WorldWideScience

Sample records for bovine neonatal mortality

  1. Determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Agho Kingsley; Dibley Michael J; Titaley Christiana R; Roberts Christine L; Hall John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Neonatal mortality accounts for almost 40 per cent of under-five child mortality, globally. An understanding of the factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to prevent neonatal deaths. This study aimed to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia, for a nationally representative sample of births from 1997 to 2002. Methods The data source for the analysis was the 2002–20...

  2. Neonatal tetanus mortality in coastal Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Steinglass, R; Mutie, D M;

    1993-01-01

    In a house-to-house survey in Kilifi District, Kenya, mothers of 2556 liveborn children were interviewed about neonatal mortality, especially from neonatal tetanus (NNT). The crude birth rate was 60.5 per 1000 population, the neonatal mortality rate 21.1 and the NNT mortality rate 3.1 per 1000...

  3. RISK FACTORS OF MORTALITY IN NEONATAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyanthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Infant Mortality Rate (IMR is high in India. Identification of risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness is essential to reduce Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR and ultimately the IMR. AIM To identify the risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. SETTING AND DESIGN It was a nested case control study done at the sick neonatal unit of urban tertiary referral centre. METHODS AND MATERIALS After obtaining ethical committee approval, retrospective analysis of 150 out born neonatal case records of babies admitted during the period from October 2015 to December 2015 was done. Data such as demographic features, maternal details, referral details, perinatal events, clinical features, laboratory reports and outcome were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS These risk factors were subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and P value calculated for the same to find out significant risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. RESULTS Neonatal mortality rate was 22%. Male-to-female ratio was 2:1, death occurred more commonly in female neonates (23.1%. Home deliveries carried more risk of mortality. Birth order 4 and above had 25% mortality. Neonates of mother who had primary education and below had higher mortality. Perinatal asphyxia and sepsis were the most common causes of neonatal mortality. By univariate analysis, preterms had 4.9 times increased risk of mortality than term babies. Apnoeic spells, chest retractions and shock had 8 times, 3 times and 3.6 times increased risk of mortality respectively. By multivariate analysis, birth weight below 2 kilograms (kg carried 11.8 times more risk of mortality with a p value 0.00 (95% C.I 3.2, 30.4 and poor maternal intake of iron and folic acid tablets was 3.9 times more risk p value 0.003 (95% C.I 1.6, 9.6, apnoeic spells were 5.8 times more risk of mortality with p value 0.02 (95% C.I 1.3, 26.2. CONCLUSION Birth weight below 2 kg, poor maternal intake of iron and folic

  4. Determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agho Kingsley

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal mortality accounts for almost 40 per cent of under-five child mortality, globally. An understanding of the factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to prevent neonatal deaths. This study aimed to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia, for a nationally representative sample of births from 1997 to 2002. Methods The data source for the analysis was the 2002–2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey from which survival information of 15,952 singleton live-born infants born between 1997 and 2002 was examined. Multilevel logistic regression using a hierarchical approach was performed to analyze the factors associated with neonatal deaths, using community, socio-economic status and proximate determinants. Results At the community level, the odds of neonatal death was significantly higher for infants from East Java (OR = 5.01, p = 0.00, and for North, Central and Southeast Sulawesi and Gorontalo combined (OR = 3.17, p = 0.03 compared to the lowest neonatal mortality regions of Bali, South Sulawesi and Jambi provinces. A progressive reduction in the odds was found as the percentage of deliveries assisted by trained delivery attendants in the cluster increased. The odds of neonatal death were higher for infants born to both mother and father who were employed (OR = 1.84, p = 0.00 and for infants born to father who were unemployed (OR = 2.99, p = 0.02. The odds were also higher for higher rank infants with a short birth interval (OR = 2.82, p = 0.00, male infants (OR = 1.49, p = 0.01, smaller than average-sized infants (OR = 2.80, p = 0.00, and infant's whose mother had a history of delivery complications (OR = 1.81, p = 0.00. Infants receiving any postnatal care were significantly protected from neonatal death (OR = 0.63, p = 0.03. Conclusion Public health interventions directed at reducing neonatal death should

  5. A Study On Neonatal Mortality In Jamnagar District Of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Sudha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the maternal, socio-demographic and neonatal attributes responsible for neonatal mortality in rural areas of Gujarat? Objectives: (i To know various maternal, socio-demographic and neonatal factors responsible for neonatal mortality in rural areas of Gujarat (ii To estimate neonatal mortality rate in the area. Setting: Rural areas of six Primary Health Centers of Jamnagar district of Gujarat State. Study design: Community based cohort study. Sample size: Population of 40512 Participants: Members of the family in which neonatal deaths occurred. Outcome variable: Neonatal mortality Analysis: Sample proportions. Results: Neonatal mortality rate on the basis of follow-up of births during one year was found to be 47.27 per thousand live births. The major maternal and socio-demographic factors responsible for neonatal mortality were; maternal age, illiteracy, lack of antenatal care, closely spaced pregnancies, delivery conducted at home, delivery conducted untrained personnel and delayed initiation of breast feeding. The major neonatal factors responsible for mortality in neonates were; low birth weight, prematurity, first order of birth, early phase of neonatal period, male gender of the child. The leading causes of neonatal mortality were found to be prematurity, birth asphyxia, neonatal infections and congenital anomalies.

  6. Morbidity and mortality in neonatal kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, D F; Monti, K L

    1984-07-01

    The mortality patterns of 294 Domestic Shorthair kittens indicated that birth weight was closely related to survivability. Slightly over half of the nonsurviving kittens lost at 0 to 3 days of life were stillborn. Abnormal gross anatomy did not appear to be a major factor in neonatal kitten death. Mortality was lowest at the 5th parity and in litters of 5 kittens. Litters of 1 kitten experienced high mortality. Smaller queens tended to deliver fewer kittens per litter, but with improved kitten viability. Overweight queens experienced increased mortality of kittens. Further examination of mortality by litter size also revealed that low birth weight kittens tended to survive less often than normal birth weight kittens, even within the same litter. PMID:24049917

  7. Mortality audit of neonatal sepsis secondary to Acinetobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha S; Madhuri R Rathi; Mathur, Meenakshi M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter infection has emerged as an important pathogen in neonatal sepsis in the recent years causing morbidity as well as mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed over a one and a half year period of all neonates admitted with sepsis in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), who developed Acinetobacter infection and to identify mortality-associated risk factors in these neonates. Results: Incidence of neonatal septicaemi...

  8. Tetanus toxoid immunization to reduce mortality from neonatal tetanus

    OpenAIRE

    Blencowe, Hannah; Lawn, Joy; Vandelaer, Jos; Roper, Martha; Cousens, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background Neonatal tetanus remains an important and preventable cause of neonatal mortality globally. Large reductions in neonatal tetanus deaths have been reported following major increases in the coverage of tetanus toxoid immunization, yet the level of evidence for the mortality effect of tetanus toxoid immunization is surprisingly weak with only two trials considered in a Cochrane review. Objective To review the evidence for and estimate the effect on neonatal tetanus mortality of immuni...

  9. Regional variation in neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D.E. Ikamari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to establish the effect of region of residence on neonatal and post-neonatal mortality inKenya, using the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data. The results show significant regionalvariation in neonatal and post-neonatal mortality. Both neonatal and post-neonatal mortality were alsofound to vary significantly according to household wealth status, household water supply, and toilet facility,maternal age at birth, preceding birth interval; antenatal visits and type of place of delivery. It was only postneonatalmortality that also varied significantly according to maternal education.The study recommends that concerted efforts be made to reduce high neonatal and post-neonatal mortalityin the high mortality areas. These could entail strengthening existing family planning, child survival and HIV/AIDS programmes alongside improving households’ access to piped water supply and household hygiene practices.

  10. Mortality audit of neonatal sepsis secondary to Acinetobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha S De

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter infection has emerged as an important pathogen in neonatal sepsis in the recent years causing morbidity as well as mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed over a one and a half year period of all neonates admitted with sepsis in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, who developed Acinetobacter infection and to identify mortality-associated risk factors in these neonates. Results: Incidence of neonatal septicaemia due to Acinetobacter species was 9.18%. All were cases of early onset sepsis. Predominant species isolated was Acinetobacter baumanii (67.5%. The major symptoms were lethargy and poor feeding. The major signs were tachypnoea, rib retraction, and respiratory distress. The major fetal risk factors were low birth weight and prematurity. Overall, 53.75% were multidrug resistant (MDR Acinetobacter. Resistance to more than two drugs (MDR was statistically significant in A. baumanii as compared with nonbaumanii. Overall mortality due to Acinetobacter neonatal sepsis was 20%. Septicemia due to A. baumanii was associated with higher mortality than those due to nonbaumanii isolates. Lethargy, tachypnoea, rib retraction, tachycardia, respiratory distress, and mechanical ventilation were significant predictors of mortality. Conclusion: Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter infection is fatal, particularly in premature and low birth weight neonates. Therefore, an effective infection control policy and rational antibiotic use are mandatory in neonatal intensive care areas of each hospital in order to control Acinetobacter infection and improve outcome.

  11. Neonatal Tetanus in Vietnam: Comprehensive Intensive Care Support Improves Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Huynh T; Lubis, Inke N; Qui, Phan T; Yen, Lam M; Wills, Bridget; Thwaites, C Louise; Sabanathan, Saraswathy

    2016-06-01

    We report a 66% reduction in neonatal tetanus mortality after introducing a new management bundle integrating antibiotic therapy, muscle relaxation and invasive monitoring. The latter allowed rapid detection of autonomic instability which was treated with magnesium sulphate. This is the first report of its use in neonatal tetanus. PMID:26407289

  12. Risk factors for neonatal mortality at Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hidayah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal mortality remains a major concern in developing countries. Identifying potential risk factors is important in order to decrease the neonatal mortality rate. In Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta, the risk factors for neonatal mortality have not been assessed. Objective To evaluate potential risk factors of neonatal mortality. Methods We reviewed medical records of all neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at Dr. Moewardi Hospital from January to December 2011. Analyzed variables were sex, birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, place of delivery, mode of delivery, and sepsis. Data were analyzed by Chi square and binary logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Out of 841 neonates, the mortality rate was 212 (25.2%. Univariate logistic regression revealed that the significant risk factors for neonatal mortality were preterm (OR 4.41; 95%CI 4.24 to 4.57; P=0.0001, low birth weight (OR 4.30; 95%CI 4.13 to 4.47; P=0.0001, sepsis (OR 2.99; 95%CI 2.81 to 3.17; P=0.0001, maternal age ≥35 years (OR 1.53; 95%CI 1.37 to 1.70, and non-spontaneous delivery (OR 1.67; 95%CI 1.50 to 1.84. Further multivariate regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors were preterm (OR 2.27; 95%CI 2.05 to 2.48; P=0.0001, low birth weight (OR 2.49; 95%CI 2.27 to 2.71; P= 0.0001, and sepsis (OR 2.50; 95%CI 2.30 to 2.69; P= 0.0001. Conclusion The risk factors for neonatal mortality in the NICU are preterm, low birth weight, and sepsis. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:219-22.].

  13. Measurement of mortality from neonatal tetanus in Burma

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Surveys to determine mortality from neonatal tetanus were conducted in March and April 1985 in accessible areas of Burma, where pregnant women had been immunized with tetanus toxoid and, for comparison, also in areas where such immunization had not been given. Neonatal mortality rates were three times greater in areas where tetanus toxoid immunization had only recently or had not yet been introduced by the national expanded programme on immunization. Analysis of the data indicates that the im...

  14. Cause-specific neonatal mortality: analysis of 3772 neonatal deaths in Nepal, Bangladesh, Malawi and India

    OpenAIRE

    Fottrell, E.; Osrin, D.; Alcock, G; Azad, K.; Bapat, U; Beard, J.; Bondo, A.; Colbourn, T; Das, S; King, C.; Manandhar, D.; S Manandhar; Morrison, J; Mwansambo, C; Nair, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding the causes of death is key to tackling the burden of three million annual neonatal deaths. Resource-poor settings lack effective vital registration systems for births, deaths and causes of death. We set out to describe cause-specific neonatal mortality in rural areas of Malawi, Bangladesh, Nepal and rural and urban India using verbal autopsy (VA) data. Design We prospectively recorded births, neonatal deaths and stillbirths in seven population surveillance sites. VAs w...

  15. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality Among Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine risk factors causing increase in very low birth way (VLBW neonatal mortality. The medical files of all neonates weighing ≤1500 g, born in Vali-e-Asr hospital (2001-2004 were studied. Two groups of neonates (living and dead were compared up to the time of hospital discharge or death. A total of 317 neonates were enrolled. A meaningful relationship existed between occurrence of death and low gestational age (P=0.02, low birth weight, lower than 1000 g (P=0.001, Apgar score <6 at 5th minutes (P=0.001, resuscitation at birth (P=0.001, respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.001 need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.001, neurological complications (P=0.001 and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated that each 250 g weight increase up to 1250 g had protective effect, and reduced mortality rate. The causes of death of those neonates weighting over 1250 g should be sought in factors other than weight. Survival rate was calculated to be 80.4% for neonates weighing more than 1000 g. The most important high risk factors affecting mortality of neonates are: low birth weight, need for resuscitation at birth, need for ventilator use and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  16. Neonatal mortality in dogs: Prognostic value of Doppler ductus venosus waveform evaluation - Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Barella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To define the prognostic value of Doppler ultrasonographic morphology of ductus venosus (DV waveform on canine neonatal mortality. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four healthy pregnant bitches underwent fetal ultrasonographic assessment. The DV waveforms were classified as diphasic (dDVw or triphasic (tDVw and compared with neonatal mortality. Results: Ninety-three fetuses were evaluated. Twenty fetuses belonged to litters with neonatal mortality, in which tDVw was observed. Seven fetuses belonged to litters without neonatal mortality, in which tDVw was observed. Fifty-eight fetuses belonged to litters without neonatal mortality, in which only dDVw was observed. Eight fetuses belonged to litters with neonatal mortality, in which only dDVw was observed. The correlation between tDVw and neonatal mortality was statistically significant (odds ratio [OR], 20.7; p<0.0001. Considering only pregnancies with one or two fetuses with the same DV waveform: Two fetuses with tDVw belonged to litters with neonatal mortality; 1 foetus with tDVw belonged to litter without neonatal mortality and 26 fetuses showed dDVw without neonatal mortality. The correlation between tDVw and neonatal mortality even in litters up to two pups was statistically significant (OR, 88.3; p=0.01. Conclusion: Echo-Doppler assessment of DV is feasible in canine fetuses, and the presence tDVw seems to be related to neonatal mortality.

  17. Neonatal Mortality Risk Assessment in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Eshrati

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to assess the utility of a scoring system as predictor of neonatal mortality rate among the neonates admitted within one year to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of the Childrens Medical Center in Tehran, Iran.Material & Methods: Data were gathered from 213 newborns admitted to the NICU from September 2003 to August 2004. In addition to demographic data, Apgar scores at 1 minute and 5 minutes, history and duration of previous hospitalization, initial diagnosis and final diagnosis, and scoring system by using the score for the neonatal acute physiology-perinatal extension II (SNAP-PE II were carried out within 12 hours after admission to the NICU. All of the parameters were prospectively applied to the admitted newborns. The exclusion criteria were discharge or death in less than 24 hours after NICU admission.Findings: 198 newborn infants met the inclusion criteria. The mean and standard deviation (SD of the variables including postnatal age, birth weight, SNAP, and finally Apgar scores at 1 minute and 5 minutes of neonates under this study were 7.6 (0.5 days, 2479.8 (29.4 grams, 21.6 (1.1, 7.47 0.08(, and 7.71 (0.06, respectively. Twenty five of the 198 patients died (12.6%. Gestational age (P=0.03, birth weight (P=0.02, Apgar score at 5 minutes (0.001, and SNAP-PE II (P=0.04 were significantly related to the mortality rate. By Analyzing through logistic regression to evaluate the predictive value of these variables in relation to the risk of mortality, it was shown that only SNAP-PE II and Apgar score at 5 minutes could significantly predict the neonatal mortality.Conclusion: According to this study SNAP-PE II and Apgar score at 5 minutes can be used to predict mortality among the NICU patients. SNAP-PE II score had the best performance in predicting mortality in this study. More studies with larger samples are suggested to evaluate all of the above-mentioned parameters among neonates who are admitted to NICUs

  18. Presumptive bovine neonatal pancytopenia in a Holstein calf in Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Véronique Bernier; Fecteau, Gilles; Nichols, Sylvain

    2011-07-01

    An 18-day-old heifer was presented with fever, depression, tachycardia, tachypnea, and prolonged bleeding time. Blood tests revealed severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leucopenia. The animal was negative by PCR for bovine virus diarrhea virus antigen. The findings supported a diagnosis of bovine neonatal pancytopenia. Treatments included fresh whole blood transfusion and antibiotics. The animal recovered fully. PMID:22210946

  19. Neonatal mortality in dogs: Prognostic value of Doppler ductus venosus waveform evaluation - Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Barella; Stefano Faverzani; Massimo Faustini; Debora Groppetti; Alessandro Pecile

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To define the prognostic value of Doppler ultrasonographic morphology of ductus venosus (DV) waveform on canine neonatal mortality. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four healthy pregnant bitches underwent fetal ultrasonographic assessment. The DV waveforms were classified as diphasic (dDVw) or triphasic (tDVw) and compared with neonatal mortality. Results: Ninety-three fetuses were evaluated. Twenty fetuses belonged to litters with neonatal mortality, in which tDVw was observed. Seven ...

  20. Neonatal mortality in dogs: Prognostic value of Doppler ductus venosus waveform evaluation - Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Barella, Gabriele; Faverzani, Stefano; Faustini, Massimo; Groppetti, Debora; Pecile, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To define the prognostic value of Doppler ultrasonographic morphology of ductus venosus (DV) waveform on canine neonatal mortality. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four healthy pregnant bitches underwent fetal ultrasonographic assessment. The DV waveforms were classified as diphasic (dDVw) or triphasic (tDVw) and compared with neonatal mortality. Results: Ninety-three fetuses were evaluated. Twenty fetuses belonged to litters with neonatal mortality, in which tDVw was observed. Seven fetuse...

  1. [Neonatal morbidity and hospital mortality of preterm triplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamshing-Salinas, Priscilla; Rend Ón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernárdez-Zapata, Isabel; Braverman-Bronstein, Ariela

    2013-01-01

    Background: multiple gestations have caused an increase in vulnerable preterm births. Our objective was to analyze neonatal morbidity and mortality in preterm triplets. Methods: we analyzed a cohort of 30 triplets in an obstetrics and gynecology hospital. Data were obtained during pregnancy, childbirth and neonatal period: birth order, sex, weight, height, malformations, advanced resuscitation, assisted ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, pulmonary hypertension, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, days of hospitalization, and death. Results: 90 infants were analyzed. There was an omphalopagus con-joined twins case; 42 (70 %) had between 30-33 weeks and six between 24-29; 19 (21 %) had low weight for gestational age, and 18 (30 %) had a major malformation; 27 % required ventilatory support, 33 % sepsis, 32 % necrotizing enterocolitis, 21 % pulmonary hypertension, 14 % bronchopulmonary dysplasia and 2 % intraventricular hemorrhage, without statistically significant differences related to the order, presentation at birth, sex and number of placentas and amniotic sacs. Eight 24-week triplets died, four over 28 weeks, and a siamese (p = 38). There was no difference in hospital days between triplets. Conclusions: the triplets mortality is low and mainly associated with extreme prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction and sepsis. PMID:24290011

  2. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: understanding the dynamics of neonatal mortality in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Rwashana, Agnes Semwanga; Nakubulwa, Sarah; Nakakeeto-Kijjambu, Margaret; Adam, Taghreed

    2014-01-01

    Background Of the three million newborns that die each year, Uganda ranks fifth highest in neonatal mortality rates, with 43,000 neonatal deaths each year. Despite child survival and safe motherhood programmes towards reducing child mortality, insufficient attention has been given to this critical first month of life. There is urgent need to innovatively employ alternative solutions that take into account the intricate complexities of neonatal health and the health systems. In this paper, we ...

  3. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison J. Pollock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background - Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case - Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology - Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1 myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2 myocyte necrosis and eventually (3 fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion - The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM.

  4. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Allison J; Hitt, Stacy L; Stier, Michael A; Houser, Laura M

    2015-10-01

    Background Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM) is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1) myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2) myocyte necrosis and eventually (3) fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM. PMID:26495174

  5. [Evolution of neonatal mortality at the Blida University Teaching Hospital (Algeria) between 1999 and 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzaoucha, A; El Kebboub, A; Aliche, A

    2010-02-01

    Within the framework of the active information system set up by the department of epidemiology on hospital mortality at the Blida (Algeria) University Teaching Hospital (CHU), a study was carried out to assess the importance and evolution of neonatal mortality recorded at the CHU in the last eight years (1999-2006) as well as the causes of neonatal death. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) was used to encode the nature of the causal disease. Using the software EpiInfo™ in its sixth version performed data entry, monitoring and analysis. On the whole, 2,167 neonatal deaths were recorded at the CHU during the study period, representing a proportional mortality of 25.4%. Early neonatal mortality (0-6 days) accounted for 83.4% of all neonatal mortality. Nearly two thirds of early neonatal deaths occurred in the first three days of life. The monthly evolution of the number of early neonatal deaths revealed a significant rising trend during the study period (P < 0.05) without identification of seasonal effect. The sex ratio was practically the same for early and late neonatal mortality, respectively 1.4 and 1.5. Prematurity accounted for 42.1% of the deaths in early neonatal deaths, followed by respiratory distress syndrome and infection, respectively 17.0 and 14.4%. Infections, with a relative frequency of 36.2%, represented the most common cause for the late neonatal mortality. The rate of early neonatal mortality during the study period, when this one took for denominator the number of newborns admitted in neonatology to express the mortality of service, was 15.6%. Throughout the study period, the rate of early neonatal mortality, without counting the deaths among transferred newborms, could be estimated at 19.2 per 1,000 live births, while the overall neonatal mortality rate could be estimated at 22.3 per 1,000 live births. No significant temporal tendency was pointed out. The CHU of Blida is not characterized by a lower risk of neonatal mortality

  6. Time-trends and causes of infant, neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Mexico, 1980-1990

    OpenAIRE

    VANDALE SUSAN; DE LA LUZ KAGEYAMA MARÍA; RASCÓN-PACHECO RAMÓN ALBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Objective. This article analyzes the time-trends and causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality in Mexico during the 1980’s. Material and methods. Data on infant deaths came from yearly tabulations (1980 to 1990) published by the Mexican government. Time-trends of mortality rates were determined by simple linear regression models. The parallelism test was performed for evaluating similarities in trends in neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates by causes. Results. During th...

  7. Neonatal morbidity and mortality in tribal and rural communities in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Niswade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Little is known about the natural history of neonates born in the rural and tribal areas in India. The Neonatal Disease Surveillance Study (NDSS measures the incidence of high-priority neonatal diseases, neonatal health events and associated risk factors to plan appropriate and effective actions. Materials and Methods: The NDSS is being conducted in Ramtek Revenue Block, Nagpur district, Maharashtra state, given its considerably high level of neonatal mortality. All households from five selected primary health centers were screened. Both active and passive surveillance systems were used for systematic collection of mother′s health during pregnancy and of baby′s health from birth to 4 months after birth. First-year results from November 2006 to October 2007 are presented. Results: Pregnancy outcomes were available for 1,136 women, with an overall neonatal mortality of 73 per 1,000 live births. The pregnancy outcomes varied by gestational age of the baby; miscarriages and abortions were higher in tribal than in non-tribal women, and tribal women had higher rates of low-birth weight (LBW neonates than non-tribal women. The main cause of neonatal mortality was LBW, followed by sepsis and respiratory illness. The mortality of non-tribal babies was most strongly associated with pre term. For tribal babies, mortality was also associated with maternal morbidity and delay in the initiation of breastfeeding. Interpretation and Conclusions: The NDSS provides valuable information on the potentially modifiable factors associated with increased likelihood of neonatal mortality and morbidity. The Neonatal Health Research Initiative is now developing community-based interventions to reduce the high rate of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the rural areas of India.

  8. Quantifying spatial disparities in neonatal mortality using a structured additive regression model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence N Kazembe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality contributes a large proportion towards early childhood mortality in developing countries, with considerable geographical variation at small areas within countries. METHODS: A geo-additive logistic regression model is proposed for quantifying small-scale geographical variation in neonatal mortality, and to estimate risk factors of neonatal mortality. Random effects are introduced to capture spatial correlation and heterogeneity. The spatial correlation can be modelled using the Markov random fields (MRF when data is aggregated, while the two dimensional P-splines apply when exact locations are available, whereas the unstructured spatial effects are assigned an independent Gaussian prior. Socio-economic and bio-demographic factors which may affect the risk of neonatal mortality are simultaneously estimated as fixed effects and as nonlinear effects for continuous covariates. The smooth effects of continuous covariates are modelled by second-order random walk priors. Modelling and inference use the empirical Bayesian approach via penalized likelihood technique. The methodology is applied to analyse the likelihood of neonatal deaths, using data from the 2000 Malawi demographic and health survey. The spatial effects are quantified through MRF and two dimensional P-splines priors. RESULTS: Findings indicate that both fixed and spatial effects are associated with neonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, therefore, suggests that the challenge to reduce neonatal mortality goes beyond addressing individual factors, but also require to understanding unmeasured covariates for potential effective interventions.

  9. Neonatal Mortality Risk Factors in a Rural Part of Iran: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaman, R. (PhD); K Holakouie Naieni; B. Golestan; H Nabavizadeh; M. Yunesian

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Due to complex causal framework of neonatal mortality, improvement of this health indicator is quite gradual and it's decreasing trend is not as great as other health indicators such as infant and under 5 mortality rates.This study was conducted to evaluate neonatal mortality risk factors based on nested case-control design."nMethods:  The study population was 6900 neonates who were born in rural areas of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province (South of Iran)...

  10. Birth spacing and neonatal mortality in India: Dynamics, frailty and fecundity

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalotra, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic panel data model of neonatal mortality and birth spacing is analyzed, accounting for causal effects of birth spacing on subsequent mortality and of mortality on the next birth interval, while controlling for unobserved heterogeneity in mortality (frailty) and birth spacing (fecundity). The model is estimated using micro data on about 29000 children of 6700 Indian mothers, for whom a complete retrospective record of fertility and child mortality is available. Information on steriliza...

  11. Morbidity and mortality of premature neonates after introduction of national in vitro fertilisation programme: Our experience

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević Slobodan; Konstantinidis Georgios; Doronjski Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Infertility occurs in approximately10% of couples and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is its most efficient treatment method. The National IVF Programme started in October 1st, 2006. Objective. Examination of morbidity and mortality of premature neonates conceived by IVF after initiation of the National IVF Programme. Methods. Retrospective analysis of history charts of IVF premature neonates treated at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of the Institute of Child and Youth Hea...

  12. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne;

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age ...

  13. Evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine Caribou Herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine caribou herd in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge....

  14. Neonatal Mortality Risk Factors in a Rural Part of Iran: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chaman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Due to complex causal framework of neonatal mortality, improvement of this health indicator is quite gradual and it's decreasing trend is not as great as other health indicators such as infant and under 5 mortality rates.This study was conducted to evaluate neonatal mortality risk factors based on nested case-control design."nMethods:  The study population was 6900 neonates who were born in rural areas of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province (South of Iran. They were under follow up till the end of neonatal period and the outcome of interest was neonatal death. By using risk set sampling method, 97 cases and 97 controls were selected in study cohort."nResults: Prematurity (OR= 5.57, LBW (OR= 7.68, C-section (OR= 7.27, birth rank more than 3 (OR=6.95 and birth spac­ing less than 24 months (OR= 4.65 showed significant statistical association (P< 0.05 with neonatal mortality. The Popula­tion Attributable Fraction (PAF was 0.45 for LBW, 0.40 for prematurity, 0.28 for C-section, 0.30 for birth rank more than 3, and 0.16 for birth spacing less than 24 months."nConclusion: Prematurity, low birth weight, C-section, birth spacing less than 24 months and birth rank more than 3 are impor­tant risk factors for neonatal mortality.

  15. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality in Adolescent Mother's in Sub Saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaiya, Astha; Kiss, Ligia; Baraitser, Paula; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Hildon, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 14 million mothers aged 15 - 19 years give birth annually. The number of teenage births in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is particularly high with an estimated 50% of mothers under the age of 20. Adolescent mothers have a significantly higher risk of neonatal mortality in comparison to adults. The objective of this review was to compare perinatal/neonatal mortality in Sub Saharan Africa and it's associated risk factors between adolescents and adults. We systematically sear...

  16. Determinants of neonatal and under-three mortality in Central Asian countries: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krämer, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies dealt with factors associated with childhood mortality, especially in developing countries, but less is known about former communistic countries. We therefore analyzed the factors affecting mortality rates among children in the Central Asian countries Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. We focused on the impact of living place (rural versus urban and age dependency (neonatal versus under-three mortality on the mortality risk. Methods: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys data (DHS for the three Central Asian countries. The combined data set included information about 2867 children under the age of three, 135 of whom died. We studied three multiple logistic regression models: for the mortality under the age of three, for neonatal mortality (1st month of life and for mortality in 2nd-36th month of life. Results: Under-three mortality was independently associated with living in a rural versus urban area (OR 1.69 (CI 1.11-2.56, birth order and mother not being currently married vs. married (OR 0.52 (CI 0.25-1.08. There was a lower risk of mortality for children living in larger families (six or more household members vs. less than six, OR 0.45 (CI 0.30-0.65. Living in a rural area was more strongly associated with mortality in 2-36 month of life than with neonatal mortality. Differences between countries were greater in neonatal mortality than in mortality between 2nd-36th month of life. Conclusions: This study suggests that urban-rural differences with respect to childhood mortality in these countries persist after adjusting for several socioeconomic factors.

  17. Irish neonatal mortality statistics for 2004 and over the past 17 years: how do we compare internationally?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, P

    2012-02-01

    In the past 17 years neonatal mortality survey has provided important data on the trends in deaths of all live born infants born in Southern Ireland who are greater than 500 g birth weight and who die within the first 28 days of life. The aims of this study were to report neonatal mortality data for Southern Ireland for 2004, to examine trends in neonatal mortality over the past 17 years and compare Irish Neonatal Mortality rates to other countries around the world. The neonatal mortality rate for 2004 was 2.9\\/1000 with a corrected NMR of 1.9\\/1000. The response rate to the survey was 100%. Prematurity is now the leading cause of neonatal mortality representing a change from previous years. Deaths related to asphyxia have remained largely unchanged. When compared to international figures Ireland compares favourably to other countries around the world.

  18. Effect of case management on neonatal mortality due to sepsis and pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Robert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year almost one million newborns die from infections, mostly in low-income countries. Timely case management would save many lives but the relative mortality effect of varying strategies is unknown. We have estimated the effect of providing oral, or injectable antibiotics at home or in first-level facilities, and of in-patient hospital care on neonatal mortality from pneumonia and sepsis for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Methods We conducted systematic searches of multiple databases to identify relevant studies with mortality data. Standardized abstraction tables were used and study quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. Meta-analyses were undertaken where appropriate. For interventions with biological plausibility but low quality evidence, a Delphi process was undertaken to estimate effectiveness. Results Searches of 2876 titles identified 7 studies. Among these, 4 evaluated oral antibiotics for neonatal pneumonia in non-randomised, concurrently controlled designs. Meta-analysis suggested reductions in all-cause neonatal mortality (RR 0.75 95% CI 0.64- 0.89; 4 studies and neonatal pneumonia-specific mortality (RR 0.58 95% CI 0.41- 0.82; 3 studies. Two studies (1 RCT, 1 observational study, evaluated community-based neonatal care packages including injectable antibiotics and reported mortality reductions of 44% (RR= 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.77 and 34% (RR =0.66, 95% CI 0.47-0.93, but the interpretation of these results is complicated by co-interventions. A third, clinic-based, study reported a case-fatality ratio of 3.3% among neonates treated with injectable antibiotics as outpatients. No studies were identified evaluating injectable antibiotics alone for neonatal pneumonia. Delphi consensus (median from 20 respondents effects on sepsis-specific mortality were 30% reduction for oral antibiotics, 65% for injectable antibiotics and 75% for injectable antibiotics on pneumonia-specific mortality. No trials were

  19. Mortality and morbidity analysis in neonates supported by invasive mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azer Kılıç Başkan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate mortality, morbidity, and invasivemechanical ventilation complications in mechanicallyventilated neonates in a tertiary care hospital, Istanbul,Turkey.Materials and methods: The neonates followed on invasivemechanical ventilation from January 2008 to December2009 were included in the study. A chart is formed foreach patient to record patient delivery room and clinicaldata prospectively.Results: The study population consisted of 236 neonates.Eighty-five percent were born at ≤37 completed weeks ofgestation (n=201. Fifty-two percent (n=123 were males.The mean gestational age was 31.9±5 weeks. The meanbirthweight was 1870.8±921.8 g. Antenatal steroid ratewas 13.3% (n=20 in 150 cases born at ≤34 weeks of gestation.Respiratory distress syndrome (n=100, 42,3%,perinatal depression and asphyxia (n=51, 21,6%, andsepsis (n=47, 19.9% were the commonest indications.Mechanical ventilation related complications (nosocomialinfection (n=57, pulmonary hemorrhage (n=30,pneumonia (n=10, pneumothorax (n=9, and atelectasis(n=4 developed in 33.5% of neonates (n=79. Bronchopulmonarydysplasia was 9.3%, intracranial hemorrhage(≥grade 3 8.47%, periventricular leukomalacia 5.93%,necrotizing enterocolitis (>stage 2 0.42%, and retinopathyof prematurity (>stage 2 2.96%. Mortality rate was30.17%. Neonates born at 1000 gram (p<0.05, p<0.05,respectively.Conclusions: Low birthweight and low gestational ageare important risk factors for neonatal mortality and morbidity.Low frequency of antenatal steroid use may be acontributing factor to increase neonatal mortality and morbidity.J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4: 483-492Key words: Neonate, invasive mechanical ventilation,mortality, morbidity

  20. Challenges and Frugal Remedies for Lowering Facility Based Neonatal Mortality and Morbidity: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Amadi, Hippolite O.; Akin O. Osibogun; Olateju Eyinade; Kawuwa, Mohammed B.; Uwakwem, Angela C.; Ibekwe, Maryann U.; Peter Alabi; Chinyere Ezeaka; Eleshin, Dada G.; Ibadin, Mike O.

    2014-01-01

    Millennium development goal target on infant mortality (MDG4) by 2015 would not be realised in some low-resource countries. This was in part due to unsustainable high-tech ideas that have been poorly executed. Prudent but high impact techniques could have been synthesised in these countries. A collaborative outreach was initiated to devise frugal measures that could reduce neonatal deaths in Nigeria. Prevailing issues of concern that could militate against neonatal survival within care centre...

  1. Admission clinicopathological data, length of stay, cost and mortality in an equine neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    M.N. Saulez; Gummow, B.; Slovis, N.M.; T.D. Byars; M. Frazer; K. MacGillivray; F.T. Bain

    2007-01-01

    Veterinary internists need to prognosticate patients quickly and accurately in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This may depend on laboratory data collected on admission, the cost of hospitalisation, length of stay (LOS) and mortality rate experienced in the NICU. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study of 62 equine neonates admitted to a NICU of a private equine referral hospital to determine the prognostic value of venous clinicopathological data collected on admission before th...

  2. Field evaluation of an orf vaccine in sheep and goat flocks with high neonatal mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Giadinis Nektarios D; Filliusis George; Lafi Shawkat Q.; Panousis Nikolaos; Pourliotis Konstantinos; Bojkovski Jovan; Karatzias Harilaos

    2007-01-01

    A high percent of annual neonatal mortality attributed to orf infection was observed between 2001 and 2004 in 2 sheep and 2 mixed (sheep and goat) flocks of Northern Greece. In order to protect the neonatal lambs and kids from orf infection a commercially available live orf vaccine was used. Pregnant sheep and goats were vaccinated subcutaneously a month before parturition, while 10 sheep and 10 goats in each flock remained unvaccinated and were used as negative controls. The vaccine was sign...

  3. Determinants and causes of neonatal mortality in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis of prospective follow up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmesa Tura Debelew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is among the countries with the highest neonatal mortality with the rate of 37 deaths per 1000 live births. In spite of many efforts by the government and other partners, non-significant decline has been achieved in the last 15 years. Thus, identifying the determinants and causes are very crucial for policy and program improvement. However, studies are scarce in the country in general and in Jimma zone in particular. OBJECTIVE: To identify the determinants and causes of neonatal mortality in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was conducted among 3463 neonates from September 2012 to December 2013. The data were collected by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS V.20.0 and STATA 13. Verbal autopsies were conducted to identify causes of neonatal death. Mixed-effects multilevel logistic regression model was used to identify determinants of neonatal mortality. RESULTS: The status of neonatal mortality rate was 35.5 (95%CI: 28.3, 42.6 per 1000 live births. Though significant variation existed between clusters in relation to neonatal mortality, cluster-level variables were found to have non-significant effect on neonatal mortality. Individual-level variables such as birth order, frequency of antenatal care use, delivery place, gestation age at birth, premature rupture of membrane, complication during labor, twin births, size of neonate at birth and neonatal care practice were identified as determinants of neonatal mortality. Birth asphyxia (47.5%, neonatal infections (34.3% and prematurity (11.1% were the three leading causes of neonatal mortality accounting for 93%. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed high status of neonatal mortality in the study area. Higher-level variables had less importance in determining neonatal mortality. Individual level variables related to care during pregnancy, intra-partum complications and care, neonatal conditions and the immediate

  4. Patterns and causes of neonatal and postneonatal mortality in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, S

    1989-01-01

    Community-level research data from a Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) program and comparison areas in rural Bangladesh indicate that 60 percent of infant deaths occurred in the neonatal period in both areas. Since the inception of the MCH/FP program, mortality rates declined relative to those in the comparison area. This decline, however, was confined to the neonatal period death rates only, with mortality rates in the postneonatal period remaining similar in the two areas. Prematurity accounted for approximately 40 percent of deaths in the neonatal period. Cause-of-death data indicated that the differences in the neonatal mortality rates between the two areas was mainly due to a marked decline in tetanus neonatorum deaths in the MCH/FP program area, because of the tetanus toxoid immunization of pregnant women there. The interventions in the MCH/FP area, however, did not significantly influence mortality due to any other cause. This study provides an explanation for the limited impact on infant mortality of health interventions that focus on diarrheal diseases and immunizations of children. PMID:2734810

  5. Determinants of mortality in neonatal intestinal obstruction in Ile Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademuyiwa A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal intestinal obstruction (NIO is a common cause of mortality. This study determined the causes of mortality in patients with NIO at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile Ife. Patients and Methods: Records of all cases of NIO managed at OAUTHC between January 1996 and December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed and the possible factors that may result in mortality were analysed. Results: Sixty-three neonates with intestinal obstruction were managed, representing 24.3% of the neonatal admissions during the study period. Forty-two were males and 21 were females (M:F = 2:1. The majority (71.4% of the patients presented within the first week of life. Anorectal malformation constituted 57.1% of the causes of NIO. Other causes included Hirschsprung′s disease, duodenal atresia, intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus and jejunal atresia. There were 18 deaths, with a mortality rate of 28.6%. Reoperation, postoperative bleeding and peroperative sepsis were significant determinants of mortality. Conclusion: NIO is associated with significant mortality in our centre. Repeat surgery, postoperative bleeding and sepsis were the significant factors that contributed to mortality in NIO.

  6. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  7. A strategy for reducing neonatal mortality at high altitude using oxygen conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J B

    2015-11-01

    Neonatal mortality increases with altitude. For example, in Peru the incidence of neonatal mortality in the highlands has been shown to be about double that at lower altitudes. An important factor is the low inspired PO2 of newborn babies. Typically, expectant mothers at high altitude will travel to low altitude to have their babies if possible, but often this is not feasible because of economic factors. The procedure described here raises the oxygen concentration in the air of rooms where neonates are being housed and, in effect, this means that both the mother and baby are at a much lower altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that the oxygen concentration of the air is increased rather than the temperature being reduced. The procedure is now used at high altitude in many hotels, dormitories and telescope facilities, and has been shown to be feasible and effective. PMID:26426252

  8. Pregnancy loss and neonatal mortality in Rwanda : The differential role of inter-pregnancy intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habimana Kabano, I.

    2015-01-01

    Rwanda has so far paid little attention to 'healthy' intervals between pregnancies awareness programs on family planning and maternal and child health. Results of this thesis shed some light on the contribution of IPI and the type of previous pregnancy outcome on fetal survival, neonatal mortality a

  9. Maternal tetanus toxoid vaccination and neonatal mortality in rural north India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Preventable neonatal mortality due to tetanus infection remains common. We aimed to examine antenatal vaccination impact in a context of continuing high neonatal mortality in rural northern India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the third round of the Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS 2005-06, mortality of most recent singleton births was analysed in discrete-time logistic model with maternal tetanus vaccination, together with antenatal care utilisation and supplementation with iron and folic acid. 59% of mothers reported receiving antenatal care, 48% reported receiving iron and folic acid supplementation and 68% reported receiving two or more doses of tetanus toxoid (TT vaccination. The odds of all-cause neonatal death were reduced following one or more antenatal dose of TT with odds ratios (OR of 0.46 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.78 after one dose and 0.45 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.66 after two or more doses. Reported utilisation of antenatal care and iron-folic acid supplementation did not influence neonatal mortality. In the statistical model, 16% (95% CI 5% to 27% of neonatal deaths could be attributed to a lack of at least two doses of TT vaccination during pregnancy, representing an estimated 78,632 neonatal deaths in absolute terms. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial gains in newborn survival could be achieved in rural North India through increased coverage of antenatal TT vaccination. The apparent substantial protective effect of a single antenatal dose of TT requires further study. It may reflect greater population vaccination coverage and indicates that health programming should prioritise universal antenatal coverage with at least one dose.

  10. Neonatal diarrhea by bovine coronavirus (BCoV in beef cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Lorenzetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is the second most important viral agent involved in neonatal diarrhea in calves worldwide. The reports on the frequency of BCoV infection in beef cattle herds under extensive management are uncommon in Brazil. The present study analyzed 93 diarrheic fecal samples of calves up to 60 days of age from 13 commercial beef cattle herds located in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and Rondônia. The fecal samples were collected during 2009-2012 and were previously analyzed for the presence of bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA, with negative results. The presence of BCoV in the fecal samples was evaluated by the partial amplification of the N gene by using the semi-nested PCR technique. The expected products of 251 bp length were amplified 33.3% (31/93 of the analyzed diarrheic fecal samples. The results revealed that coronaviruses has important participation in the neonatal diarrhea complex of beef cattle herds reared extensively from the different geographical regions of Brazil.

  11. The Impact of Bluetongue on Rumminants Mortality. (Bovine and Ovine)

    OpenAIRE

    NZUONKWELLE, Nzumenang

    2008-01-01

    Bluetongue is a disease of sheep, but cattle are the principal vertebrate reservoirs of the virus. Once established, "it is impossible to actively eradicate bluetongue virus". The virus will circulate, generally subclinically, in cattle and other ruminants, and in midges. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between the bluetongue incidence data(2006) and the mortality data(2006). To achieve the main objective of this report, the difference in the 2006 mortality and mean...

  12. The BRACELET Study: surveys of mortality in UK neonatal and paediatric intensive care trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platt Martin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subject of death and bereavement in the context of randomised controlled trials in neonatal or paediatric intensive care is under-researched. The objectives of this phase of the Bereavement and RAndomised ControlLEd Trials (BRACELET Study were to determine trial activity in UK neonatal and paediatric intensive care (2002-06; numbers of deaths before hospital discharge; and variation in mortality across intensive care units and trials and to determine whether bereavement support policies were available within trials. These are essential prerequisites to considering the implications of future policies and practice subsequent to bereavement following a child's enrolment in a trial. Methods The units survey involved neonatal units providing level 2 or 3 care, and paediatric units providing level II care or above; the trials survey involved trials where allocation was randomized and interventions were delivered to intensive care patients, or to parents but designed to affect patient outcomes. Results Information was available from 191/220 (87% neonatal units (149 level 2 or 3 care; and 28/32 (88% paediatric units. 90/177 (51% eligible responding units participated in one or more trial (76 neonatal, 14 paediatric and 54 neonatal units and 6 paediatric units witnessed at least one death. 50 trials were identified (36 neonatal, 14 paediatric. 3,137 babies were enrolled in neonatal trials, 210 children in paediatric trials. Deaths ranged 0-278 (median [IQR interquartile range] 2 [1, 14.5] per neonatal trial, 0-4 (median [IQR] 1 [0, 2.5] per paediatric trial. 534 (16% participants died post-enrolment: 522 (17% in neonatal trials, 12 (6% in paediatric trials. Trial participants ranged 1-236 (median [IQR] 21.5 [8, 39.8] per neonatal unit, 1-53 (median [IQR] 11.5 [2.3, 33.8] per paediatric unit. Deaths ranged 0-37 (median [IQR] 3.5 [0.3, 8.8] per neonatal unit, 0-7 (median [IQR] 0.5 [0, 1.8] per paediatric unit. Three trials had a

  13. Morbidity and mortality of premature neonates after introduction of national in vitro fertilisation programme: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infertility occurs in approximately10% of couples and in vitro fertilisation (IVF is its most efficient treatment method. The National IVF Programme started in October 1st, 2006. Objective. Examination of morbidity and mortality of premature neonates conceived by IVF after initiation of the National IVF Programme. Methods. Retrospective analysis of history charts of IVF premature neonates treated at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU of the Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Serbia, from March 1st, 2007 to March 1st, 2008. Results. Of 189 treated premature neonates, 25 (13.23% were IVF conceived, with mean gestational age (GA of 29.46±3.28 gestational weeks (GW, one-minute Apgar score 5.44±2.45, five-minute Apgar score 7.16±1.92 and birth weight (BW 1299±484.35 g; from singleton 12 (48%, twin 10 (40%, and trigeminal 3 (12% gestations. The largest number of neonates were of GA between 29 and 31.9 GW (12; 48% and BW between 1500 and 2499 g (9; 36%. All of them were treated due to respiratory distress syndrome, complicated in 2 (8% with air leak syndromes and in 4 (16% with pulmonary haemorrhage. Congenital anomalies were detected in 2 (8% and intracranial haemorrhage developed subsequently in 21 (84% neonates. Lethal outcome occurred in 7 (28% neonates, in all cases in lower gestation groups (<29 GW. Variable analysis showed significantly higher incidence of chorioamnionitis (p=0.0004 and lower GA (p~0.00, BW (p~0.00, one-minute Apgar score (p=0.0007 as well as significant difference in prophylactic surfactant application (p~0.00 and mean arterial pressure on admission (p=0.002. Conclusion. Morbidity and mortality of IVF premature neonates does not differ significantly from that of other premature neonates treated at NICU. Prematurity and low BW are important factors in pathology of these neonates and final outcome is influenced by perinatal asphyxia, risk of systemic infection, prophylactic

  14. SOME OF THE RISK FACTORS OF NILI-RAVI BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS) NEONATAL CALF MORTALITY IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    T. ZAMAN, A. KHAN AND M. Z. AKHTAR

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate neonatal calf mortality (NCM) in 864 Nili-Ravi buffalo calves born during 1993-2000 at the Livestock Production Research Institute (LPRI), Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan. The overall mortality in buffalo neonates was 9.4%. The NCM in relation to birth weight, sex and age of neonatal calf showed non-significant difference. The highest mortality was recorded during 2nd week of age (35.0 and 39.0%) and summer season (11.5 and 12.3%) in male and female buf...

  15. The effect of health facility delivery on neonatal mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tura Gurmesa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though promising progress has been made towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal four through substantial reduction in under-five mortality, the decline in neonatal mortality remains stagnant, mainly in the middle and low-income countries. As an option, health facility delivery is assumed to reduce this problem significantly. However, the existing evidences show contradicting conclusions about this fact, particularly in areas where enabling environments are constraint. Thus, this review was conducted with the aim of determining the pooled effect of health facility delivery on neonatal mortality. Methods The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PUBMED, Cochrane Library and Advanced Google Scholar by using combination key terms. The analysis was done by using STATA-11. I2 test statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. Funnel plot, Begg’s test and Egger’s test were used to check for publication bias. Pooled effect size was determined in the form of relative risk in the random-effects model using DerSimonian and Laird's estimator. Results A total of 2,216 studies conducted on the review topic were identified. During screening, 37 studies found to be relevant for data abstraction. From these, only 19 studies fulfilled the preset criteria and included in the analysis. In 10 of the 19 studies included in the analysis, facility delivery had significant association with neonatal mortality; while in 9 studies the association was not significant. Based on the random effects model, the final pooled effect size in the form of relative risk was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.87 for health facility delivery as compared to home delivery. Conclusion Health facility delivery is found to reduce the risk of neonatal mortality by 29% in low and middle income countries. Expansion of health facilities, fulfilling the enabling environments and promoting their utilization during childbirth are

  16. Determinants of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in the City of São Paulo Determinantes da mortalidade neonatal e pós-neonatal no Município de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Jorge Machado

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Child Mortality (mortality of children less than five years has declined considerably in the developing world in the 1990s, but the Infant Mortality has declined less. Therefore, to further reduce child mortality it is important to understand the determinants of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We probabilistically matched 209628 live births and 3842 infant death records from the City of São Paulo, birth cohort of 1998. Data came from SINASC and SIM. We then used logistic regression to analyze the following risk factors of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, delivery mode, plurality, sex, maternal education, maternal age, number of prior losses, prenatal care, race, parity and community development. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Infants of older mothers were less likely to die in the neonatal period; infants of adolescent mothers were more likely to die in both periods. Parities four or higher increased the likelihood of post-neonatal death. Cesarean delivery was not found to be associated with infant mortality. Low number of prenatal care visits, low birth weight, preterm birth and low Apgar scores were associated with neonatal death; Low number of prenatal care visits, low birth weight, and low Apgar scores were associated with post-neonatal death. Finally, having a mother live in a highest developed community decreased the likelihood of infant death, suggesting that unmeasured factors are behind such association.INTRODUÇÃO: Nos países em desenvolvimento, nos anos 90, a mortalidade na infância (de menores de cinco anos apresentou declínio proporcional maior do que o da mortalidade infantil. Para a redução da mortalidade na infância, deve-se entender, logo, os determinantes da mortalidade infantil. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Relacionou-se probabilisticamente dados do SIM e do SINASC: 209628 nascidos vivos e 3842 óbitos infantis do Munic

  17. High maternal and neonatal mortality rates in northern Nigeria: an 8-month observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrier G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gilles Guerrier,1 Bukola Oluyide,2 Maria Keramarou,1 Rebecca Grais1 1Epicentre, Paris, France; 2Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France Background: Despite considerable efforts to reduce the maternal mortality ratio, numerous pregnant women continue to die in many developing countries, including Nigeria. We conducted a study to determine the incidence and causes of maternal mortality over an 8-month period in a rural-based secondary health facility located in Jahun, northern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed in a 41-bed obstetric ward. From October 2010 to May 2011, demographic data, obstetric characteristics, and outcome were collected from all pregnant women admitted. The total number of live births during the study period was recorded in order to calculate the maternal mortality ratio. Results: There were 2,177 deliveries and 39 maternal deaths during the study period, with a maternal mortality ratio of 1,791/100,000 live births. The most common causes of maternal mortality were hemorrhage (26%, puerperal sepsis (19%, and obstructed labor (5%. No significant difference (P = 0.07 in mean time to reach the hospital was noted between fatal cases (1.9 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.6 and nonfatal cases (1.4 hours, 95% CI 1.4–1.5. Two hundred and sixty-six women were admitted presenting with stillbirth. Maternal mortality was higher for unbooked patients than for booked patients (odds ratio 5.1, 95% CI 3.5–6.2, P < 0.0001. The neonatal mortality rate was calculated at 46/1,000 live births. The main primary causes of neonatal deaths were prematurity (44% and birth asphyxia (22%. Conclusion: Maternal and neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high in this setting. Reducing unbooked emergencies should be a priority with continuous programs including orthodox practices in order to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Keywords: fetal mortality, maternal mortality, Nigeria, antenatal care

  18. A systematic review of risk factors for neonatal mortality in Adolescent Mother’s in Sub Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaiya, Astha; Kiss, Ligia; Baraitser, Paula; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Hildon, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, approximately 14 million mothers aged 15 – 19 years give birth annually. The number of teenage births in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is particularly high with an estimated 50% of mothers under the age of 20. Adolescent mothers have a significantly higher risk of neonatal mortality in comparison to adults. The objective of this review was to compare perinatal/neonatal mortality in Sub Saharan Africa and it’s associated risk factors between adolescents and adults. Results We ...

  19. Risk factors for neonatal mortality in rural areas of Bangladesh served by a large NGO programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Alex; Haseen, Fariha; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Uddin, Nowsher; Hossain Khan, Mobarak; Larson, Charles P

    2006-11-01

    Neonatal deaths account for about half of all deaths among children under 5 years of age in Bangladesh, making prevention a major priority. This paper reports on a study of neonatal deaths in 12 areas of Bangladesh served by a large NGO programme, which had high coverage of reproductive health outreach services and relatively low neonatal mortality in recent years. The study aimed to identify the main factors associated with neonatal mortality in these areas, with a view to developing appropriate strategies for prevention. A case-control design was adopted for collection of data from mothers whose children, born alive in 2003, died within 28 days postpartum (142 cases), or did not (617 controls). Crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated as estimates of relative risk for neonatal death, using 'neighbourhood' controls (241) and 'non-neighbourhood' controls (376). A similar proportion of case and control mothers had received NGO health education and maternal health services. The main risk factors for neonatal death among 122 singleton babies, based on the two sets of controls, were: complications during delivery [AOR, 2.6 (95% CI: 1.5-4.5) and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.8-5.3)], prematurity [AOR, 7.2 (95% CI: 3.6-14.4) and 8.3 (95% CI: 4.2-16.5)], care for a sick neonate from an unlicensed 'traditional healer' [AOR, 2.9 (95% CI 0.9-9.5 and 5.9 (95% CI: 1.3-26.3)], or care not sought at all [AOR, 23.3 (95% CI: 3.9-137.4)]. The strongest predictor of neonatal death was having a previous sibling not vaccinated against measles [AOR, 5.9 (95% CI: 2.2-15.5) and 12.0 (95% CI: 4.5-31.7)]. The findings of this study indicate the need for identification of babies at high risk and early postpartum interventions (40.2% of the deaths occurred within 24 hours of delivery). Relevant strategies include special counselling during pregnancy for mothers with risk characteristics, training birth attendants in resuscitation, immediate postnatal check-up in the home for high-risk babies

  20. Utilization of postnatal care for newborns and its association with neonatal mortality in India: An analytical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Abhishek

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 39% of neonatal deaths in India occur on the first day of life, and 57% during the first three days of births. However, the association between postnatal care (PNC for newborns and neonatal mortality has not hitherto been examined. The paper aims to examine the association of PNC for newborns with neonatal mortality in India. Methods Data from District Level Household Survey, waive three (DLHS-3 conducted in 2007–08 is utilized in the study. We used conditional logit regression models to examine the association of PNC with neonatal mortality. The matching variables included birth order and the age of the mother at the birth of the newborn. Results The findings suggest no association between check-up of newborns within 24 hours of birth and neonatal mortality. However, the place where the newborns were examined was significantly associated with neonatal mortality. Moreover, findings do reveal that children of mothers who were advised on ‘keeping baby warm (kangaroo care after birth’ during their antenatal sessions were significantly less likely to die during the neonatal period compared to those children whose mothers were not advised about the same. Conclusions The findings are relevant because ‘keeping baby warm’ is one of the most cost-effective and easiest interventions to save babies from dying during the neonatal period. Though randomized controlled trials have already demonstrated the effectiveness of ‘keeping baby warm’, for the first time this has been found effective in a large-scale population-based study. The findings are of immense value for a country like India where the neonatal mortality rates are unacceptably high.

