg86, inserted into the substrate pocket of trypsin, interacted directly with residue Asp189 of trypsin causing the specific inhibition against trypsin. The predicted results were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis with L84A, R86A and T88A, respectively. The substantial changing expression level of CoTI1 under salt, drought and abscisic acid treatment suggested that CoTI1 might play important role in the resistance against abiotic stress.

  9. Pancreatic enzyme secretion during intravenous fat infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G P; Stein, T A

    1987-01-01

    The nutritional support of patients with pancreatic and high gastrointestinal fistulas and severe pancreatitis frequently involves intravenous fat infusion. There are conflicting reports on the effect of intravenous fat on pancreatic exocrine secretion. In 10 dogs with chronic pancreatic fistulas, pancreatic juice was collected during secretin (n = 10) or secretin + cholecystokinin (n = 4) stimulation, with and without intravenous fat infusion (5 g/hr). The hormonal-stimulated secretion of lipase, amylase, trypsin, total protein, bicarbonate, and water was unchanged during fat infusion. This study supports the use of intravenous fat as a nutritional source when it is desirable to avoid stimulation of the pancreas.

  10. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  11. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the conformational folding process of SS-reduced bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A using a selenoxide reagent with high oxidizing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kenta; Kumakura, Fumio; Iwaoka, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Redox-coupled folding pathways of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) with four intramolecular disulfide (SS) bonds comprise three phases: (I) SS formation to generate partially oxidized intermediate ensembles with no rigid folded structure; (II) SS rearrangement from the three SS intermediate ensemble (3S) to the des intermediates having three native SS linkages; (III) final oxidation of the last native SS linkage to generate native RNase A. We previously demonstrated that DHS(ox), a water-soluble selenoxide reagent for rapid and quantitative SS formation, allows clear separation of the three folding phases. In this study, the main conformational folding phase (phase II) has been extensively analyzed at pH 8.0 under a wide range of temperatures (5-45 °C), and thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for the four des intermediates were determined. The free-energy differences (ΔG) as a function of temperature suggested that the each SS linkage has different thermodynamic and kinetic roles in stability of the native structure. On the other hand, comparison of the rate constants and the activation energies for 3S → des with those reported for the conformational folding of SS-intact RNase A suggested that unfolded des species (desU) having three native SS linkages but not yet being folded are involved in very small amounts (SS-intact RNase A. It was revealed that DHS(ox) is useful for kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the conformational folding process on the oxidative folding pathways of SS-reduced proteins.

  12. Serum pancreatic lipase as a screening test for cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaenssens, K; Van Riel, L

    1982-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase catalyses the hydrolysis of emulsified triglycerides to form a transparent solution of monoglycerides and fatty acids. Levels of serum pancreatic lipase were measured in neonates known to have cystic fibrosis and compared with levels in control infants. During the first weeks of life infants with cystic fibrosis had raised serum pancreatic lipase values in parallel with raised serum trypsin values. A simple and specific turbidimetric dried blood spot assay for serum pancreat...

  13. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mössner Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic pancreatitis of other causes. The clinical presentation is highly variable and includes chronic abdominal pain, impairment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, nausea and vomiting, maldigestion, diabetes, pseudocysts, bile duct and duodenal obstruction, and rarely pancreatic cancer. Fortunately, most patients have a mild disease. Mutations in the PRSS1 gene, encoding cationic trypsinogen, play a causative role in chronic pancreatitis. It has been shown that the PRSS1 mutations increase autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, and thus probably cause premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation disturbing the intrapancreatic balance of proteases and their inhibitors. Other genes, such as the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2, the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1 and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR have been found to be associated with chronic pancreatitis (idiopathic and hereditary as well. Genetic testing should only be performed in carefully selected patients by direct DNA sequencing and antenatal diagnosis should not be encouraged. Treatment focuses on enzyme and nutritional supplementation, pain management, pancreatic diabetes, and local organ complications, such as pseudocysts, bile duct or duodenal obstruction. The disease course and prognosis of patients with HCP is unpredictable. Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated. Therefore, HCP patients should strongly avoid environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer.

  14. Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Junchen; Liu, Yuan; An, Tianchen; Liu, Yujun; Wang, Manchuriga; Song, Yanting; Zheng, Feifei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yingxia; Deng, Shiming

    2015-05-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10(-8) M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4-8 and temperature 20-80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest. PMID:25851516

  15. Chronic pancreatitis: controversies in etiology, diagnosis and treatment Pancreatitis crónica: controversias respecto a la etiología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    P. Draganov; Toskes, P P

    2004-01-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic chronic pancreatitis remains poorly understood despite the high expectations for ascribing the pancreatic damage in affected patients to genetic defects. Mutations in the cationic trypsinogen gene, pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, and the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator gene do not account for the chronic pancreatitis noted in most patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Small duct chronic pancreatitis can be best diagnosed with a hormone sti...

  16. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. PMID:21734390

  17. Establishing a human pancreatic stem cell line and transplanting induced pancreatic islets to reverse experimental diabetes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Mei; DOU ZhongYing; AN LiLong; YANG XueYi; GE Xin; QIAO Hai; ZHAO Ting; MA XiaoFei; FAN JingZhua; ZHU MengYang

    2008-01-01

    The major obstacle in using pancreatic islet transplantation to cure type Ⅰ and some type Ⅱ diabetes is the shortage of the donors. One of ways to overcome such obstacle is to isolate and clone pancreatic stem cells as "seed cells" and induce their differentiation into functional islets as an abundant trans-plantation source. In this study, a monoclonal human pancreatic stem cell (mhPSC) line was obtained from abortive fetal pancreatic tissues. Pancreatic tissues were taken from abortive fetus by sterile procedures, and digested into single cells and cell clusters with 0.1% type Ⅳ collagenase. Cultured in modified glucose-low DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), these single cells and cell clusters adhered to culture dishes, and then primary epidermal-like pancreatic stem ceils started to clone. After digesting with 0.25% trypsin and 0.04% EDTA, fibroblasts and other cells were gradually eliminated and epithelioid pancreatic stem cells were gradually purified during generations. Using clone-ring selection, the mhPSCs were obtained. After addition of 10 ng/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cell culture medium, the mhPSCs quickly grew and formed a gravelstone-like monolayer. Continuously proliferated, a mhPSC line, which was derived from a male abortive fetus of 4 months old, has been passed through 50 generations. More than 1×109 mhPSCs were cryo-preserved in liquid nitrogen. Karyotype analysis showed that the chromosome set of the mhPSC line was normal diploid. Immunocytochemistry results demonstrated that the mhPSC line was positive for the pdxl, glucagon, nestin and CK19, and negative for the insulin, CD34, CD44 and CD45 protein expression. RT-PCR revealed further that the mhPSCs expressed transcription factors of the pdx1, glucagon, nestin and CK19. Also, in vitro induced with β-mercaptoethanol, the mhPSCs differentiated into nerve cells that expressed the NF protein. Induced with nicotinamide, the mhPSCs differentiated into functional islet

  18. Establishing a human pancreatic stem cell line and transplanting induced pancreatic islets to reverse experimental diabetes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The major obstacle in using pancreatic islet transplantation to cure type I and some type II diabetes is the shortage of the donors. One of ways to overcome such obstacle is to isolate and clone pancreatic stem cells as "seed cells" and induce their differentiation into functional islets as an abundant trans-plantation source. In this study, a monoclonal human pancreatic stem cell (mhPSC) line was obtained from abortive fetal pancreatic tissues. Pancreatic tissues were taken from abortive fetus by sterile procedures, and digested into single cells and cell clusters with 0.1% type IV collagenase. Cultured in modified glucose-low DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), these single cells and cell clusters adhered to culture dishes, and then primary epidermal-like pancreatic stem cells started to clone. After digesting with 0.25% trypsin and 0.04% EDTA, fibroblasts and other cells were gradually eliminated and epithelioid pancreatic stem cells were gradually purified during generations. Using clone-ring selection, the mhPSCs were obtained. After addition of 10 ng/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cell culture medium, the mhPSCs quickly grew and formed a gravelstone-like monolayer. Continuously proliferated, a mhPSC line, which was derived from a male abortive fetus of 4 months old, has been passed through 50 generations. More than 1×109 mhPSCs were cryo-preserved in liquid nitrogen. Karyotype analysis showed that the chromosome set of the mhPSC line was normal diploid. Immunocytochemistry results demonstrated that the mhPSC line was positive for the pdx1, glucagon, nestin and CK19, and negative for the insulin, CD34, CD44 and CD45 protein expression. RT-PCR revealed further that the mhPSCs expressed transcription factors of the pdx1, glucagon, nestin and CK19. Also, in vitro induced with β-mercaptoethanol, the mhPSCs differentiated into nerve cells that expressed the NF protein. Induced with nicotinamide, the mhPSCs differentiated into functional islet

  19. The on-bead digestion of protein corona on nanoparticles by trypsin immobilized on the magnetic nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengyan; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Ren'an; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-03-21

    Proteins interacting with nanoparticles would form the protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles in biological systems, which would critically impact the biological identities of nanoparticles and/or result in the physiological and pathological consequences. The enzymatic digestion of protein corona was the primary step to achieve the identification of protein components of the protein corona for the bottom-up proteomic approaches. In this study, the investigation on the tryptic digestion of protein corona by the immobilized trypsin on a magnetic nanoparticle was carried out for the first time. As a comparison with the usual overnight long-time digestion and the severe self-digestion of free trypsin, the on-bead digestion of protein corona by the immobilized trypsin could be accomplished within 1h, along with the significantly reduced self-digestion of trypsin and the improved reproducibility on the identification of proteins by the mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. It showed that the number of identified bovine serum (BS) proteins on the commercial Fe3O4 nanoparticles was increased by 13% for the immobilized trypsin with 1h digestion as compared to that of using free trypsin with even overnight digestion. In addition, the on-bead digestion of using the immobilized trypsin was further applied on the identification of human plasma protein corona on the commercial Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which leads the efficient digestion of the human plasma proteins and the identification of 149 human plasma proteins corresponding to putative critical pathways and biological processes.

  20. Antiproteases in the Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoji Kitagawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis relates to the inappropriate activation of trypsinogen to trypsin and a lack of the prompt elimination of the active trypsin inside the pancreas. Therefore, trypsin is believed to be the key enzyme in the initiation and exacerbation of acute pancreatitis by activating pancreatic zymogens. The activation of digestive enzymes causes pancreatic injury and results in an inflammatory response. The acute inflammatory response in the pancreas induces the systemic production of cytokines causing substantial tissue damage, and may progress beyond the pancreas to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, multi-organ failure (MOF or death [1]. In several studies, protease inhibitors have not been shown to be of significant value in the treatment of acute pancreatitis and are not available in the United States [2]. Several guidelines [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12] on the treatment of acute pancreatitis do not recommend them and the debate about the use of protease inhibitors is mentioned.

  1. Photoluminescence of trypsin after UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For study purposes of the primary effects of UV light the photoluminescence of trypsin was investigated before and after UV irradiation (lambda = 254 nm). The results were compared with the corresponding relations at equimolar mixtures of the constituent amino acids. The increase of the absorption in the region between 230 nm and 400 nm at UV irradiation of trypsin in aqueous solution is primarily attributed to the ionization of tyrosine. The fluorescence is strongly quenched mainly due to the ionized tyrosine residues. The results are discussed in connection with previous investigations on radical formation and inactivation of trypsin after UV irradiation. (orig.)

  2. [Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, R

    1990-07-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is the most common cause of maldigestion in dogs. This is usually caused by irreversible atrophy of the pancreas which subsequently requires life-long substitution therapy. The pathophysiology, symptoms and diagnosis are briefly reviewed in the present paper. The Trypsin-like-immunoreactivity test is recommended for establishing the diagnosis. Finally, treatment and possible causes of the failure of therapy are discussed. PMID:2196714

  3. Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Salahuddin; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 relate...

  4. Proteolytic activation of human pancreatitis associated protein is required for peptidoglycan binding and bacterial aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Medveczky, Péter; Szmola, Richárd; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) is a 16 kDa lectin-like protein, which becomes robustly upregulated in the pancreatic juice during acute pancreatitis. Trypsin cleaves the N terminus of PAP, which in turn forms insoluble fibrils. PAP and its paralog the pancreatic stone protein induce bacterial aggregation and, more recently, PAP was shown to bind to the peptidoglycan of Gram positive bacteria and exert a direct bactericidal effect. However, the role of N-terminal processing in the antib...

  5. Stress kinase inhibition modulates acute experimental pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Fleischer; R. Dabew; B. Goke; ACC Wagner

    2001-01-01

    AIM To examine the role of p38 during acute experimental cerulein pancreatitis.METHODS Rats were treated with cerulein with or without a specific JNK inhibitor (CEP1347)andy or a specific p38 inhbitor (SB203380) and pancreatic stress kinase activity wasdetermined. Parameters to assess pancreatitis included trypsin, amylase, lipase, pancreatic weight and histology.RESULTS JNK inhibition with CEP1347ameliorated pancreatitis, reducing pancreatic edema. In contrast, p38 inhibition with SB203580aggravated pancreatitis with higher trypsinlevels and, with induction of acinar necrosis not normally found after cerulein hyperstimulation.Simultaneous treatment with both CEP1347 and SB203580 mutually abolished the effects of either compound on cerulein pancreatitis.CONCLUSION Stress kinases modulatepancreatitis differentially. JNK seems to promote pancreatitis development, possibly by supporting inflammatory reactions such as edema formation while its inhibition ameliorates pancreatitis. In contrast, p38 may help reduce organ destruction while inhibition of p38 during induction of cerulein pancreatitis leads to the occurrence of acinar necrosis.

  6. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific. PMID:27226576

  7. Structure basis 1/2SLPI and porcine pancreas trypsin interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Kei; Kamimura, Takashi; Takimoto-Kamimura, Midori, E-mail: m.kamimura@teijin.co.jp [Teijin Institute for Bio-Medical Research, 4-3-2 Asahigaoka, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8512 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    1/2SLPI is a C-terminal domain of SLPI (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor) which inhibits various serine proteases broadly. The present study is the first X-ray structural report on how 1/2SLPI with P1 Leu strongly inhibits trypsin and how it can inhibit multiple serine proteases. SLPI (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor) is a 107-residue protease inhibitor which inhibits various serine proteases, including elastase, cathepsin G, chymotrypsin and trypsin. SLPI is obtained as a multiple inhibitor in lung defense and in chronic airway infection. X-ray crystal structures have so far reported that they are full-length SLPIs with bovine α-chymotrypsin and 1/2SLPI (recombinant C-terminal domain of SLPI; Arg58–Ala107) with HNE (human neutrophil elastase). To understand the role of this multiple inhibitory mechanism, the crystal structure of 1/2SLPI with porcine pancreas trypsin was solved and the binding modes of two other complexes compared. The Leu residue surprisingly interacts with the S1 site of trypsin, as with chymotrypsin and elastase. The inhibitory mechanism of 1/2SLPI using the wide primary binding site contacts (from P2′ to P5) with various serine proteases is discussed. These inhibitory mechanisms have been acquired in the evolution of the protection system for acute inflammatory diseases.

  8. Effect of mosquito midgut trypsin activity on dengue-2 virus infection and dissemination in Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Gupta, Lalita; Richardson, Jason; Bennett, Kristine; Black, William; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2005-05-01

    The effect of mosquito midgut trypsins in dengue serotype 2 flavivirus (DENV-2) infectivity to Aedes aegypti was studied. Addition of soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) in a DENV-2 infectious blood meal resulted in a 91-97% decrease in midgut DENV-2 RNA copies (qRT-PCR analysis). STI treatment also resulted in slower DENV-2 replication in the midgut, less DENV-2 E protein expression, and decreased dissemination to the thorax and the head. A second uninfected blood meal, 7 days after the STI-treated infectious meal, significantly increased DENV-2 replication in the midgut and recovered oogenesis, suggesting that the lower viral infection caused by STI was in part due to a nutritional effect. Mosquitoes fed DENV-2 digested in vitro with bovine trypsin (before STI addition) exhibited a transient increase in midgut DENV-2 4 days postinfection. Blood digestion and possibly DENV-2 proteolytic processing, mediated by midgut trypsins, influence the rate of DENV-2 infection, replication, and dissemination in Ae. aegypti. PMID:15891140

  9. Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  10. Acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingest...

  11. Acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion....

  12. Identification of a new soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor mutation and its effect on Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor content in soybean seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean seeds possess anti-nutritional compounds which inactivate digestive proteases, principally corresponding to two families: Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitors (KTi) and Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBI). High levels of raw soybeans/soybean meal in feed mixtures can cause poor weight gain and pancreatic abno...

  13. Complete disassociation of adult pancreas into viable single cells through cold trypsin-EDTA digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan LI; Shi-yun PENG; Zhen-wu ZHANG; Rui-cheng FENG; Lu LI; Jie LIANG; Sheng TAI

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro isolation and analysis of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells are necessary for understanding their properties and function; however,the preparation of high-quality single-cell suspensions from adult pancreas is prerequisite.In this study,we applied a cold trypsin-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) digestion method to disassociate adult mouse pancreata into single cells.The yield of single cells and the viability of the harvested cells were much higher than those obtained via the two commonly used warm digestion methods.Flow cytometric analysis showed that the ratio of ductal or BCRP1-positive cells in cell suspensions prepared through cold digestion was consistent with that found in vivo.Cell culture tests showed that pancreatic epithelial cells prepared by cold digestion maintained proliferative capacity comparable to those derived from warm collagenase digestion.These results indicate that cold trypsin-EDTA digestion can effectively disassociate an adult mouse pancreas into viable single cells with minimal cell loss,and can be used for the isolation and analysis of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells.

  14. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute Pancreatitis > Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  15. Prevalence of S and Z alpha 1-antitrypsin mutations in patients with pancreatic diseases in Serbian population

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Aleksandra; Divac Aleksandra; Stanković Marija; Dinić Jelena; Lukić Snežana; Anđelić-Jelić Marina; Popović Dragan; Radojković Dragica

    2010-01-01

    One of the key points in research of pancreatic disease pathology is further elucidation of the role of proteases and antiproteases, since their imbalance can lead to pancreatic injury. Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) is one of the most important serum inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes, including pancreatic enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase. It is speculated that mutations in the AAT gene may influence the onset and the development of pancreatic disease. The presence of the most common AAT...

  16. Role of genetic disorders in acute recurrent pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker Keim

    2008-01-01

    There was remarkable progress in the understanding of the role genetic risk factors in chronic pancreatitis.These factors seem to be much more important than thought in the past.The rare autosomal-dominant mutations N29I and R122H of PRSS1(cationic trypsinogen) as well as the variant N34S of SPINK1(pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor) are associated to a disease onset in childhood or youth.Compared to chronic alcoholic pancreatitis the progression is slow so that for a long time only signs of acute-recurrent pancreatitis are found.Only at later time points(more than 10-15 years) there is evidence for chronic pancreatitis in the majority of patients.Acute recurrent pancreatitis may therefore be regarded as a transition state until definite signs of chronic pancreatitis are detectable.

  17. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  18. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  19. Bronchoalveolar lavage with trypsin in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasaka, Y.; Takahashi, M; Ueshima, H; Tohda, Y.; Nakajima, S.

    1996-01-01

    Two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis were treated with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) via a fibreoptic bronchoscope. Additional clinical improvement was seen when trypsin was added to the lavage fluid. Analysis of effluents in the BAL fluid showed marked reduction of protein constituents with clinical improvement after treatment with trypsin in the lavage. BAL with trypsin was well tolerated.

  20. Urinary trypsin inhibitor - an experimental and clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berling, B.M.

    1991-12-31

    The urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) is an acid stable proteinase inhibitor present in blood and urine. It was purified from urine using affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Two forms of UTI were present in urine, A and B. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of UTI in urine and plasma was performed. The normal level of UTI in plasma and serum was about 2 mg/l. The normal excretion in urine was about 8 mg per 24 hours. The plasma and urine levels of UTI were studied in patients with acute pancreatitis and in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Uremic patients had a marked increase of UTI in plasma compatible with decreased glomerular filtration. In samples from healthy persons as well as from patients only inhibitor A was found. Inhibitor B has recently been renamed bikunin because of its two Kunitz-type inhibiting domains. Inhibitor A might be called tetrakunin. Radioactively labeled UTI (inhibitor A) was injected intravenously in three male volunteers. The plasma half-life of {sup 125}I UTI was 2 hours. Free biologically active inhibitor was found in the urine during the first four hours after injection. The organ distribution of intravenously injected {sup 125}I UTI was studied in rats. Fifteen minutes after injection the major part of the radioactivity was found in the kidneys, suggesting that the kidneys are the primary site of UTI metabolism. Using immunohistochemical techniques UTI was found in the proximal tubules of the normal human kidney further indicating the tubular reabsorption and methabolisms of UTI.

  1. Urinary trypsin inhibitor - an experimental and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) is an acid stable proteinase inhibitor present in blood and urine. It was purified from urine using affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Two forms of UTI were present in urine, A and B. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of UTI in urine and plasma was performed. The normal level of UTI in plasma and serum was about 2 mg/l. The normal excretion in urine was about 8 mg per 24 hours. The plasma and urine levels of UTI were studied in patients with acute pancreatitis and in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Uremic patients had a marked increase of UTI in plasma compatible with decreased glomerular filtration. In samples from healthy persons as well as from patients only inhibitor A was found. Inhibitor B has recently been renamed bikunin because of its two Kunitz-type inhibiting domains. Inhibitor A might be called tetrakunin. Radioactively labeled UTI (inhibitor A) was injected intravenously in three male volunteers. The plasma half-life of 125I UTI was 2 hours. Free biologically active inhibitor was found in the urine during the first four hours after injection. The organ distribution of intravenously injected 125I UTI was studied in rats. Fifteen minutes after injection the major part of the radioactivity was found in the kidneys, suggesting that the kidneys are the primary site of UTI metabolism. Using immunohistochemical techniques UTI was found in the proximal tubules of the normal human kidney further indicating the tubular reabsorption and methabolisms of UTI

  2. [Pancreatic Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöfl, Rainer

    2016-06-22

    The author presents his personal choice of practical relevant papers of pancreatic diseases from 2014 to 2015. Nutritional factors and hypertriglycidemia are discussed as causes of acute pancreatitis. Tools to avoid post-ERCP(endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) pancreatitis are described and the natural course of fluid collections and pseudocysts is demonstrated. The value of secretin-MRCP(magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is illustrated. Data help to choose the minimally effective prednisolone dose in autoimmune pancreatitis. The increased prevalence of fractures in patients with chronic pancreatitis highlights the necessity of screening for bone density loss. The association of vitamin D intake with pancreatic cancer is described. The probability of cancer in IPNM is shown and innovative surgical concepts to reduce the loss of pancreatic function are presented. Finally neoadjuvant concepts for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are highlighted. PMID:27329710

  3. [Effect of trypsin on the rat keratinocyte separation and subculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, An-Li; Zhou, Yan; Hua, Ping; Tan, Wen-Song

    2002-01-01

    The effect of trypsin on the separation an subculture of the keratinocytes was investigated in this work. It was found that when 0.25% trypsin was employed for 5 minutes to separate keratinocytes, the number of active keratinocytes and the cells capable of forming colony were higher than those of other experimental conditions. The maximum attached ratio of primary keratinocytes was obtained when skin tissues were treated at 0.05% concentration of trypsin. With the increase of the trypsin concentrations, the attached ratio, attachment rate constant, and colony forming efficiency were all increased. Thus, 0.25% concentration of trypsin was recommended for separating and subculturing the keratinocytes.

  4. Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Salahuddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis.

  5. Cathepsin L inactivates human trypsinogen whereas cathepsin L deletion reduces the severity of pancreatitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartmann, Thomas; Mayerle, Julia; Kähne, Thilo; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Ruthenbürger, Manuel; Matthias, Rainer; Kruse, Anne; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Weiss, F. Ulrich; Sendler, Matthias; Hans-Lippert; Schulz, Hans-Ulrich; Aghdassi, Ali; Dummer, Annegret; Teller, Steffen; Halangk, Walter; Lerch, Markus M.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis is characterized by an activation cascade of digestive enzymes in the pancreas. The first of these, trypsinogen, can be converted to active trypsin by the peptidase cathepsin B (CTSB). We investigated whether cathepsin L (CTSL), the second most abundant lysosomal cysteine proteinase, can also process trypsinogen to active trypsin and has a role in pancreatitis. Methods In CTSL-deficient (Ctsl−/−) mice, pancreatitis was induced by injection of cerulein or infusion of taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Human tissue, pancreatic juice, mouse pancreatitis specimens, and recombinant enzymes were studied by enzyme assay, immunoblot, N-terminal sequencing, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses. Isolated acini from Ctsl−/− and Ctsb−/− mice were studied. Results CTSL was expressed in human and mouse pancreas, where it colocalized with trypsinogen in secretory vesicles and lysosomes and was secreted into pancreatic juice. Severity of pancreatitis was reduced in Ctsl−/− mice, compared with wild-type controls, whereas apoptosis and intrapancreatic trypsin activity were increased in Ctsl−/− mice. CTSL induced cleavage of trypsinogen occurred 3 amino acids toward the C terminus from the CTSB activation site and resulted in a truncated, inactive form of trypsin and an elongated propeptide (TAP). This elongated TAP was not detected by ELISA but was effectively converted to an immunoreactive form by CTSB. Levels of TAP thus generated by CTSB were not associated with disease severity, although this is what the TAP-ELISA is used to determine in the clinic. Conclusions CTSL inactivates trypsinogen and counteracts the ability of CTSB to form active trypsin. In mouse models of pancreatitis, absence of CTSL induces apoptosis and reduces disease severity. PMID:19900452

  6. Bio-potency of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica seeds on the developmental physiology of H. armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-11-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin were ~2.10 µg/ml and 1.68 µg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21 kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H. armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H. armigera larvae. These results suggest that TTI has toxic and adverse effect on the developmental physiology of H. armigera and could be useful in controlling the pest H. armigera.

  7. Momordica charantia trypsin inhibitor Ⅱ inhibits growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manasi Alok Telang; Prashant Pyati; Mohini Sainani; Vidya Shrikant Gupta; Ashok Prabhakar Giri

    2009-01-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) seeds contain several squash-type serine proteinase inhibitors (PIs),which inhibit the digestive proteinases of the polyphagous insect pest Helicoverpa armigera.In the present work isolation of a DNA sequence encoding the mature peptide of a trypsin inhibitor McTI-Ⅱ,its cloning and expression as a recombinant protein using Pichia pastoris have been reported.Recombinant McTI-Ⅱinhibited bovine trypsin at 1:1 molar ratio,as expected,but did not inhibit chymotrypsin or elastase.McTI-Ⅱalso strongly inhibited trypsin-like proteinases (81% inhibition) as well as the total proteolytic activity of digestive proteinases (70% inhibition) from the midgut of H.armigera larvae.The insect larvae fed with McTI-Ⅱ-incorporated artificial diet suffered over 70% reduction in the average larval weight after 12 days of feeding.Moreover,ingestion of McTI-Ⅱresulted in 23% mortality in the larval population.The strong antimetabolic activity of McTI-Ⅱtoward H.armigera indicates its probable use in developing insect tolerance in susceptible plants.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1914 - Trypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 110, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies... obtained from purified extracts of porcine or bovine pancreas. It is a white to tan amorphous powder....

  9. Complicated Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, O.J.

    2015-01-01

    Research questions addressed in this thesis: What is the accuracy of serum blood urea nitrogen as early predictor of complicated pancreatitis? ; What is difference in clinical outcome between patients with pancreatic parenchymal necrosis and patients with extrapancreatic necrosis without necrosis

  10. Complicated Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, O.J.

    2015-01-01

    Research questions addressed in this thesis: What is the accuracy of serum blood urea nitrogen as early predictor of complicated pancreatitis? ; What is difference in clinical outcome between patients with pancreatic parenchymal necrosis and patients with extrapancreatic necrosis without necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma? ; What is the impact of organ failure on mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis? ; Based on individual patient data from randomized trials, does early enteral tube feedin...

  11. Childhood pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K

    1999-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  12. Protein Analysis by Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Trypsin-Immobilized Organosiloxane Polymer Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Maria T; Eberlin, Livia S; Zare, Richard N

    2015-12-15

    In the growing field of proteomic research, rapid and simple protein analysis is a crucial component of protein identification. We report the use of immobilized trypsin on hybrid organic-inorganic organosiloxane (T-OSX) polymers for the on-surface, in situ digestion of four model proteins: melittin, cytochrome c, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin. Tryptic digestion products were sampled, detected, and identified using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and nanoDESI-MS. These novel, reusable T-OSX arrays on glass slides allow for protein digestion in methanol:water solvents (1:1, v/v) and analysis directly from the same polymer surface without the need for sample preparation, high temperature, and pH conditions typically required for in-solution trypsin digestions. Digestion reactions were conducted with 2 μL protein sample droplets (0.35 mM) at incubation temperatures of 4, 25, 37, and 65 °C and digestion reaction times between 2 and 24 h. Sequence coverages were dependent on the hydrophobicity of the OSX polymer support and varied by temperature and digestion time. Under the best conditions, the sequence coverages, determined by DESI-MS, were 100% for melittin, 100% for cytochrome c, 90% for myoglobin, and 65% for bovine serum albumin. PMID:26567450

  13. Calcium signaling of pancreatic acinar cells in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zong-Fang

    2014-11-21

    Pancreatitis is an increasingly common and sometimes severe disease that lacks a specific therapy. The pathogenesis of pancreatitis is still not well understood. Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a versatile carrier of signals regulating many aspects of cellular activity and plays a central role in controlling digestive enzyme secretion in pancreatic acinar cells. Ca(2+) overload is a key early event and is crucial in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In pancreatic acinar cells, pathological Ca(2+) signaling (stimulated by bile, alcohol metabolites and other causes) is a key contributor to the initiation of cell injury due to prolonged and global Ca(2+) elevation that results in trypsin activation, vacuolization and necrosis, all of which are crucial in the development of pancreatitis. Increased release of Ca(2+) from stores in the intracellular endoplasmic reticulum and/or increased Ca(2+) entry through the plasma membrane are causes of such cell damage. Failed mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production reduces re-uptake and extrusion of Ca(2+) by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-activated ATPase and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase pumps, which contribute to Ca(2+) overload. Current findings have provided further insight into the roles and mechanisms of abnormal pancreatic acinar Ca(2+) signals in pancreatitis. The lack of available specific treatments is therefore an objective of ongoing research. Research is currently underway to establish the mechanisms and interactions of Ca(2+) signals in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis.

  14. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  15. Pathophysiology of pulmonary complications of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George W Browne; CS Pitchurnoni

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis in its severe form is complicated by multiple organ system dysfunction, most importantly by pulmonary complications which include hypoxia,acute respiratory distress syndrome, atelectasis, and pleural effusion. The pathogenesis of some of the above complications is attributed to the production of noxious cytokines. Clinically significant is the early onset of pleural effusion, which heralds a poor outcome of acute pancreatitis. The role of circulating trypsin, phospholipase A2, platelet activating factor, release of free fatty acids,chemoattractants such as tumor necrsosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, fMet-leu-phe (a bacterial wall product), nitric oxide, substance P, and macrophage inhibitor factor is currently studied. The hope is that future management of acute pancreatitis with a better understanding of the pathogenesis of lung injury will be directed against the production of noxious cytokines.

  16. [The therapeutic efficacy of the triase preparation in experimental pancreatic exocrine insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, O A

    1994-01-01

    The therapeutical efficiency of the new enzyme preparation Triase which contains microbial lipase, protease, and alpha-amylase was studied in dogs with experimental pancreatic failure. Enzyme maldigestion was made by bandaging the great pancreatic duct with pancreatic trypsin injection. The daily therapeutical dose of Triase (4 tablets) eliminated dyspepsia, creatorrhoea, restored body weight. But steatorrhoea was not abolished completely. The fecal fat content decreased to 22.1% versus 33.2% for untreated dogs following 8 weeks of the experiment. The enzyme therapy led to a more rapid reduction in blood amylase and lipase activities. This testifies that pancreatitis ran less severely. PMID:7756959

  17. Autoimmune pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2009-01-01

    bile duct. Obstructive jaundice is a common symptom at presentation, and pancreatic cancer represents an important clinical differential diagnosis. In late stages of the disease, the normal pancreatic parenchyma is often replaced by large amounts of fibrosis. Histologically, there seem to be two...... AIP responds to steroid treatment, also a trial with steroids, can help to differentiate AIP from pancreatic cancer. OUTLOOK AND DISCUSSION: This review presents the pathological, radiologic and laboratory findings of AIP. Moreover, the treatment and pathogenesis are discussed.......BACKGROUND: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a relatively newly recognized type of pancreatitis that is characterized by diffuse or focal swelling of the pancreas due to lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A PubMed literature search was...

  18. Immunoreactive trypsin and neonatalscreening for cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was measured in dried blood spots from 160.822 five-day-old babies as a part of a regionwide neonatal screening program for cystic fibrosis. A second test was performed for 492 babies in whom blood IRT levels were found greater than 900 μg/l; retesting revealed persistent elevation in 55. Sweat testing confirmed cystic fibrosis in 43 babies, but results were normal in 12. During the course of this study, a total of 51 cystic fibrosis babies were identified: 43 by newborn screening, 6 because they had meconium ileus; so, early diagnosis was achieved in 49 cases out of 51. Two newborn babies did not have elevated IRT and they were missed by the screening test. Our results confirm that elevated blood IRT is characteristic of newborn babies with cystic fibrosis and show that this test has an excellent specificity (99.7%) and a good sensitivity (95%) when used as a neonatal screening test

  19. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, J D; Morton, D. G.; Neoptolemos, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis is very important as the management and prognosis of these two diseases is different. In most patients with pancreatic disease, the diagnosis can be established but there is a subgroup of patients in whom it is difficult to differentiate between these conditions because the clinical presentation is often similar and currently available diagnostic tests may be unable to distinguish between an inflammatory or neoplast...

  20. Role of proteases and antiprotease in the etiology of chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimanjari Kavutharapu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Chronic pancreatitis (CP is the progressive and irreversible destruction of the pancreas characterized by the permanent loss of endocrine and exocrine function. Trypsin, the most important digestive enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of all other digestive enzymes. Chymotrypsin, an endopeptidase hydrolyzes peptides at amino acids with aromatic side chains. Alpha-1-antitrypsin is a principal antiprotease which protects the mucosal tissue from the proteolytic effects of trypsin and chymotrypsin by the formation of molar complexes. The present study is aimed at examining the role of proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin and anti-protease (α1-anti-trypsin in the etiopathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis. Patients and Methods: A total of 90 CP patients and 110 age and sex matched controls were considered for the study. Serum trypsin, chymotrypsin and α1-anti-trypsin levels were determined prospectively in CP patients and compared to healthy controls as described previously. Results: The mean activity of trypsin were found to be increased in CP patients (X ± SD = 0.82 ± 0.838 in comparison to normal control group (X ± SD = 0.55 ± 0.328, (P = 0.001. Chymotrypsin activity were also found to be elevated in CP patients (X ± SD = 0.63 ± 0.278 in comparison to control group (X ± SD = 0.39 ± 0.295, (P = 0.0001. The mean α-1-anti-trypsin activity were found to be lowered in CP patients (X ± SD = 0.42 ± 0.494 in comparison to control group (X ± SD = 0.67 ± 0.465, with the variation being significant (P = 0.0003. Conclusion: The findings suggest an imbalance in the synthesis and degradation of proteolytic enzymes and antiprotease indicating an altered aggressive and defensive role in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis.

  1. Action of Antiproteases on the Inflammatory Response in Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chia Chen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of acute pancreatitis ranges from mild edematous disease to a severe necrotizing process which is usually accompanied by local or systemic complications and even mortality. Early deaths (within the first week due to severe acute pancreatitis are generally caused by massive inflammatory responses which result in multiple organ failure. Although the exact mechanisms which trigger the inflammatory and necrotizing processes are not completely understood, it is generally accepted that autodigestion and activated leukocytes play important roles in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Proinflammatory cytokines are associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ failure syndrome in acute pancreatitis. A compensatory anti-inflammatory response occurs in parallel with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Trypsin secreted by the pancreatic acinar cells activates proteaseactivated receptor-2 which can result in the production of cytokines. Protease inhibitors such as aprotinin, gabexate mesilate, nafamostat mesilate, ulinastatin, etc. can inhibit the various enzymes and inflammatory response in experimental and clinical studies. Thus, protease inhibitors have been considered as a potential treatment to inhibit the pancreatic inflammation in acute pancreatitis. The beneficial effects of antiproteases on experimental severe acute pancreatitis may be, in part, due to the modulation of inflammatory cytokine responses. The effect of protease inhibitors on the inflammatory response in human acute pancreatitis deserves further study.

  2. The effect of dietary fiber on human pancreatic enzyme activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaif, G; Schneeman, B O

    1981-06-01

    Human pancreatic juice was used as a source of amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. The human pancreatic juice was incubated with one of several dietary fibers, including alfalfa, oat bran, pectin. Solka Floc, wheat bran, and xylan. In addition, the human pancreatic juice was incubated without any fiber, which was used as the control. Incubation with Solka Floc (cellulose) and xylan (a hemicellulose) resulted in a substantial loss of activity in all enzymes assayed. Wheat bran and oat bran decreased amylase and chymotrypsin activity, while alfalfa decreased trypsin and chymotrypsin activity. Incubation with pectin significantly increased amylase and chymotrypsin activity. The mechanism by which sources of dietary fiber can alter enzyme activity is currently unknown. This effect of a dietary component on the activity of human pancreatic enzymes emphasizes the need to investigate further the effects of dietary fiber on digestion and absorption in the small intestine to understand fully its effects on metabolism. PMID:6165234

  3. [Hereditary pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrla, Przemysław; Nowak, Tomasz; Gil, Jerzy; Adamiec, Cezary; Bobula, Mariusz; Saracyn, Marek

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is a rare, heterogeneous familial disease and should be suspected in any patient who has suffered at least two attacks of acute pancreatitis for which there is no underlying cause and unexplained chronic pancreatitis with a family history in a first- or second degree relative. with an early onset, mostly during childhood. Genetic factors have been implied in cases of familial chronic pancreatitis. The most common are mutations of the PRSS1 gene on the long arm of the chromosome 7, encoding for the cationic trypsinogen. The inheritance pattern is autosomal dominant with an incomplete penetrance (80%). The inflammation results in repeated DNA damage, error-prone repair mechanisms and the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations. Risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a major concern of many patients with hereditary chronic pancreatitis, but the individual risk is poorly defined. Better risk models of pancreatic cancer in individual patients based on etiology of pancreatitis, family history, genetics, smoking, alcohol, diabetes and the patient's age are needed. PMID:27000817

  4. Pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Alrawashdeh, Wasfi

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in higher-income countries, with 5-year survival only 10% (range 7%–25%), even in people presenting with early-stage cancer. Risk factors include age, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, a family history, and dietary factors. Diabetes mellitus may also increase the risk.

  5. Interaction of gallic acid with trypsin analyzed by spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between trypsin and gallic acid (GA were investigated by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering (RLS spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, and enzymatic inhibition assay. It was found that GA can cause the fluorescence quenching of trypsin during the process of formation of GA-trypsin complex, resulting in inhibition of trypsin activity (IC50 = 3.9 × 10−6 mol/L. The fluorescence spectroscopic data showed that the quenching efficiency can reach about 80%. The binding constants were 1.9371 × 104 L/mol, 1.8192 × 104 L/mol, and 1.7465 × 104 L/mol at three temperatures, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that hydrogen bonds, van der Waals, hydrophobic, and electrostatic interactions were involved in the binding process of GA to trypsin. Molecular modeling studies illustrated a specific display of binding information and explained most of the experiment phenomena. The microenvironments of tryptophan and tyrosine residue in trypsin were changed by the GA. Results indicated that GA was a strong quencher and inhibitor of trypsin.

  6. Potential effects of PKC or protease inhibitors on acute pancreatitis-induced tissue injury in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Changbin; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Xiangdong; Zhao, Liming; Andersson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is still one of the severe diseases, that cause the development of multiple organ dysfunction with a high mortality. Effective therapies for AP are still limited, mainly due to unclear mechanisms by which A-P initiates both pancreatic and extrapancreatic organ injury. Methods: Protease inhibitors (aprotinin, pefabloc, trypsin inhibitor) and PKC inhibitors (polymyxin B, staurosporine) were administrated 30 min before 'induction of AP in rats. To investig...

  7. Purification and physicochemical characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from Cassia absus Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Girijesh K; Gupta, Amit K; Gupta, Akshita; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Pradhyumna K; Saxena, Anil K; Sharma, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    A thermotolerant protein with trypsin inhibitory activity designated as CaTI was purified to homogeneity from seeds of Cassia absus. Gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE analysis showed the apparent molecular mass of ~20 kDa. Partial internal sequences indicate that CaTI belongs to Kunitz-inhibitor family. CaTI inhibits the bovine trypsin in 1:1 molar ratio and exhibited a competitive-type inhibitory activity with Ki = 5.6 x 10(-9) M. The inhibitory activity was retained over a broad pH range (2-12). Thermal stability study showed that it is stable up to 80 °C and inhibition activity reduced at and above 90 °C which might be due to the presence of predominantly β-sheets revealed by the CD study. The proteolysis studies of CaTI exhibited strong resistance to proteolysis by different proteases tested. The studies show that CaTI can be used as potential candidates for the development of the transgenic plant against the microbes and insect pests.

  8. Studies on prekallikrein of bovine plasma. II. Activation of prekallikrein with proteinases and properties of kallikrein activated by bovine Hageman factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Nagasawa, S; Suzuki, T

    1980-01-01

    Activation of bovine plasma prekallikrein was investigated with several proteinases. Highly purified bovine plasma prekallikrein was rapidly activated to kallikrein [EC 3.4.21.8] by bovine activated Hageman factor, trypsin [EC 3.4.21.4] and Pronase P (proteinases from Streptomyces griseus) and more gradually by papain [EC 3.4.22.2] and ficin [EC 3.4.22.3]. Activation of prekallikrein was also observed with bovine plasmin [EC 3.4.21.7], but not with bovine clotting factors Xa (Stuart factor) [EC 3.4.21.6] and IXa (Christmas factor) or thrombin [EC 3.4.21.5]. Urokinase [EC 3.4.99.26], Reptilase, collagenase [EC 3.4.24.3], elastase [EC 3.4.21.11], alpha-chymotrypsin [EC 3.4.21.1], Nagarse [EC 3.4.21.14], and stem bromelain [EC 3.4.22 4] did not convert prekallikrein to kallikrein. Plasma kallikrein activated to Hageman factor released kinin rapidly from bovine high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen. However, from bovine low molecular weight (LMW) kininogen, liberation of kinin was extremely slow. The kallikrein activity was inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), Trasylol, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), and N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone (TLCK), but not by egg-white trypsin inhibitor (EWTI), lima bean trypsin inhibitor (LBTI), heparin or hexadimethrine bromide (Polybrene). The kallikrein formed an enzyme-inhibitor complex with SBTI and Trasylol, but not with LBTI. Prekallikrein did not react with SBTI. Prekallikrein consists of a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight about 90,000, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Activation of prekallikrein by Hageman factor was found to involve cleavage of the single peptide bond on the disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain, and no change of molecular weight was observed during the activation. The peptide bond cleaved in prekallikrein by the activation was an Arg-X peptide bond on a disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain.

