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Sample records for bovine milk high

  1. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  2. The influence of bovine milk high or low in isoflavones on hepatic gene expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanild, Mette Tingleff; Nielsen, Tina Skau

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavones have generated much attention due to their potential positive effects in various diseases. Phytoestrogens especially equol can be found in bovine milk, as feed ration for dairy cows is comprised of plants containing phytoestrogens. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes...... in hepatic gene expression after dietary intake of milk high and low in isoflavones. In addition to pelleted feed female NMRI mice were offered water, water added either 17β-estradiol, equol, Tween 80, and milk high and low in isoflavone content for a week. Gene expression was analyzed using an array q......PCR kit. It was revealed that Tween 80 and 17β-estradiol upregulated both phase I and phase II genes to the same extent whereas equol alone, high and low isoflavone milk did not alter the expression of phase I genes but decreased the expression of phase II genes. This study shows that dietary isoflavones...

  3. The Influence of Bovine Milk High or Low in Isoflavones on Hepatic Gene Expression in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoflavones have generated much attention due to their potential positive effects in various diseases. Phyto estrogens especially equol can be found in bovine milk, as feed ration for dairy cows is comprised of plants containing phyto estrogens. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in hepatic gene expression after dietary intake of milk high and low in isoflavones. In addition to pelleted feed female NMRI mice were offered water, water added either 17βestradiol, equol, Tween 80, and milk high and low in isoflavone content for a week. Gene expression was analyzed using an array qPCR kit. It was revealed that Tween 80 and 17β-estradiol up regulated both phase I and phase II genes to the same extent whereas equol alone, high and low isoflavone milk did not alter the expression of phase I genes but decreased the expression of phase II genes. This study shows that dietary isoflavones can regulate the transcription of especially phase II liver enzymes which potentially could give rise to an increase in reactive oxygen metabolites that may contribute to the development of cancer.

  4. The host defense proteome of human and bovine milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Hettinga

    Full Text Available Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk. We analyzed human and bovine milk using a shot-gun proteomics approach focusing on host defense-related proteins. In total, 268 proteins in human milk and 269 proteins in bovine milk were identified. Of these, 44 from human milk and 51 from bovine milk are related to the host defense system. Of these proteins, 33 were found in both species but with significantly different quantities. High concentrations of proteins involved in the mucosal immune system, immunoglobulin A, CD14, lactoferrin, and lysozyme, were present in human milk. The human newborn is known to be deficient for at least two of these proteins (immunoglobulin A and CD14. On the other hand, antimicrobial proteins (5 cathelicidins and lactoperoxidase were abundant in bovine milk. The high concentration of lactoperoxidase is probably linked to the high amount of thiocyanate in the plant-based diet of cows. This first detailed analysis of host defense proteins in human and bovine milk is an important step in understanding the function of milk in the development of the immune system of these two mammals.

  5. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research ther

  6. Antibody-independent identification of bovine milk-derived peptides in breast-milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Passariello, Annalisa; Dallas, David C; Robinson, Randall C; Barile, Daniela; Canani, Roberto Berni

    2016-08-10

    Exclusively breast-fed infants can exhibit clear signs of IgE or non IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. However, the definite characterization of dietary cow's milk proteins (CMP) that survive the maternal digestive tract to be absorbed into the bloodstream and secreted into breast milk remains missing. Herein, we aimed at assessing possible CMP-derived peptides in breast milk. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS), we compared the peptide fraction of breast milk from 12 donors, among which 6 drank a cup of milk daily and 6 were on a strict dairy-free diet. We identified two bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg, 2 out 6 samples) and one αs1-casein (1 out 6 samples) fragments in breast milk from mothers receiving a cup of bovine milk daily. These CMP-derived fragments, namely β-Lg (f42-54), (f42-57) and αs1-casein (f180-197), were absent in milk from mothers on dairy-free diet. In contrast, neither intact nor hydrolyzed β-Lg was detected by western blot and competitive ELISA in any breast milk sample. Eight additional bovine milk-derived peptides identified by software-assisted MS were most likely false positive. The results of this study demonstrate that CMP-derived peptides rather than intact CMP may sensitize or elicit allergic responses in the neonate through mother's milk. Immunologically active peptides from the maternal diet could be involved in priming the newborn's immune system, driving a tolerogenic response. PMID:27396729

  7. Peptidomic analysis of healthy and subclinically mastitic bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero, A.; Dallas, D.C.; Contreras, S.; Bhandari, A.; Canovas, A.; Islas-Trejo, A.; Medrano, J.F.; Parker, E.A.; Wang, M.; Hettinga, K.A.; Chee, S.; German, J.B.; Barile, D.; Lebrilla, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of proteases release hundreds of endogenous peptide fragments from intact bovine milk proteins. Mass spectrometry-based peptidomics allows for high throughput sequence assignment of a large number of these peptides. Mastitis is known to result in increased protease activity in the mammary

  8. New York Milk Supply with Bovine Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Magrath, William B.; Tauer, Loren W.

    1986-01-01

    New York milk supply functions with ans without Bovine Growth Hormone were estimated by a sector linear programming model. High Government price supports make bGH profitable and induces significant increases in output. Reduction or elimination of Price supports greatly diminishes bGH as a variable technology except at low bGH prices

  9. Simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jiancheng; Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive, confirmatory ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to detect 23 veterinary drugs and metabolites (nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components) in bovine milk. Compounds of interest were sequentially extracted from milk with acetonitrile and basified acetonitrile using sodium chloride to induce liquid-liquid partition. The extract was purified on a mixed mode solid-phase extraction cartridge. Using rapid polarity switching in electrospray ionization, a single injection was capable of detecting both positively and negatively charged analytes in a 9 min chromatography run time. Recoveries based on matrix-matched calibrations and isotope labeled internal standards for milk ranged from 51.7% to 101.8%. The detection limits and quantitation limits of the analytical method were found to be within the range of 2-20 ng/kg and 5-50 ng/kg, respectively. The recommended method is simple, specific, and reliable for the routine monitoring of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk samples.

  10. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  11. Modification of the Kjeldahl noncasein nitrogen method to include bovine milk concentrates and milks from other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of our research was to modify the current indirect casein method for bovine milk to enable it to be applied to bovine milk, bovine milk concentrates, and milks of other species that contain a protein concentration up to 9% (wt/wt). Our work used a series of bovine milk concentrates from about 3 to 9% protein with the same casein as a percentage of true protein to determine the amount of buffer required and pH of the noncasein nitrogen (NCN) filtrate to achieve consistent estimates of casein and casein as percent of true protein. As the concentration of protein in milk increased (either in bovine milk concentrates or in milks of other species), the amount of buffer needed for the NCN sample preparation method to achieve a filtrate pH of 4.6 increased. In the first part of the study using a series of bovine milk concentrates, it was demonstrated that the method gave more consistent predictions of casein as a percentage of true protein when the final NCN filtrate pH was between 4.5 and 4.6 at 38°C. When the amount of buffer added to the sample was not sufficient (i.e., the filtrate pH was too high), the filtrates were not clear. A polynomial equation was developed for prediction of the amount of acetic acid or sodium acetate buffer required to achieve pH 4.5 to 4.6 for milk protein concentrations from 3 to 9% protein using bovine milk and milk concentrates. When the equation developed using cow milk was applied to goat, sheep, and water buffalo milks, it correctly predicted the volume of reagents needed to achieve a final NCN filtrate pH of 4.6 at 38°C. We also verified as part of this work that the ability to measure NPN content of milk was not influenced by protein content of milk in the range from 3 to 9% protein. The results of this study will be used as the basis for proposed changes in the official methods for measurement of the casein content of milk to expand the scope of the method so it can be used to achieve accurate results for milk

  12. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  13. Detection and characterisation of Complement protein activity in bovine milk by bactericidal sequestration assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Susan; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Kelly, Philip M

    2015-08-01

    While the Complement protein system in human milk is well characterised, there is little information on its presence and activity in bovine milk. Complement forms part of the innate immune system, hence the importance of its contribution during milk ingestion to the overall defences of the neonate. A bactericidal sequestration assay, featuring a Complement sensitive strain, Escherichia coli 0111, originally used to characterise Complement activity in human milk was successfully applied to freshly drawn bovine milk samples, thus, providing an opportunity to compare Complement activities in both human and bovine milks. Although not identical in response, the levels of Complement activity in bovine milk were found to be closely comparable with that of human milk. Differential counts of Esch. coli 0111 after 2 h incubation were 6.20 and 6.06 log CFU/ml, for raw bovine and human milks, respectively - the lower value representing a stronger Complement response. Exposing bovine milk to a range of thermal treatments e.g. 42, 45, 65, 72, 85 or 95 °C for 10 min, progressively inhibited Complement activity by increasing temperature, thus confirming the heat labile nature of this immune protein system. Low level Complement activity was found, however, in 65 and 72 °C heat treated samples and in retailed pasteurised milk which highlights the outer limit to which high temperature, short time (HTST) industrial thermal processes should be applied if retention of activity is a priority. Concentration of Complement in the fat phase was evident following cream separation, and this was also reflected in the further loss of activity recorded in low fat variants of retailed pasteurised milk. Laboratory-based churning of the cream during simulated buttermaking generated an aqueous (buttermilk) phase with higher levels of Complement activity than the fat phase, thus pointing to a likely association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) layer.

  14. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was moderate. Long chain fatty acids had moderate heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd was high. Several genomic regions (QTL) with effect on short and medium chain, long chain, or both types of fat...

  15. Detection and Quantification of αS1-, αS2-, β-, κ-casein, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and Lactoferrin in Bovine Milk by Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maurmayr

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk proteins has been widely studied because of the strong association and relationship with composition and technological properties of milk. Cow’s milk quality is very important, above all in such countries like Italy, where about 70% of whole milk production is used in cheese-making industry. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method was developed to identify and quantify rapidly the most common genetic variants of bovine milk proteins, included lactoferrin. A reverse-phase analytical column C8 (Aeris WIDEPORE XBC8, Phenomenex, 3,6 μm, 300A, 250 x 2,1 I.D. was used for the analysis. All the most common casein (CN and whey protein genetic variants were detected and separated simultaneously in less than 20 min; purifi ed bovine milk protein genetic variants were employed in calibration. A linear relationship (R2 >0.99% between concentration and peak areas of individual milk protein variants was observed.