  1. Using hospital discharge data for determining neonatal morbidity and mortality: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algert Charles S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite widespread use of neonatal hospital discharge data, there are few published reports on the accuracy of population health data with neonatal diagnostic or procedure codes. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of using routinely collected hospital discharge data in identifying neonatal morbidity during the birth admission compared with data from a statewide audit of selected neonatal intensive care (NICU admissions. Methods Validation study of population-based linked hospital discharge/birth data against neonatal intensive care audit data from New South Wales, Australia for 2,432 babies admitted to NICUs, 1994–1996. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values (PPV with exact binomial confidence intervals were calculated for 12 diagnoses and 6 procedures. Results Sensitivities ranged from 37.0% for drainage of an air leak to 97.7% for very low birthweight, specificities all exceeded 85% and PPVs ranged from 70.9% to 100%. In-hospital mortality, low birthweight (≤1500 g, retinopathy of prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration, pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension, selected major anomalies, any mechanical ventilation (including CPAP, major surgery and surgery for patent ductus arteriosus or necrotizing enterocolitis were accurately identified with PPVs over 92%. Transient tachypnea of the newborn and drainage of an air leak had the lowest PPVs, 70.9% and 83.6% respectively. Conclusion Although under-ascertained, routinely collected hospital discharge data had high PPVs for most validated items and would be suitable for risk factor analyses of neonatal morbidity. Procedures tended to be more accurately recorded than diagnoses.

  2. SOME OF THE RISK FACTORS OF NILI-RAVI BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS NEONATAL CALF MORTALITY IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ZAMAN, A. KHAN AND M. Z. AKHTAR

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate neonatal calf mortality (NCM in 864 Nili-Ravi buffalo calves born during 1993-2000 at the Livestock Production Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan. The overall mortality in buffalo neonates was 9.4%. The NCM in relation to birth weight, sex and age of neonatal calf showed non-significant difference. The highest mortality was recorded during 2nd week of age (35.0 and 39.0% and summer season (11.5 and 12.3% in male and female buffalo neonatal calves, respectively. Mortality was also high in calves born to first parity dams (11.3%. Morbidity and mortality due to various disease conditions showed highly significant (P = 0.0001 difference. Neonatal calf diarrhoea (NCD rendered the highest morbidity (16.6% and mortality (5.2%, followed by pneumonia and pneumono-enteritis. Mange (3.4%, navel-ill (3.1% and umbilical hernia (1.6% lead morbidity only. Relative risk of morbidity (two and seven times and mortality (three and eight times was more in calves with intermediate and low immunoglobulins (Igs concentration, respectively as compared to calves having high Igs concentration (P = 0.000.

  3. Maternal obesity and neonatal mortality according to subtypes of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Vaeth, Michael; Bech, Bodil H;

    2007-01-01

    -2002) who were interviewed during the second trimester. Information about pregnancy outcomes and neonatal deaths (n=230) was obtained from national registers. The association was estimated by Cox regression analyses and results were presented as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS......: Compared with infants of mothers who were at a normal weight before pregnancy (BMI of 18.5 or more but less than 25), neonatal mortality was increased in infants of mothers who were overweight (BMI of 25 or more but less than 30) or obese (BMI of 30 or more) (adjusted hazard ratios 1.7, CI 1.2-2.5, and 1.......6, CI 1.0-2.4, respectively). For preterm infants (n=3,934, 136 deaths), neonatal mortality in infants born after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) was significantly increased if they were born to an overweight or obese mother (adjusted hazard ratios 3.5, CI 1.4-8.7, and 5.7, CI 2...

  4. Colostrum from Cows Immunized with a Vaccine Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia Contains Allo-Antibodies that Cross-React with Human MHC-I Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Kasonta, Rahel; Holsteg, Mark; Duchow, Karin; James W Dekker; Cussler, Klaus; Bendall, Justin G.; Bastian, Max

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, a new haemorrhagic syndrome affecting newborn calves, Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), was reported in southern Germany. It is characterized by severe bleeding, destruction of the red bone marrow, and a high case fatality rate. The syndrome is caused by alloreactive, maternal antibodies that are ingested by the calf with colostrum and result from a dam vaccination with one particular vaccine against Bovine-Viral-Diarrhoea-Virus. Because bovine colostrum is increasingly gaining int...

  5. Distance decay in delivery care utilisation associated with neonatal mortality. A case referent study in northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Leif

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to reduce neonatal mortality are essential if the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 is to be met. The impact of spatial dimensions of neonatal survival has not been thoroughly investigated even though access to good quality delivery care is considered to be one of the main priorities when trying to reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined the association between distance from the mother's home to the closest health facility and neonatal mortality, and investigated the influence of distance on patterns of perinatal health care utilisation. Methods A surveillance system of live births and neonatal deaths was set up in eight districts of Quang Ninh province, Vietnam, from July 2008 to December 2009. Case referent design including all neonatal deaths and randomly selected newborn referents from the same population. Interviews were performed with mothers of all subjects and GIS coordinates for mothers' homes and all health facilities in the study area were obtained. Straight-line distances were calculated using ArcGIS software. Results A total of 197 neonatal deaths and 11 708 births were registered and 686 referents selected. Health care utilisation prior to and at delivery varied with distance to the health facility. Mothers living farthest away (4th and 5th quintile, ≥1257 meters from a health facility had an increased risk of neonatal mortality (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.40 - 2.75, adjusted for maternal age at delivery and marital status. When stratified for socio-economic factors there was an increased risk for neonatal mortality for mothers with low education and from poor households who lived farther away from a health facility. Mothers who delivered at home had more than twice as long to a health facility compared to mothers who delivered at a health care facility. There was no difference in age at death when comparing neonates born at home or health facility deliveries (p = 0.56. Conclusion Distance to the

  6. Neonatal resuscitation and immediate newborn assessment and stimulation for the prevention of neonatal deaths: a systematic review, meta-analysis and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Waldemar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of 136 million babies born annually, around 10 million require assistance to breathe. Each year 814,000 neonatal deaths result from intrapartum-related events in term babies (previously “birth asphyxia” and 1.03 million from complications of prematurity. No systematic assessment of mortality reduction from tactile stimulation or resuscitation has been published. Objective To estimate the mortality effect of immediate newborn assessment and stimulation, and basic resuscitation on neonatal deaths due to term intrapartum-related events or preterm birth, for facility and home births. Methods We conducted systematic reviews for studies reporting relevant mortality or morbidity outcomes. Evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria adapted to provide a systematic approach to mortality effect estimates for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Meta-analysis was performed if appropriate. For interventions with low quality evidence but strong recommendation for implementation, a Delphi panel was convened to estimate effect size. Results We identified 24 studies of neonatal resuscitation reporting mortality outcomes (20 observational, 2 quasi-experimental, 2 cluster randomized controlled trials, but none of immediate newborn assessment and stimulation alone. A meta-analysis of three facility-based studies examined the effect of resuscitation training on intrapartum-related neonatal deaths (RR= 0.70, 95%CI 0.59-0.84; this estimate was used for the effect of facility-based basic neonatal resuscitation (additional to stimulation. The evidence for preterm mortality effect was low quality and thus expert opinion was sought. In community-based studies, resuscitation training was part of packages with multiple concurrent interventions, and/or studies did not distinguish term intrapartum-related from preterm deaths, hence no meta-analysis was conducted. Our Delphi panel of 18 experts estimated that immediate newborn assessment and stimulation would

  7. The National Rural Health Mission in India: its impact on maternal, neonatal, and infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Shyama; Paul, Vinod K; Yadav, Namrata; Gupta, Shuchita

    2015-10-01

    The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) has been a watershed in the history of India's health sector. As a previously unattempted investment, governance, and mobilization effort, the NRHM succeeded in injecting new energy into India's public health system. A huge expansion of infrastructure and human resources is the hallmark of the NRHM action. Demand-side initiatives led to enhanced utilization of public health facilities, especially for facility births. The impact is visible. The Mission has brought Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 within India's grasp. Acceleration in infant and neonatal mortality reduction is especially notable. The NRHM has created conditions for the country to move toward universal health coverage. PMID:26385051

  8. Cholera in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fetal, Neonatal, and Maternal Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-Toan Tran

    Full Text Available Maternal infection with cholera may negatively affect pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this research is to systematically review the literature and determine the risk of fetal, neonatal and maternal death associated with cholera during pregnancy.Medline, Global Health Library, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the key terms cholera and pregnancy for articles published in any language and at any time before August 2013 to quantitatively summarize estimates of fetal, maternal, and neonatal mortality. 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated for each selected study. Random-effect non-linear logistic regression was used to calculate pooled rates and 95% CIs by time period. Studies from the recent period (1991-2013 were compared with studies from 1969-1990. Relative risk (RR estimates and 95% CIs were obtained by comparing mortality of selected recent studies with published national normative data from the closest year.The meta-analysis included seven studies that together involved 737 pregnant women with cholera from six countries. The pooled fetal death rate for 4 studies during 1991-2013 was 7.9% (95% CIs 5.3-10.4, significantly lower than that of 3 studies from 1969-1990 (31.0%, 95% CIs 25.2-36.8. There was no difference in fetal death rate by trimester. The pooled neonatal death rate for 1991-2013 studies was 0.8% (95% CIs 0.0-1.6, and 6.4% (95% CIs 0.0-20.8 for 1969-1990. The pooled maternal death rate for 1991-2013 studies was 0.2% (95% CIs 0.0-0.7, and 5.0% (95% CIs 0.0-16.0 for 1969-1990. Compared with published national mortality estimates, the RR for fetal death of 5.8 (95% CIs 2.9-11.3 was calculated for Haiti (2013, 1.8 (95% CIs 0.3-10.4 for Senegal (2007, and 2.6 (95% CIs 0.5-14.9 for Peru (1991; there were no significant differences in the RR for neonatal or maternal death.Results are limited by the inconsistencies found across included studies but suggest that maternal cholera is associated with adverse

  9. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality by maternal education a population-based study of trends in the Nordic countries, 1981 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntzen, Annett; Mortensen, Laust; Schnor, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    education groups were estimated as risk differences (RD), relative risks (RR) and index of inequality ratio (RII). RESULTS: Overall, rates of infant mortality were in Denmark 5.9 per 1000 live-births, in Finland 4.2 (1987-2000), in Norway 5.3 and in Sweden 4.7. Overall the mortality decreased in all...... educational groups, and the educational level increased in the study period. The time-trends differed between neonatal and postneonatal death. For neonatal death, both the absolute and relative educational differences decreased in Finland and Sweden, increased in Denmark, whereas in Norway a decrease in......BACKGROUND: This study examined changes in the educational gradients in neonatal and postneonatal mortality over a 20-year period in the four largest Nordic countries. METHODS: The study populations were all live-born singleton infants with gestational age of at least 22 weeks from 1981 to 2000...

  10. No relationship between mode of delivery and neonatal mortality and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants aged two years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jun Zhu; Ying-Ying Bao; Guo-Lian Zhang; Li-Xin Ma; Ming-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of age in very low birth weight infants (≤1500 g) born by cesarean with those by vaginal delivery. Methods: In this retrospective, case-control study, we evaluated neonatal mortality, medical conditions and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of corrected age in 710 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born between January 2005 and December 2010. Of the 710 infants, 351 were born by the cesarean and 359/710 by vaginal route. Results: There were no significant differences in neonatal mortality between the cesarean delivery group and vaginal delivery group [56/351 (15.9%) vs. 71/359 (19.8%), P=0.20]. VLBW infants delivered by the cesarean procedure had a higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome than those born by the vaginal route [221/351 (63.0%) vs. 178/359 (49.6%), P Conclusions: In neither neurodevelopment nor neonatal mortality did cesarean birth offered significant advantages to VLBW infants. Moreover, the operation might be associated with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome for VLBW infants. The mode of delivery of VLBW infants should be largely based on obstetric indications and maternal considerations rather than perceived better outcomes for the neonate.

  11. Trends in stillbirths, early and late neonatal mortality in rural Bangladesh: the role of public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsmans, Carine; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Alam, Nurul; Koblinsky, Marge; El Arifeen, Shams

    2008-05-01

    Trends were examined in a cohort study of stillbirths and early and late neonatal deaths in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh between 1975 and 2002, using routinely collected demographic surveillance data. Main outcome measures were stillbirths per 1000 births, early neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths, and late neonatal deaths per 1000 children surviving after 1 week. We performed a logistic regression examining trends over time and between two areas in the three outcome measures, controlling for the effects of parental education, religion, time, geography, parity, maternal age and birth spacing. There was a marked decline in stillbirths, early and late neonatal mortality over time in both areas, though the pace of decline was somewhat faster in the ICDDR,B (International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh) service area. Stillbirths declined by 24% overall in the ICDDR,B service area (crude OR comparing 1996-2002 with 1975-81: 0.76 [95% CI 0.68, 0.84]), compared with 15% in the Government service area (crude OR comparing 1996-2002 with 1975-81: 0.85 [0.76, 0.94]). The overall reduction in early and late neonatal mortality comparing the same periods was 39% and 73%, respectively, in the ICDDR,B area, compared with 30% and 63%, respectively, in the Government service area. Adjusting for socio-economic or demographic factors did not substantially alter the time or area differentials. The dramatic decline in neonatal mortality was, in large part, due to a fall in deaths from neonatal tetanus. The pace of decline was faster in the area receiving intense maternal and child health and family planning interventions, but stillbirths, early and late neonatal deaths also declined in the area not receiving such intense attention, suggesting that factors outside the formal health sector play an important role. PMID:18426522

  12. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B.; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L.; Levene, Malcolm I.; Chervenak, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US) have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status. Purpose The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States. Materials and Methods This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006–2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life) in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams) without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM), nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and “other” or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board. Results Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21–0.53) than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1) and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83–2.38]). The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2). Conclusions This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives

  13. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal

  14. Fetal MRI for prediction of neonatal mortality following preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerschmidt, Agnes; Sauer, Alexandra; Pollak, Arnold [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Pataraia, Anna; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-11-15

    Lung MRI volumetrics may be valuable for fetal assessment following early preterm premature rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM). To evaluate the predictive value of MRI lung volumetrics after pPROM. Retrospective cohort study of 40 fetuses after pPROM in a large, tertiary, perinatal referral center. Fetuses underwent MRI lung volumetrics. Estimated lung volume was expressed as percentage of expected lung volume (our own normal references). Primary outcome was neonatal mortality due to respiratory distress before discharge from hospital. Gestational age range was 16-27 weeks. Estimated-to-expected lung volume was 73% in non-survivors and 102% in survivors (P < 0.05). There were no survivors with a lung volume less than 60% of expected. By logistic regression, mortality could be predicted with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 85%. Fetal MR lung volumetrics may be useful for predicting mortality due to respiratory distress in children with early gestational pPROM. (orig.)

  15. Fetal MRI for prediction of neonatal mortality following preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung MRI volumetrics may be valuable for fetal assessment following early preterm premature rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM). To evaluate the predictive value of MRI lung volumetrics after pPROM. Retrospective cohort study of 40 fetuses after pPROM in a large, tertiary, perinatal referral center. Fetuses underwent MRI lung volumetrics. Estimated lung volume was expressed as percentage of expected lung volume (our own normal references). Primary outcome was neonatal mortality due to respiratory distress before discharge from hospital. Gestational age range was 16-27 weeks. Estimated-to-expected lung volume was 73% in non-survivors and 102% in survivors (P < 0.05). There were no survivors with a lung volume less than 60% of expected. By logistic regression, mortality could be predicted with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 85%. Fetal MR lung volumetrics may be useful for predicting mortality due to respiratory distress in children with early gestational pPROM. (orig.)

  16. A amamentação na primeira hora de vida e mortalidade neonatal Breastfeeding during the first hour of life and neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a correlação entre o percentual de amamentação na primeira hora de vida e as taxas de mortalidade neonatal. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados dados secundários de 67 países obtidos das pesquisas realizadas com a metodologia do Demographic and Health Surveys. Inicialmente, para a análise dos dados, foram empregadas a Correlação de Spearman (IC 95% e a análise gráfica com modificação de Kernel, seguidas de regressão de Poisson Binomial Negativa, ajustando para possíveis fatores de confundimento. RESULTADOS: O percentual de aleitamento materno na primeira hora de vida esteve negativamente associado com as taxas de mortalidade neonatal (Rho = -0,245, p = 0,046, e esta correlação foi mais forte entre os países com mortalidade neonatal superior a 29 mortes/1.000 nascidos vivos (Rho = -0,327, p = 0,048. Os países com os menores tercis de aleitamento materno na primeira hora de vida tiveram uma taxa 24% maior de mortalidade neonatal (razão de taxa = 1,24, IC 95% = 1,07-1,44, mesmo ajustando para fatores de confundimento. CONCLUSÃO: O efeito protetor da amamentação na primeira hora de vida sobre a mortalidade neonatal encontrado nesse estudo ecológico é consistente com o de estudos observacionais, e aponta para a importância de se adotar a amamentação na primeira hora de vida como prática de atenção neonatal.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between breastfeeding in the first hour of life with neonatal mortality rates. METHODS: The present study used secondary data from 67 countries, obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Initially, for data analysis, Spearman Correlation (95% CI and Kernel graphical analysis were employed, followed by a Negative Binomial Poisson regression model, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Breastfeeding within the first hour of life was negatively correlated with neonatal mortality (Spearman's Rho = -0.245, p = 0.046, and this correlation was stronger among

  17. Cross-country variation in stillbirth and neonatal mortality in offspring of Turkish migrants in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Sievers, Erika; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2010-01-01

    stillbirth and neonatal mortality between societies in northern Europe in one minority population, the Turkish. METHOD: Data on stillbirth and neonatal deaths in 239 387 births during 1990-2005, where the mother was of Turkish origin, was drawn from birth registries or surveys in nine northern European...... countries. Rates were compared with births from mothers who were born in the society of residence. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios adjusted for year of birth of the offspring. RESULTS: The risks for stillbirth were, or tended to be, elevated for Turkish mothers in all countries...... compared with the native population, with the highest risk in Austria (odds ratio (OR) 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-2.1) and Switzerland (OR 1.6; 1.4-1.9). For neonatal mortality the results were heterogeneous, indicating no excess risk for Turkish-born children in the Netherlands, the UK and...

  18. A mortalidade neonatal em 1998, no município de Botucatu - SP La mortalidad neonatal en 1998, en el município de Botucatu-SP The neonatal mortality in 1998 at the municipality of Botucatu-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Poles

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a mortalidade neonatal é indicador da qualidade da assistência prestada à gestante, ao parto e ao recém-nascido, realizamos o presente trabalho, cujo objetivo foi identificar as causas e o índice de mortalidade neonatal durante o ano de 1998 em Botucatu-SP. O coeficiente de mortalidade neonatal obtido foi de 8,3/1000 nascidos vivos e o coeficiente de mortalidade neonatal precoce foi de 7,3/1000 nascidos vivos, confirmando a importância dos óbitos na primeira semana de vida. Aproximadamente três quartos dos óbitos puderam ser classificados como reduzíveis por diagnóstico e tratamento precoces, reduzíveis por adequada atenção ao parto ou parcialmente reduzíveis por adequado controle da gravidez, evidenciando que para se reduzir os índices de morte neonatal, deveremos investir na melhoria da qualidade da assistência prestada à gestante, à parturiente e ao neonato.Considerando que la mortalidad neonatal es un indicador de la calidad de la asistencia ofrecida en la gestación, al parto y al recién- nacido, realizamos el presente trabajo, con el objetivo de estudiar la mortalidad neonatal durante el año de 1998 en Botucatu-SP. El coeficiente de mortalidad neonatal encontrado fue 8,3/1000 nacidos vivos y el coeficiente de mortalidad neonatal precoz fue de 7,3/1000 nacidos vivos, confirmando la importancia de las defunciones en la primera semana de vida. Los resultados mostraron que aproximadamente tres cuartos de las defunciones pueden ser reducidas con el control del embarazo, con el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz o con la adecuada atención al parto, evidenciando que para reducir los índices de mortalidad neonatal, deberemos invertir en la mejoría de la calidad de la asistencia ofrecida en la gestación, en el parto y al recién-nacido.Considering that neonatal mortality is an indicator of the quality of the care provided to pregnant women, at childbirth as well as to the new born, authors developed the

  19. Is Pneumothorax Size on Chest X-Ray a Predictor of Neonatal Mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yurtseven

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pneumothorax in newborns may result in a significant mortality and morbidity. To predict who will survive or die is of great importance in the clinical management. The aim of this study is to address whether assessment of pneumothorax size on chest X-ray may be a predictor of prognosis in newborns presenting with pneumothorax.Methods: Of 5929 infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU from January 2007 to April 2011, 60 (1.0% newborns presenting with pneumothorax were included in the present study. Pneumothorax size was calculated by measuring the widest transverse diameter of pneumothorax area in the posteroanterior view and dividing it by the widest transverse diameter of thoracic cavity above the diaphragm. Clinical data were collected from the patients’ records.Findings: Overall mortality rate was 30% (18 patients. Pneumothorax size was significantly higher in non-survivors (31.1±2.8 vs 16.4±1.4, P<0.001. The cut-off point of pneumothorax size for predicting survival was determined as 20%. The sensitivity was 72% whereas the specificity 83%. Preterm birth, low birth weight, resuscitation at birth, need for mechanical ventilation and chest tube insertion were of great significance in predicting mortality. However, of overall significant parameters, only pneumothorax size was the independent prognostic factor by regression analysis (P=0.02Conclusion: We conclude that the calculation of pneumothorax size in the newborns is a predictor of prognosis with high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore newborns with pneumothorax size greater than 20% are likely to have worse prognosis.

  20. Vaccine-induced antibodies linked to bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP recognize cattle major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutskens Fabian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A mysterious disease affecting calves, named bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP, emerged in 2007 in several European countries. Epidemiological studies revealed a connection between BNP and vaccination with an inactivated vaccine against bovine virus diarrhea (BVD. Alloantibodies reacting with blood leukocytes of calves were detected in serum and colostrum of dams, which have given birth to calves affected by BNP. To understand the linkage between vaccination and the development of alloantibodies, we determined the antigens reacting with these alloantibodies. Immunoprecipitation of surface proteins from bovine leukocytes and kidney cells using sera from dams with a confirmed case of BNP in their gestation history reacted with two dominant protein species of 44 and 12 kDa. These proteins were not detected by sera from dams, free of BVDV and not vaccinated against BVD, and from sera of animals vaccinated with a different inactivated BVD vaccine. The 44 kDa protein was identified by mass spectrometry analysis as MHC I, the other as β-2-microglobulin. The presence of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I in the vaccine was confirmed by Western blot using a MHC I specific monoclonal antibody. A model of BNP pathogenesis is proposed.

  1. Trends in Care Practices, Morbidity, and Mortality of Extremely Preterm Neonates, 1993–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Barbara J.; Hansen, Nellie I.; Bell, Edward F.; Walsh, Michele C.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Wyckoff, Myra; Das, Abhik; Hale, Ellen C.; Ball, M. Bethany; Newman, Nancy S.; Schibler, Kurt; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Cotten, C. Michael; Watterberg, Kristi L.; D’Angio, Carl T.; DeMauro, Sara B.; Truog, William E.; Devaskar, Uday; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Extremely preterm infants contribute disproportionately to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Objective To review 20-year trends in maternal/neonatal care, complications, and mortality among extremely preterm infants born at Neonatal Research Network centers. Design, Setting, Participants Prospective registry of 34,636 infants 22–28 weeks’ gestational age (GA) and 401–1500 gram birthweight born at 26 Network centers, 1993–2012. Exposure Extremely preterm birth. Main Outcomes Maternal/neonatal care, morbidities, and survival. Major morbidities, reported for infants who survived more than 12 hours, were: severe necrotizing enterocolitis, infection, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe intracranial hemorrhage, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, and/or severe retinopathy of prematurity. Regression models assessed yearly changes, adjusting for study center, race/ethnicity, GA, birthweight for GA, and sex. Results Use of antenatal corticosteroids increased from 1993 to 2012 (348/1431 [24%] to 1674/1919 [87%], p<0.001), as did cesarean delivery (625/1431 [44%] to 1227/1921 [64%], p<0.001). Delivery room intubation decreased from 1144/1433 (80%) in 1993 to 1253/1922 (65%) in 2012 (p<0.001). After increasing in the 1990s, postnatal steroid use declined to 141/1757 (8%) in 2004 (p<0.001), with no significant change thereafter. Although most infants were ventilated, continuous positive airway pressure without ventilation increased from 120/1666 (7%) in 2002 to 190/1756 (11%) in 2012 (p<0.001). Despite no improvement from 1993 to 2004, rates of late-onset sepsis declined between 2005 and 2012 for infants of each GA (median GA 26 weeks, 109/296 [37%] to 85/320 [27%], adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 0.93 [95% CI, 0.92–0.94]). Rates of other morbidities declined, but bronchopulmonary dysplasia increased between 2009 and 2012 for infants 26–27 weeks (26 weeks, 130/258 [50%] to 164/297 [55%], p<0.001). Survival increased between 2009 and 2012 for infants 23

  2. A social autopsy of neonatal mortality suggests needed improvements in maternal and neonatal interventions in Balaka and Salima districts of Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain K. Koffi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Every Newborn Action Plan calls for reducing the neonatal mortality rates to fewer than 10 deaths per 1000 live births in all countries by 2035. The current study aims to increase our understanding of the social and modifiable factors that can be addressed or reinforced to improve and accelerate the decline in neonatal mortality in Malawi. Methods The data come from the 2013 Verbal and Social Autopsy (VASA study that collected data in order to describe the biological causes and the social determinants of deaths of children under 5 years of age in Balaka and Salima districts of Malawi. This paper analyses the social autopsy data of the neonatal deaths and presents results of a review of the coverage of key interventions along the continuum of normal maternal and newborn care and the description of breakdowns in the care provided for neonatal illnesses within the Pathway to Survival framework. Results A total of 320 neonatal deaths were confirmed from the VASA survey. While one antenatal care (ANC visit was high at 94%, the recommended four ANC visits was much lower at 41% and just 17% of the mothers had their urines tested during the pregnancy. 173 (54% mothers of the deceased newborns had at least one labor/delivery complication that began at home. The caregivers of 65% (n = 75 of the 180 newborns that were born at home or born and left a health facility alive perceived them to be severely ill at the onset of their illness, yet only 44% (n = 80 attempted and 36% (n = 65could reach the first health provider after an average of 91 minutes travel time. Distance, lack of transport and cost emerged as the most important constraints to formal care–seeking during delivery and during the newborn fatal illness. Conclusions This study suggests that maternal and neonatal health organizations and the local government of Malawi should increase the demand for key maternal and child health interventions, including the recommended 4

  3. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doherty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine perinatal mortality is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high and low herd-level calf mortality. Thirty herds with a history of either high (case or low (control calf mortality were recruited. A herd-level questionnaire was used to gather information on management practices likely to impact bovine perinatal mortality. The questionnaire was divided into four subsections dealing with pre-calving (breeding, diet and body condition score, endemic infectious diseases and calving factors. Most of the significant differences between case and control herds were found in calving management. For example, in case herds, pregnant cattle were less likely to be moved to the calving unit two or more days and more likely to be moved less than 12 hours pre-calving, they were also less likely to calve in group-calving facilities and their calves were more likely to receive intranasal or hypothermal resuscitation. These management procedures may cause social isolation and periparturient psychogenic uterine atony leading to dystocia, more weak calves requiring resuscitation and high perinatal calf mortality. The key finding is that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality.

  4. Predicting cumulative risk of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) using feedlot arrival data and daily morbidity and mortality counts

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Abram H.; White, Brad J.; Renter, David G.; Dubnicka, Suzanne R.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Although bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is common in post-weaning cattle, BRDC prediction models are seldom analyzed. The objectives of this study were to assess the ability to predict cumulative cohort-level BRDC morbidity using on-arrival risk factors and to evaluate whether or not adding BRDC risk classification and daily BRDC morbidity and mortality data to the models enhanced their predictive ability. Retrospective cohort-level and individual animal health data were used to cr...

  5. Verbal/social autopsy study helps explain the lack of decrease in neonatal mortality in Niger, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter, Henry D; Yaroh, Asma Gali; Maina, Abdou; Koffi, Alain K; Bensaïd, Khaled; Amouzou, Agbessi; Black, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was one of a set of verbal/social autopsy (VASA) investigations undertaken by the WHO/UNICEF–supported Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group to estimate the causes and determinants of neonatal and child deaths in high priority countries. The study objective was to help explain the lack of decrease in neonatal mortality in Niger from 2007 to 2010, a period during which child mortality was decreasing. Methods VASA interviews were conducted of a random sample of 453 neonatal deaths identified by the 2010 Niger National Mortality Survey (NNMS). Causes of death were determined by expert algorithm analysis, and the prevalence of household, community and health system determinants were examined along the continuum of maternal and newborn care, the Pathway to Survival for newborn illnesses, and an extended pathway for maternal complications. The social autopsy findings were compared to available data for survivors from the same cohort collected by the NNMS and the 2012 Niger Demographic and Health Survey. Findings Severe neonatal infection and birth asphyxia were the leading causes of early neonatal death in the community and facilities. Death in the community after delayed careseeking for severe infection predominated during the late neonatal period. The levels of nearly all demographic, antenatal and delivery care factors were in the direction of risk for the VASA study decedents. They more often resided rurally (P < 0.001) and their mothers were less educated (P = 0.03) and gave birth when younger (P = 0.03) than survivors’ mothers. Their mothers also were less likely to receive quality antenatal care (P < 0.001), skilled attendance at birth (P = 0.03) or to deliver in an institution (P < 0.001). Nearly half suffered an obstetric complication, with more maternal infection (17.9% vs 0.2%), antepartum hemorrhage (12.5% vs 0.5%) and eclampsia/preeclampsia (9.5% vs 1.6%) than for all births in Niger. Their mothers also

  6. Effective Linkages of Continuum of Care for Improving Neonatal, Perinatal, and Maternal Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiyo Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Continuum of care has the potential to improve maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH by ensuring care for mothers and children. Continuum of care in MNCH is widely accepted as comprising sequential time (from pre-pregnancy to motherhood and childhood and space dimensions (from community-family care to clinical care. However, it is unclear which linkages of care could have a greater effect on MNCH outcomes. The objective of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of different continuum of care linkages for reducing neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries.We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that addressed two or more linkages of continuum of care and attempted to increase mothers' uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. The outcome variables were neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality.Out of the 7,142 retrieved articles, we selected 19 as eligible for the final analysis. Of these studies, 13 used packages of intervention that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. One study each used packages that linked antenatal care and skilled birth attendance or skilled birth attendance and postnatal care. Four studies used an intervention package that linked antenatal care and postnatal care. Among the packages that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care, a significant reduction was observed in combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality risks (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.89, I2 79%. Furthermore, this linkage reduced combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality when integrating the continuum of care space dimension (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.93, I2 81%.Our review suggests that continuous uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care is necessary to improve MNCH outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The review was conclusive for the

  7. Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltayb M. Abuelzein

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak or malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding the impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.

  8. Bovine neonatal pancytopenia - Comparative proteomic characterization of two BVD vaccines and the producer cell surface proteome (MDBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euler Kerstin N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP is a disease syndrome in newborn calves of up to four weeks of age, first observed in southern Germany in 2006. By now, cases have been reported in several countries around the globe. Many affected calves die within days due to multiple haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia and bone marrow depletion. A certain vaccine directed against Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV was recently shown to be associated with BNP pathogenesis. Immunized cows develop alloantibodies that are transferred to newborn calves via colostrum intake. In order to further elucidate BNP pathogenesis, the purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the protein composition of the associated vaccine to another vaccine directed against BVDV not related to BNP and the cell surface proteome of MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells, the cell line used for production of the associated vaccine. Results By SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, we were able to detect several coagulation-related and immune modulatory proteins, as well as cellular and serum derived molecules being shared between the associated vaccine and MDBK cells. Furthermore, the number of proteins identified in the BNP related vaccine was almost as high as the number of surface proteins detected on MDBK cells and exceeded the amount of proteins identified in the non-BNP related vaccine over 3.5 fold. The great amount of shared cellular and serum derived proteins confirm that the BNP associated vaccine contained many molecules originating from MDBK cells and vaccine production. Conclusions The respective vaccine was not purified enough to prevent the development of alloantibodies. To narrow down possible candidate proteins, those most likely to represent a trigger for BNP pathogenesis are presented in this study, giving a fundament for further analysis in future research.

  9. Valor preditivo dos escores de SNAP e SNAP-PE na mortalidade neonatal Predictive value of SNAP and SNAP-PE for neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Silveira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os escores SNAP e SNAP-PE como preditores de mortalidade neonatal na nossa UTI neonatal, comparando seus resultados. MÉTODOS: todos os recém-nascidos admitidos na UTI neonatal no período de março de 1997 a dezembro de 1998 foram avaliados prospectivamente quanto ao SNAP e SNAP-PE com 24 horas de vida. Foram critérios de exclusão o óbito ou alta da UTI nas primeiras 24 horas de vida, as malformações congênitas incompatíveis com a vida, e recém-nascidos transferidos de outros hospitais. RESULTADOS: 553 recém-nascidos foram incluídos, 54 faleceram. Os valores das medianas do SNAP e SNAP-PE foram mais elevados naqueles que não sobreviveram. Os recém-nascidos foram divididos em cinco faixas de gravidade crescente de SNAP e SNAP-PE. SNAP: até 6, 7-11, 12-15, 16-24, acima de 24 (mortalidade: 3%, 11%, 29%, 48%, 75%, respectivamente. SNAP-PE: até 11, 12-23, 24-32, 33-50, acima de 50 (mortalidade: 3%, 10%, 53%, 78%, 83%, respectivamente. A partir da Curva ROC, os pontos de corte foram 12 para SNAP e 24 para SNAP-PE, obtendo-se sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP e valor preditivo negativo (VPN para mortalidade. SNAP 12: sensibilidade 79,6%, especificidade 71,7%, VPP 23,4%, VPN 97%. SNAP-PE 24: sensibilidade 79,6%, especificidade 80%, VPP 30%, VPN 97,3%. A área abaixo da Curva ROC (Az para SNAP foi 81,4% e para SNAP-PE 85,1%, ambas estatisticamente significativas. A comparação entre as áreas das duas curvas não evidenciou diferença estatisticamente significativa. CONCLUSÕES: os escores SNAP e SNAP-PE são excelentes preditores de sobrevida neonatal, recomendamos sua utilização rotineiramente na admissão de recém-nascidos nas Unidades de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology and the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension as neonatal mortality predictors in our neonatal intensive care unit, and to compare their

  10. Two different doses of supplemental vitamin A did not affect mortality of normal-birth-weight neonates in Guinea-Bissau in a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte R; Balde, Ibraima;

    2014-01-01

    Whether neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) should be policy in areas with vitamin A deficiency is debated. We observed that a smaller dose of vitamin A may decrease mortality more than a larger dose and conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau with the...... primary aim of comparing the effect of 50,000 with 25,000 IU neonatal vitamin A on infant mortality. The secondary aim was to study the effect of NVAS vs. placebo, including a combined analysis of NVAS trials. Between 2004 and 2007, normal-birth-weight neonates were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to...

  11. The effect of systematic pediatric care on neonatal mortality and hospitalizations of infants born with oral clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehby George L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P increase mortality and morbidity risks for affected infants especially in less developed countries. This study aimed at assessing the effects of systematic pediatric care on neonatal mortality and hospitalizations of infants with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P in South America. Methods The intervention group included live-born infants with isolated or associated CL/P in 47 hospitals between 2003 and 2005. The control group included live-born infants with CL/P between 2001 and 2002 in the same hospitals. The intervention group received systematic pediatric care between the 7th and 28th day of life. The primary outcomes were mortality between the 7th and 28th day of life and hospitalization days in this period among survivors adjusted for relevant baseline covariates. Results There were no significant mortality differences between the intervention and control groups. However, surviving infants with associated CL/P in the intervention group had fewer hospitalization days by about six days compared to the associated control group. Conclusions Early systematic pediatric care may significantly reduce neonatal hospitalizations of infants with CL/P and additional birth defects in South America. Given the large healthcare and financial burden of CL/P on affected families and the relatively low cost of systematic pediatric care, improving access to such care may be a cost-effective public policy intervention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00097149

  12. Platelet Counts, MPV and PDW in Culture Proven and Probable Neonatal Sepsis and Association of Platelet Counts with Mortality Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine frequency of thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis, the MPV (mean platelet volume) and PDW (platelet distribution width) in patients with probable and culture proven neonatal sepsis and determine any association between platelet counts and mortality rate. Study Design: Descriptive analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: NICU, Fazle Omar Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012. Methodology: Cases of culture proven and probable neonatal sepsis, admitted in Fazle Omar Hospital, Rabwah, were included in the study. Platelet counts, MPV and PDW of the cases were recorded. Mortality was documented. Frequencies of thrombocytopenia ( 450000/mm3) were ascertained. Mortality rates in different groups according to platelet counts were calculated and compared by chi-square test to check association. Results: Four hundred and sixty nine patients were included; 68 (14.5%) of them died. One hundred and thirty six (29%) had culture proven sepsis, and 333 (71%) were categorized as probable sepsis. Thrombocytopenia was present in 116 (24.7%), and thrombocytosis was present in 36 (7.7%) cases. Median platelet count was 213.0/mm3. Twenty eight (27.7%) patients with thrombocytopenia, and 40 (12.1%) cases with normal or raised platelet counts died (p < 0.001). Median MPV was 9.30, and median PDW was 12.30. MPV and PDW of the patients who died and who were discharged were not significantly different from each other. Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia is a common complication of neonatal sepsis. Those with thrombocytopenia have higher mortality rate. No significant difference was present between PDW and MPV of the cases who survived and died. (author)

  13. Mitochondrial integrity in a neonatal bovine model of right ventricular dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, Danielle R; Brown, R. Dale; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Buttrick, Peter M.; Walker, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function is a key determinant of survival in patients with both RV and left ventricular (LV) failure, yet the mechanisms of RV failure are poorly understood. Recent studies suggest cardiac metabolism is altered in RV failure in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Accordingly, we assessed mitochondrial content, dynamics, and function in hearts from neonatal calves exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (HH). This model develops severe PH with concomitant RV hypertrophy, dilation, and dys...

  14. NCHS - Infant and neonatal mortality rates: United States, 1915-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rates are infants (under 1 year) and neonatal (under 28 days) deaths per 1,000 live births. http://blogs.cdc.gov/nchs-data-visualization/deaths-in-the-us/

  15. Birth weight discordant twins have increased prenatal mortality and neonatal morbidity: an analysis of 1,132 twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Domingues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple pregnancies have increased significantly over the past decades. Birth weight discordance (BWD is a common problem between twins, but its association with an increased morbidity and mortality is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of BWD among twins and to evaluate its impact on perinatal morbidity.Methods: Retrospective study of 1,132 twins born in a tertiary perinatal center, over a period of 8 years (2003-2010, that were divided in two groups: concordant (intrapair birth weight difference ≤ 20% or discordant (> 20%. The two groups were compared in terms of epidemiological and obstetric data, mode of delivery, perinatal morbidity and mortality.Results: During the study period, multiple gestation occurred in 2% of cases, of which 96% were twins. BWD was found in 212 (19% twins. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that maternal age ≥ 35 years and hypoxic-ischemic placental infarction were risk factors for the occurrence of BWD. The discordant group showed a significantly higher incidence of congenital skeletal and central nervous system malformations, a higher rate of hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit and a longer duration of hospitalization. The percentage of those requiring assisted ventilation, pulmonary surfactant, parenteral nutrition and central venous catheters was significantly higher in the discordant group compared with the concordant one. The rate of stillbirth was significantly higher in the discordant group (3% versus 1%; mortality was also higher (3% versus 2%, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.405.Conclusion: BWD was associated with increased prenatal mortality and neonatal morbidity. Diagnosis and management of pregnant women with this fetal condition in tertiary perinatal centers may improve the prognosis of these infants.

  16. Economic evaluations of interventions to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality: a review of the evidence in LMICs and its implications for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maredza, Mandy; Chola, Lumbwe; Hofman, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background Newborn mortality, comprising a third of all under-5 deaths, has hardly changed in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including South Africa over the past decade. To attain the MDG 4 target, greater emphasis must be placed on wide-scale implementation of proven, cost-effective interventions. This paper reviews economic evidence on effective neonatal health interventions in LMICs from 2000–2013; documents lessons for South African policy on neonatal health; and identifies gaps ...

  17. Neonatal Mortality, Vesicular Lesions and Lameness Associated with Senecavirus A in a U.S. Sow Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, P; Canon, A; Bates, J L; Gerardy, K; Linhares, D C L; Piñeyro, P E; Schwartz, K J; Yoon, K J; Rademacher, C J; Holtkamp, D; Karriker, L

    2016-08-01

    A 300-sow farrow-to-finish swine operation in the United States experienced a sudden and severe increase in mortality in neonatal piglets with high morbidity followed by vesicular lesions on the snout and feet of adult females and males. Affected live piglets were submitted for diagnostic investigation. Samples tested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine delta coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus, porcine rotavirus types A, B and C, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Senecavirus A (SV-A) formerly known as Seneca Valley virus was detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from serum, skin and faeces of piglets and from serum and faeces of sows. SV-A was isolated in cell culture from piglet samples. SV-A VP1 gene region sequencing from piglet tissues was also successful. A biosecurity and disease entry evaluation was conducted and identified potential biosecurity risks factors for the entry of new pathogens into the operation. This is the first case report in the United States associating SV-A with a clinical course of severe but transient neonatal morbidity and mortality followed by vesicular lesions in breeding stock animals. Veterinarians and animal caretakers must remain vigilant for vesicular foreign animal diseases and report suspicious clinical signs and lesions to state animal health authorities for diagnostic testing and further investigation. PMID:27213868

  18. Lives Saved Tool supplement detection and treatment of syphilis in pregnancy to reduce syphilis related stillbirths and neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Stuart

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally syphilis is an important yet preventable cause of stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity. Objectives This review sought to estimate the effect of detection and treatment of active syphilis in pregnancy with at least 2.4MU benzathine penicillin (or equivalent on syphilis-related stillbirths and neonatal mortality. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of multiple databases to identify relevant studies. Data were abstracted into standardised tables and the quality of evidence was assessed using adapted GRADE criteria. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were undertaken. Results Moderate quality evidence (3 studies supports a reduction in the incidence of clinical congenital syphilis of 97% (95% c.i 93 – 98% with detection and treatment of women with active syphilis in pregnancy with at least 2.4MU penicillin. The results of meta-analyses suggest that treatment with penicillin is associated with an 82% reduction in stillbirth (95% c.i. 67 – 90% (8 studies, a 64% reduction in preterm delivery (95% c.i. 53 – 73% (7 studies and an 80% reduction in neonatal deaths (95% c.i. 68 – 87% (5 studies. Although these effect estimates were large and remarkably consistent across studies, few of the studies adjusted for potential confounding factors and thus the overall quality of the evidence was considered low. However, given these large observed effects and a clear biological mechanism for effectiveness the GRADE recommendation is strong. Conclusion Detection and appropriate, timely penicillin treatment is a highly effective intervention to reduce adverse syphilis-related pregnancy outcomes. More research is required to identify the most cost-effective strategies for achieving maximum coverage of screening for all pregnant women, and access to treatment if required.

  19. Unfinished lives: The effect of domestic violence on neonatal and infant mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Seetha

    2014-01-01

    India accounts for 1.7 million child deaths, a quarter of global child mortality. The current literature has succeeded in establishing an association between domestic violence and child mortality, but has yet to present evidence of a causal relationship. In this paper we use an instrumental variable approach to analyse the causal impact of domestic violence against the mother on child mortality in the Indian context. Domestic violence is instrument ed with the real price o f gold at the time ...

  20. Unfinished lives: the effect of domestic violence on neonatal & infant mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Seetha

    2014-01-01

    India accounts for 1.7 million child deaths, a quarter of global child mortality. The current literature has succeeded in establishing an association between domestic violence and child mortality, but has yet to present evidence of a causal relationship. In this paper we use an instrumental variable approach to analyse the causal impact of domestic violence against the mother on child mortality in the Indian context. Domestic violence is instrumented with the real price of gold at the time of...

  1. Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haidong; Liddell, Chelsea A; Coates, Matthew M;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of redu...

  2. Mitochondrial integrity in a neonatal bovine model of right ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Danielle R; Brown, R Dale; Stenmark, Kurt R; Buttrick, Peter M; Walker, Lori A

    2015-01-15

    Right ventricular (RV) function is a key determinant of survival in patients with both RV and left ventricular (LV) failure, yet the mechanisms of RV failure are poorly understood. Recent studies suggest cardiac metabolism is altered in RV failure in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Accordingly, we assessed mitochondrial content, dynamics, and function in hearts from neonatal calves exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (HH). This model develops severe PH with concomitant RV hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. After 2 wk of HH, pieces of RV and LV were obtained along with samples from age-matched controls. Comparison with control assesses the effect of hypoxia, whereas comparison between the LV and RV in HH assesses the additional impact of RV overload. Mitochondrial DNA was unchanged in HH, as was mitochondrial content as assessed by electron microscopy. Immunoblotting for electron transport chain subunits revealed a small increase in mitochondrial content in HH in both ventricles. Mitochondrial dynamics were largely unchanged. Activity of individual respiratory chain complexes was reduced (complex I) or unchanged (complex V) in HH. Key enzymes in the glycolysis pathway were upregulated in both HH ventricles, alongside upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α protein. Importantly, none of the changes in expression or activity were different between ventricles, suggesting the changes are in response to HH and not RV overload. Upregulation of glycolytic modulators without chamber-specific mitochondrial dysfunction suggests that mitochondrial capacity and activity are maintained at the onset of PH, and the early RV dysfunction in this model results from mechanisms independent of the mitochondria. PMID:25416385

  3. Colostrum and milk pasteurization improve health status and decrease mortality in neonatal calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate if on-farm heat treatment of colostrum and bulk tank milk can improve calf health status and morbidity and mortality rates during the first 21d of life in neonatal Holstein calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. A total of 587 calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups of males and females over 18mo. The nonpasteurized group (n=287, 143 males and 144 females) was fed frozen (-20°C) colostrum (6-8L during the first 12h of life) that was previously reheated up to 40°C. They were also fed refrigerated (4°C) raw milk from the bulk tank that was also reheated up to 40°C (1.8L every 12h). The pasteurized group (n=300, 150 males and 150 females) was also fed colostrum and milk, but both were pasteurized before freezing. Blood samples were drawn from all calves to obtain serum at 2 to 5d of life. Serum total protein (g/dL) was determined using a commercially available refractometer. Colostrum and milk underwent routine bacteriological analysis to determine total plate counts (cfu/mL) and total coliform counts (cfu/mL). All the calves underwent clinical examination every 24h during the first 21d of life. Every day, calves were clinically diagnosed either as being healthy or suffering from respiratory disease, neonatal calf diarrhea, or suffering other diseases. On-farm heat treatment for colostrum and milk reduced total plate counts and total coliform counts between 1 and 2 log10. Pasteurization of colostrum and milk significantly decreased the morbidity and mortality (5.2 and 2.8%) in comparison with calves receiving nonpasteurized colostrum and milk (15.0 and 6.5%), respectively, during the first 21d of life, even in animals receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. PMID:26995131

  4. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David John; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fenton, Alan; Papiernik, Emile; Zeitlin, J; Blondel, Beatrice; Cuttini, Marina; Maier, Rolf; Weber, Tom; Carrapato, Manuel; Kollee, Louis A; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Van Reempts, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    one region). PARTICIPANTS: All births that occurred between 22+0 and 31+6 weeks of gestation in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Neonatal death rate adjusted for rate of delivery at this gestation. RESULTS: Rate of delivery of all births at 22+0-31+6 weeks of gestation and live births only were calculated...... for each region. Two regions had significantly higher rates of very preterm delivery per 1000 births (Trent UK (16.8, 95% CI 15.7-17.9) and the Northern UK (17.1, 95% CI 15.6-18.6); group mean 13.2, 95% CI 12.9 to 13.5). Four regions had rates significantly below the group average: Portugal North (10.......7, 95% CI 9.6 to 11.8), Eastern and Central Netherlands (10.6, 95% CI 9.7 to 11.6), Eastern Denmark (11.2, 95% CI 10.1 to 12.4) and Lazio in Italy (11.0, 95% CI 10.1 to 11.9). Similar trends were seen in live birth data. Published rates of neonatal death for each region were then adjusted by applying: a...