  9. Peritoneal absorption of pancreatic enzymes in bile-induced acute pancreatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Y; Hayakawa, T; Kondo, T; Shibata, T; Kishimoto, W

    1990-01-01

    To clarify the contribution of peritoneal absorption of enzyme-rich exudate to the persistent elevation of serum amylase in bile-induced pancreatitis in dogs, serum amylase, lipase and immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) levels were measured during 24 h after induction of pancreatitis with and without peritoneal lavage. The basal level of serum amylase activity (m +/- s.e. = 1291 +/- 111 U/L) reached a plateau at 30 min (2688 +/- 185) after induction of pancreatitis and continued to rise until 24 h (7201 +/- 424). This persistent amylase elevation could be reduced significantly by peritoneal lavage. Serum IRT rose to a peak (378 +/- 103 ng/mL) at 30 min from the basal (20 +/- 5), then decreased until 3 h (211 +/- 34) and maintained a consistent level thereafter. Serum lipase elevation took an intermediate course between the levels of serum amylase and IRT. Intraperitoneal injection of 5 mL pancreatic juice could reproduce similar elevations to those of the respective enzymes, except lipase, seen in pancreatitis. These results suggest that transperitoneal absorption of pancreatic enzymes contributes to the elevation in serum enzymes levels and that rates of peritoneal absorption and serum disappearance differ from enzyme to enzyme.

  10. A Suspicious Pancreatic Mass in Chronic Pancreatitis: Pancreatic Actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de Clerck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pancreatic actinomycosis is a chronic infection of the pancreas caused by the suppurative Gram-positive bacterium Actinomyces. It has mostly been described in patients following repeated main pancreatic duct stenting in the context of chronic pancreatitis or following pancreatic surgery. This type of pancreatitis is often erroneously interpreted as pancreatic malignancy due to the specific invasive characteristics of Actinomyces. Case. A 64-year-old male with a history of chronic pancreatitis and repeated main pancreatic duct stenting presented with weight loss, fever, night sweats, and abdominal pain. CT imaging revealed a mass in the pancreatic tail, invading the surrounding tissue and resulting in splenic vein thrombosis. Resectable pancreatic cancer was suspected, and pancreatic tail resection was performed. Postoperative findings revealed pancreatic actinomycosis instead of neoplasia. Conclusion. Pancreatic actinomycosis is a rare type of infectious pancreatitis that should be included in the differential diagnosis when a pancreatic mass is discovered in a patient with chronic pancreatitis and prior main pancreatic duct stenting. Our case emphasizes the importance of pursuing a histomorphological confirmation.

  11. Imaging of pancreatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihashi, H.; Hirose, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Kamikita, Y.; Asano, A. (Asahikawa Medical College, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1981-11-01

    Diagnosing pancreatic diseases using non invasive methods such as ultrasound and computed tomography was reviewed. Images characteristic to pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer were explained. Pancreatic cancer accompanied with pancreatitis was demonstrated on echograms and scintigrams. The necessity of follow-up observation of pancreatitis was stressed.

  12. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rate Lab tests that show the release of pancreatic enzymes will be done. These include: Increased blood amylase level Increased serum blood lipase level Increased urine amylase ... swelling of the pancreas include: CT scan of the abdomen MRI of ...

  13. Pancreatitis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perform lab tests to check the release of pancreatic enzymes. These include tests to check the: Blood amylase level Blood lipase level Urine amylase level Other blood tests ... the pancreas include: Ultrasound of the abdomen (most common) CT ...

  14. Flavianate, an amino acid precipitant, is a competitive inhibitor of trypsin at pH 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Schneedorf

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Textile dyes bind to proteins leading to selective co-precipitation of a complex involving one protein molecule and more than one dye molecule of opposite charge in acid solutions, in a process of reversible denaturation that can be utilized for protein fractionation. In order to understand what occurs before the co-precipitation, a kinetic study using bovine ß-trypsin and sodium flavianate was carried out based on reaction progress curve techniques. The experiments were carried out using a-CBZ-L-Lys-p-nitrophenyl ester as substrate which was added to 50 mM sodium citrate buffer, pH 3.0, containing varying concentrations of ß-trypsin and dye. The reaction was recorded spectrophotometrically at 340 nm for 30 min, and the families of curves obtained were analyzed simultaneously by fitting integrated Michaelis-Menten equations. The dye used behaved as a competitive inhibitor of trypsin at pH 3.0, with Ki = 99 µM; kinetic parameters for the substrate hydrolysis were: Km = 32 µM, and kcat = 0.38/min. The competitive character of the inhibition suggests a specific binding of the first dye molecule to His-57, the only positively charged residue at the active site of the enzyme.

  15. Role of intrapancreatic SPINK1/Spink3 expression in the development of pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eOhmuraya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on hereditary pancreatitis have provided evidence in favor of central role for trypsin activity in the disease. Identification of genetic variants of trypsinogen linked the protease to the onset of pancreatitis, and biochemical characterization proposed an enzymatic gain of function as the initiating mechanism. Mutations of serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1gene (SPINK1 are shown to be associated with hereditary pancreatitis. We previously reported that Spink3 (a mouse homologue gene of human SPINK1 deficient mice showed excessive autophagy, followed by inappropriate trypsinogen activation in the exocrine pancreas. These data indicate that the role of SPINK1/Spink3 is not only trypsin inhibitor, but also negative regulator of autophagy. On the other hand, recent studies showed that high levels of SPINK1 protein detected in a serum or urine were associated with adverse outcome in various cancer types. It has been suggested that expression of SPINK1 and trypsin is balanced in normal tissue, but this balance could be disrupted during tumor progression. Based on the structural similarity between SPINK1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF, we showed that SPINK1 protein binds and activates EGF receptor, thus acting as a growth factor on tumor cell lines. In this review, we summarize the old and new roles of SPINK1/Spink3 in trypsin inhibition, autophagy, and cancer cell growth. These new functions of SPINK1/Spink3 may be related to the development of chronic pancreatitis.

  16. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Patrick; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA in both sexes. Early diagnosis is difficult and the overall mortality rate is high. Individuals at high risk for pancreatic cancer include smokers, and persons with all forms of chronic alcoholic, metabolic, tropical or hereditary pancreatitis. The duration of exposure to inflammation seems to be the major factor involved in the transition from benign to malignant condition. Smoking, which appears to further accelerate the carcinogenic transformation, remains the strongest risk factor amenable to preventive intervention.

  17. Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Associated with Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzilli, Raffaele; Vecchiarelli, Silvia; Di Marco, Maria Cristina; SERRA, CARLA; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Fabbri, Dario; Rojas Mena, Betzabè; Imbrogno, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), in contrast to other benign chronic pancreatic diseases, can be cured with immunosuppressant drugs, thus the differentiation of AIP from pancreatic cancer is of particular interest in clinical practice. There is the possibility that some patients with AIP may develop pancreatic cancer, and this possibility contributes to increasing our difficulties in differentiating AIP from pancreatic cancer. We herein report the case of a 70-year-old man in whom pancreatic ad...

  18. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  19. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Alting, A.C.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and ß-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, ¿-lactalbumin, ß-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates ob

  20. Duodenal foreign body mimicking acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the specificity and sensitivity of plasma and urinary trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP) concentrat. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical cases. Procedure: Dogs were classified into three groups: healthy animals, dogs with confirmed pancreatitis and dogs with nonpancreatic disease, which clinically or biochemically resembled pancreatitis. This last group was further subdivided into dogs with renal and those with nonrenal disease. The plasma and urinary TAP concentration was determined by a competitive enzyme immunoassay. Clinical cases additionally had serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity concentration measured, as well as radiography and ultrasound of the abdomen and further diagnostic procedures. Nonparametric analysis of variance (Kruskal-Wallis test) was performed using Statistix 4.0 program. Results: There was a wide range of urinary TAP concentration in healthy dogs (mean 52.30 nmol/L, standard deviation 55.25) that made interpretation of urinary TAP concentrations difficult in the other groups. There was a narrow reference range for plasma TAP (mean 2.67 nmol/L, standard deviation 0.93). Plasma and urinary TAP concentrations, as well as urinary TAP to creatinine ratio, were all increased in dogs that died with necrotising pancreatitis. Values were not increased in mild, interstitial pancreatitis. Increased plasma TAP concentrations were also present in dogs with severe renal disease. Conclusion: Plasma TAP concentration isa good prognostic indicator in naturally occurring pancreatitis in dogs. The failure of TAP to increase in mild pancreatitis, and the increase present in severe renal disease, suggests its measurement has limited application as a sole diagnostic tool for canine pancreatitis. Further investigations are required in order to explain the large variability of urinary TAP concentration and the presence of circulating TAP in healthy dogs

  1. The effects of trypsin on rat brain astrocyte activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Fereidoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are cells within the central nervous system which are activated in a wide spectrum of infections, and autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. In pathologic states, they produce inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide (NO, and sometimes they induce apoptosis. Their protease-activated receptors (PARs can be activated by proteases, e.g. thrombin and trypsin, which are important in brain inflammation. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of trypsin (1 to 100U/ml on cultured astrocytes.In the present study, two-day rat infants' brains were isolated and homogenized after meninges removal, then cultivated in DMEM + 10% FBS medium. 10 days later, astrocytes were harvested and recultivated for more purification (up to 95%, using Immunocytochemistry method, in order to be employed for tests. They were affected by different concentrations of trypsin (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 U/ml. To reveal the inflammation progress, NO concentrations (the Griess test were assessed after 24 and 48 hours.The results showed that trypsin concentration up to 20 U/ml caused a significant increase in NO, in a dose-dependent manner, on cultured astrocytes (P < 0.001. Trypsin 20 U/ml increased NO production fivefold the control group (P < 0.001. At higher concentrations than 20 U/ml, NO production diminished (P < 0.001. At 100 U/ml, NO production was less than the control group (P < 0.001.Inflammatory effects of trypsin 5-20 U/ml are probably due to the stimulation of astrocytes' PAR-2 receptors and the increasing of the activation of NF-κB, PKC, MAPKs. Stimulation of astrocytes' PAR-2 receptors causes an increase in iNOS activation which in turn leads to NO production. However, higher trypsin concentration possibly made astrocyte apoptosis; therefore, NO production diminished. These assumptions need to be further investigated.

  2. Dietary control of late trypsin gene transcription in Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, F G; Barillas-Mury, C; Wells, M A

    1994-06-01

    In Aedes aegypti the levels of midgut trypsin activity after feeding are directly proportional to the protein concentration in the meal. The mechanisms of this up-regulatory event were investigated by analyzing the expression of the late trypsin gene under different dietary conditions. Transcription of the gene was dependent on both the quality and quantity of protein in the meal. As measured by Northern blot analysis, the levels of late trypsin gene expression increased up to 100-fold 24 h after feeding on gamma-globulin, hemoglobin or albumin (100 mg/ml). In contrast, gelatin, histone, amino acids, saline or agarose were very poor inducers of transcription. The rates of late trypsin transcription induced during the first 24 h were directly proportional to the concentration of protein in the meal. These data further support the suggestion that the primary mechanism that regulates the synthesis of trypsin in the mosquito midgut is transcriptional regulation of the gene. This regulatory mechanism enables the midgut to maintain the appropriate balance between protease synthesis and the protein content of the meal. PMID:7519098

  3. Phenotypic changes in mouse pancreatic stellate cell Ca2+ signaling events following activation in culture and in a disease model of pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong Hak; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Baoan; Logsdon, Craig D; Yule, David I

    2011-02-01

    The specific characteristics of intracellular Ca 2+ signaling and the downstream consequences of these events were investigated in mouse pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) in culture and in situ using multiphoton microscopy in pancreatic lobules. PSC undergo a phenotypic transformation from a quiescent state to a myofibroblast-like phenotype in culture. This is believed to parallel the induction of an activated state observed in pancreatic disease such as chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. By day 7 in culture, the complement of cell surface receptors coupled to intracellular Ca 2+ signaling was shown to be markedly altered. Specifically, protease-activated receptors (PAR) 1 and 2, responsive to thrombin and trypsin, respectively, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors were expressed only in activated PSC (aPSC). PAR-1, ATP, and PDGF receptor activation resulted in prominent nuclear Ca 2+ signals. Nuclear Ca 2+ signals and aPSC proliferation were abolished by expression of parvalbumin targeted to the nucleus. In pancreatic lobules, PSC responded to agonists consistent with the presence of only quiescent PSC. aPSC were observed following induction of experimental pancreatitis. In contrast, in a mouse model of pancreatic disease harboring elevated K-Ras activity in acinar cells, aPSC were present under control conditions and their number greatly increased following induction of pancreatitis. These data are consistent with nuclear Ca 2+ signaling generated by agents such as trypsin and thrombin, likely present in the pancreas in disease states, resulting in proliferation of "primed" aPSC to contribute to the severity of pancreatic disease.

  4. Genetic susceptibility factors for alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, Ali A; Weiss, F Ulrich; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M; Simon, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease of the pancreas and frequently associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. Since only a small proportion of alcoholics eventually develop chronic pancreatitis genetic susceptibility factors have long been suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Smaller studies in ethnically defined populations have found that not only polymorphism in proteins involved in the metabolism of ethanol, such as Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, can confer a risk for developing chronic pancreatitis but also mutations that had previously been reported in association with idiopathic pancreatitis, such as SPINK1 mutations. In a much broader approach employing genome wide search strategies the NAPS study found that polymorphisms in the Trypsin locus (PRSS1 rs10273639), and the Claudin 2 locus (CLDN2-RIPPLY1-MORC4 locus rs7057398 and rs12688220) confer an increased risk of developing alcohol-induced pancreatitis. These results from North America have now been confirmed by a European consortium. In another genome wide approach polymorphisms in the genes encoding Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) non-secretor status and blood group B were not only found in association with higher serum lipase levels in healthy volunteers but also to more than double the risk for developing alcohol-associated chronic pancreatitis. These novel genetic associations will allow to investigate the pathophysiological and biochemical basis of alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis on a cellular level and in much more detail than previously possible. PMID:26149858

  5. Radioimmunoassay for trypsin in newborn-screening for cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, J.; Niehaus, C.

    1982-11-01

    In 4,956 infants the concentration of immunoreactive trypsin was measured in dried blood on filter paper using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. About 90% of all results were below 40 ng/ml. In 13 infants the concentration of immunoreactive trypsin exceeded 80 ng/ml. These infants were examined clinically, including sweationtophoresis. We found three children suffering from cystic fibrosis. One further child showing an elevated concentration of chloride in the sweat (60 mval/ml) could not be reexamined. The concentration of immunoreactive trypsin in the cystic fibrosis children was 230, 297, and in one case 108 ng/ml at the 76th day of life, whereas the values for the 9 other children were between 80 and 154 ng/ml. We believe these results justify to use this test for a much higher number of infants, especially because it is inexpensive and can easily be added to existing newborn screening programs for inborn errors of metabolism.

  6. Supercritical fluid assisted production of micrometric powders of the labile trypsin and chitosan/trypsin composite microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Bin; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2015-07-15

    Supercritical fluid assisted atomization introduced by a hydrodynamic cavitation mixer (SAA-HCM) was used to prepare micrometric particles of a labile protein, i.e., trypsin from aqueous solution without use of any organic solvents. The trypsin particles precipitated had various morphologies under different process conditions, with particle diameters ranging from 0.2 to 4 μm. FTIR, SDS-PAGE, CD and fluorescence spectra were performed to analyze the structural stability of the protein, and trypsin retained above 70% of the biological activity. Besides, chitosan was selected as the polymer carrier in an effort to prepare trypsin composite microparticles via SAA-HCM process. The influences of chitosan molecular weight, polymer/protein ratio and solution concentration on the particle morphology and size distribution were investigated in detail. Non-coalescing spherical composite microparticles with a narrow particle distribution (0.2-3 μm) could be obtained. The SAA-HCM prepared particles were amorphous as demonstrated by XRD and had a loading efficiency about 90%. The protein release profiles of the composite microparticles were evaluated using both the immersion condition and a Franz diffusion cell. Finally, the distribution of the protein within the particles was characterized through CLSM analysis of FITC-labeled trypsin-loaded chitosan microparticles. The SAA-HCM process is demonstrated to be a protein-friendly and promising technique for production of protein and polymer/protein composite particles formulations from aqueous solutions for drug delivery systems. PMID:25957701

  7. Early trypsin activity is part of the signal transduction system that activates transcription of the late trypsin gene in the midgut of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas-Mury, C V; Noriega, F G; Wells, M A

    1995-02-01

    Trypsin activity during the first hours after feeding is essential to induce late trypsin gene expression. These results are consistent with the idea that free amino acids or other products released during digestion might be the initial signal for transcriptional activation of late trypsin. Besides early trypsin, some other factor(s) have to be translated for induction of late trypsin. This is the first case in which the proteolytic activity of a digestive enzyme is part of the signal transduction system which regulates expression of a second gene. The presence of two trypsins allows the mosquito to assess the quality of the meal and adjust the levels of late trypsin for a particular meal with remarkable flexibility. PMID:7711754

  8. Ny klassifikation af pancreatitis acuta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benny Østerbye; Schmidt, Palle Nordblad

    2011-01-01

    The course of acute pancreatitis is in the initial phase dominated by a systemic inflammatory response, later by local complications. A new classification defines three specific types of pancreatitis: 1) interstitial oedematous pancreatitis and 2) necrotizing pancreatitis with pancreatic...

  9. Pancreatic pseudocyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samir Habashi; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are complications of acute or chronic pancreatitis. Initial diagnosis is accomplished most often by cross-sectional imaging. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration has become the preferred test to help distinguish pseudocyst from other cystic lesions of the pancreas. Most pseudocysts resolve spontaneously with supportive care. The size of the pseudocyst and the length of time the cyst has been present are poor predictors for the potential of pseudocyst resolution or complications, but in general, larger cysts are more likely to be symptomatic or cause complications. The main two indications for some type of invasive drainage procedure are persistent patient symptoms or the presence of complications (infection, gastric outlet or biliary obstruction, bleeding). Three different strategies for pancreatic pseudocysts drainage are available: endoscopic (transpapillary or transmural) drainage, percutaneous catheter drainage, or open surgery. To date, no prospective controlled studies have compared directly these approaches. As a result, the management varies based on local expertise, but in general, endoscopic drainage is becoming the preferred approach because it is less invasive than surgery, avoids the need for external drain, and has a high long-term success rate. A tailored therapeutic approach taking into consideration patient preferences and involving multidisciplinary team of therapeutic endoscopist, interventional radiologist and pancreatic surgeon should be considered in all cases.

  10. Advances in the etiology of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Aghdassi, Ali A; Budde, Christoph; Nitsche, Claudia; Sauter, Gabriele; Persike, Maria; Günther, Annett; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    In the past, chronic pancreatitis has been regarded as a fairly uniform and largely untreatable disorder that most commonly affects patients who both lack gainful employment or adequate insurance coverage and have a tendency to smoke and drink. Large clinical trials suggest that this perception is not only misguided and discriminatory but also not based on facts. We forgot that the perception of chronic liver disease was similar before World War II, and just like liver cirrhosis the fibrosis and cirrhosis of the pancreas--i.e. chronic pancreatitis--is the end result of a range of environmental, inflammatory, infectious and genetic disorders. A growing number of these have only recently been recognized as a distinct entity and several of which are becoming truly treatable. A large proportion of the risk for developing pancreatitis is conveyed by genetic risk factors, and we estimate that less than half of those have been identified so far. The same holds true for protective factors that can prevent pancreatitis, even in the face of excessive alcohol abuse. Various gene mutations and polymorphisms appear to determine an individual's susceptibility for developing pancreatic disease, for the severity of the disease, and for the disease progression. The spectrum of genotype/phenotype associations ranges from straightforward autosomal dominant traits with near-complete penetrance, as for the most common mutations in the cationic trypsinogen gene (PRSS1), to moderate risks factors without mendelian inheritance patterns, as for SPINK1 and CFTR mutations, to very subtle risk associations and disease modifiers that can only be identified in large cohort studies, as for the chymotrypsin C, calcium-sensing receptor and the anionic trypsin (PRSS2) mutations. Only a better understanding of the disease mechanisms that underlie these changes will make an individualized therapy of pancreatic disorders a realistic option. PMID:20814206

  11. Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Sarit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. These require testing in model systems before being used in human patients. Unfortunately, because of differences in anatomy, there are no ideal animal models of disc degeneration. Bovine explant model systems have many advantages but it is not possible to inject any significant volume into an intact disc. Therefore we have attempted to mimic disc degeneration in an explant bovine model via enzymatic digestion. Methods Bovine coccygeal discs were incubated with different concentrations of the proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and papain, and maintained in culture for up to 3 weeks. A radio-opaque solution was injected to visualise cavities generated. Degenerative features were monitored histologically and biochemically (water and glycosaminoglycan content, via dimethylmethylene blue. Results and Conclusion The central region of both papain and trypsin treated discs was macro- and microscopically fragmented, with severe loss of metachromasia. The integrity of the surrounding tissue was mostly in tact with cells in the outer annulus appearing viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated greatly reduced glycosaminoglycan content in these compared to untreated discs. We have shown that bovine coccygeal discs, treated with proteolytic enzymes can provide a useful in vitro model system for developing and testing potential new treatments of disc degeneration, such as injectable implants or biological therapies.

  12. In the absence of nutrients, pancreatic-biliary secretions in the jejunum do not exert feedback control of human pancreatic or gastric function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawisz, B R; Miller, L J; DiMagno, E P; Go, V L

    1980-01-01

    Feedback inhibition of basal pancreatic enzyme secretion by luminal pancreatic enzymes appears to be an important regulator of pancreatic secretion in some laboratory animals. To determine whether pancreatic enzymes in the jejunum influence pancreatic or gastric functions in healthy man, we intubated six subjects with a gastric sump tube and a four-lumen duodenal tube which provided (1) a duodenal perfusion site, (2) a duodenal aspiration site, (3) an inflatable balloon immediately distal to the aspiration site, and (4) a jejunal perfusion site immediately beyond the balloon. In this way, the gastroduodenal segment could be functionally separated from the remainder of the intestine. The jejunum was exposed to normal saline, active pancreatic-biliary secretions, or pancreatic-biliary secretions in which the enzymes had been inactivated by heat. Ten minutes after initiation of each jejunal perfusion, normal saline was instilled into the stomach. No differences in trypsin secretion, gastric acid secretion, or gastric emptying occurred with the different jejunal perfusates. We therefore conclude that normal man, in the absence of intraluminal nutrients, does not exhibit a jejunal pancreatic enzyme-dependent feedback control mechanism for pancreatic enzyme or gastric secretion. However, our study does not exclude the possibility of a duodenal feedback regulatory mechanism.

  13. Is Pancreatic Cancer Hereditary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Is pancreatic cancer hereditary? Cancer of the pancreas is a genetic ... found in cigarette smoke. The genetics of hereditary pancreatic cancer is a focus of research at Johns Hopkins. ...

  14. Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes, Gum Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Pregnancy Financial Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Pancreatic Islet Transplantation What are pancreatic islets? Pancreatic islets, also called ...

  15. Pancreatic tuberculosis masquerading as pancreatic serous cystadenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung Goun Hong; Jae Seon Kim; Moon Kyung Joo; Kwang Gyun Lee; Key Hyeon Kim; Cho Rong Oh; Jong-Jae Park; Young-Tae Bak

    2009-01-01

    Solitary pancreatic involvement of tuberculosis is rare,especially in an immunocompetent individual, and it may be misdiagnosed as pancreatic cystic neoplasms.Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are being identified in increasing numbers, probably because of the frequent use of radiology and advances in endoscopic techniques.However, they are composed of a variety of neoplasms with a wide range of malignant potential,and it is often difficult to differentiate pancreatic tuberculosis mimicking cystic neoplasms from benign or malignant pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Non-surgical diagnosis of pancreatic tuberculosis is inconclusive and continues to be a challenge in many cases. If so,then laparotomy should be employed to establish the diagnosis. Therefore, pancreatic tuberculosis should be kept in mind during the differential diagnosis of solitary cystic masses in the pancreas. We report a patient who had solitary pancreatic tuberculosis masquerading as pancreatic serous cystadenoma.

  16. On-chip enzymatic microreactor using trypsin-immobilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles for highly efficient proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Lin, Shuang; Qi, Dawei; Deng, Chunhui; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2007-12-28

    An easily replaceable microchip enzymatic microreactor has been fabricated based on the glass microchip with trypsin-immobilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles with small size (50 nm in diameter) and strong magnetism were synthesized. At first, amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with high magnetic responsivity and excellent dispersibility were prepared through a facile one-pot strategy. Then, magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with numerous aldehyde (-CHO) groups by treating the as-synthesized, amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with glutaraldehyde. Finally, immobilization of trypsin onto the aldehyde-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was achieved through reaction of the aldehyde groups with amine groups of trypsin. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were then locally packed onto the glass microchip by the application of a strong magnetic field using a magnet to form an on-chip magnetic nanoparticles packing bed. Capability of the proteolytic microreactor was demonstrated by cytochrome c, bovine serum albumin and myoglobin as model proteins. The digestion products were characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with sequence coverage of 83%, 43% and 79% observed, respectively. Complete protein digestion was achieved in a short time (10 s) under the flow rate of 5 microL/min. These results are expected to open up a new possibility for the proteolysis analysis as well as a new application of magnetic nanoparticles. It is easy to replace the nanoparticles and make the new microreactor. It takes less than 1 min under the condition of extra magnetic to form a new packing bed. The packing bed can be used for at least five times without any treatments. Additionally, since the preparation and surface functionality of magnetic nanoparticles is low-cost and reproducible, the preparation method and application approach of the magnetic nanoparticles may find much

  17. Trypsin-induced ATPase activity in potato mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, D.W.; Laties, G.G.

    1976-04-01

    Potato mitochondria (Solanum tuberosum var. Russet Burbank), which readily phosphorylate ADP in oxidative phosphorylation, show low levels of ATPase activity which is stimulated neither by Mg/sup 2 +/, 2,4-dinitrophenol, incubation with respiratory substrates, nor disruption by sonication or treatment with Triton X-100, individually or in concert. Treatment of disrupted potato mitochondria with trypsin stimulates Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent, oligomycin-sensitive ATPase activity 10- to 15-fold, suggesting the presence of an ATPase inhibitor protein. Trypsin-induced ATPase activity was unaffected by uncoupler. Oligomycin-sensitive ATPase activity decreases as exposure to trypsin is increased. Incubation at alkaline pH or heating at 60/sup 0/C for 2 minutes also activates ATPase of sonicated potato mitochondria. Disruption of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), red sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), and carrot (Daucus carota) mitochondria increases ATPase activity, which is further enhanced by treatment with trypsin. The significance of the tight association of the inhibitor protein and ATPase in potato mitochondria is not clear.

  18. Genetics of acute and chronic pancreatitis: An update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VV; Ravi; Kanth; D; Nageshwar; Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Progress made in identifying the genetic susceptibility underlying acute and chronic pancreatitis has benefitted the clinicians in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease in a better way. The identification of mutations in cationic trypsinogen gene(PRSS1 gene; functional gain mutations) and serine protease inhibitor kazal type 1(SPINK1 gene; functional loss mutations) and other potential susceptibility factors in genes that play an important role in the pancreatic secretory functions or response to inflammation during pancreatic injury has changed the current concepts and understanding of a complex multifactorial disease like pancreatitis. An indi-vidual’s susceptibility to the disease is governed by ge-netic factors in combination with environmental factors. Candidate gene and genetic linkage studies have iden-tified polymorphisms in cationic trypsinogen(PRSS1), SPINK1, cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator(CFTR), Chymotrypsinogen C(CTRC), Ca-thepsin B(CTSB) and calcium sensing receptor(CASR). Individuals with polymorphisms in the mentioned genes and other as yet identified genes are at an enhanced risk for the disease. Recently, polymorphisms in genes other than those involved in "intra-pancreatic trypsin regulatory mechanism" namely Claudin-2(CLDN2) andCarboxypeptidase A1(CPA1) gene have also been iden-tified for their association with pancreatitis. With ever growing number of studies trying to identify the genetic susceptibility in the form of single nucleotide polymor-phisms, this review is an attempt to compile the avail-able information on the topic.

  19. Age-dependent effects of UCP2 deficiency on experimental acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Müller

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP for many years but experimental evidence is still limited. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2-deficient mice are an accepted model of age-related oxidative stress. Here, we have analysed how UCP2 deficiency affects the severity of experimental AP in young and older mice (3 and 12 months old, respectively triggered by up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 μg/kg body weight at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of alpha-amylase, intrapancreatic trypsin activation and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO in lung and pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, in vitro studies with pancreatic acini were performed. At an age of 3 months, UCP2-/- mice and wild-type (WT C57BL/6 mice were virtually indistinguishable with respect to disease severity. In contrast, 12 months old UCP2-/- mice developed a more severe pancreatic damage than WT mice at late time points after the induction of AP (24 h and 7 days, respectively, suggesting retarded regeneration. Furthermore, a higher peak level of alpha-amylase activity and gradually increased MPO levels in pancreatic and lung tissue were observed in UCP2-/- mice. Interestingly, intrapancreatic trypsin activities (in vivo studies and intraacinar trypsin and elastase activation in response to cerulein treatment (in vitro studies were not enhanced but even diminished in the knockout strain. Finally, UCP2-/- mice displayed a diminished ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione in serum but no increased ROS levels in pancreatic acini. Together, our data indicate an aggravating effect of UCP2 deficiency on the severity of experimental AP in older but not in young mice. We suggest that increased severity of AP in 12 months old UCP2-/- is caused by an imbalanced inflammatory response but is unrelated to acinar cell functions.

  20. ERCP in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jijo V Cherian; Joye Varghese Selvaraj; Rajesh Natrayan; Jayanthi Venkataraman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of acute pancreatitis has evolved over years since its introduction in 1968. Its importance in diagnosing the etiology of pancreatitis has steadily declined with the advent of less invasive diagnostic tools. The therapeutic implications of ERCP in acute pancreatitis are many fold and are directed towards management of known etiological factors or its related complications. This article highlights the current status of ERCP in acute pancreatitis. DATA SOURCES:An English literature search using PubMed database was conducted on ERCP in acute pancreatitis, the etiologies and complications of pancreatitis amenable to endotherapy and other related subjects, which were reviewed. RESULTS: ERCP serves as a primary therapeutic modality for management of biliary pancreatitis in speciifc situations, pancreatitis due to microlithiasis, speciifc types of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, pancreas divisum, ascariasis and malignancy. In recurrent acute pancreatitis and smoldering pancreatitis it has a deifnite therapeutic utility. Complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic-duct disruptions or leaks, benign pancreatic-lfuid collections and pancreatic necrosis can be beneifcially dealt with. Intraductal ultrasound and pancreatoscopy during ERCP are useful in detecting pancreatic malignancy. CONCLUSIONS:The role of ERCP in acute pancreatitis is predominantly therapeutic and occasionally diagnostic. Its role in the management continues to evolve and advanced invasive procedures should be undertaken only in centers dedicated to pancreatic care.

  1. Prevalence of S and Z alpha 1-antitrypsin mutations in patients with pancreatic diseases in Serbian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key points in research of pancreatic disease pathology is further elucidation of the role of proteases and antiproteases, since their imbalance can lead to pancreatic injury. Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT is one of the most important serum inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes, including pancreatic enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase. It is speculated that mutations in the AAT gene may influence the onset and the development of pancreatic disease. The presence of the most common AAT mutations Z and S was analyzed in 160 patients with pancreatic diseases (50 patients with pancreatic cancer, 50 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 129 healthy individuals by PCR-mediated site-directed mutagenesis (PSM method. One patient with pancreatic cancer was found to be a carrier of Z mutation, as well as one patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One patient with chronic pancreatitis was found to be a carrier of S mutation. The common AAT mutations were statistically significantly over-represented in patients with pancreatic diseases (3 of 160 patients, allelic frequency 0.9% than in the control group (1 of 129 individuals, allelic frequency 0.4%. The results of this study, requiring confirmation, suggest that common AAT mutations Z and S may be associated with a modest increase in susceptibility to the development of pancreatic disease.

  2. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  3. Immobilization of trypsin onto multifunctional meso-/macroporous core-shell microspheres: A new platform for rapid enzymatic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gong [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Ping [Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Ecology, College of Life Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wang, Zhi-Gang; Sui, Xiao-Jing [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Ji-Lin, E-mail: zjl@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Changchun 130022 (China); Ni, Jia-Zuan [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Changchun 130022 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Ecology, College of Life Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A novel microwave-assisted tryptic digestion system. •Characterization with SEM, TEM, EDX, XRD, and FT-IR. •The meso-/macroporous shell structure withthe high affinity and loading capacity of trypsin. •Decrease of digestion time up to less than 1 min. •MALDI-MS and nanoLC-MS analysis with database identification. -- Abstract: A simple, fast, efficient, and reusable microwave-assisted tryptic digestion system which was constructed by immobilization of trypsin onto porous core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@fTiO{sub 2} microspheres has been developed. The nanostructure with magnetic core and titania shell has multiple pore sizes (2.4 and 15.0 nm), high pore volume (0.25 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}), and large surface area (50.45 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}). For the proteins, the system can realize fast and efficient microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. Various standard proteins (e.g., cytochrome c (cyt-c), myoglobin (MYO), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) used can be digested in 45 s under microwave radiation, and they can be confidently identified by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis; even the concentration of substrate is as low as 5 ng μL{sup −1}. Furthermore, the system for the 45 s microwave-assisted tryptic digestion is still effective after the trypsin-immobilized microspheres have been reused for 5 times. Importantly, 1715 unique proteins from 10 μg mouse brain proteins can be identified with high confidence after treatment of 45 s microwave-assisted tryptic digestion.

  4. Thermodynamic evaluation and modeling of proton and water exchange associated with benzamidine and berenil binding to ß-trypsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Pereira

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Serine-proteases are involved in vital processes in virtually all species. They are important targets for researchers studying the relationships between protein structure and activity, for the rational design of new pharmaceuticals. Trypsin was used as a model to assess a possible differential contribution of hydration water to the binding of two synthetic inhibitors. Thermodynamic parameters for the association of bovine ß-trypsin (homogeneous material, observed 23,294.4 ± 0.2 Da, theoretical 23,292.5 Da with the inhibitors benzamidine and berenil at pH 8.0, 25ºC and with 25 mM CaCl2, were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry and the osmotic stress method. The association constant for berenil was about 12 times higher compared to the one for benzamidine (binding constants are K = 596,599 ± 25,057 and 49,513 ± 2,732 M-1, respectively; the number of binding sites is the same for both ligands, N = 0.99 ± 0.05. Apparently the driving force responsible for this large difference of affinity is not due to hydrophobic interactions because the variation in heat capacity (DCp, a characteristic signature of these interactions, was similar in both systems tested (-464.7 ± 23.9 and -477.1 ± 86.8 J K-1 mol-1 for berenil and benzamidine, respectively. The results also indicated that the enzyme has a net gain of about 21 water molecules regardless of the inhibitor tested. It was shown that the difference in affinity could be due to a larger number of interactions between berenil and the enzyme based on computational modeling. The data support the view that pharmaceuticals derived from benzamidine that enable hydrogen bond formation outside the catalytic binding pocket of ß-trypsin may result in more effective inhibitors.

  5. Metformin induced acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis frequently presents with abdomen pain but may presents with various skin manifestations as rash and rarely, pancreatic panniculitis. Metformin, one of the most effective and valuable oral hypoglycemic agents in the biguanide class was linked to acute pancreatitis in few cases. Here, we report a case of metformin induce acute pancreatitis in young healthy man with normal renal function.

  6. Interaction of methotrexate with trypsin analyzed by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Zhang, Hongmei; Cao, Jian; Zhou, Qiuhua

    2013-11-01

    Trypsin is one of important digestive enzymes that have intimate correlation with human health and illness. In this work, the interaction of trypsin with methotrexate was investigated by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The results revealed that methotrexate could interact with trypsin with about one binding site. Methotrexate molecule could enter into the primary substrate-binding pocket, resulting in inhibition of trypsin activity. Furthermore, the thermodynamic analysis implied that electrostatic force, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions were the main interactions for stabilizing the trypsin-methotrexate system, which agreed well with the results from the molecular modeling study.

  7. Complications of pancreatic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2011-01-01

    Many diseases, including pancreatitis benign tumors and cancer, may require pancreas surgery. Pancreatic resection can lead to a prolonged survival in pancreatic cancer and even a potential chance for cure. However, the pancreatic surgery can result in complications, and high postoperative morbidity rates are still presence. This article reviews the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011, which involves the more common complications, their prevention and treatment.

  8. Biomarkers for pancreatic carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hustinx, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease. Most pancreatic cancers (approximately 85%) are diagnosed at a late, incurable stage. The poor prognosis and late presentation of pancreatic cancer patients underscore the importance of early detection, which is the sine qua non for the fight against pancreatic cancer. It is hoped for the future that the understanding of genetic alterations will lead to the rapid discovery of an effective biomarker of pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this thesis we vis...

  9. Preparing bioactive surface of polystyrene with hydrophobin for trypsin immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Baolong; Li, Bingzhang; Wang, Huifang; Guo, Ruijie; Liang, HaiXia; Qiao, Mingqiang; Li, Wenfeng

    2016-05-01

    A simple and reliable enzyme immobilization technique which can retain their catalytic activity for a long time is interest in many technologies. Here, the trypsin was immobilized by physisorption on polystyrene (PS) surface coated with a class I hydrophobin recombinant HGFI (rHGFI). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water-contact-angle measurements demonstrated that the hydrophobicity of the PS could be well improved by rHGFI modification, and the self-assembled rHGFI showed an admirable stability on the hydrophobic PS surface against hot SDS rinsing. The enzyme activity assay illustrated that the capacity of rHGFI could enable it to well intermediate trypsin on PS surface and allow its immobilization lasting in an active form. The results obtained in this work show a way that surface modification with rHGFI should be an easy and feasible strategy for applications of enzyme-based catalytic surfaces in biosensing.

  10. Pancreatic transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pancreas transplant is a surgical procedure to place a healthy pancreas from a donor into a patient whose pancreas no longer functions properly. Exocrine pancreas transplantation remains the standard treatment of choice for patients with diabetes mellitus complicated by end-stage renal disease. The use of pancreas transplantation for type 2 diabetes mellitus is an emerging concept. A pancreas transplant is often done in conjunction with a kidney transplant. Even if pancreas transplantation provides the best glycemic control option for diabetes mellitus, it is associated with significant morbidities related to infectious disease. The present article provides with a review of pancreatic transplantation.

  11. Comparative study of the binding of trypsin to caffeine and theophylline by spectrofluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruiyong, E-mail: wangry@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Kang, Xiaohui [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Ruiqiang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wang, Rui; Dou, Huanjing; Wu, Jing; Song, Chuanjun [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Chang, Junbiao, E-mail: changjunbiao@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2013-06-15

    The interactions between trypsin and caffeine/theophylline were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. The results revealed that the fluorescence quenching of trypsin by caffeine and theophylline was the result of the formed complex of caffeine–trypsin and theophylline–trypsin. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters at three different temperatures were obtained. The hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize the complex. Results showed that caffeine was the stronger quencher and bound to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. -- Highlights: ► The fluorescence of trypsin can be quenched by caffeine or theophylline via hydrophobic contacts. ► Caffeine binds to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. ► The influence of molecular structure on the binding aspects is reported.

  12. The effects of trypsin on rat brain astrocyte activation

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Fereidoni; Farzaneh Sabouni; Ali Moghimi; Shirin Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Background Astrocytes are cells within the central nervous system which are activated in a wide spectrum of infections, and autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. In pathologic states, they produce inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide (NO), and sometimes they induce apoptosis. Their protease-activated receptors (PARs) can be activated by proteases, e.g. thrombin and trypsin, which are important in brain inflammation. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of di...

  13. Trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors from Vigna mungo seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Allen H K; Wong, Jack H; Ng, T B

    2009-01-01

    Three trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors were isolated from seeds of the black gram (Vigna mungo) with a procedure that entailed cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, ion exchange chromatography by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Mono Q and Mono S, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. Two of the trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors were adsorbed on the first four types of chromatographic media. All three inhibitors have a molecular mass of 16 kDa as judged by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The trypsin inhibitory activity of the inhibitors was attenuated in the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. The remaining inhibitor was unadsorbed on SP-Sepharose but adsorbed on Q-Sepharose, Mono Q and Mono S. The protease inhibitors did not exert any inhibitory effect on hepatoma (Hep G2) and breast cancer (MCF 7) cells or antifungal action toward Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Two of the inhibitors slightly inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, with an IC50 in the millimolar range.

  14. Pancreatic Cancer (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Pancreatic cancer (Beyond the Basics) Author David P Ryan, MD ... pancreatic juice to the intestines. This type of pancreatic cancer, called "pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma," is discussed in this ...

  15. Autoimmune Pancreatitis: A Succinct Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Putra; Xiaoying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare type of chronic pancreatitis with characteristic clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic findings. Diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis is often challenging due to its low incidence and nonspecific clinical and radiologic findings. Patients with autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer share similar clinical presentations, including obstructive jaundice, abdominal pain and weight loss. Due to these overlapping features, autoimmune pancreatitis patients...