  16. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 1. High abundance proteins, acute phase proteins and peptidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Funmilola Clara; Mullen, William; Tassi, Riccardo; Ramírez-Torres, Adela; Mudaliar, Manikhandan; McNeilly, Tom N; Zadoks, Ruth N; Burchmore, Richard; David Eckersall, P

    2016-08-16

    A peptidomic investigation of milk from an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis in dairy cows has incorporated a study of milk high abundance and acute phase (APP) proteins as well as analysis of low molecular weight peptide biomarkers. Intramammary infection (IMI) with S. uberis caused a shift in abundance from caseins, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin to albumin, lactoferrin and IgG with the increase in lactoferrin occurring last. The APP response of haptoglobin, mammary associated serum amyloid A3 and C-reactive protein occurred between 30-48 hours post challenge with peak concentrations of APPs at 72-96 hours post challenge and declined thereafter at a rate resembling the fall in bacterial count rather than the somatic cell count. A peptide biomarker panel for IMI based on capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was developed. It comprised 77 identified peptides (IMI77) composed mainly of casein derived peptides but also including peptides of glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule and serum amyloid A. The panel had a biomarker classification score that increased from 36 hour to 81 hour post challenge, significantly differentiating infected from non-infected milk, thus suggesting potential as a peptide biomarker panel of bovine mastitis and specifically that of S. uberis origin. The use of omic technology has shown a multifactorial cross system reaction in high and low abundance proteins and their peptide derivatives with changes of over a thousand fold in analyte levels in response to S. uberis infection. PMID:27412456

  17. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Meha Mayuri; Vivek Garg; Chandan Mukherji; Divya Aggarwal; Sanjeev Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk) are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs). Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year o...

  18. Quantitative milk genomics: estimation of variance components and prediction of fatty acids in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian

    The composition of bovine milk fat, used for human consumption, is far from the recommendations for human fat nutrition. The aim of this PhD was to describe the variance components and prediction probabilities of individual fatty acids (FA) in bovine milk, and to evaluate the possibilities...

  19. Effect of Prototheca zopfii on neutrophil function from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Luciane T; Pugine, Silvana P; Valle, Claudia R; Ribeiro, Andrea R; Costa, Ernane J X; De Melo, Mariza P

    2006-12-01

    This study was carried to investigate neutrophil function in the presence of Prototheca zopfii. For this purpose, bovine milk neutrophils were incubated in the absence (control) of and presence of P. zopfii, and then they were examined hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production, antioxidant enzyme activities, and phagocytic capacity. Milk was collected from negative "California Mastitis Test" (CMT) quarter from three lactating Holstein cows after induction of leukocytosis with an intramammary infusion of oyster glycogen. H(2)O(2) production was measured using the phenol red method. Catalase activity was measured following H(2)O(2) reduction at 240 nm and the activity of glutathione reductase was determined by measuring the rate of NADPH oxidation at 340 nm. P. zopfii death was assessed by fluorescent microscopy using acridine orange assay and by colony forming units (CFUs). Comparisons between the groups were initially performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were then compared using Tukey's test with a significance coefficient of 0.05. Hydrogen peroxide production, catalase and glutathione reductase activities by neutrophils incubated in presence of P. zopfii were stimulated five times, 21% and 27% respectively, compared to the unstimulated-neutrophils. Neutrophils did not affect P. zopfii death as shown by microscopy and CFUs. These observations led to the conclusion that the P. zopfii promote a high increase of H(2)O(2) production by neutrophils from bovine milk during algae exposition accompanied by increase of antioxidant enzyme activities; however, this process did not affect P. zopfii death. PMID:17146586

  20. Hydrolysis of bovine and caprine milk fat globules by lipoprotein lipase. Effects of heparin and skim milk on lipase distribution and on lipolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heparin can dissociate lipoprotein lipase from casein micelles, and addition of heparin enhances lipolysis in bovine but not in caprine milk. Heparin shortened the lag-time for binding of lipoprotein lipase to milk fat globules and for lipolysis. Heparin counteracted the inhibitory effects of skim milk on binding of lipase and on lipolysis. Heparin stimulated lipolysis in all bovine milk samples when added before cooling and in spontaneously lipolytic milk samples also when added after cooling. Heparin enhanced lipolysis of isolated milk fat globules. Hence, its effect is not solely due to dissociation of lipoprotein lipase from the casein micelles. Cooling of goat milk caused more marked changes in the distribution of lipase than cooling of bovine milk; the fraction of added 125I-labeled lipase that bound to cream increased from about 8 to 60%. In addition, caprine skim milk caused less inhibition of lipolysis than bovine skim milk. These observations provide an explanation for the high degree of cold storage lipolysis in goat milk. Heparin had only small effects on the distribution of lipoprotein lipase in caprine milk, which explains why heparin has so little effect on lipolysis in caprine milk. The distribution of 35S-labeled heparin in bovine milk was studied. In warm milk less than 10% bound to the cream fraction, but when milk was cooled, binding of heparin to cream increased to 45%. These results suggest that there exists in the skim fraction a relatively small amount of a heparin-binding protein, which on cooling of milk adsorbs to the milk fat, or suggests that cooling induces a conformational change in a membrane protein such that its affinity for heparin increases

  1. Determination of Quinolones and Nonsteroidal anti-Inflammatory Agents in Animal Tissues and Bovine Milk by Microwave-assisted Extraction High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xi-Liu; DING Lan; JIN Hai-Yan; LIU Miao; CHENG Jian-Hua; WU Xiu-Feng; ZHAI Yu-Juan; SUN Yan-Tao; ZHANG Han-Qi; YU Yong; WANG Xiu-Pin

    2008-01-01

    A rapid,specific microwave-assisted extraction high performance liquid chromatography is described for assaying three quinolones(fleroxacin,lomefloxacin and sparfloxacin)and two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents(ketoprofen and ibuprofen)in samples of sheep liver,bovine muscle and milk.The optimal microwave-assisted extraction conditions such as extraction temperature(40 ℃),extraction time(6 min),solvent volume(10 mL)and solvent(acetonitrile)were determined by an orthogonal experiment.Recoveries were 60.0%-107% in the concentration range 0.25-0.75 μg·g with good precision(< 11%)from three varieties of spiked animal samples.

  2. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography. Quantita

  3. Analysis of fenbendazole residues in bovine milk by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, David L; Bates, Anne H; Binder, Ronald G; Montague, William C; Whitehand, Linda C; Barker, Steven A

    2002-10-01

    Fenbendazole residues in bovine milk were analyzed by ELISAs using two monoclonal antibodies. One monoclonal antibody (MAb 587) bound the major benzimidazole anthelmintic drugs, including fenbendazole, oxfendazole, and fenbendazole sulfone. The other (MAb 591) was more specific for fenbendazole, with 13% cross-reactivity with the sulfone and no significant binding to the sulfoxide metabolite. The limit of detection of the ELISA method in the milk matrix was 7 ppb for MAb 587 and 3 ppb for MAb 591. Fenbendazole was administered in feed, drench, and paste form to three groups of dairy cattle. Milk was collected immediately before dosing and then every 12 h for 5 days. The ELISA indicated that residue levels varied widely among individual cows in each group. Fenbendazole levels peaked at approximately 12-24 h and declined rapidly thereafter. Metabolites were detected at much higher levels than the parent compound, peaked at approximately 24-36 h, and declined gradually. Residue levels were undetectable by 72 h. The ELISA data correlated well with the total residues determined by chromatographic analysis, but the use of the two separate ELISAs did not afford an advantage over ELISA with the single, broadly reactive MAb 587. The ELISA method could be used to flag high-residue samples in on-site monitoring of fenbendazole in milk and is a potential tool for studying drug pharmacokinetics.

  4. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  5. Enzymic characteristics of fat globule membranes from bovine colostrum and bovine milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Fat globule membranes have been isolated from bovine colostrum and bovine milk by the dispersion of the fat in sucrose solutions at 4 degrees C and fractionation by centrifugation through discontinuous sucrose gradients. The morphology and enzymic characteristics of the separated fractions were examined. Fractions comprising a large proportion of the total extracted membrane were thus obtained having high levels of the Golgi marker enzymes UDP-galactose N- acetylglucosamine beta-4-galactosyltransferase and thiamine pyrophosphatase. A membrane-derived form of the galactosyltransferase has been solubilized from fat and purified to homogeneity. This enzyme is larger in molecular weight than previously studied soluble galactosyltransferases, but resembles in size the galactosyltransferase of lactating mammary Golgi membranes. In contrast, when fat globule membranes were prepared by traditional procedures, which involved washing the fat at higher temperatures, before extraction, galactosyltransferase was not present in the membranes, having been released into supernatant fractions, When the enzyme released by this procedure was partially purified and examined by gel filtration, it was found to be of a degraded form resembling in size the soluble galactosyltransferase of milk. The release is therefore attributed to the action of proteolytic enzymes. Our observations contrast with previous biochemical studies which suggested that Golgi membranes do not contribute to the milk fat globule membrane. They are, however, consistent with electron microscope studies of the fat secretion process, which indicate that secretory vesicle membranes, derived from the Golgi apparatus, may provide a large proportion of the fat globule membrane. PMID:402369

  6. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk;

    2007-01-01

    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65...