  5. Calf-level factors associated with bovine neonatal pancytopenia--a multi-country case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A Jones

    Full Text Available Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP, a high fatality condition causing haemorrhages in calves aged less than 4 weeks, was first reported in 2007 in Germany and subsequently observed at low incidence in other European countries and New Zealand. A multi-country matched case-control study was conducted in 2011 to identify calf-level risk factors for BNP. 405 BNP cases were recruited from 330 farms in Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands by laboratory confirmation of farmer-reported cases. Up to four calves of similar age from the same farm were selected as controls (1154 calves. Risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. Multivariable modelling using conditional logistic regression indicated that PregSure®BVD (PregSure, Pfizer Animal Health vaccination of the dam was strongly associated with BNP cases (adjusted matched Odds Ratio - amOR 17.8 first lactation dams; 95% confidence interval - ci 2.4, 134.4; p = 0.005, and second or more lactation PregSure-vaccinated dams were more likely to have a case than first lactation vaccinated dams (amOR 2.2 second lactation; ci 1.1, 4.3; p = 0.024; amOR 5.3 third or more lactation; ci 2.9, 9.8; p = <0.001. Feeding colostrum from other cows was strongly associated with BNP if the dam was not PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 30.5; ci 2.1, 440.5; p = 0.012, but the effect was less if the dam was PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 2.1; ci 1.1, 4.0; p = 0.024. Feeding exclusively dam's milk was a higher risk than other types of milk (amOR 3.4; ci 1.6, 7.5; p = 0.002. The population attributable fractions were 0.84 (ci 0.68, 0.92 for PregSure vaccination, 0.13 (ci 0.06, 0.19 for feeding other cows' colostrum, and 0.15 (ci 0.08, 0.22 for feeding dam's milk. No other calf-level factors were identified, suggesting that there are other important factors that are outside the scope of this study, such as genetics, which explain why BNP develops in some PregSure-colostrum-exposed calves but not in

  6. Impacto das malformações congênitas na mortalidade perinatal e neonatal em uma maternidade-escola do Recife Impact of congenital malformations on perinatal and neonatal mortality in an university maternity hospital in Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Maria Ramos de Amorim

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar a incidência de malformações congênitas em recém-nascidos assistidos em uma maternidade-escola de Recife e avaliar o impacto destas malformações na mortalidade perinatal e neonatal. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo longitudinal durante os meses de setembro de 2004 a maio de 2005, analisando-se todos os partos assistidos no Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, IMIP. Determinou-se a freqüência e o tipo de malformações congênitas e foram calculados os coeficientes de mortalidade fetal, mortalidade perinatal, mortalidade neonatal precoce e tardia. RESULTADOS: a freqüência de malformações foi de 2,8% (em 4043 nascimentos. O percentual de malformações entre os nativivos foi de 2,7%, e entre os natimortos foi de 6,7%. Dentre as malformações, as mais freqüentes foram as do sistema nervoso central (principalmente hidrocefalia e meningomielocele, as do sistema osteomuscular e as cardiopatias. Não houve associação entre malformações e sexo, porém a freqüência de prematuridade e baixo peso foi maior entre os casos de malformações. Constatou-se, entre os malformados, mortalidade neonatal precoce de 32,7% e tardia de 10,6%. Os casos de malformações representaram 6,7% dos natimortos, 24,2% das mortes neonatais precoces e 25,8% do total de mortes neonatais. CONCLUSÕES: a freqüência de malformações correspondeu a 2,8% dos nascimentos. As malformações representaram a segunda causa mais freqüente de mortes neonatais, depois da prematuridade.OBJECTIVES: to determine the incidence of congenital malformations in newborns in a university maternity hospital in Recife and assess the impact of malformation in perinatal and neonatal mortality. METHODS: a longitudinal study was performed from September 2004 to May 2005 with all deliveries at the Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, IMIP analyzed. The type and incidence of congenital malformations were determined, and fetal mortality

  7. Diferenças no padrão de ocorrência da mortalidade neonatal e pós-neonatal no Município de Goiânia, Brasil, 1992-1996: análise espacial para identificação das áreas de risco Differential patterns of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates in Goiânia, Brazil, 1992-1996: use of spatial analysis to identify high-risk areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otaliba Libânio de Morais Neto

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo refere-se à pesquisa acerca do padrão espacial dos componentes neonatal e pós-neonatal da mortalidade infantil em Goiânia, no Estado de Goiás, Brasil. A população do estudo foi a coorte de 101 mil nascidos vivos, residentes em Goiânia, de 1992 a 1996. As probabilidades de morte infantil foram estimadas mediante o cotejo dos arquivos de óbitos e de nascidos vivos. Para minimizar as flutuações aleatórias das taxas, empregou-se o método Bayesiano empírico. A unidade de análise do padrão espacial foi constituída pelos 65 distritos urbanos de planejamento. Para análise de autocorrelação espacial foram utilizados: Moran "global", Moran local e estatística Gi* local. Os componentes neonatal e pós-neonatal da mortalidade infantil evidenciaram autocorrelação espacial estatisticamente significativa. No período pós-neonatal, os distritos de risco concentram-se nas regiões periféricas do município. No período neonatal, o padrão de ocorrência é heterogêneo, havendo distritos de alto risco distribuídos em todas as regiões, inclusive na região Central de Goiânia.The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial pattern of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in the city of Goiânia, Central Brazil. Analyses were based on linked birth and death certificates relating to 101,000 in-hospital live births from mothers residing in the city of Goiânia over the 1992-1996 period. Overall neonatal and post-neonatal mortality probabilities were calculated using the linked database. The empirical Bayes method was applied to smooth the estimated rates and minimize random fluctuation. Spatial units of analysis were 65 urban districts, corresponding to the urban planning sectors. The following exploratory spatial analyses were applied: "global" Moran's I statistic, local Moran LISA map, and Gi* local statistics. For both neonatal and post-neonatal mortality there was statistically significant spatial autocorrelation

  8. Induction of pancreatic duct cells of neonatal rats into insulin-producing cells with fetal bovine serum: A natural protocol and its use for patch clamp experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-Hua Leng; Fu-Er Lu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To induce the pancreatic duct cells into endocrine cells with a new natural protocol for electrophysiological study.METHODS: The pancreatic duct cells of neonatal rats were isolated, cultured and induced into endocrine oells with 15% fetal bovine serum for a period of 20 d. During this period, insulin secretion, MTT value, and morphological change of neonatal and adult pancreatic islet cells were comparatively investigated. Pancreatic β-cells were identified by morphological and electrophysiological characteristics, while ATP sensitive potassium channels(KATP), voltage-dependent potassium channels (KV), and voltage-dependent calcium channels (KCA) in β-cells were identified by patch clamp technique.RESULTS: After incubation with fetal bovine serum, the neonatal duct cells budded out, changed from duct-like cells into islet clusters. In the first 4 d, MTT value and insulin secretion increased slowly (MTT value from 0.024±0.003 to0.028±0.003, insulin secretion from 2.6±0.6to 3.1±0.8 mIU/L). Then MTT value and insulin secretion increased quickly from d 5 to d 10 (MTT value from 0.028±0.003 to 0.052±0.008, insulin secretion from 3.1±0.8to 18.3±2.6 mIU/L), then reached high plateau (MTT value >0.052±0.008, insulin secretion >18.3±2.6 mIU/L).In contrast, for the isolated adult pancreatic islet cells,both insulin release and MTT value were stable in the first 4 d (MTT value from 0.029±0.01 to 0.031±0.011,insulin secretion from 13.9±3.1 to 14.3±3.3 mIU/L), but afterwards they reduced gradually (MTT value <0.031±0.011, insulin secretion <8.2±1.5 mIU/L), and the pancrearic islet cells became dispersed, broken or atrophied correspondingly. The differentiated neonatal cells were identified as pancreatic islet cells by dithizone staining method, and pancreatic β-cells were further identified by both morphological features and electrophysiological characteristics, i.e. the existence of recording currents from KATP KV, and KCA.CONCLUSION: Islet

  9. Neonatal mortality and prevalence of practices for newborn care in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Ayaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the past two decades there has been a sustained decline in child and infant mortality, however neonatal mortality has remained relatively unchanged. Almost all neonatal deaths (99% occur in developing countries, where the majority are delivered at homes. Evidence suggests that these deaths could be prevented by simple, inexpensive practices and interventions during the pregnancy, delivery and postnatal period. In Pakistan over the last decade extensive efforts have been made by the international donors and government to implement these practices. However, limited attempts have been made to explore if these efforts have made a difference at the grass root level. This study assessed the burden of neonatal mortality and prevalence of practices for newborn care in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A community based cross-sectional study was performed. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered to 565 women who had recently delivered. Information was collected on neonatal morbidity, mortality and practices of women regarding care during pregnancy, child birth and for newborn, till 28th day of birth. Although 70% of women mentioned receiving antenatal care by a skilled provider, only 54.5% had four or more visits. Tetanus toxoid was received by 79% of women while only 56% delivered at a health care facility by a skilled attendant. Newborn care practices like bathing the baby immediately after birth (56%, giving pre-lacteals (79.5%, late initiation of breast feeding (80.3%, application of substances on umbilical cord (58% and body massage (89% were common. Most neonates (81.1% received BCG injection and polio drops after birth. Neonatal mortality rate was 27/1000 live births with the majority of deaths occurring during the first three days of life. CONCLUSION: Even after years of efforts by government and nongovernmental sector to reduce newborn morbidity and mortality, inadequate

  10. NEONATAL MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy induced Hypertension (PIH is one of the common complications which contributes to significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Effective management improves outcome of both mother and the baby OBJECTIVES: To study the morbidity and mortality in babies born to mothers with pregnancy induced hypertension, assess the reasons for the outcome of the baby and monitor the growth and development till the age of 6 months. METHODS: This study was conducted at Niloufer Institute of Child Health, Hyderabad a teaching institution which caters to high risk obstetric patients and also has a tertiary level NICU care. Study was conducted over a period of 9 months and 100 cases of PIH were included over a period of 3 months and the babies were followed up till the age of 6 months. A structured proforma was designed and analyzed using Epi info for window statistical software. RESULTS: Out of 1461 deliveries, we enrolled 100 PIH cases as per inclusion criteria and studied during 3 months period. Of the study group, 48% were with mild PIH (n=48 and 52% were with severe PIH (n=52. When compared to mild PIH, severe PIH was associated with higher rates of preterm deliveries and it was statistically significant (P 2. In NICU admissions Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS, Hyaline membrane disease (HMD, Birth asphyxia (BA and sepsis were observed. All the complications were more in severe PIH than mild PIH. After discharge infants were fallowed up till the age of 6 months. Out of 75 babies discharged, 24 cases were lost to follow up and in the remaining 51 babies, 33 were born to mild PIH mothers, 18 were born to severe PIH mothers. CONCLUSION: PIH is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the fetus and newborn. The more severe the PIH, the more adverse is the outcome. Our goal is early detection and prompts Management

  11. Neonatal mortality: description and effect of hospital of birth after risk adjustment Mortalidade neonatal: descrição e efeito do hospital de nascimento após ajuste de risco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluísio J D Barros

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of hospital of birth on neonatal mortality. METHODS: A birth cohort study was carried out in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2004. All hospital births were assessed by daily visits to all maternity hospitals and 4558 deliveries were included in the study. Mothers were interviewed regarding potential risk factors. Deaths were monitored through regular visits to hospitals, cemeteries and register offices. Two independent pediatricians established the underlying cause of death based on information obtained from medical records and home visits to parents. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of hospital of birth, controlling for confounders related to maternal and newborn characteristics, according to a conceptual model. RESULTS: Neonatal mortality rate was 12.7‰ and it was highly influenced by birthweight, gestational age, and socioeconomic variables. Immaturity was responsible for 65% of neonatal deaths, followed by congenital anomalies, infections and intrapartum asphyxia. Adjusting for maternal characteristics, a three-fold increase in neonatal mortality was seen between similar complexity hospitals. The effect of hospital remained, though lower, after controlling for newborn characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal mortality was high, mainly related to immaturity, and varied significantly across maternity hospitals. Further investigations comparing delivery care practices across hospitals are needed to better understand NMR variation and to develop strategies for neonatal mortality reduction.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de hospital de nascimento na ocorrência de mortalidade neonatal. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte de nascimentos foi iniciada em Pelotas, em 2004. Todos os nascimentos hospitalares foram estudados em visitas diárias às maternidades da cidade, incluindo-se 4.558 recém-nascidos. As mães foram entrevistadas sobre fatores de risco em potencial e as mortes, monitoradas com visitas regulares aos

  12. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age: individual participant level meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Marchant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1 birth weight, (2 gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3 neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999-2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (< 2,500 g babies were either preterm (< 37 weeks gestation or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age. 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born < 34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4-121.4], with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34-36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0-10.7], but the likelihood for babies born 34-36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3-47.4]. Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  13. Bovine milk-based formula leads to early maturation-like morphological, immunological, and functional changes in the jejunum of neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, R; Scharek-Tedin, L; Zetzsche, A; Röhe, I; Kröger, S; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2016-03-01

    Artificial rearing and formula feeding is coming more into the focus due to increasing litter sizes and limited nursing capacity of sows. The formula composition is important to effectively support the development of the gut and prevent intestinal dysfunction in neonatal piglets. In this study, newborn piglets ( = 8 per group) were fed a bovine milk-based formula (FO), containing skimmed milk and whey as the sole protein and carbohydrate sources, or were suckled by the sow (sow milk [SM]). After 2 wk, tissue from the jejunum was analyzed for structural (i.e., morphometry) and functional (i.e., disaccharidase activity, glucose transport, permeability toward macromolecules, and immune cell presence) changes and concomitant expression of related genes. Formula-fed piglets had more liquid feces ( proteins lead to to the observed intestinal reactions requires further clarification. PMID:27065261

  14. Determinantes da mortalidade neonatal a partir de uma coorte de nascidos vivos, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, 1997-1999 Determinants of neonatal mortality in a cohort of born alive infants, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, 1997-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Francisca Martins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar os fatores de risco para a mortalidade neonatal a partir das informações contidas no Sistema de Informação de Nascidos Vivos e Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade na cidade de Montes Claros, no período de 1997 a 1999. MÉTODOS: foi utilizada a técnica de linkage para concatenar as declarações de óbitos com as respectivas declarações de nascidos vivos. A identificação dos fatores associados à mortalidade neonatal foi realizada através das análises univariada e multivariada; obteve-se o cálculo dos riscos e seus intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: os nascidos vivos foram 20.506 e os óbitos 275, resultando um coeficiente de mortalidade neonatal anual médio de 13,4 por mil nascidos vivos. Através da análise multivariada constituíram-se fatores de risco independentes para a ocorrência dos óbitos neonatais a prematuridade, o baixo peso ao nascer e o escore de Apgar inferior a 7 no 1º e 5º minutos de vida. CONCLUSÕES: esforços devem ser dirigidos no sentido de garantir uma assistência obstétrica e neonatal na cidade de Montes Claros que propicie condições para uma gestação e nascimento seguros, favorecendo, assim, a sobrevivência no início da vida.OBJECTIVES: to identify the factors of risk for the neonatal mortality with information from born alive information system and mortality information system in city of Montes Claros, in the period of 1997 through 1999. METHODS: the linkage technique has been used to link the declarations of death with the respective declarations of the infants who were born alive. The identification of factors associated to neonatal mortality has been done through bivaried and multi-variable analysis, obtaining the calculus of risk and its 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: the infants who were born alive were 20.506 and the deaths 275 which resulted in a coefficient of neonatal mortality of 13.4 to one thousand who were born alive. Through the multi

  15. Transplacental transmission of bovine tick-borne pathogens: Frequency, co-infections and fatal neonatal anaplasmosis in a region of enzootic stability in the northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sonia Carmen Lopo; de Magalhães, Vanessa Carvalho Sampaio; de Oliveira, Uillians Volkart; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; de Almeida, Clebson Pereira; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tick-borne disease (TBD) constitutes a worldwide group of diseases that result in great losses for dairy and beef cattle. With regard to the epidemiological profile of the diseases, the importance of transplacental transmission is still not very well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the transplacental transmission of TBD agents (Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina) in a herd of dairy cattle that had been naturally infected in an area of enzootic stability in northeastern Brazil. Blood for serology of the three agents was collected from cows within 120 days of gestation and serology, haemogram and nPCR assays were performed after birth. Blood was collected from the calves within 3h of birth, and haemogram and nPCR assays were performed in all animals. Pre-colostrum serology was achieved in 34 animals. The Student's t-test was used to compare the haemogram results between animals that were positive and negative for the haemoparasites. The cows were seropositive for all agents in at least one of the examinations. We detected 15 cases of vertical transmission of A. marginale, 4 of B. bovis and 2 of B. bigemina in the 60 cows. In infected animals, co-infection was detected for A. marginale and B. bovis in 1 of 60 calves, and a triple infection was detected in one other calf. Fatal neonatal anaplasmosis was observed in 1 of 15 calves, in which death occurred within 24h of birth. From the results, we concluded that transplacental transmission of TBD agents occurs, including in cases of co- and triple-infection. Such transplacental transmission can cause neonatal death, increasing the importance of this form of epidemiological transmission and suggesting its role as a cause of undiagnosed neonatal death. PMID:26613663

  16. Demonstration of early functional compromise of bone marrow derived hematopoietic progenitor cells during bovine neonatal pancytopenia through in vitro culture of bone marrow biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laming Eleanor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP is a syndrome characterised by thrombocytopenia associated with marked bone marrow destruction in calves, widely reported since 2007 in several European countries and since 2011 in New Zealand. The disease is epidemiologically associated with the use of an inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD vaccine and is currently considered to be caused by absorption of colostral antibody produced by some vaccinated cows (“BNP dams”. Alloantibodies capable of binding to the leukocyte surface have been detected in BNP dams and antibodies recognising bovine MHC class I and β-2-microglobulin have been detected in vaccinated cattle. In this study, calves were challenged with pooled colostrum collected from BNP dams or from non-BNP dams and their bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC cultured in vitro from sternal biopsies taken at 24 hours and 6 days post-challenge. Results Clonogenic assay demonstrated that CFU-GEMM (colony forming unit-granulocyte/erythroid/macrophage/megakaryocyte; pluripotential progenitor cell colony development was compromised from HPCs harvested as early as 24 hour post-challenge. By 6 days post challenge, HPCs harvested from challenged calves failed to develop CFU-E (erythroid colonies and the development of both CFU-GEMM and CFU-GM (granulocyte/macrophage was markedly reduced. Conclusion This study suggests that the bone marrow pathology and clinical signs associated with BNP are related to an insult which compromises the pluripotential progenitor cell within the first 24 hours of life but that this does not initially include all cell types.

  17. Serological and Molecular Detection of Senecavirus A Associated with an Outbreak of Swine Idiopathic Vesicular Disease and Neonatal Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel; Rademacher, Chris; Linhares, Daniel; Harmon, Karen; Rotolo, Marisa; Sun, Yaxuan; Baum, David H; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Piñeyro, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    We performed a longitudinal field study in a swine breeding herd that presented with an outbreak of vesicular disease (VD) that was associated with an increase in neonatal mortality. Initially, a USDA Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) investigation confirmed the presence of Senecavirus A (SVA) and ruled out the presence of exotic agents that produce vesicular lesions, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus and others. Subsequently, serum samples, tonsil swabs, and feces were collected from sows (n = 22) and their piglets (n = 33) beginning 1 week after the onset of the clinical outbreak and weekly for 6 weeks. The presence of SVA RNA was evaluated in all specimens collected by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) targeting a conserved region of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR). The serological response (IgG) to SVA was evaluated by the weekly testing of sow and piglet serum samples on a SVA VP1 recombinant protein (rVP1) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The rVP1 ELISA detected seroconversion against SVA in clinically affected and non-clinically affected sows at early stages of the outbreak as well as maternal SVA antibodies in offspring. Overall, the absence of vesicles (gross lesions) in SVA-infected animals and the variability of RT-qPCR results among specimen type demonstrated that a diagnostic algorithm based on the combination of clinical observations, RT-qPCR in multiple diagnostic specimens, and serology are essential to ensure an accurate diagnosis of SVA. PMID:27225408

  18. Sistema hospitalar como fonte de informações para estimar a mortalidade neonatal e a natimortalidade The Brazilian hospital system as a source of information to estimate stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce MA Schramm

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apesar da reconhecida importância em acompanhar a evolução temporal da mortalidade infantil precoce, a deficiência das estatísticas vitais no Brasil ainda permanece na agenda atual dos problemas que impedem o seu acompanhamento espaço-temporal. Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de investigar o Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH/SUS como fonte de informações, para estimar a natimortalidade e a mortalidade neonatal. MÉTODOS: Propõe-se um método para estimar a natimortalidade e a mortalidade neonatal, o qual foi aplicado para todos os Estados das regiões Nordeste, Sul e Sudeste e para o Pará, no ano de 1995. Para fins comparativos, o Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM/MS foi utilizado para estimar as taxas sob estudo, após a correção do número de nascidos vivos por um método demográfico. RESULTADOS: O SIH/SUS forneceu mais óbitos fetais e neonatais precoces do que o SIM/MS em grande parte das unidades federadas da região Nordeste. Adicionalmente para os Estados localizados nas regiões Sul e Sudeste, que apresentam, em geral, boa cobertura do registro de óbitos, as taxas calculadas pelos dois sistemas de informação tiveram valores semelhantes. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando a cobertura incompleta das estatísticas vitais no Brasil e a agilidade do SIH/SUS em disponibilizar as informações em meio magnético, conclui-se que o uso do SIH/SUS poderá trazer inúmeras contribuições para análise do comportamento espaço-temporal do componente neonatal da mortalidade infantil no território brasileiro, em anos recentes.OBJECTIVE: Studies on the evolution of infant mortality rate are very relevant. Nevertheless, lack of vital statistics in Brazil limits the temporal and spatial analysis of this indicator. This study aims to investigate the possible use of the Brazilian Hospital Information System as an alternative information source for stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates by age group. METHODS: A

  19. Care during labor and birth for the prevention of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Neil F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to estimate the effect of various childbirth care packages on neonatal mortality due to intrapartum-related events (“birth asphyxia” in term babies for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies or reviews of childbirth care packages as defined by United Nations norms (basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, skilled care at birth. We also reviewed Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA training. Data were abstracted into standard tables and quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. For interventions with low quality evidence, but strong GRADE recommendation for implementation, an expert Delphi consensus process was conducted to estimate cause-specific mortality effects. Results We identified evidence for the effect on perinatal/neonatal mortality of emergency obstetric care packages: 9 studies (8 observational, 1 quasi-experimental, and for skilled childbirth care: 10 studies (8 observational, 2 quasi-experimental. Studies were of low quality, but the GRADE recommendation for implementation is strong. Our Delphi process included 21 experts representing all WHO regions and achieved consensus on the reduction of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths by comprehensive emergency obstetric care (85%, basic emergency obstetric care (40%, and skilled birth care (25%. For TBA training we identified 2 meta-analyses and 9 studies reporting mortality effects (3 cRCT, 1 quasi-experimental, 5 observational. There was substantial between-study heterogeneity and the overall quality of evidence was low. Because the GRADE recommendation for TBA training is conditional on the context and region, the effect was not estimated through a Delphi or included in the LiST tool. Conclusion Evidence quality is rated low, partly because of challenges in undertaking RCTs for obstetric interventions, which are considered standard of care. Additional challenges for

  20. Online Calculator to Improve Counseling of Short-Term Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes at Extremely Low Gestational Age (23-28 Weeks).

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carol P; da Silva, Orlando; Filler, Guido; Lopes, Laudelino M

    2016-07-01

    Objective Extremely low gestational age (ELGA) infants are at high risk of perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Accurate and relevant data are essential for developing a health care plan and providing realistic estimates of infants' outcomes. Study Design Retrospective analysis of all infants delivered between 23(0/7) and 28(6/7) weeks' gestation over 11 years at a single center. Using logistic regression analysis, gestational age (GA)-specific mortality and morbidity rates, and the effects of gender, antenatal corticosteroids, multiple gestation, and birth weight (BW) were determined. Results Of the 766 study infants, 644 (84.1%) were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, of which 502 (75.8%) survived to discharge. GA, antenatal corticosteroids, and BW were significant predictors of survival (GA: odds ratio [OR] = 1.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.64-2.04; corticosteroids: OR = 7.62, 95% CI = 5.19-11.18; BW: OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.44-1.69). Increasing BW correlated with a decreasing mortality rate. Conclusion This study provides recent outcome data of ELGA infants delivered at a tertiary level center. The results have been translated into an online counseling tool (http://murmuring-brook-6600.herokuapp.com/ELGA.html). PMID:27057769

  1. Bovine herpesvirus-1: Genetic diversity of field strains from cattle with respiratory disease, genital, fetal disease and systemic neonatal disease and their relationship to vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Dubovi, E J; Eberle, R

    2016-09-01

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) causes disease in cattle with varied clinical forms. In the U.S. there are two BoHV1 subtypes, BoHV-1.1 and BoHV-1.2b. Control programs in North America incorporate modified live (MLV) or killed (KV) viral vaccines. However, BoHV-1 strains continue to be isolated from diseased animals or fetuses after vaccination. It is possible to differentiate BoHV-1 wild-type from MLV vaccine strains by determining their single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns through either whole-genome sequencing or PCR sequencing of genomic regions containing vaccine-defining SNPs. To determine the BoHV-1 subtype in clinical isolates and their relationship to MLV strains, 8 isolates from varied clinical disease at three different laboratories in the U.S. were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Five samples were isolated within the past 5 years from New York and 3 were archived samples recovered 35 years prior from Oklahoma and Louisiana. Based on phylogenetic analysis, four of the cases appeared to be due to an MLV vaccine: 3 cases of aborted fetuses and one neonate with systemic BoHV-1 disease. One aborted fetus was from a herd with no reported history of MLV vaccination in two years. The remaining four isolates did not group with any MLV vaccines: two were associated with bovine respiratory disease, one with vulvovaginitis, and a fourth was determined to be a BoHV-1.2b respiratory isolate. Recovery of BoHV-1.1 that is very closely related to an MLV vaccine virus from a herd not receiving vaccines in an extended period prior to its isolation suggests that MLV viruses may remain latent or circulate within herds for long periods. PMID:27374060

  2. Aplicação do escore CRIB como preditor de óbito em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal: uma abordagem ampliada The use of CRIB score as mortality predictor at neonatal intensive care unit: an extended approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o uso do escore CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies em todos os recém-nascidos internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN e comparar seus resultados com peso ao nascer e idade gestacional. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional, envolvendo todos os recém-nascidos internados na UTIN do Hospital Universitário de Taubaté. As variáveis foram escore CRIB, peso ao nascer, idade gestacional, uso de surfactante, cateterização umbilical, asfixia neonatal e óbito. Foram comparadas as médias do escore CRIB, peso ao nascer e idade gestacional segundo óbito. Foram estimados os valores da sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo e risco relativo e criadas curvas Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC para CRIB, peso ao nascer e idade gestacional. Utilizou-se da técnica t de Student e qui-quadrado de tendência linear. A significância estatística foi alfa = 5%. RESULTADOS: óbito esteve associado a maiores valores do CRIB; houve tendência de mais casos com asfixia, uso de surfactante, cateterização umbilical e óbitos com as classes maiores do CRIB. A curva ROC relativa ao CRIB foi maior que as relativas ao peso ao nascer e idade gestacional. CONCLUSÕES: o escore CRIB foi bom preditor do óbito quando aplicado em todos os RN.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies score as mortality predictor in all newborn at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and to compare with birthweight and gestational age. METHODS: observational study with newborn admitted at NICU of University Hospital of Taubaté. The variables were CRIB score, birth weight, gestational age, use of surfactant, umbilical catheter, neonatal asphyxia and death. The association between CRIB score and other variables was estimated. The values of sensitivity, specificity, predictive and negative values and relative risk and 95% confidence interval of were estimated and created ROC (Receiver Operating

  3. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Doherty; Jim Grant; Cosme Sánchez-Miguel; Mee, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Mortality of full-term calves at calving is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. Multiple herd management factors contribute to such losses. This case-control study identified factors which differed between herds with high and low calf mortality. These included breeding, dietary, health and calving factors. It was concluded that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality. Thi...

  4. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Alan A.; Tillinghast, John; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual mor...

  5. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cohen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough for this to be a robust negative result.

  6. Neonatal neurosonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paediatric and particularly neonatal neurosonography still remains a mainstay of imaging the neonatal brain. It can be performed at the bedside without any need for sedation or specific monitoring. There are a number of neurologic conditions that significantly influence morbidity and mortality in neonates and infants related to the brain and the spinal cord; most of them can be addressed by ultrasonography (US). However, with the introduction of first CT and then MRI, neonatal neurosonography is increasingly considered just a basic first line technique that offers only orienting information and does not deliver much relevant information. This is partially caused by inferior US performance – either by restricted availability of modern equipment or by lack of specialized expertise in performing and reading neurosonographic scans. This essay tries to highlight the value and potential of US in the neonatal brain and briefly touching also on the spinal cord imaging. The common pathologies and their US appearance as well as typical indication and applications of neurosonography are listed. The review aims at encouraging paediatric radiologists to reorient there imaging algorithms and skills towards the potential of modern neurosonography, particularly in the view of efficacy, considering growing economic pressure, and the low invasiveness as well as the good availability of US that can easily be repeated any time at the bedside

  7. Neonatal neurosonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael, E-mail: michael.riccabona@klinikum-graz.at

    2014-09-15

    Paediatric and particularly neonatal neurosonography still remains a mainstay of imaging the neonatal brain. It can be performed at the bedside without any need for sedation or specific monitoring. There are a number of neurologic conditions that significantly influence morbidity and mortality in neonates and infants related to the brain and the spinal cord; most of them can be addressed by ultrasonography (US). However, with the introduction of first CT and then MRI, neonatal neurosonography is increasingly considered just a basic first line technique that offers only orienting information and does not deliver much relevant information. This is partially caused by inferior US performance – either by restricted availability of modern equipment or by lack of specialized expertise in performing and reading neurosonographic scans. This essay tries to highlight the value and potential of US in the neonatal brain and briefly touching also on the spinal cord imaging. The common pathologies and their US appearance as well as typical indication and applications of neurosonography are listed. The review aims at encouraging paediatric radiologists to reorient there imaging algorithms and skills towards the potential of modern neurosonography, particularly in the view of efficacy, considering growing economic pressure, and the low invasiveness as well as the good availability of US that can easily be repeated any time at the bedside.

  8. Evaluating virulence of waterborne and clinical Aeromonas isolates using gene expression and mortality in neonatal mice followed by assessing cell culture’s ability to predict virulence based on transcriptional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S L; Rodgers, M R; Lye, D J; Stelma, G N; McKinstry, Craig A.; Malard, Joel M.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2007-10-01

    Aims: To assess the virulence of Aeromonas spp. using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Methods and Results: After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., mRNA extracts from the two models were processed and hydridized to murine microarrays to determine host gene response. Definition of virulence was determined based on host mRNA production in murine neonatal intestinal tissue and mortality of infected animals. Infections of mouse intestinal cell cultures were then performed to determine whether this simpler model system’s mRNA responses correlated to neonatal results and therefore be predictive of virulence of Aeromonas spp. Virulent aeromonads up-regulated transcripts in both models including multiple host defense gene products (chemokines, regulation of transcription and apoptosis and cell signalling). Avirulent species exhibited little or no host response in neonates. Mortality results correlated well with both bacterial dose and average fold change of up-regulated transcripts in the neonatal mice. Conclusions: Cell culture results were less discriminating but showed promise as potentially being able to be predictive of virulence. Jun oncogene up-regulation in murine cell culture is potentially predictive of Aeromonas virulence. Significance and Impact of the Study: Having the ability to determine virulence of waterborne pathogens quickly would potentially assist public health officials to rapidly assess exposure risks.

  9. Sildenafil attenuates pulmonary inflammation and fibrin deposition, mortality and right ventricular hypertrophy in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boersma Hester

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition with sildenafil has been used to treat severe pulmonary hypertension and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, a chronic lung disease in very preterm infants who were mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Sildenafil treatment was investigated in 2 models of experimental BPD: a lethal neonatal model, in which rat pups were continuously exposed to hyperoxia and treated daily with sildenafil (50–150 mg/kg body weight/day; injected subcutaneously and a neonatal lung injury-recovery model in which rat pups were exposed to hyperoxia for 9 days, followed by 9 days of recovery in room air and started sildenafil treatment on day 6 of hyperoxia exposure. Parameters investigated include survival, histopathology, fibrin deposition, alveolar vascular leakage, right ventricular hypertrophy, and differential mRNA expression in lung and heart tissue. Results Prophylactic treatment with an optimal dose of sildenafil (2 × 50 mg/kg/day significantly increased lung cGMP levels, prolonged median survival, reduced fibrin deposition, total protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, inflammation and septum thickness. Treatment with sildenafil partially corrected the differential mRNA expression of amphiregulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in the lung and of brain and c-type natriuretic peptides and the natriuretic peptide receptors NPR-A, -B, and -C in the right ventricle. In the lethal and injury-recovery model we demonstrated improved alveolarization and angiogenesis by attenuating mean linear intercept and arteriolar wall thickness and increasing pulmonary blood vessel density, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH. Conclusion Sildenafil treatment, started simultaneously with exposure to hyperoxia after birth, prolongs survival, increases pulmonary cGMP levels, reduces the pulmonary

  10. SNAP II and SNAPPE II as Predictors of Neonatal Mortality in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: Does Postnatal Age Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Noemi Mesquita Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In developing countries, a lack of decentralization of perinatal care leads to many high-risk births occurring in facilities that do not have NICU, leading to admission to a PICU. Objective. To assess SNAP II and SNAPPE II as predictors of neonatal death in the PICU. Methodology. A prospective study of newborns divided into 3 groups according to postnatal age: Group 1 (G1, of 0 to 6 days; Group 2 (G2 of 7 to 14 days; and Group 3 (G3, of 15 to 28 days. Variables analyzed were SNAP II, SNAPPE II, perinatal data, and known risk factors for death. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve were used with SPSS 17.0 for statistical analysis. An Alpha error <5% was considered significant. Results. We analyzed 290 newborns, including 192 from G1, 41 from G2, and 57 from G3. Mortality was similar in all 3 groups. Median SNAP II was higher in newborns that died in all 3 groups (P<0.05. The area under the ROC curve for SNAP II for G1 was 0.78 (CI 95% 0.70–0.86, for G2 0.66 (CI 95% 0.37–0.94, and for G3 0.74 (CI 95% 0.53–0.93. The area under the ROC curve for SNAPPE II for G1 was 0.76 (CI 95% 0.67–0.85, for G2 0.60 (CI 95% 0.30–0.90, and for G3 0.74 (CI 95% 0.52–0.95. Conclusions. SNAP II and SNAPPE II showed moderate discrimination in predicting mortality. The results are not strong enough to establish the correlation between the score and the risk of mortality.

  11. Índice de proporcionalidade do baixo peso ao nascer e a sua relação com a mortalidade neonatal Proporcionationality index in low birth weigth and its relation to neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Shozo Uchimura

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da relação do baixo peso ao nascer (BPN com a mortalidade neonatal é de importância vital para o estabelecimento de estratégias de prevenção e redução dos altos percentuais encontrados em populações de países em desenvolvimento. Neste sentido, realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de verificar o índice de proporcionalidade em crianças BPN e a sua relação com o risco de óbito, estimado através do Índice de Rohrer. A população amostral foi constituída por todas as mães biológicas e suas crianças menores de um ano de idade atendidas em cinco dias úteis nas 22 unidades de saúde do Município de Maringá, em 1998, perfazendo um total de 575. Consideraram-se BPN (baixo peso ao nascer todas as crianças com peso = 2,51, proporcionadas. Do total das crianças, 168 (29,2% foram consideradas desproporcionadas. Para as crianças BPN, o percentual foi de 76,5%. Para os outros grupos de crianças com peso insuficiente e adequado, os percentuais foram de 53,7% e 18,3%. Para o total da amostra, quando se associa o IR The study of the relation between low birthweight (LBW and mortality neonatal is most important, not only to establish preventive action, but also to reduce the high percentage of BPN in populations of developing countries. A study was carried out with the purpose of verifying the influence of LBW in neonatal mortality, appraised through the Rohrer’s Ponderal Index (IR. The sample comprised all biological mothers and their children under 1 year of age being assisted for 5 days in 22 health units of Maringá municipality in 1998. The mothers total was 575. All children born weighing =2,51 proportionate. From the total, 168(29,2% of the children were considered disproportionate. For the children LBW the percentage was 76,5%. For the others groups with insufficient and adequate weight the percentage was 53,7% and 18,3%. For the total sample, the association between the IR and length < 47cm was 23,2% for high

  12. Bacterial Culture of Neonatal Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    AH Movahedian; R Moniri; Z Mosayebi

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal bacterial sepsis is one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. This retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of bacterial sepsis with focus on Gram negative organisms in neonates admitted at Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, during a 3-yr period, from September 2002 to September 2005. Blood culture was performed on all neonates with risk factors or signs of suggestive sepsis. Blood samples were cultured using brain heart infusion (BHI) broth accordi...

  13. Vitamin D Metabolites and Their Association with Calcium, Phosphorus, and PTH Concentrations, Severity of Illness, and Mortality in Hospitalized Equine Neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Kamr

    Full Text Available Hypocalcemia is a frequent abnormality that has been associated with disease severity and outcome in hospitalized foals. However, the pathogenesis of equine neonatal hypocalcemia is poorly understood. Hypovitaminosis D in critically ill people has been linked to hypocalcemia and mortality; however, information on vitamin D metabolites and their association with clinical findings and outcome in critically ill foals is lacking. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (hypovitaminosis D and its association with serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, disease severity, and mortality in hospitalized newborn foals.One hundred newborn foals ≤72 hours old divided into hospitalized (n = 83; 59 septic, 24 sick non-septic [SNS] and healthy (n = 17 groups were included. Blood samples were collected on admission to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH 2D3], and PTH concentrations. Data were analyzed by nonparametric methods and univariate logistic regression. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [defined as 25(OHD3 <9.51 ng/mL] was 63% for hospitalized, 64% for septic, and 63% for SNS foals. Serum 25(OHD3 and 1,25(OH 2D3 concentrations were significantly lower in septic and SNS compared to healthy foals (P<0.0001; P = 0.037. Septic foals had significantly lower calcium and higher phosphorus and PTH concentrations than healthy and SNS foals (P<0.05. In hospitalized and septic foals, low 1,25(OH2D3 concentrations were associated with increased PTH but not with calcium or phosphorus concentrations. Septic foals with 25(OHD3 <9.51 ng/mL and 1,25(OH 2D3 <7.09 pmol/L were more likely to die (OR=3.62; 95% CI = 1.1-12.40; OR = 5.41; 95% CI = 1.19-24.52, respectively.Low 25(OHD3 and 1,25(OH2D3 concentrations are associated with disease severity and mortality in hospitalized foals. Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to a pro-inflammatory state in equine

  14. A questionnaire-based study of gestation, parturition and neonatal mortality in pedigree breeding cats in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Andrew H; Rogers, Katherine; Henley, William E; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; May, Julia M; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Bessant, Claire

    2006-06-01

    This study was based on a convenience-sampling questionnaire study of pedigree cat breeding in the UK. Data were collated for the births of 1,056 litters from 14 different pedigree breeds and 942 different households. Significant relationships between various outcomes and relevant predictors were assessed by multiple linear regression or logistic regression as appropriate. The overall mean gestation length of 65.1 days varied significantly between the breeds (Pkittens also varied significantly according to breed (Pkittens born alive (overall mean 93.5 g) increased with longer gestation lengths (P=0.0003), decreased with larger litter sizes (Pkittens were stillborn, which varied according to breed (P=0.0003), and the risk of a stillborn kitten increased with litter size (P=0.0001), and with the presence of congenital defects in the litter (P=0.0002). The mean kitten mortality between birth and 8 weeks of age was 9.1%, and the majority of these occurred in the first week of life. Parturition intervals varied widely. The duration of first stage of labour was less than 2h in 82.9% of cats. The interval between the birth of the first and last kitten was less than 6h in 85.7%, but more than 48 h in three cats. A maximum of 48 h was recorded between the births of individual kittens in unassisted deliveries. PMID:16442825

  15. Neonatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Loss & grief > Neonatal death Neonatal death E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... your baby. What are common causes of neonatal death? The most common causes of neonatal death are: ...

  16. Low Birth Weight Causes Survey in Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    F. Eghbalian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Neonatal mortality rate is one of the main health problems which is affected by prenatal status, maternal, fetal and perinatal conditions. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the main causes of neonatal and infantile mortality. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the LBW causes in neonates. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was done on 1500 neonates, born in Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, 2004. Data such as birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, birth inte...

  17. Análisis de la mortalidad neonatal precoz en San Miguel del Padrón (La Habana) Analysis of early neonatal mortality in San Miguel del Padrón municipality in Havana City

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Vidal Borrás

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN. Fueron objetivos de esta presentación caracterizar el comportamiento de la mortalidad neonatal precoz y su relación con la edad materna, gestacional, los factores de riesgo y las causas de muerte neonatal en el municipio San Miguel del Padrón, entre 1999 y 2008. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y longitudinal del comportamiento de la mortalidad neonatal precoz en una muestra de 49 defunciones. Se analizaron variables maternas y del recién nacido, cuyos d...

  18. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  19. Fatores de risco para a mortalidade de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Factores de riesgo para la mortalidad de recién nacidos de muy bajo peso en Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Risk factors for the mortality of very low birth weight newborns at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Almeida Carneiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores associados à mortalidade de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso internados em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de referência no Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal baseado na análise de prontuários de uma amostra aleatória de recém-nascidos admitidos em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de janeiro de 2007 a junho de 2010. Foram considerados elegíveis para o estudo recém-nascidos com peso inferior a 1500g, provenientes do bloco obstétrico da própria instituição. Foram identificadas variáveis demográficas maternas, variáveis relacionadas às condições de gestação e parto e variáveis do recém-nascido. A associação entre as variáveis foi aferida por meio do teste do qui-quadrado e Odds Ratio. As variáveis associadas até o nível de 25% (pOBJETIVO: Identificar los factores asociados a la mortalidad de recién nacidos de muy bajo peso, internados en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de referencia en el Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, basado en el análisis de prontuarios de una muestra aleatoria de recién nacidos admitidos en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal desde enero de 2007 hasta junio de 2010. Fueron considerados elegibles para el estudio los recién nacidos con peso inferior a 1.500g, provenientes del bloque obstétrico de la propia institución. Fueron identificadas variables demográficas maternas, variables relacionadas a las condiciones de gestación y parto y variables del recién nacido. La asociación entre las variables fue verificada por medio de la prueba de chi cuadrado y Odds Ratio. Las variables asociadas hasta el nivel de 25% (pOBJECTIVE: To identify variables associated with mortality among very low birth weight infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on chart data of a random sample of premature

  20. Fatores de risco para mortalidade neonatal em crianças com baixo peso ao nascer Factores de riesgo para mortalidad neonatal en niños con bajo peso al nacer Risk factors for neonatal mortality among children with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Monteiro Ribeiro

    2009-04-01

    Informaciones sobre Mortalidad, fueron integrados por la técnica de linkage. En modelo jerarquizado, las variables de los niveles distal (factores socioeconómicos, intermedio (factores de atención a la salud y proximal (factores biológicos fueron sometidas al análisis univariado y regresión logística multivariada. RESULTADOS: Con el ajuste de las variables en la regresión logística multivariada, las variables del nivel distal que permanecieron significativamente asociadas con el óbito neonatal fueron: la cohabitación de los padres, número de hijos vivos y tipo de hospital de nacimiento; en el nivel intermedio: número de consultas en el pre-natal, complejidad del hospital de nacimiento y tipo de parto; y en el nivel proximal: sexo, edad gestacional, peso al nacer, índice de Apgar y presencia de malformación congénita. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados a la mortalidad neonatal en los nacidos vivos con bajo peso están relacionados con la atención a la gestante y al recién nacido, reductibles por la actuación del sector salud.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk factors associated with neonatal deaths among children with low birth weight. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out on live births weighing between 500 g and 2,499 g from single pregnancies without anencephaly in Recife (Northeastern Brazil between 2001 and 2003. Data on 5,687 live births and 499 neonatal deaths obtained from the Live Birth Information System and the Mortality Information System were integrated through the linkage technique. Using a hierarchical model, variables from the distal level (socioeconomic factors, intermediate level (healthcare factors and proximal level (biological factors were subjected to univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: After adjusting the variables through multivariate logistic regression, the factors from the distal level that remained significantly associated with neonatal death were: cohabitation by the parents, number of

  1. Comparação da mortalidade neonatal em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso ao nascimento, em maternidades do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Comparison of neonatal mortality in very low birth weight newborns at maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Muniz Bandeira Duarte

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a comparação das taxas de mortalidade neonatal em quatro maternidades do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A população estudada foi de recém-nascidos com peso inferior a 1.500g. O instrumento utilizado foi um questionário com dados informados pela mãe e o prontuário médico. Foram calculados, para cada instituição, as Razões Padronizadas de Mortalidade (RPM com o método direto e indireto, tendo como padrão a distribuição por peso do National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research. A amostra final apresentou 487 recém-nascidos. As padronizações pelo método direto e indireto mostraram elevadas taxas de mortalidade em todas as instituições; as que apresentaram a maior quantidade de recém-nascidos nas faixas com os menores pesos, foram aquelas que mostraram os menores valores de RPM. A menor razão de mortalidade por faixa de peso foi encontrada na faixa de peso entre 500 e 749g. Os resultados da RPM estão inversamente associados ao quantitativo populacional de recém-nascidos nas faixas com os menores pesos. Os coeficientes de mortalidade mostraram taxas altas, principalmente nas faixas de peso mais elevados. Os resultados apontam para uma qualidade deficiente na atenção perinatal.This study was a comparison of neonatal mortality rates in four maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study population consisted of newborns with birth weight below 1,500g. The research instrument was a questionnaire with data reported by the mother and collected from the patient record. For each maternity hospital the standardized mortality ratio (SMR was calculated using the direct and indirect method, using the weight distribution of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research as the standard. The final sample consisted of 487 newborns. Standardizations by the direct and indirect method showed high mortality rates in all four institutions

  2. Procalcitonin as a marker of neonatal sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Nazeer Ahmad Jeergal; Rizwan-u-zama; Naushad Ali .N. Malagi; Faisal Farooqui; Sadashiva .B. Ukkali; Ravindra Naganoor; A.N. Thobbi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest causes of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as the most studied and promising sepsis biomarker. Objective: To assess the role of procalcitonin (PCT) as a marker in the early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of neonatal sepsis. Methods: Twenty five neonates with clinical (n=5), suspected (n=13) and proven sepsis (n=7) were evaluated. The PCT levels were measured by immunoluminoassay before and on ...

  3. The importance of intersectoral factors in promoting equity-oriented universal health coverage: a multilevel analysis of social determinants affecting neonatal infant and under-five mortality in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir M. Huda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health is multidimensional and affected by a wide range of factors, many of which are outside the health sector. To improve population health and reduce health inequality, it is important that we take into account the complex interactions among social, environmental, behavioural, and biological factors and design our health interventions accordingly. Objectives: This study examines mortality differentials in children of different age groups by key social determinants of health (SDH including parental education and employment, mother's level of autonomy, age, asset index, living arrangements (utilities, and other geographical contextual factors (area of residence, road conditions. Design: We used data from the two rounds of Bangladesh Health and Demographic Survey, a nationally representative sample survey of the population residing in Bangladesh. Multilevel logistic models were used to study the impact of SDH on child mortality. Results: The study found that the mother's age, the education of both parents, the mother's autonomy to take decisions about matters linked to the health of her child, the household socio-economic conditions, the geographical region of residence, and the condition of the roads were significantly associated with higher risks of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Bangladesh. Conclusion: The study findings suggest there are complex relationships among different SDH. Thus larger intersectoral actions will be needed to reduce disparities in child health and mortality and achieve meaningful progress towards equity-oriented universal health coverage.

  4. Morbilidad y mortalidad por sepsis neonatal en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención Morbidity and mortality due to neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Rodríguez-Weber

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar el comportamiento de un grupo de recién nacidos sépticos que fallecieron contra un grupo de recién nacidos sépticos vivos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Revisión retrospectiva de expedientes de un grupo de recién nacidos con sepsis neonatal, atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, de la Secretaría de Salud de México, en la Ciudad de México, D.F., entre 1992 y 2000, los cuales se dividieron en recién nacidos sépticos vivos y fallecidos a los 90 días de seguimiento máximo. Se compararon las variables entre los grupos a través de U de Mann Whitney en el caso de variables numéricas, y ji cuadrada o prueba exacta de Fisher en el caso de variables categóricas. Las variables significativas en el análisis bivariado se incluyeron en uno de riesgos proporcionales de Cox. En todos los análisis se consideró como significativo un valor de pOBJECTIVE: To compare the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological profiles between patients with neonatal sepsis who lived or died. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of patients with neonatal sepsis were retrospectively reviewed at Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (National Pediatric Institute of Secretaría de Salud (Ministry of Health in Mexico City, between 1992 and 2000. Neonatal sepsis cases were classified as surviving or not after 90 days of postnatal follow-up. The survivor and deceased groups were compared using Mann-Whitney's U test for continuous variables, and the chi-squared test or the Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Significantly associated variables were included in a Cox proportional hazards model. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analyses. RESULTS: A total of 116 patients with neonatal sepsis were included (65 live and 51 dead. Multivariate analysis showed that fetal distress, respiratory distress, a delayed capillary fill up, a low platelet count, and a positive hemoculture for Klebsiella pneumoniae were

  5. The autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in the rat and bovine spinal cord and the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis and the effects of neonatal capsaicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the present report the authors have used autoradiographic receptor binding techniques to investigate the distribution of SP receptor binding sites in the rat and bovine spinal cord and in the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. Although some quantitative differences were evident, all species appeared to have a similar distribution of SP receptor binding sites in both the spinal cord and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. In the spinal cord the heaviest concentration of SP receptors is located in lamina X, while moderate to heavy concentrations were found in laminae I, II and V-IX. Very low concentrations of SP receptors were present in laminae III and IV. Examination of the cat and rat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis revealed a moderate density of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II, very low concentrations in laminae III and IV, and low to moderate concentrations in lamina V. Rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a small (11%) but significant (P < 0.02) increase in the levels of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord while in all other laminae the levels remained unchanged. (orig.)

  6. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in the rat and bovine spinal cord and the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis and the effects of neonatal capsaicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P. (Medical Research Council Centre, Cambridge (UK). Medical School, MRC Neurochemical Pharmacology Unit)

    1985-04-22

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the present report the authors have used autoradiographic receptor binding techniques to investigate the distribution of SP receptor binding sites in the rat and bovine spinal cord and in the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. Although some quantitative differences were evident, all species appeared to have a similar distribution of SP receptor binding sites in both the spinal cord and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. In the spinal cord the heaviest concentration of SP receptors is located in lamina X, while moderate to heavy concentrations were found in laminae I, II and V-IX. Very low concentrations of SP receptors were present in laminae III and IV. Examination of the cat and rat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis revealed a moderate density of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II, very low concentrations in laminae III and IV, and low to moderate concentrations in lamina V. Rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a small (11%) but significant (P < 0.02) increase in the levels of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord while in all other laminae the levels remained unchanged.

  7. Representación gráfica del riesgo de mortalidad neonatal en un centro perinatal regional en Mérida, Yucatán, México The graphical display of neonatal mortality risk at a regional perinatal center in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico: The joint effect of birth weight and gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Osorno-Covarrubias

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el riesgo de mortalidad neonatal por edad gestacional y el peso al nacer. Material y métodos. Se estudió una cohorte de 19 668 neonatos que egresaron entre el 1 de enero de 1995 y el 31 de octubre de 1999 del Centro Médico Nacional Ignacio García Téllez, del tercer nivel de atención perinatal del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de la Península de Yucatán. Se registraron el peso al nacer, edad gestacional y condición de egreso. Se calculó el riesgo absoluto (RA de mortalidad para cada semana de edad gestacional y grupo de peso. Resultados. El RA de mortalidad observado en neonatos de entre 34 a 44 semanas y peso mayor o igual a 2 250 g fue de 0.4%, de 15% para aquellos de entre 26 a 32 semanas con peso mayor o igual a 1000 g, y de 73% para los de entre las 26 a las 34 semanas, con peso al nacimiento de entre 750 y 1 000 g. Conclusione. El RA de mortalidad neonatal aumentó a menor. edad gestacional y peso. Los datos pueden ser utilizados como valores de referencia para nuestro hospital y para comparación con otros hospitales.Objective. To determine the neonatal mortality risk according to gestational age and birth weight. Material and Methods. The cohort consisted of 19 668 newborns of Centro Médico Nacional (National Medical Center Ignacio García Téllez, a tertiary level healthcare institution of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexican Institute of Social Security, IMSS of the Yucatan Peninsula. All new-borns discharged from the hospital between January 1 st , 1995 and October 31 st , 1999 were included in the study. Birth weight, gestational age, and conditions upon discharge were recorded. Absolute risk (AR of mortality was calculated for each week-of-gestation- and birth group. Results. Observed AR in newborns 34 to 44 weeks of gestational age and weighing at least 2 250 g was 0.4, while that for those 26 to 32 weeks of gestational age and weighing between 1000 g was 15%. Conclusions. AR of

  8. PROFIL KEMATIAN NEONATAL BERDASARKAN SOSIO DEMOGRAFI DAN KONDISI IBU SAAT HAMIL DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharni Raharni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal mortality is the death of an infant who is born alive within 7 days after birth (early neonatal mortality/perinatal, and the death of a baby born alive more than 7 days until approximately 29 days (advanced neonatal mortality. Neonatal deaths (infants aged 28 days is two thirds of infant mortality, whereas early neonatal mortality/perinatal (infant age of 7 days is two thirds of neonatal deaths. The purpose of this study was to determine neonatal mortality profiles based on socio demografic and the mother condition during pregnancy, and the data based on Riskesdas 2010. Methods: This study used cross sectional design, using data Riskesdas 2010. Result: From the analysis obtained the following results, 144 out of 163 neonatal deaths (88,6% were the early neonatal deaths (7 days of birth, the remain at 11.45% were advanced neonatal mortality. Most of neonatal deaths occur in fertil maternal age at delivery was mature enough that age group 18-34 years, but mostly with low and medium level of education that is 53% and 43% respectively. Mostly neonatal deaths occur when 2 continous birth delivery happens less than 12 months, total number is 100 (61 3%. Percentage of neonatal mortality is equal between working mothers and non working mothers. From the baby's weight with weight < 2500 grams and > 2500 grams, the percentage is nearly equal at 27-29%. Conclusion: The body weight most neonatal deaths were unknown was no significant difference between early neonatal and late neonatal. There demographic information according to both maternal, infant characteristics, or economic status. It is expected the results of this reseach can be used as reference related neonatal mortality profile and as an input in policy to improve the mother health during maternity and birth delivery and also to reduce the risk of neonatal death.   Keywords: early neonatal mortality/perinatal, neonatal mortality, pregnancy

  9. Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Liddell, Chelsea A.; Coates, Matthew M.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Levitz, Carly E.; Schumacher, Austin E.; Apfel, Henry; Iannarone, Marissa; Phillips, Bryan; Lofgren, Katherine T.; Sandar, Logan; Dorrington, Rob E.; Rakovac, Ivo; Jacobs, Troy A.; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Yang, Gonghuan; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Shiwei; Li, Yichong; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfina; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Allen, Peter J.; AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz; Alvarez, Elena; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ammar, Walid; Anwari, Palwasha; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Asad, Majed Masoud; Assadi, Reza; Banerjee, Amitava; Basu, Sanjay; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Bhutta, Zulfi Qar; Blore, Jed D.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Boufous, Soufiane; Breitborde, Nicholas; Bruce, Nigel G.; Linh Ngoc Bui, [No Value; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Estanislao Castro, Ruben; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavlin, Alanur; Che, Xuan; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Cirillo, Massimo; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Courville, Karen J.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Davis, Adrian; Dayama, Anand; Deribe, Kebede; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh K.; Dilmen, Ugur; Ding, Eric L.; Edmond, Karen M.; Ermakov, Sergei Petrovich; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Foigt, Nataliya; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Garcia, Ana C.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Green, Mark A.; Greenwell, Karen Fern; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hammami, Mouhanad; Harb, Hilda L.; Hay, Simon; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jonas, Jost B.; Juel, Knud; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B.; Lai, Taavi; Lan, Qing; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leinsalu, Mall; Lim, Stephen S.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Ma, Stefan; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Mashal, Mohammad Taufi Q.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McGrath, John J.; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R.; Moschandreas, Joanna; Msemburi, William T.; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Muszynska, Magdalena M.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nejjari, Chakib; Ng, Marie; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omer, Saad B.; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Pope, Dan; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Rahman, Sajjad U. R.; Rana, Saleem M.; Reilly, Robert Quentin; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Rushton, Lesley; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Santos, Itamar S.; Sawhney, Monika; Schmidt, Juergen C.; Shakh-Nazarova, Marina; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Tabb, Karen M.; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Teixeira, Carolina Maria; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Uzun, Selen Beguem; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Nogales Vasconcelos, Ana Maria; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Waller, Stephen; Wan, Xia; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Westerman, Ronny; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Yang, Yang C.; Yentur, Gokalp Kadri; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zhu, Shankuan; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reductio

  10. Non invasive evaluation of labour patterns as a method for monitoring delivery and dystocia in the dog to reduce neonatal mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Optimal management of whelping requires an understanding of normal labour as well as the clinical ability to detect abnormalities in the birthing process. A novel approach to obstetrical monitoring to evaluate progression of labour to reduce neonatal death – the tocodynomometry – is used in the US (Davidson 2002, 2003). In this study 41 bitches of 6 breeds were observed during parturition at the breeders home with the help of a fetal monitor (BMF-800 BIOSYS Co. Ltd, Korea) to evaluate labour ...

  11. Asfixia perinatal associada à mortalidade neonatal precoce: estudo populacional dos óbitos evitáveis Asfixia perinatal asociada a la mortalidad neonatal temprana: estudio de población de los óbitos evitables Perinatal asphyxia associated with early neonatal mortality: populational study of avoidable deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Daripa

    2013-03-01

    2003. Perinatal asphyxia was considered if intrauterine hypoxia, birth asphyxia, or meconium aspiration syndrome were written in any line of the original Death Certificate. Epidemiological data were also extracted from the Birth Certificate. RESULTS: During the three years, 1.71 deaths per 1,000 live births were associated with perinatal asphyxia, which corresponded to 22% of the early neonatal deaths. From the 2,873 avoidable deaths, 761 (27% occurred in São Paulo city; 640 (22%, in the metropolitan region of São Paulo city; and 1,472 (51%, in the countryside of the state. In the first two regions, deaths were more frequent in public hospitals, among newborns with gestational age of 36 weeks or less, and among babies weighing less than 2500g. In the countryside, mortality was more frequent in philanthropic hospitals, in term newborns and in neonates weighing over 2500g. Most of these neonates were born during daytime in their hometown and died at the same institution in which they were born within the first 24 hours after delivery. Meconium aspiration syndrome was related to 18% of the deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal asphyxia is a frequent contributor to the avoidable early neonatal death in the state with the highest gross domestic product per capita in Brazil, and it shows the need for specific interventions with regionalized focus during labor and birth care.

  12. Social autopsy study identifies determinants of neonatal mortality in Doume, Nguelemendouka and Abong–Mbang health districts, Eastern Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain K. Koffi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Reducing preventable medical causes of neonatal death for faster progress toward the MGD4 will require Cameroon to adequately address the social factors contributing to these deaths. The objective of this paper is to explore the social, behavioral and health systems determinants of newborn death in Doume, Nguelemendouka and Abong–Mbang health districts, in Eastern Region of Cameroon, from 2007–2010. Methods Data come from the 2012 Verbal/Social Autopsy (VASA study, which aimed to determine the biological causes and social, behavioral and health systems determinants of under–five deaths in Doume, Nguelemendouka and Abong–Mbang health districts in Eastern Region of Cameroon. The analysis of the data was guided by the review of the coverage of key interventions along the continuum of normal maternal and newborn care and by the description of breakdowns in the care provided for severe neonatal illnesses within the Pathway to Survival conceptual framework. Results One hundred sixty–four newborn deaths were confirmed from the VASA survey. The majority of the deceased newborns were living in households with poor socio–economic conditions. Most (60–80% neonates were born to mothers who had one or more pregnancy or labor and delivery complications. Only 23% of the de ceased newborns benefited from hygienic cord care after birth. Half received appropriate thermal care and only 6% were breastfed within one hour after birth. Sixty percent of the deaths occurred during the first day of life. Fifty–five percent of the babies were born at home. More than half of the deaths (57% occurred at home. Of the 64 neonates born at a health facility, about 63% died in the health facility without leaving. Careseeking was delayed for several neonates who became sick after the first week of life and whose illnesses were less serious at the onset until they became more severely ill. Cost, including for transport, health care and other expenses

  13. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Reinhardt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8. This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants.

  14. Verbal/Social Autopsy in Niger 2012–2013: A new tool for a better understanding of the neonatal and child mortality situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaïd, Khaled; Yaroh, Asma Gali; Kalter, Henry D; Koffi, Alain K; Amouzou, Agbessi; Maina, Abdou; Kazmi, Narjis

    2016-01-01

    Niger, one of the poorest countries in the world, recently used for the first time the integrated verbal and social autopsy (VASA) tool to assess the biological causes and social and health system determinants of neonatal and child deaths. These notes summarize the Nigerien experience in the use of this new tool, the steps taken for high level engagement of the Niger government and stakeholders for the wide dissemination of the study results and their use to support policy development and maternal, neonatal and child health programming in the country. The experience in Niger reflects lessons learned by other developing countries in strengthening the use of data for evidence–based decision making, and highlights the need for the global health community to provide continued support to country data initiatives, including the collection, analysis, interpretation and utilization of high quality data for the development of targeted, highly effective interventions. In Niger, this is supporting the country’s progress toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. A follow–up VASA study is being planned and the tool is being integrated into the National Health Management Information System. VASA studies have now been completed or are under way in additional sub–Saharan African countries, in each through the same collaborative process used in Niger to bring together health policy makers, program planners and development partners. PMID:26955472

  15. Verbal/Social Autopsy in Niger 2012-2013: A new tool for a better understanding of the neonatal and child mortality situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaïd, Khaled; Yaroh, Asma Gali; Kalter, Henry D; Koffi, Alain K; Amouzou, Agbessi; Maina, Abdou; Kazmi, Narjis

    2016-06-01

    Niger, one of the poorest countries in the world, recently used for the first time the integrated verbal and social autopsy (VASA) tool to assess the biological causes and social and health system determinants of neonatal and child deaths. These notes summarize the Nigerien experience in the use of this new tool, the steps taken for high level engagement of the Niger government and stakeholders for the wide dissemination of the study results and their use to support policy development and maternal, neonatal and child health programming in the country. The experience in Niger reflects lessons learned by other developing countries in strengthening the use of data for evidence-based decision making, and highlights the need for the global health community to provide continued support to country data initiatives, including the collection, analysis, interpretation and utilization of high quality data for the development of targeted, highly effective interventions. In Niger, this is supporting the country's progress toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. A follow-up VASA study is being planned and the tool is being integrated into the National Health Management Information System. VASA studies have now been completed or are under way in additional sub-Saharan African countries, in each through the same collaborative process used in Niger to bring together health policy makers, program planners and development partners. PMID:26955472

  16. Neonatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pàmpols, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal screening (NS) is a medical act in the context of preventive medicine aimed at the early identification of infants affected by certain conditions that threaten their life and long-term health, for which a timely intervention can lead to a significant reduction of morbidity, mortality and associated disabilities. It emerged three decades ago in the context of prevention of mental retardation. Since then, around 600 inborn metabolic disorders have been described and technological progress has been impressive; nevertheless only around 5% of the disorders have been the object of NS. The most frequently cited reasons for the limitation are low prevalence and the lack of treatment. The tandem mass spectrometry has come in place in recent years across the globe, expanding NS to include several disorders of intermediary metabolism. This has shown, in addition to a prevalence much higher than previously thought, the benefits of early detection. The present work is a review of NS, not only from the point of view of technological/medical achievements, but also considering other factors which will affect specific disease selection, according to the social and organizational infrastructure that may expand the borders of NS. PMID:12921292

  17. Socioeconomic factors and adolescent pregnancy outcomes: distinctions between neonatal and post-neonatal deaths?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flick Louise H

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young maternal age has long been associated with higher infant mortality rates, but the role of socioeconomic factors in this association has been controversial. We sought to investigate the relationships between infant mortality (distinguishing neonatal from post-neonatal deaths, socioeconomic status and maternal age in a large, retrospective cohort study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked birth-death certificate data for Missouri residents during 1997–1999. Infant mortality rates for all singleton births to adolescent women (12–17 years, n = 10,131; 18–19 years, n = 18,954 were compared to those for older women (20–35 years, n = 28,899. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for all potential associations. Results The risk of infant (OR 1.95, CI 1.54–2.48, neonatal (1.69, 1.24–2.31 and post-neonatal mortality (2.47, 1.70–3.59 were significantly higher for younger adolescent (12–17 years than older (20–34 years mothers. After adjusting for race, marital status, age-appropriate education level, parity, smoking status, prenatal care utilization, and poverty status (indicated by participation in WIC, food stamps or Medicaid, the risk of post-neonatal mortality (1.73, 1.14–2.64 but not neonatal mortality (1.43, 0.98–2.08 remained significant for younger adolescent mothers. There were no differences in neonatal or post-neonatal mortality risks for older adolescent (18–19 years mothers. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors may largely explain the increased neonatal mortality risk among younger adolescent mothers but not the increase in post-neonatal mortality risk.