  16. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  17. Sequence of three cDNAs encoding an alkaline midgut trypsin from Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A M; Barillas-Mury, C V; Wells, M A

    1994-05-01

    We have purified trypsin from the midgut of Manduca sexta and shown it has an alkaline pH optimum of 10.5. In order to clone the midgut trypsin, a DNA probe was generated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with template isolated from a midgut cDNA library phage stock, a mixture of degenerate primers synthesized to code for the highly conserved region around the active site serine found in trypsins, and the T7 sequencing primer. Three different trypsin cDNAs were isolated each of which encodes a preproenzyme of 256 amino acids with a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acids, an activation peptide of seven amino acids and a mature trypsin of 232 amino acids. The encoded midgut trypsins contain the highly conserved residues, Asp, His, Ser, involved in catalysis in serine proteases, along with the residues which define the trypsin specificity pocket. Sequence comparisons show that all sequences are similar to other invertebrate and vertebrate serine proteases, but they differ in that two of the three encoded trypsins have an odd number of cysteines. Northern analysis localizes the trypsin mRNA to the middle third of the midgut. A large number of arginines (19, 20 and 21) are encoded by the three cDNAs which may stabilize the trypsin, by remaining protonated, in the alkaline midgut of M. sexta. PMID:8205142

  18. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Pleural Fistula in Gallstone Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-abdominal complications of pancreatitis such as pancreaticopleural fistulae are rare. A pancreaticopleural fistula occurs when inflammation of the pancreas and pancreatic ductal disruption lead to leakage of secretions through a fistulous tract into the thorax. The underlying aetiology in the majority of cases is alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis is often delayed given that the majority of patients present with pulmonary symptoms and frequently have large, persistent pleural effusions. The diagnosis is confirmed through imaging and the detection of significantly elevated amylase levels in the pleural exudate. Treatment options include somatostatin analogues, thoracocentesis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP with pancreatic duct stenting, and surgery. The authors present a case of pancreatic pseudocyst pleural fistula in a woman with gallstone pancreatitis presenting with recurrent pneumonias and bilateral pleural effusions.

  19. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kanai, Keita; Oguchi, Takaya; Asano, Jumpei; Ito, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Yayoi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; ARAKURA, Norikazu; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into o...

  20. Pancreatitis-imaging approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiran; K; Busireddy; Mamdoh; AlObaidy; Miguel; Ramalho; Janaka; Kalubowila; Liu; Baodong; Ilaria; Santagostino; Richard; C; Semelka

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis is defined as the inflammation of the pancreas and considered the most common pancreatic disease in children and adults. Imaging plays a significant role in the diagnosis, severity assessment, recognition of complications and guiding therapeutic interventions. In the setting of pancreatitis, wider availability and good image quality make multi-detector contrastenhanced computed tomography(MD-CECT) the most used imaging technique. However, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) offers diagnostic capabilities similar to those of CT, with additional intrinsic advantages including lack of ionizing radiation and exquisite soft tissue characterization. This article reviews the proposed definitions of revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, illustrates a wide range of morphologic pancreatic parenchymal and associated peripancreatic changes for different types of acute pancreatitis. It also describes the spectrum of early and late chronic pancreatitis imaging findings and illustrates some of the less common types of chronic pancreatitis, with special emphasis on the role of CT and MRI.

  1. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a feeding tube or an IV to prevent malnutrition and improve healing. Does my child have to ... intestines. Can my child die from acute pancreatitis? Death from acute pancreatitis is quite rare in children– ...

  2. Pancreatitis - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common bile duct and block the flow of pancreatic enzymes out of the pancreas into the intestine. Pancreatitis ... three to five days, to prevent secretion of enzymes by the pancreas. He will also receive pain medication to control ...

  3. Surgery for pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007649.htm Surgery for pancreatic cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... surgery are used in the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer. Whipple procedure: This is the most common surgery ...

  4. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas, common hepatic artery, and portal vein. Also shown ... and superior mesenteric artery. Stage III pancreatic cancer. Cancer ... near the pancreas. These include the superior mesenteric artery, celiac axis, ...

  5. Luminescence quenching effect for the interaction of prulifloxacin with trypsin-Britton-Robinson buffer solution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yabei; Liu Benzhi; Yu Zhang [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Coal Normal College, Huaibei 235000 (China); Zi Yanqin, E-mail: ziyanqin@163.co [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Coal Normal College, Huaibei 235000 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Prulifloxacin is a kind of new oral taking antibiotic of fluoroquinolone. Conjugation reaction of prulifloxacin with trypsin in Britton-Robinson buffer solution of pH 7.96 was analyzed by UV-vis spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectrometry. The intrinsic fluorescence of trypsin was strongly quenched by prulifloxacin. This effect was rationalized in terms of a static quenching procedure. The binding parameters have been evaluated by fluorescence quenching methods. Negative values DELTAG{sup 0} for the formation of prulifloxacin-trypsin complex implied that both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions might play a significant role in prulifloxacin binding to trypsin. The binding distance deduced from the efficiency of energy transfer was 0.84 nm for prulifloxacin-trypsin. Furthermore, association constants and binding mechanism were successfully derived from the fluorescence spectra. UV-vis detections supported a change in the secondary structure of proteins caused by the interaction of prulifloxacin with trypsin.

  6. Autoimmune pancreatitis: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis has emerged over the last 40 years from a proposed concept to a well established and recognized entity. As an efficient mimicker of pancreatic carcinoma, its early and appropriate recognition are crucial. With mounting understanding of its pathogenesis and natural history, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. The characteristic laboratory features and imaging seen in autoimmune pancreatitis are reviewed along with some of the proposed diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithms.

  7. Diabetes and pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    MUNIRAJ, T.; Chari, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is complex. Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance is present in more than 2/3rd of pancreatic cancer patients. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown a modest increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer in type 2 diabetes, with an inverse relationship to duration of disease. Additionally, recent studies suggest that anti-diabetic medications may modulate the risk of pancreatic cancer in type 2 diabetes. Subjects >50 years of age ...

  8. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Torsten

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, and recombinant human TAFI have recently been solved. In light of these recent advances, we have characterized authentic bovine TAFI biochemically and compared it to human TAFI. Results The four N-linked glycosylation sequons within the activation peptide were all occupied in bovine TAFI, similar to human TAFI, while the sequon located within the enzyme moiety of the bovine protein was non-glycosylated. The enzymatic stability and the kinetic constants of TAFIa differed somewhat between the two proteins, as did the isoelectric point of TAFI, but not TAFIa. Equivalent to human TAFI, bovine TAFI was a substrate for transglutaminases and could be proteolytically cleaved by trypsin or thrombin/solulin complex, although small differences in the fragmentation patterns were observed. Furthermore, bovine TAFI exhibited intrinsic activity and TAFIa attenuated tPA-mediated fibrinolysis similar to the human protein. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that the properties of these two orthologous proteins are similar and that conclusions reached using the bovine TAFI may be extrapolated to the human protein.

  9. Purification and characterization of an isoform of protein kinase C from bovine neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein kinase C (PKC) from bovine neutrophils was purified 1,420-fold. Subcellular fractionation analysis of bovine neutrophil homogenate in the presence of EGTA indicated that more than 95% of the PKC activity was present in the soluble fraction. Whereas bovine brain PKC could be resolved into four isoenzymatic forms by chromatography on a hydroxylapatite column, bovine neutrophil PKC was eluted in a single peak, suggesting that it corresponded to a single isoform. The apparent molecular weight of bovine neutrophil PKC was 82,000, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Bovine neutrophil PKC was autophosphorylated in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP, provided that the medium was supplemented with Mg2+, Ca2+, phosphatidylserine, and diacylglycerol; phorbol myristate acetate could substitute for diacylglycerol. Autophosphorylated PKC could be cleaved by trypsin to generate two radiolabeled peptides of Mr 48,000 and 39,000. The labeled amino acids were serine and threonine. During the course of the purification procedure of bovine neutrophil PKC, a protein of Mr 23,000 was found to exhibit a strong propensity to PKC-dependent phosphorylation in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP, Mg2+, Ca2+, phosphatidylserine, and diacylglycerol. This protein was recovered together with PKC in one of the two active peaks eluted from the Mono Q column at the second step of PKC purification. It is suggested that the Mr 23,000 protein might be a natural substrate for bovine neutrophil PKC

  10. Chitosan nanoencapsulated exogenous trypsin biomimics zymogen-like enzyme in fish gastrointestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Kumari

    Full Text Available Exogenous proteolytic enzyme supplementation is required in certain disease conditions in humans and animals and due to compelling reasons on use of more plant protein ingredients and profitability in animal feed industry. However, limitations on their utility in diet are imposed by their pH specificity, thermolabile nature, inhibition due to a variety of factors and the possibility of intestinal damage. For enhancing the efficacy and safety of exogenous trypsin, an efficient chitosan (0.04% nanoencapsulation-based controlled delivery system was developed. An experiment was conducted for 45 days to evaluate nanoencapsulated trypsin (0.01% and 0.02% along with 0.02% bare trypsin and 0.4% chitosan nanoparticles against a control diet on productive efficiency (growth rate, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio, organo-somatic indices, nutrient digestibility, tissue enzyme activities, hematic parameters and intestinal histology of the fish Labeo rohita. All the synthesized nanoparticles were of desired characteristics. Enhanced fish productive efficiency using nanoencapsulated trypsin over its bare form was noticed, which corresponded with enhanced (P<0.01 nutrient digestibility, activity of intestinal protease, liver and muscle tissue transaminases (alanine and aspartate and dehydrogenases (lactate and malate, serum blood urea nitrogen and serum protein profile. Intestinal tissues of fish fed with 0.02% bare trypsin showed broadened, marked foamy cells with lipid vacuoles. However, villi were healthier in appearance with improved morphological features in fish fed with nanoencapsulated trypsin than with bare trypsin, and the villi were longer in fish fed with 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin than with 0.02% nanoencapsulated trypsin. The result of this premier experiment shows that nanoencapsulated trypsin mimics zymogen-like proteolytic activity via controlled release, and hence the use of 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin (in chitosan

  11. Stages of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  12. Biomarkers for pancreatic carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hustinx, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease. Most pancreatic cancers (approximately 85%) are diagnosed at a late, incurable stage. The poor prognosis and late presentation of pancreatic cancer patients underscore the importance of early detection, which is the sine qua non for the fight against pancr

  13. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors can affect a person’s chance of getting cancer of the pancreas. Most of these are risk factors for exocrine ... Chronic pancreatitis, a long-term inflammation of the pancreas, is linked with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (especially in smokers), but most people with pancreatitis ...

  14. Probing the binding of trypsin to glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongke; Liu, Xingbing; Yan, Changling; Bai, Guangyue; Lu, Yan

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the interaction of trypsin with glutathione-stabilized Au nanoparticles (NPs) using fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. We find that trypsin binds strongly to the Au NPs with a static quenching mechanism, and that the interaction is characteristic of positive cooperative binding. Furthermore, we determine the binding constants and the thermodynamic parameters, which suggest that the main binding forces between the glutathione-stabilized Au NPs and trypsin are electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. Analysis of UV-vis absorption spectra suggests that aggregation of the Au NPs occurs in the trypsin/Au NPs system, which significantly alters the conformation of the protein.

  15. Effects of bisphenol S on the structures and activities of trypsin and pepsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei

    2014-11-19

    The effects of bisphenol S on the structures and activities of trypsin and pepsin were investigated by various methods like UV-visible absorbance, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and molecular docking. The secondary and tertiary structures of trypsin and pepsin were altered by bisphenol S binding, which resulted in the loosening of the skeletons of trypsin and pepsin. In addition, bisphenol S induced microenvironmental changes around tyrosine and tryptophan residues of trypsin and pepsin. The activity experimental results showed that the activity of pepsin decreases obviously with the increasing concentration of BPS, while the activity of trypsin does not change remarkably. The binding and thermodynamic parameters obtained by molecular docking and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the bindings of bisphenol S to trypsin and pepsin were spontaneous processes and hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions played a vital role in stabilizing the bisphenol S-trypsin and bisphenol S-pepsin complexes. The binding constants (K(A)) of bisphenol S with trypsin were 7.42 × 10(4) (298 K) and 5.91 × 10(4) L/mol (310 K), and those of pepsin were 5.78 × 10(4) (298 K) and 4.44 × 10(4) L/mol (310 K). Moreover, there was one main kind of binding site for bisphenol S on trypsin or pepsin.

  16. Digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin in embryonic redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarnatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wen; ZHAO Yunlong; ZHOU Zhongliang; AN Chuanguang; MA Qiang

    2008-01-01

    The digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin during the embryonic development of Cherax quadricarinatus were analyzed using biochemical and Fluorogenic Quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR) methods.The results show that the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin had two different change patterns.Trypsin specific activity increased rapidly in the early stages of development and still remained high in preparation for the hatch stage.However,chymotrypsin activity peaked in stage 4 of embryonic development and decreased significantly in the last stage.The mRNA level of trypsin was elevated in all stages and two peak values were observed in stages 2 and 5 respectively.The results indicate that trypsin is very important for the utilization of the yolk during embryonic development and for the assimilation of dietary protein for larvae.The gene of trypsin is probably regulated at transcriptional level.The mRNA levels of trypsin can reflect not only trypsin activity,but also the regulatory mechanism for expression of trypsin gene to a certain degree.

  17. Enzymatic Debridement in Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kucukkartallar, Tevfik; Vatansev, Husamettin; Kartal, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Multiple organ failure and pancreatic necrosis are the factors that determine prognosis in acute pancreatitis attacks. We investigated the effects of collagenase on the debridement of experimental pancreatic necrosis. The study covered 4 groups; each group had 10 rats. Group I was the necrotizing pancreatitis group. Group II was the collagenase group with pancreatic loge by isotonic irrigation following necrotizing pancreatitis. Group III was the collagenase group with pancreatic loge followi...

  18. Homology of lipoprotein lipase to pancreatic lipase.

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Avram, C M; Ben-Zeev, O; Lee, T.D. (Taunia D.); Haaga, K; Shively, J. E.; Goers, J; Pedersen, M.E; Reeve, J R; Schotz, M C

    1986-01-01

    Bovine milk lipoprotein lipase was subjected to amino acid sequence analysis. The first 19 amino-terminal residues were Asp-Arg-Ile-Thr-Gly-Gly-Lys-Asp-Phe-Arg-Asp-Ile-Glu-Ser-Lys-Phe-Ala-Leu- Arg. In addition, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of a tryptic digest of reduced and alkylated lipase resolved a number of peptides, five of which contained cysteine. Sequence analysis of the tryptic peptides revealed in most instances a close homology to porcine pancreatic lipase....

  19. The Course of Genetically Determined Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keim V

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The clinical course of chronic pancreatitis in patients with mutations of cationic trypsinogen and the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1 has not yet been characterized. SETTING: Cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1 and the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1, were analyzed in patients with pancreatitis of unclear origin. PATIENTS: Eighty subjects with trypsinogen mutations (21x N29I, 59x R122H and 59 patients with the SPINK1 N34S variant (11 homozygous, 48 heterozygous were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In patients with mutations of PRSS1 (N29I, R122H and SPINK1 (N34S the parameters such as calcification, dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, diabetes mellitus, hospital treatments, and surgery were recorded. DESIGN: Case control studies were performed to compare both mutational groups, and the follow-up time served as a matching criterion. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the time course of the symptoms. RESULTS: Ten years after the onset of the disease, the probability (+/-SE of symptoms in patients with PRSS1 mutations was as follows: 1st hospital stay: 86+/-4%; calcification: 21+/-4%; duct dilatation: 26+/-9%; surgery: 19+/-5%; diabetes: 6+/-5%. After 25 years, we found the following data: 1st hospital stay: 96+/-3%; calcification: 38+/-8%; duct dilatation: 38+/-8%; surgery: 37+/-10%; diabetes: 28+/-8%. A case-control-study of 38 pairs of patients with either PRSS1 or SPINK1 mutations showed that the probability of duct dilatation, diabetes and calcification was slightly higher in patients having a SPINK1 mutation. There was no difference between those subjects with a homozygous or heterozygous SPINK1 mutation. In comparison to alcoholic chronic pancreatitis patients, the PRSS1 associated disease revealed a lower frequency of calcification and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The progression of chronic pancreatitis was slightly more rapid in patients with SPINK1 mutations than in patients with cationic trypsinogen

  20. Phenotypic differentiation of neonatal rat cochlear spiral ganglion neurons following trypsin dissociation and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dingjun Zha; Li Qiao; Lianjun Lu; Xue Gao; Tao Xue; Wenjuan Mi; Shunli Liu; Jianhua Qiu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Under laboratory conditions, cochlear spiral ganglion neurons are commonly isolated and cultured by mechanical dissociation. However, these neurons are extremely fragile and survive for only a short time.OBJECTIVE: To establish a trypsin dissociation and culture method for studying neonatal rat cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. DESIGN: A single sample study. SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: This study was performed at the central laboratory for Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from February to May 2006. A total of 40 neonatal Sprague Dawley rats of either gender, aged 2-5 days, were provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. Trypsin and neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) monoclonal antibodies were purchased from Sigma Company, USA. Culture medium was synthesized using Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 (Gibco Company, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Sigma Company, USA), 100 000 U/L penicillin, and 1 mol/L NaOH. The following protocol was performed in accordance with ethical guidelines for the use and care of animals.METHODS: After anesthesia, rats were sacrificed by neck dislocation. A complete cochlear axis with spiral ganglion tissue was removed. The cochlear axis was rinsed three times in a culture dish with a diameter of 35 mm using Hank's balanced solution. After washings, the tissue was cut into pieces, digested with 0.25% trypsin for about 20 minutes, and incubated in a 37 ℃ water bath. The tissue was centrifuged, then mixed with serum-containing culture medium. Using a transfer pipette, the cell suspension was transferred to polylysine (0.1%)-treated culture dishes with a diameter of 35 mm. The culture dish was incubated at 37 ℃, with a 5% CO2-air environment. Once

  1. Influence of an intravenous infusion of amino acids and glucose on the pancreatic exocrine in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Bo-guang 范博广; (A。)ke Andrén-Sandberg

    2004-01-01

    Background A number of reports based on both animal experiments and clinical investigations have pointed out that total parenteral nutrition (TPN) suppresses the function of the exocrine pancreas. Even though pancreatic hypotrophy and dysfunction resulting from TPN may be explained by several mechanisms, the clinically most important cause is that nutrients in circulation affect pancreatic secretion. The effect of nutrients on the exocrine pancreas is still controversial. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to clarify the influence of intravenous amino acids and hypertonic glucose in TPN solution on the exocrine pancreas. Methods Three mixed TPN solutions, consisting of 30% or 50% glucose or of 14% amino acids, were employed. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, six rats in each group, including a control group and one group receiving each of the three TPN solutions. All animals were killed after 10 days of TPN. Body weight, pancreatic content, and enzyme levels in the pancreas were measured. Results Compared with the control group, pancreatic wet weight was lower in all TPN groups. Glucose significantly decreased the content and concentration of pancreatic protein, but amino acids did not alter the concentration of protein. The level of amylase was lower in all parenterally fed groups, with a greater decrease in the groups treated with amino acids and 30% glucose than with 50% glucose. Trypsin levels in all groups receiving TPN were markedly higher than in the control group. Conclusion TPN results in atrophy of the pancreas, but trypsin levels increase with TPN treatment. Glucose elevates the amylase level in the pancreas, while amino acids suppress pancreatic amylase. Amino acids used as a source of protein maintain normal pancreatic protein levels.

  2. Acute effects of irradiation on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, P.; Scanff, P.; Joubert, C.; Vergnet, M.; Grison, S. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-03-01

    Several reports on irradiation damages to the pancreas deal essentially with long-term morphologic changes but give few informations on pancreatic exocrine function. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of a whole body gamma irradiation on the volume and enzyme activities of the pancreatic juice. The volume of pancreatic juice daily secreted decreased one day after irradiation (-40%, p < 0.01) and remained lower that the control value all over the experimental period (-65%, p < 0.01). Same response was observed for the total proteins secreted in the pancreatic juice but significant decrease was observed only the fourth and the fifth days after irradiation. Therefore, concentration of total protein secreted in the pancreatic juice was not altered all over the experimental period. Total activities of proteolytic enzymes, lipase and amylase led to decrease on day after irradiation and except for trypsin, the attenuated activity became significant from the third day after exposure. On the other hand, specific activities of the proteolytic enzymes and amylase did not show marked modifications after irradiation, whereas lipase specific activity was decreased. In conclusion, a whole body gamma irradiation resulted in a rapid and marked decrease of exocrine pancreatic secretion, in terms of volume as well as secreted enzymes. These modifications may, in part, contribute to the malabsorption of nutrients and these acute effects may be due to some modifications in the regulation of the exocrine pancreatic secretion

  3. Pancreatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, M

    1992-12-01

    The pathophysiology of pancreatic autodigestion is poorly understood. Pancreatitis affects all age groups, and the diagnosis is sometimes missed when serum amylase and lipase activities are not measured in the child with abdominal pain. Acute pancreatitis in children has become a more commonly seen condition and the causes have varied. Laboratory and radiological studies play an important role in determining the diagnosis and prognosis. Family history is important in the diagnosis of idiopathic hereditary pancreatitis. Most acute episodes resolve with supportive care, but the mortality in acute pancreatitis is currently about 15% (Hadorn et al., 1980). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or an endoscopic retrograde pancreatogram may be necessary to investigate relapses of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis can be a life-threatening condition requiring lifetime medical management.

  4. Pancreatitis. An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute and chronic pancreatitis are becoming increasingly more severe diseases in the western world with far-reaching consequences for the individual patient as well as the socioeconomic situation. This article gives an overview of the contribution of radiological imaging to the diagnostics and therapy of both forms of the disease. Acute pancreatitis can be subdivided into severe (20 %) and mild manifestations. The diagnostics should be performed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing necrosis or potential infections only in severe forms of pancreatitis. In chronic pancreatitis transabdominal ultrasound should initially be adequate for assessment of the pancreas. For the differential diagnosis between pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis, MRI with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) followed by an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration is the method of choice. For the primary diagnosis for acute and chronic pancreatitis ultrasound examination is the modality of first choice followed by radiological CT and MRI with MRCP examinations. (orig.)

  5. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun

    2015-05-01

    An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462

  6. Developmental patterns for pancreatic opioids in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A M; Voyles, N R; Wilkins, S D; Zalenski, C M; Timmers, K I; Recant, L

    1989-01-01

    Developmental patterns for rat pancreatic opioid peptides and islet hormones were studied from gestational day 20 through adulthood. Fetal tissue was obtained as well as pancreas at birth (day 0), and postnatal days 3, 7, 14, and 21, and 7 weeks. The hormones measured included insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. The opioids measured were beta-endorphin, Met- and Leu-enkephalins, and the high molecular weight enkephalin precursors. Pancreata were pooled as necessary and extracted (acid alcohol, or hot acetic acid), and opioids were further purified on reversed-phase C-18 (Sep-pak) cartridges. In all instances measurements were made by radioimmunoassays. Precursor peptides were first digested (with trypsin and carboxypeptidase B) prior to immunoassay. All opioids and hormones except the precursors for enkephalins showed a well-defined surge in pancreatic concentration during the first postnatal week. In contrast, the precursors had the highest concentration in the fetus, and by the seventh day of life had decreased by greater than 50%. This progressive decrease may represent maturation of the enkephalin convertase and trypsin-like enzymes in the islets. The opioid and hormonal surges that we have described are similar to the surge in islet concentration of thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) previously described in neonatal rat islets. It is suggested that these postnatal alterations in opioid and hormone concentration relate to a specific function in the development of the endocrine pancreas. PMID:2530576

  7. Clinical results of the complex prevention of the acute postoperative pancreatitis at the surgical gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to study the results of the complex prevention of the acute postoperative pancreatitis in the surgical gastroenterology. Material and methods. 2968 patients with various disorders of the digestive system were operated. Empirical preventing of the acute postoperative pancreatitis was used in the control group. Complex prevention of the acute postoperative pancreatitis in the main group of patients included the use of Dalargin, intravenous infusion of Octreotide, duodenal trypsin enzyme inhibition; intraduodenal reversal of pancreatic secret; intraductal injection of Lidocaine and external transnasal drainage of the pancreatic and biliary ducts. Results. The frequency of acute postoperative pancreatitis was 12.2% in the main group. The frequency of acute postoperative pancreatitis was 36.9% in the control group. Increased frequency of a mild form of the acute postoperative pancreatitis observed in the main group compared with the control. At the same time reducing the frequency of the moderate severity and severity forms of the acute postoperative pancreatitis observed in the main group compared with the control. Reduction of the morbidity (13.6% vs. 25.1%, hospital mortality (1.6% vs. 3.5%, the duration of the postoperative hospital bed-day (12.1±0.4 vs. 16.7±0.6 were identified in the main group patients compared with the control group. Conclusion. The use of the given scheme for the complex prevention of the acute postoperative pancreatitis allowed significantly reduce the frequency and severity of illness, morbidity, reduce the duration of postoperative hospital bed-day and hospital mortality, as well as the frequency of both mild and severity, and fatal postoperative complications in all investigated groups of patients.

  8. Porous layer open tubular columns with immobilized trypsin for protein digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Knob, R.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a monolithic porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column with immobilized trypsin for protein digestion. The PLOT column was prepared in a 10 (mikro)m ID fused silica capillary. Trypsin was immobilized on the monolithic surface and the developed enzyme reactor was used for protein digestion followed by on-line ESI/MS analysis.

  9. Allostery in trypsin-like proteases suggests new therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohara, David W; Di Cera, Enrico

    2011-11-01

    Trypsin-like proteases (TLPs) are a large family of enzymes responsible for digestion, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, development, fertilization, apoptosis and immunity. A current paradigm posits that the irreversible transition from an inactive zymogen to the active protease form enables productive interaction with substrate and catalysis. Analysis of the entire structural database reveals two distinct conformations of the active site: one fully accessible to substrate (E) and the other occluded by the collapse of a specific segment (E*). The allosteric E*-E equilibrium provides a reversible mechanism for activity and regulation in addition to the irreversible zymogen to protease conversion and points to new therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting or activating the enzyme. In this review, we discuss relevant examples, with emphasis on the rational engineering of anticoagulant thrombin mutants.

  10. Trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling for quantitative proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Weijun; Petritis, Brianne O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-07-01

    Stable isotope labeling based on relative peptide/protein abundance measurements is commonly applied for quantitative proteomics. Recently, trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling has grown in popularity due to its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and its ability to universally label peptides with high sample recovery. In (18)O labeling, both C-terminal carboxyl group atoms of tryptic peptides can be enzymatically exchanged with (18)O, thus providing the labeled peptide with a 4 Da mass shift from the (16)O-labeled sample. Peptide (18)O labeling is ideally suited for generating a labeled "universal" reference sample used for obtaining accurate and reproducible quantitative measurements across large number of samples in quantitative discovery proteomics.

  11. Trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling for quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei-Jun; Petritis, Brianne O; Nicora, Carrie D; Smith, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling based on relative peptide/protein abundance measurements is commonly applied for quantitative proteomics. Recently, trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling has grown in popularity due to its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and its ability to universally label peptides with high sample recovery. In (18)O labeling, both C-terminal carboxyl group atoms of tryptic peptides can be enzymatically exchanged with (18)O, thus providing the labeled peptide with a 4 Da mass shift from the (16)O-labeled sample. Peptide (18)O labeling is ideally suited for generating a labeled "universal" reference sample used for obtaining accurate and reproducible quantitative measurements across large number of samples in quantitative discovery proteomics. PMID:21604114

  12. Therapy of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most difficult diseases to cure. Japan pancreas society guidelines for management of pancreatic cancer indicate therapeutic algorithm according to the clinical stage. For locally limited pancreatic cancer (cStage I, II, III in Japanese classification system), surgical resection is recommended, however prognosis is still poor. Major randomized controlled trials of resected pancreatic cancer indicates that adjuvant chemotherapy is superior to observation and gemcitabine is superior to 5-fluorouracil (FU). For locally advanced resectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in Japanese classification system (JCS)), we perform neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Phase I study established a recommended dose of 800 mg gemcitabine and radiation dose of 36 Gy. For locally advanced nonresectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in JCS), chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy is recommended. Although pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy resistant tumor, systemic chemotherapy is recommended for metastatic pancreatic cancer (cStage IVb in JCS). Single-agent gemcitabine is the standard first line agent for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy showed possibility of survival benefit of gemcitabine combination chemotherapy over gemcitabine alone. We hope gemcitabine combination chemotherapy or molecular targeted therapy will improve prognosis of pancreatic cancer in the future. (author)

  13. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379... 92, 93, 94, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine...

  14. Pancreatic Stellate Cells and Chronic Alcoholic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pancreatitis is a disease often characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain accompanied by progressive pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency [1] and it sometimes requires multiple hospitalizations. Obstructive jaundice, duodenal stenosis, left-sided portal hypertension, pseudocyst and mass formation, and pancreatic carcinoma may occur as complications of chronic pancreatitis. The disease is frequently the result of chronic alcohol abuse, even if other factors such as genetic alterations, autoimmune disorders, and obstructive disease of the biliary tract and the pancreas may cause the disease [2]. Medical therapy is the treatment of choice for most patients and it is based on substitutive therapy for either exocrine or endocrine insufficiency and on analgesics for pain control. In the presence of intractable pain, surgical management is the main option [3] even if, in recent years, other therapeutic options such as endoscopic therapy [4], thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy [5], and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy have been applied in clinical practice [6]. From a pathological point of view, chronic pancreatitis is characterized by irregular sclerosis with destruction and loss of the exocrine parenchyma, and complete replacement of acinar, ductal and endocrine tissue by fibrotic tissue. It has recently been reported that acute alcoholic pancreatitis develops in a pancreas already affected by chronic pancreatitis [7]. In 1982, Watari et al. [8] reported the presence of vitamin A-containing cells in the vitamin A-fed rat pancreas. These were later described and characterized as stellate cells in the rat and the human pancreas [9, 10]. Pancreatic stellate cells are morphologically similar to hepatic stellate cells. They bear long cytoplasmic processes and are situated close to the pancreatic acini. In the quiescent state, these cells contain lipid droplets, store vitamin A and express markers such as desmin, glial

  15. Evaluation of the toxicity of ionic liquids on trypsin: A mechanism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunchang; Dong, Xing; Yan, Lingling; Li, Dandan; Hua, Shaofeng; Hu, Chaobing; Pan, Chengcheng

    2016-04-01

    The toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated by using trypsin as biomarker. Experimental results indicated that the trypsin activity was inhibited by ILs and the degree of inhibition highly depended on the chemical structures of ILs. Primary analysis illustrated that hydrophobicity of ILs was one of the driven forces ruling the ILs-trypsin interaction. Thermodynamic parameters, Gibbs free energy change (ΔG), enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were obtained by analyzing the fluorescence behavior of trypsin in the presence of ILs. Both negative ΔH and ΔS suggested hydrogen bonding was the major driven force underlying the IL-trypsin interaction. To assess the toxicity of ILs, it should be considered the combination of the hydrogen bonding ability and hydrophobicity of ILs. A regression based model was established to correlate the relationship of the inhibitory ability, hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding ability of ILs.

  16. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin...

  17. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  18. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and in nearby lymph nodes. Also shown are the bile duct, pancreatic duct, and duodenum. Stage IIB pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and ...

  19. Pancreatic Panniculitis: A rare manifestation of Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic panniculitis is a very rare complication associated with pancreatic disease and perhaps even a presage to pancreatic pathology. Case report We present a case of pancreatic panniculitis in a 61 year old patient who was treated for sudden onset of abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting secondary to acute pancreatitis of unknown etiology. He subsequently developed skin lesions consistent with pancreatic panniculitis which gradually improved after resolution of his acute condition and treatment with topical steroid cream. Conclusion We discuss and review the literature along with highlighting for the readers the important clinical and histopathologic features of acute pancreatitis associated pancreatic panniculitis.

  20. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Stamatakos; Charikleia; Stefanaki; Konstantinos; Kontzoglou; Spyros; Stergiopoulos; Georgios; Giannopoulos; Michael; Safioleas

    2010-01-01

    Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN), formerly known as pancreatic abscess is a late complication of acute pancreatitis. It can be lethal, even though it is rare. This critical review provides an overview of the continually expanding knowledge about WOPN, by review of current data from references identified in Medline and PubMed, to September 2009, using key words, such as WOPN, infected pseudocyst, severe pancreatitis, pancreatic abscess, acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP), pancreas, inflammation and al...

  1. Hereditary Pancreatic and Hepatobiliary Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Haddad; Kowdley, Gopal C; Timothy M. Pawlik; Cunningham, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary etiologies of pancreatic and hepatobiliary cancers are increasingly recognized. An estimated >10% of pancreatic and increasing number of hepatobiliary cancers are hereditary. The cumulative risk of hereditary pancreatic cancer ranges from measurable but negligible in cystic fibrosis to a sobering 70% in cases of hereditary pancreatitis. Candidates for pancreatic cancer surveillance are those with a risk pancreatic cancer estimated to be >10-fold that of the normal population. Scree...

  2. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchumoni, Capecomorin S; Yegneswaran, Balaji

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare event in pregnancy, occurring in approximately 3 in 10 000 pregnancies. The spectrum of AP in pregnancy ranges from mild pancreatitis to serious pancreatitis associated with necrosis, abscesses, pseudocysts and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. Pregnancy related hematological and biochemical alterations influence the interpretation of diagnostic tests and assessment of severity of AP. As in any other disease associated with pregnancy, AP is associated wit...

  3. Smoking and Pancreatic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells.

  4. Laparoscopy in pancreatic tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikhande S; Barreto S; Shukla P.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, increasing number of manuscripts - original articles and case reports have attempted to provide evidence of the forays of minimal access surgery into pancreatic diseases. Many, based on the lack of Level I evidence, still believe that laparoscopy in pancreatic surgery is experimental. This article attempts to look into data exploring the existing use of minimally invasive surgery in pancreatic disease to answer a vital question - what does the evidence say on the current status of l...

  5. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  6. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  7. Acute pancreatitis; Pancreatite aigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, M.; Deutsch, J.P.; Arrive, L.; Ayadi, K.; Ladeb, M.F.; Tubiana, J.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. The main role of sonography in acute pancreatitis is to evaluate gallstones and small fluid collections. However, sonography is frequently difficult due to intestinal ileus related to pancreatitis. CT is indicated early in the clinical course of acute severe pancreatitis when the diagnosis is uncertain or when complications such as abscess, hemorrhage, or necrosis, are suspected. In addition, CT may be used to assess the prognosis and follow-up of patients. (authors). 20 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Trypsin inactivation by latex fabricated gold nanoparticles: A new strategy towards insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Patil, Satish V

    2016-10-01

    Before applying nanotechnologies in biomedical and environmental areas it is advised to study interactions of nanoparticles and other nanomaterials with biomacromolecule present in living system. Moreover there is scarcity of reports on interactions between nanoparticles and biomaterials. In present report a rapid, ecofriendly method of fabricating stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using latex of Jatropha curcas is reported for the first time. AuNPs found to have characteristic absorption maxima centered at 540nm, multiple irregular shapes with size range from 20 to 50nm and have crystalline nature. Latex fabricated AuNPs were found to inhibit catalytic potential of trypsin (a vital enzyme responsible for digestion, insecticide resistance and in several disease conditions). The interactions between AuNPs and trypsin were analyzed by UV-vis spectrophotometry and microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry which suggests formation of trypsin-AuNPs complex responsible for lowering catalytic activity of trypsin. Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and particle size distribution studies further confirm complex formation between trypsin and AuNPs. Diverse interactions of metal nanoparticles with proteins such as covalent interaction, electrostatic interactions and binding to SH group of amino acid may be the reasons behind inhibition of trypsin activity. In vivo studies on serum of several vectors and agriculturally important pests supported instrumental results on AuNPs induced trypsin inhibition. This work will bring a new research direction to explore eco-friendly nanoparticle in insect control via inhibition of enzyme catalytic potential. PMID:27542740

  9. Immobilization of Trypsin in Lignocellulosic Waste Material to Produce Peptides with Bioactive Potential from Whey Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Bassan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, trypsin (Enzyme Comission 3.4.21.4 was immobilized in a low cost, lignocellulosic support (corn cob powder—CCP with the goal of obtaining peptides with bioactive potential from cheese whey. The pretreated support was activated with glyoxyl groups, glutaraldehyde and IDA-glyoxyl. The immobilization yields of the derivatives were higher than 83%, and the retention of catalytic activity was higher than 74%. The trypsin-glyoxyl-CCP derivative was thermally stable at 65 °C, a value that was 1090-fold higher than that obtained with the free enzyme. The trypsin-IDA-glyoxyl-CCP and trypsin-glutaraldehyde-CCP derivatives had thermal stabilities that were 883- and five-fold higher, respectively, then those obtained with the free enzyme. In the batch experiments, trypsin-IDA-glyoxyl-CCP retained 91% of its activity and had a degree of hydrolysis of 12.49%, while the values for trypsin-glyoxyl-CCP were 87% and 15.46%, respectively. The stabilized derivative trypsin-glyoxyl-CCP was also tested in an upflow packed-bed reactor. The hydrodynamic characterization of this reactor was a plug flow pattern, and the kinetics of this system provided a relative activity of 3.04 ± 0.01 U·g−1 and an average degree of hydrolysis of 23%, which were suitable for the production of potentially bioactive peptides.

  10. Trypsin inactivation by latex fabricated gold nanoparticles: A new strategy towards insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Patil, Satish V

    2016-10-01

    Before applying nanotechnologies in biomedical and environmental areas it is advised to study interactions of nanoparticles and other nanomaterials with biomacromolecule present in living system. Moreover there is scarcity of reports on interactions between nanoparticles and biomaterials. In present report a rapid, ecofriendly method of fabricating stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using latex of Jatropha curcas is reported for the first time. AuNPs found to have characteristic absorption maxima centered at 540nm, multiple irregular shapes with size range from 20 to 50nm and have crystalline nature. Latex fabricated AuNPs were found to inhibit catalytic potential of trypsin (a vital enzyme responsible for digestion, insecticide resistance and in several disease conditions). The interactions between AuNPs and trypsin were analyzed by UV-vis spectrophotometry and microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry which suggests formation of trypsin-AuNPs complex responsible for lowering catalytic activity of trypsin. Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and particle size distribution studies further confirm complex formation between trypsin and AuNPs. Diverse interactions of metal nanoparticles with proteins such as covalent interaction, electrostatic interactions and binding to SH group of amino acid may be the reasons behind inhibition of trypsin activity. In vivo studies on serum of several vectors and agriculturally important pests supported instrumental results on AuNPs induced trypsin inhibition. This work will bring a new research direction to explore eco-friendly nanoparticle in insect control via inhibition of enzyme catalytic potential.

  11. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  12. In vitro and in silico investigations of the binding interactions between chlorophenols and trypsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan-Qing, E-mail: wyqing76@126.com [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Wetland Bioresources and Environmental Protection, Yancheng City 224002, Jiangsu Province (China); Institute of Applied Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng City 224002, Jiangsu Province (China); Tan, Chun-Yun [Institute of Applied Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng City 224002, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhuang, Shu-Lin [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhai, Peng-Zhan; Cui, Yun; Zhou, Qiu-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Mei [Institute of Applied Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng City 224002, Jiangsu Province (China); Fei, Zhenghao [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Wetland Bioresources and Environmental Protection, Yancheng City 224002, Jiangsu Province (China); Institute of Applied Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng City 224002, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Binding interactions of five chlorophenols with trypsin were investigated. • The number of chlorine atoms of chlorophenols partly affected the binding ability of them to trypsin. • Noncovalent interactions stabilized the trypsin–chlorophenols complexes. • There was the one main binding site of trypsin for chlorophenols. - Abstract: Being the first-degree toxic pollutants, chlorophenols (CP) have potential carcinogenic and mutagenic activity and toxicity. Since there still lacks studies on molecular interactions of chlorophenols with trypsin, one major binding target of many exogenous environmental pollutants, the binding interactions between five chlorophenols, 2-CP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TCP and PCP and trypsin were characterized by the combination of multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. The chlorophenols bind at the one main site of trypsin and the binding induces the changes of microenvironment and global conformations of trypsin. Different number of chloride atoms significantly affects the binding and the binding constants K{sub A} ranks as K{sub A} (2-CP) < K{sub A} (2,6-DCP) ≈ K{sub A} (2,4,6-TCP) < K{sub A} (2,3,4,6-TCP) < K{sub A} (PCP). These chlorophenols interacts with trypsin mainly through hydrophobic interactions and via hydrogen bonding interactions and aromatic–aromatic π–π stacking interaction. Our results offer insights into the binding mechanism of chlorophenols with trypsin and provide important information for possible toxicity risk of chlorophenols to human health.

  13. Hereditary pancreatitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael KL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kara L Raphael, Field F Willingham Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Hereditary pancreatitis (HP is a rare cause of acute, recurrent acute, and chronic pancreatitis. It may present similarly to other causes of acute and chronic pancreatitis, and often there has been a protracted evaluation prior to the diagnosis of HP. Since it was first described in 1952, multiple genetic defects that affect the action of digestive enzymes in the pancreas have been implicated. The most common mutations involve the PRSS1, CFTR, SPINK1, and CTRC genes. New mutations in these genes and previously unrecognized mutations in other genes are being discovered due to the increasing use of next-generation genomic sequencing. While the inheritance pathways of these genetic mutations may be variable and complex, sometimes involving coinheritance of other mutations, the clinical presentation of patients tends to be similar. Interactions with environmental triggers often play a role. Patients tend to present at an early age (prior to the second decade of life and have a significantly increased risk for the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients with HP may develop sequelae of chronic pancreatitis such as strictures and fluid collections as well as exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Management of patients with HP involves avoidance of environmental triggers, surveillance for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, medical therapy for endocrine and exocrine insufficiency, pain management, and endoscopic or surgical treatment for complications. Care for affected patients should be individualized, with an emphasis on early diagnosis and multidisciplinary involvement to develop a comprehensive treatment strategy. Keywords: pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, idiopathic pancreatitis, pancreatitis, familial pancreatitis, genetic mutations

  14. The influence of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from nonhost madras thorn, Pithecellobium dulce, seeds on H. armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Singh, Dushyant; Jamal, Farrukh

    2015-05-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of the Manila tamarind, Pithecellobium dulce (PDTI), was studied for its effects on growth parameters and developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera. PDTI exhibited inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin (∼86%; ∼1.33 ug/ml IC50). The inhibitory activity of PDTI was unaltered over a wide range of temperature, pH, and in the presence of dithiothreitol. Larval midgut proteases were unable to digest PDTI for up to 12 h of incubation. Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots analysis revealed a competitive inhibition mechanism and a Ki of ∼3.9 × 10(-8) M. Lethal dose (0.50% w/w) and dosage for weight reduction by 50% (0.25% w/w) were determined. PDTI showed a dose-dependent effect on mean larval weight and a series of nutritional disturbances. In artificial diet at 0.25% w/w PDTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food, of digested food, relative growth rate, and growth index declined, whereas approximate digestibility, relative consumption rate, metabolic cost, consumption index, and total developmental period were increased in larvae. This is the first report of antifeedant and antimetabolic activities of PDTI on midgut proteases of H. armigera.