  7. Isolation of bovine milk-derived microvesicles carrying mRNAs and microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Taketoshi; Murakami, Kosuke; Nakatani, Hajime; Yamamoto, Yasunari; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Aoki, Naohito

    2010-05-28

    By a series of centrifugation and ultracentrifugation, we could isolate microvesicles with approximately 100 nm in diameter from bovine milk. We also found that approximately 1700 and 1000 ng of total RNA, in which small RNAs were major components, was contained inside the microvesicles isolated from 6 ml of colostrum and mature milk, respectively, despite high RNase activity in the milk. Polyadenylated gene transcripts for major milk proteins and translation elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) were present in the microvesicles, and integrity of some transcripts was confirmed by real-time PCR targeting 5'- and 3'-ends of mRNA and by in vitro translation analysis. Moreover, a considerable amount of mammary gland and immune-related microRNAs were present in the milk-derived microvesicles. Acidification of milk to mimic gastrointestinal tract did not mostly affected RNA yield and quality. The milk related gene transcripts were detected in cultured cells when incubated with milk-derived microvesicles, suggesting cellular uptake of the microvesicle contents including RNA. Our findings suggest that bovine breast milk contains RNAs capable for being transferred to living cells and involved in the development of calf's gastrointestinal and immune systems. PMID:20434431

  8. Infection of human keratinocytes by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae isolated from milk of the bovine udder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Alves-Barroco, Cynthia; Raposo, Luís R; Costa, Mafalda N; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro Viana; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) are considered exclusive animal pathogens; however, a putative zoonotic upper limb cellulitis, a prosthetic joint infection and an infective endocarditis were described in humans. To unravel if bovine SDSD isolates are able to infect human cells, the adherence and internalization to human primary keratinocytes of two bovine SDSD strains isolated from milk collected from udder were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion assays and confocal microscopy indicate a high adherence and internalization of SDSD isolates to human cells, suggesting for the first time the ability of bovine isolates to infect human cells. PMID:26655883

  9. Effects of bovine milk lactoperoxidase system on some bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, M; Sişecioğlu, M; Bariş, O; Güllüce, M; Ozdemir, H

    2010-01-01

    Bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) was purified from skimmed milk using amberlite CG-50-H+ resin, CM sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Lactoperoxidase was purified 20.45-fold with a yield of 28.8%. Purity of enzyme checked by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method and a single band was observed. Km was 0.25 mM at 20 degrees C, Vmax value was 7.95 micromol/ml min at 20 degrees C (pH 6.0). Antibacterial study was done by disk diffusion method of Kir-by-Bauer using Mueller-Hinton agar medium with slight modification. Bovine LPO showed high antibacterial activity in 100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 medium for some bacteria (Brevibacillus centrosaurus, B. choshinensis, B. lyticum, Cedecea davisae, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum, Clavibacter michiganense pv. insidiosum, Kocuria erythromyxa, K. kristinae, K. rosea, K. varians, Paenibacillus validus, Pseudomonas syringae pv. populans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhodococcus wratislaviensis, Serratia fonticola, Streptomyces violaceusniger, Vibrio cholerae-nonO1) respectively, and compared with well known antibacterial substances (levofloxacin, netilmicin). LPO system has inhibition effects on all type bacteria and concentration is really important such as LPO-100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 system was proposed as an effective agent against many factors causing several diseases.

  10. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; IZAIKE, Yoshiaki; OKANO, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from...

  11. Gold nanoparticle aggregation-based colorimetric assay for β-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Zhou, Y; Meng, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Song, F; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Hu, P; Liu, Z S; Zhang, J H

    2014-11-01

    Traditional Kjeldahl method, used for quality evaluation of bovine milk, has intrinsic defects of time-consuming sample preparation and two analyses to determine the difference between non-protein nitrogen content and total protein nitrogen content. Herein, based upon antibody functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we described a colorimetric method for β-casein (β-CN) detection in bovine milk samples. The linear dynamic range and the LOD were 0.08-250 μg mL(-1), and 0.03 μg mL(-1) respectively. In addition, the real content of β-CN in bovine milk was measured by using the developed assay. The results are closely correlated with those from Kjeldahl method. The advantages of β-CN triggered AuNP aggregation-based colorimetric assay are simple signal generation, the high sensitivity and specificity as well as no need of complicated sample preparation, which make it for on-site detection of β-CN in bovine milk samples.

  12. A New ELISA Using the ANANAS Technology Showing High Sensitivity to diagnose the Bovine Rhinotracheitis from Individual Sera to Pooled Milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Casarin

    Full Text Available Diagnostic tests for veterinary surveillance programs should be efficient, easy to use and, possibly, economical. In this context, classic Enzyme linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA remains the most common analytical platform employed for serological analyses. The analysis of pooled samples instead of individual ones is a common procedure that permits to certify, with one single test, entire herds as "disease-free". However, diagnostic tests for pooled samples need to be particularly sensitive, especially when the levels of disease markers are low, as in the case of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in milk as markers of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR disease. The avidin-nucleic-acid-nanoassembly (ANANAS is a novel kind of signal amplification platform for immunodiagnostics based on colloidal poly-avidin nanoparticles that, using model analytes, was shown to strongly increase ELISA test performance as compared to monomeric avidin. Here, for the first time, we applied the ANANAS reagent integration in a real diagnostic context. The monoclonal 1G10 anti-bovine IgG1 antibody was biotinylated and integrated with the ANANAS reagents for indirect IBR diagnosis from pooled milk mimicking tank samples from herds with IBR prevalence between 1 to 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ANANAS integrated method was compared to that of a classic test based on the same 1G10 antibody directly linked to horseradish peroxidase, and a commercial IDEXX kit recently introduced in the market. ANANAS integration increased by 5-fold the sensitivity of the 1G10 mAb-based conventional ELISA without loosing specificity. When compared to the commercial kit, the 1G10-ANANAS integrated method was capable to detect the presence of anti-BHV1 antibodies from bulk milk of gE antibody positive animals with 2-fold higher sensitivity and similar specificity. The results demonstrate the potentials of this new amplification technology, which permits improving current classic ELISA

  13. A New ELISA Using the ANANAS Technology Showing High Sensitivity to diagnose the Bovine Rhinotracheitis from Individual Sera to Pooled Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarin, Elisabetta; Lucchese, Laura; Grazioli, Santina; Facchin, Sonia; Realdon, Nicola; Brocchi, Emiliana; Morpurgo, Margherita; Nardelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic tests for veterinary surveillance programs should be efficient, easy to use and, possibly, economical. In this context, classic Enzyme linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) remains the most common analytical platform employed for serological analyses. The analysis of pooled samples instead of individual ones is a common procedure that permits to certify, with one single test, entire herds as "disease-free". However, diagnostic tests for pooled samples need to be particularly sensitive, especially when the levels of disease markers are low, as in the case of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in milk as markers of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) disease. The avidin-nucleic-acid-nanoassembly (ANANAS) is a novel kind of signal amplification platform for immunodiagnostics based on colloidal poly-avidin nanoparticles that, using model analytes, was shown to strongly increase ELISA test performance as compared to monomeric avidin. Here, for the first time, we applied the ANANAS reagent integration in a real diagnostic context. The monoclonal 1G10 anti-bovine IgG1 antibody was biotinylated and integrated with the ANANAS reagents for indirect IBR diagnosis from pooled milk mimicking tank samples from herds with IBR prevalence between 1 to 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ANANAS integrated method was compared to that of a classic test based on the same 1G10 antibody directly linked to horseradish peroxidase, and a commercial IDEXX kit recently introduced in the market. ANANAS integration increased by 5-fold the sensitivity of the 1G10 mAb-based conventional ELISA without loosing specificity. When compared to the commercial kit, the 1G10-ANANAS integrated method was capable to detect the presence of anti-BHV1 antibodies from bulk milk of gE antibody positive animals with 2-fold higher sensitivity and similar specificity. The results demonstrate the potentials of this new amplification technology, which permits improving current classic ELISA sensitivity limits

  14. Detecting β-Casein Variation in Bovine Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Caroli; Salvatore Savino; Omar Bulgari; Eugenio Monti

    2016-01-01

    In bovine species, β-casein (β-CN) is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The two most common protein variants are β-CN A2 (the original one) and A1, differing from A2 for one amino acid substitution (Pro67 to His67). Several bioactive peptides affecting milk nutritional properties can originate from β-CN. Among them, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7) ranging from amino acid 60 to 66 can be released more easily from β-CN variants carrying His67 (A1 type) instead of Pro67 (A2 type). Nowadays, “A2 milk...

  15. Proteomic analysis of whey from bovine colostrum and mature milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pacheco Golinelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to standardize a methodology to obtain two-dimensional (2D maps of whey proteins from bovine colostrum and mature milk, using two-dimensional electrophoresis, in order to identify the minor proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS. A total of 38 proteins were identified, 20 spots in the colostrum whey and 18 in the mature milk whey; 5 of them were identified for the first time.

  16. Short communication: characterization of soluble thiols in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niero, G; De Marchi, M; Masi, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

    2015-09-01

    Antioxidants are molecules essential for the maintenance of cell homeostasis and their intake through the diet has positive effects on human health. Among antioxidants, low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols represent an important class of compounds. The aim of this study was to identify LMW thiols in bovine milk. A total of 96 individual milk samples from Brown Swiss, Holstein-Friesian, Alpine Grey, and Simmental cattle breeds were collected in 8 herds. The LMW thiols were extracted from the soluble fraction of milk and, following a derivatization protocol, they were separated by reverse phase HPLC and detected fluorimetrically. Six thiol species were detected and 2, glutathione (GSH) and cysteine-glycine (Cys-Gly), were identified and quantified. Regardless of the breed, the average concentration of Cys-Gly in milk was greater than that of GSH. Overall, milk from dual-purpose breeds (Simmental and Alpine Grey) was richer in LMW thiols than milk from dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss). Glutathione and Cys-Gly, closely linked metabolically, were strongly correlated. Pearson correlations of Cys-Gly with protein and casein contents were moderately low, and no relationship was found between GSH and milk chemical composition. Future research should focus on the identification of all detected LMW thiol species.