  18. Biomarkers for neonatal sepsis: recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mally P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pradeep Mally,1 Jie Xu,2 Karen D Hendricks-Muñoz2 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: As a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, neonatal sepsis remains a significant global health challenge. Despite recent advances in the management of neonatal sepsis, including use of more potent antibiotics, timely identification continues to be a frequent and challenging problem in the management of the newborn or high-risk neonate in the neonatal intensive care unit. Lack of specific early objective diagnostic evaluations or specific signs and symptoms, especially in the preterm infant, impedes early identification. However, emerging technologies linked with enhanced understanding of the immature and developing neonatal immune system responses to early infection provide an opportunity to develop critically needed biomarkers to improve early identification in this high-risk population. This review will focus on the field of neonatal sepsis biomarker development, identifying current promising biomarkers that have been investigated and widely utilized, as well as provide insight into recent advances and the rapidly evolving technologies that are being exploited in biomarker development to improve diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in neonatal sepsis. Keywords: biomarker, cytokines, neonatal sepsis, recent developments, morbidity, mortality, neonates

  19. Pathway analysis of premature death in areas with high neonatal mortality rate%高死亡率地区早产儿死亡的路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艺; 李丽娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解高死亡率地区早产儿死亡的死亡路径及就医情况。方法采用典型抽样的方法在新生儿高死亡率地区的4个县开展调查,对死亡早产儿的看护人进行一对一的问卷调查。结果266例新生儿死亡中有110例(41.4%)为早产儿,这些早产儿平均死亡年龄为2.5天。89.1%的早产儿出生在医疗机构,但是大部分死于家中(45.4%),其次是县级医疗机构(27.3%)。结论加强孕期保健工作,预防早产发生,提高县级医疗机构对早产儿的护理和抢救水平是降低早产儿死亡率的主要措施。%Objective To investigate the pathway of premature death and medical care seeking behavior in areas with high mortality rate . Methods Typical sampling was used in this survey .Four counties with high neonatal mortality rate were sampled out .Caregivers of the premature death were interviewed face-to-face.Results There were 110 preterm births among 266 (41.4%) neonatal deaths .The median death age was 2.5 days.Totally 89.1% preterm infants were born in health facilities, but most of them died at home (45.4%) and secondly at the county-leveled hospitals (27.3%).Conclusion Strengthening pregnancy health care, preventing premature birth, and improving premature infant care and rescue level of county medical institutions are the main measures to reduce the mortality of premature infants.

  20. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)...

  1. Bacteriological Profile and Antibiogram of Neonatal Septicemia

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt Sima K; Patel Disha A; Gupta Praveg; Patel Kiran; Joshi Gurudutt

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis and proper management of neonatal septicemia can bring down the morbidity and mortality substantially.4 Hence the aim of this study was to study the bacteriological profile of neonatal septicemia cases and their antibiogram for planning strategy for the management of these cases. Methodology: A retrospective study of bacterial isolates from cases of neonatal septicemia was undertaken over a period of 13 months from January 2006 to February 2007 at B.J.Medical Colle...

  2. Neonatal anesthesia with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösenberg, Adrian T

    2014-01-01

    Neonates are the most vulnerable age group in terms of anesthetic risk and perioperative mortality, especially in the developing world. Prematurity, malnutrition, delays in presentation, and sepsis contribute to this risk. Lack of healthcare workers, poorly maintained equipment, limited drug supplies, absence of postoperative intensive care, unreliable water supplies, or electricity are further contributory factors. Trained anesthesiologists with the skills required for pediatric and neonatal anesthesia as well as basic monitoring equipment such as pulse oximetry will go a long way to improve the unacceptably high anesthetic mortality. PMID:24251423

  3. Reduction of maternal mortality. What really works? - A presentation of the Maternal and Neonatal Intervention Project at Chiradzulu District Hospital, Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Every year, around 300 000 women die from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. 99% of these deaths occur in low and middle-income countries, and are highly preventable. This paper looks at what has been proven effective when trying to reduce maternal mortality, and the challenges the developing world faces when it comes to this matter. The effect of having a skilled provider at birth and access to emergency obstetric care has been proven effective, but the effect of antenatal care ...

  4. Is The Essential Newborn Care Package an Effective Intervention for Reducing Neonatal Sepsis In India?

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Background: Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Neonatal health programmes such as the Essential Newborn Care Package focus on preventative and curative care for the reduction of neonatal sepsis. However, neonates continue to die as a consequence of sepsis, many of which deaths are preventable. This critical review examines the factors that impact on neonatal sepsis and evaluates the effectiveness of this package aimed at preventing neonatal death....

  5. Tirosinemia neonatal Neonatal tyrosinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael J. Manotas Cabarcas; Luis Carlos Burgos Herrera

    1995-01-01

    Mediante la técnica de Udenfriend y Cooper, se midieron los niveles de tirosina en la sangre del cordón de 26 prematuros y 31 niños de término, con el fin de comparar las concentraciones según la edad gestacional y detectar la presencia de la tirosinemia neonatal. Se encontró un caso de esta entidad en un niño de 31 semanas de edad gestacional, lo cual correspondió al 3.8% de los prematuros y al 1.8% del grupo total. La concentración de tirosina en el paciente fue de 53 JJ.M. El promedio de l...

  6. Giving birth at a maternity hospital: the key strategic option to be adopted in order to combat maternal and neonatal mortality in Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Balique, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    The end result of the past 40 years of experience in combating maternal mortality in Mali suggests that the emphasis should be changed, and that giving birth at a maternity hospital should be the basic strategic option chosen. This means creating “compounds set aside for mothers-to-be”, where women approaching the end of their pregnancy will be invited to come and await the onset of labour, and at the same time enjoy the rest they need. However, the prerequisites for such an initiative will b...

  7. Exchange Transfusion in the Treatment of Neonatal Septic Shock: A Ten-Year Experience in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenza Pugni; Andrea Ronchi; Bianca Bizzarri; Dario Consonni; Carlo Pietrasanta; Beatrice Ghirardi; Monica Fumagalli; Stefano Ghirardello; Fabio Mosca

    2016-01-01

    Septic shock, occurring in about 1% of neonates hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), is a major cause of death in the neonatal period. In the 1980s and 90s, exchange transfusion (ET) was reported by some authors to be effective in the treatment of neonatal sepsis and septic shock. The main aim of this retrospective study was to compare the mortality rate of neonates with septic shock treated only with standard care therapy (ScT group) with the mortality rate of those treated w...

  8. Tuberculosis neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    PROTOCOLOS TERAPEUTICOS. TUBERCULOSIS NEONATAL 1. CONCEPTO La tuberculosis neonatal es la infección del recién nacido producida por el bacilo de Koch. Es una situación rara pero grave que requiere un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento enérgico..

  9. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sathiya Susuman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000. The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.

  10. Histological changes in neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Obinu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality is represented by neonatal sepsis that often manifests itself as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. The progression of SIRS usually leads to multiple organ dysfunction, occasionally culminating in multiple organ failure (MOF. The loss of endothelial barrier represents the unifying lesion of multiple organs in newborns affected by sepsis and the most important pathological change responsible for the evolution toward MOF in neonates. The aim of this study is to present the most important pathological changes occurring in neonatal sepsis.  Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  11. Estudo da mortalidade de recém-nascidos internados na UTI neonatal do Hospital Geral de Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul Newborn mortality study in the neonatal intensive care unit of Caxias do Sul General Hospital, Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Fauth de Araújo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer as causas e variáveis relacionadas com o óbito de recém-nascidos (RN de uma UTI neonatal de referência na região Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo envolvendo 2.247 RN acompanhados até a alta. Foram analisadas variáveis maternas, do RN e variáveis da gestação, parto e atendimento. Foi utilizada a análise univariada e a regressão logística múltipla para relacionar as variáveis estudadas com o óbito. RESULTADOS: ocorreram 184 óbitos, com uma letalidade de 8,2%. A mortalidade dos RN com peso 2.500g ou a termo. As variáveis relacionadas ao óbito foram o peso OBJECTIVES: to determine causes and variables related to newborn deaths of a neonate intensive care unite (ICU in the Southern region of Brazil. METHODS: a descriptive study involving 2.247 newborns followed up until discharge date. Maternal variables were analyzed, as well as of the newborn and pregnancy, delivery and medical assistance variables. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to relate the variables studied with death occurrence. RESULTS: 184 deaths occurred, corresponding to a 8.2% lethality rate. Newborn mortality variables were the following: weight of 2.500g or born at pregnancy term. Death related variables were weight of <2.000 grams, Apgar at 5' <4, no prenatal medical care, the need of delivery room resuscitation procedures and mechanic ventilation during hospitalization. Deaths basic causes were malformations (25.6%, maternal hypertension (17.9% and maternal infections (12.0%. CONCLUSIONS: many of the deaths occurred because of the poor medical care offered to pregnant women and newborns, a challenge that need to be faced by neonatologists, obstetricians and the government.

  12. Anorectal malformations in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mirza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anorectal malformations (ARM are associated with congenital anomalies and other risk factors, yielding a poor prognosis, especially in neonatal life. Objectives: This study was performed to identify the congenital anomalies as a factor of poor prognosis (mortality in such patients. Settings: Department of Pediatric surgery, The Children′s Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore. Design: Prospective observational study, with statistical support. Materials and Methods: The information on the demography, clinical features, investigations, management performed, and outcome was entered in the designed proforma and analysed with the help of statistical software EpiInfo version 3.5.1. Statistical test: Chi-square test was used to determine statistical significance of the results. Results : Of 100 neonates with ARM, 77 were male and 23, female (3.4:1. The mean age at presentation was 3.4 days (range, 12 hrs to 28 days. In 60 patients (60%, the presentation was imperforate anus without a clinically identified fistula. In 28 patients (28%, associated anomalies were present. The common associated anomalies were urogenital (10%, cardiovascular (8%, and gastrointestinal (6%. Down′s syndrome was present in 8 (8% patients. A total of 15 (15% deaths occurred in this study. In patients having associated congenital anomalies, 11 deaths occurred, whereas, 4 deaths were in patients without associated anomalies (P < 0.5. Conclusion : The mortality is higher in neonates with ARM having associated congenital anomalies.

  13. CLINICO BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY ON NEONATAL SEPTICEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal septicemia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the new born, more so in developing countries like India due to delivery and post natal follow up in an unclean environment having more chances of contamination with infective organisms. Infection is more common in the neonatal period than at any other time in life . 1 This is partly attributable to exposure to large number of organisms, but is also due to a relative failure of the neonatal host defenses to clear microorganisms from blood and tissues. The rate of infection and type of organism causing sepsis in a neonate vary with demography. In India, the incidence of neonatal septicemia is 10 - 30/1000 live births , 2 whereas in western countries it is 1 - 8/1000 live births . 3 KEYWORDS: Neonatal, Sepsis, Staphylococcus, CRP, Bandemia

  14. Standaarde vir die interhospitaalvervoer van siek neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Muller

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available The transport o f ill neonates between hospitals and/or health care centres, plays an important role in the mortality rate o f these seriously ill neonates. It is therefore important that the ill neonate is transported under optimal conditions. A lack o f standards in this regard hampers the evaluation o f the quality o f inter hospital transport o f ill neonates. The purpose o f this study is to formulate valid standards fo r the transport o f seriously ill neonates between hospitals (and/or other health care institutions to form the basis fo r the evaluation o f the quality o f this service. Factors that need to be considered in the transport o f ill neonates include the ambulance, equipment and stock, the transport personnel and communication. These factors were systematically explored and described and standards were formulated accordingly.

  15. Bacterial Culture of Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Movahedian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal bacterial sepsis is one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. This retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of bacterial sepsis with focus on Gram negative organisms in neonates admitted at Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, during a 3-yr period, from September 2002 to September 2005. Blood culture was performed on all neonates with risk factors or signs of suggestive sepsis. Blood samples were cultured using brain heart infusion (BHI broth according to standard method. From the 1680 neonates 36% had positive blood culture for Pseudomans aeruginosa, 20.7% for Coagulase negative Staphylococci, and 17% for Klebsiella spp. Gram-negative organisms accounted for 72.1% of all positive cultures. The overall mortality rate was 19.8% (22 /111 of whom 63.6% (14 /22 were preterm. Pseudomona aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. showed a high degree of resistance to commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin as well as third generation cephalosporins. Continued local surveillance studies are urged to monitor emerging antimicrobial resistance and to guide interventions to minimize its occurrence.

  16. Neonatal Septicaemia Caused by Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus Faecium-A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    GB, Shantala; T, Nagarathnamma; DR, Pooja; TR, Harsha; R, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal bacterial sepsis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates. 10% cases of neonatal bacteraemia and septicaemia are caused by Enterococci. The increasing incidence of Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) is of particular concern because of limited treatment options and increased mortality. We report here a case of neonatal sepsis in a premature baby caused by vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium Van A phenotype from a tertiary care Hospital in South India...

  17. Trends in Infant mortality rate and mortality for neonates born at less than 32 weeks and with very low birth weight Tendencia de la mortalidad infantil y de neonatos menores de 32 semanas y de muy bajo peso Tendência da mortalidade infantil e dos neonatos menores de 32 semanas e de muito baixo peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Mauricio Barría-Pailaquilén

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the trend of the infant mortality rate between 1990-2004 and the neonatal mortality between 2000-2005 in infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age or with very low birth-weight. Based on secondary data, infant mortality rate and by its component for Valdivia city were compared with national indicators. Mortality at Para evaluar la tendencia de la mortalidad infantil entre 1990-2004 y la mortalidad de prematuros menores de 32 semanas de edad de gestación y niños de muy bajo peso al nacer, entre 2000-2005, se compararon los datos secundarios globales por componentes del Servicio de Salud Valdivia con los totales del país, en Chile. Se calculó la mortalidad específica, por mil nacidos vivos, para los Para avaliar a tendência da mortalidade infantil, entre 1990 e 2004, a mortalidade de prematuros <32 semanas de idade gestacional e crianças de muito baixo peso ao nascer, entre 2000 e 2005, compararam-se dados secundários globais e por componentes do Serviço de Saúde Valdivia, e do total do país (Chile. Calculou-se a mortalidade específica em <32 semanas e <1.500g, por mil nascidos vivos, estabelecendo causas de óbito e avaliando sua relação com intervenções específicas, como uso de surfactante e corticoides pré-natais. A mortalidade infantil deteve sua queda a partir do ano 2000, com referência à década precedente, e a brecha que existia, entre os valores nacionais e locais antes de 2000, reduziu drasticamente. A mortalidade em <32 semanas e <1.500g variou entre 88 e 200‰ nascidos vivos, destacando a síndrome da angústia respiratória como principal causa de morte. O uso de corticoides e surfactante coincidiu com reduções da mortalidade.

  18. NEWHINTS cluster randomised trial to evaluate the impact on neonatal mortality in rural Ghana of routine home visits to provide a package of essential newborn care interventions in the third trimester of pregnancy and the first week of life: trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Catherine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tackling neonatal mortality is essential for the achievement of the child survival millennium development goal. There are just under 4 million neonatal deaths, accounting for 38% of the 10.8 million deaths among children younger than 5 years of age taking place each year; 99% of these occur in low- and middle-income countries where a large proportion of births take place at home, and where postnatal care for mothers and neonates is either not available or is of poor quality. WHO and UNICEF have issued a joint statement calling for governments to implement "Home visits for the newborn child: a strategy to improve survival", following several studies in South Asia which achieved substantial reductions in neonatal mortality through community-based approaches. However, their feasibility and effectiveness have not yet been evaluated in Africa. The Newhints study aims to do this in Ghana and to develop a feasible and sustainable community-based approach to improve newborn care practices, and by so doing improve neonatal survival. Methods Newhints is an integrated intervention package based on extensive formative research, and developed in close collaboration with seven District Health Management Teams (DHMTs in Brong Ahafo Region. The core component is training the existing community based surveillance volunteers (CBSVs to identify pregnant women and to conduct two home visits during pregnancy and three in the first week of life to address essential care practices, and to assess and refer very low birth weight and sick babies. CBSVs are supported by a set of materials, regular supervisory visits, incentives, sensitisation activities with TBAs, health facility staff and communities, and providing training for essential newborn care in health facilities. Newhints is being evaluated through a cluster randomised controlled trial, and intention to treat analyses. The clusters are 98 supervisory zones; 49 have been randomised for

  19. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Gershwin, LJ; Van Eenennaam, AL; Anderson, ML; McEligot, HA; Shao, MX; Toaff-Rosenstein, R; Taylor, JF; Neibergs, HL; Womack, J.; Complex, BRD

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella ...

  20. The new variant of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease accounts for no relative increase of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease mortality rate in the United Kingdom; this fits ill with the new variant being the consequence of consumption of food infected with the agent of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hénaut Alain

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was described in the United Kingdom. It is often claimed that it is caused by consumption of food infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. However, this remains open to question because the number of cases of the variant is, at the present time, less than would be expected from a major food-borne source. Discussion The EUROCJD cooperative study presents currently available epidemiological data of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and its new variant, for nine European countries plus Australia and Canada. Unexpectedly, for the United Kingdom where all but a few cases of the new variant have been reported, these cases have to be included in the incidence curve of the sporadic forms of the disease in order to obtain the best fit with the median curve from all the countries. This variant could be merely a rare clinical phenotype within the sporadic disease. The published clinical and experimental data which suggest that it is linked with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, lead us to propose that this link could be a common etiological origin other than consumption of bovine infected food. In any case, public health recommendations hold and further investigation is required. Summary The lack of a relative increase of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease mortality rate in the United Kingdom, does not fit well with the new variant being the consequence of consumption of food infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopthy.

  1. Mortalidade infantil pós-neonatal e qualidade da assistência médica: um estudo caso-controle Postneonatal infant mortality and quality of medical care: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio P. Caldeira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar os fatores de risco para a mortalidade infantil pós-neonatal por diarréia e pneumonia relacionados à qualidade da assistência médica. MÉTODOS: estudo tipo caso-controle, de base populacional, de 277 óbitos infantis pós-neonatais por diarréia e pneumonia ocorridos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, entre maio de 1991 a abril de 1992. Os casos foram comparados com controles hospitalares, emparelhados por patologia, idade e hospital. As informações sobre casos e controles foram coletadas através de prontuários médicos e entrevistas domiciliares, sendo analisadas algumas variáveis relacionadas à qualidade da assistência médica. Utilizou-se o teste de McNemar e o método de regressão logística condicional para a definição dos fatores de risco para o óbito. RESULTADOS: a regressão logística multivariada mostrou os seguintes fatores independentemente associados a maior risco de óbito pós-neonatal por diarréia e pneumonia: atraso vacinal (OR= 2,48; IC95%=1,17-5,23, estado geral (grave à admissão hospitalar (OR=10,94; IC95%=4,91-24,34, não realização de procedimentos hospitalares (OR=10,08; IC95%= 3,55-20,59 e desnutrição presente no momento da internação (OR=3,58; IC95%=1,42-9,07. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados indicam a baixa qualidade da assistência médica como um importante fator de risco para o óbito infantil pós-neonatal por causas evitáveis. Os autores salientam a falta de integralidade entre as atividades ambulatoriais e hospitalares como importante determinante da baixa qualidade. Sem desconsiderar o papel preponderante das variáveis socioeconômicas, salienta-se a necessidade de uma ampla discussão sobre o desempenho dos serviços de saúde e mortalidade infantil evitável.OBJECTIVE: to identify the risk factors for postneonatal infant mortality caused by diarrhea and pneumonia in relation to the quality of medical assistance. METHODS: population-based case-control study of

  2. Neonatal hemophilia: a rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a X-linked hereditary condition that lead to decreased factor VIII activity, occurs mainly in males. Decreased factor VIII activity leads to increased risk of bleeding events. During neonatal period, diagnosis is made after post-partum bleeding complication or unexpected bleeding after medical procedures. Subgaleal hemorrhage during neonatal period is a rare, severe extracranial bleeding with high mortality and usually related to traumatic labor or coagulation disorders. Subgaleal hemorrhage complications result from massive bleeding. We present a neonate with unremarkable family history and uneventful pregnancy with a vaginal delivery with no instrumentation, presenting with severe subgaleal bleeding at 52 hours of life. Aggressive support measures were implemented and bleeding managed. The unexpected bleeding lead to a coagulation study and the diagnosis of severe hemophilia A. There were no known sequelae. This case shows a rare hemophilia presentation reflecting the importance of coagulation studies when faced with unexplained severe bleeding.

  3. DETERMINAN YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN KETAHANAN HIDUP BAYI NEONATAL DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ingan Ukur Tarigan; Tati Suryati

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health care for children under five year in Indonesia was still a problem that should be cope with. Infant mortality (IMR), maternal mortality (MMR), and the IMR in Indonesia, ware still ranked the highest in Southeast Asia. According Soemantri (2004), infant mortality reached 46 per 1000 live births during the period 1998-2002. According SKRT 2001, the highest cause for infant mortality was perinatal disturbances (34%) and for neonatal mortality are premature and low birth weight...

  4. Nosocomial Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    OpenAIRE

    Ioanna Paulopoulou; Christina Nanou

    2013-01-01

    Neonates, especially prematures, requiring care in Intensive Care Unit are a highly vulnerable population group at increased risk for nosocomial infections. In recent decades become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Aim: Highlighting the severity of nosocomial infections for hospitalized infants and the imprinting of risk factors that affects their development. Material-Methods: Searched for studies published in international scientific ...

  5. Fading kitten syndrome and neonatal isoerythrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücheler, J

    1999-07-01

    Fading kitten syndrome includes noninfectious and infectious causes for neonatal death (birth to weaning age). Noninfectious causes are mostly responsible for mortality in the first week of life and include congenital disorders, low birth weights, trauma, malnutrition, environmental causes, and neonatal isoerythroylsis. Infectious causes are more prevalent at 3-4 weeks of age. This article discusses the causes, clinical signs, and management of fading kitten syndrome. PMID:10390788

  6. Hypernatremic Dehydration in Term and Preterm Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kamrani; Z. Sanaei; N. Khosroshahi; S. Rajabi Eslami; J. Amiri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Hypernatremia is associated with serious complications in infants. Given the high morbidity and mortality of neonatal hypernatremia, and since some complica-tions can be prevented, this study was aimed to examine the prevalence of hypernatremia in hospitalized infants and related risk factors. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 1923 neonates hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital affiliated to Tehran University from October 2011 to October 201...

  7. Prospective evaluation of cases with neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Alper Gürsu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: With this prospective study we aimed to evaluate 60 patients with neonatal sepsis. Material and Methods: Between 07 March 2003 and 31 January 2005, the newborns with neonatal sepsis were evaluated for clinical signs and symptoms, complaints, blood culture results, risk factors and mortality. Results: Thirty two (53.4% of 60 patients with sepsis were male and 28(46.6% female. Twenty eight (46.6% had early sepsis, while 32 (53.4% late. The most common complaints were fever, poor sucking reşex and respiratory distress. Depression in newborn reşexes, fever and hypotonia were the most common symptoms. The most common bacteria isolated in blood cultures with early onset sepsis were gram (- bacilli and staphylococci in the group with late onset most common bacteria were staphylococci and gram (- bacilli. The mortality rate was 21.4% and 18.8% in early and late sepsis respectively. Mortality was higher in early onset sepsis whereas meningitis was more frequent in late onset. Mortality in preterms was 24.3%, higher than in terms as 16.1%. Conclusion: Mortality is still high in neonatal sepsis. Prevention of risk factors predisposing to neonatal sepsis, like prematurity and delivery of low birth weight newborns early diagnosis and initiation of treatment, sufficient supportive therapy would help to reduce mortality.

  8. EVALUATING VIRULENCE OF WATERBORNE AND CLINCIAL AEROMONAS ISOLATES USING GENE EXPRESSION AND MORTALITY IN NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWED BY ASSESSING CELL CULTURE'S ABILITY TO PREDICT VIRULENCE BASED ON TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The virulence of multiple Aeromonas spp. were assessed using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Transcriptional responses to both infection models were assessed using microarrays. After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., ...

  9. Surfactant function in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Griese, Matthias; Westerburg, Bettina

    1998-01-01

    The function of pulmonary surfactant of a group of 14 preterm neonates (birth weight 907 +/- 60 g) who suffered from severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and who had received exogenous bovine lipid extracted surfactant on the first day of life was compared to that in a second group of 8 neonates (birth weight 940 +/- 110 g) with mild RDS who had not received surfactant treatment. Mechanical respiratory support from day 2 on was the same in both groups. The minimal surface tension (gamma...

  10. Lactoferrin and prevention of late-onset sepsis in the pre-term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, P; Decembrino, L; Stolfi, I; Pugni, L; Rinaldi, M; Cattani, S; Romeo, M G; Messner, H; Laforgia, N; Vagnarelli, F; Memo, L; Bordignon, L; Saia, O S; Maule, M; Gallo, E; Mostert, M; Magnani, C; Quercia, M; Bollani, L; Pedicino, R; Renzullo, L; Betta, P; Ferrari, F; Magaldi, R; Mosca, F; Stronati, M; Farina, D

    2010-07-01

    Late-onset sepsis (LOS) affects a large proportion of pre-term neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) worldwide, with high morbidity and related mortality, and frequent occurrence of severe late neurodevelopmental impairment. Due to the frequency, severity and difficulties in early diagnosis and prompt therapy, prevention is crucial for decreasing the burden of infection-related complications in NICUs. It is well known that feeding with fresh maternal milk, hygiene measures and the cautious use of H2-blockers are related with a decreased risk of developing sepsis. However, evidence from randomised clinical trials exists only for fluconazole in the prevention of fungal infections in the NICU. Lactoferrin is the main whey protein in mammalian milk, and is involved in innate immune host defences. Notably, human lactoferrin can be found at increased concentrations in colostrum and in milk from mothers of premature neonates. Human (hLF) and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) share a high (77%) amino-acid homology, and the same N-terminal peptide responsible for antimicrobial activity, called lactoferricin. In vitro, bLF shows potent direct antimicrobial activity against all types of pathogens, which occurs via anti-cell wall actions and leads to disintegration of the micro-organism's membranes. bLF is also synergistic with many antimicrobials and antifungals, and promotes growth and differentiation of the immature gut. Based on this background data, a randomised clinical trial was recently conducted in very low birth weight pre-term neonates given bLF alone or with the probiotic Lactobacillus GG. The aim of the trial was to assess the ability of bLF to prevent late-onset sepsis of any origin in the studied infants during their stay in the NICU. This article discusses the preliminary data from this study, along with the proposed mechanisms of action of bLF in pre-term infants. PMID:20138718

  11. Feline Neonatal Isoerythrolysis and the Importance of Feline Blood Types

    OpenAIRE

    Ana C. Silvestre-Ferreira; Josep Pastor

    2010-01-01

    Although feline neonatal isoerythrolysis is rare, associated mortality rate is high. It results from mating of type B blood queens with type A or AB blood toms. A comprehensive review on feline blood types and feline neonatal isoerythrolysis physiopathology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention is covered.

  12. Screening neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Urbón Artero, Alfonso; Reig del Moral, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Los autores de este artículo revisan el screening neonatal, desde la descripción por Wilson y Jungner en 1968 de los criterios que hansido aplicados en la detección precoz de enfermedades enel recién nacido, hasta los avances actuales en la medicina genómica que han modificado sustancialmente estas bases. Se comentan los métodos diagnósticos prenatales más utilizados como los analíticos y ultrasonografia prenatal. Se describen los procedimientos que se aplican en la actualidad y se describen ...

  13. Applying a system dynamics modelling approach to explore policy options for improving neonatal health in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Semwanga, Agnes Rwashana; Nakubulwa, Sarah; Adam, Taghreed

    2016-01-01

    Background The most recent reports on global trends in neonatal mortality continue to show alarmingly slow progress on improvements in neonatal mortality rates, with sub-Saharan Africa still lagging behind. This emphasised the urgent need to innovatively employ alternative solutions that take into account the intricate complexities of neonatal health and the health systems in which the various strategies operate. Methods In our first paper, we empirically explored the causes of the stagnating...

  14. Survival predictors of preterm neonates: Hospital based study in Iran (2010-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Ladan Haghighi; Marzieh Nojomi; Behnaz Mohabbatian; Zahra Najmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is responsible for 70% of neonatal mortalities. Various factors influence the risk of neonatal mortality in different populations. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate neonatal survival rate of preterm infants, and to define its predictors in Iranian population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included all preterm (26-37 weeks) infants (n=1612) born alive in Shahid Akbar-abadi university hospital, during one year period (April 2010-20...

  15. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Thieu Chuong, D.H.; Phuong, C.N.; Duc, T.; Graff Stensballe, L.; Prag, J.; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Greisen, Gorm; Pedersen, Freddy Karup

    2013-01-01

    Septicemia and bloodstream infections (BSIs) are major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We prospectively recorded all positive blood cultures (BSI) among neonates admitted consecutively to a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam during a 12-month period. Among...... 5763 neonates, 2202 blood cultures were performed, of which 399 were positive in 385 neonates. Among these, 64 died, 62 in relation to septicemia. Of the BSI isolates, 56% was known pathogenic and 48% was gram-negative bacteria, most frequently Klebsiella spp. (n = 78), Acinetobacter spp. (n = 58) and...

  16. Neonatal Meningitis: Risk Factors, Causes, and Neurologic Complications

    OpenAIRE

    KHALESSI, Nasrin; Ladan AFSHARKHAS*

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Khalessi N, Afsharkhas L. Neonatal Meningitis: Risk Factors, Causes and Neurologic Complications.Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4): 46-50.AbstractObjectiveNeonates are at greater risk for sepsis and meningitis than other ages and in spite of rapid diagnoses of pathogens and treatments, they still contribute to complications and mortality. This study determines risk factors, causes, andneurologic complications of neonatal meningitis in  ospitalized neonates.Materi...

  17. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...... indicating that some of the excess risk may have a placental origin. To further understand the associations between maternal obesity and late fetal and infant death, we need better and more detailed clinical data, which is difficult to obtain on a population level given the rarity of the outcomes. The best...

  18. Neonatal management of pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Fauzia; Khan, Shareen; Baki, Md Abdul; Zabeen, Bedowra; Azad, Kiswhar

    2016-09-01

    Women with diabetes in pregnancy, either pre-gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2) or Gestational Diabetes, are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm labour and increased foetal mortality rate. Adequate glycaemic control before and during pregnancy is crucial for improving foetal and perinatal outcomes in these babies. Perinatal and neonatal morbidities and mortality rates have declined since the development of specialized maternal, foetal, and neonatal care for women with diabetes and their offspring. However, infants of diabetic mothers are at risk for developing complications as macrosomia, hypoglycaemia, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac and respiratory problems, birth injuries and congenital malformations. In this review article we describe the neonatal management of the offspring of diabetic mothers. PMID:27582162

  19. Pathophysiology of Equine Neonatal Septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ospina Chirivi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal septicemia is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in horses in their first seven days of life and within their pathophysiology. It is important to consider the extrinsic and intrinsic predisposing factors which make foals susceptible to agents of primarily bacterial etiology. However, other types of infectious etiology (viruses and fungi should be considered too, as well as noninfectious etiologies. The paper mentions a wide variety of mechanisms that produce different injuries that must be addressed with measures of critical neonatal care, so it is imperative for the veterinarian to know the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease, its clinical presentation and anatomo-pathological lesions. Thus, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, and peripheral circulatory collapse or shock are some of the elements defined as the pillars of the pathophysiology of neonatal septicemia, extensively studied in equine medicine. This paper presents a short review of the triggering mechanisms of neonatal septicemia highlighting the importance of epidemiological investigations in Colombia. It shows the need for retrospective and prospective studies and for divulgation of some of the preventive measures of the disease in horses.

  20. Frequency and outcome of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the commonest gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. It is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Present study was conducted to determine the frequency of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates along with their outcome during stay in hospital. Methods: This was descriptive case series carried out in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Paediatrics department, POF Hospital Wah Cantt from August 2010 to February 2011. All the preterm neonates admitted in NICU POF Hospital were included in the study. Patients were clerked on a pre-designed proforma. Results: A total of 196 neonates were enrolled and 28 (14%) were diagnosed with NEC. Outcome analysis of these 28 patients with NEC revealed that 16 patients (57.14%) were discharged while 11 (39.28%) expired and one (3.5%) was referred. Conclusion: There is a high incidence in preterm-low birth weight babies presenting in our set-up, with high mortality rates. (author)

  1. Adhesion and invasion of bovine endothelial cells by Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, A; Gottstein, B; Kaufmann, H

    1996-02-01

    Neospora caninum is a recently identified coccidian parasite which was, until 1988, misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. It causes paralysis and death in dogs and neonatal mortality and abortion in cattle, sheep, goats and horses. The life-cycle of Neospora has not yet been elucidated. The only two stages identified so far are tissue cysts and intracellularly dividing tachyzoites. Very little is known about the biology of this species. We have set up a fluorescence-based adhesion/invasion assay in order to investigate the interaction of N. caninum tachyzoites with bovine aorta endothelial (BAE) cells in vitro. Treatment of both host cells and parasites with metabolic inhibitors determined the metabolic requirements for adhesion and invasion. Chemical and enzymatic modifications of parasite and endothelial cell surfaces were used in order to obtain information on the nature of cell surface components responsible for the interaction between parasite and host. Electron microscopical investigations defined the ultrastructural characteristics of the adhesion and invasion process, and provided information on the intracellular development of the parasites. PMID:8851858

  2. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  3. 国产牛肺表面活性物质在预防新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征作用的探讨%Effect of domestic bovine pulmonary surfactant on the prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李郑艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the application value of domestic bovine pulmonary surfactant on the prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Ninety-four cases of premature infants were randomly divided into obser-vation group and control group, with 47 cases in each group. The newborn in the observation group were given the domestic bovine pulmonary surfactant 6 h after birth, the control group were not given. The blood gas, oxygenation index, the inci-dence of respiratory distress syndrome,the mechanical ventilation rate and fatality were compared between the two groups. Results In the observation group,PaO2 at 12, 24 h were (80. 2 ± 11. 6), (88. 6 ± 9. 1)mm Hg respectively, which were significantly higher than that in the control group (P 0. 05), after then that in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P 0. 05). Conclusions The clinical effect of domestic bovine pulmonary surfactant on the prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is re-markable, at the same time it can improve the clinical symptoms, reduce the occurrence of respiratory distress rate and im-prove the survival rate of newborn infants.%目的:研究国产牛肺表面活性物质对预防新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征的应用价值。方法将禹州市妇幼保健院94例早产儿随机分为观察组与对照组,每组47例,观察组新生儿出生6 h 后给予国产牛肺表面活性物质,对照组未应用。比较两组血气、氧合指标、呼吸窘迫综合征发生率、机械通气量率及病死率。结果观察组12、24 h PaO2分别为(80.2±11.6)、(88.6±9.1) mm Hg(1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa),显著高于对照组(P 0.05),后观察组显著高于对照组(P 0.05)。结论国产牛肺表面活性物质预防新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征的临床效果显著,同时可改善患儿临床症状,降低呼吸窘迫发生率,提高新生早产儿的存活率。

  4. Neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Dessì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper on neonatal sepsis, after a short presentation of etiopathogenesis and physiopathology, we will briefly present the clinical picture, the diagnosis and the therapy. Concerning diagnosis, we will focus our attention on procalcitonin (PCT, serum amyloid A (SAA, presepsin (sCD14 and metabolomics. Three practical tables complete the review. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  5. CT findings in neonatal hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, H.; Laufer, L.; Berginer, J.; Hertzanu, Y. [Department of Radiology, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P. O. Box 151, Beer-Sheva 84101 (Israel); Hershkowitz, E.; Berenstein, T.; Sofer, S. [Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Maor, E. [Department of Pathology, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    1998-06-01

    Background. Newborn infants are particularly prone to hypothermia, a condition with a high mortality. Objective. To study the CT brain patterns in infants with hypothermia and neurological symptoms. Materials and methods. We reviewed the brain CT of nine infants with neonatal hypothermia, multiple organ failure, seizures and coma. Results. Two infants had normal CT scans, acutely and at follow-up, and were clinically normal at follow-up. In seven infants, CT showed diffuse cerebral oedema, with reversal of the normal density relationship between grey and white matter and a relative increased density of the thalami, brainstem and cerebellum - the `reversal sign`. In six surviving infants with severe developmental delay, follow-up CT revealed cerebral atrophy with multicystic encephalomalacia. Conclusions. The `reversal sign` has been described in the abused child, birth asphyxia and anoxia due to drowning. Neonatal hypothermia is offered as a further cause. (orig.) With 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  6. CT findings in neonatal hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Newborn infants are particularly prone to hypothermia, a condition with a high mortality. Objective. To study the CT brain patterns in infants with hypothermia and neurological symptoms. Materials and methods. We reviewed the brain CT of nine infants with neonatal hypothermia, multiple organ failure, seizures and coma. Results. Two infants had normal CT scans, acutely and at follow-up, and were clinically normal at follow-up. In seven infants, CT showed diffuse cerebral oedema, with reversal of the normal density relationship between grey and white matter and a relative increased density of the thalami, brainstem and cerebellum - the 'reversal sign'. In six surviving infants with severe developmental delay, follow-up CT revealed cerebral atrophy with multicystic encephalomalacia. Conclusions. The 'reversal sign' has been described in the abused child, birth asphyxia and anoxia due to drowning. Neonatal hypothermia is offered as a further cause. (orig.)

  7. Maternal mortality in Sirur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotri, A; Pratinidhi, A; Shah, U

    1990-01-01

    hospital death rate was 5.7/1000 and the district referral hospital death rate was 13.9/1000. The home delivery death rate was 1.2/1000. 5 (33.3%) who died had preterm deliveries. 5 infants died perinatally, 5 died neonatally, and 1 died postneonatally. Infant mortality was 6 times greater among mothers who died. PMID:12319232

  8. Neonatal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe neoplasms diagnosed in children ≤ 28 days of age along with their treatment, associated congenital anomalies, and the long-term consequences of the diagnoses and treatments. Methods and Materials: Utilizing autopsy records, a computerized tumor registry, and medical records, we identified patients and stillborns at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) diagnosed with neoplasms at ≤ 28 days of age between 1930 and 1998. Results: Twenty-three neonates with neoplasms were identified. There were 7 males (30%) and 16 females (70%). Follow-up of survivors ranged from 4 months to 27 years (mean 9 years). The 20 patients identified via the computerized registry system for 1980-1998 constitute 2% (20/925) of all neoplasms seen in patients ≤ 16 years of age over this same time period at DUMC. The histologic diagnoses were teratoma/germ cell tumor (n = 8, 35%), neuroblastoma (n = 5, 22%), retinoblastoma (n = 4, 17%), primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor (n = 3, 13%), and one case each of rhabdomyosarcoma, glossal glial choristoma, and hemangioma in the setting of Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome. Of the eight teratoma/germ cell tumor patients, 6 were female (75%) and 2 male (25%). There was one malignant germ cell tumor, 2 immature teratomas, and 5 teratomas. Two of the seven patients with immature teratomas or teratoma were long-term survivors following surgery. The one patient with malignant germ cell tumor, treated with surgery and chemotherapy, died. Associated anomalies were imperforate anus, congenital absence of a limb, left ventricular hypertrophy, fusion or absence of toes, coarctation of the aorta, and pulmonary valve dysplasia. Of the five children with neuroblastoma, 4 were female. INSS Stages were 1 (n = 1), 2A (n = 1), 3 (n = 1), and 4S (n = 2). Two were treated with surgery + chemotherapy + radiotherapy; two with surgery + chemotherapy; and one with surgery alone. Four children are long-term survivors. Associated congenital anomalies

  9. Occupational mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to present the methods and main results from the Danish occupational mortality studies, and to set the Danish studies into the international context of occupational mortality studies. RESEARCH TOPICS: The first Danish occupational mortality study from 1970...

  10. Inchoate CD8+ T Cell Responses in Neonatal Mice Permit Influenza Induced Persistent Pulmonary Dysfunction1

    OpenAIRE

    You, Dahui; Ripple, Michael; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Troxclair, Dana; Sandquist, Dane; Ding, Liren; Ahlert, Terry A; Cormier, Stephania A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza infection remains a significant cause of pulmonary morbidity and mortality worldwide with the highest hospitalization and mortality rates occurring in infants and elder adults. The mechanisms inducing this considerable morbidity and mortality are largely unknown. To address this question, we established a neonatal mouse model of influenza infection to test the hypothesis that the immaturity of the neonatal immune system is responsible for the severe pulmonary disease observed in inf...

  11. Neonatal euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A

    2009-12-01

    Despite advances in the care of infants, there remain many newborns whose medical conditions are incompatible with sustained life. At times, healthcare providers and parents may agree that prolonging life is not an appropriate goal of care, and they may redirect treatment to alleviate suffering. While pediatric palliative treatment protocols are gaining greater acceptance, there remain some children whose suffering is unrelenting despite maximal efforts. Due to the realization that some infants suffer unbearably (ie, the burdens of suffering outweigh the benefits of life), the Dutch have developed a protocol for euthanizing these newborns. In this review, I examine the ethical aspects of 6 forms of end of life care, explain the ethical arguments in support of euthanasia, review the history and verbiage of the United States regulations governing limiting and withdrawing life-prolonging interventions in infants, describe the 3 categories of neonates for whom the Dutch provide euthanasia, review the published analyses of the Dutch protocol, and finally present some practical considerations should some form of euthanasia ever be deemed appropriate. PMID:19914522

  12. Selenium status in neonates with connatal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehe, Lennart; Cremer, Malte; Wisniewska, Monika; Becker, Niels-Peter; Rijntjes, Eddy; Martitz, Janine; Hybsier, Sandra; Renko, Kostja; Bührer, Christoph; Schomburg, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Infectious diseases impair Se metabolism, and low Se status is associated with mortality risk in adults with critical disease. The Se status of neonates is poorly characterised, and a potential impact of connatal infection is unknown. We hypothesised that an infection negatively affects the Se status of neonates. We conducted an observational case-control study at three intensive care units at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Plasma samples were collected from forty-four neonates. On the basis of clinical signs for bacterial infection and concentrations of IL-6 or C-reactive protein, neonates were classified into control (n 23) and infected (n 21) groups. Plasma Se and selenoprotein P (SePP) concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence and ELISA, respectively, at day of birth (day 1) and 48 h later (day 3). Se and SePP showed a positive correlation in both groups of neonates. Se concentrations indicative of Se deficit in adults (500 ng/l). During antibiotic therapy, SePP increased significantly from day 1 (1·03 (sd 0·10) mg/l) to day 3 (1·34 (sd 0·10) mg/l), indicative of improved hepatic Se metabolism. We conclude that both Se and SePP are suitable biomarkers for assessing Se status in neonates and for identifying subjects at risk of deficiency. PMID:27267586

  13. Current status of neonatal intensive care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik Nagesh, N; Razak, Abdul

    2016-05-01

    Globally, newborn health is now considered as high-level national priority. The current neonatal and infant mortality rate in India is 29 per 1000 live births and 42 per 1000 live births, respectively. The last decade has seen a tremendous growth of neonatal intensive care in India. The proliferation of neonatal intensive care units, as also the infusion of newer technologies with availability of well-trained medical and nursing manpower, has led to good survival and intact outcomes. There is good care available for neonates whose parents can afford the high-end healthcare, but unfortunately, there is a deep divide and the poor rural population is still underserved with lack of even basic newborn care in few areas! There is increasing disparity where the 'well to do' and the 'increasingly affordable middle class' is able to get the most advanced care for their sick neonates. The underserved urban poor and those in rural areas still contribute to the overall high neonatal morbidity and mortality in India. The recent government initiative, the India Newborn Action Plan, is the step in the right direction to bridge this gap. A strong public-private partnership and prioritisation is needed to achieve this goal. This review highlights the current situation of neonatal intensive care in India with a suggested plan for the way forward to achieve better neonatal care. PMID:26944066

  14. Is neonatal group B streptococcal infection preventable?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Azam, M

    2011-05-01

    Early onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection causes significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. We determined the incidence of EOGBS at Galway University Hospital (GUH) and examined any "missed opportunities" for preventing neonatal infection between 2004 and 2009. Our obstetric approach is risk-based. The incidence was 0.45\\/1,000 live-births; one death and one with neurological sequelae. A single mother received IAP; however we could not determine any potential for reducing cases of EOGBS by improving current IAP usage.

  15. Neonate brain disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Hypoxic-Ischemic insults in the brain of neonates constitute major cause of morbidity and mortality. A wide range of motor, sensory, and cognitive disabilities are observed in this population spanning from slight motor deficits, school difficulties and behavioral problems up to cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Pathologically involved areas characterized by high metabolic demands and therefore with enhanced vulnerability to any reduction or cessation of energy and oxygen supply. Watershed areas of the brain (vascular end zones and vascular border zones) are predominately affected in any adverse event. Radiologic and pathologic appearance of these lesions depends both on the severity of the insult and the maturity of the brain. The dominant pathology observed in preterm neonates is white matter lesions. There are three basic patterns of brain destruction in this population. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL focal fPVL, diffuse dPVL), germinal matrix haemorrhage (GMH) associated with intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), and parenchymal haemorrhage (PH). fPVL is characterized by focal necrosis of all cellular elements in the periventricular white matter, resulting in the formation of cysts, and dPVL is characterized by diffuse destruction of the premyelinating oligodendrocytes (pre-OLs) the precursors of mature oligodendroglia cells responsible for the formation of myelin in a later stage. GMH is located beneath germinal matrix layer surrounding the lateral ventricles and can extend into the ventricular system resulting thus to IVH. Finally, PH is located within the parenchyma adjacent to the ventricles and is believed to represent haemorrhagic infarcts following venous drainage compromise. In term or near-term neonates, the top-ographic pattern of injuries involves mainly gray matter structures. Most frequent predilection sites include the cerebral cortex (paracentral lobule, Rolandic area, visual cortex and hippocampus), basal ganglia, thalamus, and

  16. Changing Trend of Empirical Antibiotic Regimen: Experience of Two Studies at Different Periods in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar Marzban; Hadi Samaee; Noredien Mosavinasab

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial sepsis is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in neonates. It has been recognized a gradual change in spectrum of organisms responsible for neonatal sepsis. In this study we have evaluated changing trend of incidence and antibiotic susceptibility in neonatal late - onset sepsis (LOS) in 2-periods. This study is based on results of blood culture in neonatal late-onset sepsis, in 2--periods study throughout 12 - years. Neonatal LOS was defined as clinical signs su...

  17. High Incidence of Neonatal Danger Signs and Its Implications for Postnatal Care in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiyo Okawa

    Full Text Available Reducing neonatal mortality is a major public health priority in sub-Saharan Africa. Numerous studies have examined the determinants of neonatal mortality, but few have explored neonatal danger signs which potentially cause morbidity. This study assessed danger signs observed in neonates at birth, determined the correlations of multiple danger signs and complications between neonates and their mothers, and identified factors associated with neonatal danger signs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in three sites across Ghana between July and September in 2013. Using two-stage random sampling, we recruited 1,500 pairs of neonates and their mothers who had given birth within the preceding two years. We collected data on their socio-demographic characteristics, utilization of maternal and neonatal health services, and experiences with neonatal danger signs and maternal complications. We calculated the correlations of multiple danger signs and complications between neonates and their mothers, and performed multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with neonatal danger signs.More than 25% of the neonates were born with danger signs. At-birth danger signs in neonates were correlated with maternal delivery complications (r = 0.20, p < 0.001, and neonatal complications within the first six weeks of life (r = 0.19, p < 0.001. However, only 29.1% of neonates with danger signs received postnatal care in the first two days, and 52.4% at two weeks of life. In addition to maternal complications during delivery, maternal age less than 20 years, maternal education level lower than secondary school, and fewer than four antenatal care visits significantly predicted neonatal danger signs.Over a quarter of neonates are born with danger signs. Maternal factors can be used to predict neonatal health condition at birth. Management of maternal health and close medical attention to high-risk neonates are crucial to reduce neonatal morbidity

  18. Factors influencing dairy calf and replacement heifer mortality in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Raboisson, Didier; MAIGNE, Elise; Sans, Pierre; Allaire, Gilles; Cahuzac, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Herd-level risk factors for dairy calf and heifer mortality in France were identified by calculating herd-level variables (including mortality risk or rate) using the National Bovine Identification Database (2005 and 2006). Eleven dairy production areas representing different livestock systems were also included. Statistical analyses were based on a probit model (mortality risk or rate=0 or >0) and a linear model (mortality risk or rate >0) corrected by the sample bias Heckman method. The sam...

  19. Nosocomial Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Paulopoulou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonates, especially prematures, requiring care in Intensive Care Unit are a highly vulnerable population group at increased risk for nosocomial infections. In recent decades become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Aim: Highlighting the severity of nosocomial infections for hospitalized infants and the imprinting of risk factors that affects their development. Material-Methods: Searched for studies published in international scientific journals during the period 2004-2013. As a main tool of retraction of bibliography was used the internet. Specific web sites and library databases: PubMed, Cinahl and Google scholar with key-words: "prevent nosocomial infections", "infection control", "neonatal care", "nursing care prematurity", "neonates nosocomial infections", "neonatal intensive care unit" (NICU. Methodology was applied thematic content analysis, which provides a careful reading of the material and recording the recurring risk factors Neonatal Neonatal Unit. Results: All researchers agree that nosocomial infections of hospitalized infants are a result of interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic factors risk. The intrinsic factors predisposing to infection is the immaturity of the immune system, the barriers of the skin and mucous membranes. Furthermore, multiple external factors contribute to the development of infection, such as low birth weight, underlying disease, broad-spectrum antibiotics, prolonged hospitalization, invasive techniques, parenteral nutrition, numerical insufficiency of staff, and poor compliance with medical professionals on hand hygiene. In recent years, the use of protocols and guidelines for each intervention in newborns has dramatically reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections. Conclusions: Nosocomial infections constitute serious threat to the population of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Surveillance of infections and the use of protocols will help control

  20. Perception and Expectation of Iran Neonatal Transport Expert Regard to Developing Neonatal Transport System in Iran: A Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad-Bager; Jannati, Ali; Gholipour, Kamal; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Iezadi, Shabnam; Mojahed, Farokh; Vahidi, Reza Gholi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to reach expert's expectations of neonatal transport system for developing neonatal transport system in Iran. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted by using focus group discussion (FGD) to present expert's perspectives and expectancy about neonatal transport system. Participants was selected from all experts and specialist about neonatal transport in Iran countryside. Finally 48 experts, participate in this study. To data collection 4 FGD were conducted, data were analyzed by content analyses. All subthemes were categorized in main themes according to conceptual relationship as an expert panels opinions. In order to comply with the ethical issues involved in the study was voluntary, also permission for the recording session were taken and confidentiality was also ensured. Result: According to FGD results, 11 themes and 90 subthemes were founded related to neonatal transport system, the main identified themes included: Aims, necessity and models of neonatal transport system, organizing the transport system, management and quality of instruments in the transport system, Neonatal transport system staff, Human resource management and issue related to human resources, conditions and requirements of neonatal transport system, facilitating factors in neonatal transport system, information management and communication system and weakness of neonatal transport system. Conclusion: Neonatal transport systems in different countries must adapted according to situation and component of each country have different strength and weakness and in implementing a system must attend to geographical conditions, financial ability and access to professionals, health system structure, facilities related to neonatal health care, antenatal services in regain, health care related, health care program about neonates and pregnant women and epidemiological status and mortality and morbidity in deferent locals and regains in countryside

  1. AETIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT OF GAUHATI MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, GUWAHATI, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Jaundice is the most common problem in the first week of life. About 25-50% of all term neonates and higher percentage of preterm neonates develop clinical jaundice during neonatal period. Jaundice in newborn is a medical emergency, because unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may cause bilirubin encephalopathy and needs urgent treatment. The objective of the study was to know the aetiology of hyperbilirubinemia in neonate admitted in neonatal intensive care unit of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital. METHODS This observational study was conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, over a period of one year (February 2015 to January 2016. A total number of 520 neonates with hyperbilirubinemia were included in the present study. Data collection was done by history taking, clinical examination and essential laboratory tests. RESULTS In this study, out of 520 jaundiced neonates 251 (48.26% were term babies and 269 (51.74% were preterm babies. Physiological jaundice was seen in 224 (43.07% babies and pathological jaundice were 296 (56.93% babies. Among the various aetiologies causing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, the most common causes were physiological jaundice 224 (43.07%, ABO incompatibility 108 (20.76%, Idiopathic 54 (10.43%, neonatal sepsis 36 (6.92%, G6PD deficiency 35 (6.73% and Rh Incompatibility 31 (5.96%. Other less common causes were cephalhematoma 15 (2.88%, intrauterine infection 7 (1.34%, breast milk jaundice 6 (1.15% and hypothyroidism 4 (0.76%. CONCLUSION We should investigate all newborns with pathological jaundice to find out the aetiology. Moreover, early detection of neonatal jaundice, proper monitoring and timely interventions like phototherapy, exchange blood transfusion and treating the underlying cause will reduce the morbidity and mortality among neonates. Thus, we can prevent mental retardation and cerebral palsy due to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia at the community level.

  2. SURVEI KEMATIAN NEONATAL (STUDI AUTOPSI VERBAL DI KABUPATEN CIREBON, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarimawar Djaja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In its attempt to realize the intervention program to saving newborn babies with asphyxia, the Ministry of Health will initiate to train midwives in the village in order to that they know how to operate resuscitation equipment to save neonatal baby with asphyxia. The intervention program his dubbed successful if the mortality proportion due if asphyxia decreased to half as targeted. The survey was conducted in the rural area of Cirebon district. The sample was 200 neonatal death babies, calculated using the hypothesis test with different proportion; p1 0.3 (30% neonatal death cause of asphyxia, according household health survey 2001, p2 0.15, α 0.05, β 0.2, (l-β 0.8. Neonatal dead cases happened within 12 months prior to the survey were identified by rural midwives out of their personal records. The death cases were followed up by interviewing the mother of the neonatal baby concerning its birth, illness or disorder histories before death. The diagnosis of the diseases were based on the International Classification of Diseases 10 and Wigglesworth classification, determined in union by NIHRD researchers and neonatologists. The neonatal mortality rate was 13 out of 1,000 live births. The major cause of early neonatal mortality was respiration disorder mainly caused by birth asphyxia (45%, of which 90 percent could be intervened by doing resuscitation (for babies weighed more than 1.000 gram. The second and third order of the mortality causes was infection (22% and congenital disorders (11% respectively. The major cause of late neonatal mortality was infection (56%, followed by low birth weight and prematurely born, as well as neonatal jaundice (14 percent each, and congenital disorder comes in the third place. The option to handle asphyxia with the early neonatal babies is the right effort to decrease the neonatal mortality rate. And to achieve the utmost result, it is necessary that the rural midwives maintain their standard performance (in

  3. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 16, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket...

  4. Neonatal Coinfection Model of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Candida albicans: Fluconazole Prophylaxis Enhances Survival and Growth▿

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, Mohan Pammi; Pham, Don; Fein, Mindy; Kong, Lingkun; Weisman, Leonard E.

    2007-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Candida are among the most common causes of single infections and coinfections in neonates after 72 h of age. In neonates, coinfection increases the rate of mortality threefold and results in significantly greater morbidity compared to those that result from single infections. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, we developed the first neonatal animal model of coinfection (with CoNS and Candida) and evaluated its effects on mortality a...