  15. Investigations on radical formation and inactivation of suspended trypsin after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline trypsin was irradiated in oxygen-free suspension media of methanol, ethanol and n-heptane with 60Co-γ-rays at 77 K or 273 K. Measurements with ESR and activity determinations revealed no influence of ethanol and n-heptane on the formation of free radicals and inactivation of trypsin. Especially, the results are independent of the polarity of the suspension media and correspond to an irradiation of trypsin in vacuum. On the other hand, methanol leads to a decay of radiation-induced radicals and to an increased inactivation. The results are discussed in comparison to analogous experiments carried out with ultra-violet light. (orig.)

  16. Quantitation of residual trypsin in cell-based therapeutics using immobilized α-1-antitrypsin or SBTI in an ELISA format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatz, James A; Elias, Christopher; Finny, Joseph G; Tran, Huan; McCaman, Michael

    2015-02-01

    An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) has been developed for the quantitation of porcine trypsin as a process residual in cell therapy products based on its capture by either of two immobilized anti-trypsins, α-1-antitrypsin (α1AT) or soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) followed by detection with a polyclonal goat anti-porcine trypsin-IgG conjugated with peroxidase. It was demonstrated that an extended range of antigen quantitation could be achieved that covered nearly three orders of magnitude of trypsin concentration. The utility of the assay was demonstrated by its application to samples generated in a cell-based therapeutic manufacturing setting.

  17. Endoscopic pancreatic duct stent placement for inflammatory pancreatic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The role of endoscopic therapy in the management of pancreatic diseases is continuously evolving; at present most pathological conditions of the pancreas are successfully treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS),or both. Endoscopic placement of stents has played and still plays a major role in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis, pseudocysts, pancreas divisum, main pancreatic duct injuries, pancreatic fistulae, complications of acute pancreatitis, recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis,and in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis. These stents are currently routinely placed to reduce intraductal hypertension, bypass obstructing stones, restore lumen patency in cases with dominant, symptomatic strictures,seal main pancreatic duct disruption, drain pseudocysts or fluid collections, treat symptomatic major or minor papilla sphincter stenosis, and prevent procedure-induced acute pancreatitis. The present review aims at updating and discussing techniques, indications, and results of endoscopic pancreatic duct stent placement in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the pancreas.

  18. Effect of parenteral and early intrajejunal nutrition on pancreatic digestive enzyme synthesis,storage and discharge in dog models of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Long Qin; Zhen-Dong Su; Lei-Guang Hu; Zai-Xian Ding; Qing-Tian Lin

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of early intrajejunal nutrition on enzyme-protein synthesis and secretion during acute pancreatitis.METHODS:Fifteen dogs were randomly divided into parenteral nutrition(n = 7)and early intrajejunal nutrition groups(n = 8).An acute pancreatitis model was induced by injecting 5% sodium taurocholate and trypsin into the pancreas via the pancreatic duct.Intrajejunal nutrition was delivered with a catheter via a jejunostomy tube after the model was established for 24 h.On d 1 and 7 and at the beginning of nutritional support,radioactive tracing and electron microscopes were used to evaluate the enzyme-protein synthesis in acinar cells,the subcellular fractionation and the change in zymogen granules after 1.85×106 Bq L-3H phenylalanine was infused at 30,60,120,and 180 min.RESULTS:The 3H radioactivity in pancreatic acinar cells reached its peak level at 60 min,and the contents in the early intrajejunal nutrition group were higher than those in the parenteral nutrition group,which were then decreased.The mean number and area of zymogen granules did not show any significant statistical difference in both groups on d 1 or on d 7(P > 0.05).CONCLUSION:Early intrajejunal nutrition might be effective in dogs with acute pancreatitis.

  19. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Max Petrov

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis.

  20. Pancreatic panniculitis: a cutaneous manifestation of acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Laureano, A; Mestre, T; Ricardo, L; Rodrigues, AM; Cardoso, J.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare disease in which necrosis of fat in the panniculus and other distant foci occurs in the setting of pancreatic diseases; these diseases include acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma, pseudocyst, and other pancreatic diseases. This malady is manifested as tender erythematous nodules on the legs, buttock, or trunk. Histopathologically, it shows the pathognomonic findings of focal subcutaneous fat necrosis and ghost-like anucleated cells with a thi...

  1. Coexistence of Pancreatic Carcinoma and Pancreatic Tuberculosis: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zhen-Jiang; Zhang, Hao; Xiang, Guang-Ming; Gong, Jun; Mai, Gang; Liu, Xu-Bao

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is extremely rare and mimics pancreatic carcinoma both clinically and radiologically. This paper discusses the occurrence of 2 heterogeneous masses located in the head and tail of the pancreas in an adult male. In this patient, laparotomy was performed because of the high suspicion of pancreatic carcinoma. Intraoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed the coexistence of pancreatic carcinoma with pancreatic TB, and a combined resection of the distal pancrea...

  2. Fatal Pancreatic Panniculitis Associated with Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Woo Sun; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Sang Woo; Paik, Chang Nyol; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare disease in which necrosis of fat in the panniculus and other distant foci occurs in the setting of pancreatic diseases; these diseases include acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma, pseudocyst, and other pancreatic diseases. This malady is manifested as tender erythematous nodules on the legs, buttock, or trunk. Histopathologically, it shows the pathognomonic findings of focal subcutaneous fat necrosis and ghost-like anucleated cells with a thi...

  3. Pancreatic and pulmonary mast cells activation during experimental acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inmaculada; Lopez-Font; Sabrina; Gea-Sorlí; Enrique; de-Madaria; Luis; M; Gutiérrez; Miguel; Pérez-Mateo; Daniel; Closa

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the activation of pancreatic and pulmonary mast cells and the effect of mast cell inhibition on the activation of peritoneal and alveolar macrophages during acute pancreatitis.METHODS:Pancreatitis was induced by intraductal infusion of 5% sodium taurodeoxycholate in rats.The mast cell inhibitor cromolyn was administered intraperitoneally(i.p.) 30 min before pancreatitis induction.The pancreatic and pulmonary tissue damage was evaluated histologically and mast cells and their state of activation...

  4. Early Prediction of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis. Is This Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandberg AA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available One out of ten cases of acute pancreatitis develops into severe acute pancreatitis which is a life threatening disorder with a high mortality rate. The other nine cases are self limiting and need very little therapy. The specificity of good clinical judgement on admission, concerning the prognosis of the attack, is high (high specificity but misses a lot of severe cases (low sensitivity. The prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis was first suggested by John HC Ranson in 1974. Much effort has been put into finding a simple scoring system or a good biochemical marker for selecting the severe cases of acute pancreatitis immediately on admission. Today C-reactive protein is the method of choice although this marker is not valid until 48-72 hours after the onset of pain. Inflammatory mediators upstream from CRP like interleukin-6 and other cytokines are likely to react faster and preliminary results for some of these mediators look promising. Another successful approach has been to study markers for the activation of trypsinogen such as TAP and CAPAP. This is based on studies showing that active trypsin is the initial motor of the inflammatory process in acute pancreatitis. In the near future a combined clinical and laboratory approach for early severity prediction will be the most reliable. Clinical judgement predicts 1/3 of the severe cases on admission and early markers for either inflammation or trypsinogen activation should accurately identify 50-60% of the mild cases among the rest, thus missing only 2-4% of the remaining severe cases. One problem is that there is no simple and fast method to analyze any of these parameters.

  5. Treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mofleh Ibrahim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no specific treatment for acute pancreatitis. Majority of patients with acute pancreatitis respond to medical therapy. Supportive measures and close observations represent the cornerstone of the medical therapy. Failure to respond to medical treatment may indicate choledocholithiasis or infected necrosis. Endoscopic papillotomy with stone retrieval is beneficial in patients with severe biliary pancreatitis. Image-guided fine needle aspiration and bacteriological examination of aspirate is reliable in detecting infection and deliniating causative pathogen. Surgical debridement is the method of choice for treatment of infected necrosis. In contrast, in pancreatic abscess, surgery is preserved for those, who do not respond to percutaneous drainage combined with antibiotics. The benefit of antisecretory and antiproteolytic agents is debatable. A combination of antioxidants, calcium channel antagonists and antibiotics may play a major role in the treatment of acute pancreatitis in the future.

  6. Review of idiopathic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of pancreatitis and advances in technology have uncovered the veils of idiopathic pancreatitis to a point where a thorough history and judicious use of diagnostic techniques elucidate the cause in over 80% of cases. This review examines the multitude of etiologies of what were once labeled idiopathic pancreatitis and provides the current evidence on each. This review begins with a background review of the current epidemiology of idiopathic pancreatitis prior to discussion of various etiologies. Etiologies of medications, infections, toxins,autoimmune disorders, vascular causes, and anatomic and functional causes are explored in detail. We conclude with management of true idiopathic pancreatitis and a summary of the various etiologic agents. Throughout this review, areas of controversies are highlighted.

  7. Pancreatic Involvement in Melioidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vui Heng Chong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Melioidosis is endemic to tropical regions and, despite the common occurrence of intra-abdominal abscesses, pancreatic involvement in melioidosis has not previously been reported. Objective We report our experience with pancreatic melioidosis. Patients All 65 patients treated for melioidosis who had computed tomography (CT scans were identified from prospective databases and were retrospectively reviewed. Main outcome measures A detailed review of cases with pancreas involvement was carried out. Results There were four cases (three males and one female; median age 29.5 years, range: 25-48 years with pancreatic melioidosis, giving a prevalence of 6.2%. All had predisposing conditions (two had poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and two had thalassemia for melioidosis. Fever (100%, anorexia (100%, weight loss (100%, rigor (75% and abdominal pain (75% were the most common symptoms at presentation and the median duration of symptoms before presentation was six weeks (range: 2-8 weeks. All pancreatic abscesses were detected on CT scan. Multiple foci involvement was common (3 to 6 sites: blood (4 patients, liver (3 patients, psoas muscle (2 patients, spleen (2 patients, infected ascites (2 patients and lung (1 patient. Pancreatic involvement ranged from multi-focal micro-abscesses to focal large abscesses and involved all parts of the pancreas (body 100%, head 75% and tail 50%. Associated pancreatic findings included splenic vein thrombosis, peripancreatic inflammation and peripancreatic fat streaking. All the pancreatic abscesses were resolved with antibiotics without requiring pancreatic abscess drainage (including one patient who died from disseminated melioidosis. Conclusion Pancreatic involvement typically occurs as part of multi-organ involvement and commonly manifests as multifoci micro-abscesses. Associated pancreatic abnormalities were also common. All responded to treatment without requiring drainage

  8. Research on Isolation and Clone of Embryonic Stem Cell-Like in Bovine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li-long; YANG Qi; XIAO Mei; FENG Xiu-Liang; YANG Chun-rong; LEI An-min; GAO Zhi-min; DOU Zhong-ying; QIU Huai

    2002-01-01

    Bovine embryonic stem cell would be invaluable for researching the aspect of animal cloning, production transgenic animal and discussion of gene function in vitro. With the object of establishing an effective culture system for isolation and clone of bovine pluripotent stem cell, we cultured bovine embryos and mouse embryos including morula blastula and hatached blastula and obtained animal ICM on Primary marine embryonic fibroblast (Primary murine embryonic fibroblast, PMEF) feeder layer with tissue medium(DMEM supplemented with 15ml/100ml NBS ,0.1μmol/L Na2SeO3, 0. 1mmol/L β-mercaptoethanol, 1 000ng/ml LIF,10 ng/ml IGF, 1mmol/L necessary amino acid and 1mmol/L L-glutamine), then, we obtained mouse ICM and bovine ICM. Moreover, we isolated and cloned the 6 passage bovine ES like cells(12 cell lines) and 9 passage marine ES like cells (52 cell lines) deriving from bovine ICM and murine ICM respectively on the feeder layer of PMEF by disaggregating ICM and ES cell clones of bovine and murine into smaller clumps through digesting with 0. 125g/100ml trypsin and 0.02g/100ml EDTA and scattering with a glass needle. The pluripotency of both murine and bovine ES like cells was identified with morphological character, histochemistry identification, karyotype analysis and differentiation of ES cells in vitro or in vivo. This result showed that bovine embryonic stem cell and murine embryonic stem cell had developmental pluripotency.

  9. Regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion in goats: differential effects of short- and long-term duodenal phenylalanine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z P; Xu, M; Yao, J H; Liu, K; Li, F; Liu, Y; Wang, F; Sun, F F; Liu, N N

    2013-06-01

    Four yearling goats (31.2 ± 2.5 kg), surgically fitted with common bile duct reentrant and duodenal catheter, were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square design experiments to investigate the effects of duodenal infusion of phenylalanine for different times on pancreatic exocrine secretion (PES). In experiment 1 (the long-term experiment), goats were duodenally infused with 0, 2, 4 or 8 g/day phenylalanine for 14 day. Pancreatic juice and jugular blood samples were collected over 1-h intervals for 6 h daily from day 11 to day 14 to encompass a 24-h day. In experiment 2 (the short-term experiment), goats were infused with phenylalanine for 10 h continuously at the same infusion rate as experiment 1 after feed deprivation for 24 h repeated every 10 day. Pancreatic juice and blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h of infusion. The volume and pH of pancreatic juice were measured, and a 5% subsample was composited and frozen until analysis of enzyme activities. Plasma was frozen until analysis of insulin and cholecystokinin (CCK). In experiment 1, pancreatic juice, α-amylase secretion and plasma CCK concentration responded quadratically (p phenylalanine. Trypsin secretion had a quadratic response (p phenylalanine and decreasing thereafter. Phenylalanine linearly decreased pancreatic protein and lipase secretion (p phenylalanine infusion did not influence (p > 0.05) pancreatic juice, protein, α-amylase, lipase, trypsin secretion and plasma CCK concentration. These results indicate PES of ruminants is stimulated by phenylalanine and is potentially mediated by CCK in the long-term duodenal infusion treatment, but is not influenced by phenylalanine in the short-term duodenal infusion treatment.

  10. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  11. The use of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-poly(aniline) composite for trypsin immobilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caramori, S.S. [Laboratorio de Quimica de Proteinas, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Goias, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiania-GO (Brazil)], E-mail: samanthabio@hotmail.com; Fernandes, K.F. [Laboratorio de Quimica de Proteinas, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Goias, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiania-GO (Brazil)], E-mail: katia@icb.ufg.br

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents trypsin immobilisation on strips of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-poly(aniline), activated with glutaraldehyde (PET-PANIG) composite. The photomicrography of the material showed changes corresponding to the chemical modifications produced in the steps of synthesis. The immobilisation process was very efficient under optimal conditions (18.6%). The immobilised and free enzyme presented the same pH and temperature optimum. PET-PANIG-trypsin was able to hydrolyse casein, albumin, gelatine, and skimmed milk. Km{sub app} value for PET-PANIG-trypsin was very close to Km of the free enzyme for casein. Immobilised trypsin showed higher stability than the free enzyme, with 100% activity after 14 days of storage at 4 deg. C and 100% operational stability after 4 cycles of use.

  12. Influence of Different Genotypes on Trypsin Inhibitor Levels and Activity in Soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor A. Nedovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relationship between the two major trypsin inhibitors (TI in soybean, i.e., the Kunitz (KTI and Bowman-Birk (BBI trypsin inhibitors, as well as between them and the corresponding trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA. Twelve investigated soybean genotypes showed significant differences in TI levels and TIA. A very strong positive correlation was found between the levels of KTI and total BBI (r = 0.94, P < 0.05. No relationship was found between KTI, BBI or total TI and TIA. Based on this data, it appears that the levels of major TI in soybean are related. Understanding the relationship between trypsin inhibitors and their activities could be useful for further improvement of the health impacts of soy proteins.

  13. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer; the clinical aspects and treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C.M. Sikkens (Edmée)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, the pancreas is unable to deliver a sufficient quantity of pancreatic enzymes to the small intestine to digest food. It may occur in several life threatening diseases, including chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Due to this lack or absence

  14. Effect of Moringa oleifera flower extract on larval trypsin and acetylcholinesterase activities in Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Dias de Assis, Caio Rodrigo; de Souza Bezerra, Ranilson; Xavier, Haroudo Satiro; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2012-03-01

    Aedes aegypti control is crucial to reducing dengue fever. Aedes aegypti larvae have developed resistance to organophosporous insecticides and the use of natural larvicides may help manage larval resistance by increasing elements in insecticide rotation programs. Here, we report on larvicidal activity of Moringa oleifera flower extract against A. aegypti L(1), L(2), L(3), and L(4) as well as the effect of flower extract on gut trypsin and whole-larval acetylcholinesterase from L(4.) In addition, the heated flower extract was investigated for larvicidal activity against L(4) and effect on larval gut trypsin. Moringa oleifera flower extract contains a proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor (M. oleifera flower trypsin inhibitor, MoFTI), triterpene (β-amyrin), sterol (β-sitosterol) as well as flavonoids (kaempferol and quercetin). Larvicidal activity was detected against L(2), L(3), and L(4) (LC(50) of 1.72%, 1.67%, and 0.92%, respectively). Flower extract inhibited L(4) gut trypsin (MoFTI K(i) = 0.6 nM) and did not affect acetylcholinesterase activity. In vivo assay showed that gut trypsin activity from L(4) treated with M. oleifera flower extract decreased over time (0-1,440 min) and was strongly inhibited (98.6%) after 310 min incubation; acetylcholinesterase activity was not affected. Thermal treatment resulted in a loss of trypsin inhibitor and larvicidal activities, supporting the hypothesis that flower extract contains a proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor that may be responsible for the deleterious effects on larval mortality. PMID:22392801

  15. [Etiological factors of acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicák, J

    2002-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis develops immediately after the causative impulse, while chronic pancreatitis develops after the long-term action of the noxious agent. A typical representative of acute pancreatitis is biliary pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis develops in alcoholism and has a long latency. As alcoholic pancreatitis is manifested at first as a rule by a potent attack, it is classified in this stage as acute pancreatitis. The most frequent etiological factors in our civilization are thus cholelithiasis and alcoholism (both account for 20-50% in different studies). The assumed pathogenetic principles in acute biliary pancreatitis are the common canal of both efferent ducts above the obturated papilla, duodenopancreatic reflux and intrapancreatic hypertension. A detailed interpretation is however lacking. The pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis is more complicated. Among others some part is played by changes in the calcium concentration and fusion of cellular membranes. Idiopathic pancreatitis occurs in up to 10%, part of the are due to undiagnosed alcoholism and cholelithiasis. Other etiologies are exceptional. Similarly as in cholelithiasis pancreatitis develops also during other pathological processes in the area of the papilla of Vater such as dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi, ampulloma and juxtapapillary diverticulum, it is however usually mild. The incidence of postoperative pancreatitis is declining. Its lethality is 30% and the diagnosis is difficult. In the pathogenesis changes of the ion concentration are involved, hypoxia and mechanical disorders of the integrity of the gland. Pancreatitis develops in association with other infections--frequently in mumps, rarely in hepatitis, tuberculosis, typhoid and mycoses. Viral pancreatitis is usually mild. In parasitoses pancreatitis develops due to a block of the papilla Vateri. In hyperparathyroidism chronic pancreatitis is more likely to develop, recent data are lacking. As to dyslipoproteinaemias

  16. [Etiological factors of acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicák, J

    2002-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis develops immediately after the causative impulse, while chronic pancreatitis develops after the long-term action of the noxious agent. A typical representative of acute pancreatitis is biliary pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis develops in alcoholism and has a long latency. As alcoholic pancreatitis is manifested at first as a rule by a potent attack, it is classified in this stage as acute pancreatitis. The most frequent etiological factors in our civilization are thus cholelithiasis and alcoholism (both account for 20-50% in different studies). The assumed pathogenetic principles in acute biliary pancreatitis are the common canal of both efferent ducts above the obturated papilla, duodenopancreatic reflux and intrapancreatic hypertension. A detailed interpretation is however lacking. The pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis is more complicated. Among others some part is played by changes in the calcium concentration and fusion of cellular membranes. Idiopathic pancreatitis occurs in up to 10%, part of the are due to undiagnosed alcoholism and cholelithiasis. Other etiologies are exceptional. Similarly as in cholelithiasis pancreatitis develops also during other pathological processes in the area of the papilla of Vater such as dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi, ampulloma and juxtapapillary diverticulum, it is however usually mild. The incidence of postoperative pancreatitis is declining. Its lethality is 30% and the diagnosis is difficult. In the pathogenesis changes of the ion concentration are involved, hypoxia and mechanical disorders of the integrity of the gland. Pancreatitis develops in association with other infections--frequently in mumps, rarely in hepatitis, tuberculosis, typhoid and mycoses. Viral pancreatitis is usually mild. In parasitoses pancreatitis develops due to a block of the papilla Vateri. In hyperparathyroidism chronic pancreatitis is more likely to develop, recent data are lacking. As to dyslipoproteinaemias

  17. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Bas J H; Alting, Arno C; Gruppen, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and beta-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates obtained was studied as a function of pH. At neutral pH, all soy-derived protein hydrolysates, particularly those from glycinin, obtained by hydrolysis with subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, bromelain, and papain showed a stronger aggregation compared to the non-hydrolyzed ones. This increase in aggregation was not observed upon hydrolysis by trypsin. None of the whey-derived protein hydrolysates exhibited an increase in aggregation at neutral pH. The high abundance of theoretical cleavage sites in the hydrophobic regions of glycinin probably explains the stronger exposure of hydrophobic groups than for the other proteins, which is suggested to be the driving force in the aggregate formation.

  18. Aedes aegypti midgut early trypsin is post-transcriptionally regulated by blood feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, F G; Pennington, J E; Barillas-Mury, C; Wang, X Y; Wells, M A

    1996-02-01

    Early trypsin is a female-specific protease present in the Aedes aegypti midgut during the first hours after ingestion of a blood meal. Early trypsin gene expression was studied by Northern blot analysis. The early trypsin mRNA, absent in larvae, pupae and newly emerged females, reaches detectable levels at 24 h post-emergence and attains a maximum level at an adult age of 4-7 days. After the first week there is a decrease in the steady-state level of the transcript, but it remains readily detectable for up to a month after emergence. Despite the high levels of early trypsin mRNA present in the midgut of the unfed female, translation of the early trypsin mRNA occurs only after a blood or a protein meal. Early trypsin mRNA levels rapidly decrease during the first 24 h after feeding, but the steady-state level of the transcript rises again at the end of the blood digestion cycle (60 h), as the mosquito prepares for a second blood meal. PMID:8630532

  19. Updates on Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojas Vyas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains a therapeutic challenge. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2014 about 46,420 people will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and about 39,590 people will die of pancreatic cancer in the United States [1]. The incidence of pancreatic carcinoma has markedly increased over the past several decades and it now ranks as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Despite the high mortality rate associated with pancreatic cancer, its etiology is poorly understood. Although progress in the development of new cytotoxic and biological drugs for the treatment of pancreatic cancer continues, the outcome remains grim. Many organizations and associations have taken an effort to improve knowledge, understanding and outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer. Pancreas Club, since its founding in 1966, is aimed to promote the interchange of ideas between physicians and scientists focused on pancreas throughout the world in an informal “club” atmosphere. We attended the 48th Annual Meeting of Pancreas Club in Chicago and reviewed many interesting posters and oral presentations. Here we discuss a few selected abstracts.

  20. Novel mutations of PRSS1 gene in patients with pancreatic cancer among Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Kai; LIU Qi-cai; LIN Jian-hua; LIN Xin-hua; ZHUANG Ze-hao; GAO Feng; OU Qi-shui

    2011-01-01

    Background A high mortality rate of pancreatic cancer becomes a bottleneck for further treatment with long-term efficacy. It is urgent to find a new mean to predict the early onset of pancreatic cancer accurately. The authors hypothesized that genetic variants of cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene could affect trypsin expression/function and result in abnormal activation of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), then lead to pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to elaborate some novel mutations of PRSS1 gene in the patients with pancreatic cancer.Methods Totally 156 patients with pancreatic cancer and 220 unrelated individuals as controls were enrolled in this study. The mutations of PRSS1 gene were analyzed by direct sequencing. K-ras Mutation Detection Kit was used to find the general k-ras gene disorder in the pancreatic cancer tissue. Then the clinical data were collected and analyzed simultaneously.Results There were two patients who carried novel mutations which was IVS 3 +157 G>C of PRSS1 gene in peripheral blood specimens and pancreatic cancer tissue. What's more, it was surprising to find a novel complicated mutation of exon 3 in PRSS1 gene (c.409 A>G and c.416 C>T) in another young patient. The complicated mutation made No. 135 and No.137 amino acid transfer from Thr to Ala and Thr to Met respectively. No any mutation was found in the normal controls while no mutations of k-ras gene were detected in the three patients.Conclusion Mutations of PRSS1 gene may be an important factor of pancreatic cancer.

  1. Pancreatic cellular injury after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: frequency, time course and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Monique; Venneman, Ingrid; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Vanbelle, Sophie; Albert, Adelin; Camus, Gérard; Damas, Pierre; Larbuisson, Robert; Lamy, Maurice

    2007-05-01

    Although often clinically silent, pancreatic cellular injury (PCI) is relatively frequent after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass; and its etiology and time course are largely unknown. We defined PCI as the simultaneous presence of abnormal values of pancreatic isoamylase and immunoreactive trypsin (IRT). The frequency and time evolution of PCI were assessed in this condition using assays for specific exocrine pancreatic enzymes. Correlations with inflammatory markers were searched for preoperative risk factors. One hundred ninety-three patients submitted to cardiac surgery were enrolled prospectively. Blood IRT, amylase, pancreatic isoamylase, lipase, and markers of inflammation (alpha1-protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin, myeloperoxidase) were measured preoperatively and postoperatively until day 8. The postoperative increase in plasma levels of pancreatic enzymes and urinary IRT was biphasic in all patients: early after surgery and later (from day 4 to 8 after surgery). One hundred thirty-three patients (69%) experienced PCI, with mean IRT, isoamylase, and alpha1-protease inhibitor values higher for each sample than that in patients without PCI. By multiple regression analysis, we found preoperative values of plasma IRT >or=40 ng/mL, amylase >or=42 IU/mL, and pancreatic isoamylase >or=20 IU/L associated with a higher incidence of postsurgery PCI (P < 0.005). In the PCI patients, a significant correlation was found between the 4 pancreatic enzymes and urinary IRT, total calcium, myeloperoxidase, alpha1-protease inhibitor, and alpha2-macroglobulin. These data support a high prevalence of postoperative PCI after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, typically biphasic and clinically silent, especially when pancreatic enzymes were elevated preoperatively.

  2. Familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A P; Hruban, R H; Brune, K A; Petersen, G M; Goggins, M

    2001-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States and will be responsible for an estimated 28,900 deaths in 2001. Relatively little is known of its etiology, and the only well-established risk factor is cigarette smoking. Studies over the past 3 decades have shown that 4%-16% of patients with pancreatic cancer have a family history of the disease. A small fraction of this aggregation can be accounted for in inherited cancer syndromes, including familial atypical multiple-mole melanoma, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer, hereditary pancreatitis, and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. These syndromes arise as a result of germline mutations in the BRCA2, pl6 (familial atypical multiple-mole melanoma), mismatch repair (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer), and STK11 (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome) genes. In addition, hereditary plays a role in predisposing certain patients with apparently sporadic pancreatic cancer. Many patients with pancreatic cancers caused by a germline mutation in a cancer-causing gene do not have a pedigree that is suggestive of a familial cancer syndrome. A recent prospective analysis of the pedigrees in the National Familial Pancreatic Tumor Registry found that individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer in multiple first-degree relatives have a high risk of pancreatic cancer themselves. The identification of such high-risk individuals will help clinicians target screening programs and develop preventive interventions with the hope of reducing the mortality of pancreatic cancer in these families.

  3. Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer Can pancreatic cancer be found early? Pancreatic cancer is hard to ... Testing: What You Need to Know . Testing for pancreatic cancer in people at high risk For people in ...

  4. Researchers Identify Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pancreatic cancer Researchers identify early sign of pancreatic cancer September 28, 2014 Tags: PancreaticCancer Brian Wolpin, MD ... discovered a sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer – an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs ...

  5. Pancreatitis in scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection prevalent in most parts of India. Acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation is a rare complication of this condition. This paper reports acute renal failure, pancreatitis and pseudocyst formation in a 48-year-old female with scrub typhus. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed a bulky pancreas with fluid seen along the body of the pancreas in the lesser sac. The infection was successfully treated with doxycycline and supportive treatment. Pancreatitis was managed conservatively. This case report highlights the importance of identifying and managing uncommon complications of a common tropical disease for optimum outcome.

  6. Delayed internal pancreatic fistula with pancreatic pleural effusion postsplenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of pancreatic pleural effusion,secondary to an internal pancreatic fistula,is a rare clinical syndrome and diagnosis is often missed.The key to the diagnosis is a dramatically elevated pleural fluid amylase.This pancreatic pleural effusion is also called a pancreatic pleural fistula.It is characterized by profuse pleural fluid and has a tendency to recur.Here we report a case of delayed internal pancreatic fistula with pancreatic pleural effusion emerging after splenectomy.From the treatment ...

  7. Acute pancreatitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Radoica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute pancreatitis in children is mostly due to abdominal trauma, diseases or congenital anomalies of the biliary-pancreatic tree. Both exogenous and endogenous functions of the gland could be disturbed by various levels of damage. Clinical Finding and Diagnostics. Acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal signs and general deterioration are the main clinical findings. The examination can be completed by blood and urine tests of amylase, electrolytes level, and the C-reactive protein. In addition to these tests, ultrasound, computed tomography and endoscopy are required as well. Therapeutic Methods. The therapy of choice is non-operative treatment using medicaments to control the pain, decrease the pancreatic activity and prevent further complications. If the conservative treatment fails, the surgical approach is necessary: drainage, resections, by-pass procedures, etc. Conclusion. Acute pancreatitis is a very serious disease in childhood. Clinical experience and rational approach are very important in the diagnostic and therapeutic methods.

  8. Perspectives in Pancreatic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Salim

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes some of the mechanisms which are thought to be important in the causation of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Both medical and surgical techniques for treating this pain are described.

  9. Familial Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Lanspa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer’s high mortality rate equates closely with its incidence, thereby showing the need for development of biomarkers of its increased risk and a better understanding of its genetics, so that high-risk patients can be better targeted for screening and early potential lifesaving diagnosis. Its phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity is extensive and requires careful scrutiny of its pattern of cancer associations, such as malignant melanoma associated with pancreatic cancer, in the familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, due to the CDKN2A germline mutation. This review is designed to depict several of the hereditary pancreatic cancer syndromes with particular attention given to the clinical application of this knowledge into improved control of pancreatic cancer.

  10. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may include: Fasting glucose level Gastrin level Glucose tolerance test Secretin stimulation test for pancreas Blood glucagon ... PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pancreatic Cancer Browse the ...

  11. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Capecomorin S Pitchumoni; Balaji Yegneswaran

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare event in pregnancy,occurring in approximately 3 in 10 000 pregnancies.The spectrum of AP in pregnancy ranges from mild pancreatitis to serious pancreatitis associated with necrosis, abscesses, pseudocysts and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. Pregnancy related hematological and biochemical alterations influence the interpretation of diagnostic tests and assessment of severity of AP. As in any other disease associated with pregnancy, AP is associated with greater concerns as it deals with two lives rather than just one as in the nonpregnant population. The recent advances in clinical gastroenterology have improved the early diagnosis and effective management of biliary pancreatitis. Diagnostic studies such as endoscopic ultrasound,magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and therapeutic modalities that include endoscopic sphincterotomy, biliary stenting, common bile duct stone extraction and laparoscopic cholecystectomy are major milestones in gastroenterology. When properly managed AP in pregnancy does not carry a dismal prognosis as in the past.

  12. What Is Pancreatic Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very important to distinguish between exocrine and endocrine cancers of the pancreas. They have distinct risk factors and causes, have ... are by far the most common type of pancreas cancer. If you are told you have pancreatic cancer, ...

  13. Imaging of acute pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, Elmar M.; Goerich, Johannes [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Ulm, Steinhoevel Strasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is defined as an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of peripancreatic tissues or remote organ systems. This article reports the current classification, definition and terminology, epidemiology and etiology, pathogenesis and pathological findings, clinical and laboratory findings, and finally imaging findings of acute pancreatitis with emphasis on cross-sectional imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  14. Autoimmune pancreatitis and cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niraj; Jani; James; Buxbaum

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis(AIP) is part of a systemic fibrosclerotic process characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with immunoglobulin G subtype-4(Ig G4) positive cells. It characteristically presents with biliary obstruction due to mass-like swelling of the pancreas. Frequently AIP is accompanied by extra-pancreaticmanifestations including retroperitoneal fibrosis, thyroid disease, and salivary gland involvement. Auto-antibodies, hypergammaglobulemia, and prompt resolution of pancreatic and extrapancreatic findings with steroids signify its autoimmune nature. Refractory cases are responsive to immunomodulators and rituximab. Involvement of the biliary tree, termed IgG 4 associated cholangiopathy, mimics primary sclerosing cholangitis and is challenging to manage. High IgG 4 levels and swelling of the pancreas with a diminutive pancreatic duct are suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. Given similarities in presentation but radical differences in management and outcome, differentiation from pancreatic malignancy is of paramount importance. There is controversy regarding the optimal diagnostic criterion and steroid trials to make the diagnosis. Additionally, the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas and requirement for histologic sampling, makes tissue acquisition challenging. Recently, a second type of autoimmune pancreatitis has been recognized with similar clinical presentation and steroid response though different histology, serologic, and extrapancreatic findings.

  15. Improvement of the Enzyme Performance of Trypsin via Adsorption in Mesoporous Silica SBA-15: Hydrolysis of BAPNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic performance of trypsin in hydrolysis of N-α-benzoyl-DL-arginine-4-nitroanilide (BAPNA was improved by adsorption on Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA-15 mesoporous silica. The optimal immobilization conditions were screened and the properties of immobilized enzyme have also been studied. Under the optimal conditions, the immobilized trypsin displays maximum specific activity (49.8 μmol/min/g. The results also indicate that the immobilized trypsin exhibits better storage stability.

  16. Pancreatic encephalopathy- a rare complication of severe acute biliary pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Denis Constantin; Alexandru Carȃp; Bogdan Socea; Simona Bobic

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic encephalopathy is a rare complication of severe acute pancreatitis, with high mortality, being difficult to diagnose and treat, thus requiring continuous research regarding its management. Materials and Methods. Of 20 patients diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis on admission at Department of Emergency and Admission (DEA), from January 1st 2010 to March 31st 2014, 5 cases complicated by pancreatic encephalopathy were analyzed using a descriptive observational...

  17. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P;

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  18. Endoscopic pancreatic duct stent placement for inflammatory pancreatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The role of endoscopic therapy in the management of pancreatic diseases is continuously evolving; at present most pathological conditions of the pancreas are successfully treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), or both. Endoscopic placement of stents has played and still plays a major role in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis, pseudocysts, pancreas divisum, main pancreatic duct injuries, pancreatic fistulae, complications of acute ...

  19. Hereditary pancreatitis and secondary screening for early pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitone, L J; Greenhalf, W; Howes, N R; Neoptolemos, J P

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance (80%), accounting for approximately 1% of all cases of pancreatitis. It is characterized by the onset of recurrent attacks of acute pancreatitis in childhood and frequent progression to chronic pancreatitis. Whitcomb et al. identified the cationic trypsinogen gene (PRSS1) on chromosome 7q35 as the site of the mutation that causes hereditary pancreatitis. The European registry of hereditary pancreatitis and familial pancreatic cancer (EUROPAC) aims to identify and make provisions for those affected by hereditary pancreatitis and familial pancreatic cancer. The most common mutations in hereditary pancreatitis are R122H, N29I and A16V but many families have been described with clinically defined hereditary pancreatitis where there is no PRSS1 mutation. It is known that the cumulative lifetime risk (to age 70 years) of pancreatic cancer is 40% in individuals with hereditary pancreatitis. This subset of individuals form an ideal group for the development of a screening programme aimed at detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage in an attempt to improve the presently poor long-term survival. Current screening strategies involve multimodality imaging (computed tomography, endoluminal ultrasound) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for pancreatic juice collection followed by molecular analysis of the DNA extracted from the juice. The potential benefit of screening (curative resection) must be balanced against the associated morbidity and mortality of surgery. Philosophically, the individual's best interest must be sought in light of the latest advances in medicine and science following discussions with a multidisciplinary team in specialist pancreatic centres.

  20. SEQUENCES RELATED TO THE OX PANCREATIC RIBONUCLEASE CODING REGION IN THE GENOMIC DNA OF MAMMALIAN-SPECIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; CONFALONE, E; COSTANZO, C; SASSO, MP; CARSANA, A; PALMIERI, M; FURIA, A

    1993-01-01

    Mammalian pancreatic ribonucleases form a family of homologous proteins that has been extensively investigated. The primary structures of these enzymes were used to derive phylogenetic trees. These analyses indicate that the presence of three strictly homologous enzymes in the bovine species (the pa

  1. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  2. Crystallization, data collection and processing of the chymotrypsin–BTCI–trypsin ternary complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Gisele Ferreira; Teles, Rozeni Chagas Lima; Cavalcante, Nayara Silva; Neves, David; Ventura, Manuel Mateus [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CeBiME), Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), CP 6192, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Freitas, Sonia Maria de, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2007-12-01

    A ternary complex of the proteinase inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement. A ternary complex of the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 and 5%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant. BTCI is a small protein with 83 amino-acid residues isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds and is able to inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin simultaneously by forming a stable ternary complex. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal of the trypsin–BTCI–chymotrypsin ternary complex to 2.7 Å resolution under cryogenic conditions. The structure of the ternary complex was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structures of the BTCI–trypsin binary complex (PDB code) and chymotrypsin (PDB code) as search models.

  3. TRYPSIN-INDUCED HEMAGGLUTINATION ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Mahmood, M. Siddique, I. Hussain and A. Khan1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A trypsin-induced hemagglutination (THA assay was standardized to detect infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in allantoic fluid (AF of embryonated eggs. The test was used in 20 samples, each collected from 5 different layer farms suspected for IBV. Allantoic fluid from inoculated embryos was harvested and treated with reagent grade trypsin at the percentages of 0.25, 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 for 30 minutes to 3 hours at pH 7.2. The IBV in trypsinized AF was identified by clear and consistent agglutination of chicken red blood cells within 5 minutes of incubation at 37oC. The results indicated that AF treated with equal volume of 1.0% reagent grade trypsin elicited the hemagglutinating (HA activity in 3.0 hours whereas 2.0% reagent grade trypsin elicited the HA activity only after 30 minutes incubation at 37oC. Sensitivity of THA was 92% as compared with 76% for agar gel precipitation test. Gross pathological lesions (curling and dwarfing in chick embryo, intracereberal inoculation of un-weaned mice and pathogenicity test in one-day-old broiler chicks showed 79, 84 and 77% sensitivity, respectively.

  4. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  5. Pancreatic ductal system obstruction and acute recurrent pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Delhaye; C Matos; M Arvanitakis; J Devière

    2008-01-01

    Acute recurrent pancreatitis is a clinical entity largely associated with pancreatic ductal obstruction.This latter includes congenital variants,of which pancreas divisum is the most frequent but also controversial,chronic pancreatitis,tumors of the pancreaticobiliary junction and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.This review summarizes current knowledge about diagnostic work-up and therapy of these conditions.

  6. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycellane Alline do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30-60% following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated.

  7. Motion-Genetic Testing is Useful in the Diagnosis of Nonhereditary Pancreatic Conditions: Arguments for the Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Whitcomb

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of three major genes are associated with an increased risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis: the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1 gene, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene, and the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI or serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1 gene. Some autosomal dominant forms of hereditary pancreatitis are associated with mutations of the PRSS1 gene, which can be readily identified by genetic testing. Mutations of the CFTR gene can lead either to cystic fibrosis or to idiopathic chronic pancreatitis, and to a variety of cystic fibrosis-associated disorders, including congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens and sinusitis. These mutations, as with those of the SPINK1 (or PSTI gene, are prevalent in North America; thus, the presence of such a mutation in an asymptomatic person does not confer a high risk of developing pancreatitis. Combinations of mutations of the PRSS1 and SPINK1 genes lead to more severe disease, as indicated by an earlier onset of symptoms, which suggests that SPINK1 is a disease modifier. The major fear expressed by potential candidates for genetic testing is that the results could lead to insurance discrimination. Studies of the positive predictive value of genetic tests are hampered by recruitment bias and lack of knowledge of family history of pancreatitis. Genetic testing is most useful for persons for whom family members have already been found to exhibit a particular pancreatitis-associated mutation. In the future, increased knowledge of the myriad genetic causes of pancreatitis, as well as advances in the diagnosis and treatment of early chronic pancreatitis, should enhance the utility of genetic testing.

  8. Clinical pancreatic disorder I: Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2011-01-01

    Now the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011 are gathered and filed with the aim to give them a larger audience than they have had in their original abstract book. However, it is obvious that most of clinical fellows do not have time to read all the abstracts. For them I have made a "clinical highlight section" of 10 percent of all the pancreatic abstracts. If someone else should have done some collection of abstract, there should probably have been other selections, but as this is not the case, the editor′s choices are the highlighted ones. The article as series I of clinical highlight section is present, and more series will be present in the following issues. If readers will remember some of the abstracts better after reading this "abstract of abstracts", it was worth the efforts - and without efforts there will be little progress.

  9. Pain in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Kenneth E; Davis, Brian; Lyons, John; Chen, Zongfu; Lee, Kenneth K; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C

    2007-06-01

    Chronic, debilitating abdominal pain is arguably the most important component of chronic pancreatitis, leading to significant morbidity and disability. Attempting to treat this pain, which is too often unsuccessful, is a frustrating experience for physician and patient. Multiple studies to improve understanding of the pathophysiology that causes pain in some patients but not in others have been performed since the most recent reviews on this topic. In addition, new treatment modalities have been developed and evaluated in this population. This review discusses new advances in neuroscience and the study of visceral pain mechanisms, as well as genetic factors that may play a role. Updates of established therapies, as well as new techniques used in addressing pain from chronic pancreatitis, are reviewed. Lastly, outcome measures, which have been highly variable in this field over the years, are addressed. PMID:17533083

  10. Endoscopic treatment of chronic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of chronic pancreatitis has been exclusively surgical for a long time. Recently, endoscopic therapy has become widely used as a primary therapeutic option.Initially performed for drainage of pancreatic cysts and pseudocysts, endoscopic treatments were adapted to biliary and pancreatic ducts stenosis. Pancreatic sphincterotomy which allows access to pancreatic ducts was firstly reported. Secondly, endoscopic methods of stenting, dilatation, and stones extraction of the bile ducts were applied to pancreatic ducts. Nevertheless,new improvements were necessary: failures of pancreatic stone extraction justified the development of extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy; dilatation of pancreatic stenosis was improved by forage with a new device; moreover endosonography allowed guidance for celiac block, gastro-cystostomy, duodeno-cystostomy and pancreatico-gastrostomy. Although endoscopic treatments are more and more frequently accepted,indications are still debated.