  17. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential. PMID:26799355

  18. Short communication: characterization of soluble thiols in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niero, G; De Marchi, M; Masi, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

    2015-09-01

    Antioxidants are molecules essential for the maintenance of cell homeostasis and their intake through the diet has positive effects on human health. Among antioxidants, low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols represent an important class of compounds. The aim of this study was to identify LMW thiols in bovine milk. A total of 96 individual milk samples from Brown Swiss, Holstein-Friesian, Alpine Grey, and Simmental cattle breeds were collected in 8 herds. The LMW thiols were extracted from the soluble fraction of milk and, following a derivatization protocol, they were separated by reverse phase HPLC and detected fluorimetrically. Six thiol species were detected and 2, glutathione (GSH) and cysteine-glycine (Cys-Gly), were identified and quantified. Regardless of the breed, the average concentration of Cys-Gly in milk was greater than that of GSH. Overall, milk from dual-purpose breeds (Simmental and Alpine Grey) was richer in LMW thiols than milk from dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss). Glutathione and Cys-Gly, closely linked metabolically, were strongly correlated. Pearson correlations of Cys-Gly with protein and casein contents were moderately low, and no relationship was found between GSH and milk chemical composition. Future research should focus on the identification of all detected LMW thiol species. PMID:26188581

  19. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential.

  20. Milk adulteration: Detection of bovine milk in bulk goat milk produced by smallholders in northeastern Brazil by a duplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, N P A; Givisiez, P E N; Queiroga, R C R E; Azevedo, P S; Gebreyes, W A; Oliveira, C J B

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the adulteration of goat milk produced by smallholders in semiarid northeastern Brazil with bovine milk as an adulterant. The study was requested by the association of smallholder producers in the region to investigate and to inhibit adulteration practices as a need to ensure the quality and safety of goat milk. A duplex PCR assay has been developed and standardized. Further validation was performed in 160 fresh bulk goat milk samples. The detection limit of the duplex PCR was 0.5% bovine milk in goat milk and the results indicated that 41.2% of the goat milk presented to market was positive for bovine milk. Making the test available to the association of producers, together with extension activities, have been applied to reduce adulteration in goat milk sold to small-scale dairy plants and to ensure the species origin for goat milk in the state of Paraíba.

  1. A triad of highly divergent polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR haplotypes with major effect on IgA concentration in bovine milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Berry

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine a genetic basis for IgA concentration in milk of Bos taurus. We used a Holstein-Friesian x Jersey F2 crossbred pedigree to undertake a genome-wide search for QTL influencing IgA concentration and yield in colostrum and milk. We identified a single genome-wide significant QTL on chromosome 16, maximising at 4.8 Mbp. The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor gene (PIGR was within the confidence interval of the QTL. In addition, mRNA expression analysis revealed a liver PIGR expression QTL mapping to the same locus as the IgA quantitative trait locus. Sequencing and subsequent genotyping of the PIGR gene revealed three divergent haplotypes that explained the variance of both the IgA QTL and the PIGR expression QTL. Genetic selection based on these markers will facilitate the production of bovine herds producing milk with higher concentrations of IgA.

  2. Immunochromatographic Lateral-flow test strip for the rapid detection of added bovine rennet whey in milk and milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, C.; Munoz, M.; Daury, C.; Weymuth, H.; Kemmers-Voncken, A.; Corbation, V.; Toribo, T.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.

    2009-01-01

    An immunochromatographic lateral-flow test dipstick test was developed for the fast detection of bovine rennet whey in liquid milk and milk powder. The test is based on the binding of casein glycomacropeptide (cGMP) by two specific anti-bovine ¿-casein monoclonal antibodies and has a visual detectio

  3. Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of commercial UHT-treated plant-based milk substitutes and lactose free bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Uniacke-Lowe, Thérèse; O'Mahony, James A; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-02-01

    Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of UHT-treated commercial soy, oat, quinoa, rice and lactose-free bovine milks were studied. The separation profiles were determined using a LUMiSizer dispersion analyser. Soy, rice and quinoa milks formed both cream and sediment layers, while oat milk sedimented but did not cream. Bovine milk was very stable to separation while all plant milks separated at varying rates; rice and oat milks being the most unstable products. Particle sizes in plant-based milk substitutes, expressed as volume mean diameters (d4.3), ranged from 0.55μm (soy) to 2.08μm (quinoa) while the average size in bovine milk was 0.52μm. Particles of plant-based milk substitutes were significantly more polydisperse compared to those of bovine milk. Upon acidification with glucono-δ-lactone (GDL), bovine, soy and quinoa milks formed structured gels with maximum storage moduli of 262, 187 and 105Pa, respectively while oat and rice milks did not gel. In addition to soy products currently on the market, quinoa may have potential in dairy-type food applications. PMID:25172757

  4. The bovine milk microbiota: insights and perspectives from -omics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, M F; Tanca, A; Uzzau, S; Oikonomou, G; Bicalho, R C; Moroni, P

    2016-07-19

    Recent significant progress in culture-independent techniques, together with the parallel development of -omics technologies and data analysis capabilities, have led to a new perception of the milk microbiota as a complex microbial community with great diversity and multifaceted biological roles, living in an environment that was until recently believed to be sterile. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest findings on the milk microbiota in dairy cows, with a focus on the role it plays in bovine physiology and health. Following an introduction on microbial communities and the importance of their study, we present an overview of the -omics methods currently available for their characterization, and outline the potential offered by a systems biology approach encompassing metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metametabolomics. Then, we review the recent discoveries on the dairy cow milk microbiome enabled by the application of -omics approaches. Learning from studies in humans and in the mouse model, and after a description of the endogenous route hypothesis, we discuss the role of the milk microbiota in the physiology and health of both the mother and the offspring, and report how it can be changed by farming practices and during infection. In conclusion, we shortly outline the impact of the milk microbiota on the quality of milk and of dairy products. PMID:27216801

  5. Biosensor assay for determination of haptoglobin in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Maria; Björck, Lennart; Persson Waller, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2006-08-01

    Despite more than 30 years of research into mastitis diagnostics, there are few alternatives to the somatic cell count (SCC) in practical use for identification of cows with subclinical mastitis. Mastitis is not only an animal welfare problem, but also affects the yield, composition and technological properties of milk. Hence, dairy cooperatives give farmers a premium quality payment to encourage low SCC although there is no clear scientific data defining the level of SCC in bulk tank milk that is associated with additional benefits in terms of milk quality. Recent research on alternative markers for inflammatory reactions in the lactating cow, e.g. in mastitis, includes investigations of the acute phase protein, haptoglobin (Hp). So far, the content of Hp in milk has mainly been studied in relation to mastitis diagnostics, with little attention given to its importance for milk composition and technological properties. At present, Hp in milk is measured using ELISA, but this technique is not suitable for routine large-scale analysis. In recent years, optical biosensor technology has been used for automated and rapid quantitative analysis of different components in milk, but so far not for analysis of acute phase proteins. The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and sensitive biosensor method to determine Hp in milk. An affinity sensor assay based on the interaction between Hp and haemoglobin was developed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor technology. The assay was used to analyse Hp in composite milk samples from cows without any clinical signs of mastitis and quarter milk samples with a weak to strong reaction in the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A commercial ELISA for determination of Hp in milk was used for comparison. The limit of detection (LOD) of the biosensor assay was determined as 1.1 mg/l. Within-assay and between-day variations were determined both with bulk tank milk spiked with human Hp and with composite milk samples

  6. A novel isolation strategy for obtaining crude membrane vesicles from bovine skim milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blans, Kristine; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Wiking, Lars;

    components. Here we present a novel strategy for a short, gentle and non-denaturing isolation of skim milk-derived membrane vesicles. Methods: Untreated fresh bovine milk was defatted to remove milk fat globules. The resulting skim milk was subjected to ultracentrifugation. The resulting ochre-coloured...

  7. High-throughput method for the determination of residues of β-lactam antibiotics in bovine milk by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Louise; Martins, Magda Targa; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation procedures for scope extension of a method for the determination of β-lactam antibiotic residues (ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, ceftiofur, cefquinome, cefoperazone, cephapirine, cefalexin and cephalonium) in bovine milk. Sample preparation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by two clean-up steps, including low temperature purification (LTP) and a solid phase dispersion clean-up. Extracts were analysed using a liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry system (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed in a C18 column, using methanol and water (both with 0.1% of formic acid) as mobile phase. Method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Main validation parameters such as linearity, limit of detection, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), accuracy, and repeatability were determined and were shown to be adequate. The method was applied to real samples (more than 250) and two milk samples had levels above maximum residues limits (MRLs) for cloxacillin - CLX and cefapirin - CFAP. PMID:26414060

  8. Expanding the bovine milk proteome through extensive fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Asger; Bendixen, Emøke; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne;

    2013-01-01

    of low abundant proteins. Further, the general health and udder health of the dairy cows delivering the milk may influence the composition of the milk proteome. To gain a more exhaustive and true picture of the milk proteome, we performed an extensive preanalysis fractionation of raw composite milk...... collected from documented healthy cows in early lactation. Four simple and industrially applicable techniques exploring the physical and chemical properties of milk, including acidification, filtration, and centrifugation, were used for separation of the proteins. This resulted in 5 different fractions...... sensitivity limit of the 2-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Each fractionation technique resulted in identification of a unique subset of proteins. However, high-speed centrifugation of milk to whey was by far the best method to achieve high and repeatable proteome coverage...