  5. Neonatal herpes in Serbia: Is it a problem or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With 20-80% mortality, neonatal infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV or neonatal herpes is among the most severe of all perinatal infections. The majority of neonatal HSV infections are acquired during delivery, although in utero and postnatal infections do occur. Primary maternal infection is associated with a high rate of transmission (~50%, compared to <3% in infants of women with reactivated disease. Other factors that influence transmission include HSV type, premature delivery, etc. Clinical manifestations have been classified into three forms: skin-eye-mouth disease, CNS and disseminated disease. The diagnosis of neonatal HSV infection includes the detection of HSV DNA by PCR in samples from neonate and mother. The incidence of neonatal herpes differs widely between different countries. In Serbia, the data about neonatal herpes incidence are scarce. The results of our pilot study showed that the minimal estimation of the national incidence of neonatal herpes is 7.5 per 100 000. Therefore, the set up and implementation of a national neonatal herpes surveillance system might provide valuable information for the accurate assessment of disease burden and development of an effective prevention strategy in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175073

  6. Defective antigen-presenting cell function in human neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Velilla, Paula A.; Rugeles, Maria T.; Chougnet, Claire A.

    2006-01-01

    Immaturity of the immune system has been suggested as an underlying factor for the high rate of morbidity and mortality from infections in newborns. Functional impairment of neonatal T cells is frequently quoted as the main underlying mechanism for such immaturity. However, recent studies suggest that neonatal antigen-presenting cells (APCs) also exhibit functional alterations, which could lead to secondary defects of adaptive T cell responses. In this review, we summarize what is known on th...

  7. Correlation of Apgar Score with Asphyxial Hepatic Injury and Mortality in Newborns: A Prospective Observational Study From India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Choudhary, Mukesh; Lamba, Mamta; Shastri, Sweta

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to determine the correlation of Apgar score with asphyxial hepatic injury and neonatal mortality in moderately and severely asphyxiated newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS This is a secondary analysis of our prospective observational case-controlled study. Sixteen neonates with severe birth asphyxia (five-minute Apgar ≤3) were compared with either 54 moderate asphyxia neonates (five-minute Apgar >3) or 30 normal neonates. Liver function tests were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, and 10 in the study and control groups. Neonatal mortality was observed in the study and control population. RESULTS Correlation of Apgar score in severely asphyxiated neonates compared with normal Apgar score neonates and moderately asphyxiated neonates for deranged hepatic function showed significant correlation (odds ratio [OR] 4.88, 95% CI 3.26–5.84, P = 0.01 and OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.94–3.32, P = 0.02, respectively). There was a significant increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total bilirubin on day 1 and serum LDH at age of 10th postnatal life in severely asphyxiated neonates when compared to moderately asphyxiated neonates, whereas there was a significant decrease in total bilirubin and serum albumin on day 3 in severely asphyxiated neonates. There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase, serum LDH, and total bilirubin on day 1, serum aspartate transaminase, serum LDH, and total bilirubin on day 3, and International Normalized Ratio on day 10 of postnatal life when severely asphyxiated neonates were compared with normal neonates. There was a significant reduction in total protein and serum albumin on day 1 and direct bilirubin on day 3 in severely asphyxiated neonates when compared with normal neonates. There was a significant increase in neonatal mortality in severely asphyxiated neonates when compared to the other two groups. Correlation of Apgar score in severely asphyxiated neonates compared with normal Apgar

  8. Preterm mortality and morbidity over 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, R W I

    2006-01-01

    Changing preterm population variables have masked improvements in neonatal survival over time. Increased use of antenatal steroids, caesarean section, and surfactant may have reduced the likelihood of mortality and periventricular haemorrhage by a third and doubled that of chronic lung disease, persistent duct, and septicaemia.

  9. SERUM SODIUM CHANGES IN NEONATES RECEIVING PHOTOTHERAPY FOR NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar; Uday Shankar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Neonates receiving phototherapy have side effects like hypocalcemia and electrolyte changes. Our study is hereby intended to study the serum sodium changes due to phototherapy. AIMS : To evaluate the serum sodium changes in neonates receiving phototherapy f or neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A prospective hospital based comparative study conducted on neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit receiving photot...

  10. Profile of Congenital Surgical Anomalies in Neonates Admitted to Tertiary Care Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Saurashtra Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalak Shah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital surgical anomaly is a major indication for admission of a neonate to an intensive care unit. Profile of surgical conditions is variable by system affecting the neonate and outcomes of the individual conditions depending upon treatment and post surgical facilities. This study was undertaken to highlight the surgical conditions, their burden and their prognosis encountered in our newborn care unit. Methodology: This study is a cross sectional study. All information was collected from the case records of all neonates admitted in newborn care unit of our centre between 1st April, 2011 and 31st October, 2014 with congenital surgical conditions and the following information extracted: surgical condition, age, sex, maturity, birth weight, its treatment and outcome, and other associated features were studied. Result: A total of 9213 neonates were admitted in the study period, of which 328 neonates (3.6% had surgical conditions. Surgery was performed in 225 neonates. Commonest congenital surgical condition was of gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Commonest GIT anomalies were tracheo-oesophageal fistula (28.6%, intestinal obstruction (23.7%, anorectal malformation (17.9%, and omphalocoele (7%. The overall mortality in neonates with congenital surgical condition in this study was 51.2%. Significantly, more deaths occurred in preterm than in term neonates (P = 0.00003 and low birth weight babies more than normal weight (p=0.0002. Conclusion: High mortality is found in neonates suffering from surgical conditions. Commonest anomaly includes conditions of Gastrointestinal tract. Prematurity and low birth weight is a significant factor associated with high mortality. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(2.000: 168-170

  11. Natural variability in bovine milk oligosaccharides from Danish Jersey and Holstein-Friesian breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K.; Barile, Daniela; Meyrand, Mickael; Poulsen, Nina A.; Larsen, Lotte B.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Bruce, German J.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2012-01-01

    Free oligosaccharides are key components of human milk and play multiple roles in the health of the neonate, by stimulating growth of selected beneficial bacteria in the gut, participating in development of the brain and exerting anti-pathogenic activity. However, the concentration of oligosaccharides is low in mature bovine milk, normally used for infant formula, compared with both human colostrum and mature human milk. Characterization of bovine milk oligosaccharides in different breeds is ...

  12. Hypernatremic Dehydration in Term and Preterm Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hypernatremia is associated with serious complications in infants. Given the high morbidity and mortality of neonatal hypernatremia, and since some complica-tions can be prevented, this study was aimed to examine the prevalence of hypernatremia in hospitalized infants and related risk factors. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 1923 neonates hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital affiliated to Tehran University from October 2011 to October 2012. Demographic data , ward ,gender ,mode of feeding ,gravidity, admission season and method of delivery related to the infants were recorded. For infants with a serum sodium above 150 meq/lit, additional information were collected, including serum urea level, gestational age, date of birth, birth weight, admission weight, head circumference and clinical symptoms. Fi-nally, the data were analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: 74 out of 1923 neonates had serum sodium above 150 meq per liter, which their mean Na was significantly associated with their age groups (P=0.04 and weight loss (P=0.008. Furthermore, the mean of urea in these neonates was significantly related to weight loss (P a few days after birth or to the non-exact weight at the birth time (risk factors. The study results confirmed that weighing the neonates at 72 to 96 hours after birth can prevent hypernatremia in infants. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (3: 203-209

  13. DETERMINAN YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN KETAHANAN HIDUP BAYI NEONATAL DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingan Ukur Tarigan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care for children under five year in Indonesia was still a problem that should be cope with. Infant mortality (IMR, maternal mortality (MMR, and the IMR in Indonesia, ware still ranked the highest in Southeast Asia. According Soemantri (2004, infant mortality reached 46 per 1000 live births during the period 1998-2002. According SKRT 2001, the highest cause for infant mortality was perinatal disturbances (34% and for neonatal mortality are premature and low birth weight babies (29% and birth asphyxia (27% (Soemantri S, et al: 2004. Baby's health is associated with several maternal factors during pregnancy and birth, infant factors, and environmental factors. The cause of death of a baby has two kinds, namely endogen and exogen. Endogen infant death or neonatal was death that happens at the first month after birth, and generally caused by factors that brought by the child since birth, obtained from the parents at the time of conception or during pregnancy. Exogen baby's death or post-neonatal mortality was happen after the age of one month until the age of one year that is affected by external environment. Obj ective: This analysis is to ascertam the probabtlity and detenninants related to the live endurance of neonatal infants. Methods: This research design was cross sectional, using data of Health Basic Research (Riskesdas 2007. Data analysis was conducted univariate, bivariate, and multivariate with the life table method, Kaplan Meier and Cox regression. Results: The analysis indicate that premature variables and barier have relationships with the live endurance of neonatal infants, where babies those are born premature have risk 1.4 times higher for death compared with infants those ware not born premature. For a baby that is born with barier haverisk 1.5 times higher for death compared with infants born without barier. Babies born premature and have barier have risk 2.02 times higher than babies born premature, and not

  14. Use of neonatal intensive care unit as a safe place for neonatal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Gavilanes, A.; Heineman, E; Herpers, M.; Blanco, C; BURGE, D.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the advantages, disadvantages, and short term morbidity and mortality of major surgical interventions performed in the neonatal intensive care unit.
METHODS—A retrospective case review of 45 neonates was performed from April 1991 to September 1995. The characteristics of the patients were: gestational age 29 (SD 4) weeks (range 24 to 41 weeks); birthweight 1305 (870) g ( range 540 to 4040 g); presurgical weight 1430 (895) g ( range 550 to 4370 g); postconceptional age at surge...

  15. Requirements for neonatal cots. Northern Neonatal Network.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    A prospective survey of activity in neonatal nurseries associated with 17 specialist maternity units delivering some 38,700 babies in the Northern region was undertaken during 1991. Data were collected concerning the numbers of babies requiring various forms of neonatal care, using a nursing dependency scale validated by work study. Facilities for prolonged high dependency care are partially decentralised in the Northern region, with a network of five units operating on a flexible and collabo...

  16. Exposure assessment of neonates in israel to x-ray radiation during hospitalization at neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    : Measurements of the entrance surface dose were performed for an additional group of 120 neonates, with varying birth weights, using calibrated TLD-100 dosimeters. During the entire hospitalization period, each neonate had two TLDs attached : one to its sternum and the other, at the parallel point on its back. Additionally, measurements of the doses the neonate was indirectly exposed to, due to its proximity to other neonates undergoing X-ray examinations, were also performed. Phase III: Data analysis was performed using mathematical simulation programs (Monte Carlo - MCNP code and PCXMC). The aim was to estimate the level of effective radiation dose the neonates are exposed to and their radiational lifetime risk due to this exposure. In addition, a data base was built containing coefficients for estimating equivalent and effective doses, corresponding to birth weight and other exposure parameters. Results: 1. on the average, a VLBW neonate undergoes 10.3 radiography procedures during the hospitalization period in the NICU and a BWMT (Birth Weight Quote That 1500 gr) neonate undergoes 3.1 of these procedures. 2. Out of all 499 radiographs taken in five different NICUs, none used a gonad shield. 3. The effective dose per one neonate during the entire hospitalization period, due to X-ray exposure was found to be: 0.67 mSv for VLBW neonates and 0.27 mSv for BWMT neonates. 4. According to the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) Report 60, the lifetime potential mortality as a result of neonates exposure to X-ray radiation is 0.15 neonates per year for VLBW neonates and 0.47 neonates per year, for BWMT neonates. 5. The lifetime cancer potential morbidity is 0.25 neonates per year for VLBW neonates and 0.78 neonates per year for BWMT neonates. 6. bout 50% of neonates' effective dose results from unnecessary exposure to X-ray radiation during examinations. Consequently, about 50% of the potential mortality and morbidity result from this unnecessary exposure. 7

  17. Fungal endocarditis with right ventricular candidal mycetoma in a premature neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Jayashree Purkayastha; Leslie Edward Lewis; Morakhia Jwalit V; Ranjan Shetty K; Muhammad Najih L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal mycetoma or endocarditis is rare in premature neonates and it is often associated with high mortality. In the majority of the cases diagnosis is made postmortem. Here we report a 0-week-old preterm neonate who developed Candida albicans blood stream infection complicated by endocarditis and subsequent mycetoma. Initially, this neonate had Klebsiella sepsis requiring multiple antibiotic courses. A peripherally inserted central venous catheter was used to give total parenteral nutrit...

  18. State of the Art: Neonatal Non-invasive Respiratory Support: Physiological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Thomas H.; Alapati, Deepthi; Greenspan, Jay S.; Wolfson, Marla R.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of assisted ventilation for neonatal pulmonary insufficiency has resulted in the successful treatment of many previously fatal diseases. During the past three decades, refinement of invasive mechanical ventilation techniques has dramatically improved survival of many high-risk neonates. However, as with many advances in medicine, while mortality has been reduced, morbidity has increased in the surviving high-risk neonate. In this regard, introduction of assisted ventilation h...

  19. Prevalence of canid herpesvirus-1 infection in stillborn and dead neonatal puppies in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Rikke W; Kiupel, Matti; Balzer, Hans-Jörg; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen

    2015-01-01

    Background Canid herpesvirus-1 (CaHV-1) infection in puppies less than three weeks of age is often reported to be associated with a lethal generalized necrotizing inflammation and since the discovery of the virus in 1965 several reports of neonatal infections have been published. However, the significance of CaHV-1 for peri- and neonatal mortality in puppies remains unclear. Therefore, we examined stillborn and dead neonatal puppies in Denmark to determine the prevalence of infection and furt...

  20. APPROPRIATE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SEPSIS IN NEONATES

    OpenAIRE

    Samiya Nazeer Khan* and Siby Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment and prolongation of hospital stay. Clinical features of sepsis are non-specific in neonates and a high index of suspicion is required for timely diagnosis. Antibiotics are a very important group of drugs for the sick neonate and have undoubtedly played a role in their improved survival. But they come with a set of risks like other drugs used in critical care which must be carefully con...

  1. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, Timothy A.; Nonnecke, Brian J.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Lippolis, John D.; Jodi L McGill; Sacco, Randy E.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of ...

  2. Morbidity-mortality and performance evaluation of Brahman calves from in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta-Oliveira Andreza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of bovine in vitro embryo production (IVP increases the reproductive potential of genetically superior cows, enabling a larger scale of embryo production when compared with other biotechnologies. However, deleterious effects such as abnormal fetal growth, longer gestation period, increased birth weight, abortion, preterm birth and higher rates of neonatal mortality have been attributed to IVP. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of in vitro embryo production and artificial insemination (AI on gestation length, complications with birth, birth weight, method of feeding colostrum, passive transfer of immunity, morbidity-mortality, and performance in Brahman calves. Results Whilst gestation length and birth weight were significantly increased in IVP-derived calves, no difference in weaning weight was observed between groups. The passive transfer of immunity (PT, was assessed in IVP (n = 80 and AI (n = 20 groups 24 hours after birth by determination of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT and gammaglobulin activity as well as by quantification of the concentration of total protein in serum. No differences in passive transfer or incidences of dystocia and diseases at weaning were observed between groups. Birth weight, method of feeding colostrum and dystocia were not correlated with PT in either group. Conclusions In this study, in vitro embryo production did not affect the health status, development, or passive transfer of immunity in Brahman calves.

  3. Neonatal and Maternal Temperature Regulation During and After Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Jeffrey; Kjaer, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    An important goal of obstetric anesthesia is to provide for the safety and comfort of the mother as well as to optimize physiologic outcomes for the neonate. Markers of neonatal physiologic outcome include cord umbilical artery pH and Apgar scores. Neonatal temperature has often been overlooked by anesthesiologists as an important physiologic outcome measure, but it may be significantly affected by operating room conditions and obstetric anesthesia technique at cesarean delivery. There is a dose-dependent increase in mortality with decreasing body temperature as well as an increased likelihood for more severe early respiratory distress. Multiple neonate-focused strategies have been shown to decrease the incidence of neonatal hypothermia. Because fetal temperature is affected by maternal temperature, strategies to mitigate maternal hypothermia at the time of delivery may also be important in preventing neonatal hypothermia. This focused review will examine the importance of neonatal temperature and discuss its relationship to maternal temperature as well as strategies for maintaining neonatal normothermia after delivery. PMID:27314693

  4. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Matary, Abdulrahman; Hussain, Mushtaq; Nahari, Ahmed; Ali, Jaffar

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Neonatal diabetes is a rare cause of hyperglycemia, affecting 1: 500,000 births, with persistent hyperglycemia occurring in the first months of life lasting more than 2 weeks and requiring insulin. This condition in infants less than 6 months of age is considered as permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus. Case Report: A rare case of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus presented with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; birth weight: 1460 grams; female), hyperglycemia, gly...

  5. Selective screening in neonates suspected to have inborn errors of metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: IEM represent a high percent (32.5% of neonates who had sepsis like symptoms, and when diagnosed, patients showed marked improvement after therapy. IEM should be considered in differential diagnosis of the sick neonates, and investigations, and management should be started rapidly to decrease morbidity, and mortality till nationwide screen for IEM is applied in Egypt.

  6. Neonatal Intensive Care for Low Birthweight Infants: Costs and Effectiveness. Health Technology Case Study 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    After a brief introduction delineating the scope of the case study, chapter 1 summarizes findings and conclusions about the costs and effectiveness of neonatal intensive care in the United States. Chapter 2 inventories the national supply of neonatal intensive care units and describes recent trends in use and costs. Chapter 3 reviews mortality and…

  7. Neonatal abstinence syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JR, Isemann B, Ward LP, et al. Current management of neonatal abstinence syndrome secondary to ... MD, MSc, IBCLC, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Medical University of ...

  8. Correlation of Apgar Score with Asphyxial Hepatic Injury and Mortality in Newborns: A Prospective Observational Study From India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Deepak; Choudhary, Mukesh; Lamba, Mamta; Shastri, Sweta

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to determine the correlation of Apgar score with asphyxial hepatic injury and neonatal mortality in moderately and severely asphyxiated newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS This is a secondary analysis of our prospective observational case-controlled study. Sixteen neonates with severe birth asphyxia (five-minute Apgar ≤3) were compared with either 54 moderate asphyxia neonates (five-minute Apgar >3) or 30 normal neonates. Liver function tests were measured ...

  9. A process evaluation of PRONTO simulation training for obstetric and neonatal emergency response teams in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Dilys M. Walker; Holme, Francesca; Zelek, Sarah T.; Olvera-García, Marisela; Montoya-Rodríguez, Airaín; Fritz, Jimena; Fahey, Jenifer; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Cohen, Susanna; Kestler, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite expanding access to institutional birth in Guatemala, maternal mortality remains largely unchanged over the last ten years. Enhancing the quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care is one important strategy to decrease mortality. An innovative, low-tech, simulation-based team training program (PRONTO) aims to optimize care provided during obstetric and neonatal emergencies in low-resource settings. Methods We conducted PRONTO simulation training between July 2012 and ...

  10. Community health and medical provision: impact on neonates (the CHAMPION trial)

    OpenAIRE

    Frost Chris; Jayanty Chitra; Figueiredo Ryan; Mukherjee Rohini; Mendiratta Tarana; Eble Alexander; Mann Vera; Boone Peter; Padmanabh M Reddy; Elbourne Diana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The trial aims to evaluate whether neonatal mortality can be reduced through systemic changes to the provision and promotion of healthcare. Neonatal mortality rates in India are high compared to other low income countries, and there is a wide variation of rates across regions. There is evidence that relatively inexpensive interventions may be able to prevent up to 75% of these deaths. One area with a particularly high rate is Mahabubnagar District in Andhra Pradesh, where ...

  11. Comparative Study for Clinical Effect of Different Doses of Bovine Pulmonary Surfactant on Early Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Late Preterm Infants and Full - term Infants%早期不同剂量牛肺表面活性物质治疗晚期早产/足月新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征的临床疗效比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈新华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effect of different doses of bovine pulmonary surfactant on early neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in late preterm infants and full - term infants,to analyze the best therapeutic dose of bovine pulmonary surfactant. Methods A total of 72 late preterm infants and full - term infants with early neonatal respiratory distress syndrome were selected in the People's Hospital of Chengwu County from February 2012 to October 2015,and they were divided into control group and study group according to random number table,each of 36 cases. Based on conventional treatment,infants of control group were given standard dose of bovine pulmonary surfactant(50 mg/ kg),while infants of study group were given high dose of bovine pulmonary surfactant ( 70 mg/ kg). Clinical effect,treatment related index ( including duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen inhalation,the maximum oxygenation index during treatment,reuse rate of pulmonary surfactant,hospital stays and medical expenses)and incidence of complications were compared between the two groups. Results Of study group,35 cases were cured,1 case was dead;of control group,34 cases were cured,2 cases were dead,no statistically significant differences of clinical effect was found between the two groups( P > 0. 05). Duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital stays of study group were statistically significantly shorter than those of control group,medical expenses of study group were statistically significantly less than those of control group ( P 0. 05). No statistically significant differences of incidence of gas leakage syndrome,pulmonary hypertension or pneumorrhagia was found between the two groups( P > 0. 05 ),while incidence of ventilator - associated pneumonia of study group was statistically significantly lower than that of control group( P 0.05).研究组患儿机械通气时间和住院时间短于对照组,医疗费用低于对照组(P0.05).两组患儿气漏综合征、肺动

  12. Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Benin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal obstruction is a life threatening condition in the newborn, with attendant high mortality rate especially in underserved subregion. This study reports the aetiology, presentation, and outcome of intestinal obstruction management in neonates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of neonatal intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria, between January 2006-June 2008. Data were collated on a structured proforma and analysed for age, sex, weight, presentation, type/date of gestation/delivery, aetiology, clinical presentation, associated anomaly, treatment, and outcome. Results: There were 71 neonates, 52 were males and 19 were females (2.7:1. Their age range was between 12 hours and 28 days (mean, 7.9 ± 2.7 days and they weighed between 1.8 and 5.2 kg (average, 3.2 kg. The causes of intestinal obstruction were: Anorectal anomaly, 28 (39.4%; Hirschsprung′s disease, 8 (11.3%′ prematurity, 3 (4.2%; meconeum plug, 2 (2.8%; malrotation, 6 (8.5%; intestinal atresia, 8 (11.3%; necrotising enterocolitis (NEC, 4 (5.6%; obstructed hernia, 4 (5.6%; and spontaneous gut perforation, 3 (4.2%. Also, 27 (38% children had colostomy, 24 (33.8% had laparotomy, 9 (12.8% had anoplasty, while 11 (15.4% were managed nonoperatively. A total of 41 (57.7% neonates required incubator, 26 (36.6% needed total parenteral nutrition, while 15 (21.1% require d paediatric ventilator. Financial constraint, late presentation, presence of multiple anomalies, aspiration, sepsis, gut perforation, and bowel gangrene were the main contributors to death. Neonates with lower obstructions had a better outcome compared to those having upper intestinal obstruction ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Outcomes of intestinal obstruction are still poor in our setting; late presentation, financial constraints, poor parental motivation and lack of basic facilities were the major determinants of mortality.

  13. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  14. Narrowing inequalities in infant mortality in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldani Marcelo Zubaran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the trends of infant mortality from 1995 to 1999 according to a geographic area-based measure of maternal education in Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: A registry-based study was carried out and a municipal database created in 1994 was used. All live births (n=119,170 and infant deaths (n=1,934 were considered. Five different geographic areas were defined according to quintiles of the percentage of low maternal educational level (<6 years of schooling: high, medium high, medium, medium low, and low. The chi-square test for trend was used to compare rates between years. Incidence rate ratio was calculated using Poisson regression to identify excess infant mortality in poorer areas compared to higher schooling areas. RESULTS: The infant mortality rate (IMR decreased steadily from 18.38 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1995 to 12.21 in 1999 (chi-square for trend p<0.001. Both neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates decreased although the drop seemed to be steeper for the post-neonatal component. The higher decline was seen in poorer areas. CONCLUSION: Inequalities in IMR seem to have decreased due to a steeper reduction in both neonatal and post-neonatal components of infant mortality in lower maternal schooling area.

  15. Evaluation of Neonates with Ventriculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Ozlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Neonatal meningitis and ventriculitis still remain a problem with high mortality in spite of systemic and intraventricular antibiotics. Ventriculitis due to repeated taps is a serious problem of posthemorragic hydrocephalus in preterm infants. Methods: In this study, we evaluated 16 infants with ventriculitis followed at Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between January 1999-December 2004. Results: Mean gestational week was 33± 5 (25-40 weeks and mean birth weight was 2096 ± 912 (980-3500 grams. Venticulitis was diagnosed at 38 ± 22 days. Eleven of the infants had intraventricular hemorrhage and 15 had hydrocephalus, 5 of whom had congenital hydrocephalus. Drainage of CSF was performed by taps in 13 infants. Gram negative microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were predominating in cultures. Both intravenous and intraventricular antibiotic treatment was performed according to the cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Vancomycine and amicasine as intraventricular therapy were performed for 28 ±17 days. Cerebrospinal fluid protein levels increased significantly at 8 infant during intraventricular therapy. Mean cerebrospinal fluid protein at the begining of intraventricular treatment was 624.1± 429.1 (109-1330 mg/dl while on 14th day of treatment it was 993.7± 582.2 (89-1750 mg/dl. Seven of the infants were ventriculoperitoneal shunted 6 of them were reinfected. Seven of the infants were died during treatment, 1 infant with ventriculoperitoneal shunt was treated and 8 infants were discharged during treatment because of parents’ refusal of therapy. Conclusion: Despite the new treatment regimens, the ventriculitis still remains a problem because of nonstandardized practice in neonatal care. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 553-558

  16. Neonatal intensive care in a Karen refugee camp: a 4 year descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Turner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A third of all deaths in children aged <5 years occur in the neonatal period. Neonatal intensive care is often considered too complex and expensive to be implemented in resource poor settings. Consequently the reductions that have been made in infant mortality in the poorest countries have not been made in the neonatal period. This manuscript describes the activities surrounding the introduction of special care baby unit (SCBU in a refugee setting and the resulting population impact. METHODS: A SCBU was developed in Maela refugee camp on the Thailand-Myanmar border. This unit comprised of a dedicated area, basic equipment, drugs and staff training. Training was built around neonatal guidelines, comprising six clinical steps: recognition, resuscitation, examination, supportive medical care, specialised medical care, and counselling of parents with sick newborns. RESULTS: From January 2008 until December 2011, 952 infants were admitted to SCBU. The main admission diagnoses were early onset neonatal sepsis, jaundice and prematurity. Early prematurity (<34 weeks carried the highest risk of mortality (OR 9.5, 95% CI 5.4-16.5, p<0.001. There was a significant decrease in mortality from 19.3% (2008 to 4.8% (2011 among the infants admitted for prematurity (p=0.03. The neonatal mortality in Maela camp as a whole declined by 51% from 21.8 to 10.7 deaths per 1000 live births over the corresponding period (p=0.04. Staff expressed more confidence in their ability to take care of neonates and there was a more positive attitude towards premature infants. CONCLUSION: Neonatal mortality can be reduced in a resource poor setting by introduction of a simple low cost unit specialising in care of sick neonates and run by local health workers following adequate training. Training in recognition and provision of simple interventions at a high standard can increase staff confidence and reduce fatalistic attitudes towards premature neonates.

  17. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  18. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  19. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    R A Kireev; A.I.Popovsky; M.V. Ershova; L.G. Bochkova

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  20. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Kireev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  1. Distress respiratorio neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1985-01-01

    PROTOCOLOS TERAPÉUTICOS. Distress respiratorio neonatal. El distress respiratorio neonatal puede ser una situación grave que llegue a poner en peligro la vida del recién nacido. 1) Diagnóstico. Es fundamentalmente clínico y se establece cuando el test de Silverman es superior a 2...

  2. Neonatal intracranial hemorrhages (perinatal onset)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. We have reviewed 34 cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages (perinatal onset, 23 mature and 11 premature infants) experienced in 10-year period from 1971 to 1980, with special reference to gestational age, birth weight, type of delivery, presence or absence of asphyxia, symptoms and cause of death. 2. Regarding 9 autopsied cases and 7 cases diagnosed by CT-scan, 10 mature infants composed of 3 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 2 intraventricular hemorrhages, 2 subdural hematomas, 2 intracerebral and 1 subependymal hemorrhage; 6 premature infants consisted of 4 subependymal hemorrhages with ventricular rupture and 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages. Most of them presented with respiratory distress, vomiting and convulsive seizures which developed within 5 days after birth. 3. Poor outcome including death amounted 49% of mature and 63% of premature infants. Along with degree of intracranial hematoma, prematurity and pulmonary complication were felt to be important prognostic factors. 4. Introduction of CT-scan led to prompt diagnosis and treatment, thus lowering mortality rate of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages. (author)

  3. Gastrointestinal Perforation in Neonates: Aetiology and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwunife Okechukwu Hyginus

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal perforation (GIP in neonates presents important challenges and mortality can be high. This is a report of recent experience with GIP in neonates in a developing country. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of 16 neonates treated for GIP in a 3 year period. Results: There were 9 males and 7 females, aged 0-28 days (median age =7days. Their weights at presentation ranged from 0.9 - 4.7kg (median =2.6. Five infants were premature. Twelve infants presented more than 72 hours after onset of symptoms. Plain abdominal radiographs showed peumoperitoneum in 9 infants. The cause of perforation was necrotising enterocolitis 6, intestinal obstruction 6, iatrogenic 3 and spontaneous 1. The site of perforation was ileum in 12 infants, stomach in 4 and colon in 4; 4 patients had involvement of more than one site. All the neonates underwent exploratory laparotomy with primary closure ( n=5 , resection and anastomosis( n=6, colostomy (n=3, Ileostomy ( n=2, partial gastrectomy (n=2 ,or gastrojejunostomy ( n=1. Two neonates had multiple procedures. Two very sick preterm babies had an initial peritoneal lavage. Surgical site infection is the commonest postoperative complication occurring in 9 infants. Anaesthesia sepsis and malnutrition is responsible for the seven deaths recorded.Conclusions: Neonatal GIP has multiple aetiologies; NEC is the most common cause. Major mortality risk factors include NEC, multiple perforations, delayed presentation and prematurity.

  4. Gastrointestinal Perforation in Neonates: Aetiology and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyginus Okechukwu Ekwunife

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal perforation (GIP in neonates presents important challenges and mortality can be high. This is a report of recent experience with GIP in neonates in a developing country.Patients and methods: A retrospective review of 16 neonates treated for GIP in a 3 year period.Results: There were 9 males and 7 females, aged 0-28 days (median age =7days. Their weights at presentation ranged from 0.9 - 4.7kg (median =2.6. Five infants were premature. Twelve infants presented more than 72 hours after onset of symptoms. Plain abdominal radiographs showed peumoperitoneum in 9 infants. The cause of perforation was necrotising enterocolitis 6, intestinal obstruction 6, iatrogenic 3 and spontaneous 1. The site of perforation was ileum in 12 infants, stomach in 4 and colon in 4; 4 patients had involvement of more than one site. All the neonates underwent exploratory laparotomy with primary closure ( n=5 , resection and anastomosis( n=6, colostomy (n=3, Ileostomy ( n=2, partial gastrectomy (n=2 ,or gastrojejunostomy ( n=1. Two neonates had multiple procedures. Two very sick preterm babies had an initial peritoneal lavage. Surgical site infection is the commonest postoperative complication occurring in 9 infants. Anaesthesia sepsis and malnutrition is responsible for the seven deaths recorded.Conclusions: Neonatal GIP has multiple aetiologies; NEC is the most common cause. Major mortality risk factors include NEC, multiple perforations, delayed presentation and prematurity.

  5. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yang; Lykke, Mikkel; Chatterton, D E W;

    2014-01-01

    milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm......For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine...... effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk...

  6. Acute renal failure: Nephrosonographic findings in asphyxiated neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF and nephrosonographic findings among asphyxiated neonates, and to correlate this with uric acid levels and the severity of hypoxic encephalopathy, we studied 80 full-term appropriate-for-date singleton neonates with perinatal asphyxia, and 30 healthy full-term neonates as controls from March 2006 to February 2007. A detailed history, thorough clinical examination along with investigations, including urine examination, 24-h urine collection, ultrasonography of abdomen and cranium, serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid were obtained. ARF developed in 45% (36/80 of the asphyxiated neonates. Forty-eight (60% neonates showed significant elevation of blood urea and 41 (51.3% neonates had significant elevation of serum creatinine than the control group (P < 0.001. Sixty-two (77.5% neonates developed significant elevation of serum uric acid levels, and nephrosonography revealed hyperechogenicity in all of them, while only two among the healthy neonates showed the raised uric acid levels (P < 0.001. Nonoliguric renal failure was seen 28/36 (77.8% of the neonates with ARF, whereas eight (22.2% neonates had oliguric renal failure. Eight (27.8% patients among ARF patients maintained abnormal biochemical parameters after 2 weeks, and of whom four patients died after variable lengths of time with a mortality rate of 11.11%. Kidneys are the most common organs involved in perinatal asphyxia, and uric acid might be a causative factor for failure in addition to hypoxic insult. Routine use of kidney function test, along with abdominal ultrasonography form an important screening tool to detect any additional morbidity in these patients.

  7. The neonatal outcome in twin versus triplet and quadruplet pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nasseri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity in twin, triplet and quadruplet pregnancies.
    • METHODS: In a retrospective study, the neonatal outcome of all twin, triplet and quadruplet gestations delivered from October 2001 to September 2006 was reviewed. The neonatal outcome of triples and quadruplets was compared with a matched group of twins for gestational age.
    • RESULTS: During a 5-year period, 511 sets of twin pregnancies, 42 sets of triplet and 5 sets of quadruplet pregnancies were studied. The mean of gestational age for twins, triplets and quadruplets were 33.92 ± 3.5 weeks, 30.92 ± 3.8 weeks and 31.60 ± 2.0 weeks, respectively, (P = 0.0001. Triplets and quadruplets weighed less than twins, (P = 0.0001. Neonatal mortality was 13.5% for twins, 26.8% for triplets and 30% for quadruplets. In vitro fertilization, use of ovulation induction agents, and cesarean delivery in the women with triplet and quadruplet were significantly higher than in those with twin pregnancies, (P = 0.0001. The mean age of mothers with triplets and quadruplets was significantly higher than with twins (P = 0.026. There was not a significant difference in respiratory and non-respiratory short outcomes between triplets, quadruplets and twins when matched for gestational age. Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes was significantly lower in triplets and quadruplets than twins. There was no influence of birth order on neonatal mortality of triplet pregnancy. Neonatal mortality of triplet births was significantly decreased over the 5 years of the study period.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Triplets and quadruplets have a similar neonatal outcome as twins when matched for gestational age. There is no influence of birth on the neonatal mortality of triplet pregnancy. It appears that outcome is mainly dependent on gestational age.
    • KEYWORDS: Neonatal

    • Unlocking the bovine genome

      Science.gov (United States)

      The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

    • Surgical procedures performed in the neonatal intensive care unit on critically ill neonates: feasibility and safety

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Transferring unstable, ill neonates to and from the operating rooms carries significant risks and can lead to morbidity. We report on our experience in performing certain procedures in critically ill neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We examined the feasibility and safety for such an approach. All surgical procedures performed in the NICU between January 1999 and December 2005 were analyzed in terms of demographic data, diagnosis, preoperative stability of the patient, procedures performed, complications and outcome. Operations were performed at beside in the NICU in critically ill, unstable neonates who needed emergency surgery, in neonates of low birth weight (<1000 gm) and in neonates on special equipments like higher frequency ventilators and nitrous oxide. Thirty-seven surgical procedures were performed including 12 laparotomies, bowel resection and stomies, 7 repairs of congenital diaphragmatic hernias, 4 ligations of patent ductus arteriosus and various others. Birth weights ranged between 850 gm and 3500 gm (mean 2000 gm). Gestational age ranged between 25 to 42 weeks (mean, 33 weeks). Age at surgery was between 1 to 30 days (mean, 30 days). Preoperatively, 19 patients (51.3%) were on inotropic support and all were intubated and mechanically ventilated. There was no mortality related to surgical procedures. Postoperatively, one patient developed wound infection and disruption. Performing major surgical procedures in the NICU is both feasible and safe. It is useful in very low birth weight, critically ill neonates who have definite risk attached to transfer to the operating room. No special area is needed in the NICU to perform complication-free surgery, but designing an operating room within the NICU will be ideal. (author)

    • Efficacy of zinc sulfate in reducing unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in neonates

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Somayyeh Hashemian

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available Hyperbilirubinemia is a common disease and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia has been seen mainly in neonates. Severe form of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may cause kernicterus and even death. Conventional treatment for severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia consists of phototherapy and exchange transfusion that have several known disadvantages; specially exchange transfusion is associated with a significant morbidity and even mortality. These harmful effects indicate the need to develop alternative pharmacological treatment strategies for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. One of these pharmacological agents is zinc salts. Zinc has been shown to lower the bilirubin levels by inhibition of the enterohepatic cycling of unconjugated bilirubin. Oral zinc has been shown to reduce serum unconjugated bilirubin in animals, adolescents and low birth weight neonates. However, studies in healthy term neonates given oral zinc showed no reduction in hyperbilirubinemia based on daily measurement. In order to improve the accuracy, hyperbilirubinemia may be determined based on measurements every hour. More studies are needed to know the effect of zinc in neonatal jaundice.

    • Camel and bovine chymosin

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;

      2013-01-01

      Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

    • Resuscitation and Obstetrical Care to Reduce Intrapartum-Related Neonatal Deaths: A MANDATE Study.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kamath-Rayne, Beena D; Griffin, Jennifer B; Moran, Katelin; Jones, Bonnie; Downs, Allan; McClure, Elizabeth M; Goldenberg, Robert L; Rouse, Doris; Jobe, Alan H

      2015-08-01

      To evaluate the impact of neonatal resuscitation and basic obstetric care on intrapartum-related neonatal mortality in low and middle-income countries, using the mathematical model, Maternal and Neonatal Directed Assessment of Technology (MANDATE). Using MANDATE, we evaluated the impact of interventions for intrapartum-related events causing birth asphyxia (basic neonatal resuscitation, advanced neonatal care, increasing facility birth, and emergency obstetric care) when implemented in home, clinic, and hospital settings of sub-Saharan African and India for 2008. Total intrapartum-related neonatal mortality (IRNM) was acute neonatal deaths from intrapartum-related events plus late neonatal deaths from ongoing intrapartum-related injury. Introducing basic neonatal resuscitation in all settings had a large impact on decreasing IRNM. Increasing facility births and scaling up emergency obstetric care in clinics and hospitals also had a large impact on decreasing IRNM. Increasing prevalence and utilization of advanced neonatal care in hospital settings had limited impact on IRNM. The greatest improvement in IRNM was seen with widespread advanced neonatal care and basic neonatal resuscitation, scaled-up emergency obstetric care in clinics and hospitals, and increased facility deliveries, resulting in an estimated decrease in IRNM to 2.0 per 1,000 live births in India and 2.5 per 1,000 live births in sub-Saharan Africa. With more deliveries occurring in clinics and hospitals, the scale-up of obstetric care can have a greater effect than if modeled individually. Use of MANDATE enables health leaders to direct resources towards interventions that could prevent intrapartum-related deaths. A lack of widespread implementation of basic neonatal resuscitation, increased facility births, and emergency obstetric care are missed opportunities to save newborn lives. PMID:25656720

    • A global need for affordable neonatal jaundice technologies.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Slusher, Tina M; Zipursky, Alvin; Bhutani, Vinod K

      2011-06-01

      Globally, health care providers worldwide recognize that severe neonatal jaundice is a "silent" cause of significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Untreated neonatal jaundice can lead to death in the neonatal period and to kernicterus, a major cause of neurologic disability (choreo-athetoid cerebral palsy, deafness, language difficulty) in children who survive this largely preventable neonatal tragedy. Appropriate technologies are urgently needed. These include tools to promote and enhance visual assessment of the degree of jaundice, such as simpler transcutaneous bilirubin measurements and readily available serum bilirubin measurements that could be incorporated into routine treatment and follow-up. Widespread screening for glucose-6-phoshate dehydrogenase deficiency is needed because this is often a major cause of neonatal jaundice and kernicterus worldwide. Recognition and treatment of Rh hemolytic disease, another known preventable cause of kernicterus, is critical. In addition, effective phototherapy is crucial if we are to make kernicterus a "never-event." Finally it is essential that we conduct appropriate population-based studies to accurately elucidate the magnitude of the problem. However, knowledge alone is not sufficient. If we are to implement these and other programs and technologies to relegate severe neonatal jaundice and its sequelae to the history books, screening and interventions must be low cost and technologically appropriate for low and middle income nations. PMID:21641493

    • Role of intravenous immunoglobulin in suspected or proven neonatal sepsis

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      GAUTAM M. K.; JIANG Li

      2013-01-01

      Neonatal sepsis remains the major cause of mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment and prolonged hospital stay in newborn infants .Despite of advances in technology and optimal antibiotic tre-atment, incidence of neonatal sepsis and its complications remains unacceptably high especially in developing countries .Premature neonates in particular are at higher risk due to developmentally immature host defence mecha-nisms.Though not approved by Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) U.S.A, off label use of intravenous immunoglobulin as prophylactic or adjuvant agent in suspected or proven neonatal infections continues in many countries.In a recent large multicenter clinical trial by International Neonatal Immunotherapy Study (INIS) group, the use of polyvalent IgG immune globulin was not associated with significant differences in the risk of major com -plications or other adverse outcomes in neonates with suspected or proven sepsis .Hence, use of intravenous immu-noglobulin in suspected or proven neonatal sepsis is not recommended .The expense of prophylactic use of intrave-nous immunoglobulin administration for both term and preterm newborn population , given the minimal benefit as demonstrated by many individual studies and by meta-analysis is not justified .

    • Case-control study on infant mortality in Southern Brazil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mendes Karina Giane

      2006-01-01

      Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with infant mortality and, more specifically, with neonatal mortality. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil. Characteristics of prenatal care and causes of mortality were assessed for all live births in the 2001-2002 period with a completed live-birth certificate and whose mothers lived in the municipality. Cases were defined as all deaths within the first year of life. As controls, there were selected the two children born immediately after each case in the same hospital, who were of the same sex, and did not die within their first year of life. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a reduction in infant mortality, the greatest reduction was observed in the post-neonatal period. The variables gestational age (<36 weeks, birth weight (<2,500 g, and 5-minute Apgar (<6 remained in the final model of the multivariate analysis, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal conditions comprise almost the totality of neonatal deaths, and the majority of deaths occur at delivery. The challenge for reducing infant mortality rate in the city is to reduce the mortality by perinatal conditions in the neonatal period.

    • Confiabilidade da declaração da causa básica de óbitos neonatais: implicações para o estudo da mortalidade prevenível Reliability of reported underlying causes of neonatal death: implications for the study of preventable mortality

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Márcia L. Carvalho

      1995-10-01

      evidente o potencial de utilização do atestado de óbito para o monitoramento de qualidade, entretanto sendo necessário um aprimoramento da qualidade do seu preenchimento.The main causes of neonatal mortality, the reliability of the underlying cause of death registered in the death certificate, and the impact of problems of reliability on the analysis of preventable death were studied. The information on death certificates from a 15% sample of neonatal deaths between May 1986 and April 1987 in the Greater Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro was compared to the information in the hospital records of the 452 deceased infants. A "modified underlying cause" considered most correct according to disease classification rules was identified from the records. The great majority of deaths (87% were due to perinatal causes. Agreement between the originally declared and modified underlying causes of death was poor: 38% for 3 digits of the International Classification of Diseases Codes (CID-9 and 33% for 4 digits. The modified underlying causes are more weighted towards maternal conditions and complications, which increased by a factor of 12.8, and towards complications of the placenta, umbilical cord, labour and delivery, which rose by a factor of 6.2 in relation to the original causes. The utilization of the "modified" underlying cause elevated considerably (58% the proportion of deaths considered reducible by the classification of neonatal death proposed by the SEADE Foundation. Seventy-five percent (75% of deaths were considered reducible or partially reducible. One hundred and seven (24% of the deaths of them being in infants of normal birthweight, of which 60% considered preventable. Four (4 deaths from congenital syphilis, 3 from perinatal hemolytic diseases, and 21 unattended home deaths of infants were also identified. In summary, important problems were identified in the reliability of the declaration of the underlying causes of neonatal death, whose correction tends to

    • Neonatal diabetes mellitus

      OpenAIRE

      Aydın, Mustafa; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Aycan, Zehra; Çetinkaya, Semra; Hakan, Nilay; Okumuş, Nurullah; Karagöl, Belma Saygılı; Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun

      2012-01-01

      Neonatal diabetes is a monogenic disease causing cellular and functional defects in pancreatic beta; cells seen at first six months of life It has an estimated prevalence of 1 in 400 000 500 000 live births Mutations in KCNJ11 ABCC8 and INS are the cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus in about 50 of patients We present a rare case of neonatal diabetes mellitus in the light of literature A 32 day old male infant born at 37th weeks of gestation with a 1400 g birth weight was referred us because ...

    • Oral Lesions in Neonates

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

      2016-01-01

      ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

    • The neonatal chest

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Lobo, Luisa [Servico de Imagiologia Geral do Hospital de Santa Maria, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-035 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: mluisalobo@gmail.com

      2006-11-15

      Lung diseases represent one of the most life threatening conditions in the newborn. Important progresses in modern perinatal care has resulted in a significantly improved survival and decreased morbidity, in both term and preterm infants. Most of these improvements are directly related to the better management of neonatal lung conditions, and infants of very low gestational ages are now surviving. This article reviews the common spectrum of diseases of the neonatal lung, including medical and surgical conditions, with emphasis to the radiological contribution in the evaluation and management of these infants. Imaging evaluation of the neonatal chest, including the assessment of catheters, lines and tubes are presented.

    • The neonatal chest

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Lung diseases represent one of the most life threatening conditions in the newborn. Important progresses in modern perinatal care has resulted in a significantly improved survival and decreased morbidity, in both term and preterm infants. Most of these improvements are directly related to the better management of neonatal lung conditions, and infants of very low gestational ages are now surviving. This article reviews the common spectrum of diseases of the neonatal lung, including medical and surgical conditions, with emphasis to the radiological contribution in the evaluation and management of these infants. Imaging evaluation of the neonatal chest, including the assessment of catheters, lines and tubes are presented

  1. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  2. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  3. Prophylaxis of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome by intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平; 王英兰; 王蕴慧; 张睿; 陈环; 苏浩彬

    2004-01-01

    Background Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) is caused by a deficiency in pulmonary surfactant (PS) and is one of the main reasons of neonatal mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant for prophylaxis of NRDS.Methods Forty-five pregnant women who were due for preterm delivery and whose fetuses' lungs proved immature were divided into two groups. Fifteen women (study group) were administered one dose of pulmonary surfactant injected into the amniotic cavity and delivered within several hours. Nothing was injected into the amniotic cavity of 30 women of the control group. The proportion of neonatal asphyxia, NRDS, mortality and the time in hospital were analyzed to determine if there was any difference between the two groups. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups for neonatal asphyxia. Foam tests showed that higher proportion of neonates in the study group than in the control group (56.3% vs 13.3%, P<0.05) had lung maturity. A greater number of control neonates (11/30, 32.3%) had NRDS, compared with the neonates given PS via the amniotic cavity before delivery (1/16, 6.3%, P<0.05). The neonates in the study group spent nearly 10 days less in hospital than the control group [(32.4±7.6) days vs (42.0±15.7) days, P<0.05], but the difference in mortality between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions Intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant can significantly reduce the proportion of NRDS and the time in hospital of preterm neonates. Whether this method can reduce the mortality of preterm neonates needs to be evaluated further. Intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant provides an additional effectual means for NRDS prophylaxis.

  4. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Bahl Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Jose Martines; Nita Bhandari; Zrinka Biloglav; Karen Edmond; Sharad Iyengar; Michael Kramer; Lawn, Joy E; Manandhar, D.S.; Rintaro Mori; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Sachdev, H.P.S.; Nalini Singhal; Mark Tomlinson; Cesar Victora

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW), as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4.

  5. An Immunological Perspective on Neonatal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Bernard; Razzaghian, Hamid Reza; Lavoie, Pascal M

    2016-04-01

    Despite concerted international efforts, mortality from neonatal infections remains unacceptably high in some areas of the world, particularly for premature infants. Recent developments in flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing technologies have led to major discoveries over the past few years, providing a more integrated understanding of the developing human immune system in the context of its microbial environment. We review these recent findings, focusing on how in human newborns incomplete maturation of the immune system before a full term of gestation impacts on their vulnerability to infection. We also discuss some of the clinical implications of this research in guiding the design of more-accurate age-adapted diagnostic and preventive strategies for neonatal sepsis. PMID:26993220

  6. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  7. INCIDENCE OF NICU ADMISSIONS OF NEONATES BORN TO TEENAGE MOTHERS IN EAST GODAVAR I DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmasri Devi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Although the effect of adolescent pregnancy on perinatal mortality and morbidity is known, data on the neonatal hospitalization rate in these deliveries have not been reported. We aimed to assess the possible effects of adolescent pregnancies on the hospital outcomes of the newborns. METHODS: 238 adolescent mothers under 19 years of age and their singleton newborns were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: Mother age was statistically significantly associated with NICU admissions of neonates (P=0.000. LBW of neonates were statistically significant association with teenage pregnancy (P=0.000. CONCLUSION: In this study it has been observed that teenage pregnancy was one of the major cause of low birth weight and also admission of neonates in NICU. In this study total 238 study subjects, out of them 115 neonates were born with LBW along with various complications due to the teenage pregnancy. In this study neonatal complication were decreased as the mother’s age increases.

  8. Lactoferrin and neonatology - role in neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis: present, past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are two most important neonatal problems in nursery which constitute the bulk of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Inflammatory mediators secondary to sepsis and NEC increases morbidity, by affecting various system of body like lung, brain and eye, thus causing long term implications. Lactoferrin (LF) is a component of breast milk and multiple actions that includes antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-fungal and anti-cancer and various other actions. Few studies have been completed and a number of them are in progress for evaluation of efficacy and safety of LF in the prevention of neonatal sepsis and NEC in field of neonatology. In future, LF prophylaxis and therapy may have a significant impact in improving clinical outcomes of vulnerable preterm neonates. This review analyse the role of lactoferrin in prevention of neonatal sepsis and NEC, with emphasis on mechanism of action, recent studies and current studies going on around the globe. PMID:25758631

  9. Neonatal Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    The presentation, treatment, and outcome of neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (SVT) were studied in 42 children, using neurology clinic records (1986-2005) at Indiana University School of Medicine.

  10. Neonatal herpes simplex pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lissauer, T J; Shaw, P. J.; Underhill, G

    1984-01-01

    A neonate with herpes simplex pneumonia is described. Herpes simplex infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pneumonia in newborn infants, even in the absence of clinically apparent herpes in the mother.

  11. Neonatal pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 2-3 decades have seen dramatic changes in the approach to pain management in the neonate. These practices started with refuting previously held misconceptions regarding nociception in preterm infants. Although neonates were initially thought to have limited response to painful stimuli, it was demonstrated that the developmental immaturity of the central nervous system makes the neonate more likely to feel pain. It was further demonstrated that untreated pain can have long-lasting physiologic and neurodevelopmental consequences. These concerns have resulted in a significant emphasis on improving and optimizing the techniques of analgesia for neonates and infants. The following article will review techniques for pain assessment, prevention, and treatment in this population with a specific focus on acute pain related to medical and surgical conditions.

  12. Neonatal Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Suresh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Childbirth is generally time of joy for parents and families. As per the medical reports each year 4 million newborns die within 28 days of birth and more suffer from disability, disease, infection and injury. The enabling environment for safe childbirth depends on the care and attention required to newborns by health personnel and the availability of adequate health-care facilities, equipment, and medicines and emergency care when needed. Neonatal monitoring refers to the monitoring of vital physiological parameters of premature infants. Continuous health monitoring of the neonates provides crucial parameters for early detection of adverse events. Health monitoring for the neonates provides crucial parameters for urgent diagnoses and corresponding medical procedures, subsequently increasing the survival rates. In the present paper, we propose a proto type design of a neonatal monitoring system. The system is designed and integrated with different health measurement and display devices. The prototype design is very much useful for monitor the physiological parameters of infants.

  13. Sonomammography in Neonatal Mastauxe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Ghanshyam Kachewar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prominence or even enlargement of one or both breasts is known in neonates. It is believed to be a physiological response to falling levels of maternal estrogen towards last trimester of pregnancy. This input stimulates prolactin release from the newborn's pituitary leading to transient neonatal breast enlargement. This phenomenon is independent of the gender of the neonate. It presents in the first few weeks of life and resolves subsequently. Often fluid discharge is noted from the prominent or swollen breast that resolves without treatment in subsequent weeks. Manual breast manipulation for discharge removal may lead to undesirable effects like local irritation, enhanced enlargement, prolonged tissue hypertropy or even mastitis. A case of such 7-days female neonate is presented here backed with imaging evaluation for confirmation of diagnosis. Typical sonomammographic findings are described. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 22-24

  14. Baby Acne (Neonatal Acne)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Baby Acne (Neonatal Acne) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Acne whiteheads and bumps (papules) typically involve the forehead ...

  15. Infant mortality rates declining, but still high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M

    1992-10-01

    Family planning can improve infant survival. Specifically, use of family planning methods can minimize family size, increase birth spacing, and reduce the likelihood of pregnancy for teenagers and women aged 40 or older. Immunizations and oral rehydration are responsible for the falling infant mortality rats since 1977 in developing countries, especially among 1-12 month old infants. Yet, neonatal mortality in developing countries had not changed. WHO intends to step up efforts to improve newborn survival. Accurate data are needed, however. Even in developed countries which keep good statistics, infant mortality bias exists. For example, in Japan, some infant deaths are called fetal deaths. In developing countries, much of the data come from hospitals, yet most birth do not occur in hospitals. Even in surveys, bias exists, such as problems with recall. Many researchers use traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to follow up on all births in an area which may eliminate some biases. Such a prospective and longitudinal study in Trairi county in northeastern Brazil shows the infant mortality rate to be less than half of the official rate (65 vs. 142). The major causes of infant death in developed countries, which tends to occur in the neonatal period, are low birth weight, prematurity, birth complications, and congenital defects; developing countries; they are vaccine preventable infectious diseases, diarrhea and dehydration, and respiratory illnesses, all complicated by malnutrition. To make further strides in reducing infant mortality, public health workers must concentrate on the neonatal period. Training TBAs in sterile techniques, appropriate technology, resuscitation of infants, and identification of potential problems is a positive step. Yet, unpredictable conditions (e.g., AIDS) exist and/or will arise which erode improvements. For example, in Nicaragua, within 1 year after the new government introduced health budget cuts which resulted in the poor paying for

  16. Survey of characteristics of neonatal death in neonatal intensive care unit of Boo-Ali Sina educational & therapeutic center between 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Bala Ghafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , , , (Received 24 June, 2009 ; Accepted 16 September, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: The neonatal mortality rate is an important index for evaluation of public health. It involves the death of infants under 28 days. Obviously, recognizing the characteristics of neonatal mortality in this center, may be useful for promoting the procedures in the NICU, as well as planning to impede the severe complications or death.Materials and methods: This is a descriptive study performed by analyzing the available data from the medical records of NICU patients at Boo-Ali Sina Educational & Therapeutic Center during 2003 and 2006. The number of deaths, names, and medical records number of the dead infants were collected. Among 1238 patients in the NICU, 363 deaths were reported. According to medical records, 222 deaths occurred in neonates aged 0 to 27 days. Data were collected using a checklist, the validity and reliability of which were approved by clinicians. The Descriptive methods were used in analyzing the data.Results: The findings include: 140 subjects were male (63.1%; 72 from single birth (77.5%; the age-group of mothers of 38 cases (37.7% was 20-24 y; 132 cases (59.5% resided in villages; 129 cases (58.1% with prenatal care; 120 cased of Caesarian section (54%; 155 cases (76% with birth weight lower than 2500 grams and 154 preterm (75.5%. Mortality during neonatal period was divided in two groups: early death (0-6 days 142 cases (62% and late death (7-27 days 80 cases (36%.Conclusion: Correct and exact completion of NICU forms would help undertaking descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies.Key words: Neonatal mortality, early neonatal mortality, late neonatal mortality, NICUJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 20(74: 79-83 (Persian

  17. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  18. Neonatal Stroke : Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Neonatal stroke refers to cerebrovascular events between 28 weeks of gestational age and 28 days postnatal and includes thromboembolic cerebral infarction and all kinds of intracranial haemorrhage. Neonatal stroke may contribute to severe neurological deficit, such as cerebral palsy and even death. International reports suggest the incidence to be approximately 1/4000 live births per year (1). There are several etiological hypothesises regarding risk factors, such as maternal, obstetrical...