  11. Loperamide-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Halla Vidarsdottir; Hanna Vidarsdottir; Pall Helgi Moller; Einar Stefan Bjornsson

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common disease leading to hospitalizations, most often caused by gallstones or alcohol. We present a case of a patient diagnosed with acute pancreatitis considered to be due to loperamide treatment for diarrhea.

  12. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) Afinitor (Everolimus) ...

  13. [The epidemiology of pancreatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Gábor; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2010-10-31

    Pancreatic cancer is a relatively uncommon tumor, but even with early diagnosis, mortality rates are high, explaining why this form of cancer has now become a common cause of cancer mortality. There are no screening tests for early detection of pancreatic cancer. It is more common in men than women and is predominantly a disease of elderly people. There is wide variation in the incidence of pancreatic cancer around the world, suggesting that environmental factors are important in the pathogenesis. Smoking is the major known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, while dietary factors seem to be less important. Other possible risk factors include chronic pancreatitis, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Numerous inherited germ line mutations are associated with pancreatic cancer. Of these, hereditary pancreatitis confers the greatest risk, while BRCA2 mutations are the commonest inherited disorder. Polymorphisms in genes that control detoxification of environmental carcinogens and metabolic pathways may alter the risk of pancreatic cancer.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Cancer Institute: Pancreatic Cancer National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Educational Resources (9 links) Boston Children's Hospital Cleveland Clinic: Cancer of the Pancreas Cleveland Clinic: Pancreatitis Disease InfoSearch: ...

  15. Subclinical zinc deficiency impairs pancreatic digestive enzyme activity and digestive capacity of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Daniel; Windisch, Wilhelm M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of short-term subclinical Zn deficiency on exocrine pancreatic activity and changes in digestive capacity. A total of forty-eight weaned piglets were fed ad libitum a basal diet (maize and soyabean meal) with adequate Zn supply (88 mg Zn/kg diet) during a 2-week acclimatisation phase. Animals were then assigned to eight dietary treatment groups (n 6) according to a complete randomised block design considering litter, live weight and sex. All pigs were fed restrictively (450 g diet/d) the basal diet but with varying ZnSO4.7H2O additions, resulting in 28·1, 33·6, 38·8, 42·7, 47·5, 58·2, 67·8 and 88·0 mg Zn/kg diet for a total experimental period of 8 d. Pancreatic Zn concentrations and pancreatic activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A and B, elastase and α-amylase exhibited a broken-line response to stepwise reduction in dietary Zn by declining beneath thresholds of 39·0, 58·0, 58·0, 41·2, 47·5, 57·7 and 58·0 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. Furthermore, carboxypeptidase B and α-amylase activities were significantly lower in samples with reduced pancreatic Zn contents. Coefficients of faecal digestibility of DM, crude protein, total lipids and crude ash responded similarly to pancreatic enzyme activities by declining below dietary thresholds of 54·7, 45·0, 46·9 and 58·2 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. In conclusion, (1) subclinical Zn deficiency impaired pancreatic exocrine enzymes, (2) this response was connected to pancreatic Zn metabolism and (3) the decline in catalytic activity impaired faecal digestibility already after 1 week of insufficient alimentary Zn supply and very early before clinical deficiency symptoms arise. PMID:27230230

  16. ERK activation is required for CCK-mediated pancreatic adaptive growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Bryan J; Lodewyk, Kevin B; Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S; Ernst, Stephen A; Williams, John A

    2014-10-01

    High levels of cholecystokinin (CCK) can stimulate pancreatic adaptive growth in which mature acinar cells divide, leading to enhanced pancreatic mass with parallel increases in protein, DNA, RNA, and digestive enzyme content. Prolonged release of CCK can be induced by feeding trypsin inhibitor (TI) to disrupt normal feedback control. This leads to exocrine growth in a CCK-dependent manner. The extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway regulates many proliferative processes in various tissues and disease models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ERK signaling in pancreatic adaptive growth using the MEK inhibitors PD-0325901 and trametinib (GSK-1120212). It was determined that PD-0325901 given two times daily by gavage or mixed into powdered chow was an effective and specific inhibitor of ERK signaling in vivo. TI-containing chow led to a robust increase in pancreatic mass, protein, DNA, and RNA content. This pancreatic adaptive growth was blocked in mice fed chow containing the MEK inhibitors. PD-0325901 blocked TI-induced ERK-regulated early response genes, cell-cycle proteins, and mitogenesis by acinar cells. It was determined that ERK signaling is necessary for the initiation of pancreatic adaptive growth but not necessary to maintain it. PD-0325901 blocked adaptive growth when given before cell-cycle initiation but not after mitogenesis had been established. Furthermore, GSK-1120212, a chemically distinct inhibitor of the ERK pathway that is now approved for clinical use, inhibited growth similar to PD-0325901. These data demonstrate that the ERK pathway is required for CCK-stimulated pancreatic adaptive growth.

  17. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Eland, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAcute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas with sudden onset. The severity of acute pancreatitis may vary from mild to life threatening. There are many risk factors for acute pancreatitis, among which gallstones and alcohol abuse are most widely known. Drugs are considered as potential risk factors for acute pancreatitis, but have received relatively little attention in the medical literature. In this thesis, several epidemiological studies were performed to ass...

  18. Concurrent Lymphoma and Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jiun Miin Lai; Mehrdad Nikfarjam; Peter Crowley

    2011-01-01

    Context Retroperitoneal lymph node enlargement in patients with pancreatic cancer is sometimes treated as incurable disease. Nonmetastatic causes of lymphadenopathy should however be considered. Case reports Two cases of significant retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy in the setting of pancreatic cancer, treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy and lymph node dissection are described. Both cases had a final diagnosis of concurrent pancreatic cancer and lymphoma with no evidence of pancreatic lymph node...

  19. Folate Deficiency in Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishna Rajesh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Sir, While there has been a spurt of interest in genetic alterations associated with pancreatitis in the past few years, interest in the role of environmental factors has largely focused on alcoholism and smoking with insufficient attention being paid to the contributions of nutritional deficiency, and the role of environmental toxins in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Braganza and Dormandy [1] argue convincingly about the role played by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (especially CYP1A enzyme induction by xenobiotics and the resultant oxidative stress, as also the now increasingly recognized reductive stress posed by the metabolites in initiating pancreatic injury. Their article underlines the important part played by the deficiency of methyl and thiol molecules in different stages of the progression of pancreatic damage. Furthermore, they attempt to establish a link between environmental and genetic factors and bring in a holistic view on the etiopathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis. We have recently demonstrated lower plasma methionine levels in two cohorts of chronic pancreatitis patients; one of tropical chronic pancreatitis and the other, of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis as compared to healthy controls [2] which suggests that deficiency of methyl groups may be a factor in various forms of pancreatitis. Similarly, we have shown lower red cell glutathione levels in chronic pancreatitis patients with tropical chronic pancreatitis and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, indicating deficiency of thiol molecules. In addition, we have demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma total homocysteine in chronic pancreatitis patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, our study has shown that there is a deficiency of red cell folate in the majority of chronic pancreatitis patients, more so in tropical chronic pancreatitis; and that folate deficiency appeared to be the key factor in hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic pancreatitis patients

  20. Obstructive Jaundice in Chronic Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hollands, M. J.; Little, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Significant obstructive jaundice in chronic pancreatitis is generally considered to be rare. Eleven of 57 consecutive patients with proven chronic pancreatitis have developed significant obstructive jaundice of more than transient duration. Eight presented as jaundice complicating known pancreatitis and three as jaundice of unknown cause. Life table analysis showed a steady rise in the risk of developing jaundice up to the end of 10 years from the onset of chronic pancreatitis. Jaundice was f...

  1. The amino-acid sequence of kangaroo pancreatic ribonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaastra, W; Welling, G W; Beintema, J J

    1978-05-01

    Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) ribonuclease was isolated from pancreatic tissue by affinity chromatography. The amino acid sequence was determined by automatic sequencing of overlapping large fragments and by analysis of shorter peptides obtained by digestion with a number of proteolytic enzymes. The polypeptide chain consists of 122 amino acid residues. Compared to other ribonucleases, the N-terminal residue and residue 114 are deleted. In other pancreatic ribonucleases position 114 is occupied by a cis proline residue in an external loop at the surface of the molecule. Other remarkable substitutions are the presence of a tyrosine residue at position 123 instead of a serine which forms a hydrogen bond with the pyrimidine ring of a nucleotide substrate, and a number of hydrophobichydrophilic interchanges in the sequence 51-55, which forms part of an alpha-helix in bovine ribonuclease and exhibits few substitutions in the placental mammals. Kangaroo ribonuclease contains no carbohydrate, although the enzyme possesses a recognition site for carbohydrate attachment in the sequence Asn-Val-Thr (62-64). The enzyme differs at about 35-40% of the positions from all other mammalian pancreatic ribonucleases sequenced to date, which is in agreement with the early divergence between the marsupials and the placental mammals. From fragmentary data a tentative sequence of red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) pancreatic ribonuclease has been derived. Eight differences with the kangaroo sequence were found. PMID:658039

  2. [The function of the hydrokinetic and ekbolic pancreas after acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tympner, F; Domschke, W; Rösch, W; Koch, H; Demling, L

    1976-11-01

    Thirteen patients were investigated 3-4 weeks (I. examination) and 3-5 months (II. examination) after the ceasing of the signs symptoms of an acute pancreatitis concerning their hydrokinetic and ekbolic pancreas-functions. In addition, the pancreatic ducts were demonstrated by ERCP. Reduction of the secretion were shown in 31% at the I. examination and in 23% at the II. examination. There were significant differences in the outputs of bicarbonate, trypsine and chymotrypsine compared to healthy test persons at the I. examination. At the II. examination, however, no significant differences could be observed compared to healthy test persons. The exocrine function of the pancreas was getting worse during the interval between the I. and II. examination in 2 cases but it became normal in 5 cases. Pathological alterations at the pancreativ-duct-system were not demonstrable shown at all. PMID:1007339

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor in proliferation and motility of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minoru; Tomizawa; Fuminobu; Shinozaki; Takao; Sugiyama; Shigenori; Yamamoto; Makoto; Sueishi; Takanobu; Yoshida

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To develop a molecular therapy for pancreatic cancer, the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling pathway was analyzed.METHODS: Pancreatic cancer cell lines (MIA-Paca2, NOR-P1, PANC-1, PK-45H, PK-1, PK-59 and KP-4) were cultured in media with 10 mL/L fetal bovine serum. Western blotting analysis was performed to clarify the expression of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). Picropodophyllin (PPP), a specific inhibitor of IGF-IR, LY294002, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol3 kinase (PI3K), and PD980...

  4. Genetic basis of chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, JBMJ; Morsche, RT; van Goor, Harry; Drenth, JPH

    2002-01-01

    Background: Pancreatitis has a proven genetic basis in a minority of patients. Methods: Review of the literature on genetics of pancreatitis. Results: Ever since the discovery that in most patients with hereditary pancreatitis a mutation in the gene encoding for cationic trypsinogen (R122H) was foun

  5. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Eland

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAcute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas with sudden onset. The severity of acute pancreatitis may vary from mild to life threatening. There are many risk factors for acute pancreatitis, among which gallstones and alcohol abuse are most widely known. Drugs are consid

  6. Acute pancreatitis and Cushing's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Clague, H W; B. Warren; Krasner, N.

    1984-01-01

    A case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in a 53-year-old man with an ectopic adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) producing bronchial carcinoma is described. The aetiology of acute pancreatitis in relation to steroid therapy and malignancy is discussed and it is suggested that excess endogenous steroid production may also cause acute pancreatitis.

  7. Prognostic Factors in Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2012-01-01

    Prognostic factors in pancreatic cancer have been a hot topic for the clinical pancreatology, and many studies have been involved in the field. The author reviewed the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011, and sumarized "highlight" of all the abstracts in prognostic factors in pancreatic cancer.

  8. Familial pancreatic cancer: genetic advances

    OpenAIRE

    Rustgi, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    This review by Rustgi elaborates on the known genetic syndromes that underlie familial pancreatic cancer. It aims to delineate the subtypes of syndromic hereditary pancreatic cancer in which germline genetic mutations have been identified and nonsyndromic familial pancreatic cancer in which genetic information is emerging.

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  10. General Information about Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  11. Mechanism of curcumin-induced trypsin inhibition: Computational and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Kang, Yi-Jun; Gu, Yun-Lan; Cao, Jian

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the experimental and theoretical methods were used to analyze the binding interaction of food dye, curcumin with trypsin. The results of fluorescence spectroscopic measurements indicated that curcumin binding resulted in the obviously intrinsic fluorescence quenching with the increase concentration of curcumin. This binding interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being -15.70 kJ mol-1 and 40.25 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces played an important role in the complex formation between curcumin and trypsin. Moreover, curcumin could enter into the primary substrate-binding pocket and makes the activity of trypsin decrease remarkably with the increasing concentration of curcumin.

  12. Clinical pancreatic disorder I: Acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén-Sandberg, Ake

    2011-07-01

    The Annual American Pancreas Club is an important event for communicating around clinical pancreatic disorders, just as the European, Japanese, Indian, and the International Pancreatic association. Even though the meeting is only 1½ day there were 169 different abstracts and a "How do I do it session." Among all these abstracts on the pancreas there are some real pearls, but they are almost always well hidden, never highlighted - all abstracts are similarly presented - and will too soon be forgotten. The present filing of the abstracts is one way (not the way) to get the pancreatic abstracts a little more read and a little more remembered - and perhaps a little more cited. It should also be understood that most of the abstracts are short summaries of hundreds of working hours (evenings, nights, weekends, holidays, you name them …) in the laboratory or in the clinic, often combined with blood, sweat and tears. The authors should be shown at least some respect, and their abstracts should not only be thought of as "just another little abstract" - and the best respect they can be shown are that they will be remembered to be another brick in our scientific wall.Now the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011 are gathered and filed with the aim to give them a larger audience than they have had in their original abstract book. However, it is obvious that most of clinical fellows do not have time to read all the abstracts. For them I have made a "clinical highlight section" of 10 percent of all the pancreatic abstracts. If someone else should have done some collection of abstract, there should probably have been other selections, but as this is not the case, the editor's choices are the highlighted ones.The article as series I of clinical highlight section is present, and more series will be present in the following issues. If readers will remember some of the abstracts better after reading this "abstract of abstracts", it was worth the efforts - and without

  13. Clinical pancreatic disorder I: Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Annual American Pancreas Club is an important event for communicating around clinical pancreatic disorders, just as the European, Japanese, Indian, and the International Pancreatic association. Even though the meeting is only 1½ day there were 169 different abstracts and a “How do I do it session.” Among all these abstracts on the pancreas there are some real pearls, but they are almost always well hidden, never highlighted – all abstracts are similarly presented – and will too soon be forgotten. The present filing of the abstracts is one way (not the way to get the pancreatic abstracts a little more read and a little more remembered – and perhaps a little more cited. It should also be understood that most of the abstracts are short summaries of hundreds of working hours (evenings, nights, weekends, holidays, you name them … in the laboratory or in the clinic, often combined with blood, sweat and tears. The authors should be shown at least some respect, and their abstracts should not only be thought of as “just another little abstract” – and the best respect they can be shown are that they will be remembered to be another brick in our scientific wall.Now the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011 are gathered and filed with the aim to give them a larger audience than they have had in their original abstract book. However, it is obvious that most of clinical fellows do not have time to read all the abstracts. For them I have made a “clinical highlight section” of 10 percent of all the pancreatic abstracts. If someone else should have done some collection of abstract, there should probably have been other selections, but as this is not the case, the editor’s choices are the highlighted ones. The article as series I of clinical highlight section is present, and more series will be present in the following issues. If readers will remember some of the abstracts better after reading this “abstract of

  14. Tests of pancreatic exocrine function - clinical significance in pancreatic and non-pancreatic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jutta; Aghdassi, Ali Alexander; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia V; Layer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The pancreas functions as the main factory for digestive enzymes and therefore enables food utilisation. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, partial or complete loss of digestive enzyme synthesis, occurs primarily in disorders directly affecting pancreatic tissue integrity. However, other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, such as coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or gastric resection can either mimic or cause pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The overt clinical symptoms of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency are steatorrhoea and maldigestion, which frequently become apparent in advanced stages. Several direct and indirect function tests are available for assessment of pancreatic function but until today diagnosis of excretory insufficiency is difficult as in mild impairment clinically available function tests show limitations of diagnostic accuracy. This review focuses on diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in pancreatic and non-pancreatic disorders. PMID:19505669

  15. Autoantibodies in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Marner, B; Pedersen, N T;

    1985-01-01

    In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane, and reti......In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane......, and reticulin, and the IgG- and IgA-type pancreas-specific antibodies against islet cells, acinus cells, and ductal cells (DA) were estimated blindly. In 23 of the patients chronic pancreatitis was verified, whereas chronic pancreatitis was rejected in 37 patients (control group). IgG and IgA were found...... in significantly higher concentrations in the patients with chronic pancreatitis than in the control group but within the normal range. ANA and DA occurred very frequently in both groups but with no statistical difference. Other autoantibodies only occurred sporadically. The findings of this study do not support...

  16. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuroo, Mohammad S; Rather, Ajaz A; Khuroo, Naira S; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2016-01-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis (HPA) was described as a clinical entity from Kashmir, India in 1985. HPA is caused by invasion and migration of nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides, in to the biliary tract and pancreatic duct. Patients present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholecystitis, hepatic abscesses and acute pancreatitis. Ascarides traverse the ducts repeatedly, get trapped and die, leading to formation of hepatolithiasis. HPA is ubiquitous in endemic regions and in Kashmir, one such region, HPA is the etiological factor for 36.7%, 23%, 14.5% and 12.5% of all biliary diseases, acute pancreatitis, liver abscesses and biliary lithiasis respectively. Ultrasonography is an excellent diagnostic tool in visualizing worms in gut lumen and ductal system. The rational treatment for HPA is to give appropriate treatment for clinical syndromes along with effective anthelmintic therapy. Endotherapy in HPA is indicated if patients continue to have symptoms on medical therapy or when worms do not move out of ductal lumen by 3 wk or die within the ducts. The worms can be removed from the ductal system in most of the patients and such patients get regression of symptoms of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease. PMID:27672273

  17. EFFECTIVENESS INACTIVATION OF TRYPSIN INHIBITOR FROM BRAZILIAN CULTIVARS OF BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli Cristina PAIVA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The trypsin inhibitor, an antinutritional factor, which is abundant in dycotiledoneous and monocotyledoneous, is usually inactivated by heating treatment. The infl uence of pressure-cooking (121°C and 141kPa for 30 min on, trypsin inhibitors concentration and inhibitors reactivation from ten Brazilian beans varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. namely: IAPAR-14, IAC-Carioca, Rudá, Corrente, IAC-Aruã, IAPAR-16, IAPAR-57, IACCarioca Pyatã, Carioca, Aporé, were investigated. The inhibitors reactivation was evaluated in comparison with the activity of raw and pressure-cooking. For raw the in vitro protein digestibility mean values ranged from 40% (in Carioca cultivar to 60% (in IAC-Aruã cultivar, showing an increase from 11% to 37% using the autoclaving at 121°C and 141kPa. Among ten cultivars studied the trypsin inhibitor activity varied from 36.18UTI.mg-1 for IAC-Aruã to 63.33UTI.mg-1 for IAPAR-16. Trypsin inhibitor activity was totally inactivated by pressure-cooking. The study of the trypsin inhibitors reactivation using double-digestive pepsin-pancreatin enzymes in vitro showed a recovering activity from 34% up to 100%. Native inhibitor is resistant to double- digestive pepsin-pancreatin proteolysis, whereas autoclaving to 121o C.30 min-1 results in a non-native conformation that is susceptible to proteolysis, improving the digestibility and inactivate differentially the activity of trypsin inhibitors. The results of the thermal treatment of the beans show inactivation of the inhibitors, which may be due to formation of high molecular weight aggregates with other substances of the grain. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion of the inactivated inhibitor restores the activity, probably due to its retention by the digested fragments.

  18. Cloning and Functional Analysis of the Bifunctional Agglutinin/Trypsin Inhibitor from Helianthus tuberosus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuanjie Chang; Hongli Zhai; Songbiao Chen; Guisheng Song; Honglin Xu; Xiaoli Wei; Zhen Zhu

    2006-01-01

    In order to find new insect resistance genes, four homologous cDNAs, hta-a, hta-b, hta-c and hta-d with lengths of 775, 718, 784 and 752 bp, respectively (GenBank accession numbers AF477031-AF477034), were isolated from a tuber cDNA expression library of Helianthus tuberosus L. Sequence analysis revealed that all four cDNAs contain an open reading frame of 444 bp, coding a polypeptide of 147 amino acid residues, and that the sequences of the cDNAs are very similar to those of the mannose-binding agglutinin genes of the jacalin-related family. In hemagglutination reactions and hapten inhibition assays, affinity-purified HTA (Helianthus tuberosus agglutinin) from induced Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expressing GST-HTA shows hemagglutination ability and a higher carbohydrate-binding ability for mannose than other tested sugars.Trypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the crude extracts of induced E. coli BL21(DE3)expressing HTA,and was further verified by trypsin inhibitory activity staining on native polyacrylamide gel. The mechanism of interaction between HTA and trypsin was studied by molecular modeling. We found that plenty of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions can be formed between the supposed binding sites of HTA-b and the active site of trypsin, and that a stable HTA/trypsin complex can be formed. The results above imply that HTA might be a bifunctional protein with carbohydrate-binding activity and trypsin inhibitory activity. Moreover,Northern blotting analysis demonstrated that hta is predominantly expressed in tubers of H. tuberosus, very weakly expressed in stems, but not expressed at all in other tissues. Southern blotting analysis indicated that hta is encoded by a multi-gene family. The insect resistance traits have been described in another paper.

  19. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., ``Analysis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk to the U.S. Cattle Population from Importation of... final rule did not limit the importation of bovine-derived meat from Canada to that derived from cattle... meat from bovines 30 months of age or older while continuing to prohibit the importation of live...

  20. The clinical assessment of intraductal ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the clinical value of intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis with conventional imaging methods. Methods: IDUS was carried out in eighteen patients with pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis

  1. Primary Pancreatic Head Tuberculosis: Great Masquerader of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dhaval; Patel, Jatin; Rathi, Chetan; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is considered an extremely rare condition, even in the developing countries. Most reported cases of pancreatic TB are diagnosed after exploratory laparotomy or autopsy. Pancreatic TB is a potential mimic of invasive pancreatic malignancy and the presence of vascular invasion does not distinguish one condition from the other. Every effort should be made for the earliest diagnosis of this condition as TB is a treatable condition and it avoids unnecessary management of pancreatic carcinoma. Here we report a rare case of primary pancreatic head TB in a 58-year-old male who presented with hypodense lesion in head of pancreas with double duct sign and portal vein invasion mimicking non-resectable pancreatic carcinoma.

  2. Pancreatic metastasis from mycosis fungoides mimicking primary pancreatic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriolo, Paola; Fausti, Valentina; Cinotti, Elisa; Bonadio, Silvia; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Orcioni, Giulio Fraternali; Fiocca, Roberto; Rongioletti, Franco; Pistoia, Vito; Borgonovo, Giacomo

    2016-03-28

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that can undergo local progression with possible systemic dissemination. We report a case of a patient affected by MF with a pancreatic mass that was a diagnostic challenge between primitive tumor and pancreatic metastasis from MF. Clinical setting findings and imaging studies raised the suspicion of a pancreatic primary neoplasm. A diagnostic clue was provided by the combined histomorphologic/immunohistochemical study of pancreatic and cutaneous biopsies, which revealed a pancreatic localization of MF. Considering the rarity of metastatic localization of MF to the pancreas, we next investigated whether chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions could be involved in the phenomenon to provide new insight into the possible mechanisms underlying metastatic localization of MF to the pancreas. Histological analyses of archival pancreatic tissue demonstrated that glucagon-secreting cells of the pancreatic islets expressed the CCL27 chemokine, which may have attracted in our case metastatic MF cells expressing the complementary receptor CCR10.

  3. Elderly Patients with Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andromachi S Kougioumtzopoulou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer marked significant increase of incidence during the last decades in the elderly population. Despite the certain increase of incidence there are no international guidelines for elderly patients who are suffering from pancreatic cancer. During the ASCO Annual Meeting 2014, two abstracts focusing on elderly patients suffering from different histological types of pancreatic cancer were presented. The first retrospective study (Abstract # 4119 showed the benefit of the systemic treatment on overall survival for elderly patients with stage IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The second retrospective study (Abstract # 4112 demonstrates the positive effect of somatostatin analogue (octreotide-LAR treatment on overall survival for elderly patients with neuroendocrine pancreatic carcinoma.

  4. Controlled clinical study on pancreatic stenting in the relief of pain of advanced pancreatic cancer with dilated pancreatic duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高飞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of pancreatic stenting in the relief of abdominal pain of advanced pancreatic cancer with dilated pancreatic duct.Methods A tolal of 61 patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma companied with dilated pancreatic duct were divided into two groups.Twenty-eight cases(two cases were excluded because of stent loss)in stent group treated with

  5. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  7. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  8. Post-partum pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai P

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy and post-partum period, rarely encountered in surgical practice, can have a lethal effect on the mother and the foetus. We report here a case of a 35 year old tertigravida who presented with high grade fever, abdominal pain with distension, tachycardia and tachypnoea. Chest examination and X-rays were suggestive of pneumonia. The abdomen was tense and tender. Peristalsis was absent. Ultrasound revealed presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity which on paracentesis was found to contain Gram positive cocci. Fluid amylase levels were high. On exploratory laparotomy, haemorrhagic oedematous pancreatitis was noticed. The patient expired on the 2nd post operative day.

  9. Chemoradiotherapy in pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathy Sushmita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer patients present late in their course and surgical resection as a modality of treatment is of limited value. Majority develop loco-regional failure and distant metastasis, therefore, adjuvant therapy comprising of radiotherapy and chemotherapy are useful treatment options to achieve higher loco-regional control. Specialized irradiation techniques like intra-operative radiotherapy that help to increase the total tumor dose have been used, however, controvertible survival benefit was observed. Various studies have shown improved median and overall survival with chemoradiotherapy for advanced unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. The role of new agents such as topoisomerase I inhibitors also needs further clinical investigations.

  10. Unusual complications of pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomography (CT) appearances of varying grades of severity of acute pancreatitis, and its complications, have been described. Body-wall ecchymosis in the periumbilical region (Cullen's sign) and loins (Grey Turner's sign), though rare, are frequently mentioned in the clinical literature. Massive, exclusively retroperitoneal, involvement is also exceedingly rare. Computed tomography depiction of these signs is sparsely documented. The CT documentation, with clinico-surgical correlation, of two cases of severe acute pancreatitis with these unusual complications, is presented. 9 refs., 3 figs

  11. MR imaging of pancreatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Katsuyoshi E-mail: itokatsu@po.cc.yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Koike, Shinji; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2001-05-01

    This article presents current MR imaging techniques for the pancreas, and review a spectrum of MR imaging features of various pancreatic diseases. These include: 1) congenital anomalies such as anomalous union of pancreatobiliary ducts, divisum, and annular pancreas, 2) inflammatory diseases, including acute or chronic pancreatitis with complications, groove pancreatitis, and autoimmune pancreatitis, tumor-forming pancreatitis, 3) pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinoma, islet cell tumors, and cystic neoplasms (microcystic adenoma, mucinous cystic neoplasms, and intraductal mucin-producing pancreatic tumor). Particular attention is paid to technical advances in MR imaging of the pancreas such as fat-suppression, MR pancreatography (single- or multi-slice HASTE), and thin-section 3D multiphasic contrast-enhanced dynamic sequences. Imaging characteristics that may lead to a specific diagnosis or narrow the differential diagnosis are also discussed.

  12. Pancreatic disorders in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Filippo; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Angelelli, Lucia; Macarri, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    An increased incidence of pancreatic disorders either acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis has been recorded in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to the general population. Although most of the pancreatitis in patients with IBD seem to be related to biliary lithiasis or drug induced, in some cases pancreatitis were defined as idiopathic, suggesting a direct pancreatic damage in IBD. Pancreatitis and IBD may have similar presentation therefore a pancreatic disease could not be recognized in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. This review will discuss the most common pancreatic diseases seen in patients with IBD. PMID:27574565

  13. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer: Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz Pross; Wellner, Ulrich F.; Kim C Honselmann; Carlo Jung; Steffen Deichmann; Tobias Keck; Dirk Bausch

    2015-01-01

    We performed a literature review for neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer. We divided the results into resectable disease and local advanced pancreatic cancer. Results Neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer is safe. But currently no standard guidelines exist in neoadjuvant approaches on pancreatic cancer. For local advanced pancreatic cancer the available data tends to show a positive effect on survival rates for neoadjuvant approaches.

  14. Studies of pancreatic carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yu-bin; PANG Lin-lin; YU Lei; YANG Hai-fan; LIU Guang-da; LI Hai-jiao

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma is the most common pancreatic neoplasm characterized by latentmorbidit, poor prognosis, high mortality rate and limited choice of treatment. Quite a lot studies focused on its pathogenesis, and showed molecular genetic alterations, which derived of genetic and environmental factors and played an important role in tumorigenesis. Recently, more and more findings laid particular emphasis on the changes of gene molecule and some were confirmed in vitro and in vivo. In this paper, we made a review and summarized the arked molecular changes and signalings of the four pathways to understand their functions in Pancreatic carcinoma. The most important changes concentrate on K-RAS, p16 INK4α, P53 and SMAD4 gene, secondly, the changes of pl4ARF, TGF-β, LKB1 /STK11, BRCA2 and growth factor Hedgehog and Notch path way and Telomere also play a important role in pancreatic carcinoma. The vast majority (83%) of pancreatic carcinomas had a distinctive genetic fingerprint, comprising activation of the K-ras oncogene and inactivation of the p 16 gene, generally also accompanied by alterations in the p53 gene (in 76 % of the tumors). The activation of K-ras appears nearly to be a prerequisite for the development of pancreatic carcinoma. Also, the binary alteration of K-ras and p16 is an extremely uncommon combination among other human tumor types. This particular genetic imprint of pancreatic carcinomas could have diagnostic utility in the evaluation of patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary origin. The evaluation of genetic alterations as they naturally occur in humantumors allows the formulation of hypotheses concerning the biological processes that involve human tumongenesis. A central tenet of tumori genesis, that positive selection is exerted upon those tumor cells that alterrate-limiting regulatory pathways, implies that mutation of one gene abrogates the need for inactivation of another gene in the same tumor suppressive pathway. It

  15. Biochemical properties of pancreatic colipase from the common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Pancreatic colipase is a required co-factor for pancreatic lipase, being necessary for its activity during hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the presence of bile salts. In the intestine, colipase is cleaved from a precursor molecule, procolipase, through the action of trypsin. This cleavage yields a peptide called enterostatin knoswn, being produced in equimolar proportions to colipase. Results In this study, colipase from the common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca (CoSPL was purified to homogeneity. The purified colipase is not glycosylated and has an apparent molecular mass of around 10 kDa. The NH2-terminal sequencing of purified CoSPL exhibits more than 55% identity with those of mammalian, bird or marine colipases. CoSPL was found to be less effective activator of bird and mammal pancreatic lipases than for the lipase from the same specie. The apparent dissociation constant (Kd of the colipase/lipase complex and the apparent Vmax of the colipase-activated lipase values were deduced from the linear curves of the Scatchard plots. We concluded that Stingray Pancreatic Lipase (SPL has higher ability to interact with colipase from the same species than with the mammal or bird ones. Conclusion The fact that colipase is a universal lipase cofactor might thus be explained by a conservation of the colipase-lipase interaction site. The results obtained in the study may improve our knowledge of marine lipase/colipase.

  16. Copper deficiency in rats increases pancreatic enkephalin-containing peptides and insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recant, L; Voyles, N R; Timmers, K I; Zalenski, C; Fields, M; Bhathena, S J

    1986-01-01

    Free enkephalins (enk) and higher molecular weight enkephalin-containing peptides (enk-c-p) are present in the endocrine pancreas of rats, presumably in B cells. To determine whether these opioid peptides show dynamic alterations as insulin content of pancreas changes, we utilized a copper deficient rat model, in which the exocrine pancreas atrophies and the endocrine pancreas is "intact" and insulin (IRI) content increases. Dietary copper deficiency (-C) was produced in weanling male rats for 4 and 7 weeks. The deficient and copper supplemented (+C) groups were further subdivided to receive all dietary carbohydrate as either 62% fructose (F) or 62% starch (S). -CF rats showed the most severe deficiency. After 7 weeks, total units of pancreatic IRI in -CF were 7.5 +CF 2.1, -CS 7.9 and in +CS 2.8 (p less than 0.001). Pancreatic content of Met5- and Leu5-enk was measured in extracts which were purified on C-18 Seppaks with and without prior treatment with trypsin and carboxypeptidase B. -C animals showed progressive, significant increases in pancreatic content of Leu-enk-c-p, with a decrease in free Leu- and Met-enk (p less than 0.02-0.01). The pancreatic findings are compatible with a co-localization of enkephalins and insulin in the endocrine pancreas and are suggestive of co-regulation. PMID:3550724

  17. Effects of tannic acid on trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase activities in gypsy moth larval midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of allelochemical stress on genetic variations in the specific activities of gypsy moth digestive enzymes (trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase and relative midgut mass (indirect measure of food consumption, as well as variability in their plasticity, were investigated in fifth instar gypsy moths originating from two populations with different trophic adaptations (oak and locust-tree forests. Thirty-two full-sib families from the Quercus population and twenty-six full-sib families from the Robinia population were reared on an artificial diet with or without supplementation with tannic acid. Between population differences were observed as higher average specific activity of trypsin and relative midgut mass in larvae from the Robinia population. Significant broad-sense heritabilities were observed for the specific activity of trypsin in the control state, and for specific activity of leucine aminopeptidase in a stressful environment. Significantly lower heritability for relative midgut mass was recorded in larvae from the Robinia population reared under stressful conditions. Significant variability of trypsin plasticity in larvae from both populations and significant variability of leucine aminopeptidase plasticity in larvae from the Robinia population point to the potential for the evolution of enzyme adaptive plastic responses to the presence of stressor. Non-significant across-environment genetic correlations do not represent a constraint for the evolution of enzyme plasticity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173027

  18. Influence of Tableting on the Conformation and Thermal Stability of Trypsin as a Model Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klukkert, Marten; Van De Weert, Marco; Fanø, Mathias;

    2015-01-01

    reversible upon tablet reconstitution. Aqueous-state IR spectroscopy combined with partial least squares was shown to be a powerful tool to follow irreversible structural changes and evaluate sample bioactivity. Besides its conformation, the thermal stability of trypsin was altered as a result of the applied...

  19. [Development of new soybean germplasm with null lipoxygenase and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fen-Xia; Ding, An-Lin; Sun, Jun-Ming; Li, Gui-Ying

    2005-04-01

    Soybean is one of the most important sources of plant protein for human. Soybean protein is a kind of high-quality protein composed of balanced amino acids, which contains all kinds of amino acids, especially 8 amino acids necessary for human. But it also contains some components that are not good for human and affect food quality, such as lipoxygenase (Lox) and trypsin inhibitor (Ti). Those are important anti-nutritious factors. Nutritional value and processing quality of soybean can be improved by means of development of new variety with null Lox and Ti. In this paper, new soybean germplasms that pyramided multiple genes of high quality, null lipoxygenase and trypsin inhibitor genes (Ix1, Ix2, Ix3 and ti) were developed by means of cross and biochemical marker-assisted selection of progenies for null lipoxygenase and trypsin inhibitor genes using known Lox and Ti markers (protein markers). Female parents were soybean varieties Ludou 4, Zhongpin 661, Yudou 8,91D15, wei8640 popularized in Huanghuaihai Plain. Male parents were varieties introduced from US, trypsin-inhibitor (Ti)-deficient varieties P. I. L83-4387 and near isogenic lines of varieties Century for lipoxygenase (Lox)-deficient genes, Century-2 (Ix2), Century-2.3 (Ix2Ix3) and Century-1.3 (Ix1 Ix3). These new germplasms will promote soybean breeding for improved quality production,and utilization. PMID:16011034

  20. Biochemical Characterization of An Arginine-Specific Alkaline Trypsin from Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Song Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we isolated a trypsin-producing strain DMN6 from the leather waste and identified it as Bacillus licheniformis through a two-step screening strategy. The trypsin activity was increased up to 140 from 20 U/mL through culture optimization. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with a molecular mass of 44 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the specific activity of purified enzyme is 350 U/mg with Nα-Benzoyl-l-arginine ethylester as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH for the trypsin are 65 °C and pH 9.0, respectively. Also, the enzyme can be significantly activated by Ba2+. This enzyme is relatively stable in alkaline environment and displays excellent activity at low temperatures. It could retain over 95% of enzyme activity after 180 min of incubation at 45 °C. The distinguished activity under low temperature and prominent stability enhance its catalytic potential. In the current work, the open reading frame was obtained with a length of 1371 nucleotides that encoded a protein of 456 amino acids. These data would warrant the B. licheniformis trypsin as a promising candidate for catalytic application in collagen preparation and leather bating through further protein engineering.

  1. Proteolytic Activation of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Coronavirus Spike Fusion Protein by Trypsin in Cell Culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicht, Oliver; Li, Wentao; Willems, Lione; Meuleman, Tom J; Wubbolts, Richard W; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Rottier, Peter J M; Bosch, Berend Jan

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) from clinical material in cell culture requires supplementation of trypsin. This may relate to the confinement of PEDV natural infection to the protease-rich small intestine of pigs. Our study focused on the role of protease activity on infec

  2. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications..., and 788.0 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 051079 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (b)(1... balsam, and 800 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  3. Trypsin inhibitors from Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum leaves involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ribeiro, S F F; Gonçalves, L S A; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Vasconcelos, I M; Gomes, V M

    2014-01-01

    Several plant organs contain proteinase inhibitors, which are produced during normal plant development or are induced upon pathogen attack to suppress the enzymatic activity of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we examined the presence of proteinase inhibitors, specifically trypsin inhibitors, in the leaf extract of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum inoculated with PepYMV (Pepper yellow mosaic virus). Leaf extract from plants with the accession number UENF 1624, which is resistant to PepYMV, was collected at 7 different times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h). Seedlings inoculated with PepYMV and control seedlings were grown in a growth chamber. Protein extract from leaf samples was partially purified by reversed-phase chromatography using a C2/C18 column. Residual trypsin activity was assayed to detect inhibitors followed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis to determine the N-terminal peptide sequence. Based on trypsin inhibitor assays, trypsin inhibitors are likely constitutively synthesized in C. baccatum var. pendulum leaf tissue. These inhibitors are likely a defense mechanism for the C. baccatum var. pendulum- PepYMV pathosystem. PMID:25501145

  4. New Insights into Rotavirus Entry Machinery: Stabilization of Rotavirus Spike Conformation Is Independent of Trypsin Cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Javier M.; Chichón, Francisco J.; Martín-Forero, Esther; González-Camacho, Fernando; Carrascosa, José L.; Castón, José R.; Luque, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The infectivity of rotavirus, the main causative agent of childhood diarrhea, is dependent on activation of the extracellular viral particles by trypsin-like proteases in the host intestinal lumen. This step entails proteolytic cleavage of the VP4 spike protein into its mature products, VP8* and VP5*. Previous cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) analysis of trypsin-activated particles showed well-resolved spikes, although no density was identified for the spikes in uncleaved particles; these data suggested that trypsin activation triggers important conformational changes that give rise to the rigid, entry-competent spike. The nature of these structural changes is not well understood, due to lack of data relative to the uncleaved spike structure. Here we used cryo-EM and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to characterize the structure of the uncleaved virion in two model rotavirus strains. Cryo-EM three-dimensional reconstruction of uncleaved virions showed spikes with a structure compatible with the atomic model of the cleaved spike, and indistinguishable from that of digested particles. Cryo-ET and subvolume average, combined with classification methods, resolved the presence of non-icosahedral structures, providing a model for the complete structure of the uncleaved spike. Despite the similar rigid structure observed for uncleaved and cleaved particles, trypsin activation is necessary for successful infection. These observations suggest that the spike precursor protein must be proteolytically processed, not to achieve a rigid conformation, but to allow the conformational changes that drive virus entry. PMID:24873828

  5. Understanding enzymic binding affinity : thermodynamics of binding of benzamidinium chloride inhibitors to trypsin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talhout, Reinskje

    2003-01-01

    Understanding enzymic binding affinity is of fundamental scientific importance as well as a prerequisite for structure-based drug design. In this study, the interactions of the serine proteinase trypsin with several artificial, benzamidinium-based inhibitors have been studied in aqueous solutions. I

  6. Enzyme separation techniques for the study of growth of cells from layers of bovine dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W A; Everett, M M; Freedman, J T; Feagans, W C; Cramer, J F

    1976-08-01

    Effects of the enzymes trypsin, papain, bromelains and ficin on bovine dental pulp tissue were studied. Minced or whole pulps were subjected to each enzyme at 17 degrees, 20 degrees and 37 degrees C for set time intervals, after which aliquots of supernatant fluid were removed for cell counts and viability tests. Pooled samples were subsequently cultured as monolayers in Eagle's MEM plus 10% calf serum. The dissociation characteristics were quite distinct for each enzyme, although quite similar between minced and whole pulp. A parallel histological study was made of the residual pulp tissue. Ficin was found to be the most suitable enzyme for future studies on the growth of isolated pulp cells from various layers of the bovine pulp, due to its even rate of cell removal, and the good initial viability and subsequent growth of the separated cells in monolayer culture. Further studies on ficin may show that it is more suitable for enzymatic separation of tissues generally than the more commonly used trypsin, a major advantage being its use in media containing Ca2+ and Mg2+.