  9. Protein degradation in bovine milk caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Maria; Wredle, Ewa; Lam, Vo; Johansson, Monika

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae is a contagious mastitis bacterium, often associated with cases of subclinical mastitis. Different mastitis bacteria have been evaluated previously from a diagnostic point of view, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning their effect on milk composition. Protein composition is important in achieving optimal yield and texture when milk is processed to fermented products, such as cheese and yoghurt, and is thus of great economic value. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate protein degradation mainly caused by exogenous proteases originating from naturally occurring Str. agalactiae. The samples were incubated at 37°C to imitate degradation caused by the bacteria in the udder. Protein degradation caused by different strains of Str. agalactiae was also investigated. Protein degradation was observed to occur when Str. agalactiae was added to milk, but there were variations between strains of the bacteria. Caseins, the most economically important proteins in milk, were degraded up to 75% in milk inoculated with Str. agalactiae in relation to sterile ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk, used as control milk. The major whey proteins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, were degraded up to 21% in relation to the sterile control milk. These results suggest that different mastitis bacteria but also different strains of mastitis bacteria should be evaluated from a milk quality perspective to gain knowledge about their ability to degrade the economically important proteins in milk. PMID:22850579

  10. Feeding bovine milks with low or high IgA levels is associated with altered re-establishment of murine intestinal microbiota after antibiotic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wayne; Cakebread, Julie A.; Haigh, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are a vital and commonly used therapeutic tool, but their use also results in profound changes in the intestinal microbiota that can, in turn, have significant health consequences. Understanding how the microbiota recovers after antibiotic treatment will help to devise strategies for mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotics. Using a mouse model, we have characterized the changes occurring in the intestinal microbiota immediately after five days exposure to ampicillin, and then at three and fourteen days thereafter. During the fourteen day period of antibiotic recovery, groups of mice were fed either water, cows’ milk containing high levels of IgA, or cows’ milk containing low levels of IgA as their sole source of liquid. Effects on microbiota of feeding milks for 14 days were also assessed in groups of mice that had no ampicillin exposure. Changes in microbiota were measured by high throughput sequencing of the V4 to V6 variable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. As expected, exposure to ampicillin led to profound changes to the types and abundance of bacteria present, along with a loss of diversity. At 14 days following antibiotic exposure, mice fed water had recovered microbiota compositions similar to that prior to antibiotics. However, feeding High-IgA milk to mice that has been exposed to antibiotics was associated with altered microbiota compositions, including increased relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Barnesiella compared to the start of the study. Mice exposed to antibiotics then fed Low-IgA milk also showed increased Barnesiella at day 14. Mice without antibiotic perturbation, showed no change in their microbiota after 14 days of milk feeding. Overall, these findings add to a knowledge platform for optimizing intestinal function after treatment with antibiotics in the human population. PMID:27703861

  11. Production and properties of health-promoting proteins and peptides from bovine colostrum and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, H J

    2013-01-01

    The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017

  12. Detecting β-Casein Variation in Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Caroli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In bovine species, β-casein (β-CN is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The two most common protein variants are β-CN A2 (the original one and A1, differing from A2 for one amino acid substitution (Pro67 to His67. Several bioactive peptides affecting milk nutritional properties can originate from β-CN. Among them, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7 ranging from amino acid 60 to 66 can be released more easily from β-CN variants carrying His67 (A1 type instead of Pro67 (A2 type. Nowadays, “A2 milk” is produced in different countries claiming its potential benefits in human health. The aim of this study was to further develop and apply an isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF method to bulk and individual milk samples in order to improve its use for β-CN studies. We succeeded in identifying A2 milk samples correctly and quantifying the percentage of A2, A1, and B variants in bulk samples not derived from A2 milk as well as in individual milk samples. The method allows us to quantify the relative proportion of β-CN variants in whole milk without eliminating whey protein by acid or enzymatic precipitation of caseins. The aim of this study was also to study the different behavior of β-CN and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG in the presence of trichloroacetic acid (TCA. The higher sensitivity of β-CN to TCA allows quantifying β-CN variants after TCA fixation because β-LG is not visible. Monitoring β-CN variation in cattle breeds is important in order to maintain a certain balance between Pro67 and His67 in dairy products. Overall, the debate between A1 and A2 milk needs further investigation.

  13. A gene-based high-resolution comparative radiation hybrid map as a framework for genome sequence assembly of a bovine chromosome 6 region associated with QTL for growth, body composition, and milk performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Pascal

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of different quantitative trait loci (QTL for various phenotypic traits, including milk production, functional, and conformation traits in dairy cattle as well as growth and body composition traits in meat cattle, have been mapped consistently in the middle region of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6. Dense genetic and physical maps and, ultimately, a fully annotated genome sequence as well as their mutual connections are required to efficiently identify genes and gene variants responsible for genetic variation of phenotypic traits. A comprehensive high-resolution gene-rich map linking densely spaced bovine markers and genes to the annotated human genome sequence is required as a framework to facilitate this approach for the region on BTA6 carrying the QTL. Results Therefore, we constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH map for the QTL containing chromosomal region of BTA6. This new RH map with a total of 234 loci including 115 genes and ESTs displays a substantial increase in loci density compared to existing physical BTA6 maps. Screening the available bovine genome sequence resources, a total of 73 loci could be assigned to sequence contigs, which were already identified as specific for BTA6. For 43 loci, corresponding sequence contigs, which were not yet placed on the bovine genome assembly, were identified. In addition, the improved potential of this high-resolution RH map for BTA6 with respect to comparative mapping was demonstrated. Mapping a large number of genes on BTA6 and cross-referencing them with map locations in corresponding syntenic multi-species chromosome segments (human, mouse, rat, dog, chicken achieved a refined accurate alignment of conserved segments and evolutionary breakpoints across the species included. Conclusion The gene-anchored high-resolution RH map (1 locus/300 kb for the targeted region of BTA6 presented here will provide a valuable platform to guide high-quality assembling and

  14. Biological effects of novel bovine milk fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Novel dairy fractions have been isolated and are now commercially available. Several of them have been shown to have biological activities in various test systems. α-Lactalbumin was first isolated to provide a good source of tryptophan, often the first limiting amino acid in infant formulas, but has then been shown to be digested into smaller peptides with antimicrobial and prebiotic activities, immunostimulatory effect and acting as enhancers of mineral absorption. Lactoferrin bioactivities include antibacterial and antiviral effects, regulation of immune function, stimulation of intestinal proliferation and differentiation and facilitating iron absorption, but these activities may have been limited due to earlier contamination with LPS. Lactoferrin free of lipopolysaccharide may prove to be more effective with regard to exerting these activities. Osteopontin is a heavily phosphorylated and glycosylated protein that modulates immune function and stimulates Th1/Th2 switching, and, possibly, also affects bone mineralization and growth. Biological activities of lactoferrin may be facilitated by osteopontin. Milk fat globule membranes are a fraction that has previously been excluded from infant formulas, but components of this fraction have been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities and to prevent infection. Further clinical studies are needed on infants fed formulas with these components incorporated. PMID:21335989

  15. Genetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeurt H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of δ-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk, could explain these differences. Very few studies have been focussing on the estimation of genetic parameters of fatty acids composition. However, the moderate heritability estimates observed by these studies for the major fatty acids could suggest a potential genetic effect.

  16. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  17. HPLC identification of isoniazid residues in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite R.M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for the identification of isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide in the milk of cattle treated with a dose of 25 mg/kg/day in alternated days. The effect of milk pasteurization on the isoniazid residue concentration was also studied. The drug excretion presented a cyclic variation, with higher levels in the first day after administration (aa, a mean of 1104.48µg/l, and a decrease two days aa, with a mean of 104.12µg/l. Four days after the last administration of the drug it was not possible to identify residues of isoniazid in the milk of treated animals. Body weight and milk yield influenced the amount of the excreted drug, and pasteurization decreased (mean 47.07% the concentration of isoniazid residue in milk.

  18. A proteomics-based identification of putative biomarkers for disease in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Altena, S E C; de Klerk, B; Hettinga, K A; van Neerven, R J J; Boeren, S; Savelkoul, H F J; Tijhaar, E J

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential biomarkers for disease resistance in bovine milk that can be used to indicate dairy cows at risk to develop future health problems. We selected high- and low-resistant cows i.e. cows that were less or more prone to develop diseases according to farmers' experience and notifications in the disease registration data. The protein composition of milk serum samples of these high- and low-resistant cows were compared using NanoLC-MS/MS. In total 78 proteins were identified and quantified of which 13 were significantly more abundant in low-resistant cows than high-resistant cows. Quantification of one of these proteins, lactoferrin (LF), by ELISA in a new and much larger set of full fat milk samples confirmed higher LF levels in low- versus high-resistant cows. These high- and low-resistant cows were selected based on comprehensive disease registration and milk recording data, and absence of disease for at least 4 weeks. Relating the experienced diseases to LF levels in milk showed that lameness was associated with higher LF levels in milk. Analysis of the prognostic value of LF showed that low-resistant cows with higher LF levels in milk had a higher risk of being culled within one year after testing than high-resistant cows. In conclusion, LF in milk are higher in low-resistant cows, are associated with lameness and may be a prognostic marker for risk of premature culling. PMID:27185258

  19. Comparative Analysis of the miRNome of Bovine Milk Fat, Whey and Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi

    2016-01-01

    RNA activities in bovine mammary gland. Predicted target genes (1802) of 14 highly expressed miRNAs in milk fractions were enriched in fundamental cellular functions, infection, organ and tissue development. Furthermore, some miRNAs were highly enriched (FDR milk whey (3), cells (11) and mammary gland tissue (14) suggesting specific regulatory functions in the various fractions. In conclusion, we have obtained a comprehensive miRNA profile of the different milk fractions using high throughput sequencing. Our comparative analysis showed that miRNAs from milk fat accurately portrayed the miRNome of mammary gland tissue. Functional annotation of the top expressed miRNAs in milk confirmed their critical regulatory roles in mammary gland functions and potentially to milk recipients. PMID:27100870

  20. Electrophoretic and immunological properties of folate-binding protein isolated from bovine milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Kazuo; Tani, Masako; Fushiki, Tohru (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1983-07-01

    Changes of the folate-binding protein (FBP) concentration in bovine milk after parturition were investigated. The FBP was highly purified from mature milk by affinity chromatography. The purified FBP showed a single protein band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was immunologically homogenous in double immunodiffusion. However, in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the FBP was separated into several spots in isoelectric focusing in the first dimension, and each spot also showed two molecular weights in SDS-gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. But these FBP molecules were immunologically identical with each other. The neuraminidase treatment obviously diminished the number of isoelectric points of the FBP. Thus, the variety of FBP molecules was at least partially due to the variability of the sialic acid content in the carbohydrate moieties. Moreover, the milk FBP showed species-specificity among mammals immunologically as well as physicochemically.