  19. Massive Systemic Air Embolism during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support of a Neonate with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Timpa, Joseph G.; O’Meara, Carlisle; McILwain, R. Britt; Dabal, Robert J; Alten, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is universally accepted as a potential lifesaving therapy for neonates suffering severe cardiorespiratory failure, with survival reported as 81% weaning off ECMO and 69% to hospital discharge in this population. Although ECMO may reduce mortality in certain neonatal patients, it is associated with significant complications. Air in the circuit complicates 4.9% of neonatal ECMO runs, and it is crucial that all ECMO caregivers are trained in the prevent...

  20. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  1. Priorities in neonatal care in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, N K

    1996-08-01

    Lower perinatal and neonatal mortality have been achieved in the developed countries following advancement of neonatal care, introduction of high technologies, and better knowledge of pathophysiology of the newborn infants. Other contributing factors are organised delivery room care with skillful resuscitative techniques as well as risk identification and efficient transport of the sick infants including in utero transfer of the fetus, etc. It cannot be assumed that similar results can be attained in developing countries where financial and human resources are the problems. With limited resources, it is necessary to prioritize neonatal care in the developing countries. It is essential to collect minimum meaningful perinatal data to define the problems of each individual country. This is crucial for monitoring, auditing, evaluation, and planning of perinatal health care of the country. The definition and terminology in perinatology should also be uniform and standardised for comparative studies. Paediatricians should be well trained in resuscitation and stabilisation of the newborn infants. Resuscitation should begin in the delivery room and a resuscitation team should be formed. This is the best way to curtail complication and morbidity of asphyxiated births. Nosocomial infections have been the leading cause of neonatal deaths. It is of paramount importance to prevent infections in the nursery. Staff working in the nursery should pay attention to usage of sterilised equipment, isolation of infected babies and aseptic procedures. Paediatricians should avoid indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Most important of all, hand-washing before examination of the baby is mandatory and should be strictly adhered to. Other simpler measures include warming devices for maintenance of body temperature of the newborn babies, blood glucose monitoring, and antenatal steroid for mothers in premature labour. In countries where neonatal jaundice is prevalent, effective management to

  2. HIV and pregnancy: Maternal and neonatal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cecchini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Data regarding epidemiological aspects, antiretroviral drug safety, and outcomes of HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns are limited in Argentina. We underwent a retrospective analysis of registries of HIV-infected pregnant women assisted at Helios Salud, Buenos Aires, Argentina (1997-2006. Variables associated with preterm delivery and neonatal complications were analyzed by univariate and logistic regression analyses. A total of 204 mother-child binomium were included. Maternal age (median: 29 years; 32.5% without prior diagnosis of HIV-infection. Baseline median CD4 T-cell count: 417 cell/μl; 98% received antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy [2 nucleoside analogs plus either nevirapine (55% or a protease inhibitor (32%]. Overall incidence of toxicity was 12.5%: rash (8%, anemia (3.5% and hepatotoxicity (1%. Rash was associated with exposure to nevirapine. Eighty one percent and 50% reached HIV-viral loads <1000 and <50 copies/ml at the end of pregnancy, respectively. Twenty six percent had obstetric complications and 16% had preterm delivery. Of the newborns, 1.6% had congenital defects and 9% had neonatal complications. Overall neonatal mortality was 1% and perinatal transmission was 0.7%. Protease inhibitor use and obstetric complications were associated to preterm delivery while obstetric complications were associated with neonatal complications. In our population, hepatotoxicity was low despite frequent use of nevirapine. Protease inhibitor use was associated to preterm delivery. A favorable virological response and a low rate of perinatal transmission was observed, what supports the consensus that antiretroviral therapy benefits during pregnancy outweigh risks of maternal and neonatal adverse events.

  3. Neonatal Duodenal Obstruction: A 15-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Nain Rattan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital duodenal obstruction is one of the commonest causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. We are presenting our 15-year experience by analyzing clinical spectrum and outcome in neonates with duodenal obstruction admitted at our center. Material and Methods: The hospital records of all neonates admitted with duodenal obstruction from June 2000 to June 2015 were reviewed. The patient records were analyzed for antenatal diagnosis, age, sex, clinical presentation, diagnosis, associated anomalies, surgical procedures performed; postoperative morbidity and mortality. We excluded from our study malrotation of gut associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and abdominal wall defects. Results: A total of 81 patients were admitted, out of which 56 were males and 25 were females. Polyhydramnios was detected in 24 (30% pregnancies. Average birth weight was 2.1±1.0Kg and average gestational age was 38 (SD±1 weeks with 17 (21% preterm neonates. Presenting features were vomiting in 81(100% which was bilious in 81% and non bilious in 19%, epigastric fullness in 56 (69% and dehydration in 18 (22% and failure to thrive in 16 (19%. Most common cause of obstruction was duodenal atresia in 38 (46.9%, followed by malrotation of gut in 33 (40.7%, and annular pancreas in 4 cases. Depending upon site of location, infra-ampullary obstruction was the most common in 64 (79%, supra-ampullary in 9 (7.4% and ampullary 8 neonates. Both duodenal atresia and malrotation of gut was present in 4 cases. X-ray abdomen was most commonly used investigation to confirm the diagnosis. All cases were managed surgically by open laparotomy. Eleven (13.5% patients died due to sepsis and associated congenital anomalies. Conclusion: Congenital duodenal obstruction most commonly presents in early neonatal period with features of upper GIT obstruction like vomiting and epigastrium fullness as in our series. Early antenatal diagnosis and surgical interventions hold the

  4. State of neonatal health care in eight countries of the SAARC region, South Asia: how can we make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Paul, Vinod; Bahl, Rajiv; Shahidullah, Mohammod; Manandhar, Dharma; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah; Amarasena, Sujeewa; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an organization of eight countries--Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. The major objectives of this review are to examine trends and progress in newborn and neonatal health care in the region. A landscape analysis of the current state of neonatal mortality, stillbirths and trends over the years for each country and the effective interventions to reduce neonatal mortality and stillbirths was undertaken. A modelling exercise using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was also undertaken to determine the impact of scaling up a set of essential interventions on neonatal mortality and stillbirths. The findings demonstrate that there is an unacceptably high and uneven burden of neonatal mortality and stillbirths in the region which together account for 39% of global neonatal deaths and 41% of global stillbirths. Progress is uneven across countries in the region, with five of the eight SAARC countries having reduced their neonatal mortality rate by more than 50% since 1990, while India (43%), Afghanistan (29%) and Pakistan (25%) have made slower progress and will not reach their MDG4 targets. The major causes of neonatal mortality are intrapartum-related deaths, preterm birth complications and sepsis which account for nearly 80% of all deaths. The LiST analysis shows that a gradual increase in coverage of proven available interventions until 2020 followed by a uniform scale-up to 90% of all interventions until 2030 could avert 52% of neonatal deaths (0.71 million), 29% of stillbirths (0.31 million) and achieve a 31% reduction in maternal deaths (0.25 million). The analysis demonstrates that the Maldives and Sri Lanka have done remarkably well while other countries need greater attention and specific focus on strategies to improve neonatal health. PMID:26212573

  5. Neonatal stroke: Neonatal neuroimaging & brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    van der Aa, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite major improvements in perinatal care, perinatal stroke remains a severe problem of the newborn and is commonly encountered in the care of these infants in the neonatal intensive care setting. The reported incidence of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) varies from 1:1600-1:5000, and most likely depends on how often neuroimaging studies are performed. Periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) has a lower incidence, but still occurs in 1-10% of the very preterm born infants,...

  6. "Neonatal Sepsis due to Klebsiella: Frequency, Outcome and Antibiotic Sensitivity"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Malakan Rad

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. The most common pathogens of bacterial sepsis and antibiotic sensitivity patterns vary in different parts of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the most common pathogens and outcome of neonatal sepsis and also antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Klebsiella species. A retrospective descriptive study was carried out. The study was performed at a neonatal care unit in Kashan between October 2000 to October 2003.Only those neonates with positive blood culture were included. Patients with Klebsiella septicemia were categorized into two groups of early and late-onset sepsis. Patterns of the antibiotic resistance of the bacterial isolates were studied by disc diffusion technique. Frequencies and Fisher’s Exact test was used to compare the early-onset outcome versus late –onset outcome. One hundred and thirty –six neonates had positive blood cultures out of 453 cases. The most common pathogens were Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and coagulase negative Staphylococci respectively. Overall crude mortality rate was 39% (Pseudomonas was the predominant cause. All Klebsiella species were resistant to ampicillin. Twenty-three percent of Klebsiella species were multiresistant considering our most common etiologic pathogens of bacterial sepsis and the significant number of resistant bacteria to ampicillin and gentamicin; it seems prudent to consider revising the present choice of empirical antibiotic treatment.

  7. Incidence of Bacterial Isolates from Blood Culture in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Even with advancement in the care provided for patients in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU and wide spread use of antibiotics, sepsis remains an important cause of high mortality and morbidity. This study was done to determine the Incidence of bacterial isolates. Objective - We aimed to investigate bacterial pathogens causing neonatal sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit of Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar. Materials and methods - Descriptive and retrospective study between August 2006 and June 2008, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Hamad Medical Corporation in Doha, Qatar. All neonates with culture-proven sepsis admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit during study period. Results - Out of 2,851 blood culture sent to the laboratory 302 were positive. These cultures were obtained from 176 neonates resulting in sepsis incidence rates of 6.4 cases per 1,000 live births and case-fatality rates of 17%. Gram positive cocci, fungi, and gram negative bacilli made up 66%, 17.8%, and 16.2% of isolates respectively. Conclusion - Gram positive cocci are the major causes of neonatal sepsis in Doha. The high incidence rates of fungal sepsis are associated with increased mortality risk. Good infection control practice together with sensible antibiotic use and on-going surveillance would result in proper neonatal sepsis management, decrease in associated morbidity and mortality.

  8. Pneumothoraces in a Neonatal Tertiary Care Unit: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neonatal pneumothoraces are associated with high mortality. Prompt recognition to minimize its complications is paramount for ultimate outcome of these babies.Methods: A retrospective case series study was carried out at Aga khan University Hospital, from January 2010 to December 2010 to determine the etiology and outcome of neonates with pneumothorax in a neonatal tertiary care unit.Results: Ten neonates diagnosed radiologically with pneumothoraces were included. M: F ratio was 1:2.3. Birth weight ranged from 1750-3600 grams with a mean of 2100 grams. The occurrence of pneumothoraces was 50% on the left side, 20% on right, and 30% were bilateral. Primary etiology included pneumonia and sepsis (30%, hyaline membrane disease (20%, meconium aspiration syndrome (20% and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (10%. Spontaneous pneumothoraces were present in 20% of cases. In our study, the incidence of neonatal pneumothoraces was 2.5/1000 births compared to 10-15/1000 in Denmark, 10-20/1000 in Turkey and 6.3/1000 from Vermont Oxford Group. Despite the small number of cases, one incidental finding was the occurrence of pneumothorax, which declined in elective cesarean section after 37 weeks gestation i.e., 1.3 of 1000 births. Mortality was 60% determined mainly by the primary etiology and other co-morbid conditions.Conclusion: The study showed a higher number of mortality cases (60%. Although, it was difficult to draw a conclusion from the limited number of cases, there may be a benefit on neonatal respiratory outcome to be obtained by better selection of mothers and by waiting until 37 weeks before performing elective cesarean section. Adequate clinician training in soft ventilation strategies will reduce the occurrence of pneumothoraces.

  9. Cardiac biomarkers in neonatal hypoxic ischaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweetman, D

    2012-04-01

    Following a perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic insult, term infants commonly develop cardiovascular dysfunction. Troponin-T, troponin-I and brain natriuretic peptide are sensitive indicators of myocardial compromise. The long-term effects of cardiovascular dysfunction on neurodevelopmental outcome following perinatal hypoxic ischaemia remain controversial. Follow-up studies are warranted to ensure optimal cardiac function in adulthood. CONCLUSION: Cardiac biomarkers may improve the diagnosis of myocardial injury, help guide management, estimate mortality risk and may also aid in longterm neurodevelopmental outcome prediction following neonatal hypoxic-ischaemia.

  10. Neonatal hepatic haemangioendothelioma: treatment options and dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijs, Bram B. van der [Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Merks, Johannes H.M. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haan, Timo R. de [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tabbers, Merit M. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-03-15

    We describe a case of rapidly progressive neonatal diffuse hepatic haemangioendotheliomas. The clinical picture was characterized by respiratory insufficiency due to gross abdominal enlargement, coagulopathy, and the development of cardiovascular insufficiency during the course of disease. Pharmacological, radiotherapeutic and endovascular treatment options all proved ineffective. We describe our own experience and the steps taken to treat this child. Unfortunately, the child died as a consequence of the disease. As cases like this are rare and are associated with severe morbidity and high mortality, more knowledge needs to be gained on infantile hepatic haemangioendotheliomas and their optimal treatment. The use of a web-based data registry could be beneficial. (orig.)

  11. A retrospective study of analysis of various factors affecting the outcome of sepsis in neonates admitted to a tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnakumar Chinnusamy; Devimeenakshi K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is an important contributor to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Our aim was to study the various factors determining the outcome in neonatal sepsis in tertiary care hospital. Study was conducted in NICU of Government Stanley medical college, Chennai, India. Methods: Designed as retrospective study, based on case records of babies admitted between July to December 2015. Out of the 320 cases admitted during the study period, 120 babies with clinical features suggestive of...

  12. The effects of viral vaccination of dairy heifer calves on the incidence of respiratory disease, mortality, and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeyer, M C; Leslie, K E; Godden, S M; Hodgins, D C; Lissemore, K D; LeBlanc, S J

    2012-11-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common infectious causes of morbidity and mortality in young dairy cattle. The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to determine the effectiveness of 1 or 2 doses of a 5-way, modified-live viral vaccine, administered to heifer calves before weaning to aid in the prevention of BRD. The hypotheses were that vaccination would reduce the incidence of BRD and mortality, and that 2 doses would be more effective than 1. A total of 2,874 heifer calves from 19 commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Ontario were enrolled at 1 to 7d of age and were followed until 3 mo of age. Calves were randomly assigned to receive a commercial, intramuscular, modified-live vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, and parainfluenza virus type 3 at 15 to 21 d of age (2 wk only), 35 to 42 d (5 wk only), both 2 and 5 wk, or sterile saline at both times (unvaccinated controls). The incidence of failure of passive transfer was 11 or 32%, using cut-points of serum total protein of 5.2 and 5.7 g/dL, respectively. Overall, 22% of calves were treated at least once for BRD. The incidence risk of naturally occurring BRD was 7.7% before 2 wk of age, 8.0% between 2 and 5 wk, and 9.5% between 5 wk and 3 mo of age, and was not different between vaccination groups. Overall mortality throughout the 3-mo study period was 3.5%. Mortality was 1.6% before 2 wk of age, 0.5% between 2 and 5 wk, and 1.2% between 5 wk and 3 mo of age. The risk of mortality was not affected by vaccination. Mean average daily gain of 1.07 kg/d from 5 wk to 3 mo of age was not different between vaccine groups. In this population of commercial, home-raised calves, with an overall low incidence of failure of passive transfer, intramuscular vaccination with a multivalent, modified live viral vaccine at 2 or 5 wk of age or both was not associated with a decreased risk of BRD or mortality, or with

  13. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiology. Due to the high number of unknown causes of clinical mastitis, studies were undertaken to gain more insight into the role of viruses in this important disease. For the first time, we found tha...

  14. Early neonatal sepsis at tertiary care teaching hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Javed; Abdul Majid Memon

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study organisms in cases of early neonatal sepsis, and sensitivity patterns of these isolates. Methods: All pregnant mothers admitted from Jan 2006-Dec 2006 were registered. Neonates delivered at the hospital were examined upto 72 hours of birth, with special emphasis on the signs and symp-toms of suspected sepsis. Neonates with no maternal or neonatal risk factor were included in the study, blood examination and appropriate cultures were taken. Antibiotics as cephatexime and amikacin were started on em-pirical bases until final cultures report was received. In cases of negative cultures, antibiotics were stopped. Other wise it continued according to culture and sensitivity for 10 to 14 days. Results: Among these 257 ca-ses, 113 neonates full filled our criteria. Staph aureus being the commonest organism in our study (59.29%) followed by KlebsieUa pneumoniae (19.47%) and Entrococci (19.47%). These findings are not consistent with other studies in the country. Conclusion: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Choice of antibiotic should depend on the local studies from time to time.

  15. Design of a Functional Training Prototype for Neonatal Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Rajaraman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Birth Asphyxia is considered to be one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality around the world. Asphyxiated neonates require skilled resuscitation to survive the neonatal period. The project aims to train health professionals in a basic newborn care using a prototype with an ultimate objective to have one person at every delivery trained in neonatal resuscitation. This prototype will be a user-friendly device with which one can get trained in performing neonatal resuscitation in resource-limited settings. The prototype consists of a Force Sensing Resistor (FSR that measures the pressure applied and is interfaced with Arduino® which controls the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD and Light Emitting Diode (LED indication for pressure and compression counts. With the increase in population and absence of proper medical care, the need for neonatal resuscitation program is not well addressed. The proposed work aims at offering a promising solution for training health care individuals on resuscitating newborn babies under low resource settings.

  16. Phagocytic ability of neutrophils and monocytes in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantagos Stephanos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections by a variety of pathogens are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality during perinatal period. The susceptibility of neonates to bacterial infections has been attributed to immaturity of innate immunity. It is considered that one of the impaired mechanisms is the phagocytic function of neutrophils and monocytes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the phagocytic ability of neonates at birth. Methods The phagocytic ability of neutrophils and monocytes of 42 neonates was determined using the Phagotest flow cytometry method, that assesses the intake of E. Coli by phagocytes, in cord blood and in peripheral blood 3 days after birth. Fifteen healthy adults were included in the study as controls. Results The phagocytic ability of neutrophils in the cord blood of neonates was significantly reduced compared to adults. The 3rd postnatal day the reduction of phagocytic ability of neutrophils was no longer significant compared to adults. The phagocytic ability of monocytes did not show any difference from that of adults either at birth or the 3rd postnatal day. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the intake of E. Coli by phagocytes is impaired at birth in both preterm and full term neonates compared to adults. This defect is transient, with the phagocytic ability in neonates reaching that of the adults 3 days after birth.

  17. Bacteriological Analysis and Resistance Pattern Among Various Culture Isolates From Neonatal Septicemia at Tertiary Care Hospital, Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay D Rathod; Palak V Bhatia; Parimal H Patel; Jayshri D Pethani; Lata R Patel; Bimal Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Septicemia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn. Shortly after the introduction of potent and broad-spectrum antibiotics, the emergence of resistant strains became a major problem in various Intensive care units. So, determination of bacterial etiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates from septicemia in Neonatal intensive care units (NICU) is now crucial to abate neonatal mortality. This study was under taken to know the bacteri...

  18. A study of neonatal outcome associated with preterm birth in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preterm birth is the most significant problem in current obstetric practice and according to WHO is the direct cause accounting for 24% of neonatal deaths. Objective: To assess frequency and neonatal outcome in patients with preterm birth. Methodology: A prospective descriptive study was conducted at Gynae Unit III Jinnah Hospital Lahore over a period of one year (from 1st July 2011 to 30th June included in the study. For data collection two groups were made depending upon duration of pregnancy. Group l was allotted to women who were pregnant 2012) in collaboration with Paediatrics department. All labouring women who presented after 28 weeks and before 37 completed weeks of gestation were less ( ) than 32 weeks of gestation. Data was collected and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: During the study period total 5171 deliveries took place. Out of 5171 neonates born, 460 were preterm making the frequency of 8.86%. Majority 62.82% were > 32 weeks of gestation, 67.39% were male, 57.60% were > 1.5 kg by weight, 57.17% delivered vaginally and 80.86% were born alive. Neonatal morbidity was more common in neonates less than 32 weeks of gestation. Perinatal mortality was 10.48% in this study. Conclusion: Neonatal morbidity and mortality is more common in neonates less than 32 weeks of gestation, this can be improved by improving prenatal health services and advanced neonatal care. (author)

  19. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Incidence, Characteristics, and Outcomes in Neonatal Down Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Carl H; Nicholson, Lisa; Rivera, Brian K; Swier, Natasha; Marshall, William; Cua, Clifford L

    2016-01-01

    Practice patterns for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in newborns with Trisomy 21 (T21) have not been fully reported. The goals of this study were to 1) determine the incidence of ECMO use in T21 neonates; 2) identify clinical and demographic characteristics associated with ECMO use in this population; 3) describe outcomes of neonates with T21 supported with ECMO. This was a retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information System database (January 2000 to January 2014). Given the exploratory nature, only descriptive statistics were used. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Within 43 pediatric hospitals, the incidence of ECMO use in neonates with T21 was 2.3% (131/5,737). Neonates with T21 supported with ECMO were more likely to be admitted earlier; have higher birth weight, gestational age, and longer hospitalization; and have congenital diaphragmatic hernia or select cardiac anomalies versus those who did not require ECMO. T21 neonates supported with ECMO also had higher incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and mortality (unadjusted odds ratio 12.3 [95% confidence interval: 8.6-17.6]) compared with T21 neonates not exposed to ECMO. Compared with T21 neonates not requiring ECMO, those supported with ECMO had increased morbidity and mortality. Additional investigation on timing, indications, and risk/benefit profiles, for ECMO use in T21 neonates is needed. PMID:26919183

  20. Evaluation of Antenatal to Neonatal Continuum Care Services Affecting Neonatal Health in a Tertiary Health-Care Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Jarina; Ali, Syed Irfan; Tripathy, Radha Madhab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal and child mortality and morbidity continue to be high despite existence of various national health programmes in India. Annually 41% of all Under 5 mortality is comprised of neonates, 3/4 of who die within the first week of life. Even though effective programmes are existing, optimum utilization is still a question. So the present study was planned to assess utilisation of maternal and neonatal health services and its influence on neonatal health. Objectives: 1. To assess the utilization of MCH services before admission to SNCU. 2. To analyse the process of implementation of IMNCI before referral and during the admission. 3. To observe the impact on neonatal health and give necessary recommendations. Methodology: The information regarding utilization of MCH services was obtained by conducting in depth interviews with the responsible adults accompanying the sick neonate. The Pre-treatment and referral slips were verified and compared with that of the prescribed guidelines laid down by the IMNCI for young infants (0-2 months) at SNCU. Results and Discussion: Some of the important observations were mentioned here. 100% women had TT immunization whereas 72% had the full ANC, 58.7% had full course of IFA, 76% had utilized JSY benefits and 48.34% had their PNC. 84% neonates had required immunization, 59.01% were on exclusive breast feeding. 38.9% were paid home visits, only 42% had an idea about the danger signs of neonatal period. 23% sick babies were treated under IMNCI guideline. Among them 98% given initial treatment, only 34% given proper diagnosis/classification, 56% were given adequate advice.

  1. The value of neonatal autopsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal autopsy rates were in decline internationally at the end of the last century. Our objective was to assess the current value of neonatal autopsy in providing additional information to families and healthcare professionals.

  2. Diabetes and perinatal mortality in twin pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Cheng Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes in pregnancy has been associated with a paradoxically reduced risk of neonatal death in twin pregnancies. Risk "shift" may be a concern in that the reduction in neonatal deaths may be due to an increase in fetal deaths (stillbirths. This study aimed to clarify the impact of diabetes on the risk of perinatal death (neonatal death plus stillbirth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of twin births using the largest available dataset on twin births (the U.S. matched multiple birth data 1995-2000; 19,676 neonates from diabetic pregnancies, 541,481 from non-diabetic pregnancies. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR of perinatal death accounting for twin cluster-level dependence. RESULTS: Comparing diabetic versus non-diabetic twin pregnancies, overall perinatal mortality rate was counterintuitively lower [2.1% versus 3.3%, aHR 0.70 (95% confidence intervals 0.63-0.78]. Individually, both stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates were lower in diabetic pregnancies, but we identified significant differences by gestational age and birth weight. Diabetes was associated with a survival benefit in pregnancies completed before 32 weeks [aHR 0.55 (0.48-0.63] or with birth weight =2500 g [aHR 2.20 (1.55-3.13]. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes in pregnancy appears to be "protective" against perinatal death in twin pregnancies ending in very preterm or very low birth weight births. Prospective studies are required to clarify whether these patterns of risk are real, or they are artifacts of unmeasured confounders. Additional data correlating these outcomes with the types of diabetes in pregnancy are also needed to distinguish the effects of pre-gestational vs. gestational diabetes.

  3. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Neonates with Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swier, Natasha L; Richards, Bernadette; Cua, Clifford L; Lynch, Susan K; Yin, Han; Nelin, Leif D; Smith, Charles V; Backes, Carl H

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare, often lethal anomaly associated with poor outcomes. Given the association between bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and cardiovascular complications, we tested the hypotheses that (1) a subgroup of neonates with severe BPD develop PVS (BPD-PVS) and have worse outcomes than do neonates with severe BPD alone (BPD); (2) among a cohort of neonates with severe BPD-associated pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH), PVS is an additional risk factor for adverse outcomes and mortality. Study Design We performed a retrospective review of neonates with severe BPD, based on the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) criteria, at our institution between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2013. PVS was determined based on serial review of echocardiograms performed during their hospitalization. Neonates with congenital heart disease or chromosomal anomalies were excluded. Results Of 213 patients with severe BPD, 10 (4.7%) were found to have PVS (BPD-PVS). Neonates with BPD-PVS had lower birth weight (634 ± 178 vs. 767 ± 165 g; p < 0.01) and were more likely to be intrauterine growth restricted (80 vs. 11%; p < 0.01) than neonates with BPD alone. Time on mechanical ventilation and length of hospitalization were longer in the BPD-PVS group than BPD group. Survival was lower in the BPD-PVS group than BPD group (5/10 [50%] vs. 196/203 [97%]; log-rank test p < 0.01). Among a subgroup of neonates with BPD-PH, survival was lower among infants with PVS than those without PVS (5/9 [56%] vs. 26/30 [86%]; log-rank test p = 0.01). Conclusions Compared with neonates with severe BPD alone, those with acquired PVS are at increased risk for worse outcomes, including higher mortality. Evidence-based recommendations regarding screening protocols and surveillance are needed in this high-risk subgroup of BPD neonates. PMID:26862723

  4. Entrenched geographical and socioeconomic disparities in child mortality: trends in absolute and relative inequalities in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Jimenez-Soto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cambodia has made considerable improvements in mortality rates for children under the age of five and neonates. These improvements may, however, mask considerable disparities between subnational populations. In this paper, we examine the extent of the country's child mortality inequalities. METHODS: Mortality rates for children under-five and neonates were directly estimated using the 2000, 2005 and 2010 waves of the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. Disparities were measured on both absolute and relative scales using rate differences and ratios, and where applicable, slope and relative indices of inequality by levels of rural/urban location, regions and household wealth. FINDINGS: Since 2000, considerable reductions in under-five and to a lesser extent in neonatal mortality rates have been observed. This mortality decline has, however, been accompanied by an increase in relative inequality in both rates of child mortality for geography-related stratifying markers. For absolute inequality amongst regions, most trends are increasing, particularly for neonatal mortality, but are not statistically significant. The only exception to this general pattern is the statistically significant positive trend in absolute inequality for under-five mortality in the Coastal region. For wealth, some evidence for increases in both relative and absolute inequality for neonates is observed. CONCLUSION: Despite considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, entrenched and increased geographical and wealth-based inequality in mortality, at least on a relative scale, remain. As expected, national progress seems to be associated with the period of political and macroeconomic stability that started in the early 2000s. However, issues of quality of care and potential non-inclusive economic growth might explain remaining disparities, particularly across wealth and geography markers. A focus on further addressing key

  5. [Treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M D

    2001-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recent medical literature on the treatment of neonatal jaundice, focusing on practical aspects that are relevant to pediatricians and neonatologists. SOURCES: An extensive review of the related literature was performed, also including the authors clinical experience in this field of investigation. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Jaundice is very common among infants during the first days of life. Several factors such as maternal and neonatal history have to be considered before implementing treatment. Significant advances have been made in the past few years concerning the treatment of jaundiced newborn infants. This review focuses on three forms of treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: phototherapy, exchange transfusion and the use of drugs to reduce serum bilirubin concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Nowadays, the in-depth knowledge about the mechanism of action of phototherapy, the development of intensified phototherapy units and the use of drugs to reduce bilirubin formation, have contributed to significantly decrease the need for exchange transfusion. PMID:14676895

  6. NEONATAL SEIZURES: ETIOLOGY AND FREQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eghbalian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the etiology and frequency of neonatal seizure in hospitalized neonates.Materials and MethodsIn this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we evaluated 1295 neonates with seizures admitted to neonatal and NICU wards in our center. Data was collected on age, sex, birth weight, serum levels of calcium, glucose, and sodium, CT scan findings, history of maternal opium abuse, blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture, and analyzed using SPSS 13.ResultsOf a total of 1295 patients, 34 (2.62% had seizure. Mean age was 14.03 ± 10.05 days (range, 1 to 29 days; twenty-five (73.5% neonates were boys and 9 (26.5% were girls. Of 34 neonates with neonatal seizures, 12 (35.3%, 11 (32.4%, 9 (26.5%, 7 (20.6%, and 3 (8.8% had hypocalcemia, asphyxia, hypoglycemia, intracranial hemorrhage, and hypernatremia, respectively.Maternal addiction, meningitis, and sepsis were found in 3 (8.8%, 1 (2.9% and 1 (2.9% of neonates, respectively.ConclusionThe incidence rate of neonatal seizure in the neonates in our NICU and neonatal ward was 2.62%. Common causes of seizure in this study included hypocalcemia, asphyxia, hypoglycemia, intracranial hemorrhage, and hypernatremia. Maternal ddiction, meningitis and sepsis had the lowest prevalence.Keywords:Neonate, Seizure, Etiologies.

  7. Procalcitonin as a Marker of Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmoud Hajiahmadi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and appropriate treatment decreases the mortality and morbidity of these infants. The aim of this study was to assess the role of procalcitonin (PCT as a marker in the early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of neonatal sepsis. Methods:Thirty-eight neonates with clinical (n=8, suspected (n=19 and proven sepsis (n=11 were evaluated. The PCT levels were measured by immunoluminoassay before and on day 5 of treatment. PTC levels of 0.5-2 ng/ml, 2.1-10 ng/ml and >10 ng/ml were considered as weakly positive, positive, and strongly positive, respectively. The sepsis screen tests and cultures of blood or other sterile body fluids in these three groups of infants were recorded. Findings:The levels of PCT in proven sepsis group were higher than that in other groups. Strongly positive PTC level was seen in none of 8 cases of clinical sepsis, 4 of 19 suspected and in 10 of 11 cases with proven sepsis. PCT levels were dramatically decreased in three groups on day 5 of treatment. Conclusion:The results show that the serum procalcitonin levels seem to be significantly increased in proven sepsis and decrease dramatically in all types of sepsis after appropriate treatment.

  8. Measuring neonatal nursing workload. Northern Neonatal Network.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    A dependency scale has been devised for the assessment of the needs of neonates for nursing time. It has been validated by work studies which have shown that non-surgical babies can be grouped into one of two categories: high dependency babies generating a mean (SD) 25 (5) minutes and low dependency babies generating 12 (3) minutes of nursing work per hour, when the work is averaged out over the whole shift. Any one of five simple and unambiguous criteria serve as robust markers for identifyi...

  9. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  10. Birth spacing, sibling rivalry and child mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Alison; Stephenson, Rob

    2002-12-01

    The detrimental impact of short preceding birth intervals on infant and early childhood mortality is well documented in demographic literature, although the pathways of influence within the relationship remain an area of debate. This paper examines the impact of the length of the preceding birth interval on under-two mortality in India, and examines the pathways through which short preceding birth intervals may lead to an increased risk of mortality. Three mortality periods are examined: neonatal, early post neonatal and late post-neonatal and toddler, using the 1992 Indian National Family Health Survey. A multilevel modelling approach is used to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The determinants of infants following a short or long birth interval are also examined. The results show that short preceding birth intervals (sibling rivalry is a pathway through which short birth intervals influence mortality, with the death of the previous sibling removing the competition for scarce resources, and resulting in lower risks of mortality than if the previous sibling was still alive. The greatest risks of an infant following a short birth interval are among those whose previous sibling died, high parities, those with young mothers, and those whose previous sibling was breastfed for a short duration. PMID:12409124

  11. Rings in the neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hackett, C B

    2011-02-01

    Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is an uncommon disease of the neonate. It is believed to be caused by the transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies to the ribonucleoproteins (Ro\\/SSA, La\\/SSB or rarely U RNP) as these are almost invariably present in NLE sera. The most common clinical manifestations include cutaneous lupus lesions and congenital complete heart block. Hepatobiliary and haematologic abnormalities are reported less frequently. We describe a patient with cutaneous NLE to illustrate and raise awareness of the characteristic annular eruption of this condition. We also emphasize the need for thorough investigation for concomitant organ involvement and for maternal education regarding risk in future pregnancies.

  12. Ultrasonography of Neonatal Cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Ultrasonography (US) is as an important tool for differentiation of obstructive and non-obstructive causes of jaundice in infants and children. Beyond two weeks of age, extrahepatic biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis are the two most common causes of persistent neonatal jaundice: differentiation of extrahepatic biliary atresia, which requires early surgical intervention, is very important. Meticulous analysis should focus on size and configuration of the gallbladder and anatomical changes of the portahepatis. In order to narrow the differential diagnosis, combined approaches using hepatic scintigraphy, MR cholangiography, and, at times, percutaneous liver biopsy are necessary. US is useful for demonstrating choledochal cyst, bile plug syndrome, and spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct

  13. Alcohol drinking pattern during pregnancy and risk of infant mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønboek, Morten; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2009-01-01

    The safety of small amounts of alcohol drinking and occasional binge-level drinking during pregnancy remains unsettled. We examined the association of maternal average alcohol intake and binge drinking (>or=5 drinks per sitting) with infant mortality, both in the neonatal and postneonatal period....

  14. Live neonates born to mothers with Ebola virus disease: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J M; Griese, S E; Goodman, A B; Peacock, G

    2016-06-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is associated with a high mortality, especially among neonates. There is a paucity of literature on live neonates born to pregnant women with EVD, and therefore, our understanding of their clinical illness and outcomes is extremely limited. A literature search was conducted to identify descriptions of live neonates born to pregnant women with EVD. To date, five known reports have provided limited information about 15 live neonates born to pregnant women with EVD. All 15 neonates died, and of those with information, death was within 19 days of birth. Of the 12 neonates with information on signs and symptoms, 8 (67%) were reported to have fever; no other signs or symptoms were reported. There are no published data describing the clinical course or treatments provided for these neonates. Potential modes of Ebola virus transmission from mother to neonate are through in utero transmission, during delivery, direct contact or through breast milk. There is an urgent need for more information about neonates with EVD, including clinical course (for example, onset and presentation of illness, symptomatology and course of illness) and treatments provided as well as information on Ebola viral load in breast milk from Ebola-positive and convalescing mothers. PMID:26658125

  15. PREVALENCE OF FACTORS INVOLVED IN INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGE OF PREMATURE NEONATES LESS THAN 34 WEEKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahmani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hemorrhage is one of the major causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. It is the most severe cranial problem in that period. Those who survive would be affected by hydrocephalus, encephalomalacia, and finally brain atrophy. With accurate knowledge of risk factors, hemorrhage may be diagnosed earlier and the complications managed earlier. This study was performed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital. All the neonates less than 34 weeks of gestation were undergone intracranial sonography from Feb 2005 to Feb 2006. Sonography was performed via anterior fontanel with proper probe according to neonatal age. 113 neonates less than 34 weeks of gestation have been studied. Mean gestational age was 32 weeks. Mean neonatal weight were 1566 ± 734 grams. Intracranial hemorrhage was evident in 21% of them; 16.8% was grade 1, 0.9% grade 2, 2.7% grade 3, 0.9% grade 4. The mean weight of neonates with hemorrhage was 1504.11 grams. Intracranial hemorrhage had correlation with respiratory acidosis and pneumothorax. The latter was also correlated with hemorrhage grade. Supposing the safety and non-invasiveness of intacranial sonography, we suggest performing sonography in all premature neonates with low birth weight, and also in those neonates with pneumothorax and respiratory acidosis.

  16. NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH G6PD ENZYME DEFICIENCY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Dholakia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the commonest abnormal physical findings in the new borns. Although, not a major cause of neonatal mortality, its morbidity during neonatal period makes its early recognition and management important. Amongst the various etiological factors, G-6-PD enzyme deficiency is one of the important causes of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify incidence of G-6-PD enzyme deficiency among hyperbilirubinemic neonates & to know about particular caste involved in the studied area. Methods: In the present study neonates were tested and analysed by a micromethod (based on classical methhemoglobin reduction test which requires only 20 µl of blood in a minimal laboratory set up as a routine investigation. Influence of various other etiological factors i.e. mode of delivery, birth weight, consangious marriages etc. on neonatal serum bilirubin level were also analysed. Results: Most of neonates (81.2% having G-6-PD deficiency were male. Bhanushali (17.85% and Muslim (11.6% caste showed higher incidence of G-6-PD deficiency. ABO Incompatibility and Prematurely were associated with 32.6% and 30.6% G-6-PD deficiency neonates respectively. Conclusion: The present study concludes that higher incidence of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in G-6-P.D deficient neonates due to clustering of casts in some geographical areas of Gujarat. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 59-62

  17. An overview of bovine α-lactalbumin structure and functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta STĂNCIUC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available α-Lactalbumin is the second major protein in bovine milk (2-5% of the total protein in bovine milk. The human variant has several physiologic functions in the neonatal period. In the mammary gland, itparticipates in lactose synthesis and facilitates milk production and secretion. α-Lactalbumin binds divalent cations (Ca2+, Zn2+ and may facilitate the absorption of essential minerals. Also, it provides awell-balanced supply of essential amino acids for the growing infant. During its digestion, peptides with antibacterial and imunostimulatory properties are formed, thereby possibly helping in the protection against infection. The protein fractions enriched with α-lactalbumin may be added to infant formula to provide some of the benefits of this protein. This article reviews a number of studies which may contribute to a more coherent understanding of the structure and some functional properties of α-lactalbumin.

  18. Iatrogenic neonatal bladder perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Trigui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal bladder rupture is rare as a complication of bladder obstruction due to abnormal anatomy or iatrogenic causes. The present study describes the case of a 3-day-old infant with ascites due to bladder perforation secondary probably to manual decompression of the bladder. The infant underwent successful surgical repair of the perforation.

  19. Epigenetics in neonatal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xue-feng; DU Li-zhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the role of epigenetic regulation in neonatal diseases and better understand Barker's "fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis".Data sources The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from the articles published in Medline/PubMed between January 1953 and December 2009.Study selection Articles associated with epigenetics and neonatal diseases were selected.Results There is a wealth of epidemiological evidence that lower birth weight is strongly correlated with an increased risk of adult diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This phenomenon of fetal origins of adult disease is strongly associated with fetal insults to epigenetic modifications of genes. A potential role of epigenetic modifications in congenital disorders, transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM), intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) have been studied.Conclusions Acknowledgment of the role of these epigenetic modifications in neonatal diseases would be conducive to better understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases, and provide new insight for improved treatment and prevention of later adult diseases.

  20. Hyperbilirubinemia and Neonatal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholmali Maamouri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia is a relatively common disorder among infants in Iran. Bacterial infection and jaundice may be associated with higher morbidity. Previous studies have reported that jaundice may be one of the signs of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate, presentation time, severity of jaundice, signs and complications of infection within neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.   Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted between 2003 and 2011, at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad- Iran. We prospectively evaluated 1763 jaundiced newborns. We Finally found 434 neonates who were categorized into two groups.131 neonates as case group (Blood or/and Urine culture positive or sign of pneumonia and 303 neonates with idiopathic jaundice as control group. Demographic data including prenatal, intrapartum, postnatal events and risk factors were collected by questionnaire. Biochemical markers including bilirubin level, urine and blood cultures were determined at the request of the clinicians.   Results: Jaundice presentation time, age on admission, serum bilirubin value and hospitalization period were reported significantly higher among case group in comparison with control group (p

  1. Neonatal typhoid fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, K C; Simmonds, E.J.; Tarlow, M J

    1986-01-01

    Three infants of Pakistani immigrant mothers developed typhoid fever in the neonatal period. All three survived, but two became chronic excretors of Salmonella typhi. The risk of an outbreak of typhoid fever in a maternity unit or special care baby unit is emphasized.

  2. The Impact of Recycled Neonatal Incubators in Nigeria: A 6-Year Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hippolite Onyejiaka Amadi; Jonathan C. Azubuike; Etawo, Uriah S.; Offiong, Uduak R.; Chinyere Ezeaka; Eyinade Olateju; Adimora, Gilbert N; Akin Osibogun; Ngozi Ibeziako; Edna O. Iroha; Dutse, Abdulhameed I.; Chukwu, Christian O.; Okpere, Eugene E.; Kawuwa, Mohammed B.; El-Nafaty, Aliyu U.

    2011-01-01

    Nigeria has a record of high newborn mortality as an estimated 778 babies die daily, accounting for a ratio of 48 deaths per 1000 live births. The aim of this paper was to show how a deteriorating neonatal delivery system in Nigeria may have, in part, been improved by the application of a novel recycled incubator technique (RIT). Retrospective assessment of clinical, technical, and human factors in 15 Nigerian neonatal centres was carried out to investigate how the application of RIT impacted...

  3. Facility Delivery, Postnatal Care and Neonatal Deaths in India: Nationally-Representative Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Fadel, Shaza A; Ram, Usha; Shaun K Morris; Begum, Rehana; Shet, Anita; Jotkar, Raju; Jha, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical studies demonstrate the efficacy of interventions to reduce neonatal deaths, but there are fewer studies of their real-life effectiveness. In India, women often seek facility delivery after complications arise, rather than to avoid complications. Our objective was to quantify the association of facility delivery and postnatal checkups with neonatal mortality while examining the “reverse causality” in which the mothers deliver at a health facility due to adverse perinatal ev...

  4. A Rare Case of Neonatal Complicated Appendicitis in a Child with Patau’s Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Pastore; Fabio Bartoli

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal appendicitis is a rare condition with high mortality rate. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific, imaging modalities are not always diagnostic, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult with subsequent delay and complications. Its pathophysiology may be different from appendicitis in older children and comorbidities can be found. We report a case of a female neonate with Patau’s syndrome, intestinal malrotation, and Fallot tetralogy in whom perforated appendix, probably occurring du...

  5. Probiotic for preventing necrotising enterocolitis in preterm neonates- The past, present, and the future

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Girish; Patole, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Although survival of very preterm neonates has improved in the surfactant era necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) continues to be major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite decades of research the pathogenesis of NEC is poorly understood. Historically, apart from antenatal glucocorticoids and postnatal preference to early feeding with human milk, neonatologists have had not many options to minimize the risk of NEC in preterm neonates. Probiotics supplementation has given a fresh ou...

  6. Assessment of surfactant use in preterm infants as a marker of neonatal intensive care unit quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lorch Scott A; Kaplan Heather C; Pinto-Martin Jennifer; Putt Mary; Silber Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Proposed neonatal quality measures have included structural measures such as average daily census, and outcome measures such as mortality and rates of complications of prematurity. However, process measures have remained largely unexamined. The objective of this research was to examine variation in surfactant use as a possible process measure of neonatal quality. Methods We obtained data on infants 30 to 34 weeks gestation admitted with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) ...

  7. PRE TRANSPORT FACTORS AND TRANSPORT QUALITY A FFECTING THE NEONATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the determinant of mortality on extramural arrival of sick newborns and mode of neonatal transport at tertiary care C entre . BACKGROUND: Neonatal transport system in our country is major gap in holistic newborn care and acute neonatal physiology is deranged during transport which adversely affects the mortality and morbidity of sick newborns. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is prospective observational cohort study carried out in out born neonatal intensive care unit over a period of one year. Inclusion cr iteria were age up to 28 days, delivered at home or private nursing home or any health centre; and exclusion criteria were age more than 28 days, abandoned newborns and those delivered in the institution of study . A predesigned and tested proforma was used to record information by the pediatric resident on duty at time of neonatal admission. Data were analysed and tabulated, for analysis of data software STATISTIX was used, chi - square test for dichotomous variables and multiple logistic regression for predi ctors of mortality. RESULT: Out of 200 newborns 146 were male and 54 were female, 140 were term and 59 were preterm, 39 newborns expired and common mode of transport was taxi 47%, bus 16%, auto 16% and ambulance 2.5%. The common factors determining the out come were low admission weight, prematurity, longer duration of transport and deranged physiological factors e.g. hypothermia, respiratory distress, prolonged CRT and central cyanosis. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that neonatal transport in our country is self - supported; the ideal element of neonatal transport is major gap in holistic neonatal care. Thus we suggest RUSH - IN FACILITY for neonatal transport.

  8. Duration of Cord Clamping and Neonatal Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Song

    Full Text Available Delayed cord clamping (DCC, ≥30 s increases blood volume in newborns and is associated with fewer blood transfusions and short-term neonatal complications. The optimal timing of cord clamping for very preterm infants should maximize placental transfusion without interfering with stabilization and resuscitation.We compared the effect of different durations of DCC, 30-45 s vs. 60-75 s, on delivery room (DR and neonatal outcomes in preterm infants 48 hours of antenatal steroid exposure. There was no difference between the two groups in neonatal death, intraventricular hemorrhage, chronic lung disease, late onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis and severe retinopathy of prematurity.In this study cohort increasing DCC duration from 30-45 s to 60-75 s is associated with decreased hypothermia on admission, neonatal respiratory interventions and red blood cell transfusions without increase in neonatal mortality and morbidities.

  9. Status of neonatal intensive care units in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez A

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal mortality in India accounts for 50% of infant mortality, which has declined to 84/1000 live births. There is no prenatal care for over 50% of pregnant women, and over 80% deliver at home in unsafe and unsanitary conditions. Those women who do deliver in health facilities are unable to receive intensive neonatal care when necessary. Level I and Level II neonatal care is unavailable in most health facilities in India, and in most developing countries. There is a need in India for Level III care units also. The establishment of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs in India and developing countries would require space and location, finances, equipment, staff, protocols of care, and infection control measures. Neonatal mortality could be reduced by initially adding NICUs at a few key hospitals. The recommendation is for 30 NICU beds per million population. Each bed would require 50 square feet per cradle and proper climate control. Funds would have to be diverted from adult care. The largest expenses would be in equipment purchase, maintenance, and repair. Trained technicians would be required to operate and monitor the sophisticated ventilators and incubators. The nurse-patient ratio should be 1:1 and 1:2 for other infants. Training mothers to work in the NICUs would help ease the problems of trained nursing staff shortages. Protocols need not be highly technical; they could include the substitution of radiant warmers and room heaters for expensive incubators, the provision of breast milk, and the reduction of invasive procedures such as venipuncture and intubation. Nocosomial infections should be reduced by vacuum cleaning and wet mopping with a disinfectant twice a day, changing disinfectants periodically, maintaining mops to avoid infection, decontamination of linen, daily changing of tubing, and cleaning and sterilizing oxygen hoods and resuscitation equipment, and maintaining an iatrogenic infection record book, which could be used to

  10. Perinatal mortality--an analysis of causes and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeru

    2011-04-01

    Perinatal mortality is the most sensitive index while imparting healthcare to mother during pregnancy and delivery and also to the baby in perinatal period. Perinatal mortality is higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Worldover perinatal or infant mortality rate is on decline. Developed countries are ahead of developing nations in giving good antenatal, intrapartal as well as neonatal care. Factors responsible for perinatal mortality in Indian context lie in sociodemographic, maternal and foetal aspects. Regional differences also are there in India while assessing perinatal mortality and delivery practices. The lacunae are to be identified while recommending strategies to be taken to lower the perinatal mortality. A community based data system should be developed so that the information should flow from down to above, from village to subcentre to primary health centre and further from district to state. Some newborns need special care. Since newborns need early recognition of danger signs and prompt treatment measures. PMID:22187796

  11. Extent, causes and timing of moose calf mortality on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge: 1988 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the extent, causes and timing of moose calf mortality on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. 46 neonatal moose calves from the 1988 cohort were...

  12. Analysis of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit for 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chun

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn, particularly in preterm. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence rate, causative pathogens and clinical features of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU for 6 years. Methods : This study was retrospectively performed to review the clinical and laboratory characteristics including sex, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, length of hospitalization, length of total parenteral nutrition, presence of central venous catheter, underlying diseases, laboratory findings, microorganisms isolated from blood culture, complications and mortality in 175 patients between January 2003 and December 2008. Results : 1 Sepsis was present in 175 of 3,747 infants for 6 years. There were more gram-positive organisms. 2 The gram-negatives were more prevalent in preterm. There were no significant differences of other clinical features between two groups. 3 Underlying diseases were found in 73.7%, and the most common disease was cardiovascular disease. The most common organisms of gram-positives and gram-negatives were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Serratia marcescens. 4 There was statistically significant difference on platelet counts between two groups (P&lt;0.05. 5 Complications were found in 18.3% and septic shock was the most common. MRSA was the most common pathogen in sepsis with complication. 6 The mortality rate was 7.4%. 7 There were differences in monthly blood stream infection/ 1,000 patient-days. Conclusion : The studies about the factors that can influence neonatal sepsis will contribute to decrease the infection rates in NICUs.

  13. Neonatal Seizures: A Review of Outcomes and Outcome Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Francesco; Spagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The majority of neonatal seizures are of acute symptomatic origin, and their occurrence is associated with higher mortality and morbidity compared with the general population, even if there is conflicting evidence of a detrimental effect per se. Etiology is considered the main determinant of outcome, but other factors, including gestational age, brain damage severity, neonatal neurological examination, and electroencephalographically (EEG) interictal and ictal characteristics are also related to neurodevelopmental outcome or death. Therefore, accuracy in early prognostication since the neonatal period can be improved by conveniently integrating different clinical and instrumental findings.The aim of this review is first to review the outcome of newborns with seizures (mortality, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disability), second to review the risk factors for adverse outcome after seizures in the newborn period, considering clinical, EEG/amplitude-integrated EEG, and neuroimaging findings associated with adverse outcome and lack of response to treatment, and finally to review published scoring systems for predicting neurologic outcome after neonatal seizures. PMID:26587762

  14. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Anderson, Mark L; McEligot, Heather A; Shao, Matt X; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F; Neibergs, Holly L; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  15. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  16. A community based surveillance system for perinatal and neonatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal Chand, A; Khale, M

    1989-11-01

    The impact of maternal health services on perinatal and neonatal mortality depends on both the quantitative and qualitative coverage of pregnant women with obstetric services. In rural areas this becomes all the more difficult because of the requirement of a large decentralized infrastructure extending from village based health workers and subcentres to the Primary Health Centre and tertiary levels of referral. An effective introduction of socio-cultural, biomedical and managerial interventions is required to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality. A community based surveillance and monitoring system is central to and facilitates the introduction of all other interventions. Finally, the system operated by grass-root level workers is a motivational tool for achieving expected levels of performance. PMID:2630471

  17. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  18. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  19. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  20. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  1. Neonatal sepsis and multiple skin abscess in a newborn with Down’s syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Kali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal mortality. Congenital heart disease accounts for additional risk of sepsis in neonates. Here we report a case of Down’s syndrome with late onset neonatal sepsis associated with multiple superficial skin abscesses simulating staphylococcal infection. The baby was empirically treated with vancomycin. Subsequently, multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae was detected from both pus and blood culture. Change to appropriate antibiotic resulted in clinical recovery. Although sepsis is one of the major ailments in neonates, atypical presentations of neonatal sepsis in Down’s syndrome patients are underreported. Here we highlight the atypical presentation of Klebsiella sepsis and the importance of early antibiogram in such cases.

  2. "Social marketing" for early neonatal care: saving newborn lives in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Iram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, developing countries carry a large share of neonatal mortality in the world. According to UNICEF, almost 450 newborn children die every hour, mostly from preventable causes. Restricted access to quality and hygienic delivery services and limited knowledge about handling the newborn aggravate the situation. South Asia, and Pakistan in particular, have reduced their child and infant mortality during the last decade; however, neonatal mortality still remains unacceptably high. There are multiple reasons, mainly related to practices and behaviours of communities and traditional birth attendants. Rural and poor populations suffer most in Pakistan, where three out of five deliveries still occur at home. Traditional community practices and conservative norms drastically affect neonatal health outcomes. Preventing sepsis at the umbilical cord, keeping the baby at the correct temperature after birth and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding are three simple strategies or messages that need to be disseminated widely to prevent many neonatal mortalities and morbidities. Since inappropriate practices in handling newborns are directly linked with persistent and unremitting behaviours among health providers and the community at large, we suggest doing robust "social marketing" for saving newborn lives. The objective of the paper is to present a social-marketing strategy and a marketing mix that will help address and surmount actual barriers and promote alternative behaviours in early neonatal care. PMID:20357556

  3. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant patients with cardiac diseases referred for labour in northwest Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates in women with different types of significant heart diseases. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary heart care centre in Tabriz, Iran, and comprised 200 pregnant women between March 2007 and March 2012 who had different cardiac diseases and were admitted in labour wards first and then transferred to the heart center for child-bearing (vaginal delivery or caesarean section). They were categorised based on the underlying etiology into valvular heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease and other etiologies. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of the 200 subjects was 29.4+-4.28 years. Caesarean section was performed on 152 (76%) cases, while 48 (24%) underwent vaginal delivery. There were 216 neonates as 16 (8%) women had twins. Overall, 164 (75.9%) were female, and 52 (24.1%) male. Maternal and neonatal mortality rates were 4.0% (n=8) and 10% (n=22) respectively. Pregnant women with Congenital heart disease experienced more maternal (p<0.022) and neonatal (p<0.031) mortality rates than other cardiac diseases. Conclusion: Pregnant women with cardiac diseases are prone to higher maternal and neonatal mortality rates in northwest Iran. (author)

  4. Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.; DePerno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Tardiff, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We compared survival of neonate white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus captured using vaginal-implant transmitters (VITs) and traditional ground searches to determine if capture method affects neonate survival. During winter 2003, 14 adult female radio-collared deer were fitted with VITs to aid in the spring capture of neonates; neonates were captured using VITs (N = 14) and traditional ground searches (N = 7). Of the VITs, seven (50%) resulted in the location of birth sites and the capture of 14 neonates. However, seven (50%) VITs were prematurely expelled prior to parturition. Predation accounted for seven neonate mortalities, and of these, five were neonates captured using VITs. During summer 2003, survival for neonates captured using VITs one. two, and three months post capture was 0.76 (SE = 0.05; N = 14). 0.64 (SE = 0.07; N = 11) and 0.64 (SE = 0.08; N = 9), respectively. Neonate survival one, two and three months post capture for neonates captured using ground searches was 0.71 (SE = 0.11 N = 7), 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5) and 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5), respectively. Although 71% of neonates that died were captured <24 hours after birth using VITs, survival did not differ between capture methods. Therefore, use of VITs to capture neonate white-tailed deer did not influence neonate survival. VITs enabled us to capture neonates in dense habitats which would have been difficult to locate using traditional ground searches. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  5. Evaluation of 80 Term Neonates with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to review the etiology, clinical - laboratory features and mortality rate of term 80 neonates with perinatal asphyxia admitted to our neonatal unit between January 2005-April 2006. The sex distribution was 24 (%30 female and 56 (% 70 male. The mean gestational age was 38.6±1.3 weeks and weight 3156±561 gram. Of the patients % 46.25 were delivered with a cesarean section and % 53.75 with spontaneous vaginal delivery. The etiologic factors for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were % 31.25 force delivery, meconium aspiration, and % 66.25 preeclampsia, eclampsia and diabetic mother’s infant. The distribution of patients according to HIE statging system (Sarnat&Sarnat were as follows: 33 patients (% 41.25 in stage 1, 20 (% 25 in stage 2 and 27 (% 33.75 in stage 3. Seizures were observed in % 33.75 of patients. The mean duration of hospital stay was 10.6±7.7 days for the surviving patients and 4.2±3.4 days for patients who died. Except from central nervous system, liver and kidney were the most involved organs.Perinatal asphyxia remains to be leading cause of neonatal mortality. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is a common newborn problem and cause important mortality and morbidity where low-social –cultural –education conditions with in regions.