  7. The Pancreatic lipase Gene is Associated with Marbling in Japanese Black Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Tanomura, Hideki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Muramatsu, Youji; Ohta, Takeshi; Kose, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takahisa

    2011-01-01

    Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat so-called Shimofuri is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The Pancreatic lipase (Pnlip) gene involved in energy income and fat regulation has been previously shown to be regarded as possible candidate for a rat Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) responsible for intramuscular fat content. It is located within the genomic region of a bovine QTL for marbling and thus was considered as a positional functional c...

  8. Hyperamylasaemia: pathognomonic to pancreatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Burden, Sam; Poon, Anna Sau Kuk; Masood, Kausar; Didi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    An 82-year-old woman, presented with a history of vomiting, abdominal mass and a significantly raised amylase, but no clinical evidence of pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasound and CT scans showed an ovarian tumour, and no evidence of pancreatitis—as is often associated with a raised amylase. The patient underwent bilateral ovariectomy and hysterectomy and made a good recovery.

  9. Pancreatic Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabar, Cinthya S; Winter, Jordan M

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is now the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States, yet advances in treatment options have been minimal over the past decade. In this review, we summarize the evaluation and treatments for this disease. We highlight molecular advances that hopefully will soon translate into improved outcomes. PMID:27546841

  10. Radioimmunoassay of pancreatic glucagon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents some of the problems and concepts related to the development of a radioimmunoassay of pancreatic glucagon. A specific derivatization of glucagon for raising specific anti-glucagon antisera is introduced, and special procedures for diminishing the non-specific effect are outlined. (G.T.H.)

  11. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fewer than 10 grams of fat. About 20 potato chips contain 10 grams of fat, so it takes discipline to make sure to stay within this range. Patients who have lost the ability to digest food will be prescribed pills containing pancreatic enzymes to help with digestion. They may also be ...

  12. Pancreatic and hepatobiliary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Andreas K; Herrmann, Ken; Eckel, Florian; Beer, Ambros J

    2011-01-01

    Morphology-based imaging modalities have replaced classical conventional nuclear medicine modalities for detection of liver or pancreatic lesions. With positron emission tomography and the glucose analog F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a sensitive and specific modality for the detection of hepatic metastases and extrahepatic tumor deposits from hepatocellular or pancreatic cancer is available. F-18 FDG PET can increase the accuracy of staging primary tumors of the liver or the pancreas, and can be used for response monitoring. Radiopharmaceuticals such as Ga-68 DOTATOC and F-18 DOPA allow the specific detection of neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors and their metastatic deposits. Hybrid scanners such as PET-CT integrate morphologic and metabolic information, and allow to increase the sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive imaging in many tumor entities. The development of specific radiopharmaceuticals and technical innovations such as SPECT-CT has increased the reliability of conventional scintigraphic imaging. This chapter focuses on the use of PET-CT in hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancers. PMID:21331938

  13. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity. An inset shows cancer cells spreading from the pancreas, through the blood and lymph system, to another ... abdomen that contains the intestines, stomach, and liver). Cancer may also have spread to ... pancreas or to lymph nodes. Stage IV pancreatic cancer. ...

  14. The influence of protein fractions from bovine colostrum digested in vivo and in vitro on human intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Alison J; Riley, Lisa G; Sheehy, Paul A; Wynn, Peter C

    2014-02-01

    Colostrum consists of a number of biologically active proteins and peptides that influence physiological function and development of a neonate. The present study investigated the biological activity of peptides released from first day bovine colostrum through in vitro and in vivo enzymatic digestion. This was assessed for proliferative activity using a human intestinal epithelial cell line, T84. Digestion of the protein fraction of bovine colostrum in vitro was conducted with the enzymes pepsin, chymosin and trypsin. Pepsin and chymosin digests yielded protein fractions with proliferative activity similar to that observed with undigested colostrum and the positive control foetal calf serum (FCS). In contrast trypsin digestion significantly (P<0·05) decreased colostral proliferative activity when co-cultured with cells when compared with undigested colostrum. The proliferative activity of undigested colostrum protein and abomasal whey protein digesta significantly increased (P<0·05) epithelial cell proliferation in comparison to a synthetic peptide mix. Bovine colostrum protein digested in vivo was collected from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in newborn calves fed either once (n=3 calves) or three times at 12-h intervals (n=3 calves). Digesta collected from the distal duodenum, jejunum and colon of calves fed once, significantly (P<0·05) stimulated cell proliferation in comparison with comparable samples collected from calves fed multiple times. These peptide enriched fractions are likely to yield candidate peptides with potential application for gastrointestinal repair in mammalian species. PMID:24433585

  15. Study on chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer using MRS and pancreatic juice samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang; Chao Ma; Zhuan Liao; Bing Tian; Jian-Ping Lu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the markers of pancreatic diseases and provide basic data and experimental methods for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. METHODS: There were 15 patients in the present study, among whom 10 had pancreatic cancer and 5, chronic pancreatitis. In all patients, pancreatic cancer or chronic pancreatitis was located on the head of the p-a-ncreas. Pathology data of all pa tients was confirmed by biopsy and surgery. Among the 10 patients with pancreatic cancer, 3 people had a medical history of longterm alcohol consumption. Of 5 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 4 men suffered from alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatic juice samples were obtained from patients by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Magnetic resonance spectroscopyn was performed on an 11.7-T scanner (Bruker DRX-500) using Call-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequences. The parameters were as follows: spectral width, 15 KHz; time domain, 64 K; number of scans, 512; and acquisition time, 2.128 s. RESULTS: The main component of pancreatic juice included leucine, iso-leucine, valine, lactate, alanine, acetate, aspartate, lysine, glycine, threonine, tyrosine, histidine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine. On performing 1D 1H and 2D total correlation spectroscopy, we found a triplet peak at the chemical shift of 1.19 ppm, which only appeared in the spectra of pancreatic juice obtained from patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. This triplet peak was considered the resonance of the methyl of ethoxy group, which may be associated with the metabolism of alcohol in the pancreas. CONCLUSION: The triplet peak, at the chemical shift of 1.19 ppm is likely to be the characteristic metabolite of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

  16. Secretin is not necessary for exocrine pancreatic development and growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Maria Dolors; Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Ernst, Stephen A; D'Alecy, Louis G; Nishijima, Ichiko; Williams, John A

    2011-11-01

    Adaptive exocrine pancreatic growth is mediated primarily by dietary protein and the gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK). Feeding trypsin inhibitors such as camostat (FOY-305) is known to induce CCK release and stimulate pancreatic growth. However, camostat has also been reported to stimulate secretin release and, because secretin often potentiates the action of CCK, it could participate in the growth response. Our aim was to test the role of secretin in pancreatic development and adaptive growth through the use of C57BL/6 mice with genetic deletion of secretin or secretin receptor. The lack of secretin in the intestine or the secretin receptor in the pancreas was confirmed by RT-PCR. Other related components, such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) receptors (VPAC(1) and VPAC(2)), were not affected. Secretin increased cAMP levels in acini from wild-type (WT) mice but had no effect on acini from secretin receptor-deleted mice, whereas VIP and forskolin still induced a normal response. Secretin in vivo failed to induce fluid secretion in receptor-deficient mice. The pancreas of secretin or secretin receptor-deficient mice was of normal size and histology, indicating that secretin is not necessary for normal pancreatic differentiation or maintenance. When WT mice were fed 0.1% camostat in powdered chow, the pancreas doubled in size in 1 wk, accompanied by parallel increases in protein and DNA. Camostat-fed littermate secretin and secretin receptor-deficient mice had similar pancreatic mass to WT mice. These results indicate that secretin is not required for normal pancreatic development or adaptive growth mediated by CCK.

  17. CT-Guided Pancreatic Percutaneous Fine-Needle Biopsy in Differential Diagnosis between Pancreatic Cancer and Chronic Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Carlucci; Alessandro Zerbi; Danilo Parolini; Sandro Sironi; Angelo Vanzulli; Carlo Staudacher; Agostino Faravelli; Paola Garancini; Alessandro del Maschio; Valerio di Carlo

    1989-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis is still difficult to establish. In 63 patients with suspected pancreatic neoplasm we performed: serum CA 19-9 assessment, abdominal ultrasound, CT scan and CT-guided pancreatic percutaneous fine-needle biopsy. The conclusive diagnosis was pancreatic cancer in 40 patients and chronic pancreatitis in 23 patients. With regard to the differential diagnosis, sensitivity and specificity were respectively 80% and ...

  18. Patient Derived Cancer Cell Lines in Identifying Molecular Changes in Patients With Previously Untreated Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Gemcitabine Hydrochloride-Based Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-18

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  19. Immunodetection of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in bovine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiuk, Izabela; Młynek, Krzysztof

    2015-07-01

    This study was aimed at identifying and determining the configuration of structures which contain the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the bovine pancreas. The study material was collected from 20 animals. The distribution of CART in the bovine pancreas was investigated, by an immunohistochemical evaluation. CART peptide in the normal pancreas has been identified in intrapancreatic ganglia, nerve fibres and in endocrine cells of Langerhans islets and exocrine pancreas. CART immunoreactive nerve fibres innervate the exocrine and endocrine regions and the intrapancreatic ganglia, where they form a moderate number of networks, encircling the cell bodies. The few CART-immunoreactive endocrine cells, that appear in the bovine pancreas, are not limited to the islet cells, where they form a subpopulation of CART-containing cells, but are also individually distributed in the exocrine region. Furthermore, CART has been visualized in nerve fibres, innervating pancreatic outlet ducts and blood vessels. CART plays a physiological role in the integrated mechanisms that regulate both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic secretion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that CART expression in nerve fibres and intrapancreatic ganglia is a common feature of the mammalian pancreas, whereas its expression in endocrine cells appears to be restricted to single cells of the bovine pancreas.

  20. Acute Pancreatitis: Surgery, Pathophysiology and Probiotic Prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, L.P. van

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a challenging disease with a clinical course that is often difficult to predict. In severe acute pancreatitis, mortality increases significantly if intestinal bacteria translocate from the intestine and infect pancreatic necrosis. Surgical and prophylactic treatment strategies

  1. Groove Pancreatitis: A Rare form of Chronic Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bharivi Jani; Fadi Rzouq; Shreyas Saligram; Atta Nawabi; Marian Nicola; Katie Dennis; Carly Ernst; Ali Abbaszadeh; John Bonino; Mojtaba Olyaee

    2015-01-01

    Context: Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis affecting the "groove" of the pancreas among the pancreatic head, duodenum, and common bile duct. The exact cause is unknown, although there are associations with long-term alcohol abuse, smoking, peptic ulcer disease, heterotopic pancreas, gastric resection, biliary disease, and anatomical or functional obstruction of the minor papilla. The diagnosis can be challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance chol...

  2. Role of pancreatic stellate cells in chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    McCarroll, Joshua A.; Naim, Stephanie; Sharbeen, George; Russia, Nelson; Lee, Julia; Kavallaris, Maria; Goldstein, David; Phillips, Phoebe A.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is highly chemoresistant. A major contributing factor is the characteristic extensive stromal or fibrotic reaction, which comprises up to 90% of the tumor volume. Over the last decade there has been intensive research into the role of the pro-fibrogenic pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and their interaction with pancreatic cancer cells. As a result of the significant alterations in the tumor microenvironment following activation of PSCs, tumor progression, and chemoresistanc...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging for acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is characterized by acute chemical injury of the pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissue. The increased frequency of death in acute pancreatitis is directly correlated with the degree and progress of pancreatic necrosis. Moreover, the occurrence of some local complications in acute pancreatitis, such as pancreatic hemorrhage, peripancreatic abscess or large pseudocyst, and pseudoaneurysm, could influence the choice of treatment for these patients. Magnetic resonance...

  4. Contemporary Management of Acute Biliary Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan Ozkan

    2014-01-01

    Acute biliary pancreatitis is one of the major causes of acute pancreatitis.Gallstones, biliary sludge and microlithiasis, especially in pancreatitis without detectable reason, can be the cause of acute pancreatitis. Acute biliary pancreatitis has many controversions in the literature, and its classification and guidelines are being updated very frequently. Atlanta classifications which determine the definitions and guidelines about acute pancreatitis were renewed and published in 2013. It ha...

  5. Molecular mechanisms of pancreatic stone formation in chronic pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru B.H. Ko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pancreatitis (CP is a progressive inflammatory disease in which the pancreatic secretory parenchyma is destroyed and replaced by fibrosis. The presence of intraductal pancreatic stone(s is important for the diagnosis of CP; however, the precise molecular mechanisms of pancreatic stone formation in CP were left largely unknown. CFTR is a chloride channel expressed in the apical plasma membrane of pancreatic duct cells and plays a central role in HCO3- secretion. In previous studies, we have found that CFTR is largely mislocalized to the cytoplasm of pancreatic duct cells in all forms of CP and corticosteroids normalizes the localization of CFTR to the proper apical membrane at least in autoimmune pancreatitis. From these observations, we could conclude that the mislocalization of CFTR is a cause of protein plug formation in CP, subsequently resulting in pancreatic stone formation.Considering our observation that the mislocalization of CFTR also occurs in alcoholic or idiopathic CP, it is very likely that these pathological conditions can also be treated by corticosteroids, thereby preventing pancreatic stone formation in these patients. Further studies are definitely required to clarify these fundamental issues.

  6. Pancreatic encephalopathy- a rare complication of severe acute biliary pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Denis Constantin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pancreatic encephalopathy is a rare complication of severe acute pancreatitis, with high mortality, being difficult to diagnose and treat, thus requiring continuous research regarding its management. Materials and Methods. Of 20 patients diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis on admission at Department of Emergency and Admission (DEA, from January 1st 2010 to March 31st 2014, 5 cases complicated by pancreatic encephalopathy were analyzed using a descriptive observational, retrospective, single-center study. Results. The study shows different types of diagnostic algorithm and therapeutical approaches, in correlation with morbidity and mortality rates. Conclusions. Our study highlighted the fact that speed is critical, early management being the key to outcome.

  7. Chronic pancreatitis: controversies in etiology, diagnosis and treatment Pancreatitis crónica: controversias respecto a la etiología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Draganov

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of idiopathic chronic pancreatitis remains poorly understood despite the high expectations for ascribing the pancreatic damage in affected patients to genetic defects. Mutations in the cationic trypsinogen gene, pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, and the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator gene do not account for the chronic pancreatitis noted in most patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Small duct chronic pancreatitis can be best diagnosed with a hormone stimulation test. Endoscopic ultrasonography can detect abnormalities in both the parenchyma and ducts of the pancreas. The true value of endoscopic ultrasonography in diagnosing small duct chronic pancreatitis remains to be fully defined and is under active investigation. It is not clear whether endoscopic ultrasonography is more sensitive for early structural changes in patients with small duct disease or is over diagnosing chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatic enzyme supplementation with non-enteric formulation along with acid suppression (H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors is an effective therapy for pain in patients with small duct chronic pancreatitis. The role of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided celiac plexus block should be limited to treating those patients with chronic pancreatitis whose pain has not responded to other modalities. Total pancreatectomy followed by autologous islet cell autotransplantation appears to be potential therapeutic approach but for now should be considered experimental.La patogenia de la pancreatitis crónica idiopática sigue siendo poco conocida, a pesar de las expectativas de atribuir el daño pancreático que sufren los pacientes con esta enfermedad a factores genéticos. Las mutaciones del gen del tripsinógeno catiónico, del gen del inhibidor de la tripsina secretoria del páncreas y del gen regulador de conductancia de la fibrosis quística no explican la pancreatitis crónica de la mayoría de los pacientes con

  8. Follicular pancreatitis: a distinct form of chronic pancreatitis-an additional mimic of pancreatic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajib K; Xie, Bill H; Patton, Kurt T; Lisovsky, Mikhail; Burks, Eric; Behrman, Stephen W; Klimstra, David; Deshpande, Vikram

    2016-02-01

    Follicular pancreatitis is a recently described variant of chronic pancreatitis characterized clinically by the formation of a discrete pancreatic mass and histologically by the presence of florid lymphoid aggregates with reactive germinal centers. Our aim was to study the clinical and histologic features of follicular pancreatitis, as well as to critically examine potential overlap with autoimmune pancreatitis. Immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2, CD21, κ and λ light chains as well as IgG4 and IgG were performed. We found a total of 6 patients (male-female ratio, 2:1; mean age, 57 years) who fulfilled the diagnosis of follicular pancreatitis in our institutions. Four had an incidental diagnosis, while two presented with abdominal pain, fatigue, and elevated liver enzymes. On imaging, 3 patients had a discrete solid mass, whereas 2 cases showed a dilated main pancreatic duct, mimicking an intraductal pancreatic mucinous neoplasm on imaging. One patient had a lesion in the intra-pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. On histopathology, all cases showed numerous lymphoid follicles with Bcl-2-negative germinal centers either in a periductal or in a more diffuse (periductal and intra-parenchymal) fashion, but without attendant storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, or granulocytic epithelial lesions. IgG4-to-IgG ratio was <40% in 5 cases. A comparison cohort revealed germinal centers in 25% of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis and 2% of type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis cases, but none were periductal in location. In conclusion, follicular pancreatitis, an under-recognized mimic of pancreatic neoplasms is characterized by intrapancreatic lymphoid follicles with reactive germinal centers. PMID:26563969

  9. Carbofuran-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizos E

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Carbamate insecticides are widely used in commercial agriculture and home gardening. A serious side effect of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication is the development of acute pancreatitis. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital with cholinergic crisis and pancreatitis soon after the ingestion of a carbamate insecticide (carbofuran. An abdominal CT scan disclosed pancreatic necrosis with intrapancreatic fluid collection, consistent with the development of a pancreatic pseudocyst in a subsequent CT scan. No predisposing factor for pancreatitis was evident. Pseudocholinesterase levels returned to normal 7 days later and the patient was discharged in good physical condition one month after admission. DISCUSSION: Although acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after organophosphate intoxication, it is quite rare after carbamate ingestion and has not been previously reported after carbofuran intoxication.

  10. A trypsin-like proteinase in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): purification, characterization, and host plant inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mina; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal Jalali

    2014-01-01

    A trypsin-like proteinase was purified and characterized in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae. A purification process that used Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies revealed a proteinase with specific activity of 66.7 μmol/min/mg protein, recovery of 27.04 and purification fold of 23.35. Molecular weight of the purified protein was found to be 35.8 kDa. Optimal pH and temperature were obtained 9 and 20°C for the purified trypsin proteinase, respectively. The purified enzyme was significantly inhibited by PMSF, TLCK, and SBTI as specific inhibitors of trypsins in which TLCK showed the highest inhibitory effect. Trypsin proteinase inhibitors were extracted from four varieties of pomegranate including Brait, Torsh-Sabz, May-Khosh, and Shirin by ion exchange chromatography. It was found that fractions 17-20 of Brait; fractions 18 and 21-26 of Torsh-Sabz; fractions 1-7, 11-17, and 19-21 of May-Khosh and fraction 8 for Shirin showed presence of trypsin inhibitor in these host. Comparison of their inhibitory effects on the purified trypsin proteinase of E. ceratoniae demonstrated that fractions from May-khosh variety had the highest effect on the enzyme among other extracted fractions. Characterization of serine proteinases of insects mainly trypsins is one of the promising methods to decrease population and damages via extracting their inhibitors and providing resistant varieties.

  11. Approaches Towards Endogenous Pancreatic Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Meenal; Kanitkar, Meghana; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of pancreatic regeneration in mammals has been well documented. It has been shown that pancreatic tissue is able to regenerate in several species of mammal after surgical insult. This tissue is also known to have the potential to maintain or increase its β-cell mass in response to metabolic demands during pregnancy and obesity. Since deficiency in β-cell mass is the hallmark of most forms of diabetes, it is worthwhile understanding pancreatic regeneration in the context of this...

  12. Genetic Susceptibility to Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Alison P

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited g...

  13. Acute pancreatitis complicating severe dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Vishakha Jain; O P Gupta; Tarun Rao; Siddharth Rao

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod borne viral infection endemic in tropical and subtropical continent. Severe dengue is life threatening. Various atypical presentations of dengue have been documented. But we present a rare and fatal complication of severe dengue in form of acute pancreatitis. A 27-year-old male had presented with severe dengue in decompensated shock and with pain in abdomen due to pancreatitis. The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in dengue is not clearly understood, but various mecha...

  14. Nutrition Support in Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Orestis Ioannidis; Athina Lavrentieva; Dimitrios Botsios

    2008-01-01

    The management of acute pancreatitis differs according to its severity. Approximately 75% of patients with acute pancreatitis have mild disease with a mortality rate below 1%. Mortality increases up to 20% if the disease progresses to its severe necrotizing form and, in the most severe cases, mortality can increase to 30-40%. Severe acute pancreatitis is usually accompanied by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which results in hypermetabolism with prominent protein catabolism. Ac...

  15. Helicobacter pylori and pancreatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bulajic, Milutin; Panic, Nikola; Löhr, Johannes Matthias

    2014-01-01

    A possible role for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in pancreatic diseases remains controversial. H. pylori infection with antral predomination leading to an increase in pancreatic bicarbonate output and inducing ductal epithelial cell proliferation could contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer via complex interactions with the ABO genotype, dietary and smoking habits and N-nitrosamine exposure of the host. Although the individual study data available so far is inconsiste...

  16. Pancreatic scintiphotography in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic scintiphotography was performed in 108 cases of patients with diabetes mellitus. Scintiphotos were taken at 30 min. after intravenous injection of approximately 200μCi of 75Se-selenomethionine using a Toshiba gamma camera. The relationship between the degree of pancreatic uptake of 75Se-selenomethionine and the types and duration of diabetes, vascular complications and the average range of fasting blood sugar levels were studied. In some cases, pancreatic scintiphotos were taken at 10, 30 and 50 min. after injection of 75Se-selenomethionine, and the degrees of the pancreatic uptake were compared on each time course. Only two out of 24 cases of insulin-dependent diabetics showed normal pancreatic scintiphotos. On the other hand, two out of 47 cases of mild diabetics treated with diet alone showed no uptake in pancreatic scintiphotos. There was a tendency toward abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos in chronic diabetics. Especially, of the 15 cases who had diabetes for more than eleven years, only one case showed a normal pancreatic scintiphoto. Abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos were found more frequently in the group of poorly controlled diabetics than in the group of well controlled diabetics. In cases showing normal pancreatic scintiphotos, diabetic retinopathy was less frequently found. Out of 36 cases which had sequential pancreatic scintiphotos, hypertension and/or arteriosclerosis were found more frequently in the 20 cases which showed a delay in reaching a plateau of the activity. However, the uptake in sequential pancreatic scintiphotos showed no definite correlation between diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic conditions. (auth.)

  17. Rapid Evolution from the First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis to Chronic Pancreatitis in Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Elie Aoun; Adam Slivka; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; David C. Whitcomb; Ferga C. Gleeson; Georgios I Papachristou

    2007-01-01

    Context Growing evidence suggests that recurrent acute pancreatitis leads to chronic pancreatitis, but this sequence is seldom reported in human subjects. The sentinel acute pancreatitis event hypothesis suggests that an initial episode of acute pancreatitis is the first step in a complicated series of events ultimately leading to chronic pancreatitis. Objective To identify patients who evolved from recurrent acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis. Setting The Severity of Acute Pancreatit...

  18. Physical-chemical characterization and stability study of alpha-trypsin at ph 3.0 by differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.M.C.; Santana, M.A.; Gomide, F.T.F.; Oliveira, J.S.; Vilas Boas, F.A.S.; Santoro, M.M.; Teixera, K.N. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas (ICB). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Miranda, A.A.C.; Biondi, I. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Vasconcelos, A.B.; Bemquerer, M.P. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Parque Estacao Biologica (PqEB)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: {alpha}-Trypsin is a serine-protease with a polypeptide chain of 223 amino acid residues and six disulfide bridges. It is a globular protein with predominance of antiparallel {beta}-sheet secondary structure and it has two domains with similar structures. In the present work, a stability study of {alpha}-trypsin in the acid pH range was performed and physical-chemical denaturation parameters were measured by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The {alpha}-trypsin has a shelf-life (t{sub 95%}) of about ten months at pH 3.0 and 4 deg C and its hydrolysis into the {psi}-trypsin isoform is negligible during six months as monitored by mass spectrometry (Micromass Q-ToF). The observed {delta}H{sub cal}/{delta}H{sub vH} ratio is close to unity for {alpha}-trypsin denaturation, which suggests the occurrence of a two-state transition, devoid of molten-globule intermediates. At pH 3.0, {alpha}-trypsin unfolded with T{sub m} 325.9 K and {delta}H= 99.10 kcal mol{sup -1}, and the change in heat capacity between the native and unfolded forms of the protein was estimated to be 1.96 {+-} 0.18 kcal mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}. The stability of {alpha}-trypsin calculated at 298 K and at pH 3.0 was {delta}G{sub U} = 6.10 kcal mol{sup -1}. These values are in the range expected for a small globular protein. These results show that the thermodynamic parameters for unfolding of {beta}-trypsin do not change substantially after its conversion to {alpha}-trypsin.

  19. A novel optical nanoprobe for trypsin detection and inhibitor screening based on Mn-doped ZnSe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A new fluorescence turn-on nanoprobe for detection of trypsin was reported. ► The method was based on the fluorescence quenching and recovery of Mn:ZnSe d-dots. ► Good sensitivity and selectivity were obtained for the determination of trypsin. ► Trypsin in human biological fluids was detected with satisfactory results. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel optical nanoprobe (Mn:ZnSe d-dots-Arg6) for trypsin detection and its inhibitor screening has been constructed successfully based on the fluorescence quenching and recovery of Mn:ZnSe d-dots. Mn:ZnSe d-dots would aggregate in the presence of positively charged Arg6 (six arginine residues) due to electrostatic interactions that result in the fluorescence quenching. Arg6 can be hydrolyzed into small fragments in the presence of trypsin, and accordingly, the aggregation of Mn:ZnSe d-dots can be prohibited, which lead to the fluorescence recovery. Experimental results show that the recovery in fluorescence intensity is linearly proportional to the concentration of trypsin within the range of 0.1–12.0 μg mL−1 with a detection limit of 40 ng mL−1 under the optimized experimental conditions. We also prove the feasibility of fluorescence recovery of Mn:ZnSe d-dots for trypsin detection through the resonance light scattering (RLS) technique. Additionally, the optical nanoprobe can be employed for screening the inhibitors of trypsin. The optical nanoprobe was successfully applied for the determination of trypsin in human serum and urine samples with good accuracy and satisfactory recovery.

  20. Environmental control of trypsin secretion in the midgut of the two-spotted field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, S; Huster, J; Hoffmann, K H; Woodring, J

    2012-11-01

    The two most important environmental factors controlling the release of trypsin in Gryllus bimaculatus are temperature and food consumption. Food consumption is in turn controlled by food availability (quantity), food quality (contained nutrients, inhibitors), developmental stage, age, sex and the daily light-dark cycle. The secretion of trypsin was higher at an acclimation temperature (AT) of 22°C than at 32°C, although the weight of caecal tissue and body weight were lower. The trypsin secretion at both experimental temperatures (25°C and 35°C) was almost 2 times greater in crickets maintained at 22°C AT since egg hatch than those maintained only since the last larval stage, but not at 32°C AT. Acclimation became increasingly rotational with increased exposure time at different rearing temperatures. The more food consumed the higher the trypsin secretion. Secretion was highest on day 3 in adult females and day 2 in males, corresponding to the day of maximal food consumption. Secretion was less than 20% in starved or cellulose fed females compared to those fed a control diet. Food reached the caeca in starved crickets within 30min and induced an increased trypsin secretion. Crickets started feeding at the onset of darkness, and trypsin secretion was significantly elevated near the end of the scotophase. The in vivo response to 0.4% soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) fed throughout the last larval stage resulted in reduced growth and a 50% decrease in trypsin secretion in 2day old adult females. An adaptation to the reduction of trypsin secretion occurred when G. bimaculatus was fed 0.1% and 0.2% SBTI, but not when fed with 0.4%. PMID:22985861

  1. Early management of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Nicolien J; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J; Bruno, Marco J

    2013-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the most common gastro-intestinal indication for acute hospitalization and its incidence continues to rise. In severe pancreatitis, morbidity and mortality remains high and is mainly driven by organ failure and infectious complications. Early management strategies should aim to prevent or treat organ failure and to reduce infectious complications. This review addresses the management of acute pancreatitis in the first hours to days after onset of symptoms, including fluid therapy, nutrition and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. This review also discusses the recently revised Atlanta classification which provides new uniform terminology, thereby facilitating communication regarding severity and complications of pancreatitis.

  2. An overview of hereditary pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebours, Vinciane; Lévy, Philippe; Ruszniewski, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare cause of chronic pancreatitis. The prevalence was evaluated to 0.3/100000 in Western Countries. Genetic disorders are due to mutations of the PRSS1 gene on the long arm of the chromosome 7, encoding for the cationic trypsinogen. The inheritance pattern is autosomal dominant with an incomplete penetrance (80%). Since 1996, more than 30 mutations were found. The three more common mutations are R122H, N29I and A16V. First symptoms begin since childhood, mainly before 10 years old. Main symptoms are pancreatic pain and acute pancreatitis (>70%). CP morphological changes as pancreatic calcifications are diagnosed at a median age of 22-25 years. Exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency occurred in 34% and 26% at a median age of 29 and 38 years. No clinical differences exist according to the mutation type. No excess of mortality in hereditary pancreatitis population compared to general population was found, despite a real risk of cancer. The cumulative risks of pancreatic cancer at 50, 60 and, 75 years are 10%, 18.7% and, 53.5%, respectively. The relative risk of cancer increases in smokers and is evaluated to 8.55. Hereditary pancreatitis diagnosis permits to propose an adapted management in expert centres.

  3. Helicobacter pylori and pancreatic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milutin; Bulajic; Nikola; Panic; Johannes; Matthias; L?hr

    2014-01-01

    A possible role for Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infec-tion in pancreatic diseases remains controversial. H. pylori infection with antral predomination leading to an increase in pancreatic bicarbonate output and induc-ing ductal epithelial cell proliferation could contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer via complex interactions with the ABO genotype, dietary and smok-ing habits and N-nitrosamine exposure of the host. Although the individual study data available so far is inconsistent, several meta-analyses have reported an increased risk for pancreatic cancer among H. pylori seropositive individuals. It has been suggested that H. pylori causes autoimmune pancreatitis due to molecu-lar mimicry between H. pylori a-carbonic anhydrase(a-CA) and human CA type Ⅱ, and between H. pylori plasminogen-binding protein and human ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 2, enzymes that are highly expressed in the pancreatic ductal andacinar cells, respectively. Future studies involving large numbers of cases are needed in order to examine the role of H. pylori in autoimmune pancreatitis more fully. Considering the worldwide pancreatic cancer burden, as well as the association between autoimmune pan-creatitis and other autoimmune conditions, a complete elucidation of the role played by H. pylori in the gen-esis of such conditions could have a substantial impact on healthcare.

  4. Dual core quantum dots for highly quantitative ratiometric detection of trypsin activity in cystic fibrosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló Serrano, Iván; Stoica, Georgiana; Matas Adams, Alba; Palomares, Emilio

    2014-10-01

    We present herein two colour encoded silica nanospheres (2nanoSi) for the fluorescence quantitative ratiometric determination of trypsin in humans. Current detection methods for cystic fibrosis diagnosis are slow, costly and suffer from false positives. The 2nanoSi proved to be a highly sensitive, fast (minutes), and single-step approach nanosensor for the screening and diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, allowing the quantification of trypsin concentrations in a wide range relevant for clinical applications (25-350 μg L-1). Furthermore, as trypsin is directly related to the development of cystic fibrosis (CF), different human genotypes, i.e. CF homozygotic, CF heterozygotic, and unaffected, respectively, can be determined using our 2nanoSi nanospheres. We anticipate the 2nanoSi system to be a starting point for non-invasive, easy-to-use and cost effective ratiometric fluorescent biomarkers for recessive genetic diseases like human cystic fibrosis. In a screening program in which the goal is to detect disease and also the carrier status, early diagnosis could be of great help.We present herein two colour encoded silica nanospheres (2nanoSi) for the fluorescence quantitative ratiometric determination of trypsin in humans. Current detection methods for cystic fibrosis diagnosis are slow, costly and suffer from false positives. The 2nanoSi proved to be a highly sensitive, fast (minutes), and single-step approach nanosensor for the screening and diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, allowing the quantification of trypsin concentrations in a wide range relevant for clinical applications (25-350 μg L-1). Furthermore, as trypsin is directly related to the development of cystic fibrosis (CF), different human genotypes, i.e. CF homozygotic, CF heterozygotic, and unaffected, respectively, can be determined using our 2nanoSi nanospheres. We anticipate the 2nanoSi system to be a starting point for non-invasive, easy-to-use and cost effective ratiometric fluorescent biomarkers for

  5. Analysis of trypsin inhibitors and lectins in white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Processor) in a combined method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, J P; de Groot, J

    1991-01-01

    Buffered saline extraction, affinity chromatography, and Folin-BSA protein assay were used consecutively to provide a combined method for analysis of trypsin inhibitors and lectins in white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Processor). The method was tested by following the decrease of both antinutritional factors by germination of the beans for 7 days at 20 degrees C. Repeatability coefficients of variation were 2-7.4% for the trypsin inhibitors and 2.2-10% for the lectins. After 7 days of germination, trypsin inhibitors and lectins were reduced by 72 and 92%, respectively. PMID:1757418

  6. Influence of black gram (Vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitory fraction on the hepatic protein catabolism in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, V; Sathyamoorthy, A V; Motlag, D B

    1984-01-01

    The effect of black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitor on the protein catabolism of male albino mice has been investigated. Group 1 was given autoclaved black gram (control), Group II raw black gram and Group III the autoclaved black gram incorporated with 1% black gram trypsin inhibitor. Blood as well as urinary urea and creatine were found to be elevated in Groups II and III. Increased levels of arginase, ornithine transcarbamylase and transaminases were noted in Groups II and III. The results suggested an enhanced catabolism of proteins evoked by the native black gram trypsin inhibitor.

  7. Pancreatic Cancer in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafim Kaltsas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 5-FU/LV: 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin; FOLFIRINOX: 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin; FOLFOX: 5-flouorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin; HA: hyaluronic acid; JAK: Janus kinase; MM-398: irinotecan sucrosofate; MPACT: Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Clinical Trial; PARP: poly (ADP-ribose polymerase; PEGPH: pegylated recombinant human hyaluronidase; PSCA: prostate stem cell antigen; SN-38: active metabolite of irinotecan; SPARC: secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine

  8. Post-partum pancreatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pai P; Shah H; Samsi A

    1993-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy and post-partum period, rarely encountered in surgical practice, can have a lethal effect on the mother and the foetus. We report here a case of a 35 year old tertigravida who presented with high grade fever, abdominal pain with distension, tachycardia and tachypnoea. Chest examination and X-rays were suggestive of pneumonia. The abdomen was tense and tender. Peristalsis was absent. Ultrasound revealed presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity which on paracent...

  9. Inhibitors of pancreatic lipase

    OpenAIRE

    Lunagariya, Nitin A.; Patel, Neeraj K.; Jagtap, Sneha C.; Bhutani, Kamlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a disorder of lipid metabolism and continues to be a global problem, ranking fifth for deaths worldwide. It also leads to diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, musculoskeletal disorders and some types of cancer. Obesity is regarded as the output of a long-term imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by pancreatic lipase, a major source of excess calorie intake, can be targeted for development of anti-obesity agents. Being the...

  10. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery.

  11. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery. PMID:8139793

  12. Pancreatic and peri-pancreatic lesions mimic pancreatic islet cell tumor in multidetector computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Hua-dan; LIU Wei; XIAO Yu; SUN Hao; WANG Xuan; LEI Jing; JIN Zheng-yu

    2011-01-01

    Objective This pictorial review aimed to summarize the most possible differential diagnosis of pancreatic islet cell tumor (PICT).Data sources Data used in this review were mainly from Medline and Pubmed in English. And all clinical images in this review were from Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.Study selection Cases of pancreatic cystadenoma, solid pseudo-papillary tumor of the pancreas, pancreatic metastasis, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, para-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, Castleman disease, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, splenic artery aneurysm and accessory spleen were selected in this pictorial review for differential diagnosis of PICT.Results Careful analysis of imaging features and correlation with the clinical manifestations may allow a more specific diagnosis. It is also important that the radiologist is familiar with the anatomic variants and disease entities which mimic pancreatic islet cell tumor in order to avoid an improper treatment protocol.Conclusions Many congenital anatomic variants or other pancreatic and peri-pancreatic diseases may mimic MDCT appearance of pancreatic islet cell tumor. Radiological, clinical and pathological characteristics should be considered for the final diagnosis.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Kraft, Matthias; Sielenkämper, Andreas W; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Lerch, Markus M

    2008-03-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are a well-known complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis, with a higher incidence in the latter. Diagnosis is accomplished most often by computed tomographic scanning, by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, or by ultrasound, and a rapid progress in the improvement of diagnostic tools enables detection with high sensitivity and specificity. Different strategies contribute to the treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts: endoscopic transpapillary or transmural drainage, percutaneous catheter drainage, or open surgery. The feasibility of endoscopic drainage is highly dependent on the anatomy and topography of the pseudocyst, but provides high success and low complication rates. Percutaneous drainage is used for infected pseudocysts. However, its usefulness in chronic pancreatitis-associated pseudocysts is questionable. Internal drainage and pseudocyst resection are frequently used as surgical approaches with a good overall outcome, but a somewhat higher morbidity and mortality compared with endoscopic intervention. We therefore conclude that pseudocyst treatment in chronic pancreatitis can be effectively achieved by both endoscopic and surgical means. This review entails publications referring to the classification of pancreatic pseudocysts, epidemiology, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic options for pancreatic pseudocysts. Only full articles were considered for the review. Based on a search in PubMed, the MeSH terms "pancreatic pseudocysts and classification," "diagnosis," and "endoscopic, percutaneous, and surgical treatment" were used either alone or in combination. PMID:18376299

  14. Psc-AFP, an antifungal protein with trypsin inhibitor activity from Psoralea corylifolia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingyong; Li, Jun; Wang, Xiaowen; Fang, Weiguo; Bidochka, Michael J; She, Rong; Xiao, Yuehua; Pei, Yan

    2006-07-01

    An antifungal protein designated as Psc-AFP, with an apparent molecular mass of 18kDa, was isolated from a traditional Chinese herb, malaytea scurfpea (Psoralea corylifolia L.). The isolation procedure entailed extraction, cation exchange chromatography on CM FF, gel filtration chromatography on Superdex 75 and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography on SOURCE 5RPC column. Automated Edman degradation determined the partial N-terminal sequence of Psc-AFP to be NH2-EWEPVQNGGSSYYMVPRIWA, which displayed homology with plant trypsin inhibitors. The protease inhibitor activity of Psc-AFP was then confirmed by the inhibition on trypsin. Psc-AFP at 10 microM inhibited the mycelial growth of Alternari brassicae, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia cerealis, suggesting that Psc-AFP has a role in the defense against pathogens.

  15. Kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis determined by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Ksenia; Trylska, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was applied to determine enzymatic activity and inhibition. We measured the Michaelis-Menten kinetics for trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of two substrates, casein (an insoluble macromolecule substrate) and Nα-benzoyl-dl-arginine β-naphthylamide (a small substrate), and estimated the thermodynamic parameters in the temperature range from 20 to 37°C. The inhibitory activities of reversible (small molecule benzamidine) and irreversible (small molecule phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and macromolecule α1-antitrypsin) inhibitors of trypsin were also determined. We showed the usefulness of ITC for fast and direct measurement of inhibition constants and half-maximal inhibitory concentrations and for predictions of the mechanism of inhibition. ITC kinetic assays could be an easy and straightforward way to estimate Michaelis-Menten constants and the effectiveness of inhibitors as well as to predict the inhibition mechanism. ITC efficiency was found to be similar to that of classical spectrophotometric enzymatic assays.

  16. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Bah, Clara Shui Fern [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand); Lin, Peng [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Tsao, Sai Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ng, Tzi Bun, E-mail: b021770@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of trypsin in dried blood importance for the neonatal detection of cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demonstration of very high levels of immunoreactive trypsin in the blood of newborn infants with cystic fibrosis has provided a new way of detecting the disease soon after birth. A radioimmunoassay of trypsin in the eluate of blood dried on filter paper has now been developed. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method, as well as the good correlation observed between the values obtained and those of the conventional plasma assay, indicate that it is reliable and well adapted to the newborn. The new assay can easily be inserted into the present system of neonatal disease detection. A preliminary assessment of more than 5000 tests enables the authors to report an early diagnosis of proven cystic fibrosis and to discuss an essential aspect of mass-detection methods: the indicence of false-positive results

  18. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  19. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...

  20. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  1. Why Ser and not Thr brokers catalysis in the trypsin fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Leslie A; Chen, Zhiwei; Gohara, David W; Vogt, Austin D; Pozzi, Nicola; Di Cera, Enrico

    2015-02-24

    Although Thr is equally represented as Ser in the human genome and as a nucleophile is as good as Ser, it is never found in the active site of the large family of trypsin-like proteases that utilize the Asp/His/Ser triad. The molecular basis of the preference of Ser over Thr in the trypsin fold was investigated with X-ray structures of the thrombin mutant S195T free and bound to an irreversible active site inhibitor. In the free form, the methyl group of T195 is oriented toward the incoming substrate in a conformation seemingly incompatible with productive binding. In the bound form, the side chain of T195 is reoriented for efficient substrate acylation without causing steric clash within the active site. Rapid kinetics prove that this change is due to selection of an active conformation from a preexisting ensemble of reactive and unreactive rotamers whose relative distribution determines the level of activity of the protease. Consistent with these observations, the S195T substitution is associated with a weak yet finite activity that allows identification of an unanticipated important role for S195 as the end point of allosteric transduction in the trypsin fold. The S195T mutation abrogates the Na(+)-dependent enhancement of catalytic activity in thrombin, activated protein C, and factor Xa and significantly weakens the physiologically important allosteric effects of thrombomodulin on thrombin and of cofactor Va on factor Xa. The evolutionary selection of Ser over Thr in trypsin-like proteases was therefore driven by the need for high catalytic activity and efficient allosteric regulation. PMID:25664608

  2. Chromosome G—banding in plants by inducing with trypsin and urea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENRUIYANG; WENQINSONG; 等

    1994-01-01

    Clear G-bands were revealed by applying the TUG method on chromosomes of 5 species of higher plants(Lilium davidii,Viciafaba,Hordeum vulgare,Ginkgo biloba and Triticum monococcum).Some details of the TUG method which consisted of treating chromosomes with both trypsin and urea were also studied.The mechanisms that might account for the presence of G-bands in plants were discussed.