  1. Bovine milk-derived exosomes for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munagala, Radha; Aqil, Farrukh; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2016-02-01

    Exosomes are biological nanovesicles that are involved in cell-cell communication via the functionally-active cargo (such as miRNA, mRNA, DNA and proteins). Because of their nanosize, exosomes are explored as nanodevices for the development of new therapeutic applications. However, bulk, safe and cost-effective production of exosomes is not available. Here, we show that bovine milk can serve as a scalable source of exosomes that can act as a carrier for chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive agents. Drug-loaded exosomes showed significantly higher efficacy compared to free drug in cell culture studies and against lung tumor xenografts in vivo. Moreover, tumor targeting ligands such as folate increased cancer-cell targeting of the exosomes resulting in enhanced tumor reduction. Milk exosomes exhibited cross-species tolerance with no adverse immune and inflammatory response. Thus, we show the versatility of milk exosomes with respect to the cargo it can carry and ability to achieve tumor targetability. This is the first report to identify a biocompatible and cost-effective means of exosomes to enhance oral bioavailability, improve efficacy and safety of drugs.

  2. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Magistrelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower (p < 0.05 than that observed in raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower (p < 0.0001 than those of full-cream UHT and full-cream pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower (p < 0.0001 than in full-cream UHT milk. Leptin was correlated (p < 0.001 with lipid content. Leptin level of infant formulas was not different to that of skimmed milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  3. Bovine milk osteopontin - Targeting bacterial adhesion for biofilm control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mathilde Frost; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Schlafer, Sebastian

    Self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning does usually not result in complete biofilm removal, due to the complex oral anatomy and the strong adhesion of the biofilm to the tooth. Therefore, different supportive measures are employed, most of which aim at the chemical eradication of bacteria...... in dental biofilms. As their bactericidal action impacts the entire oral microflora, agents that inhibit biofilm formation without killing bacteria, such as the bovine milk protein osteopontin, have gained increasing attention. Here, we investigate the adhesion of 8 bacterial species associated with dental.......05). ), as determined by two-sample t-tests. The broad range anti-adhesive effect of osteopontin on dental bacterial strains might explain the reduced biofilm formation observed and be exploited in vivo for increased caries control....

  4. STAT6-Dependent Collagen Synthesis in Human Fibroblasts Is Induced by Bovine Milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kippenberger

    Full Text Available Since the domestication of the urus, 10.000 years ago, mankind utilizes bovine milk for different purposes. Besides usage as a nutrient also the external application of milk on skin has a long tradition going back to at least the ancient Aegypt with Cleopatra VII as a great exponent. In order to test whether milk has impact on skin physiology, cultures of human skin fibroblasts were exposed to commercial bovine milk. Our data show significant induction of proliferation by milk (max. 2,3-fold, EC50: 2,5% milk without toxic effects. Surprisingly, bovine milk was identified as strong inducer of collagen 1A1 synthesis at both, the protein (4-fold, EC50: 0,09% milk and promoter level. Regarding the underlying molecular pathways, we show functional activation of STAT6 in a p44/42 and p38-dependent manner. More upstream, we identified IGF-1 and insulin as key factors responsible for milk-induced collagen synthesis. These findings show that bovine milk contains bioactive molecules that act on human skin cells. Therefore, it is tempting to test the herein introduced concept in treatment of atrophic skin conditions induced e.g. by UV light or corticosteroids.

  5. β-casein gene polymorphism permits identification of bovine milk mixed with bubaline milk in mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Otaviano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mozzarella cheese is traditionally prepared from bubaline (Bubalus bubalis milk, but product adulteration occurs mainly by addition of or full substitution by bovine milk. The aim of this study was to show the usefulnes of molecular markers to identify the admixture of bovine milk to bubaline milk during the manufacturing process of mozzarella cheese. Samples of mozzarella cheese were produced by adding seven different concentrations of bovine milk: 0%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 8%, 12% and 100%. DNA extracted from somatic cells found in cheese were submitted to PCR-RFLP analysis of casein genes: α-s1-CN - CSN1S1 that encompasses 954 bp from exon VII to intron IX (Alu I and Hinf I, β-CN - CSN2 including 495 bp of exon VII (Hae III and Hinf I, and κ-CN - CSN3, encompassing 373 bp of exon IV (Alu I and Hind III. Our results indicate that Hae III-RFLP of CSN2 exon VII can be used as a molecular marker to detect the presence of bovine milk in "mozzarella" cheese.

  6. HPLC identification of isoniazid residues in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Leite R.M.H.; Leite R.C.; Lima J.A.; Fóscolo C.B.; Mota P.M.P.C.; Lobato F.C.F.; Lage A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the identification of isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide) in the milk of cattle treated with a dose of 25 mg/kg/day in alternated days. The effect of milk pasteurization on the isoniazid residue concentration was also studied. The drug excretion presented a cyclic variation, with higher levels in the first day after administration (aa), a mean of 1104.48µg/l, and a decrease two days aa, with a mean of 104.12µg/l. Four days after ...

  7. Effect of bovine ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism on concentrations in milk of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, J A; García-Mateos, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Álvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2016-07-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is involved in the secretion of several drugs into milk. The bovine Y581S ABCG2 polymorphism increases the secretion into milk of the fluoroquinolone danofloxacin in Holstein cows. Danofloxacin and enrofloxacin are the fluoroquinolones most widely used in veterinary medicine. Both enrofloxacin (ENRO) and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) reach milk at relatively high concentrations. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the bovine Y581S ABCG2 polymorphism on in vitro transport as well as on concentrations in plasma and in milk of ENRO and CIPRO. Experiments using cells overexpressing bovine ABCG2 showed the effects of ABCG2 on the transport of CIPRO, demonstrating more efficient in vitro transport of this antimicrobial by the S581 variant as compared with the Y581 variant. Animal studies administering 2.5mg/kg of ENRO subcutaneously to Y/Y 581 and Y/S 581 cows revealed that concentrations in plasma of ENRO and CIPRO were significantly lower in Y/S animals. Regardless of the genotype, the antimicrobial profile in milk after the administration of ENRO was predominantly of CIPRO. With respect to the genotype effects on the amounts of drugs present in milk, AUC0-24 values were more than 1.2 times higher in Y/S cows for ENRO and 2.2 times for CIPRO, indicating a greater capacity of Y581S to transfer these drugs into milk. These results emphasize the clinical relevance of this polymorphism as a factor affecting the concentrations in plasma and in milk of drugs of importance in veterinary medicine. PMID:27157572

  8. Proteomic study on the stability of proteins in bovine, camel, and caprine milk sera after processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Smits, Marcel; Hooijdonk, van Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Milk proteins have been shown to be very sensitive to processing. This study aims to investigate the changes of the bovine, camel, and caprine milk proteins after freezing, pasteurization (62 °C, 30 min), and spray drying by proteomic techniques, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and dimethy

  9. PCR assay with host specific internal control forStaphylococcus aureus from bovine milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Cantekin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of the most important and common pathogens of bovine mastitis. Polymerase Chain Reaction is frequently proposed in the diagnosis of S. aureus directly from milk samples instead of classical culture. However, false-negative results may occur in the polymerase chain reaction analysis performed directly from clinical material. For the purpose of disclosing the false negative results, the use of internal amplification controls can be beneficial. Therefore, in this study a new polymerase chain reaction technique with host specific internal amplification control was developed by optimizing S. aureus-specific primers in combination with bovine specific primers. The effectiveness of the developed technique in this study was attempted in milk samples from bovine subclinical mastitis. This technique has the potential to detect S. aureus from bovine milk samples or dairy products.

  10. The effect of pre-enrichment on recovery of Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and mycoplasma from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, M. C.; Tyler, J. W.; Luiz, D. M.; Holmberg, C. A.; Picanso, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether pre-enrichment would increase sensitivity of detecting Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae, Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and mycoplasma in bovine milk. Two procedures were followed, one involving direct inoculation of milk on bovine blood agar, and the other involving preenrichment in broth followed by inoculation on agar. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of isolation as a function of culture procedure and two additional covariates, the California Mastitis Test (CMT) score of the milk and the type of sample (indicating sample storage temperature and herd mastitis status). A total of 13778 milk samples was cultured for each of the three bacteria. By using results of both direct inoculation and pre-enrichment, the probability of isolation compared to use of direct inoculation only and adjusted for effects of other variables was increased 3.6-fold for Str. agalactiae, 1.6-fold for S. aureus and 1.7-fold for mycoplasma. The probability of isolation for all three bacteria increased as the CMT score increased. For Str. agalactiae, there was a statistical interaction predicting that enrichment improved the odds of isolation more from milk with high CMT scores than from milk with low scores. Results indicate that pre-enrichment can substantially increase the sensitivity of bacteriological screening of dairy cows for mastitis caused by Str. agalactiae, S. aureus, and mycoplasma. PMID:2691266

  11. Confirmatory analysis of firocoxib in bovine milk by rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Geraldine; Gallo, Pasquale; Regan, Liam

    2009-02-15

    A rapid method has been developed to analyse for firocoxib (FIRO) residue in bovine milk. Milk samples were extracted with acetonitrile and sample extracts were purified on Evolute ABN solid phase extraction cartridges. Aliquots were analysed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). The method was validated in bovine milk, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The decision limit (CCalpha) was 1.18ng/mL and for the detection capability a (CCbeta) value of 2.02ng/mL was obtained. The measurement uncertainty of the method was 27%. Fortifying bovine milk samples (n=18) in three separate assays, show the accuracy of the method to be between 96 and 105%. The precision of the method, expressed as RSD values for the within-lab reproducibility at the three levels of fortification (5, 7.5 and 10ng/mL) was less than 11% respectively.