  6. Effect of different cryoprotectant agents on spermatogenesis efficiency in cryopreserved and grafted neonatal mouse testicular tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Mullen, Brendan; Jarvi, Keith; McKerlie, Colin; Lo, Kirk C.

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of male fertility associated with use of the cryopreserved testicular tissue would be a significant advance in human and animal assisted reproductive technology. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of four different cryoprotectant agents (CPA) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in cryopreserved and allotransplanted neonatal mouse testicular tissue. Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) with 5% fetal bovine serum including either 0.7 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 0....

  7. Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths: a matched case–control study in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Butu, Yuli; Simpson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background Similar to global trends, neonatal mortality has fallen only slightly in Indonesia over the period 1990–2010, with a high proportion of deaths in the first week of life. Objective This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal deaths of low and normal birthweight infants that were amenable to health service intervention at a community level in a relatively poor province of Indonesia. Design A matched case–control study of neonatal deaths reported from selected community health centres (puskesmas) was conducted over 10 months in 2013. Cases were singleton births, born by vaginal delivery, at home or in a health facility, matched with two controls satisfying the same criteria. Potential variables related to maternal and neonatal risk factors were collected from puskesmas medical records and through home visit interviews. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios using the clogit procedure in Stata 11. Results Combining all significant variables related to maternal, neonatal, and delivery factors into a single multivariate model, six factors were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The factors identified were as follows: neonatal complications during birth; mother noting a health problem during the first 28 days; maternal lack of knowledge of danger signs for neonates; low Apgar score; delivery at home; and history of complications during pregnancy. Three risk factors (neonatal complication at delivery; neonatal health problem noted by mother; and low Apgar score) were significantly associated with early neonatal death at age 0–7 days. For normal birthweight neonates, three factors (complications during delivery; lack of early initiation of breastfeeding; and lack of maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs) were found to be associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. Conclusion The study identified a number of factors amenable to health service

  8. Neonatal diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, C.; Redmond, A

    2000-01-01

    An explosion of work over the last decade has produced insight into the multiple hereditary causes of a nonimmunological form of diabetes diagnosed most frequently within the first 6 months of life. These studies are providing increased understanding of genes involved in the entire chain of steps that control glucose homeostasis. Neonatal diabetes is now understood to arise from mutations in genes that play critical roles in the development of the pancreas, of β-cell apoptosis and insulin pro...

  9. Congenital hypothyroidism in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneela Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation in children and it occurs in approximately 1:2,000-1:4,000 newborns. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of CH in neonates. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in neonatal units of the Department of Pediatrics Unit-I, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore and Lady Willington Hospital Lahore in 6 months (January-June 2011. Materials and Methods: Sample was collected by non-probability purposive sampling. After consent, 550 newborn were registered for the study. Demographic data and relevant history was recorded. After aseptic measures, 2-3 ml venous blood analyzed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level by immunoradiometric assay. Treatment was started according to the individual merit as per protocol. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed by SPSS 17 and Chi-square test was applied to find out the association of CH with different variables. Results: The study population consisted of 550 newborns. Among 550 newborns, 4 (0.8% newborns had elevated TSH level. CH had statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism (P value 0.000 and mother′s drug intake during the pregnancy period (P value 0.013. Conclusion: CH is 0.8% in neonates. It has statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism and mother′s drug intake during pregnancy.

  10. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol*

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E.

    2014-01-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criter...

  11. Audit of perinatal mortality at SSMCHRC-(Rural teaching hospital a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Kokila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate magnitude, determinants of perinatal mortality and suggest remedial measures for its reduction. Background: Perinatal mortality is mirror reflection of maternal and child health and socioeconomic environment of community. It is influenced by various medicosocial preventable causes. It can be reduced by improving maternal and child health services and by health education. Methods: A retrospective hospital based study of perinatal deaths among 2333 deliveries was conducted from June 2008 to June 2010 in our hospital. Fetomaternal factors like maternal age, religion, residence, parity, mode of delivery, booking status, antenatal complications, baby’s sex, birth weight, congenital anomalies, neonatal complications influencing perinatal mortality rate were tabulated and analyzed. Cause of perinatal death was assessed. Results: perinatal mortality rate was 127.4/1000 total births. Maternal factors like age more than 35 years, muslim religion, inadequate antenatal care, primiparity, grand multiparity, induced deliveries and neonatal factors like low birth weight, prematurity were associated with increased perinatal mortality. The leading cause of stillbirth was antepartum hemorrhage and prematurity for neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Apart from clinical causes high perinatal mortality was due to poverty, illiteracy, lack of health awareness, inadequate antenatal care and delayed referral. Health education, identification of high risk mothers, timely referral, advanced life support of preterm neonates should significantly help to reduce perinatal deaths.

  12. Influence of birth weight on differences in infant mortality by social class and legitimacy.

    OpenAIRE

    D A Leon

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social cla...

  13. Infant mortality: a call to action overcoming health disparities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A. Vanderbilt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among all of the industrialized countries, the United States has the highest infant mortality rate. Racial and ethnic disparities continue to plague the United States with a disproportionally high rate of infant death. Furthermore, racial disparities among infant and neonatal mortality rates remain a chronic health problem in the United States. These risks are based on the geographical variations in mortality and disparities among differences in maternal risk characteristics, low birth weights, and lack of access to health care.

  14. Diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagea, Mihai I; Bateman, Kenneth G; van Dreumel, Tony; McEwen, Beverly J; Carman, Susy; Archambault, Marie; Shanahan, Rachel A; Caswell, Jeff L

    2006-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of diseases and pathogens associated with mortality or severe morbidity in 72 Ontario beef feedlots in calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Routine pathologic and microbiologic investigations, as well as immunohistochemical staining for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen, were performed on 99 calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Major disease conditions identified included fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%), caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia or arthritis (or both) caused by Mycoplasma bovis (36%), viral respiratory disease (19%), BVDV-related diseases (21%), Histophilus somni myocarditis (8%), ruminal bloat (2%), and miscellaneous diseases (8%). Viral infections identified were BVDV (35%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (9%), bovine herpesvirus-1 (6%), parainfluenza-3 virus (3%), and bovine coronavirus (2%). Bacteria isolated from the lungs included M. bovis (82%), Mycoplasma arginini (72%), Ureaplasma diversum (25%), Mannheimia haemolytica (27%), Pasteurella multocida (19%), H. somni (14%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19%). Pneumonia was the most frequent cause of mortality of beef calves during the first 2 months after arrival in feedlots, representing 69% of total deaths. The prevalence of caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia caused by M. bovis was similar to that of fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia, and together, these diseases were the most common causes of pneumonia and death. M. bovis pneumonia and polyarthritis has emerged as an important cause of mortality in Ontario beef feedlots. PMID:16566254

  15. Le complexe respiratoire bovin

    OpenAIRE

    Lekeux, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    Les maladies respiratoires des bovins sont, partout dans le monde, la cause principale de mortalité chez les jeunes bovins. Plusieurs facteurs favorisent l'apparition de ce syndrome : des facteurs propres à l'animal, comme l'âge, l'état général et le statut immunitaire; d'autres relatifs à l'environnement, comme les stress engendrés par les changements de régime alimentaire, de température et d'humidité; d'autres encore, liés à la présence d'agents infectieux, comme des bactéries, des virus e...

  16. Genetics of bovine vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Richard Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important issue for animal breeders, farmers and governments. Solutions to control infectious disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. The primary aim of this thesis is to discover regions of the bovine genome which influence the immune response post immunisation. To accomplish this two types of immunising agents, a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMD...

  17. Vitrification of Bovine Oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Anchamparuthy, Vahida Muhammed Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation of oocytes is a challenge. Studies were conducted to vitrify mouse zygotes and cumulus-intact bovine oocytes from follicles of different diameters, small (â ¤ 4 mm) and medium (4 to 10 mm), using nylon mesh. The specific goals were to assess changes in apoptotic gene expression (Fas-FasL, Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin) in conjunction with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase assays. Mouse zygotes were exposed to increasing concentrations...

  18. Neonatal viability evaluation by Apgar score in puppies delivered by cesarean section in two brachycephalic breeds (English and French bulldog).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, M; Moreno, C; Vilar, J; Golding, M; Brito, C; Santana, M; Alamo, D

    2014-05-01

    This study tried to define neonatal viability after cesarean section in brachycephalic breeds and the efficacy of an adapted Apgar test to assess newborn survival. Data from 44 cesarean sections and 302 puppies were included. Before surgery (59-61 days after ovulation), an ultrasound evaluation defined the fetal biparietal diameter (BPD). Immediately after the uterine delivery, the pups were evaluated to detect birth defects and then, a modified Apgar score (range: 0-10) was used to define neonatal health at 5min (Apgar 1) and 60min (Apgar 2) after neonatal delivery; puppies were classified into three categories: critical neonates (score: 0-3), moderate viability neonates (score: 4-6) and normal viability neonates (score: 7-10). Mean (±SEM) value of BPD was 30.8±0.1mm and 28.9±0.1mm in English and French Bull-Dog fetus, respectively. The incidence of spontaneous neonatal mortality (4.98%, 14/281) and birth defects (6.95%) were not influenced by the sex; however, congenital anomalies and neonatal mortality were higher (pbrachycephalic breed puppies. PMID:24703805

  19. In-depth analysis of low abundant proteins in bovine colostrum using different fractionation techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Asger; Bendixen, Emøke; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne;

    2012-01-01

    Bovine colostrum is well known for its large content of bioactive components and its importance for neonatal survival. Unfortunately, the colostrum proteome is complicated by a wide dynamic range, because of a few dominating proteins that hamper sensitivity and proteome coverage achieved on low......-speed centrifugation contributed most to detection of low abundant proteins. Hence, prefractionation of colostrum prior to 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis expanded our knowledge on the presence and location of low abundant proteins in bovine colostrum....... abundant proteins. Moreover, the composition of colostrum is complex and the proteins are located within different physical fractions that make up the colostrum. To gain a more exhaustive picture of the bovine colostrum proteome and gather information on protein location, we performed an extensive pre...

  20. Management Strategies for Neonatal Hypoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, Courtney B.; Grayson, Stephanie; Polak, Mark

    2013-01-01

    While hypoglycemia occurs commonly among neonates, treatment can be challenging if hypoglycemia persists beyond the first few days of life. This review discusses the available treatment options for both transient and persistent neonatal hypoglycemia. These treatment options include dextrose infusions, glucagon, glucocorticoids, diazoxide, octreotide, and nifedipine. A stepwise, practical approach to the management of these patients is offered.

  1. OXYTOCIN INDUCED NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common causes of health problems, observed in 60% of term and 80% of preterm infants in the first week of life . Hyperbilirubinemia leads to neurotoxicity in severe condition. Some studies suggests that liberal use of oxytocin for inducing labour is one of the factor which lead to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oxytocin and neonatal bilirubin levels with spontaneous vaginal delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : 100 full term parturients were selected for this study. The subjects were divided into two groups. 50 healthy babies of women who had oxytocin induced labour and 50 healthy babies of women with normal vaginal delivery following spontaneous onset of labour formed the control group. Neon atal serum bilirubin was measured on day 1, 3 and 5 after delivery. Bilirubin was measured by spectrophotometry. Data was analysed in ms excel sheet using spss 19.0v. Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired‘t’ test. RESULTS: There was significant i ncrease in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group compared to control group on day 1 and 3. There was insignificant increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group on day 5. However the level of serum bilirubin is within normal limits as bilirubin level normally rises on till 4 th day and decreases thereafter. CONCLUSION: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may be due to oxytocin administration by continues IV infusion which results in erythrocyte swell and rupture. Increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin i nduced group is within physiological limits

  2. Neonatal gastric perforation: A single center experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeik; Byun; Hyun; Young; Kim; Seung; Yeon; Noh; Soo; Hong; Kim; Sung; Eun; Jung; Seong; Cheol; Lee; Kwi; Won; Park

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the etiology and prognostic factors for neonatal gastric perforation(NGP), a rare but life-threatening disease.METHODS: Between 1980 and 2011, nine patients un-derwent surgical intervention for NGP at Seoul National University Children’s Hospital. The characteristics and prognosis of the patients were retrospectively analyzed.RESULTS: Among the nine patients, three(33.3%) were preterm babies and five(55.5%) had associated anomalies, which included diaphragmatic eventration(n = 2), congenital diaphragmatic hernia, esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, and antral web. Three(33.3%) patients were born before 1990 and three(33.3%) had a birth weight < 2500 g. Pneumo-peritoneum was found on preoperative images in six(66.7%) patients, and incidentally in the other three(33.3%) patients. Surgery was performed within 24 h after the onset of symptoms in seven(77.8%) patients. The overall mortality rate was 22.2%(2/9). The time between symptoms and surgical intervention was the only prognostic factor for survival, whereas premature birth and birth weight were not.CONCLUSION: Early detection and advances in neo-natal intensive care may improve the prognosis of NGP.

  3. The Impact of Recycled Neonatal Incubators in Nigeria: A 6-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hippolite Onyejiaka Amadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has a record of high newborn mortality as an estimated 778 babies die daily, accounting for a ratio of 48 deaths per 1000 live births. The aim of this paper was to show how a deteriorating neonatal delivery system in Nigeria may have, in part, been improved by the application of a novel recycled incubator technique (RIT. Retrospective assessment of clinical, technical, and human factors in 15 Nigerian neonatal centres was carried out to investigate how the application of RIT impacted these factors. Pre-RIT and post-RIT neonatal mortalities were compared by studying case files. Effect on neonatal nursing was studied through questionnaires that were completed by 79 nurses from 9 centres across the country. Technical performance was assessed based on 10-indices scores from clinicians and nurses. The results showed an increase in neonatal survival, nursing enthusiasm, and practice confidence. Appropriately recycled incubators are good substitutes to the less affordable modern incubators in boosting neonatal practice outcome in low-income countries.

  4. Neonatal outcome in pregnancies complicated with pregestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćetković Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM represents glucose intolerance that begins before pregnancy and is followed by the increased risk of neonatal and maternal complications. The aim of this study was to establish neonatal outcome in pregnancies with pregestational diabetes mellitus and the factors that had influence on it. Methods. This study included 27 pregnant women with insulin-dependant PGDM hospitalized during 2004 in the Institute for Obstretics and Gynecology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade. The control group consisted of 2 292 healthy pregnant women presented to the Institute within 2004. Results. Twenty-three (85% infants of the women with PGDM had complications in comparison with 356 (15.5% infants of the women in the control group, that was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. Macrosomia was present in 8 (29.6% and birth injuries in 6 (22.2% infants of women with PGDM that was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 in comparisom with the women in the control group who had 194 (8.5% infants with macrosomia and 156 (6.8% infants with birth injuries. The women with PGDM had 3 (11.1% neonatal deaths and 3 (11.1% infants were born with congenital malformations in comparison with the women in the control group without these complications. We established statisticaly significant correlation (p < 0.001 between glicoregulation before and during pregnancy in the women with PGDM and neonatal outcome. Conclusion. The incidence of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the women with PGDM was significantely more frequent as compared with the normal population. Achieving optimal maternal glucose levels in women with PGDM both preconceptionally and during pregnancy is associated with significant reduction of neonatal complications.

  5. Hemolysis in Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Yaish, Hassan M

    2016-06-01

    Hemolysis can be an important cause of hyperbilirubinemia in premature and term neonates. It can result from genetic abnormalities intrinsic to or factors exogenous to normal to red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis can lead to a relatively rapid increase in total serum/plasma bilirubin, hyperbilirubinemia that is somewhat slow to fall with phototherapy, or hyperbilirubinemia that is likely to rebound after phototherapy. Laboratory methods for diagnosing hemolysis are more difficult to apply, or less conclusive, in preterm infants. Transfusion of donor RBCs can present a bilirubin load that must be metabolized. Genetic causes can be identified by next-generation sequencing panels. PMID:27235204

  6. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Kristina; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte;

    2016-01-01

    visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. OBJECTIVE: To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. METHODS: The study used...... telemedicine support. A total of 9 parents with preterm infants assigned to a neonatal home care program and 10 parents with preterm infants admitted to a neonatal unit participated in individual interviews and focus group interviews, respectively. RESULTS: Three overall themes were identified: being a family......, parent self-efficacy, and nurse-provided security. Parents expressed desire for the following: (1) a telemedicine device to serve as a "bell cord" to the neonatal unit, giving 24-hour access to nurses, (2) video-conferencing to provide security at home, (3) timely written email communication with the...

  7. Mortality table construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  8. Differences in perinatal and infant mortality in high-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb-Rinker, Paromita; León, Juan Andrés; Gilbert, Nicolas L.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variation in birth registration criteria may compromise international comparisons of fetal and infant mortality. We examined the effect of birth registration practices on fetal and infant mortality rates to determine whether observed differences in perinatal and infant mortality rates...... by gestational age and birth weight; gestational age-and birth weight-specific stillbirth rates; neonatal, post-neonatal, and cause-specific infant mortality. RESULTS: Proportion of live births ... of viability are likely due to differences in birth registration practices, although true differences in maternal, fetal and infant health cannot be ruled out. This study emphasises the need for further standardisations, in order to enhance the relevance of international comparisons of infant mortality....

  9. Factors associated with morbidity, mortality, and growth of dairy heifer calves up to 3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeyer, M C; Leslie, K E; Godden, S M; Hodgins, D C; Lissemore, K D; LeBlanc, S J

    2014-02-01

    Calfhood disease is an important problem on many dairy operations that can have substantial effects on heifer survival and productivity, and has economic and welfare impacts. Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in young dairy cattle. The objective of this observational study was to investigate factors associated with the risks of morbidity and mortality, and with growth, in commercial dairy heifers calves. A total of 2874 heifer calves from 19 commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Ontario were enrolled at 1-7 days of age and followed for approximately 3 months. Using cut-points of serum total protein of 5.2 and 5.7 g/dl, the incidences of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) were 11 and 32%, respectively. A cut-point of 5.7 g/dl was the most predictive of BRD before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity=40%, specificity=69%). The positive predictive value was poor (PPV=18%), but the negative predictive value was good (NPV=87%). A cut-point of 5.2g/dl was most predictive of death before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity=27%, specificity=89%, PPV=5%, NPV=98%). Serum total protein during the first week of life was a poor predictor of NCD. Over 23% of calves were treated for diarrhea. Risk factors were weight at enrollment, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, and an interaction between season of birth and herd-level incidence of NCD. Almost 22% of calves were treated at least once for BRD. Factors associated with an increased risk of BRD included herd-level incidence of BRD, season of birth, navel dipping, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, failure of transfer of passive immunity, and manual control of temperature in pre-weaning housing. Administration of supplemental antibody products at birth was associated with a reduced incidence of BRD. Overall mortality was 3.5%. Risk of mortality was increased by treatment for BRD and other diseases. The mean average weight gain was 0.95 kg

  10. Serum Iron, Haemoglobin and Serum Lipid Peroxidation in Neonates with Respiratory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama P. Dhonde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory disorders are the most common cause for higher morbidity and mortality rate in India. Higher oxygen concentration of extrauterine existence causes increased erythrocyte lysis lead to release of iron in neonates. Iron is known to catalyze the formation of Reactive oxygen species. Involvement of hemoglobin and iron in oxygen-mediated reactions stimulate us to study the role of these in neonates.Objectives :iTo estimate the concentration of Haemoglobin, serum iron, serum lipid peroxidation in neonates with respiratory disorders; and compare those with that of healthy controls. iiTo study the role of these parameters in neonates with respiratory disorders.Materials and Methods: Present study includes 50 neonates suffering from respiratory disorders and 50 healthy neonates as controls. Samples collected from these were used for the estimation of haemoglobin, serum iron, and serum lipid peroxidation.Observations: Significantly (p<0.001 increased levels of serum iron and lipid peroxidation were observed in neonates with respiratory disorders when compared those with control values. These levels were found significantly (p<0.001 higher in preterm than full-term neonates. Concentration of haemoglobin showed no significant difference in both groups.Conclusion: Exacerbation of oxidative stress in neonates with respiratory disorders may be due to hypoxia induced free radical generation, higher oxidative tendency of HbF and elevated iron. Premature neonates are probably unprepared for extra uterine life in an oxygen rich environment and due to this they are more prone to oxidative insult. Thus this study reveals the pro-oxidant role of HbF and iron, which enhances the oxidative stress in respiratory disorder.

  11. Infectious Complications and Morbidities After Neonatal Bloodstream Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Horng; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Chu, Shih-Ming; Lee, I-Ta; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Hsuan-Rong; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few data are available on the clinical characteristics of complications and morbidities after neonatal bloodstream infections (BSIs), understood as any newly infectious focus or organ dysfunction directly related to BSIs but not occur concurrently. However, these bloodstream-associated infectious complications (BSICs) contribute significantly to increased hospital stay, cost, and final mortality. We performed an observational cohort study of unselected neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients based on records in a large clinical database. All neonates hospitalized in our NICU with BSI between 2006 and 2013 were reviewed, and those who developed BSICs were analyzed to identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for BSICs. Of 975 episodes of neonatal BSI, 101 (10.4%) BSICs occurred in 93 neonates with a median interval of 3 days (range, 0–17 days) after onset of BSI and included newly infectious focuses in 40 episodes (39.6%), major organ dysfunctions after septic shock in 36 episodes (35.6%), and neurological complications after meningitis or septic shock in 34 episodes (33.7%). All patients with BSICs encountered various morbidities, which subsequently resulted in in-hospital death in 30 (32.3%) neonates, critical discharge in 4 (4.3%), and persistent sequelae in 17 (18.3%). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent risk factors for BSICs included initial inappropriate antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 5.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.40–9.01), BSI with septic shock (OR, 5.75; 95% CI, 3.51–9.40), and BSI concurrent with meningitis (OR, 9.20; 95% CI, 4.33–19.56). It is worth noting that a percentage of neonates with BSI encountered subsequent sequelae or died of infections complications, which were significantly associated with initial inappropriate antibiotic therapy, septic shock, and the occurrence of meningitis. Further investigation is

  12. An audit of paediatric mortality patterns in a Nigerian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Dafe Forae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 4 th millennium development goals (2002 reported that sub-Saharan Africa countries including Nigeria have a persistently high childhood mortality rates in-spite of all the preventive and interventional measures to reduce this ugly trend. Patients and Methods: Childhood mortality data was obtained from the medical records department and post-mortem records of the pathology departments over a 5-year period from January 2007 to December 2011. The selection criteria include all case notes with mortality records involving children admitted into the paediatrics department through the labour ward and the obstetrics theater, children emergency unit (CHER, paediatric out-patient clinic. Results : A total of 12,442 children were admitted during this period. Of this, 711 paediatric deaths were documented accounting for 17.5%. The male to female mortality ratio was 1.4:1. The age range was from birth to 17 years. Neonatal deaths accounted for the most common cause of death constituting 344 (48.4% of all deaths. Among the neonatal mortality patterns, severe birth asphyxia/perinatal asphyxia was the most common cause of early neonatal deaths accounting for 97 (28.2%. Septicaemia accounted for the most frequent cause of infant mortality accounting for 28 (21.8%. Among the under-5 age group, severe malaria constituted the most common cause of death accounting for 52 (36.6% cases while malignancy topped the list of 5-17 years mortality rate constituting 15 (15.4% cases. Conclusion: Perinatal and neonatal deaths constitute the vast majority of death in our environment with most of the deaths resulting from severe birth asphyxias, prematurity. Again in the post-neonatal period, infections and other preventable diseases constitute the most common cause of death in children of under age group of five years. Above 5 years childhood malignancies constitutes the highest mortality pattern.

  13. Neonatal survival rate and its related causes in NICU of private and governmental hospitals in Sari by survival analysis technique during 2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabaghi, Bs.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Many children younger than 1 year old (about 4/000/000 are dying annually around the world, that three quarters of this mortality is related to neonatal period (4 weeks after birth. Several factors such as environmental conditions, social and genetic factors are causes of decreasing neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the neonatal survival rate and its related causes in NICU of private and governmental hospitals in Sari.Materials and Methods: This survival analysis was a descriptive study of 500 neonates who were admitted into NICU of private and governmental hospitals (Booali Sina, Nimeyeh Shaban, Amir-Mazandarani, and Shafa Hospitals in Sari during 2005 to 2007. Data was gathered by using Self-making Informational Form (validity and availability was confirmed by content validity and α- kronbach. Information were obtained by interview with mothers, study of patient's chart, observation of the neonates, or phone interviews, after being discharged from the hospital. Statistical analysis of data was done by using Kaplan-Mayer survival analysis technique, and survival tables. Furthermore, risk factors were determined by logistic regression.Results: Three-hundred twenty six neonates (65.2% were the first rank of birth. Sixty-three mothers (12.6% experienced previous neonatal mortality. 217 of mothers (43.4% were illiterate and 85 (17% had diplomas or higher education. 119 neonates (23.85 died within 28 days of life. There was a relationship between higher education level of mothers, polyhydraminous (over production of amniotic fluid according to sonography report, and delivery method, neonatal weight at birth, congenital anomalies, and neonatal survival rate. Eighty-seven expired neonates (73.1% had birth weight lower than 2500gr, and 21 (16.8% had gestational age lower than 36 weeks. The survival rate was higher among neonates within 21 and 22 days of life. The mortality rate among neonates

  14. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  16. Perioperative use of cerebral and renal near-infrared spectroscopy in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Henrik W; Hansen, Tom G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonates undergoing surgery and intensive care still carry a significant morbidity and mortality often related to hypoxic/ischemic events; some of which may go undetected by conventional monitoring. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive, continuous method of measuring...... regional tissue oxygen saturation, and may be used to supplement conventional monitoring to improve neonatal perioperative care. However, high costs and lack of evidence regarding improved outcomes have minimized wider perinatal use of NIRS. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of...... NIRS in neonates and premature infants undergoing noncardiac surgeries. METHOD: Neonates were monitored with both cerebral and renal NIRS for 24 h after induction of anesthesia and compared with systemic blood pressure (BP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 ), and heart rate (HR). RESULTS: A total of...

  17. Hospital-acquired neonatal infections in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Anita K M; Huskins, W Charles; Thaver, Durrane; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Abbas, Zohair; Goldmann, Donald A

    Hospital-born babies in developing countries are at increased risk of neonatal infections because of poor intrapartum and postnatal infection-control practices. We reviewed data from developing countries on rates of neonatal infections among hospital-born babies, range of pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and infection-control interventions. Reported rates of neonatal infections were 3-20 times higher than those reported for hospital-born babies in industrialised countries. Klebsiella pneumoniae, other gram-negative rods (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp, Acinetobacter spp), and Staphylococcus aureus were the major pathogens among 11,471 bloodstream isolates reported. These infections can often present soon after birth. About 70% would not be covered by an empiric regimen of ampicillin and gentamicin, and many might be untreatable in resource-constrained environments. The associated morbidity, mortality, costs, and adverse effect on future health-seeking behaviour by communities pose barriers to improvement of neonatal outcomes in developing countries. Low-cost, "bundled" interventions using systems quality improvement approaches for improved infection control are possible, but should be supported by evidence in developing country settings. PMID:15794973

  18. Serum Calprotectin: A Potential Biomarker for Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Decembrino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The correct diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is a relevant problem because sepsis is one of the most important causes of neonatal morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospital stay. Calprotectin is an antimicrobial, calcium and zinc binding heterocomplex protein that could be used as a nonspecific marker for activation of granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. Calprotectin has been proposed for the diagnosis of inflammatory conditions. Our aim is to study serum calprotectin as a biomarker for neonatal sepsis diagnosis. Methods. 41 (20 females, 21 males infants who underwent blood culture due to suspected sepsis were enrolled in the study. Serum calprotectin was measured by a commercial ELISA assay (Calprest, Eurospital, Trieste, Italy. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software package Stata 13.1 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA. Results. 8 neonates (19.51% showed sepsis with positive culture and 33 (80.49% showed suspected sepsis. The optimal cut-off for calprotectin is 2.2 μg/mL with a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 69.7%. Conclusions. Calprotectin may be considered a promising early, sensitive, specific marker of sepsis thanks to the importance of calprotectin in defense mechanisms and physiological functions of the immune system.

  19. Bloodstream Infections in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sah Ižpek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the pattern of bloodstream infections (BSIs and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU.Material and Method: Positive hemoculture of neonates diagnosed with nosocomial sepsis from March 2011 to March 2014 in the NICU of Diyarbakir Maternity and Children%u2019s Hospital, in the southeastern region of Anatolia, Turkey, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A total of 148 pathogens were isolated in 142 neonates. The most common microorganisms isolated were Klebsiella pneumoniae (40.5% and Acinetobacter baumannii (29.7% which was a result of a hospital outbreak. Multi-drug resistant (MDR strains accounted for 20.0% of K. pneumoniae isolates and 93.2% of A. baumannii isolates. The sepsis-attributable mortality rate was higher in cases infected with MDR strains than in cases infected without MDR strains or Candida spp (24% vs. 9.7%, p=0.032. Discussion: In our unit, BSIs were more often caused by Gram negative bacteria. BSIs caused by MDR strains were associated with a higher rate of sepsis-attributable mortality.

  20. Do biological and bedsite characteristics influence survival of neonatal white-tailed deer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Colter Chitwood

    Full Text Available Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16 weeks, and assigned mortality causes. We used Program MARK to estimate survival to 16 weeks and included biological covariates (i.e., sex, sibling status [whether or not it had a sibling], birth weight, and Julian date of birth. Survival to 16 weeks was 0.141 (95% CI = 0.075-0.249 and the top model included only sibling status, which indicated survival was lower for neonates that had a sibling. Predation was the leading cause of mortality (35 of 55; 64% and coyotes were responsible for the majority of depredations (30 of 35; 86%. Additionally, we relocated neonates for the first 10 days of life and measured distance to firebreak, visual obstruction, and plant diversity at bedsites. Survival of predation to 10 days (0.726; 95% CI = 0.586-0.833 was weakly associated with plant diversity at bedsites but not related to visual obstruction. Our results indicate that neonate survival was low and coyote predation was an important source of mortality, which corroborates several recent studies from the region. Additionally, we detected only weak support for bedsite cover as a covariate to neonate survival, which indicates that mitigating effects of coyote predation on neonates may be more complicated than simply managing for increased hiding cover.

  1. Group B streptococcal neonatal infections in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIURA Ernani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus is the most common pathogen found in neonatal sepsis in North America. OBJECTIVES: We describe 15 cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public and teaching hospital. METHODS: We conducted a study at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from January 1st, 1996 to June 30, 1999. Diagnosis of neonatal infection was established according to the findings of Group B Streptococcus in blood culture associated with alterations resembling sepsis on the basis of clinical picture and laboratory findings. RESULTS: Fifteen cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus were detected. Eleven cases consisted of early-onset sepsis, 2 cases of occult bacteremia and 2 cases of late-onset sepsis. Eight cases had septic shock (53%, 8 cases had pneumonia (53%, and 4 cases had meningitis (27%. Fourteen cases were diagnosed from a positive blood culture, and 1 case from evidence of these bacteria in pulmonary anatomopathological examination. Thirteen cases (87% were diagnosed before 72 hours of life. We had 3 deaths (20%, and 3 cases of meningitis developing neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus Group B is one of the most important pathogens in the etiology of early-onset neonatal sepsis at our hospital, with high mortality and morbidity. However, we do not know the incidence of GBS neonatal infections at other hospitals. More data are needed to establish a basis for trials of different strategies to reduce these infections.

  2. Cause-specific neonatal deaths in rural Bangladesh, 1987-2005: Levels, trends and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, U.R.; Soest, A.H.O.; Bijwaard, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an analysis of neonatal mortality from communicable and non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. The competing-risks model employed incorporated both observed and unobserved heterogeneity and allowed the two heterogeneity terms to be correlated. The data used came from the Heal

  3. A study of early neonatal morbidity profile in a district teaching hospital, Mysore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadiraja Nagarajarao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early neonates are more prone towards infections and deaths. As a result we are interested in finding out the health behavior of inborn early neonates in a district hospital of Mysore. Materials and Methods: A total of 24,578 live births were monitored for their morbidity status from September 2011 to June 2013. The number of morbidity causes was detected for every 100 early neonates, monthly wise. The non-conformities behavior was observed through Poisson u-chart with variable control limits. 20% vital few contributors that contributes to variations in morbidity and mortality aspects of early neonates were detected through checklists and super imposed Pareto charts. Results: The number of causes per inspection unit for sample number 9 is out of control. Values corresponding to samples 1 and 2 are within the warning region. It appears that hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE/moderate-severe birth asphyxia is the major contributing factor for both morbidity and mortality based on the occurrences. However, in the process of detecting the impact of morbidity factor on their corresponding mortality, it is found that the major nonconformity factor is major congenital malformation (MCM and not HIE/Moderate-severe birth asphyxia as MCM has 0.217 chance of causing mortality, whereas HIE has 0.19 chance standing at the fourth position. Conclusion: We conclude that the hospital management needs to develop appropriate preventive and management strategies for the major causes viz., MCM, sepsis/pneumonia/meningitis and respiratory distress syndrome.

  4. DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT, AND RESEARCH OF ETIOLOGY OF SPONTANEOUS NEONATAL GASTRIC PERFORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ SPONTANEOUS neonatal gastric perforation (SNGP) is a rare and life-threatening disease,which has a high mortality rate. This study retrospectively reported 23 cases of SNGP treated in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from January 1993 to December 2003,and briefly discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and possible etiology.

  5. Scaling up community mobilisation through women's groups for maternal and neonatal health: Experiences from rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Nahar (Tasmin); K. Azad (Kishwar); B.H. Aumon (Bedowra Haq); L. Younes (Layla); S. Shaha (Sanjit); A. Kuddus (Abdul); A. Prost (Audrey); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); A. Costello (Anthony); E. Fottrell (Edward)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowle

  6. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a...

  7. Unreported births and deaths, a severe obstacle for improved neonatal survival in low-income countries; a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Lars

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve child survival there is a need to target neonatal mortality. In this pursuit, valid local and national statistics on child health are essential. We analyze to what extent births and neonatal deaths are unreported in a low-income country and discuss the consequences at local and international levels for efforts to save newborn lives. Methods Information on all births and neonatal deaths in Quang Ninh province in Northern Vietnam in 2005 was ascertained by systematic inventory through group interviews with key informants, questionnaires and examination of health facility records. Health care staff at 187 Community Health Centers (CHC and 18 hospitals, in addition to 1372 Village Health Workers (VHW, were included in the study. Results were compared with the official reports of the Provincial Health Bureau. Results The neonatal mortality rate (NMR was 16/1000 (284 neonatal deaths/17 519 births, as compared to the official rate of 4.2/1000. The NMR varied between 44/1000 and 10/1000 in the different districts of the province. The under-reporting was mainly attributable to a dysfunctional reporting system and the fact that families, not the health system, were made responsible to register births and deaths. This under-reporting has severe consequences at local, national and international levels. At a local level, it results in a lack of awareness of the magnitude and differentials in NMR, leading to an indifference towards the problem. At a national and international level the perceived low mortality rate is manifested in a lack of investments in perinatal health programs. Conclusion This example of a faulty health information system is reportedly not unique in low and middle income countries where needs for neonatal health reforms are greatest. Improving reporting systems on births and neonatal deaths is a matter of human rights and a prerequisite for reducing neonatal mortality in order to reach the fourth

  8. Neonatal Near Miss: the need for a standard definition and appropriate criteria and the rationale for a prospective surveillance system

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Juliana P.; Cecatti, José G; Serruya, Suzanne J.; Almeida, Paulo V; Pablo Duran; Bremen de Mucio; Cynthia Pileggi-Castro

    2015-01-01

    In Latin American, there is currently a regional action with the main purposes of putting the concept of severe neonatal morbidity in practice and formulating proposals for interventions. A general overview of neonatal health conditions, including morbidity and mortality, is provided to update regional knowledge on the topic. An example of the development and implementation of the concept of maternal near miss is also provided, followed by results from a systematic review covering all previou...

  9. Evaluation of very low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Arzu Gebeşçe; Haşim Uslu; Esengül Keleş; Mehmet Demirdöven; Alparslan Tonbul; Bülent Baştürk; Hamza Yazgan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Neonates with birth weights below 1500 g who were cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit of Fatih University Hospital were retrospectively examined in order to define their rates of morbidity and mortality.Methods: This study was conducted on 72 premature infants divided into two groups: those with birth weights below 1000 g(31 infants) and those above 1001 g(41 infants). Data on these infants were recorded and statistically evaluated. Birth weights ranged from 670 g to 1500...

  10. Neonates with inborn errors of metabolism: spectrum and short-term outcomes at a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Mehmet; Ünal, Sevim; Okur, İlyas; Ayrancı Sucaklı, İclal; Güzel, Fatma; Koç, Nevra

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the neonates diagnosed as IEM in our neonatal intensive care unit and their outcomes. Among 2994 neonates hospitalized, 51 were diagnosed as IEM (1.7%). Admission complaints were poor feeding, decreased activity, jaundice, seizures, abnormal screening and respiratory problems. Phenylketonuria (11), organic acidemias (8), maple syrup urine disease (5), citrullinemia (5), galactosemia (4), nonketotic hyperglycinemia (4) and tyrosinemia (2) were the most commonly diagnosed IEMs. The follow-up period was 2.5-43 months. Among the 33 neonates followed, 19 had normal development, 9 had developmental delays and 5 had cerebral palsy according to the Guide for Monitoring Child Development. Postnatal age on admission, Apgar score at 5 minutes, being transferred, peritoneal dialysis, cranial ultrasonographic findings, consanguinity and sibling history had significant effects on outcome. Early diagnosis through expanded neonatal screening in countries with high rates of consanguinity, enabling the initiation of early treatment, is essential for achieving low mortality rates and good prognoses. PMID:26613220

  11. Excess mortality in hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind; Christensen, Kaare; Green, Anders; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe comorbidity, such as stroke, and seems to confer increased mortality. However, it is unknown whether this increased mortality is explained by hyperthyroidism per se, comorbidity, and/or genetic confounding.......Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe comorbidity, such as stroke, and seems to confer increased mortality. However, it is unknown whether this increased mortality is explained by hyperthyroidism per se, comorbidity, and/or genetic confounding....

  12. EVALUATION OF NEONATAL CARDIAC MURMURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaiah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular malformations are the most common cause of congenital malformations, the diagnosis of which requires a close observation in the neonatal period. Early recognition of CHD is important in the neonatal period, as many of them may be fatal if undiagnosed and may require immediate intervention. The objectives of this study are to study the epidemiology of neonatal cardiac murmurs, to identify clinical characteristics which differentiate pathological murmur from functional murmurs and to assess the reliability of clinical evaluation in diagnosing CHD. Method of study included all neonates admitted to the NICU, postnatal ward, attending pediatric OPD or neonatal follow up clinic and were detected to have cardiac murmurs. It was a cross sectional study over a period of 16months. A clinical diagnosis was made based on history and clinical examination. Then Chest X-ray and ECG, Echocardiography was done in all neonates for confirmation of the diagnosis. These neonates were again examined daily till they were in hospital and during the follow-up visit at 6 weeks. The results of 70 neonates in this study conducted over a period of 24 months included the incidence of cardiac murmurs among intramural neonates which was 13.5 for 1000 live births. Most frequent symptom was fast breathing in 10(14.3% cases. VSD was the most common diagnosis clinically in 23 (33% babies. The most frequent Echo diagnosis was acyanotic complex congenital heart disease in 25(36% cases followed by 12(17% cases each of VSD and ASD respectively. Overall in our study 77.1% (54cases of the murmurs were diagnosed correctly and confirmed by Echocardiography The study concluded that it is possible to make clinical diagnosis in many cases of congenital heart diseases, the functional murmurs could be differentiated from those arising from structural heart disease and evaluation of the infants based only on murmurs, few congenital heart diseases can be missed.

  13. Mortality after shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Alexander; Rasmussen, Jeppe Vejlgaard; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The primary aim was to quantify the 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year mortality rates after primary shoulder replacement. The secondary aims were to assess the association between mortality and diagnoses and to compare the mortality rate with that of the general population. METHODS: The stud...

  14. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  15. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  16. The Relationship between Neonatal Jaundice and Maternal and Neonatal Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Garosi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Since factors such as mode of delivery, oxytocin induction, and neonate's gender could contribute to jaundice, continuous assessment of newborns after birth could facilitate early diagnosis, promote disease management, and reduce the subsequent complications.

  17. Comparative Functional Genomics and the Bovine Macrophage Response to Strains of the Mycobacterium Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; Magee, David A; Killick, Kate E; Nalpas, Nicolas C; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterial infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in cattle and are also potential zoonotic agents with implications for human health. Despite the implementation of comprehensive animal surveillance programs, many mycobacterial diseases have remained recalcitrant to eradication in several industrialized countries. Two major mycobacterial pathogens of cattle are Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agents of bovine tube...

  18. Vaccines against bovine babesiosis: where we are now and possible roads ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine babesiosis caused by the tick transmitted hemoprotozoan parasites Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens commonly results in considerable cattle morbidity and mortality in vast areas of the world. From a global perspective, Babesia parasites are of arthropod-transmitted parasitic diseas...

  19. Infrared thermography - a non-invasive tool to evaluate thermal status of neonatal pigs based on surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund Kammersgaard, Trine; Malmkvist, Jens; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal pigs. Infrared (IR) thermography is a promising non-invasive method to assess thermal status, but has not been evaluated for use on neonatal pigs from birth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of IR thermography as a non...... potential to be used without the need for manual restraint of the pigs. On the basis of the results of this study, we propose that IRmax temperature from full-body thermograms has implication as a valid tool to assess the thermal status in neonatal piglets but not as an identical substitute for RT....

  20. Neonatal pulmonary hemosiderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limme, Boris; Nicolescu, Ramona; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage). The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images) is strongly suggestive. PMID:25389504

  1. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Limme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage. The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images is strongly suggestive.

  2. Neonatal bartter syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pre-term baby girl was born following a pregnancy complicated by severe polyhydramnios at a gestational age of 36 weeks. She was initially suffering from respiratory distress consistent with idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome, and altered electrolyte imbalance with hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. However, during the third week of life when she had dehydration along with significant electrolyte imbalance, Bartter's syndrome was considered which was supported by findings of high renin and aldosterone levels. Treatment was done by correction of electrolytes and dehydration along with indomethacin. The drug was well tolerated. The infant showed correction of electrolyte imbalance. The features of this case suggest an extreme form of Bartter's syndrome presenting from the early days of life. The syndrome is reported because of it's rarity and alerts pediatricians to the antenatal and neonatal variant of Bartter's syndrome. (author)

  3. The neonate in distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory distress is a very common and yet non-specific symptom in neonates and young infants. It may be manifested clinically in many ways, including tachypnea, apnea, periodic respiratory, grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. In many instances, the chest radiograph is diagnostic or at least suggestive of the diagnosis. This fact is important in determining surgical or medical conditions that require emergency therapy. Even if the chest film is normal, valuable information can be gained. This initial normal radiograph can be used as a baseline film in the face of further developing symptoms which, likewise, may have developing radiographic findings. In any event, the chest radiograph gives the clinician ''direction'' in his or her search for the cause of the patient's respiratory distress

  4. [Mortality. The behavior of mortality through 1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, R

    1988-01-01

    Mexico's crude death rate has declined from 33/1000 in the early 20th century to about 6/1000 in 1985-87. Mortality declined sharply from 1640-60. more slowly from 1960-77, and rapidly again beginning around 1980. The explanation for the mortality decline lies both in advances in medical and health care and in economic growth of the country. The mortality declines in the late 1970s and early 1980s probably resulted primarily from extension of primary health care programs in rural areas. The infant mortality rate has declined from 288.6/1000 live births in 1900 to 73.8 in 1960 and 42 in 1986-87. At present 30% of deaths in Mexico are to children under 5, but little is known of the impact of the country's economic crisis on mortality in this age group. The strong mortality decline between 1950-70 was in the economically active age group of 15-64 years. Excess male mortality in this group reached a maximum in 1980: for each death of woman there were 150 male deaths. Between 1960-80 the rate of deaths due to infection, parasfitism, and respiratory disease declined by 5%, the rate of death from cancer remained almost unchanged, and the rate of death from cardiovascular diseases increased by 9%. Deaths from accidents, homicide, suicide, and other violence increased by 38%. Male general mortality rates were 25% higher than female in 1980. Mexican life expectancy increased from 49.6 years in 195 to 67 in 1987. Life expectancy was 65.6 for males and 71.7 for females. Average life expectancy was 69 for the more privileged social sectors and 56.7 for agricultural workers in 1965-79. The life expectancy of urban women was 3 years longer than that of rural women and 10.4 years longer than that of rural men. PMID:12158030

  5. Modes of death in neonatal intensive care units.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Finan, E

    2006-04-01

    With the ever-increasing availability of aggressive medical treatment and technical support, neonatologists are offered an increasing ability to prolong life. While "end-of-life" decisions within NICUs have been studied internationally, there is limited data available for Ireland. Through the auspices of the Irish Faculty of Paediatrics 2002 Neonatal Mortality Ouestionnaire, decisions made around the time of death in Irish Neonatal Intensive Care Units were examined. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 96% (n=25). One hundred and eighty seven deaths were reported for 2002. Information pertaining to the mode of death was available in 53% of cases. Seventy seven percent of those paediatricians who answered this question, reported either withdrawing or withholding treatment in babies thought to have a hopeless outcome, with the greatest proportion of these deaths occurring in premature infants (n=30) and babies with congenital defects (n=40).

  6. Neonatal Ilio-Psoas Abscess: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minakshi Sham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilio-psoas abscess (IPA is rare in children and exceptional in the neonate. However, we recently managed two consecutive male neonates with right-sided IPA.  The first baby was born two days after rupture of the membranes and had thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid.  There was no such high risk factor in the second child. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography in both the patients. Extraperitoneal surgical drainage was done and systemic antibiotics were given. Delay in presentation and uncontrolled sepsis, led to mortality in the first case. On the contrary, relatively early presentation, prompt drainage of the abscess and good response to higher antibiotics, lead to successful salvage of the second baby.

  7. Radiologic findings of neonatal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To review the simple radiographic and sonographic findings in infants with neonatal sepsis. We retrospectively analyzed simple chest and abdominal radiographs, and brain sonograms in 36 newborn infants (preterm : term=23 :13). With neonatal sepsis diagnosed by blood culture and clinical manifestations. Pulmonary parenchymal infiltrate excluding respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary edema or atelectasis was found in 22 infants (61%). Paralytic ileus, hepatosplenomegaly, and necrotizing enterocolitis were present in 18(50%), 9(25%), and 1(3%) infants, respectively, while skeletal changes suggesting osteomyelitis were found in three. Brain sonography was performed in 29 infants and in four, abnormalities were seen ; these comprised three germinal matrix hemorrhages and one intraparenchymal hemorrhage. In six patients(17%) radiologic examinations revealed no abnormality. In patients with neonatal sepsis, pulmonary infiltrates and paralytic ileus were common abnormalities. Although these were nonspecific, radiologic findings may be used to supplement clinical and laboratory findings in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and planning its treatment

  8. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E.

    2014-01-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criteria are not based on firm moral principles. The taking of the life of a seriously ill person is not the solution to the pain and suffering of the dying process. It is the role of the medical professional to care for the ailing patient with love and compassion, always preserving the person's dignity. Neonatal euthanasia is not ethically permissible. PMID:25473136

  9. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E

    2014-11-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criteria are not based on firm moral principles. The taking of the life of a seriously ill person is not the solution to the pain and suffering of the dying process. It is the role of the medical professional to care for the ailing patient with love and compassion, always preserving the person's dignity. Neonatal euthanasia is not ethically permissible. PMID:25473136

  10. Radiologic findings of neonatal sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Guk Myeong; Jung, Hye Won [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bokyung Kim; Lee, Nam Yong [Sansung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To review the simple radiographic and sonographic findings in infants with neonatal sepsis. We retrospectively analyzed simple chest and abdominal radiographs, and brain sonograms in 36 newborn infants (preterm : term=23 :13). With neonatal sepsis diagnosed by blood culture and clinical manifestations. Pulmonary parenchymal infiltrate excluding respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary edema or atelectasis was found in 22 infants (61%). Paralytic ileus, hepatosplenomegaly, and necrotizing enterocolitis were present in 18(50%), 9(25%), and 1(3%) infants, respectively, while skeletal changes suggesting osteomyelitis were found in three. Brain sonography was performed in 29 infants and in four, abnormalities were seen ; these comprised three germinal matrix hemorrhages and one intraparenchymal hemorrhage. In six patients(17%) radiologic examinations revealed no abnormality. In patients with neonatal sepsis, pulmonary infiltrates and paralytic ileus were common abnormalities. Although these were nonspecific, radiologic findings may be used to supplement clinical and laboratory findings in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and planning its treatment.

  11. Perinatal and infant mortality in rural Burkina Faso. A prospective community-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent reports estimated the annual number of stillbirths and under-five year child deaths occurring in the world to 3.2 million and 7.7 million, respectively. Over 95% of these deaths only occur in low-income countries, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Burkina Faso in West Africa is one of the poorest countries in the world with reported very high perinatal mortality rate (PNMR), neonatal mortality rate (NMR), infant mortality rate (IMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5...

  12. Neonatal outcomes at a subdistrict hospital in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M; Paul, V K; Kapoor, S K; Anand, K; Deoraria, A K

    2002-02-01

    Subdistrict hospitals form the first referral level facilities for essential newborn care services. However, there is a paucity of information on the pattern of neonatal admission and outcomes at this level. The objective of this study was to describe the spectrum of neonatal mortality at a subdistrict hospital. The study was conducted at a 50-bed hospital at Ballabgarh in northern India. The data of the neonates born in this hospital (inborns) and those admitted with sickness after being delivered at home (outborns) were separately analysed for the period 1994-1999. The main outcomes of interests were incidence, distribution, and primary causes of neonatal mortality. Of 6746 inborns and 385 outborns admitted (total 7,137) there were 56 deaths (0.8 per cent) and 38 (0.6 per cent) referrals among inborn and 70 deaths (18.2 per cent) and 37 (9.6 per cent) referrals among outborns. The deaths or referral rates among inborn for different weight groups were 27.7 per cent for 500 g, 7.2 per cent for 1500-1999 g, 1.2 per cent for 2,000-2,499 g, and 0.6 per cent for weight > or = 2,500 g. Most deaths under 7 days of age were related to prematurity [41 per cent (28/69)] and birth asphyxia [38 per cent (26/68)], while those aged between 7 and 27 days were mostly due to sepsis [91 per cent (42/46)]. The results of this study indicate that babies with a birthweight above 1,500 g have a good outcome at this level. Deaths under 7 days of age were mostly due to birth asphyxia and prematurity, while those after 7 days were almost entirely due to sepsis. Referral is an important outcome at this level of service. PMID:11866336

  13. No correlation between neonatal fitness and heterozygosity in a reintroduced population of Père David's deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan ZENG; Chunwang LI; Linyuan ZHANG; Zhenyu ZHONG; Zhigang JIANG

    2013-01-01

    Considering the severe impacts of genetic bottlenecks and small numbers of founders in populations of reintroduced animals,it is necessary to study inbreeding and its effect on fitness in species of conservation concern.Père David's deer is one of few large mammal species extinct in the wild but safely preserved in captivity.Its specific background gives us the opportunity to study the relationships between heterozygosity and neonatal fitness in relocated populations.We employed five microsatellite loci to explore heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a population of Père David's deer at the Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center.We observed associations between microsatellite-based variables sMLH,IR,MD2 and HL,and two components of fitness expressed early in life (birth weight and the neonatal mortality of 123 Père David's deer calves born over six consecutive years).We found that neonatal mortality was 19.1% ± 7.6%,not higher than the 19% or 18% reported in other ungulates.The heterozygosity of calves was not associated with neonatal mortality,nor birth weight.Our study implies that low genetic variability of microsatellite loci has no overt effect on birth weight and neonatal mortality in reintroduced populations of Père David's deer.

  14. No correlation between neonatal fitness and heterozygosity in a reintroduced population of Père David's deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan ZENG, Chunwang LI, Linyuan ZHANG, Zhenyu ZHONG, Zhigang JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the severe impacts of genetic bottlenecks and small numbers of founders in populations of reintroduced animals, it is necessary to study inbreeding and its effect on fitness in species of conservation concern. Père David’s deer is one of few large mammal species extinct in the wild but safely preserved in captivity. Its specific background gives us the opportunity to study the relationships between heterozygosity and neonatal fitness in relocated populations. We employed five microsatellite loci to explore heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a population of Père David’s deer at the Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center. We observed associations between microsatellite-based variables sMLH, IR, MD2 and HL, and two components of fitness expressed early in life (birth weight and the neonatal mortality of 123 Père David’s deer calves born over six consecutive years. We found that neonatal mortality was 19.1 ± 7.6%, not higher than the 19% or 18% reported in other ungulates. The heterozygosity of calves was not associated with neonatal mortality, nor birth weight. Our study implies that low genetic variability of microsatellite loci has no overt effect on birth weight and neonatal mortality in reintroduced populations of Père David’s deer [Current Zoology 59 (2: 249–256, 2013].

  15. Neonatal varicella: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj AK; Sharma PD; Sharma A

    2011-01-01

    Chicken pox is an infectious childhood disease. It is rare in infants and newborns due to passive immunity received from the mother. The characteristic skin eruptions in chicken pox are vesicular with erythematous base and accompanied with pruritus. The skin of the palms and soles is typically spared. We report a case of neonatal varicella where the mother was having skin eruptions at the time of delivery and the neonate contracted it during the perinatal period and developed clinical disease...

  16. Evaluation of CD11b Expression on Peripheral Blood Neutrophils for Early Detection of Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Adib

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is a disease of infants who are less than 1 month of age. These infants are clinically ill, and their blood culture are positive for bacteria. The reported incidence of neonatal sepsis for allinfants is 1 to 10 per 1000 live births. The mortality rate is 4.2-26%. The clinical signs are not specific and diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is one of the most difficult tasks in clinical medicine. The aim of this work was determination of CD11b sensitivity and specificity for early detection of neonatal sepsis.We studied 65 neonates with gestational age of 27 to 38 weeks who were suspected for sepsis within the 28 days of life. Whole blood was obtained from neonates to determine CD11b expression on peripheral blood neutrophils by flow cytometry. C-Reactive protein (CRP was measured qualitatively.Neonates were divided into two groups. Classification was based on the result of the blood culture. In the sepsis group all of the neonates (n = 8 showed positive blood culture and clinicalsymptoms. In the suspected group (n = 57 the neonates showed clinical signs but blood cultures were negative. Sensitivity and specificity of CD11b were 75%, 100% respectively. Also positive and negative predictive values of CD11b were 100% and 86% respectively.Results of present study and previous studies showed that measurement of neutrophil surfacemarkers can be useful for diagnosis of infection in the early phases. Also, the quantitativemeasurement of CRP in addition to CD11b further enhances the ability to diagnose infections and improves sensitivity and negative predictive value by 100%.

  17. PREVALENCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF E. COLI IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEONATES OF EARLY ONSET SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Singh et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world which can be classified into early onset sepsis (EOS which occurs in the first 7 days of life and late onset sepsis (LOS which occurs ≥7 days of life. E. coli has been reported to be one of the significant and most common nosocomial pathogen which may cause septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis in the newborn. Most of the antibiotics which have been used extensively as life saving are rendered useless because of the emergence of resistant strains of bacterias. Therefore for determining the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of E. coli which is responsible for EOS and LOS and to establish the relationship with birth weight, a total of 229 blood samples were obtained from the neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU who showed the clinical signs and symptoms of neonatal sepsis and sent for culture and sensitivity. Out of these 229, 102 showed the positive culture, among which early onset sepsis was found in 80 neonates while late onset sepsis was diagnosed in 22 neonates. The most frequent pathogen isolated from positive blood culture was E. coli (66.66% and it was also the most common pathogen in low birth weight and preterm neonates of both early (59 cases- 57.84% and late-onset (9 cases- 8.82% sepsis and the incidence was found higher in early onset sepsis. The isolate was completely resistant to vancomycin and the resistance was higher for monotherapy of semi-synthetic penicillin group of antibiotics than their combination therapy with sulbactum. Imepenam and gatifloxacin showed the highest sensitivity (100%, followed by Piperacillin - tazobactum and ciprofloxacin, however the frequency of resistance was more common in low birth weight neonates of early onset sepsis.