  3. The epilatory effects of trypsin on human skin, applied via lecithin reverse micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Protopapa, E. E.; Xenakis, Aristotelis; Avramiotis, S.; Prodromou, E.V.; Koukaki, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method of epilation using reverse micelles containing the proteolytic enzyme, trypsin, is described based on previous experimental findings on degenerative effects of proteolytic enzymes on hair follicles and follicle stem cells of guinea pigs and mice. The method involves rubbing of the preparation on wax epilated skin and leads to removal of hair from various skin regions, such as face, shoulders, arms and legs. The many advantages of this method renders it the method of choice for hai...

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  5. Possible Involvement of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Hori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose in its early stage and is one of the most lethal human cancers. Thus, it is important to clarify its major risk factors, predictive factors and etiology. Here, we focus on fatty infiltration of the pancreas and suggest that it could be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Fatty infiltration of the pancreas is observed as ectopic adipocytes infiltrating the pancreatic tissue and is positively correlated with obesity and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which are risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, whether fatty infiltration is a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer has not been established. Recent clinical studies show there is a positive correlation between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas. Animal experimental studies also show an association between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Syrian golden hamsters, which are sensitive to chemical carcinogens in the pancreas, develop fatty infiltration of the pancreas with age. The combination of a high-fat diet and a chemical carcinogen that induces a K-ras mutation increases the severity of fatty infiltration of the pancreas. Thus, fatty infiltration of the pancreas is suggested to promote pancreatic carcinogenesis via a K-ras activating mutation. It is assumed that increased expression of adipokines and of inflammatory and proliferation-associated factors elicited by fatty infiltration of the pancreas may contribute to pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Accumulating evidence suggests that in addition to suppression of Ras activation, methods to modulate fatty infiltration in the pancreas can be considered as a strategy for preventing pancreatic cancer.

  6. Groove pancreatitis: A rare form of chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharivi Jani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis affecting the "groove" of the pancreas among the pancreatic head, duodenum, and common bile duct. The exact cause is unknown, although there are associations with long-term alcohol abuse, smoking, peptic ulcer disease, heterotopic pancreas, gastric resection, biliary disease, and anatomical or functional obstruction of the minor papilla. The diagnosis can be challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography are the preferred imaging modalities. The treatment of choice is conservative although surgical intervention can sometimes be required. Case Report: A 57-year-old male with a history of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B presented with 4 days of epigastric pain. Abdominal exam revealed absent bowel sounds and epigastric tenderness. He had a creatinine of 1.72 mg/dL, potassium of 2.9 mmol/L, and a normal lipase level of 86 U/L. Liver enzymes and total bilirubin were normal. Computed tomography abdomen showed high-grade obstruction of the second portion of the duodenum without any obvious mass. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a mass at the duodenal bulb causing luminal narrowing, with biopsies negative for malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the region of the pancreatic head and descending duodenum. EUS revealed a 3 cm mass in the region of pancreatic head with irregular borders and no vascular invasion. Fine needle aspiration (FNA was nondiagnostic. The patient then underwent a Whipple′s procedure. Pathology of these specimens was negative for malignancy but was consistent with para-duodenal or groove pancreatitis. Conclusion: The low incidence of groove pancreatitis is partly due to lack of familiarity with the disease. Groove pancreatitis should be considered in the differential for patients presenting with pancreatic head lesions and no cholestatic jaundice, especially when a duodenal obstruction

  7. Preparation and characterization of magnetic levan particles as matrix for trypsin immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic levan was synthesized by co-precipitating D-fructofuranosyl homopolysaccharide with a solution containing Fe2+ and Fe3+ in alkaline conditions at 100 °C. The magnetic levan particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetization measurements, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Afterwards, magnetic levan particles were functionalized by NaIO4 oxidation and used as matrices for trypsin covalent immobilization. Magnetite and magnetic levan particles were both heterogeneous in shape and levan–magnetite presented bigger sizes compared to magnetite according to SEM images. Magnetic levan particles exhibited a magnetization 10 times lower as compared to magnetite ones, probably, due to the coating layer. XRD diffractogram showed that magnetite is the dominant phase in the magnetic levan. Infrared spectroscopy showed characteristics absorption bands of levan and magnetite (O–H, C–O–C and Fe–O bonds). The immobilized trypsin derivative was reused 10 times and lost 16% of its initial specific activity only. Therefore, these magnetic levan particles can be proposed as an alternative matrices for enzyme immobilization. - Highlights: ► The magnetic levan particles presented larger size variation than magnetite particles due to the changes produced by coating. ► The utilization of magnetic levan particles showed to be efficacious for immobilization of enzymes as trypsin. ► Magnetic particles can be planned as other matrix for immobilization of biomolecule in various division processes in biotechnology.

  8. Preparation and characterization of magnetic levan particles as matrix for trypsin immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, J.C. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Andrad, P.L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, 50679-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Neri, D.F.M., E-mail: davidfmneri@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco, 56304-205 Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Carvalho, L.B. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, 50679-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Cardoso, C.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, PE (Brazil); Calazans, G.M.T. [Departamento de Antibioticos, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Albino Aguiar, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, 50679-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, M.P.C. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, 50679-901 Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Magnetic levan was synthesized by co-precipitating D-fructofuranosyl homopolysaccharide with a solution containing Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in alkaline conditions at 100 Degree-Sign C. The magnetic levan particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetization measurements, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Afterwards, magnetic levan particles were functionalized by NaIO{sub 4} oxidation and used as matrices for trypsin covalent immobilization. Magnetite and magnetic levan particles were both heterogeneous in shape and levan-magnetite presented bigger sizes compared to magnetite according to SEM images. Magnetic levan particles exhibited a magnetization 10 times lower as compared to magnetite ones, probably, due to the coating layer. XRD diffractogram showed that magnetite is the dominant phase in the magnetic levan. Infrared spectroscopy showed characteristics absorption bands of levan and magnetite (O-H, C-O-C and Fe-O bonds). The immobilized trypsin derivative was reused 10 times and lost 16% of its initial specific activity only. Therefore, these magnetic levan particles can be proposed as an alternative matrices for enzyme immobilization. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic levan particles presented larger size variation than magnetite particles due to the changes produced by coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The utilization of magnetic levan particles showed to be efficacious for immobilization of enzymes as trypsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic particles can be planned as other matrix for immobilization of biomolecule in various division processes in biotechnology.

  9. Radio-immuno-assay for trypsin in newborn-screening for cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 4,956 infants the concentration of immunoreactive trypsin was measured in dried blood on filter paper using a double antibody radioimmuno assay. About 90% of all results were below 40 ng/ml. In 13 infants the concentration of immunoreactive trypsin exceeded 80 ng/ml. These infants were examined clinically, including sweationtophoresis. We found three children suffering from cystic fibrosis. One further child showing an elevated concentration of chloride in the sweat (60 mval/ml) could not be reexamined. The concentration of immunoreactive trypsin in the cystic fibrosis children was 230, 297, and in one case 108 ng/ml at the 76th day of life, whereas the values for the 9 other children were between 80 and 154 ng/ml. We believe these results justify to use this test for a much higher number of infants, especially because it is inexpensive and can easily be added to existing newborn screening programs for inborn errors of metabolism. (orig.)

  10. Immobilization of trypsin on miniature incandescent bulbs for infrared-assisted proteolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Huimin; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang, E-mail: gangchen@fudan.edu.cn

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Trypsin was immobilized on miniature incandescent bulbs via chitosan coating. • The bulbs acted as enzymatic reactors and the generators of infrared radiation. • The bulb bioreactors were successfully employed in infrared-assisted proteolysis. • The proteolysis could accomplish within 5 min with high sequence coverages. - Abstract: A novel efficient proteolysis approach was developed based on trypsin-immobilized miniature incandescent bulbs and infrared (IR) radiation. Trypsin was covalently immobilized in the chitosan coating on the outer surface of miniature incandescent bulbs with the aid of glutaraldehyde. When an illuminated enzyme-immobilized bulb was immersed in protein solution, the emitted IR radiation could trigger and accelerate heterogeneous protein digestion. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were demonstrated by the digestion of hemoglobin (HEM), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), lysozyme (LYS), and ovalbumin (OVA) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS with the sequence coverages of 91%, 77%, 80%, and 52% for HEM, Cyt-c, LYS, and OVA (200 ng μL{sup −1} each), respectively. The suitability of the prepared bulb bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum.

  11. Physico-Chemical and Antifungal Properties of Trypsin Inhibitor from the Seeds of Mucuna Pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Chandrashekharaiah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trypsin inhibitor has been purified to apparent homogeneity from the seeds of Mucuna pruriens employing ammonium sulfate fractionation, cation exchange chromatography on CMcellulose and gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The purified Mucuna pruriens trypsin inhibitor (MPTI showed a specific inhibitor activity of 474.66, fold purity of 99.51 and the yield obtained was 22.08%. The homogeneity of the purified preparation was confirmed by PAGE, IEF and SDS–PAGE. The molecular weight determined by gel-permeation chromatography and SDS–PAGE were 12 and 11.6 kDa respectively. The pI of MPTI was found to be 5.6 ± 0.05. MPTI was found to be stable at all temperatures lying between 0 and 90 ºC and pH 2.0 – 10 and hence exhibited high stability. The MPTI was inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin showing the double headed nature. Antifungal studies showed inhibitory activity of MPTI against Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viridae.

  12. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  13. Beer and its Non-Alcoholic Compounds: Role in Pancreatic Exocrine Secretion, Alcoholic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Feick

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available : In this article we provide an overview of the newest data concerning the effect of non-alcoholic constituents of alcoholic beverages, especially of beer, on pancreatic secretion, and their possible role in alcoholic pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma. The data indicate that non-alcoholic constituents of beer stimulate pancreatic enzyme secretion in humans and rats, at least in part, by direct action on pancreatic acinar cells. Some non-alcoholic compounds of beer, such as quercetin, resveratrol, ellagic acid or catechins, have been shown to be protective against experimentally induced pancreatitis by inhibiting pancreatic secretion, stellate cell activation or by reducing oxidative stress. Quercetin, ellagic acid and resveratrol also show anti-carcinogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. However, beer contains many more non-alcoholic ingredients. Their relevance in beer-induced functional alterations of pancreatic cells leading to pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in humans needs to be further evaluated.

  14. Molecular characteristics of pancreatic carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorstra, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is a very aggressive disease with a high mortality rate. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries, despite the fact this cancer accounts for only about 3% of all malignant tumors. Most pancreatic cancers (appr

  15. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Ooijen (Baan)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe specific aim of the present study was to investigate whether eicosanoids play a role in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Because of the limited number of patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to the hospital each year, as well as the practical difficulties encountered in studying

  16. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma pathology : changing "landscape"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hackeng, Wenzel M; Offerhaus, G Johan; Hruban, Ralph H; Wood, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease. At time of diagnosis the disease is usually advanced and only a minority of patients are eligible for surgical resection. The overall 5-year survival is 6%. However, survival of patients with early stage pancreatic cancer is significantly better. To improv

  17. Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available WHIPPLE PROCEDURE FOR PANCREATIC CANCER UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND MEDICAL CENTER BALTIMORE, MD January 7, 2008 00:00:11 ANNOUNCER: This year, an estimated 37,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer will be diagnosed in this country. Since there ...

  18. Surgery for pancreatic cancer -- discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. Pancreatic surgery is done to treat cancer of the pancreas gland. When You Are in the Hospital All ... Claudius C, Lillemoe KD. Palliative Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer. In: Cameron ... Vickers SM. Exocrine Pancreas. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, ...

  19. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Ilaria; Falasca, Marco

    2015-11-23

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  1. Pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debra Ouyang; Deepti Dhall; Run Yu

    2011-01-01

    Pathologic hyperplasia of various pancreatic endocrine cells is rare but has been long known. β cell hyperplasia contributes to persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, which is commonly caused by mutations in the islet ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and to noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia in adults,which may or may not be associated with bariatric surgery.α cell hyperplasia may cause glucagonoma syndrome or induce pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. An inactivating mutation of the glucagon receptor causes α cell hyperplasia and asymptomatic hyperglucagonemia.Pancreatic polypeptide cell hyperplasia has been described without a clearly-characterized clinical syndrome and hyperplasia of other endocrine cells inside the pancreas has not been reported to our knowledge.Based on morphological evidence, the main pathogenetic mechanism for pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia is increased endocrine cell neogenesis from exocrine ductal epithelium. Pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia should be considered in the diagnosis and management of hypoglycemia, elevated islet hormone levels,and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Further studies of pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia will likely yield insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  2. Acute pancreatitis after a course of clarithromycin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenberg, B.J.J.W.; Deinum, J.

    2003-01-01

    We present a case of acute pancreatitis after a course of clarithromycin. An 84-year-old woman died of suspected pneumonia and cardiac failure. Autopsy surprisingly revealed acute pancreatitis. Except for the use of clarithromycin no other cause for her acute pancreatitis was obvious. Pancreatitis i

  3. Screening and purification of a novel trypsin inhibitor from Prosopis juliflora seeds with activity toward pest digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Franco, O L; Tagliari, P D; Bloch, C; Mohan, M; Thayumanavan, B

    2005-08-01

    Several pests are capable of decreasing crop production causing severe economical and social losses. Aiming to find novel molecules that could impede the digestion process of different pests, a screening of alpha-amylase and trypsin-like proteinase inhibitors was carried out in Prosopis juliflora, showing the presence of both in dry seeds. Furthermore, a novel trypsin inhibitor, with molecular mass of 13,292 Da, was purified showing remarkable in vitro activity against T. castaneum and C. maculatus.

  4. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran;

    2014-01-01

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...... food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids...

  5. [Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M

    2008-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids.

  6. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  7. Mouse models of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Herreros-Villanueva; Elizabeth Hijona; Angel Cosme; Luis Bujanda

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal of human malignancies ranking 4th among cancer-related death in the western world and in the United States,and potent therapeutic options are lacking.Although during the last few years there have been important advances in the understanding of the molecular events responsible for the development of pancreatic cancer,currently specific mechanisms of treatment resistance remain poorly understood and new effective systemic drugs need to be developed and probed.In vivo models to study pancreatic cancer and approach this issue remain limited and present different molecular features that must be considered in the studies depending on the purpose to fit special research themes.In the last few years,several genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic exocrine neoplasia have been developed.These models mimic the disease as they reproduce genetic alterations implicated in the progression of pancreatic cancer.Genetic alterations such as activating mutations in KRas,or TGFb and/or inactivation of tumoral suppressors such as p53,INK4A/ARF BRCA2 and Smad4 are the most common drivers to pancreatic carcinogenesis and have been used to create transgenic mice.These mouse models have a spectrum of pathologic changes,from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to lesions that progress histologically culminating in fully invasive and metastatic disease and represent the most useful preclinical model system.These models can characterize the cellular and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasia and cancer and constitute the best tool to investigate new therapeutic approaches,chemopreventive and/or anticancer treatments.Here,we review and update the current mouse models that reproduce different stages of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and will have clinical relevance in future pancreatic cancer developments.

  8. Individual susceptibility to alcoholic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Minoti V; Pirola, Romano C; Wilson, Jeremy S

    2008-03-01

    The observation that only a minority of heavy drinkers develop pancreatitis has prompted an intensive search for a trigger factor/cofactor/susceptibility factor that may precipitate a clinical attack. Putative susceptibility factors examined so far include diet, smoking, amount and type of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking and lipid intolerance. In addition, a range of inherited factors have been assessed including blood group antigens, human leukocyte antigen serotypes, alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes and several genotypes. The latter group comprises mutations/polymorphisms in genes related to alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, pancreatic digestive enzymes, pancreatic enzyme inhibitors, cystic fibrosis and cytokines. Disappointingly, despite this concerted research effort, no clear association has been established between the above factors and alcoholic pancreatitis. Experimentally, the secretagogue cholecystokinin (CCK) has been investigated as a candidate 'trigger' for alcoholic pancreatitis. However, the clinical relevance of CCK as a trigger factor has to be questioned, as it is difficult to envisage a situation in humans where abnormally high levels of CCK would be released into the circulation to trigger pancreatitis in alcoholics. In contrast, bacterial endotoxemia is a candidate cofactor that does have relevance to the clinical situation. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin) levels are significantly higher in drinkers (either after chronic alcohol intake or a single binge) compared to non-drinkers. We have recently shown that alcohol-fed animals challenged with otherwise innocuous doses of LPS exhibit significant pancreatic injury. Moreover, repeated LPS exposure in alcohol-fed rats leads to progressive injury to the gland characterized by significant pancreatic fibrosis. These studies support the concept that endotoxin may be an important factor in the initiation and progression of alcoholic pancreatitis. Scope remains for

  9. Pancreatic microcirculatory impairment in experimental acute pancreatitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Guang Zhou; You-Dai Chen; Wei Sun; Zhong Chen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the feature of pancreatic microcirculatoryimpairment, especially the initial changes, in caerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: The pancreatic microcirculation of caerulein-induced AP model was studied by intravital fluorescencemicroscopy with FITC-labeled erythrocytes (FITC-RBC),scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts,and light microscopy of Chinese ink-injected/cleared tissues.RESULTS: Animals in caerulein-treated group showedhyperamylemia (× 2), pancreatic oedema, infiltration ofinflammatory cells in pancreas. Constrictions of intralobulararteriolar sphincters, presence of vacuoles in all layers ofsphincter, and gross irregularity in capillary network of aciniwere found in the AP specimens. The decrease of pancreaticcapillary blood flow (0.34±0.10 nl @ min-1 vs0.910.06 nl @rain-1 of control, P<0.001), reduction of functional capillarydensity(277± 13 cm-1 vs349±8 cm-1 of control, P<0.001),and irregular intermittent perfusion were observed incaerulein-induced groups.CONCLUSION: Impairment and constriction of pancreaticintralobular arteriolar sphincter are the initial microcirculatorylesions in the early phase of acute pancreatitis, and play akey role in the pancreatic ischaemia and pancreaticmicrovascular failure in acute pancreatitis.

  10. Evaluation of pancreatic scintigram in the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classification of accumulative patterns with the pancreatic scintigram findings of chronic pancreatitis and carcinoma of the pancreas were compared with endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) findings and Pancreozymin-Secretin test (P-S test). I) The frequency of pancreatic cancer was 93%, whilst, the chronic pancreatitis was 88% in the abnormal pancreatic scintigram. II) In the scintigram the type II (localyzed defect shadows) of pancreatic cancer was comparatively high and it is proportional to evidence. derived from ERP. Localized diagnostic certainty is helpful, although the two tests are related. The P-S test is only restricted to the carcinoma of head, whilst, scintigram is more useful to detect the carcinoma of the body and tail of the pancreas. III) As for the chronic pancreatitis, there are various accumulative patterns. This is resemblance to that of ERP findings, but in the P-S normal test, it showed discrepancy in part of the result. Particularly, in the type I (slightly generalized low uptake with density silhouette) and type II. Therefore in order to obtain an accurate diagnosis, it is essential to have both the P-S test and scintigram. (author)

  11. Dexamethasone mediates protection against acute pancreatitis via upregulation of pancreatitis-associated proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Kandil, Emad; Lin, Yin-yao; Bluth, Martin H; Zhang, Hong; Levi, Gabriel; Zenilman, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the influence of dexamethasone on pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) gene expression using both in vitro and in vivo models of acute pancreatitis and to study how PAP gene expression correlates with severity of pancreatitis.

  12. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, Alberto; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreatitis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis. There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation, hereditary a...

  13. Imaging in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile D. Balaban; Andrei M. Lungu; Dragoș Cuzino; Săndica Bucurică; Bogdan Macadon; Mihăiță Pătrășescu; Raluca S. Costache; Petruț Nuță; Constantin Ştefani; Florentina Ioniță-Radu; Mariana Jinga

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by progressive and irreversible damage of the pancreatic parenchyma and ductal system, which leads to chronic pain, loss of endocrine and exocrine functions. Clinically, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency becomes apparent only after 90% of the parenchima has been lost. Despite the simple definition, diagnosing chronic pancreatitis remains a challenge, especially for early stage disease. Because pancreatic function tests can be normal until l...

  14. Detecting Early Pancreatic Cancer- Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Chari, Suresh T.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis. Improving survival will require diagnosis of early pancreatic cancer which can be defined based on resectability, size or curability. Pancreatic cancer progresses from non-invasive precursor lesions to invasive cancer over a variable time period. Retrospective review of CT scans done prior to diagnosis suggests that pancreatic cancer resectability may be significantly improved if detected as few as 6 months before clinical diagnosis. Since pancreatic ca...

  15. Contrast-enhanced sonography in pancreatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickes, Steffen [Department of Internal Medicine, AMEOS Hospital GmbH, Halberstadt (Germany); Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg (Germany)], E-mail: rickes@medkl.salvator-kh.de; Rauh, Peter; Uhle, Christine; Ensberg, Daniel [Department of Internal Medicine, AMEOS Hospital GmbH, Halberstadt (Germany); Moenkemueller, Klaus; Malfertheiner, Peter [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Contrast-enhanced sonography is a widely available imaging modality for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. With this procedure, pancreatic tumours can be differentiated better. Furthermore, contrast-enhanced sonography produces good results in the staging of acute pancreatitis severity, especially in the detection of pancreatic necrosis. In this review article the value of contrast-enhanced sonography in the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases will be described and discussed.

  16. Alcoholic pancreatitis:Lessons from the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dahn; L; Clemens; Katrina; J; Mahan

    2010-01-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and pancreatitis has been recognized for over 100 years. Despite the fact that this association is well recognized, the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse leads to pancreatic tissue damage are not entirely clear. Alcohol abuse is the major factor associated with pancreatitis in the Western world. Interestingly, although most cases of chronic pancreatitis and many cases of acute pancreatitis are associated with alcohol abuse, only a small percentage of individuals w...

  17. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer

  18. Pancreatic function testing:Here to stay for the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John G Lieb II; Peter V Draganov

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) is based on the detection of abnormal structure or function of the diseased pancreas.The pancreatic function tests more accurately determine the presence of CP than tests of structure,especially for early stage disease.The function tests can be divided into two categories:noninvasive and invasive.The invasive "tube" tests can reliably detect mild,early CP,but are only available at a few referral centers and tend to be poorly tolerated by patients.The non-invasive tests are easy to obtain,but tend to perform poorly in patients with early,mild disease.Therefore,no one test is useful in all clinical situations,and a detailed understanding of the rational,pathophysiologic basis,strengths,and limitations of various tests is needed.This review highlights the role of various pancreatic function tests in the diagnosis of CP including fecal fat analysis,fecal elastase,fecal chymotrypsin,serum trypsin,the secretin stimulation test,the cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulation test,the combined secretin-CCK stimulation test,the intraductal and endoscopic secretin stimulation tests,and the functional magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas after secretin stimulation.

  19. 14.2.Pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930325 A clinical study on a lipid—based sys-tem of parenteral nutrition in acute pancreati-tis.ZHU Jiangfan (朱江帆),et al.Dept Hepato-bill Surg,lst Teach Hosp,3rd Milit Med Coll.Chin J Digest 1992;12(4):195—197.A controlled prospective study on a lipid-based system of parenteral nutrition has beencarried out in patients with acute pancreatitis.The results show that the patients’ positive ni-trogen balance can be obtained and the visceralproteins can be maintained within normal range

  20. Metronidazole-induced pancreatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Halloran, E

    2010-01-01

    A 25-year-old caucasian lady presented to the Accident & Emergency department complaining of acute onset severe epigastric pain radiating through to the back with associated nausea and vomiting. A diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was made. Symptoms commenced after the third dose of Metronidazole therapy prescribed for a recurrent periodontal abscess. The patient described a similar episode 10 months previously. On neither occasion were any other medications being taken, there was no history of alcohol abuse and no other gastro-intestinal aetiology could be identified on imaging. Symptoms resolved quickly upon discontinuation of the antibiotic agent. We conclude therefore that Metronidazole can reasonably be identified as the only potential causative agent.

  1. Pancreatic islet transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa-Giannella Maria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No formulation of exogenous insulin available to date has yet been able to mimic the physiological nictemeral rhythms of this hormone, and despite all engineering advancements, the theoretical proposal of developing a mechanical replacement for pancreatic β cell still has not been reached. Thus, the replacement of β cells through pancreas and pancreatic islet transplantation are the only concrete alternatives for re-establishing the endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetic patients. Since only 1 to 1.5% of the pancreatic mass corresponds to endocrine tissue, pancreatic islets transplantation arises as a natural alternative. Data from the International Islet Transplant Registry (ITR from 1983 to December 2000 document a total of 493 transplants performed around the world, with progressively worse rates of post-transplant insulin independence. In 2000, the "Edmonton Protocol" introduced several modifications to the transplantation procedure, such as the use of a steroid-free immunosuppression regimen and transplantation of a mean islet mass of 11,000 islet equivalents per kilogram, which significantly improved 1-year outcomes. Although the results of a 5-year follow-up in 65 patients demonstrated improvement in glycemic instability in a significant portion of them, only 7.5% of the patients have reached insulin independence, indicating the need of further advances in the preservation of the function of transplanted islet. In addition to the scarcity of organs available for transplantation, islets transplantation still faces major challenges, specially those related to cell loss during the process of islet isolation and the losses related to the graft site, apoptosis, allorejection, autoimmunity, and immunosuppression. The main strategies to optimize islet transplantation aim at improving all these aspects. Conclusion Human islet transplantation should be regarded as an intervention that can decrease the frequency of

  2. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keita; Takaori, Kyoichi; Traverso, L William

    2015-10-01

    Neither extended surgery nor extended indication for surgery has improved survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. According to autopsy studies, presumably 90% are metastatic. The only cure is complete removal of the tumor at an early stage before it becomes a systemic disease or becomes invasive. Early detection and screening of individuals at risk is currently under way. This article reviews the evidence and methods for screening, either familial or sporadic. Indication for early-stage surgery and precursors are discussed. Surgeons should be familiar with screening because it may provide patients with a chance for cure by surgical resection.

  3. Clinical Impact of the KL-6 Concentration of Pancreatic Juice for Diagnosing Pancreatic Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuya Matsumoto; Yohei Takeda; Kenichi Harada; Takumi Onoyama; Soichiro Kawata; Yasushi Horie; Teruhisa Sakamoto; Masaru Ueki; Norimasa Miura; Yoshikazu Murawaki

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Pancreatic juice cytology (PJC) is considered optimal for differentially diagnosing pancreatic masses, but the accuracy of PJC ranges from 46.7% to 93.0%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of measuring the KL-6 concentration of pancreatic juice for diagnosing pancreatic masses. Methods. PJC and the KL-6 concentration measurements of pancreatic juice were performed for 70 consecutive patients with pancreatic masses (39 malignancies and 31 benign). Re...

  4. Is Zinc Concentration in Pancreatic Fluid a Marker for Pancreatic Diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Surakit Pungpapong; James S Scolapio; Timothy A. Woodward; Wallace, Michael B.; Massimo Raimondo

    2005-01-01

    Objectives An imbalance of free radicals and scavenging processes has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic tissue injury. Gradual decreases in antioxidant enzyme expression in pancreatic cells from normal pancreas to chronic pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer have been reported. Zinc is one of the components of antioxidant enzymes and may play a role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic diseases. A recent report showed a significant decrease in pancreatic zinc output in patients with...

  5. Update on Endoscopic Management of Main Pancreatic Duct Stones in Chronic Calcific Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun Kwang; Lehman, Glen A.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic duct stones are a common complication during the natural course of chronic pancreatitis and often contribute to additional pain and pancreatitis. Abdominal pain, one of the major symptoms of chronic pancreatitis, is believed to be caused in part by obstruction of the pancreatic duct system (by stones or strictures) resulting in increasing intraductal pressure and parenchymal ischemia. Pancreatic stones can be managed by surgery, endoscopy, or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. ...

  6. Activation of Pancreatic Stellate Cells in Human and Experimental Pancreatic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, Paul S; Keogh, Gregory W.; Apte, Minoti V.; Moran, Corey S.; Stewart, Nancy L.; Crawford, Darrell H.G.; Pirola, Romano C.; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; Ramm, Grant A; Wilson, Jeremy S.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms of pancreatic fibrosis are poorly understood. In the liver, stellate cells play an important role in fibrogenesis. Similar cells have recently been isolated from the pancreas and are termed pancreatic stellate cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether pancreatic stellate cell activation occurs during experimental and human pancreatic fibrosis. Pancreatic fibrosis was induced in rats (n = 24) by infusion of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into the pancreatic duc...

  7. Genetic ontogeny of pancreatic enzymes in Labrus bergylta larvae and the effect of feed type on enzyme activities and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Truls Wergeland; Folkvord, Arild; Grøtan, Espen; Sæle, Øystein

    2013-03-01

    A newly cultivated wrasse species, Labrus bergylta, have shown great potential for use in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms in the battle against sea lice (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) infections. Hatchery reared L. bergylta were studied from 2 to 55 DPH to examine the molecular basis of digestive ontogeny related to the pancreas. An isolated feeding trial was performed on 27-34 DPH larvae to compare the effect of diet on enzyme activity and the possible exogenous contribution by live feed. The following genes coding for key pancreatic enzymes were analyzed by qPCR: trypsin, Cyp7 A1, BAL, sPLA(2) 1B, amylase and pancreatic chitinase. Enzyme activity was measured on trypsin, neutral lipase, sPLA(2), amylase and chitinase in fed and unfed larvae. We did not observe any effects of the formulated diet v.s. rotifers on enzyme activities of neutral lipase, chitinase and sPLA(2). However, a probable feed-dependency was observed at a transcriptional level, where rotifers seem to stimulate upregulation. The regulation of BAL was the only exception, where an upregulation was observed after weaning both in the ontogeny series and the experimental part. Our data on pancreatic chitinase and amylase mRNA levels suggest the importance of carbohydrates in the diet of early larval and juvenile L. bergylta.

  8. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandy, Debashis; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata, E-mail: mukhopadhyay.debabrata@mayo.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Guggenheim 1321C, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2011-02-24

    Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

  9. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed

  10. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF-VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis.

  11. Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslav Zavoral; Petra Minarikova; Filip Zavada; Cyril Salek; Marek Minarik

    2011-01-01

    In spite of continuous research efforts directed at early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer, the outlook for patients affected by the disease remains dismal. With most cases still being diagnosed at advanced stages, no improvement in survival prognosis is achieved with current diagnostic imaging approaches. In the absence of a dominant precancerous condition, several risk factors have been identified including family history, chronic pancreatitis, smoking, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain genetic disorders such as hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, familial atypical multiple Most pancreatic carcinomas, however, remain sporadic. Current progress in experimental molecular techniques has enabled detailed understanding of the molecular processes of pancreatic cancer development. According to the latest information, malignant pancreatic transformation involves multiple oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that are involved in a variety of signaling pathways. The most characteristic aberrations (somatic point mutations and allelic losses) affect oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes within RAS, AKT and Wnt signaling, and have a key role in transcription and proliferation, as well as systems that regulate the cell cycle (SMAD/DPC, CDKN2A/p16) and apoptosis (TP53). Understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms should promote development of new methodology for early diagnosis and facilitate improvement in current approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment.

  12. Extended exenatide administration enhances lipid metabolism and exacerbates pancreatic injury in mice on a high fat, high carbohydrate diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Rouse

    Full Text Available This study expanded upon a previous study in mice reporting a link between exenatide treatment and exocrine pancreatic injury by demonstrating temporal and dose responses and providing an initial mechanistic hypothesis. The design of the present study included varying lengths of exenatide exposure (3, 6 weeks to 12 weeks at multiple concentrations (3, 10, or 30 µg/kg with multiple endpoints (histopathology evaluations, immunoassay for cytokines, immunostaining of the pancreas, serum chemistries and measurement of trypsin, amylase, and, lipase, and gene expression profiles. Time- and dose-dependent exocrine pancreatic injury was observed in mice on a high fat diet treated with exenatide. The morphological changes identified in the pancreas involved acinar cell injury and death (autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy, cell adaptations (hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and cell survival (proliferation/regeneration accompanied by varying degrees of inflammatory response leading to secondary injury in pancreatic blood vessels, ducts, and adipose tissues. Gene expression profiles indicated increased signaling for cell survival and altered lipid metabolism in exenatide treated mice. Immunohistochemistry supported gene expression findings that exenatide caused and/or exacerbated pancreatic injury in a high fat diet environment potentially by further increasing high fat diet exacerbated lipid metabolism and resulting oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and determine their relevance to human disease.

  13. Impaired small-bowel barrier integrity in the presence of lumenal pancreatic digestive enzymes leads to circulatory shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Erik B; Alsaigh, Tom; Chang, Marisol; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2012-08-01

    In bowel ischemia, impaired mucosal integrity may allow intestinal pancreatic enzyme products to become systemic and precipitate irreversible shock and death. This can be attenuated by pancreatic enzyme inhibition in the small-bowel lumen. It is unresolved, however, whether ischemically mediated mucosal disruption is the key event allowing pancreatic enzyme products systemic access and whether intestinal digestive enzyme activity in concert with increased mucosal permeability leads to shock in the absence of ischemia. To test this possibility, the small intestinal lumen of nonischemic rats was perfused for 2 h with either digestive enzymes, a mucin disruption strategy (i.e., mucolytics) designed to increase mucosal permeability, or both, and animals were observed for shock. Digestive enzymes perfused included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, amylase, and lipase. Control (n = 6) and experimental animals perfused with pancreatic enzymes only (n = 6) or single enzymes (n = 3 for each of the five enzyme groups) maintained stable hemodynamics. After mucin disruption using a combination of enteral N-acetylcysteine, atropine, and increased flow rates, rats (n = 6) developed mild hypotension (P shock and increase systemic protease activation in the absence of ischemia, implicating bowel mucin disruption as a key event in early ischemia. Digestive enzymes and their products, if allowed to penetrate the gut wall, may trigger multiorgan failure and death.

  14. 重症急性胰腺炎治疗研究进展%Research Progress in the Treatment of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振鹏; 梁仲惠

    2012-01-01

    急性胰腺炎( acute pancreatitis,AP)是消化系统常见急症,可分为轻症急性胰腺炎(mild acute pancreatits,MAP)和重症急性胰腺炎(sever acute pancreatitis,SAP).SAP起病急,病情危重,常并发感染、腹膜炎、休克等多种并发症,病死率高,常在20%~40%,预后较差.近年来,随着科技发展,SAP治疗有了很大进步,多数患者能避免死亡并获得痊愈.因此,采取及时、有效的治疗对于SAP有着极其重要的意义.文章将近年来抑制胰腺外分泌和胰酶活性药物应用、抗生素预防性使用、内镜技术等发展作一综述.%Acute pancreatitis ( acute pancreatitis, AP ) is one of the most common diseases . It can be divided into mild acute pancreatitis ( mild acute pancreatits, MAP ) and severe acute pancreatitis ( sever acute pancreatitis, SAP ) . SAP is onset rapidly, and it is severly illness. SAP often complicated by infection, peritonitis, shock and other complications. Its mortality rate is very high, in 20%~40%, besides, the prognosis is poor. In recent years, with the development of science and technology, SAP treatment has very great progress, the majority of patients can avoid the death and recover. Therefore, to take timely, effective treatment for SAP has extremely important significance. This article will review in inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion and trypsin activity of drug application, antibiotic prophylaxis, using endoscopic techniques and development.

  15. Pancreatic panniculitis associated with acute pancreatitis and hemorrhagic pseudocysts: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yong Suk; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sub; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck [Kwandong Univ., Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Pancreatic panniculitis is an inflammation and necrosis of fat at distant foci in patients with pancreatic disorders, most frequently, pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma. Clinically, pancreatic panniculitis is manifested by painless or painful subcutaneous nodules on the legs, buttocks, or trunk. The usual sites are the distal parts of the lower extremities. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been many reports for the radiologic findings of pancreatic panniculitis. In this article, we report a case of pancreatic panniculitis, including radiologic findings of CT and ultrasonography. The patient was presented with painful subcutaneous nodules on the trunk, and had underlying acute pancreatitis and hemorrhagic pseudocysts.

  16. Effect of alternative crosslinking techniques on the enzymatic degradation of bovine pericardia and their calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, S C; Chandy, T

    1997-06-01

    The in vitro calcification and enzymatic degradation of bovine pericardia (BP) after a series of surface treatments were studied as a function of exposure time. The degradation of these treated surfaces was monitored by scanning electron micrography and tensile strength measurements. Polyethylene glycol-(PEG) grafted BP and glutaraldehyde-(GA) treated BPs retained maximum stability in collagenase digestion compared with SDS-treated BP. The ability of alpha chymotrypsin, bromelain, esterase, trypsin, and collagenase to modulate the degradation of SDS-, GA-, PEG-, Carbodiimide-, and glycidylether-treated BPs also was investigated. Incubation of various enzymes to these crosslinked pericardia variably reduced the tensile strength of these tissues. It is conceivable that chemical treatments of pericardial tissues might have altered their physical and chemical configuration and the subsequent degradation properties. In vitro calcification studies showed a substantial reduction in the calcification profile of PEG-grafted bovine pericardia compared to other treated tissues. Furthermore, the biocompatibility aspects of pericardial tissues were established by platelet adhesion and octane contact angle. In conclusion, it seems that the surface modification of bovine pericardia via GA-PEG grafting may provide new ways of controlling biodegradation and calcification.

  17. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahiyah Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes.

  18. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, U.C.; Semb, S.; Nøjgaard, Camilla;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on experimental animal models and clinical trials. Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may...... be useful as prophylaxis against post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL...

  19. How Grim is Pancreatic Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weledji, Elroy Patrick; Enoworock, George; Mokake, Martin; Sinju, Motaze

    2016-04-15

    Pancreatic ductal carcinoma continues to be the most lethal malignancy with rising incidence. It is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the western world due to its low treatment success rate. In addition, because of its rapid growth and silent course, diagnosis is often only established in the advanced stages. As one of the most aggressive malignancies, the treatment of this disease is a great challenge to clinicians. This paper reviewed the natural history of pancreatic cancer, the current clinical practice and the future in pancreatic cancer management. PMID:27471581

  20. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  1. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and pain in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N

    1992-01-01

    A casual relation between pancreatic pressure and pain has been searched for decades but lack of appropriate methods for pressure measurements has hindered progress. During the 1980's the needle method has been used for direct intraoperative pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements and later...... for percutaneous sonographically-guided pressure measurements. Clinical and experimental evaluation of the method showed comparable results at intraoperative and percutaneous measurements and little week-to-week variation. Furthermore, comparable pressures in duct and adjacent pancreatic tissue were found, i.......e. the needle pressure mirrors the intraductal pressure. Comparisons of pain registrations, morphological and functional parameters with pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements have revealed a relation between pressure and pain which probably is causal. In patients with pain the high pressures previously...

  2. Role of Neurogenic Inflammation in Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Portocarrero, Louis; Karin N Westlund

    2005-01-01

    Pain arising from pancreatic diseases can become chronic and difficult to treat. There is a paucity of knowledge regarding the mechanisms that sensitize neural pathways that transmit noxious information from visceral organs. In this review, neurogenic inflammation is presented as a possible amplifier of the noxious signal from peripheral organs including the pancreas. The nerve pathways that transmit pancreatic pain are also reviewed as a conduit of the amplified signals. It is likely that co...

  3. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Mariani; Pier Alberto Testoni

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreaUtis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis.There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association.Cystic fibrosis transmembrane con ductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation,hereditary and obstructive pancreatitis seem an acute disease that progress to chronic pancreatitis,likely as a consequence of the activation and proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells that produce and activate collagen and therefore fibrosis.From the diagnostic point of view,in patients with acute recurrent pancreatitis Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) seems the more reliable technique for an accurate evaluation and follow-up of some ductal and parenchymal abnormalities suspected for early chronic pancreatitis.

  4. The role of diagnostic radiology in pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmas, Nevra E-mail: elmas@med.ege.edu.tr

    2001-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a frequent inflammatory and necrotic process of pancreas and peripancreatic field. To detect the presence of infected or sterile necrotic components and hemorrhage of the pancreatic paranchyma is important for therapeutic approach. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by irreversible exocrine dysfunction, progressive loss of pancreatic tissue and morphological changes of the pancreatic canal. Imaging modalities play a primary role in the management of both acute and chronic pancreatitis. CT and MR imaging confirm the diagnosis and detect the severity of disease. In chronic pancreatitis, MRCP after Secretin administration, Spiral CT and endoscopic US seems to replace diagnostic ERCP. However differentiation of pseudotumor of chronic pancreatitis from the pancreatic carcinoma is difficult with either imaging modalities.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-10-28

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up examinations. Additional advantages include the ability to detect early forms of chronic pancreatitis and to better differentiate adenocarcinoma from focal chronic pancreatitis. This review addresses new trends in clinical pancreatic MR imaging emphasizing its role in imaging all types of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis complications and other important differential diagnoses that mimic pancreatitis. PMID:25356038

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on total phenolics, trypsin and tannin inhibitors in soybean grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was determining possible radiation-induced alterations (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw or cooked grains from five soybean cultivars through the analysis of some antinutrient. Total phenolic ranged from 2.46 to 10.83 mg/g, the trypsin inhibited from 18.19 to 71.64 UTI/g and tannins from 0.01 to 0.39 mg/g. All the antinutrient studied underwent reduction with increases in the doses and cooking process was effective too

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on total phenolics, trypsin and tannin inhibitors in soybean grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, T. C. F.; Canniatti-Brazaca, S. G.; Arthur, V.; Piedade, S. M. S.

    2007-10-01

    The objective was determining possible radiation-induced alterations (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw or cooked grains from five soybean cultivars through the analysis of some antinutrient. Total phenolic ranged from 2.46 to 10.83 mg/g, the trypsin inhibited from 18.19 to 71.64 UTI/g and tannins from 0.01 to 0.39 mg/g. All the antinutrient studied underwent reduction with increases in the doses and cooking process was effective too.

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on total phenolics, trypsin and tannin inhibitors in soybean grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Toledo, T.C.F [Department of Agroindustry, Food and Nutrition Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' , Universidade de Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: tcftoled@esalq.usp.br; Canniatti-Brazaca, S.G. [Department of Agroindustry, Food and Nutrition, Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' , Universidade de Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Av. Padua Dias, 11 Box 9, CEP 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, V. [Food Irradiation and Entomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Agriculture-CENA/USP, Av. Centenario 303, Caixa Postal 96, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Piedade, S.M.S. [Department of Mathematic Sciences, Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' , Universidade de Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: soniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2007-10-15

    The objective was determining possible radiation-induced alterations (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw or cooked grains from five soybean cultivars through the analysis of some antinutrient. Total phenolic ranged from 2.46 to 10.83 mg/g, the trypsin inhibited from 18.19 to 71.64 UTI/g and tannins from 0.01 to 0.39 mg/g. All the antinutrient studied underwent reduction with increases in the doses and cooking process was effective too.