  12. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching. PMID:27428379

  13. Transcriptome profiling of bovine milk oligosaccharide metabolism genes using RNA-sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Wickramasinghe

    Full Text Available This study examines the genes coding for enzymes involved in bovine milk oligosaccharide metabolism by comparing the oligosaccharide profiles with the expressions of glycosylation-related genes. Fresh milk samples (n = 32 were collected from four Holstein and Jersey cows at days 1, 15, 90 and 250 of lactation and free milk oligosaccharide profiles were analyzed. RNA was extracted from milk somatic cells at days 15 and 250 of lactation (n = 12 and gene expression analysis was conducted by RNA-Sequencing. A list was created of 121 glycosylation-related genes involved in oligosaccharide metabolism pathways in bovine by analyzing the oligosaccharide profiles and performing an extensive literature search. No significant differences were observed in either oligosaccharide profiles or expressions of glycosylation-related genes between Holstein and Jersey cows. The highest concentrations of free oligosaccharides were observed in the colostrum samples and a sharp decrease was observed in the concentration of free oligosaccharides on day 15, followed by progressive decrease on days 90 and 250. Ninety-two glycosylation-related genes were expressed in milk somatic cells. Most of these genes exhibited higher expression in day 250 samples indicating increases in net glycosylation-related metabolism in spite of decreases in free milk oligosaccharides in late lactation milk. Even though fucosylated free oligosaccharides were not identified, gene expression indicated the likely presence of fucosylated oligosaccharides in bovine milk. Fucosidase genes were expressed in milk and a possible explanation for not detecting fucosylated free oligosaccharides is the degradation of large fucosylated free oligosaccharides by the fucosidases. Detailed characterization of enzymes encoded by the 92 glycosylation-related genes identified in this study will provide the basic knowledge for metabolic network analysis of oligosaccharides in mammalian milk. These candidate

  14. Effects of a Bovine Lactoferrin Formulation from Cow’s Milk on Menstrual Distress in Volunteers: A Randomized, Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi M. Ueno; Ran Emilie Yoshise; Tomohiro Sugino; Osami Kajimoto; Toshiya Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a highly prevalent complaint and highly undiagnosed gynecologic condition. Dairy products have a potential in the management of menstrual distress, and bovine lactoferrin can help the subjective dysphoria associated with dysmenorrhea. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a lactoferrin formulation isolated from cow’s milk on menstrual symptoms in volunteers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the iron-lactoferrin complex (...

  15. Effects of Diets Rich in Flavonoids on the Quality of Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Cruz Carrillo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk is one of the main foods for mammals and, specifically, for humans; therefore, its quality should be optimal and should comply with all safety and nutritional aspects. The objective of this review was to collect updated scientific information on the importance of the presence of flavonoids in bovine milk, regarding their nutritional value and the benefits of these metabolites for the milk and its consumers. Milk decomposition is due to the effect of light, temperature and time on the fat and protein present in it, as well as to lactic fermentation by bacteria. Thus, the control of these three factors or one of them contributes to extend the useful life of milk and other dairy products. Thus, by seeking to delay the rancidification of milk and its by-products, it has been proposed that forage containing antioxidants such as flavonoids should be included in the diet of female cattle, as these, being bioavailable in cattle, also actively appear in the milk in concentrations equivalent to plasma. Additionally, the presence of flavonoids in bovine milk can provide a source of natural antioxidants for the consumer, which is beneficial for the prevention of some pathological processes mediated by free radicals.

  16. Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harstad Odd M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite? regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases.

  17. Determination of bovine immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum powders, bovine milk powders, and dietary supplements containing bovine colostrum products by an automated direct immunoassay with optical biosensor: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapper, Leyton

    2013-01-01

    Nine laboratories participated in an AOAC collaborative study to determine bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in selected dairy powders and dietary supplements by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology. Each sample matrix was dissolved in buffer and suitably diluted to fit within the standard curve. The sample extract was injected over a surface functionalized with affinity-purified, polyclonal goat anti-bovine IgG (H+L) antibody; IgG was then detected. SPR detection was used for the direct immunoassay and quantification was made against a calibration curve prepared from bovine serum IgG. Between each standard and sample, the surface was regenerated using 10 mM glycine at pH 1.5. The samples analyzed included the likely matrixes for which the assay would find commercial use, namely, high- and low-protein-content colostrum powders, tablets containing colostrum powder, infant formula containing colostrum powder, and some IgG-containing dairy powders, i.e., milk protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and skim milk powder. Each laboratory provided data for the study and assayed blind duplicates of seven materials. Due to gross outliers in the majority of results from one laboratory, the data from eight laboratories were used for the statistical analysis. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranged from 3.2 to 7.3%, and the reproducibility RSDR values from 13.0 to 22.6%. PMID:24282942

  18. Enzymatic-fluorometric quantification of cholesterol in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes an enzymatic–fluorometric method for the determination of cholesterol in milk and other opaque matrices. The initial step of the method is to liberate chemically and physically bound cholesterol from the milk fat globule membrane by enzymatic action. The method is able...... to discriminate between esterified and free cholesterol in milk. The analysis is cost effective and is developed to work directly on whole, fresh milk thereby eliminating time consuming and tedious pre-treatment procedures of the sample. More than 1000 milk samples were analysed on the day of sampling. The total...... concentration of milk cholesterol ranged from 80 to 756 μM (n = 1068; mean 351 μM). Milk cholesterol was significantly correlated to milk fat concentration as analysed by mid-infra red spectrometry (r = 0.630; n = 853) and by an enzymatic–fluorometric method (triacylglycerol) (r = 0.611; n = 842)....

  19. Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review

    OpenAIRE

    Harstad Odd M; Høstmark Arne T; Haug Anna

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skim...

  20. Tudor-SN Regulates Milk Synthesis and Proliferation of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxia Ao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (Tudor-SN is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein, related to multiple and diverse cell type- and species-specific cellular processes. Studies have shown that Tudor-SN is mainly expressed in secretory cells, however knowledge of its role is limited. In our previous work, we found that the protein level of Tudor-SN was upregulated in the nucleus of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC. In this study, we assessed the role of Tudor-SN in milk synthesis and cell proliferation of BMEC. We exploited gene overexpression and silencing methods, and found that Tudor-SN positively regulates milk synthesis and proliferation via Stat5a activation. Both amino acids (methionine and estrogen triggered NFκB1 to bind to the gene promoters of Tudor-SN and Stat5a, and this enhanced the protein level and nuclear localization of Tudor-SN and p-Stat5a. Taken together, these results suggest the key role of Tudor-SN in the transcriptional regulation of milk synthesis and proliferation of BMEC under the stimulation of amino acids and hormones.

  1. The Host Defense Proteome of Human and Bovine Milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Vries, de S.C.; Boeren, S.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components

  2. Case-study and risk management of dioxins and PCBs bovine milk contaminations in a high industrialized area in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocchi, Luigi; Ghidini, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Giorgio; Lorenzi, Valentina

    2015-07-01

    Milk supplied to a dairy plant in Brescia City (Northern Italy) was found to be contaminated by dioxin like PCBs at levels above the European (EU) action limit (2 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). As a consequence, 14 dairy farms were sampled individually, in order to identify and possibly eliminate the source of contamination. All the farms were located in Brescia or just nearby, an area that is characterized by a strong industrialization. Four out of the 14 farms showed contamination levels above the legal maximum limit set by European Commission at 5.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat for the sum of dioxins and DL-PCBs. Concentrations of 8.16, 6.83, 5.71 and 5.65 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat were detected. In the three most polluted farms, cow ration was substituted with feed coming from uncontaminated areas and the time needed to reduce milk pollution was evaluated. In all the three farms, contamination levels dropped below the EU legal limit after only 1 month from the removal of the pollution source. In each sampled farm, DL-PCBs were the major contributors to the total WHO-TEQ level, with percentages up to 87% in the most contaminated one. PCB 126 WHO-TEQ value explained by itself large part of this contamination, and its decrease was fundamental for the reduction of milk contamination levels. This study provides an example of an on-field successful emergency intervention that succeeded in decontamination of dairy cows, allowing a fast restart of their production activity. PMID:25637240

  3. Cell Infectivity in Relation to Bovine Leukemia Virus gp51 and p24 in Bovine Milk Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Shigemura, Hiroaki; ISHIGURO, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40–100 nm in diameter) and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exo...

  4. Cell Infectivity in Relation to Bovine Leukemia Virus gp51 and p24 in Bovine Milk Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya Yamada; Hiroaki Shigemura; Naotaka Ishiguro; Yasuo Inoshima

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40-100 nm in diameter) and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exo...

  5. Sequence-based Association Analysis Reveals an MGST1 eQTL with Pleiotropic Effects on Bovine Milk Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Mathew D.; Tiplady, Kathryn; Fink, Tania A.; Lehnert, Klaus; Lopdell, Thomas; Johnson, Thomas; Couldrey, Christine; Keehan, Mike; Sherlock, Richard G.; Harland, Chad; Scott, Andrew; Snell, Russell G.; Davis, Stephen R.; Spelman, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is a prolific lipogenic organ, synthesising copious amounts of triglycerides for secretion into milk. The fat content of milk varies widely both between and within species, and recent independent genome-wide association studies have highlighted a milk fat percentage quantitative trait locus (QTL) of large effect on bovine chromosome 5. Although both EPS8 and MGST1 have been proposed to underlie these signals, the causative status of these genes has not been functionally confirmed. To investigate this QTL in detail, we report genome sequence-based imputation and association mapping in a population of 64,244 taurine cattle. This analysis reveals a cluster of 17 non-coding variants spanning MGST1 that are highly associated with milk fat percentage, and a range of other milk composition traits. Further, we exploit a high-depth mammary RNA sequence dataset to conduct expression QTL (eQTL) mapping in 375 lactating cows, revealing a strong MGST1 eQTL underpinning these effects. These data demonstrate the utility of DNA and RNA sequence-based association mapping, and implicate MGST1, a gene with no obvious mechanistic relationship to milk composition regulation, as causally involved in these processes. PMID:27146958

  6. A proteomics study of colostrum and milk from the two major small ruminant dairy breeds from the Canary Islands: a bovine milk comparison perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, André M; Renaut, Jenny; Argüello, Anastasio; Castro, Noemí