  18. Prematurity, asphyxia and congenital malformations underrepresented among neonates in a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruse Alexandra Y

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimated 17,000 neonates (≤ 28 days of age die in Vietnam annually, corresponding to more than half of the child mortality burden. However, current knowledge about these neonates is limited. Prematurity, asphyxia and congenital malformations are major causes of death in neonates worldwide. To improve survival and long term development, these vulnerable neonates need access to the specialized neonatal care existing, although limited, in lower middle-income countries like Vietnam. The aim of this study was to describe these conditions in a specialized Vietnamese hospital, compared to a Danish hospital. Methods We performed a comparative observational study of all neonates admitted to a tertiary pediatric hospital in South Vietnam in 2009–2010. The data were prospectively extracted from the central hospital registry and included basic patient characteristics and diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. Prematurity, asphyxia and designated congenital malformations (oesophageal atresia, gastroschisis, omphalocoele, diaphragmatic hernia and heart disease were investigated. In a subgroup, the prematurity diagnosis was validated using a questionnaire. The hospitalization ratio of each diagnosis was compared to those obtained from a Danish tertiary hospital. The Danish data were retrieved from the neonatal department database for a ten-year period. Results The study included 5763 neonates (missing Conclusion Our findings suggest the investigated diagnoses were underrepresented in the Vietnamese study hospital. In contrast, relatively mild diagnoses were frequent. These results indicate the use of specialized care may not be optimal. Pre-hospital selection mechanisms were not investigated and additional studies are needed to optimise utilisation of specialized care and improve neonatal survival.

  19. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) ...

  20. Octreotide for the treatment of chylothorax in neonates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Das, Animitra

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Routine care for chylothorax in neonate includes either conservative or surgical approaches. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been used for the management of patients with refractory chylothorax not responding to conservative management. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of octreotide in the treatment of chylothorax in neonates. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE and EMBASE (to March 7, 2010). We assessed the reference lists of identified trials and abstracts from the annual meetings of the Pediatric Academic Societies published in Pediatric Research (2002 to 2009) without language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We planned to include randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of octreotide in the treatment of congenital or acquired chylothorax in term or preterm neonates, with any dose, duration or route of administration. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data on primary (amount of fluid drainage, respiratory support, mortality) and secondary outcomes (side effects) were planned to be collected and analysed using mean difference, relative risk and risk difference with 95% confidence intervals. MAIN RESULTS: No randomised controlled trials were identified. Nineteen case reports of 20 neonates with chylothorax in whom octreotide was used either subcutaneously or intravenously were identified. Fourteen case reports described successful use (resolution of chylothorax), four reported failure (no resolution) and one reported equivocal results following use of octreotide. The timing of initiation, dose, duration and frequency of doses varied markedly. Gastrointestinal intolerance and clinical presentations suggestive of necrotizing enterocolitis and transient hypothyroidism were reported as side effects. AUTHORS\\' CONCLUSIONS: No practice recommendation can be made based on the evidence identified in this review. A prospective registry of

  1. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates. PMID:24157971

  2. Risk of Early-Onset Neonatal Infection with Maternal Infection or Colonization: A Global Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Grace J.; Lee, Anne CC; Baqui, Abdullah H; Tan, Jingwen; Robert E. Black

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4)—one of eight goals agreed by world leaders in 2000 to eradicate extreme poverty globally—aims to reduce under-five mortality (deaths) to one-third of its 1990 level (12 million deaths). Progress towards reducing child mortality has accelerated recently, but MDG4 is unlikely to be met, partly because of slow progress towards reducing neonatal mortality—deaths during the first 28 days of life. Neonatal deaths now account for a gre...

  3. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and

  4. Trends in fetal and perinatal mortality in the United States, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Elizabeth C W; MacDorman, Marian F; Martin, Joyce A

    2014-11-01

    Total, early, and late fetal mortality rates were generally flat in the United States from 2006 through 2012. Over this same period, fetal mortality rates were also essentially unchanged among each of the three largest race and Hispanic origin groups: non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women. The perinatal mortality rate declined 4% from 2006 through 2011, a result of a decrease in early neonatal mortality. The perinatal mortality rate fell 8% for non- Hispanic black women; declines among non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women were not statistically significant. The continued decline in the perinatal mortality rate is noteworthy. The rate is down 10% since 2000 (4), and the pace of decline for the most current period, 2006–2011, is consistent with that for 2000–2005. The U.S. fetal mortality rate, however, did not improve during 2006–2012. PMID:25408960

  5. Neonatal survival interventions in humanitarian emergencies: a survey of current practices and programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Jennifer O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal deaths account for over 40% of all deaths in children younger than five years of age and neonatal mortality rates are highest in areas affected by humanitarian emergencies. Of the ten countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates globally, six are currently or recently affected by a humanitarian emergency. Yet, little is known about newborn care in crisis settings. Understanding current policies and practices for the care of newborns used by humanitarian aid organizations will inform efforts to improve care in these challenging settings. Methods Between August 18 and September 25, 2009, 56 respondents that work in humanitarian emergencies completed a web-based survey either in English or French. A snow ball sampling technique was used to identify organizations that provide health services during humanitarian emergencies to gather information on current practices for maternal and newborn care in these settings. Information was collected about continuum-of-care services for maternal, newborn and child health, referral services, training and capacity development, health information systems, policies and guidelines, and organizational priorities. Data were entered into MS Excel and frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results The majority of responding organizations reported implementing components of neonatal and maternal health interventions. However, multiple barriers exist in providing comprehensive care, including: funding shortages (63.3%, gaps in training (51.0% and staff shortages and turnover (44.9%. Conclusions Neonatal care is provided by most of the responding humanitarian organizations; however, the quality, breadth and consistency of this care are limited.

  6. Reporting detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in tissues of neonatal death cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hernandez Trejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine whether C. trachomatis was present in neonates with infection, but without an isolated pathogen, who died during the first week of life. METHODS: early neonatal death cases whose causes of death had been previously adjudicated by the institutional mortality committee were randomly selected. End-point and real-time polymerase chain reaction of the C. trachomatis omp1 gene was used to blindly identify the presence of chlamydial DNA in the paraffinized samples of five organs (from authorized autopsies of each of the dead neonates. Additionally, differential diagnoses were conducted by amplifying a fragment of the 16S rRNA of Mycoplasma spp. RESULTS: in five cases (35.7%, C. trachomatis DNA was found in one or more organs. Severe neonatal infection was present in three cases; one of them corresponded to genotype D of C. trachomatis. Interestingly, another case fulfilled the same criteria but had a positive polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma hominis, a pathogen known to produce sepsis in newborns. CONCLUSION: the use of molecular biology techniques in these cases of early infant mortality demonstrated that C. trachomatis could play a role in the development of severe infection and in early neonatal death, similarly to that observed with Mycoplasma hominis. Further study is required to determine the pathogenesis of this perinatal infection.

  7. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G/sub 1/ (IgG/sub 1/) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, /sup 125/I-labelled bovine IgG/sub 1/ anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ excretion, and (2) by the amount of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity.

  8. Urban tree mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Lara Angelica

    2013-01-01

    Urban forests have aesthetic, environmental, human health, and economic benefits that motivate tree planting programs. Realizing these benefits depends on tree survival. Cost-benefit analyses for urban forest ecosystem services are sensitive to mortality rate assumptions and associated population projections. However, long-term mortality data is needed to assess the accuracy of these assumptions. Analytical tools from demography, such as life tables, mortality curves, and survival analysis, c...

  9. Eimeria macusaniensis associated lesions in neonate alpacas dying from enterotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosadio, R; Londoñe, P; Pérez, D; Castillo, H; Véliz, A; Llanco, L; Yaya, K; Maturrano, L

    2010-02-26

    Histopathological analysis of 108 intestine samples (103 grossly affected ileum and 5 jejunum) taken from Clostridium-induced neonatal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) enterotoxemia mortalities collected in the Departments of Arequipa, Puno and Cusco of southern Peru during the 2005-2008 birth seasons (January-March), revealed the presence of large numbers of both asexual and sexual stages of Eimeria macusaniensis in 33/108 (30.55%) of the samples with moderate to severe necrotized and/or hemorrhagic enteritis. It is proposed that damage to the mucosa produced by coccidial infections may facilitate overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens with toxin production leading to fatal enterotoxemia. PMID:19926224

  10. Children Mortality in Iran: Moving Ahead with the Sustainable Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Erfan Ayubi; Kamyar Mansori; Mahin Ahmadi Pishkoohi; Salman Khazaei

    2016-01-01

    A secular milestone is approached by the world in line of reaching Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). After December 2015, a new of flexible and global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were set, replace MDGs by SDGs. Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a pivotal indicator of development in a given country that embedded in Millennium Development Goal (MDG).  After that in manner of strong clinical reasons, IMR has been replaced by the neonatal mortality rate (NMR); here, we were interested to...

  11. INVISIBLE MURDERER: NEONATAL TETANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonca SONMEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal tetanus (NNT has been secondary in the whole world in the death list of diseases which can be protected by the help of vaccine. It’s an important community health problem in the less-developed countries in which pre-birth care services are limited, assisting a mother at childbirth by uneducated people in dirty atmosphere and the immunity against tetanus is not enough. Studies have shown that minor part of the cases have been expressed in most of the countries. Because of that NNT have been called as “silent/invisible murderer”. In Turkey, in the year of 2003 it has been seen 15 cases, and 12 of them have been resulted in death. The methods which will be applied to carry out the elimination of NNT are; the vaccination of pregnant women with at least two doses tetanus toxoid and providing clean birth conditions for all of the pregnant women. However, in Turkey the proportion of the women who have two doses of tetanus vaccine is 41%. To eliminate NNT in our country, all the pregnant women must be attained, the ones who are attained must be presented with qualified pre-birth care service which also includes tetanus immunity and the births must be carried out under healty conditions. As smallpox and polio eradication, NNT elimination will also be accomplished by self-sacrificing works of personnel in primary health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000: 229-233

  12. Risk Factors for Neonatal Sepsis in Public Hospitals of Mekelle City, North Ethiopia, 2015: Unmatched Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Destaalem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. Delays in the identification and treatment of neonatal sepsis are among the main contributors to the high mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of neonatal sepsis in public hospitals of Mekelle City, Tigray Region, North Ethiopia, 2015. Methods A hospital based case control study was done in public hospitals of Mekelle City, Tigray region. Cases were neonates who had sepsis with their index mothers and controls were neonates who hadn’t had sepsis with their index mothers. Hematologic findings were used to diagnose sepsis once the neonates were being clinically suspected. Cases and controls were selected using the systematic sampling technique. Data were entered using Epi info version 7 and then analyzed using SPSS window 20. The binary logistic regression model was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the associated risk factors to neonatal sepsis. Findings A total of 78 cases and 156 controls were included in this study. More than three quarters (76.8%) of cases had early onset sepsis. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the possible risk factors of neonatal sepsis in this study were; history of maternal urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted infection [AOR = 5. 23; 95% CI (1.82, 15.04)], prolonged rupture of membrane [AOR = 7. 43; 95% CI (2.04, 27.1)], Place of delivery; health center delivery [AOR = 5. 7; 95% CI (1.71, 19.03)], intrapartum fever [AOR = 6. 1 95% CI (1.29, 28.31)], APGAR score sepsis. Strengthening of the existing risk based prevention strategies as well as improvement of institutional delivery practices are crucial. PMID:27163290

  13. Bovine coronavirus detection in a collection of diarrheic stool samples positive for group a bovine rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Barry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal diarrhea is an important cause of economic losses for cattle farmers. The main viral etiologies of enteric diseases are group A rotaviruses (GARV and the bovine coronavirus (BCoV. Although both viruses infect calves of the same age, the occurrence of mixed infections is still under studied. The present study describes the co-infection of BCoV and GARV in stool samples. Forty-four diarrheic fecal samples from calves up to 60 days old that had previously tested positive for GARV by SS-PAGE were analyzed using semi-nested PCR for BCoV. A product with 251 bp of the BCoV nucleoprotein gene was amplified in 15.9% (7/44 of the samples, demonstrating that co-infection is not an unusual event. These results reinforce the need for testing for both GARV and BCoV, even in fecal samples that previously tested positive for one virus.A diarreia neonatal é uma importante causa de perdas econômicas para a criação de bovinos. Os principais agentes etiológicos virais das doenças entéricas são o rotavírus bovino grupo A (GARV e o coronavírus bovino (BCoV. Embora ambos os vírus infectem bezerros na mesma faixa etária, infecções mistas ainda são pouco estudadas. O presente trabalho descreve a identificação do BCoV em amostras de fezes positivas para o GARV, caracterizando a ocorrência de infecções mistas. Quarenta e quatro amostras de fezes diarreicas de bezerros com até 60 dias de idade, previamente identificadas como positivas para o GARV bovino por meio da técnica de SS-PAGE, foram avaliadas quanto a presença do BCoV pela técnica de semi-nested PCR. Um produto com 251 pb do gene da nucleoproteína do BCoV foi amplificado em 15,9% (7/44 das amostras de fezes demonstrando que a co-infecção não é um evento raro. Esse resultado enfatizada a importância da realização simultânea do diagnóstico para esses dois importantes vírus entéricos de bezerros em surtos de diarreia neonatal tanto em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros quanto de

  14. Epidemiology of Neonatal Sepsis and Implicated Pathogens: A Study from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab El-Din, Eman M Rabie; El-Sokkary, Mohamed M Adel; Bassiouny, Mohamed Reda; Hassan, Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Prospective analytic study was conducted in NICUs of three Egyptian Neonatal Network (EGNN) participants in Mansoura Hospitals in Egypt over a period of 18 months from March 2011 to August 2012. By using EGNN 28-day discharge form, all demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded and studied. During the study period, 357 neonates were diagnosed as suspected sepsis with an incidence of 45.9% (357/778) among the admitted neonates at the three neonatal intensive care units. 344 neonates (sex ratio = 1.3:1) were enrolled in the study in which 152 (44.2%) were classified as early onset sepsis EOS (≤72 hr) and 192 (55.8%) as late onset sepsis LOS (>72 hr). Among the LOS cases, 33.9% (65/192) were caused by nosocomial infections. In 40.7% (140/344), sepsis was confirmed by positive blood culture. The total mortality rate for the proven neonatal sepsis was 51% (25/49) and 42.9% (39/91) for EOS and LOS, respectively. Coagulase negative staphylococci were predominant isolates in both EOS and LOS, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Most of the bacterial isolates had low sensitivity to the commonly used empiric antibiotics. However, 70.1% (89/127) exhibited multidrug resistance. Best sensitivities among Gram-positive isolates were found against imipenem, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and amikacin. PMID:26146621

  15. Epidemiology of Neonatal Sepsis and Implicated Pathogens: A Study from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Rabie Shehab El-Din

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prospective analytic study was conducted in NICUs of three Egyptian Neonatal Network (EGNN participants in Mansoura Hospitals in Egypt over a period of 18 months from March 2011 to August 2012. By using EGNN 28-day discharge form, all demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded and studied. During the study period, 357 neonates were diagnosed as suspected sepsis with an incidence of 45.9% (357/778 among the admitted neonates at the three neonatal intensive care units. 344 neonates (sex ratio = 1.3:1 were enrolled in the study in which 152 (44.2% were classified as early onset sepsis EOS (≤72 hr and 192 (55.8% as late onset sepsis LOS (>72 hr. Among the LOS cases, 33.9% (65/192 were caused by nosocomial infections. In 40.7% (140/344, sepsis was confirmed by positive blood culture. The total mortality rate for the proven neonatal sepsis was 51% (25/49 and 42.9% (39/91 for EOS and LOS, respectively. Coagulase negative staphylococci were predominant isolates in both EOS and LOS, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Most of the bacterial isolates had low sensitivity to the commonly used empiric antibiotics. However, 70.1% (89/127 exhibited multidrug resistance. Best sensitivities among Gram-positive isolates were found against imipenem, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and amikacin.

  16. Use and misuse of antibiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzialla, C; Borghesi, A; Perotti, G F; Garofoli, F; Manzoni, P; Stronati, M

    2012-10-01

    Severe infections represent the main cause of neonatal mortality accounting for more than one million neonatal deaths worldwide every year. Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and in industrialized countries about 1% of neonates are exposed to antibiotic therapy. Signs and symptoms of sepsis are nonspecific, and empiric antimicrobial therapy is promptly initiated after obtaining appropriate cultures in order to prevent deleterious consequences. However, many preterm infants who do not have infection receive antimicrobial agents during hospital stay and antibiotic treatment in the setting of negative cultures can have serious adverse effects like: promotion of bacterial antibiotic resistance, alteration of gut colonization, increase risk of Candida colonization and subsequent invasive candidiasis, increase risk of death, necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis. Appropriate choice of antimicrobial agents and optimal duration of therapy in neonates with suspected or culture-proven sepsis is essential in order to prevent serious consequences. Moreover the establishment of an antibiotic stewardship programme in the NICUs is the best way of ensuring neonatal infections remain treatable while efforts are made for the developing of optimal antibiotic prescribing. PMID:22958010

  17. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Neonatal Sepsis Pathogens in Neyshabour, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is secondary to infection. It is a major cause of neonatal mortality in the world, particularly in developing countries. A definitive diagnosis requires the isolation of pathogens from a normally sterile body site, including blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Empirical antibiotic therapy is based on the physician’s knowledge of the anticipated bacterial species and their expected antibiotic susceptibilities. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial infections at a neonatal unit. Patients and Methods This study was conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit and neonatal ward of Hakim hospital, Neyshabour, Iran. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and urine specimens were collected before institution of empirical antibiotic therapy. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates was studied by the disc diffusion technique. Results Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS were the most prevalent pathogens isolated from blood specimens in early and late-onset disease. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella were the most causative pathogens in early and late-onset urinary tract infections. They had high resistance to our empirical antibiotic regimens. Prevalence of bacterial meningitis was low in our study. Conclusions Due to the increasing resistance of pathogens to usual empirical antibiotics, it is reasonable to stress upon preventive measures, so that a minimum number of neonates develop sepsis.

  18. A Study on Incidence of Pre-Eclampsia and its Neonatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Faheemuddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia is one of the leading cause of mortality and morbidity to both mother and neonates worldwide. WHO estimates the incidence (number of new cases of pre-eclampsia to be seven times higher in developing countries (2.8% of live births than in developed countries (0.4%. It is defined as the new onset of hypertension in a previously normotensive women and the presence of protienuria. To study incidence of pre eclampsia and its neonatal outcome in a tertiary care hospital, a prospective observational study was conducted over a period of 6 months in inpatients of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department at SVS medical college and hospital, Mahabubnagar. The data regarding demographic details, present complaints, gestational age, obstetrics history, diagnosis, were collected and evaluated. A total of 628 cases of pregnant women were observed among them 52 cases were found to be Pre eclamptic patients. The incidence was found to be 8.28%. Neonatal data showed low APGAR score (23.07%, LBW (67.30%, IUD (3.84%, IUGR (3.84% and neonatal death (9.61%. The study concluded that incidence of preeclampsia was high. The most common risk factors associated were nulliparity, consanguineous marriage and women with high body mass index and adverse neonatal outcome was seen. So there is need for patient education and public health awareness and improvment of socioeconomic circumstances which can help maternal and neonatal prognosis.

  19. Antenatal iron/folic acid supplements, but not postnatal care, prevents neonatal deaths in Indonesia: analysis of Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys 2002/2003–2007 (a retrospective cohort study)

    OpenAIRE

    Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Dibley, Michael John

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the contribution of postnatal services to the risk of neonatal mortality, and the relative contributions of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements and postnatal care in preventing neonatal mortality in Indonesia. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting and participants Data used in this study were the 2002–2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys, nationally representative surveys. The pooled data provided survival information of 26 591 most recent ...

  20. Onychomycosis: A Rare Presentation of Fungal Urinary Tract Infection (UTI in Extremely Preterm Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Kalane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis refers to nail infections caused by any fungus, including yeasts and nondermatophyte molds. Fungal infection has emerged as an important cause of neonatal infections with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in extremely low and very low birth weight infants. We report a 24-days-old boy who presented with onychomycosis on left ring finger nail associated with fungal urine tract infection. Nail finding helped us in detecting fungal urinary tract infection (UTI. Further studies are needed to evaluate the etiologies and treatment of neonatal onychomycosis, and dermatologists should pay attention to this rare event. Hence we are reporting this rare case.

  1. BRAF V600E-Positive Multisite Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a Preterm Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara V. Bates

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic pustules with a “blueberry muffin” appearance accompanied by respiratory failure in a neonate present a challenging differential diagnosis that includes infections and neoplasms. We present a case of multiorgan, multisite Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH, positive for the oncogenic BRAF V600E mutation, in a preterm neonate. Infants with LCH pose a diagnostic challenge due to their heterogeneous presentations. This case is unusual in that the newborn presented with severe multiorgan involvement. Due to the rare incidence, wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, and high mortality rate, clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for LCH.

  2. Prevalence of rotavirus (GARV) and coronavirus (BCoV) associated with neonatal diarrhea in calves in western Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selles Sidi Mohammed Ammar; Kouidri Mokhtaria; Belhamiti Belkacem Tahar; Ait Amrane Amar; Benia Ahmed Redha; Bellik Yuva; Hammoudi Si Mohamed; Niar Abdellatif; Boukra Laid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of bovine group A rotavirus (GARV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in diarrheic feces from calves and the sensitive’s parameters such as age group and sex.Methods:Feces samples from 82 diarrheic dairy calves from farms around Tiaret (Western Algeria) were collected. These samples were tested by ELISA assay.Results:The present study demonstrates that the both BCoV and GARV are involved in the (12.2% alone and 2.43% associated with bovine coronavirus) and 20.73% (18.3% alone and 2.43%associated with GARV), respectively.Conclusions:The results showed that the prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infection are 14.63%neonatal calves’ diarrhea, where the frequency of BCoV is clearly higher than that of GARV.

  3. 1995至2002年美国产妇试产及与试产相关的新生儿患病率和病死率趋势%Secular trends in trial of labor and associated neonatal mortality and morbidity in the United States, 1995 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文师吾; 郭燕芳; 谢日华; Jessica Dy; Mark Walker

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Aproportion of elective repeated cesarean sections where a trial of labor in a uterus with a previous scar was not attempted is on the increase.This study aimed to assess how reduced the use of trial of labor has impacted on neonatal outcomes in the United States.Methods: Pregnant women with one previous cesarean delivery and a singleton live birth of the index pregnancy were abstracted from the 1995 to 2002 birth registration data of the United States.Adjusted odds ratios for adverse neonatal outcomes of trial of labor were estimated by multiple logistic regression models,in overall study subjects and in the two periods with high and low rates of trial of labor.Results: A total of 1833407 eligible subjects were included in the analysis.Rate of trial of labor after one previous cesarean section dropped from 38.5% in 1995 to 15.0% in 2002.No significant change was observed in the patient population profile.Successful vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) also declined from 76.6% in 1995 to 66.0% in 2002.A trial of labor after one previous cesarean section was correlated with increased risks of asphyxia-related neonatal death and neonatal morbidity.This risk was even more pronounced in low risk women and in the last study years with the lowest rate of trial of labor.Conclusion: The reduced use of trial of labor after one cesarean delivery in recent years in the United States has actually resulted in increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with a trial of labor.%目的:目前剖宫产后未经试产的重复剖宫产率不断上升.本研究拟探讨美国产妇试产率的下降与新生儿出生结局之间的关系.方法:采用1995至2002年间美国出生登记资料进行分析.选取既往剖宫产术分娩过一次单胎的产妇作为研究对象.通过多元logistic回归估算试产率高和低的两个时段中,新生儿不良出生结局与试产之间的调整OR值.结果:本研究共选取了1833407名研究对

  4. Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Tiwari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation (SIP suggests a perforation in the gastrointestinal tract of a newborn with no demonstrable cause.Methods: Four neonates presenting with spontaneous bowel perforation were analyzed with respect to clinical presentation, management and outcome.Results: The mean age at presentation was 11.4 days. There were three males and one female. One of the neonates was preterm, very low birth weight and the other three were full term. Two neonates underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and two were initially managed by peritoneal drainage in view of poor general condition; one of them improved and did not require further operative intervention. The preterm very low birth weight neonate was stabilized and explored after 48 hours. Intra-operatively, two of them had two ileal perforations each which required ileostomy; one had single perforation in the transverse colon which was primarily repaired. All four had an uneventful recovery.Conclusion: SIP is a distinct clinical entity and has better outcome than neonates with intestinal perforation secondary to Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC.

  5. SERUM SODIUM CHANGES IN NEONATES RECEIVING PHOTOTHERAPY FOR NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Neonates receiving phototherapy have side effects like hypocalcemia and electrolyte changes. Our study is hereby intended to study the serum sodium changes due to phototherapy. AIMS : To evaluate the serum sodium changes in neonates receiving phototherapy f or neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A prospective hospital based comparative study conducted on neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit receiving phototherapy. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A predesigned proforma has aided the enroll ment of 252 newborns into the study. Serum bilirubin and serum sodium were determined before and after termination of phototherapy. The first samples were considered as controls. A comparative study was made between before and after phototherapy groups to determine the incidence of serum sodium imbalances. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Proportions will be compared using chi - square test. All data of various groups will be tabulated and statistically analyzed using suitable statistical tests (Student's t test. RESULTS : Male to Female ratio was 1.45 : 1. Incidence of low birth weight babies was 23% and preterm was 20.2%. Mean birth weight and gestational age was 2.84±0.51 kg and 38.44±1.98 wks respectively. Mean duration of phototherapy was 37.65±11.06 hrs. The incidence of hyponatremia post phototherapy found to be 6% which was more in low birth weight (LBW babies (17.2% , p48 hrs (p<0.001. Even the decline in mean serum sodium values after phototherapy found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION : Our study shows that neonates u nder phototherapy are at higher risk of hyponatremia. This risk is greater in premature and LBW babies and hence this group of babies should be closely monitored for changes in serum sodium and should be managed accordingly.

  6. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PERINATAL MORTALITY : OPTIMIZING OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the various causes of perinatal deaths and adopt strategies to improve perinatal outcome at a referral teaching hospital in North Kerala. METHODS: A prospective observational study conducted at Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. All perinatal deaths during the period January 2013 to December 2014 were analysed and from this factors responsible for perinatal deaths were identified. RESULTS: Out of total 30,042 deliveries , there were 966 perinatal deaths during the study period. 566 were still births and 400 early neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 31.1 per 1000 live births. Perinatal asphyxia was the major cause of perinatal mortality. The important factors contributing to perinatal asphyxia were prematurity (39%, abruptio placenta (19% and MSAF ( 12%. Among the antenatal factors, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy leading to iatrogenic elective preterm delivery were the most important. CONCLUSION: Perinatal asphyxia due to prematurity and low birth weight emerged as the most important cause of perinatal mortality in this study and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the most important antenatal complication leading to prematurity

  7. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  8. Respiratory Support for Pharmacologically Induced Hypoxia in Neonatal Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C. G.; Quinn, C. T.; Nielsen, S. G.; Raidal, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Practical methods to provide respiratory support to bovine neonates in a field setting are poorly characterised. This study evaluated the response of healthy neonatal calves with pharmacologically induced respiratory suppression to nasal oxygen insufflation and to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered via an off-the-shelf device. Ten calves were randomised to receive either nasal oxygen insufflation (Group 1, n = 5) or CPAP (Group 2, n = 5) as a first treatment after induction of respiratory depression by intravenous administration of xylazine, fentanyl, and diazepam. Calves received the alternate treatment after 10 minutes of breathing ambient air. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained prior to sedation, following sedation, following the first and second treatment, and after breathing ambient air before and after the second treatment. Oxygen insufflation significantly increased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) but was also associated with significant hypercapnia. When used as the first treatment, CPAP was associated with significantly decreased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide but did not increase PaO2. These results suggest that the use of CPAP may represent a practical method for correction of hypercapnia associated with inadequate ventilation in a field setting, and further research is required to characterise the use of CPAP with increased inspired oxygen concentrations. PMID:26998379

  9. Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukach A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

  10. Necrotising Enterocolitis and Systemic Inflammation: Placental Pathology and Haematological Markers of Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baastad, S

    2011-11-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease that affects premature neonates. Associated mortality has not changed appreciably over the past several decades. The underlying aetiology of NEC remains elusive, although bacterial colonization of the gut, formula feeding, and perinatal stress have been implicated as risk factors.\\r\

  11. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Bahl Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW, as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4.

  12. Influence of Habitat and Intrinsic Characteristics on Survival of Neonatal Pronghorn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N Jacques

    Full Text Available Increased understanding of the influence of habitat (e.g., composition, patch size and intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass factors on survival of neonatal pronghorn (Antilocapra americana is a prerequisite to successful management programs, particularly as they relate to population dynamics and the role of population models in adaptive species management. Nevertheless, few studies have presented empirical data quantifying the influence of habitat variables on survival of neonatal pronghorn. During 2002-2005, we captured and radiocollared 116 neonates across two sites in western South Dakota. We documented 31 deaths during our study, of which coyote (Canis latrans predation (n = 15 was the leading cause of mortality. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonatal survival. We generated a priori models that we grouped into habitat and intrinsic effects. The highest-ranking model indicated that neonate mortality was best explained by site, percent grassland, and open water habitat; 90-day survival (0.80; 90% CI = 0.71-0.88 declined 23% when grassland and water increased from 80.1 to 92.3% and 0.36 to 0.40%, respectively, across 50% natal home ranges. Further, our results indicated that grassland patch size and shrub density were important predictors of neonate survival; neonate survival declined 17% when shrub density declined from 5.0 to 2.5 patches per 100 ha. Excluding the site covariates, intrinsic factors (i.e., sex, age, birth mass, year, parturition date were not important predictors of survival of neonatal pronghorns. Further, neonatal survival may depend on available land cover and interspersion of habitats. We have demonstrated that maintaining minimum and maximum thresholds for habitat factors (e.g., percentages of grassland and open water patches, density of shrub patches throughout natal home ranges will in turn, ensure relatively high (>0.50 neonatal survival rates

  13. Reduction of neonatal tetanus by mass immunization of non-pregnant women: duration of protection provided by one or two doses of aluminium-adsorbed tetanus toxoid*

    OpenAIRE

    Black, R. E.; Huber, D. H.; Curlin, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    Immunization of non-pregnant women in rural Bangladesh with two doses of aluminium-adsorbed tetanus-diphtheria toxoids reduced neonatal mortality by one-third during a period of 9-32 months after vaccination. The reduction in mortality rate was attributable almost entirely to a 75% lower mortality rate among 4-14-day-old infants, when tetanus was the predominant cause of death.

  14. Neonatal Jaundice Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Mustafa; Hardalaç, Fırat; Ural, Berkan; Karap, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common condition that occurs in newborn infants in the first week of life. Today, techniques used for detection are required blood samples and other clinical testing with special equipment. The aim of this study is creating a non-invasive system to control and to detect the jaundice periodically and helping doctors for early diagnosis. In this work, first, a patient group which is consisted from jaundiced babies and a control group which is consisted from healthy babies are prepared, then between 24 and 48 h after birth, 40 jaundiced and 40 healthy newborns are chosen. Second, advanced image processing techniques are used on the images which are taken with a standard smartphone and the color calibration card. Segmentation, pixel similarity and white balancing methods are used as image processing techniques and RGB values and pixels' important information are obtained exactly. Third, during feature extraction stage, with using colormap transformations and feature calculation, comparisons are done in RGB plane between color change values and the 8-color calibration card which is specially designed. Finally, in the bilirubin level estimation stage, kNN and SVR machine learning regressions are used on the dataset which are obtained from feature extraction. At the end of the process, when the control group is based on for comparisons, jaundice is succesfully detected for 40 jaundiced infants and the success rate is 85 %. Obtained bilirubin estimation results are consisted with bilirubin results which are obtained from the standard blood test and the compliance rate is 85 %. PMID:27229489

  15. Hypothyroidism in Filipino neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid hormone determination (T4, T3, rT3, TSH) in cord blood of 3,897 newborns was carried out in Metro Manila (non-endemic) and central, Northern and Southern Luzon (endemic for goiter). The objective is to detect congenital hypothyroidism and establish its incidence in new born Filipinos. This was done by radioimmunoassay, using commercial kits from Abbott Laboratories. The results obtained as mean values for non-endemic regions are: T4: 10.96 +- 2.25 ug/dl; T3: 60-64 +- 13.82 ng/dl; rT3: 250.4 +- 64.9 ng/dl; and TSH 5.89 +- 2.58 uU/ml, n=200. Mean values in endemic regions (n = 205) are T4: 9.46 +- 2.18 ug/dl; T3: 67.8 +- 12.05 ng/dl; rT3: 184.3 +- 32.7 ng/dl and TSH: 6.65 +- 3.13 uU/ml. From the above data, nomograms were drawn where the values obtained from each case were plotted. From non-endemic regions 28 positive cases were recalled and in the endemic regions 16 positive cases were also recalled for re-examination but most of them turned out to be false positive. As of now, four positive cases were found in Metro Manila, i.e. 4/2, 441 births and five in endemic regions out of 1,456 births so the incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism is 9/3,897 births. This is 9 times higher than most reports abroad which is about 1/4000 births. (Auth.). 36 refs; 10 tabs; 10 figs

  16. CT of the neonatal head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is used less often than other techniques on neonatal units. However, in the acute setting, CT can be invaluable in diagnosing or excluding potentially life-threatening conditions and guiding initial management in neonates. Common indications for scanning include trauma, suspected non-accidental injury, infection, or an acute hypoxic or metabolic event. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the normal neonatal head at CT and compare this to the common pathological abnormalities. Several key features of each condition will be highlighted. It is important to note that some pathological conditions can have overlapping features at CT and, therefore, the clinical history and additional investigations are also of key importance in determining the diagnosis

  17. Diagnostic imaging in neonatal stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cerebral artery infarction is an important differential diagnosis in the newborn with neurological abnormalities. Based on clinical data, its incidence is estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns. Since the course is often subclinical, the true incidence is probably higher. Diagnosis: Cerebral ultrasound and Doppler sonography as readily available screening tools play a central role in the initial diagnosis of neonatal cerebral infarction. Definitive diagnosis is made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Beside symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy, treatment aims at the prevention of secondary ischemic injury. Discussion: Three term infants with different clinical courses of neonatal stroke are presented to sensitize the clinician and the radiologist for this probably underdiagnosed entity. The role of imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal cerebral infarction is discussed. (orig.)

  18. USEFULNESS OF CRP IN DIFFERENTIATING INFECTED FROM UNINFECTED NEONATES AS AMONG THOSE AT RISK OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaiah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis remains an important diagnostic consideration in many neonates, either because of risk factors or clinical manifestations associated with bacterial infection, which are unspecific and vague. It is important to differentiate infected from uninfected neonates among those at risk of infection due to maternal risk factors. Several surrogate markers of inflammation like CRP, Cytokine levels have been evalu ated as possible tools for early diagnosis of bacterial sepsis. Such test could be of special importance in a newborn that is asymptomatic or has only equivocal signs at birth but has risk factors for infection. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the intrapartum risk factors for early onset sepsis on CRP levels and utility of CRP in the diagnosis of EOS. A study of 108 neonates at risk of developing infection over a period of one year was done at tertiary Hospital, Khammam. CRP levels in cord blood and neonatal blood at 24 - 36 hrs. were estimated using commercial kits. Babies were observed for signs of sepsis for at least 72 hrs. Ten (9.3% neonates had elevated CRP levels in the cord blood. Elevated cord CRP level showed positive assoc iation with primiparity, rupture of membranes more than 24 hrs, prolonged labor, maternal fever, more than three vaginal examinations, foul smelling liquor, urinary tract infection and babies extracted by LSCS. The negative predictive value for elevated CR P levels at 24 hrs. was 97%. Several intrapartum risk factors for EOS can cause elevation in CRP levels however; this test may be useful in excluding infection. CRP level is a good indicator, in diagnosing the early sepsis and early intervention in managem ent of neonatal sepsis, intern it prevents mortality in neonates

  19. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: clinical observation

    OpenAIRE

    Utts I.A.; Shabarov V.K.; Kravchenya A.R.; Ivanova S.B.; Novikova A.N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to study the characteristics of clinical and laboratory picture of neonatal diabetes mellitus in a premature baby; to analyze the course of the disease for 18 months, to determine the mechanisms of development of neonatal diabetes mellitus, to develop a differentiated approach in the treatment of neonatal diabetes mellitus.

  20. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: clinical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utts I.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the characteristics of clinical and laboratory picture of neonatal diabetes mellitus in a premature baby; to analyze the course of the disease for 18 months, to determine the mechanisms of development of neonatal diabetes mellitus, to develop a differentiated approach in the treatment of neonatal diabetes mellitus.

  1. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  2. The GVK EMRI maternal and neonatal transport system in India: a mega plan for a mammoth problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumutha, J; Rao, G V Ramana; Sridhar, B N; Vidyasagar, D

    2015-10-01

    Maternal and infant mortality has been a major concern in India with the Government taking serious efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Ganapathy Venkata Krishna Reddy Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) is one such effort and is the country's first emergency service provider working under the public-private partnership model to provide emergency response services and quality pre-hospital care to any sick person, pregnant mothers, and sick neonates. Since the introduction of the emergency medical services, institutional deliveries have increased in all states and union territories where the ambulances have been deployed and the majority of mothers have been provided the required emergency care at the appropriate time. This in turn has helped in considerably reducing the maternal mortality. GVK EMRI has partnered with the government of Tamil Nadu and deployed specialized neonatal ambulances to ensure safe transport of newborns. The safe transport of sick, vulnerable neonates and the improvement in survival of transported neonates over the years advocate scaling up of this program to other states, which would greatly contribute towards reducing infant and neonatal mortality. PMID:26212526

  3. Neonatal varicella: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj AK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicken pox is an infectious childhood disease. It is rare ininfants and newborns due to passive immunity receivedfrom the mother. The characteristic skin eruptions inchicken pox are vesicular with erythematous base andaccompanied with pruritus. The skin of the palms and solesis typically spared. We report a case of neonatal varicellawhere the mother was having skin eruptions at the time ofdelivery and the neonate contracted it during the perinatalperiod and developed clinical disease on the day five of life.Specific anti-viral therapy was given to the mother and thebaby and the recovery was uneventful.

  4. Impact of a nationwide training program for neonatal resuscitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; MA Yi; William Keenan; Susan Niermeyer; WANG Hui-shan; YE Hong-mao; YU Ren-jie; HUANG Xing-hua; WANG Dan-hua; Wang Li-xin; FENG Qi; GONG Li-min

    2012-01-01

    Background Seventeen million births occur in China each year.Neonatal mortality is the leading cause of under 5-year-old child deaths,and intrapartum-related injury accounts for much of mental retardation in young children.The Chinese Ministry of Health sought to improve infant and child survival through a nationwide initiative to have at least one person trained in neonatal resuscitation at every birth.The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of China Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) on policy and infrastructure changes and its effectiveness in decreasing the incidence of mortality among newborn infants.Methods The Chinese NRP incorporated policy change,professional education,and creation of a sustainable health system infrastructure for resuscitation.Multidisciplinary teams from all 31 provinces and municipal states disseminated NRP in a train-the-trainer cascade.The intervention targeted 20 provinces with high neonatal mortality and programs to reduce maternal mortality.Program evaluation data came from 322 representative hospitals in those provinces.Results Changes in policy permitted midwives to initiate resuscitation and required resuscitation training for licensure.From 2004 through 2009 more than 110659 professionals received NRP training in the 20 target provinces,with 94% of delivery facilities and 99% of counties reached.Intrapartum-related deaths in the delivery room decreased from 7.5 to 3.4per 10000 from 2003 to 2008,and the incidence of Apgar ≤7 at 1 minute decreased from 6.3% to 2.9%.Conclusions The Chinese NRP achieved policy changes promoting resuscitation,trained large numbers of professionals,and contributed to reduction in delivery room mortality.Improved adherence to the resuscitation algorithm,extension of training to the township level,and coverage of births now occurring outside health facilities can further increase the number of lives saved.

  5. Konsentrasi Protein Total, Albumin, dan Globulin Anak Kambing Peranakan Etawah Setelah Pemberian Berbagai Sediaan Kolostrum* (TOTAL PROTEIN, ALBUMIN, AND GLOBULIN CONCENTRATIONS ON ETTAWAH CROSSBREED NEONATES FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF VARIOUS FORM O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Esfandiari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the profile of total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrationson Ettawah crossbreed neonates after consuming various colostrums. Twenty four healthy neonatal kidswere used in this study. The neonates were divided into four groups. Each group received fresh maternal(goat colostrum, frozen-thawed bovine colostrum, bovine spray dried colostrum, and bovine powdercommercial colostrum, respectively. Colostrums were given at 10% of body weight directly after birth andfollowed by the same amount every 12 hours, for three days. The blood was taken from jugular vein at 0, 12,24, 48, 72, and 168 hours after birth to determine total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations.Results of this study indicated that the serum total protein and globulin concentration increased andreached the peak at 24 hours after birth. Compared to the concentration at birth, the increase of totalprotein concentration were 62.77%, 59.26%, 48.05%, and 66.67% in fresh maternal (goat, frozen-thawedbovine, bovine spray dried, and commercial bovine colostrum, respectively. Serum globulin concentrationincreased 4.9, 4.4, 4.8, and 14.6 times in fresh matermnal goat, frozen-thawed bovine, spray dried, andcommercial bovine colostrums respectively, compared to the concentration at birth. In conclusion, theconsumption of various colostrums i.e. fresh maternal goat colostrums, bovine colostrums (frozen-thawed,spray dried and commercial colostrums would increase the concentration of blood total protein and globulin,which both reached the highest concentration at 24 h after birth.

  6. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  7. Prostaglandinsvis-à-vis bovine embryonic mortality:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerome A; Srivastava N

    2012-01-01

    Decline in fertility in bovines is attributed to various reproductive problems viz. anoestrus, repeat breeding, abortions and post parturient disorders.Among these, repeat breeding has been an important cause for reducing the animals’ fertility and life-time productivity.Many researchers have reported embryonic mortality as a major cause of repeat breeding arising due to premature corpus luteumlysis.ProstaglandinF2α released from the uterus causes alterations in luteal blood flow, induces luteal lysis, and hence reduces progesterone secretion from the bovine corpus luteum.Therefore various strategies have been tried to modulate prostaglandinF2α synthesis and secretion in order to prolong the lifespan ofCL.Administration of cyclooxygenase inhibitors which include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs acting by competitive inhibition of key enzymes of prostaglandin synthesis is one such method.Feeding of diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids during critical period significantly reduces prostaglandin synthesis.Other drugs, which are potential candidates for reducing prostaglandin synthesis, include oxytocin receptor antagonist, recombinant bovine somatotropin, lysophosphatidic acid and prostaglandinF synthase inhibitors. To conclude, there is much scope of using various compounds to reduce prostaglandins synthesis during the critical period of pregnancy for improving the embryo survival rate.

  8. Mortality in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Although the general trend in mortality between 1950 and 1975 in South and East Asia has been downward, there is considerable country-to-country variation in the rate of decline. In countries where combined economic, social, and political circumstances resulted in controlling the disease spectrum (e.g., China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), mortality levels declined to those seen in low-mortality countries. In most of the large countries of the region however, mortality declined at a slower rate, even slowing down considerably in the 1970's while the death rates remained high (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines); this slowing down of mortality level is attributed essentially to the poverty-stricken masses of society which were not able to take advantage of social, technological, and health-promoting behavioral changes conducive to mortality decline. Infant mortality levels, although declining since 1950, followed the same dismal pattern of the general mortality level. The rate varies from less than 10/1000 live births (Japan) to more than 140/1000 (Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal). Generally, rural areas exhibited higher infant mortality than urban areas. The level of child mortality declines with increases in the mother's educational level in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The largest decline in child mortality occurs when at least 1 parent has secondary education. The premature retardation of mortality decline is caused by several factors: economic development, nutrition and food supply, provision and adequacy of health services, and demographic trends. The outlook for the year 2000 for most of Asia's countries will depend heavily on significant population increases. In most countries, particularly in South Asia, population is expected to increase by 75%, much of it in rural areas and among poorer socioeconomic groups. In view of this, Asia's health planners and policymakers will have to develop health policies which will strike a balance

  9. WHERE SHOULD THE SURGICAL NEONATES BE NURSED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Kler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical neonates need specialist medical and nursing care if their outcomes are to be improved. It needs a team of pediatric surgeons, neonatologists, pediatric anesthetists, and trained nurses. However, a key question in the management of these neonates is the place where they should be managed.One may ask since most of the pre-operative and post-operative care of surgical neonates are similar to the medical needs of sick neonate, why not manage them with medical neonatal ICUs with support from the surgeons?

  10. WHERE SHOULD THE SURGICAL NEONATES BE NURSED?

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Kler; Siddarth Ramji; Avneet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Surgical neonates need specialist medical and nursing care if their outcomes are to be improved. It needs a team of pediatric surgeons, neonatologists, pediatric anesthetists, and trained nurses. However, a key question in the management of these neonates is the place where they should be managed.One may ask since most of the pre-operative and post-operative care of surgical neonates are similar to the medical needs of sick neonate, why not manage them with medical neonatal ICUs with support ...

  11. The challenges of neonatal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Graves, Martin J.; Lomas, David J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Edwards, Andrea [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Austin, Topun [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Improved neonatal survival rates and antenatal diagnostic imaging is generating a growing demand for postnatal MRI examinations. Neonatal brain MRI is now becoming standard clinical care in many settings, but with the exception of some research centres, the technique has not been optimised for imaging neonates and small children. Here, we review some of the challenges involved in neonatal MRI, including recent advances in overall MR practicality and nursing practice, to address some of the ways in which the MR experience could be made more neonate-friendly. (orig.)

  12. Neonatal nasopharyngeal teratomas: cross sectional imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, S. [Radiology Dept., Royal Children' s Hospital, Parkville, Melbourne (Australia); Dept. of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa); Kumbla, S.; Fink, A.M. [Radiology Dept., Royal Children' s Hospital, Parkville, Melbourne (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    Background: Neonatal nasopharyngeal teratomas are extremely rare and there are few reports describing both CT and MRI features of these lesions. Objective: To describe the CT and MRI appearances of neonatal nasopharyngeal teratoma. Materials and methods: Three neonates with nasopharyngeal teratomas and severe respiratory distress were reviewed. Results: The nasopharyngeal mass resulted in severe respiratory compromise requiring urgent intervention. Characteristic mandibular and pterygoid plate abnormalities demonstrated by CT and MRI are described. Conclusions: Prenatal MRI enables the diagnosis, delineates tumour extent and allows planned delivery. CT and MRI play a key role in differentiating neonatal nasopharyngeal teratomas from other causes of a neonatal neck mass, thus optimising management. (orig.)

  13. STUDY OF HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AMONG NEONATES ADMITTED WITH NEONATAL JAUNDICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Jaundice is most common problem faced by neonates in the first week of life. Although physiological jaundice is mor e frequent as compared to pathological jaundice it is very important to differentiate betwe en the two as pathological jaundice may lead to kernicterus and subsequently brain damage. There are various modalities of investigations e.g. Serum bilirubin, Direct and indirect coomb’s t est, Blood group, G-6PD deficiency, reticulocyte count by which we can reach at diagnos is. Treatment is also dependent upon the amount of serum bilirubin and various other laborat ory investigations. Thus laboratory workup is very important for diagnosis and prevention of ne onatal hyperbilirubinemia in newborn. With this background present study was conducted to study the clinico- pathological profile among infants with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study was carried out for the duration of 1 year in one of th e teaching hospitals. RESULTS: Altogether 63 babies were enrolled in the study. Male babies out numbered the female (58.7% vs. 41.3%.Mean age of the study population was 2.97 da ys with standard deviation of 1.2 days. Percentage of Pre-term babies was 30.1. Neonates ha ving low birth weight were 17(26.9%. Physiological jaundice constituted (4062% cases of Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. ABO incompatibility was the commonest cause of pathologic al jaundice followed by septicemia. Statistically significant rise in the serum bilirub in was noted in pathological jaundice as compared to physiological jaundice. C-reactive protei n (CRP was found to be positive in all the cases of septicemia. Direct and indirect Coomb’s te st was positive in all the cases with Rh incompatibility. CONCLUSION: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is associated with various other clinical morbidities. Causes of hyperbilirubinemia s hould be investigated comprehensively. ABO and Rh typing should be done along with Coombs Test

  14. Does Resuscitation Training Reduce Neonatal Deaths in Low-Resource Communities? A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sarah; Mielke, John G

    2015-10-01

    Every year, nearly 1 million babies succumb to birth asphyxia (BA) within the Asia-Pacific region. The present study sought to determine whether educational interventions containing some element of resuscitation training would decrease the relative risk (RR) of neonatal mortality attributable to BA in low-resource communities. We systematically reviewed 3 electronic databases and identified 14 relevant reports. For community deliveries, providing traditional birth attendants (TBAs) with neonatal resuscitation training modestly reduced the RR in 3 of 4 studies. For institutional deliveries, training a range of clinical staff clearly reduced the RR within 2 of 8 studies. When resuscitation-specific training was directed to community and institutional health care workers, a slight benefit was observed in 1 of 2 studies. Specific training in neonatal resuscitation appears most effective when provided to TBAs (specifically, those presented with ongoing opportunities to review and update their skills), but this particular intervention alone may not appreciably reduce mortality. PMID:26378066

  15. The etiology of neonatal sepsis and patterns of antibiotic resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the patterns of causative bacteria and antibiotic resistance in neonatal sepsis. Results: Among 228 cases included in the study, the male to female ratio was 2.1 to 1. The gestational age was less than 36 weeks in 68 (30%) cases and low birth weight babies were 143 (62.6%). History of birth asphyxia was present in 103 (45%) cases. There were 142 (62.3%) cases of early onset (7 days). Out of 233 positive blood cultures Escherichia coli was found to be commonest (47.8%, n =111, p<0.05) both in early onset (47.8%, n=68, p <0.05) and late onset sepsis (47.3%,n=43, p<0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common among gram positive organism. Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime and amikacin was 34% to 80% and to ciprofloxacin 13% to 72%. A total of 64 cases (28%) died. Mortality was four times higher in early onset sespis. Conclusion: Gram negative bacteria are the commenst cause of neonatal sepsis. The resistance to the commonly used antibiotics is alarmingly high. Mortality is four times higher in early one set sepsis. (author)

  16. Association between proximity to a health center and early childhood mortality in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Kashima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between proximity to a health center and early childhood mortality in Madagascar, and to assess the influence of household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal health on the effects of distance. METHODS: From birth records of subjects in the Demographic and Health Survey, we identified 12565 singleton births from January 2004 to August 2009. After excluding 220 births that lacked global positioning system information for exposure assessment, odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs for neonatal mortality and infant mortality were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, with 12345 subjects (level 1, nested within 584 village locations (level 2, and in turn nested within 22 regions (level 3. We additionally stratified the subjects by the birth order. We estimated predicted probabilities of each outcome by a three-level model including cross-level interactions between proximity to a health center and household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal anemia. RESULTS: Compared with those who lived >1.5-3.0 km from a health center, the risks for neonatal mortality and infant mortality tended to increase among those who lived further than 5.0 km from a health center; the adjusted ORs for neonatal mortality and infant mortality for those who lived >5.0-10.0 km away from a health center were 1.36 (95% CI: 0.92-2.01 and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.06-1.90, respectively. The positive associations were more pronounced among the second or later child. The distance effects were not modified by household wealth status, maternal educational attainment, or maternal health status. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that distance from a health center is a risk factor for early childhood mortality (primarily, infant mortality in Madagascar by using a large-scale nationally representative dataset. The accessibility to health care in remote areas would be a key factor to achieve

  17. A Neonatal Pneumonia Presented with Spontaneous Pneumothorax Due to Listeria Monositogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria Monositogenes is a facultative anaerob gram(+ agents that presents in soil, water, plants and in many mammals intestinal system.  Listeria Monositogenes is one of the most common factors of early neonatal sepsis and neonatal pneumonia during the perinatal period. Maternal obstetric complications are frequently seen in patients. Patients are often premature and have low birth weight. Responsible microorganisms frequently originate from maternal. The disease involes multisystems and the prognosis is usually fulminant.  In the congenital pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome is prominent. Symptomatic spontaneous pneumothorax  brings about serious morbidity and mortality in newborns. The cause and risk factors of symptomatic pneumothorax in term newborns are not completely understood. The risk factors were reported as prematurity, male sex, high birth weight and birth the use of vacuum. We aimed to present a case with neonatal pneumonia associated with symptomatic spontaneous pneumothorax due to Listeria Monositogenes.

  18. [Cardiogenic shock due to spontaneous neonatal thrombosis of the abdominal aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, J; Venot, P; Colinart-Thomas, M; Morville, P

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal arterial thrombosis is unusual and generally associated with an arterial umbilical catheter. Spontaneous aortic thrombosis is exceptional but its severity is related to high mortality rate and renovascular morbidity. We report here the observation of a 10-day-old term infant showing a large abdominal aortic thrombosis revealed by cardiogenic shock induced by systemic arterial hypertension. The resolution was fast following anticoagulant and antihypertensive therapy. Etiologic investigations showed renal failure and moderate hyperhomocysteinemia controlled by a vitamin supplement. Following this observation, we did a brief review of the neonatal spontaneous arterial thrombosis literature to discuss the neonatal hemostasis specific aspects. Management of infants presenting an arterial thrombosis varies depending on the hospital and there are no guidelines at this time concerning the etiologic investigation and treatment in France or internationally. PMID:27133548

  19. Hematological indices in febrile neonates with malaria parasitaemia in Calabar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callistus O. A Enyuma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normal hematological indices has been determined in Nigerian newborns and found to be lower compared to their Caucasian counterparts. This was attributed to genetic factors. Malaria is endemic in Nigeria and is one of the major causes of ill health and death. Anemia is an important manifestation of malaria. Resistance by malaria parasites to antimalarial drug exacerbates the situation by continuous hemolysis. Aim: To determine the hematological indices in febrile newborn with malaria parasitemia. Materials and Methods: One-hundred fifty neonates (0-28 days with fever admitted into the Newborn Unit of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, over a 6 months period, were recruited consecutively. Blood film for malaria parasites and samples for full blood count were obtained and sent to the laboratory before commencement of the treatment. Data analysis was with SPSS version 14. Results: One-hundred fifty babies were recruited into the study. Most (85.3% of the babies were aged ≤7 days. Six babies (4% had malaria parasitemia. Plasmodium falciparum was the only species identified. All the babies that had parasitemia were anemic (mean hemoglobin [Hb] concentration of 12.6 g/dl even when parasite count was low (average of 30.6/µl though this could not be attributed solely to malaria. None of these neonates was transfused. All the other hematological indices were within the normal range of healthy newborn population irrespective of parasitization. Conclusion: Neonatal malaria does occur in our environment. While it does not affect the white blood indices, it lowers neonatal Hb. It is recommended that Hb concentration be estimated in newborns with malaria to reduce infant morbidity and mortality in our environment.

  20. Neonatal Sacrococcygeal Teratoma: Our Experience with 10 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the outcome of neonatal sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCT in our setup.Materials and Methods: Hospital records of 10 neonates, who were operated for SCT during 14 years time period, were retrieved and analysed. Letters were sent to 6 parents/ caretakers of children who were lost to follow up; none of them responded.Results: Seven girls and 3 boys with a mean age of 9 days (range 1- 30 days underwent excision of SCT in the neonatal period. Antenatal pickup rates were poor (2/10. Two patients presented with tumor rupture. Though all had an obvious mass at birth, only half of them presented on day 1 of life. The remaining 5 patients came late at a mean age of 11 days. Half of the SCTs were 10 cm or larger in size. One patient was misdiagnosed as meningomyelocoele. All underwent complete excision with coccygectomy by posterior approach in prone position. There were only 2 patients who could be classified as Altman Type II, the rest were all Altman Type I. Histopathology (HPE revealed mature cystic teratoma (n=8, grade 1 immature teratoma (n=1 and grade 3 immature teratoma (n=1. There was no mortality; and complications were seen in 3/10 patients (1 neurogenic bladder, 1 major wound infection with ventriculitis and 1 minor wound infection. The mean follow up was 25 months (range 1 month to 6 years in 4 patients with no recurrence.Conclusions: Neonatal SCTs are usually benign with a good outcome after complete surgical excision with a low complication rate. Although long term follow up has been advocated, the follow up was poor in this series.