  9. Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD January 7, 2008 00:00:11 ANNOUNCER: This year, an estimated 37,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer will be diagnosed in this country. Since there is no screening test for ...

  10. Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... January 7, 2008 00:00:11 ANNOUNCER: This year, an estimated 37,000 new cases of pancreatic ... surgical resident, Dr. Didi Prostein, and a fourth- year medical student, Sarah Matthew. Also today I have ...

  11. Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that little tissue right there. If those digestive juices leak into the abdominal cavity, they can cause ... out. Just saw a little rush of pancreatic juice there from the center of the pancreas. Almost ...

  12. Surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, K.J.; Neher, M.; Kuhn, F.P.; Kuemmerle, F.; Thelen, M.

    1983-03-31

    The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on anamnestic, clinical and chemical data. Ultrasound and computed tomography permit direct visualisation of the pancreas and establish the diagnosis. In cases of haemorrhagic-necrotising pancreatitis they demonstrate the extent of morphological changes and permit exclusion of other causes of an acute abdomen. The imaging methods support indications for operation in cases of subtotal or total parenchymatous necrosis and in pancreatic abscesses. Conservative expectant approaches in patients with severe clinical course and slight morphological changes as well as in agreement of clinical and morphological findings are facilitated. Complete demonstration of parenchymatous and peripancreatic necroses furnishes useful additional information for total extirpation. Gallstone disease can be demonstrated or excluded preoperatively. Since introduction of ultrasound and computed tomography for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis a marked diminution of early surgical intervention and delayed operation has been achieved.

  13. Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available WHIPPLE PROCEDURE FOR PANCREATIC CANCER UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND MEDICAL CENTER BALTIMORE, MD January 7, 2008 00:00: ... During this webcast from the University of Maryland Medical Center, you'll be able to watch the ...

  14. Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... say I'm very, very circumspect about any injury to the vein under these circumstances because this ... here. I don't want to have any injury to the pancreatic tissues. Okay. Good. Can I ...

  15. Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... painless jaundice. He underwent a series of diagnostic studies which indicated that he had a pancreatic head ... a cancer of the head of pancreas. Subsequent studies performed showed that he did not have any ...

  16. Nutrition Support in Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestis Ioannidis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The management of acute pancreatitis differs according to its severity. Approximately 75% of patients with acute pancreatitis have mild disease with a mortality rate below 1%. Mortality increases up to 20% if the disease progresses to its severe necrotizing form and, in the most severe cases, mortality can increase to 30-40%. Severe acute pancreatitis is usually accompanied by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS which results in hypermetabolism with prominent protein catabolism. Acute malnutrition, commonly observed in patients with acute pancreatitis, is associated with immunological disturbances, septic complications and delayed healing of surgical wounds, and may lead to multiorgan dysfunction or failure syndrome (MODS or MOFS and increased morbidity and mortality [1].

  17. Genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif; Lena Karapanagiotou; Kostas Syrigos

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating for patients and their relatives as the incidence rate is approximately the same as mortality rate. Only a small percentage, which ranges from 0.4% to 4% of patients who have been given this diagnosis, will be alive at five years. At the time of diagnosis, 80% of pancreatic cancer patients have unresectable or metastatic disease.Moreover, the therapeutic alternatives offered by chemotherapy or radiotherapy are few, if not zero. For all these reasons, there is an imperative need of analyzing and understanding the primitive lesions that lead to invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Molecular pathology of these lesions is the key of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of this cancer and will probably help us in earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic results. This review focuses on medical research on pancreatic cancer models and the underlying genetic alterations.

  18. PANCREATIC CARCINOMA: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Kumari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the prognosis of pancreatic cancer is extremely poor, even when treated with radical surgery. The overall 5 year survival rate following surgical intervention is around 10%.With the increasing use of CT scans for other reasons not related to pancreas, a variety of neoplastic and non - neoplastic lesions are increasingly encountered in clinical practice. The distinction of these lesions has significant therapeutic and prognostic implications. Regarding ductal carcinoma, key distinguishing features from chronic pancreatitis and a discussion of the concept of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia ( PanIN are included. Precursors, mo lecular carcinogenesis, risk factors and different morphological patterns of tumors arising from exocrine pancreas are discussed. Research on early detection is ongoing. Screening of people with a family history of hereditary pancreatitis plays an importan t role in the early detection of ductal carcinoma of pancreas.

  19. Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 11 ANNOUNCER: This year, an estimated 37,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer will be diagnosed in ... or should not be rushed along. Now, with new technologies - - let me put my hand in there ...

  20. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pancreatic cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  1. Autoimmune pancreatitis. An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare disease, the pathophysiological understanding of which has been greatly improved over the last years. The most common form, type 1 AIP belongs to the IgG4-related diseases and must be distinguished from type 2 AIP, which is a much rarer entity associated with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Clinically, there is an overlap with pancreatic cancer. Imaging and further criteria, such as serological and histological parameters are utilized for a differentiation between both entities in order to select the appropriate therapy and to avoid the small but ultimately unnecessary number of pancreatectomies. The diagnostics of AIP are complex, whereby the consensus criteria of the International Association of Pancreatology have become accepted as the parameters for discrimination. These encompass five cardinal criteria and one therapeutic criterion. By applying these criteria AIP can be diagnosed with a sensitivity of 84.9 %, a specificity of 100 % and an accuracy of 93.8 %. The diagnosis of AIP is accomplished by applying several parameters of which two relate to imaging. As for the routine diagnostics of the pancreas these are ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Important for the differential diagnosis is the exclusion of signs of local and remote tumor spread for which CT and MRI are established. The essential diagnostic parameter of histology necessitates sufficient sample material, which cannot usually be acquired by a fine needle biopsy. CT or MRI are the reference standard methods for identification of the optimal puncture site and imaging-assisted (TruCut) biopsy. In patients presenting with unspecific upper abdominal pain, painless jaundice combined with the suspicion of a pancreatic malignancy in imaging but a mismatch of secondary signs of malignancy, AIP should also be considered as a differential diagnosis. As the diagnosis of AIP only partially relies on imaging radiologists also

  2. Acute biliary pancreatitis: Diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Zakaria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallstones are the commonest cause of acute pancreatitis (AP, a potentially life-threatening condition, worldwide. The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has not been fully understood. Laboratory and radiological investigations are critical for diagnosis as well prognosis prediction. Scoring systems based on radiological findings and serologic inflammatory markers have been proposed as better predictors of disease severity. Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is beneficial in a group of patients with gallstone pancreatitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with preoperative endoscopic common bile duct clearance is recommended as a treatment of choice for acute biliary pancreatitis. The timing of cholecystectomy, following ERCP, for biliary pancreatitis can vary markedly depending on the severity of pancreatitis

  3. Chronic Pancreatitis and Neoplasia: Correlation or Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zografos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Any link between pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis could reflect the malignant potential of a chronic inflammatory process. Four patients with ductal adenocarcinomas had a long history of pancreatic pain (median duration 5 years and showed clearcut evidence of chronic pancreatitis “downstream” of the tumour. Four were alcoholics and two heavy smokers. These four cases arose within a surgical series of approximately 250 patients with chronic pancreatitis, giving an incidence of 1.6 per cent. The incidence and anatomical distribution of carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis could possibly be consistent with a casual relationship.

  4. On obesity in acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Segersvärd, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Over-nutrition is one of today s most visible public health problems. Currently over 40% of the Swedish population is either overweight or obese. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of regional tissues and/or remote organ systems. The morbidity and mortality associated with acute pancreatitis is largely determined by the involvement of distant organs such as the liver and lung and by the development of organ fail...

  5. Antimetabolite Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, Malyn May Asuncion; Neidigh, Jonathan W.; Wall, Nathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly and aggressive disease. Less than 1% of diagnosed patients survive 5 years with an average survival time of only 4–8 months. The only option for metastatic pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy where only the antimetabolites gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil are used clinically. Unfortunately, efforts to improve chemotherapy regimens by combining, 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine with other drugs, such as cisplatin or oxaliplatin, have not increased cell killing or improve...

  6. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered ...

  7. Surgical management of chronic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stavros Gourgiotis; Stylianos Germanos; Marco Pericoli Ridolifni

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Treatment of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a challenging condition for surgeons. During the last decades, increasing knowledge about pathophysiology of CP, improved results of major pancreatic resections, and integration of sophisticated diagnostic methods in clinical practice have resulted in signiifcant changes in surgery for CP. DATA SOURCES:To detail the indications for CP surgery, the surgical procedures, and outcome, a Pubmed database search was performed. The abstracts of searched articles about surgical management of CP were reviewed. The articles could be identiifed and further scrutinized. Further references were extracted by cross-referencing. RESULTS: Main indications of CP for surgery are intractable pain, suspicion of malignancy, and involvement of adjacent organs. The goal of surgical treatment is to improve the quality of life of patients. The surgical approach to CP should be individualized according to pancreatic anatomy, pain characteristics, baseline exocrine and endocrine function, and medical co-morbidity. The approach usually involves pancreatic duct drainage and resection including longitudinal pancreatojejunostomy, pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure), pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy, distal pancreatectomy, total pancreatectomy, duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (Beger's procedure), and local resection of the pancreatic head with longitudinal pancreatojejunostomy (Frey's procedure). Non-pancreatic and endoscopic management of pain has also been advocated. CONCLUSIONS:Surgical procedures provide long-term pain relief, a good postoperative quality of life with preservation of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, and are associated with low early and late mortality and morbidity. In addition to available results from randomized controlled trials, new studies are needed to determine which procedure is the most effective for the management of patients with CP.

  8. How grim is pancreatic cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Elroy Patrick Weledji; George Enoworock; Martin Mokake; Motaze Sinju

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal carcinoma continues to be the most lethal malignancy with rising incidence. It is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the western world due to its low treatment success rate. In addition, because of its rapid growth and silent course, diagnosis is often only established in the advanced stages. As one of the most aggressive malignancies, the treatment of this disease is a great challenge to clinicians. This paper reviewed the natural history of pancreatic cancer, ...

  9. Overview of Exocrine Pancreatic Pathobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Pandiri, Arun R.

    2013-01-01

    Exocrine pancreas is a source of several enzymes that are essential for the digestive process. The exocrine pancreatic secretion is tightly regulated by the neuroendocrine system. The endocrine pancreas is tightly integrated anatomically and physiologically with the exocrine pancreas and modulates its function. Compound-induced pancreatitis is not a common event in toxicology or drug development but it becomes a significant liability when encountered. Understanding the species-specific differ...

  10. Anorexia nervosa and pancreatic ascites.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, P.; Saunders, A J; Rosen, B. K.; Sladen, G E

    1986-01-01

    Acute alcoholic pancreatitis was undiagnosed in a patient with anorexia nervosa who subsequently developed pancreatic ascites and oedema, wrongly attributed to protein malnutrition alone. She became hyperphagic in an attempt to reverse the malnutrition and hence the abdominal swelling, indicating that the goal of attaining a thin shape was the major determinant of the eating disorder in this patient. Measurement of ascitic fluid amylase concentration should be carried out in all patients with...

  11. A rational design for improving the trypsin resistance of aflatoxin-detoxifizyme (ADTZ) based on molecular structure evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuxin; Wu, Xiyang; Xie, Chunfang; Hu, Yadong; Liu, Daling; Ma, Yi; Yao, Dongsheng

    2016-05-01

    The resistance of feed enzymes against proteases is crucial in livestock farming. In this study, the trypsin resistance of aflatoxin-detoxifizyme (ADTZ) is improved. ADTZ possesses 72 lys/arg residue sites, 45 of which are scattered on the outermost layers of the molecule (RSA≧25%). These 45 lys/arg sites could be target sites for trypsin hydrolysis. By considering shape-matching (including physical and secondary bond interactions) and the "induced fit-effect", we hypothesized that some of these lys/arg sites are vulnerable to trypsin. A protein-protein docking simulation method was used to avoid the massive computational requirements and to address the intricacy of selecting candidate sites, as candidate site selection is affected by space displacement. Optimal mutants (K244Q/K213C/K270T and R356E/K357T/R623C) were predicted by computational design with protein folding energy analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. A trypsin digestion assay was performed, and the mutants displayed much higher stability against trypsin hydrolysis compared to the native enzyme. Moreover, temperature- and pH-activity profiles revealed that the designed mutations did not affect the catalytic activity of the enzyme.

  12. Radiologic evaluation of pancreatic pseudocyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, T. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Hong, I. S.; Kim, M. S.; Sung, K. J. [Yeonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    Pancreatic pseudocyst is a collection of necrotic tissue, old blood and secretions that escaped from the pancreas damaged by pancreatitis, trauma and chronic alcoholism. There is no epithelial cell lining the cystic wall. With the advent of ultrasound and CT more accurate diagnosis can be made. Our study was carried out to analyse the radiological and clinical findings of 32 cases of pancreatic pseudocysts confirmed at Wonju College of Medicine Yonsei University from Jan. 1979 to Aug. 1986. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio was 4.3:1 Incidence was the most common in 4th decades. 2. The most frequent symptom was epigastric pain (100%). 3. In a total of 32 cases, 15 cases had a underlying cause of pancreatitis, 9 cases abdominal trauma. 4. In laboratory findings, serum amylase level was elevated in 23 cases, leucocytosis in 10 cases. 5. On chest films, the lungs were mostly normal. Soft tissue mass density in 12 cases was the most common finding on abdomen films. 6. UGI series were helpful in directing attention by pancreatic pseudocysts' location and size. 7. Ultrasonogram using primary procedure for the detection of pseudocyst (23 cases) disclosed anechoic lesion in 8 cases, mixed echo lesion in 15 cases. Mixed echo patterns, in terms of internal echo patters, were echogenic spots (8 cases), septation and echogenic spots (3 cases), fluid-fluid level (3 cases), etc. 8. CT scanning is the best imaging procedure, providing detailed morphologic information about the pancreatic pseudocyst and surrounding tissue.

  13. Genetic abnormalities in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamboni Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incidence and mortality of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are nearly coincident having a five-year survival of less than 5%. Enormous advances have been made in our knowledge of the molecular alterations commonly present in ductal cancer and other pancreatic malignancies. One significant outcome of these studies is the recognition that common ductal cancers have a distinct molecular fingerprint compared to other nonductal or endocrine tumors. Ductal carcinomas typically show alteration of K-ras, p53, p16INK4, DPC4 and FHIT, while other pancreatic tumor types show different aberrations. Among those tumors arising from the exocrine pancreas, only ampullary cancers have a molecular fingerprint that may involve some of the same genes most frequently altered in common ductal cancers. Significant molecular heterogeneity also exists among pancreatic endocrine tumors. Nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors have frequent mutations in MEN-1 and may be further subdivided into two clinically relevant subgroups based on the amount of chromosomal alterations. The present review will provide a brief overview of the genetic alterations that have been identified in the various subgroups of pancreatic tumors. These results have important implications for the development of genetic screening tests, early diagnosis, and prognostic genetic markers.

  14. The immobilisation of trypsin and glucose oxidase onto natural rubber-g.co-HEMA - high energy radiation derived copolymeric support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural rubber has been grafted with 2-HEMA by three different methods each involving Co(60)γ-radiation as the initiation source. The grafted samples were used in the immobilisation of glucose oxidase and trypsin. Optimisation of immobilisation involving trypsin was studied with regard to the pH and the type of crosslinking agent. It was observed that the immobilised enzyme had superior stability over a wider pH range when compared to the free trypsin. The retention of activity demonstrated by the immobilised trypsin was significant. That of immobilised glucose oxidase was far from being satisfactory. (author)

  15. In vitro cultivation of human fetal pancreatic ductal stem cells and their differentiation into insulin-producing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Xiang Yao; Mao-Lin Qin; Jian-Jun Liu; Xing-Shu Chen; De-Shan Zhou

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To isolate, culture and identify the human fetal pancreatic ductal stem cells in vitro, and to observe the potency of these multipotential cells differentiation into insulin-producing cells.METHODS: The human fetal pancreas was digested by 1 g/L collagease type Ⅳ and then 2.5 g/L trypsin was used to isolate the pancreatic ducta stem cells, followed by culture in serum-free, glucose-free DMEM media with some additional chemical substrates in vitro (according to the different Stage). The cells were induced by glucose-free (control),5 mmol/L, 17.8 mmol/L and 25 mmol/L glucose, respectively.The cell types of differentiated cells were identified using immunocytochemical staining.RESULTS: The shape of human fetal pancreatic ductal stem cells culturedin vitro was firstly fusiform in the first 2 wk,and became monolayer and cobblestone pattern after another 3 to 4 wk. After induced and differentiated by the glucose of different concentrations for another 1 to 2 wk,the cells formed the pancreatic islet-like structures. The identification and potency of these cells were then identified by using the pancreatic ductal stem cell marker, cytokeratin-19 (CK-19), pancreatic β cell marker, insulin and pancreatic α cell marker, glucagons with immunocytochemical staining.At the end of the second week, 95.2% of the cells were positive for CK-19 immunoreactivity. Up to 22.7% of the cells induced by glucose were positive for insulin immunoreactivity, and less than 3.8% of the cells were positive for glucagon immunoreactivity in pancreatic isletlike structures. The positive ratio of immunoreactive staining was dependent on the concentration of glucose, and it was observed that the 17.8 mmol/L glucose stimulated effectively to produce insulin- and glucagons-producing cells.CONCLUSION: The human fetal pancreatic ductal stem cells are capable of proliferation in vitro. These cells have multidifferentiation potential and can be induced by glucose and differentiated into insulin

  16. Structural changes in emulsion-bound bovine beta-lactoglobulin affect its proteolysis and immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Miriani, Matteo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barbiroli, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption on the surface of sub-micrometric oil droplets resulted in significant changes in the tertiary structure of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a whey protein broadly used as a food ingredient and a major food allergen. The adsorbed protein had increased sensitivity to trypsin, and increased immunoreactivity towards specific monoclonal antibodies. In spite of the extensive tryptic breakdown of emulsion-bound BLG, some sequence stretches in BLG became trypsin-insensitive upon absorption of the protein on the fat droplets. As a consequence - at contrast with free BLG - proteolysis of emulsion-bound BLG did not decrease the immunoreactivity of the protein, and some of the large peptides generated by trypsinolysis of emulsion-bound BLG were still recognizable by specific monoclonal antibodies. Structural changes occurring in emulsion-bound BLG and their consequences are discussed in comparison with those occurring when the tertiary structure of BLG is modified by lipophilic salts, by urea, or upon interaction with solid hydrophobic surfaces. Such a comparison highlights the relevance of situation-specific structural modifications, that in turn may affect physiologically relevant features of the protein. PMID:27085639

  17. Simultaneous characterization of pancreatic stellate cells and other pancreatic components within three-dimensional tissue environment during chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyan; Fu, Ling

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and other pancreatic components that play a critical role in exocrine pancreatic diseases are generally identified separately by conventional studies, which provide indirect links between these components. Here, nonlinear optical microscopy was evaluated for simultaneous characterization of these components within a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment, primarily based on multichannel detection of intrinsic optical emissions and cell morphology. Fresh rat pancreatic tissues harvested at 1 day, 7 days, and 28 days after induction of chronic pancreatitis were imaged, respectively. PSCs, inflammatory cells, blood vessels, and collagen fibers were identified simultaneously. The PSCs at day 1 of chronic pancreatitis showed significant enlargement compared with those in normal pancreas (ppancreatic components coincidently within 3-D pancreatic tissues. It is a prospect for intravital observation of dynamic events under natural physiological conditions, and might help uncover the key mechanisms of exocrine pancreatic diseases, leading to more effective treatments.

  18. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  19. Pancreatic Stellate Cells and Pancreatic Carcinoma: An Unholy Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes-Matthias Löhr

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the stromal compartment in the development, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and resistance of epithelial cancers has increasingly been recognized in recent decades [1, 2]. This stromal reaction is found in many carcinomas, e.g. in breast, prostate, colon, ovarian and pancreatic cancer. It is made up of stromal cells, endothelial cells, immune cells and extracellular matrix proteins. Moreover, the ECM proteins in the stroma act as a reservoir for growth factors released either by tumor or stromal cells, thus enabling autocrine and paracrine stimulation of the cells within the tumor mass. In this respect, groundbreaking work in solid tumors was done by Mina Bissell with breast carcinoma as her model system [3]. Recently, Vonlaufen et al. have contributed a review on the relationship between activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells which is worth reading [4]. Vonlaufen et al., with their own study [5] and those of some other groups (see their review, convincingly demonstrate a reciprocal influence of both nonepithelial and epithelial constituents of pancreatic carcinoma which works to their mutual benefit. Thus, the coinjection of PSC and pancreatic tumor cells enhances tumor growth and metastasis. In In vitro and animal models, PSCs increase tumor cell proliferation and decrease basal and induced apoptosis of pancreatic tumor cells. On the other hand, pancreatic tumor cells activate PSCs, recruit them to their vicinity and stimulate their proliferation. This review clearly exemplifies the specialized milieu in which both cell types grow to their mutual benefit, thus forming one of the deadliest tumors we know.

  20. Pancreatic Pseudocysts Following Acute Pancreatitis: Risk Factors Influencing Therapeutic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sianesi M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The natural history of pancreatic pseudocysts has become well known in recent years, but the choice of a proper treatment still remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at establishing whether predictive factors influencing therapeutic outcomes exist. SETTING: Patients with pancreatic pseudocysts following an episode of acute pancreatitis treated from January 1980 to December 2001 at the Department of General Surgery and Organ Transplantation of the University of Parma, Italy. PATIENTS: Seventy-four patients were studied: 12 had a spontaneous resolution, 37 patients were treated surgically, 15 were treated endoscopically and in 10, percutaneous drainage was used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with pancreatic pseudocysts were related to morbidity, recurrence rates and hospital stay. RESULTS: At univariate logistic regression, our data reveal a significant increase in morbidity related to age (P=0.013, etiology (alcoholic vs. biliary, P=0.024, Ranson score of previous pancreatitis (P=0.006, nutritional assessment (P=0.001, residual necrosis (P<0.001 and modality of treatment (P=0.009, whereas none of these parameters has been shown to be significantly correlated to recurrence. At multivariate logistic regression, only residual necrosis was significantly related to morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Some factors, such as epidemiological (age, etiology, clinical (severity of previous pancreatitis, malnourishment, pathological (residual necrosis, and therapeutical factors (emergency/urgency treatment are predictive of worse outcomes for invasive treatment of pseudocysts. In particular residual necrosis appeared to be the most important factor influencing invasive treatment outcomes, confirming that this pathological aspect deserves particular attention from surgeons. No risk factors predicting pancreatic pseudocyst recurrence emerged.

  1. SdPI, the first functionally characterized Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from scorpion venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiming Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kunitz-type venom peptides have been isolated from a wide variety of venomous animals. They usually have protease inhibitory activity or potassium channel blocking activity, which by virtue of the effects on predator animals are essential for the survival of venomous animals. However, no Kunitz-type peptides from scorpion venom have been functionally characterized. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new Kunitz-type venom peptide gene precursor, SdPI, was cloned and characterized from a venom gland cDNA library of the scorpion Lychas mucronatus. It codes for a signal peptide of 21 residues and a mature peptide of 59 residues. The mature SdPI peptide possesses a unique cysteine framework reticulated by three disulfide bridges, different from all reported Kunitz-type proteins. The recombinant SdPI peptide was functionally expressed. It showed trypsin inhibitory activity with high potency (K(i = 1.6×10(-7 M and thermostability. CONCLUSIONS: The results illustrated that SdPI is a potent and stable serine protease inhibitor. Further mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulation revealed that SdPI possesses a serine protease inhibitory active site similar to other Kunitz-type venom peptides. To our knowledge, SdPI is the first functionally characterized Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor derived from scorpion venom, and it represents a new class of Kunitz-type venom peptides.

  2. Preparation and evaluation of dual-enzyme microreactor with co-immobilized trypsin and chymotrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Kinga; Pomastowski, Paweł; Grzywiński, Damian; Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-04-01

    The preparation of capillary microfluidic reactor with co-immobilized trypsin and chymotrypsin with the use of a low-cost commercially available enzymatic reagent (containing these proteases) as well as the evaluation of its usefulness in proteomic research were presented. The monolithic copolymer synthesized from glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) was used as a support. Firstly, the polymerization conditions were optimized and the monolithic bed was synthesized in the fused silica capillary modified with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (γ-MAPS). The polymer containing epoxy groups was then modified with 1,6-diaminohexane, followed by the attachment of glutaraldehyde and immobilization of enzymes. The efficiency of the prepared monolithic Immobilized Enzyme Microreactor (μ-IMER) with regard to trypsin activity was evaluated using the low-molecular mass compound (Nα-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester, BAEE). The activities of both enzymes were investigated using a macromolecular protein (human transferrin, Tf) as a substrate. In the case of BAEE, the reaction product was separated from the substrate using the capillary liquid chromatography and the efficiency of the reaction was determined by the peak area of the substrate. The hydrolysis products of transferrin were analyzed with MALDI-TOF which allows for the verification of the prepared enzymatic system applicability in the field of proteomic research. PMID:26947160

  3. Preparation and characterization of magnetic levan particles as matrix for trypsin immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, J. C.; Andrad, P. L.; Neri, D. F. M.; Carvalho, L. B.; Cardoso, C. A.; Calazans, G. M. T.; Albino Aguiar, J.; Silva, M. P. C.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic levan was synthesized by co-precipitating D-fructofuranosyl homopolysaccharide with a solution containing Fe2+ and Fe3+ in alkaline conditions at 100 °C. The magnetic levan particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetization measurements, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Afterwards, magnetic levan particles were functionalized by NaIO4 oxidation and used as matrices for trypsin covalent immobilization. Magnetite and magnetic levan particles were both heterogeneous in shape and levan-magnetite presented bigger sizes compared to magnetite according to SEM images. Magnetic levan particles exhibited a magnetization 10 times lower as compared to magnetite ones, probably, due to the coating layer. XRD diffractogram showed that magnetite is the dominant phase in the magnetic levan. Infrared spectroscopy showed characteristics absorption bands of levan and magnetite (O-H, C-O-C and Fe-O bonds). The immobilized trypsin derivative was reused 10 times and lost 16% of its initial specific activity only. Therefore, these magnetic levan particles can be proposed as an alternative matrices for enzyme immobilization.

  4. Structure of catalytic domain of Matriptase in complex with Sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mingdong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease that is found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and certain cancer cells. Matriptase has been implicated in the degradation of certain extracellular matrix components as well as the activation of various cellular proteins and proteases, including hepatocyte growth factor and urokinase. Sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1, a cyclic peptide inhibitor originally isolated from sunflower seeds, exhibits potent inhibitory activity toward matriptase. Results We have engineered and produced recombinant proteins of the matriptase protease domain, and have determined the crystal structures of the protease:SFTI-1 complex at 2.0 Å as well as the protease:benzamidine complex at 1.2 Å. These structures elaborate the structural basis of substrate selectivity of matriptase, and show that the matriptase S1 substrate specificity pocket is larger enough to allow movement of benzamidine inside the S1 pocket. Our study also reveals that SFTI-1 binds to matriptase in a way similar to its binding to trypsin despite the significantly different isoelectric points of the two proteins (5.6 vs. 8.2. Conclusions This work helps to define the structural basis of substrate specificity of matriptase and the interactions between the inhibitor and protease. The complex structure also provides a structural template for designing new SFTI-1 derivatives with better potency and selectivity against matriptase and other proteases.

  5. Cytogenetic study of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in cultured human lymphocytes with metabolic activation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joanna Blaszkowska; Wanda Bratkowska; Dobroslawa Lopaczynska; Tomasz Ferenc

    2009-04-01

    The trypsin inhibitor (ATI) isolated from gastrointestinal nematode Ascaris suum was tested in vitro for induction of chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Genotoxicity assessment of purified ATI was carried out on metaphase plates received from peripheral blood lymphocyte macroculture (48 h test of structural chromosome aberrations and 72 h test of SCE) with exogenous metabolic activation. ATI was tested in dose of 25, 50 and 100 μg per ml of culture. Kinetics of cell divisions were determined by the replication index (RI). The mitotic index (MI) was expressed as a number of metaphases per 1000 nuclei analysed. Analysis of chromosome aberrations showed that higher doses of ATI (50 and 100 /ml) significantly increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (mainly of chromatid gaps and breaks) compared to the negative control. All concentrations of ATI caused a statistically significant reduction in the MI and RI. In comparison with the negative control, a significant increase in the SCE frequency was observed in all applied doses of ATI. Thus, in the presence of S9 activation, the Ascaris trypsin inhibitor showed potential clastogenic activity and inhibition of the dynamics of lymphocyte divisions.

  6. Expression of Aedes trypsin-modulating oostatic factor on the virion of TMV: A potential larvicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Dov; Rabindran, Shailaja; Dawson, William O; Powell, Charles A; Iannotti, Donna A; Morris, Timothy J; Shabanowitz, Jeffry; Hunt, Donald F; DeBondt, Hendrik L; DeLoof, Arnold

    2006-12-12

    We report the engineering of the surface of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) virion with a mosquito decapeptide hormone, trypsin-modulating oostatic factor (TMOF). The TMV coat protein (CP) was fused to TMOF at the C terminus by using a read-through, leaky stop codon that facilitated expression of CP and chimeric CP-TMOF (20:1 ratio) that were coassembled into virus particles in infected Nicotiana tabacum. Plants that were infected with the hybrid TMV RNA accumulated TMOF to levels of 1.3% of total soluble protein. Infected tobacco leaf discs that were fed to Heliothis virescens fourth-instar larvae stunted their growth and inhibited trypsin and chymotrypsin activity in their midgut. Purified CP-TMOF virions fed to mosquito larvae stopped larval growth and caused death. Because TMV has a wide host range, expressing TMV-TMOF in plants can be used as a general method to protect them against agricultural insect pests and to control vector mosquitoes.

  7. Tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectin cytotoxicity in tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Del Carmen Valadez-Vega, Maria; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Loarca-Pina, Guadalupe

    2005-09-01

    This study compared the levels of antinutritional components and cytotoxic effect of extracts, from tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans. Antinutritional factors were evaluated by determining their effect on the viability of epithelial cells isolated from rat small intestine. The protein and carbohydrates content were similar in all the genotypes studied (20 and 60%, respectively). Common beans presented higher content of trypsin inhibitors, tannins and lectins than tepary beans. There was not a significant correlation between tannins and cooking time. However, water absorption and cooking time correlated significantly (p lectin activity (1302-18161 Ul/mg) of extracts from different beans. Tannins, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and fat content differed between bean varieties whereas protein content was similar. The percent cellularity on rat epithelial cells was significantly different among protein extracts from different bean cultivars and ranged between 53.5% and 87.4% (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the incorporation of tepary beans in the diet would not alter the current nutritional contribution of common beans or introduce adverse toxic effects. The agronomic characteristics of tepary beans make them attractive for cultivation. However, the harder to cook phenomenon may be a limiting factor that needs further consideration. PMID:16187017

  8. CLONING AND EXPRESSING TRYPSIN MODULATING OOSTATIC FACTOR IN Chlorella desiccata TO CONTROL MOSQUITO LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Dov; Sterner, Andeas; Powell, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The insect peptide hormone trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), a decapeptide that is synthesized by the mosquito ovary and controls the translation of the gut's trypsin mRNA was cloned and expressed in the marine alga Chlorella desiccata. To express Aedes aegypti TMOF gene (tmfA) in C. desiccata cells, two plasmids (pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA) were engineered with pKYLX71 DNA (5 Kb) carrying the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter 35S(2) and the kanamycin resistant gene (neo), as well as, a 8 Kb nitrate reductase gene (nit) from Chlorella vulgaris. Transforming C. desiccata with pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA show that the engineered algal cells express TMOF (20 ± 4 μg ± SEM and 17 ± 3 μg ± SEM, respectively in 3 × 10(8) cells) and feeding the cells to mosquito larvae kill 75 and 60% of Ae. aegypti larvae in 4 days, respectively. Southern and Northern blots analyses show that tmfA integrated into the genome of C. desiccata by homologous recombination using the yeast 2 μ circle of replication and the nit in pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA, respectively, and the transformed algal cells express tmfA transcript. Using these algal cells it will be possible in the future to control mosquito larvae in the marsh.

  9. Purification and modes of antifungal action by Vicia faba cv. Egypt trypsin inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Hassanien, Abdallah Abd Elazeem; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Soliman, Saeed Saad; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-10-13

    A new 15 kDa Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor (termed VFTI-E1) from fava beans (Vicia faba cv. Egypt 1) was isolated using liquid chromatography. Though it exhibited substantial homology in N-terminal amino acid sequence to other protease inhibitors, VFTI-E1 showed antiproteolytic activity against trypsin (K(i) 11.9 × 10(-9) M) but hardly any activity against chymotrypsin. It demonstrated antifungal activity toward the filamentous fungus Valsa mali with an IC(50) of 20 μM. The mechanism of its antifungal action toward V. mali included (1) induction of alteration of hyphal morphology, (2) growth inhibition by chitin deposition at hyphal tips, and (3) permeabilization of fungal membrane. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 was dependent on the ambient ionic strength as increasing concentrations of NaCl, CaCl(2), and MgCl(2) diminished the activity. The membranolytic action of VFTI-E1 was confined to fungus, but not exerted on human and rabbit erythrocytes. This study sheds light on the mode of hyphal growth inhibitory activity of protease inhibitors with antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 amplifies the scope of its potential applications. PMID:20836498

  10. Comparative effects of ohmic, induction cooker, and electric stove heating on soymilk trypsin inhibitor inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Zhao, Luping; Zhang, Caimeng; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Yeming

    2015-03-01

    During thermal treatment of soymilk, a rapid incorporation of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) into protein aggregates by covalent (disulfide bond, SS) and/or noncovalent interactions with other proteins is responsible for its fast inactivation of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA). In contrast, the slow cleavage of a single Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) peptide bond is responsible for its slow inactivation of TIA and chymotrypsin inhibitor activity (CIA). In this study, the effects of Ohmic heating (220 V, 50 Hz) on soymilk TIA and CIA inactivation were examined and compared to induction cooker and electric stove heating with similar thermal histories. It was found that: (1) TIA and CIA inactivation was slower from 0 to 3 min, and faster after 3 min as compared to induction cooker and electric stove. (2) The thiol (SH) loss rate was slower from 0 to 3 min, and similar to induction cooker and electric stove after 3 min. (3) Ohmic heating slightly increased protein aggregate formation. (4) In addition to the cleavage of one BBI peptide bond, an additional reaction might occur to enhance BBI inactivation. (5) Ohmic heating was more energy-efficient for TIA and CIA inactivation. (6) TIA and CIA inactivation was accelerated with increasing electric voltage (110, 165, and 220 V) of Ohmic heating. It is likely that the enhanced inactivation of TIA by Ohmic heating is due to its combined electrochemical and thermal effects.

  11. Vegetative Storage Protein with Trypsin Inhibitor Activity Occurs in Sapindus mukorassi,a Sapindaceae Deciduous Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Biao Liu; Xu-Chu Wang; Min-Jing Shi; Yue-Yi Chen; Zheng-Hai Hu; Wei-Min Tian

    2009-01-01

    A vegetative storage protein (VSP) with trypsin inhibitor activity in a deciduous tree,Sapindus mukorassi,was characterized by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,Western-blot,immuno-histochemical localization,light- and electro-microscopy,together with analysis of proteinase inhibitor activity of the purified VSP in vitro.There were two proteins with molecular masses of about 23 and 27 kDa in a relatively high content in the bark tissues of terminal branches of S.mukorassi in leafless periods.The proteins decreased markedly during young shoot development,indicating their role in seasonal nitrogen storage.Immuno-histochemical localization with the polyclonal antibodies raised against the 23 kDa protein demonstrated that the 23 kDa protein was the major component of protein inclusions in protein-storing cells.The protein inclusions were identified by protein-specific staining and should correspond to the electron-dense materials in different forms in the vacuoles of phloem parenchyma cells and phloem ray parenchyma cells under an electron microscope.So,the 23 kDa protein was a typical VSP in S.mukorassi.The 23 and 27 kDa proteins shared no immuno-relatedness,whereas the 23 kDa protein was immuno-related with the 22 kDa VSP in lychee and possessed trypsin inhibitor activity.The 23 kDa protein may confer dual functions:nitrogen storage and defense.

  12. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis and other current concepts in the radiological assessment of acute pancreatitis*

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Elen Freitas de Cerqueira; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Pereira, Fábio Payão; Blasbalg, Roberto; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition caused by intracellular activation and extravasation of inappropriate proteolytic enzymes determining destruction of pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissues. This is a fairly common clinical condition with two main presentations, namely, endematous pancreatitis - a less severe presentation -, and necrotizing pancreatitis - the most severe presentation that affects a significant part of patients. The radiological evaluation, particularly...

  13. Inflammation, Autophagy, and Obesity: Common Features in the Pathogenesis of Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gukovsky, Ilya; Ning LI; Todoric, Jelena; Gukovskaya, Anna; Karin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and autophagy are cellular defense mechanisms. When these processes are deregulated (deficient or overactivated) they produce pathologic effects, such as oxidative stress, metabolic impairments, and cell death. Unresolved inflammation and disrupted regulation of autophagy are common features of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, obesity, a risk factor for pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, promotes inflammation and inhibits or deregulates autophagy, creating an env...

  14. Loss of Periostin Results in Impaired Regeneration and Pancreatic Atrophy after Cerulein-Induced Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Simone; Regel, Ivonne; Steiger, Katja; Wagner, Nadine; Thorwirth, Manja; Schlitter, Anna M; Esposito, Irene; Michalski, Christoph W; Friess, Helmut; Kleeff, Jörg; Erkan, Mert

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix molecule periostin (POSTN, encoded by POSTN), which is secreted by activated pancreatic stellate cells, has important functions in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the role of POSTN in acute pancreatitis and subsequent regeneration processes has not been addressed so far. We analyzed the function of POSTN in pancreatic exocrine regeneration after the induction of a severe acute pancreatitis. Postn-deficient mice and wild-type control animals received repetitive cerulein injections, and a detailed histologic analysis of pancreatic tissues was performed. Although there was no difference in pancreatitis severity in the acute inflammatory phase, the recovery of the exocrine pancreas was massively impaired in Postn-deficient mice. Loss of Postn expression was accompanied by strong pancreatic atrophy and acinar-to-adipocyte differentiation, which was also reflected in gene expression patterns. Our data suggest that POSTN is a crucial factor for proper exocrine lineage-specific regeneration after severe acute pancreatitis.

  15. Loss of Periostin Results in Impaired Regeneration and Pancreatic Atrophy after Cerulein-Induced Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Simone; Regel, Ivonne; Steiger, Katja; Wagner, Nadine; Thorwirth, Manja; Schlitter, Anna M; Esposito, Irene; Michalski, Christoph W; Friess, Helmut; Kleeff, Jörg; Erkan, Mert

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix molecule periostin (POSTN, encoded by POSTN), which is secreted by activated pancreatic stellate cells, has important functions in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the role of POSTN in acute pancreatitis and subsequent regeneration processes has not been addressed so far. We analyzed the function of POSTN in pancreatic exocrine regeneration after the induction of a severe acute pancreatitis. Postn-deficient mice and wild-type control animals received repetitive cerulein injections, and a detailed histologic analysis of pancreatic tissues was performed. Although there was no difference in pancreatitis severity in the acute inflammatory phase, the recovery of the exocrine pancreas was massively impaired in Postn-deficient mice. Loss of Postn expression was accompanied by strong pancreatic atrophy and acinar-to-adipocyte differentiation, which was also reflected in gene expression patterns. Our data suggest that POSTN is a crucial factor for proper exocrine lineage-specific regeneration after severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:26632158

  16. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  17. Endoscopic diagnostic of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubranić, Aleksandar; Dintinjana, Renata Dobrila; Vanis, Nenad

    2014-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a continuous inflammatory pancreatic disease, one characterized by irreversible morphological changes, often associates with pain and sometimes with the loss of endocrine and exocrine function. As a histological confirmation of chronic pancreatitis is often unavailable, the diagnosis is traditionally based on imaging methods such as computerized tomography (CT) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and recently magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) as a noninvasive alternative to ERCP. Developments in the classification system of CP include the Marseille classification of 1963 which offered histopathologic criteria for CP, the Cambridge classification of 1984 which introduced imaging features of computed tomography (CT), transabdominal ultrasound (TUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for classification of CP as well as Rosemont classification system of 2007 which presented the endoscopic ultrasonography diagnosis of CP. Endoscopic ultra-sonography (EUS) was first introduced as a diagnostic method for evaluation of pancreatic disease in 1986. It has experienced significant improvements since then and allowed for an alternative approach in diagnosing patients with pancreatic diseases. In patients with suspected pancreatic masses EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the best method for obtaining tissue diagnosis and differentiating CP from pancreatic carcinoma. The recent studies indicate that EUS is the method of choice when compared with other imaging methods such as ERCP because it frequently provides more accurate diagnostics. The aim of this review is to discuss the findings in endoscopic diagnostics up to the present moment and to indicate advantages, limitations and possible complications along with the current recommendations in CP diagnostics. PMID:25842773

  18. Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

    Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded β-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

  19. A Case of Pancreatic Cancer in the Setting of Autoimmune Pancreatitis with Nondiagnostic Serum Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasegaram, Manju D; Chiam, Su C.; Nguyen, Nam Q; Andrew Ruszkiewicz; Adrian Chung; Neo, Eu L; Chen, John W; Worthley, Christopher S.; Brooke-Smith, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) often mimics pancreatic cancer. The diagnosis of both conditions is difficult preoperatively let alone when they coexist. Several reports have been published describing pancreatic cancer in the setting of AIP. Case Report. The case of a 53-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, jaundice, and radiological features of autoimmune pancreatitis, with a “sausage-shaped” pancreas and bulky pancreatic head with portal vein impingement, is presented. ...

  20. Isolated Pancreatic Tuberculosis Mimicking Focal Pancreatitis and Causing Segmental Portal Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Surinder S.; Deepak K Bhasin; Chalapathi Rao; Kartar Singh

    2010-01-01

    Context Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis is a common mimicker of pancreatic malignancy and a common presentation is abdominal pain. However, segmental portal hypertension is very uncommon. Case report A case of isolated pancreatic tuberculosis mimicking focal pancreatitis and causing segmental portal hypertension is presented. Conclusion A histological or microbiological diagnosis of the presence of pancreatic masses is necessary to detect potentially treatable diseases, such as tuberculosis,...