    2016-08-01

    Colostrum and milk feeding are key factors for the newborn ruminant survival, affecting the future performance of the animal. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the potential of feeding newborn ruminants (mainly goat kids and lambs) with colostrum and milk from other more productive ruminant species (mainly cows). Although some studies regarding differences between colostrum and milk from these three species have been performed, herein we conduct for the first time a comparison using a proteomics 2-Dimensional Electrophoresis gel-based approach between these three ruminant species. In this study colostrum and milk samples from six Holstein cows, six Canarian sheep and six Majorera goats were used to determine the chemical composition, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) concentrations and proteomics profiles. Results showed that in general sheep colostrum and milk contained higher fat, protein and lactose percentages compared to bovine and goat samples. Additionally, no differences in the IgG or IgM concentrations were found among any of the three studied species, with the exception of sheep colostrum that showed the highest IgM concentration. With reference to the proteomics-based approach, some high abundant proteins such as serum albumin precursor, beta-caseins or different immunoglobulins components were found in colostrum, milk or even both. Nevertheless, differences in other proteins with immune function such as serotransferrin or lactoperoxidase were detected. This study shows that despite the similar immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and milk from the three studied species, differences in several immune components can be detected when these samples are studied using a proteomics approach. Finally, this study also provides a base for future investigation in colostrum and milk proteomics and metabolomics. PMID:27600973

  7. Acute phase proteins in bovine milk in an experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersall, P D; Young, F J; Nolan, A M;

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to establish the origin of 2 acute phase proteins in milk during subclinical bovine mastitis and to characterize the relationship between those proteins in milk and blood. Haptoglobin (Hp) and mammary-associated serum amyloid A (M-SAA3) appear in milk during mastitis, whereas Hp...... and serum amyloid A increase in serum during mastitis. The concentrations of these proteins were determined in an experimental model using a field strain of Staphylococcus aureus to induce subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The expression of mRNA coding for these proteins was assessed and the presence of M...

  8. Milk fatty acid composition and mammary lipogenic genes expression in bovine cloned and control cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Laurence; Richard, Christophe; Gelin, Valerie; Leroux, Christine; Heyman, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of nuclear transfer technology on the physiology of lactation and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cattle (Holstein breed), the present study compares the milk yield and composition from bovine somatic cell cloned (n=5) and control animals (n=5) at 180 days in milk (DIM) maintained together under the same conditions. All cows were offered the same total mixed ration ad libitum. At 180 DIM, the cloned had a higher body weight (BW; P<0.01) compared with ...

  9. Simultaneous Determination of TetracyclinesResidues in Bovine Milk Samples by Solid Phase Extraction and HPLC-FL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Mesgari Abbasi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Tetracyclines (TCs are widely used in animal husbandry and their residues in milk may resultinharmful effects on human. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of TCs residues in various bovine milk samples from local markets of Ardabil, Iran. Methods:One hundred and fourteen pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were collected from markets of Ardabil. Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline and Chlortetracycline (TCs residues extraction carried out by Solid Phase Extraction method. Determination of TCs residues were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method using Fluorescence detector.Results: The mean of total TCs residues in all samples (114 samples was 97.6 ±16.9ng/g and that of pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were 87.1 ± 17.7, 112.0 ± 57.3 and 154.0 ± 66.3ng/g respectively. Twenty five point four percent of the all samples, and24.4%, 30% and 28.6% of the pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples, respectively had higher TCs residues than the recommended maximum levels (100ng/g. Conclusion:This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues more than allowed amount. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal period before milking the animals and definite supervisions are necessary on application of these drugs.

  10. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen. PMID:26778303

  11. DETERMINATION OF PROTEINS FROM BUFFALO MILK USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CROMATOGRAPHY RP-HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    AURELIA PECE; Coroian, C; BIANCA GHIRILĂ; G. MURESAN; VIOARA MIRESAN

    2013-01-01

    In the hereby paper, we have undertaken a study on buffalo milk proteins, employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This RP-HPLC technique is commonly employed in the separation and assessment of caseins K, and in the fresh, as well as processed milk. These methods are also successfully applied in the authenticity and origin assessment of certain cheese products and the qualitative analysis of milk in bubalines, ovines, caprines and bovines (Ferreira si Cacote, 2003; Veloso si...

  12. Exploring causal networks of bovine milk fatty acids in a multivariate mixed model context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwman, Aniek C; Valente, Bruno D; Janss, Luc L G;

    2014-01-01

    are fitted conditionally on a causal structure among traits, represented by a directed acyclic graph and an Inductive Causation (IC) algorithm can be used to search for causal structures. The aim of this study was to explore the space of causal structures involving bovine milk fatty acids and to select...

  13. Stochastic simulation modeling to determine time to detect Bovine Viral Diarrhea antibodies in bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Krogh, Kaspar;

    2014-01-01

    A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction ofBovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk(BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after afixed threshold prevalence...

  14. Toward a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida Afina

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at the development of a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in cow's milk. Progesterone is a steroid hormone and regulates ovulation in female mammals. The concentration of progesterone in blood and in milk is in accordance with the reproductive cycle of the individual femal

  15. Fluorometric determination of uric acid in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Moyes, Kasey

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to validate a new fast method for determination of uric acid in milk. The method is based on an enzymatic-fluorometric technique that requires minimal pre-treatment of milk samples. The present determination of uric acid is based on the enzymatic oxidation o...

  16. Effect of continuous milking on immunoglobulin concentrations in bovine colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.J.; Koets, A.P.; Eisenberg, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous milking is defined as a dairy cattle management system without a planned dry period for cows in late gestation. Continuous milking has been described to reduce health problems common in periparturient cattle, but may affect colostrum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration and subsequently calf

  17. Pheno- and genotyping of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk and human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorberg, B. M.; Kuhn, I.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and strain diversity of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk in commercial dairy herds. A total of 341 S. epidermidis isolates obtained from cows' milk (317), farmers (17) and patients (7) were...... different S. epidermidis types exist in milk samples. Antibiotic resistance patterns matched the SmaI profiles closely in the two herds, but poorly in the routinely collected milk samples. Isolates from herd I showed one to five patterns, depending on the typing method used. Isolates from the milker's skin...... showed one pattern, which was identical to the most common pattern found in the milk isolates. Isolates from herd 2 showed three to four patterns, two of these being identical to skin isolates from the milker. As dairy cows are not a natural host for S. epidermidis the results suggest a human source...

  18. Rapid determination of ampicillin in bovine milk by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, C.Y.W.; Luo, Wenhong [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the determination of ampicillin residues in raw bovine milk, processed skim milk, and pasteurized, homogenized whole milk with vitamin D. Milk samples were deproteinized with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and acetonictrile. After centrifugation, the clear supernatant was reacted with formaldehyde and TCA under heat. The major fluorescent derivative of ampicillin was then determined by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Average recoveries of ampicillin fortified at 5, 10, and 20 ppb (ng/mL) were all >85% with coefficients of variation <10%. Limits of detection ranged from 0.31 to 0.51 ppb and limits of quantitation, from 0.66 to 1.2 ppb. After appropriate validation, this method should be suitable for rapid analysis of milk for ampicillin residues at the tolerance level of 10 ppb. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Enterotoxin genes in coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Guimarães, Felipe; Nóbrega, Diego Borin; Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Marson, Pâmela Merlo; de Figueiredo Pantoja, José Carlos; Langoni, Helio

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the main staphylococcal species causing bovine mastitis in 10 Brazilian dairy herds and study their capability to produce enterotoxins. Herds were selected based on size and use of milking technology, and farms were visited once during the study. All mammary glands of all lactating cows were screened using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and a strip cup. A single aseptic milk sample (20 mL) was collected from all CMT-positive quarters. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. was performed using conventional microbiology, and PCR was used to determine the presence of enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, and sed). Of the 1,318 CMT-positive milk samples, Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 263 (19.9%). Of these isolates, 135 (51%) were coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) and 128 (49%) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Eighteen different species of CNS were isolated, among which S. warneri, S. epidermidis and S. hyicus were the most frequent. The distribution of Staphylococcus species was different among herds: S. epidermidis was found in 8 herds, S. warneri was found in 7 herds, and S. hyicus in 6 herds. Some of the CNS species (S. saprophyticus ssp. saprophyticus, S. auricularis, S. capitis, and S. chromogenes) were isolated in only one of the farms. Genes related to production of enterotoxins were found in 66% (n=85) of all CNS and in 35% of the CPS isolates. For both CNS and CPS isolates, the most frequently identified enterotoxin genes were sea, seb, and sec; the prevalence of sea differed between CPS (9.5%) and CNS (35.1%) isolates. Staphylococcus warneri isolates showed a greater percentage of sea than seb, sec, or sed, whereas S. hyicus isolates showed a greater percentage of sea than sec. Over 60% of CNS belonged to 3 major species, which carried 62.2 to 81.3% of the enterotoxin genes. The high prevalence highlights the potential for food poisoning caused by these species. For

  20. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  1. Pesticide Residues in Bovine Milk in Punjab, India: Spatial Variation and Risk Assessment to Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, gas chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in bovine milk (n = 312) from Punjab, India, showed chlorpyrifos, DDT, and γ-HCH as the predominant contaminants. In addition, the presence of β-endosulfan, endosulfan suphate, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, malathion, profenofos, and ethion was reported in milk samples. In this study, it was observed that 12 milk samples exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for γ-HCH (lindane), 18 for DDT and chlorpyrifos, and 1 sample each for endosulfan, cypermethrin, and profenophos. In India, DDT is still permitted for a malaria control program, which may be the plausible reason for its occurrence in milk samples. The spatial variation for presence of pesticide residues in milk indicated greater levels in cotton-growing areas of Punjab. At current levels of pesticide residues in bovine milk, the human health risk assessment in terms of noncancer and cancer hazard was calculated based on both lower-bound [LB (mean residue levels)] and upper-bound [UP (95th percentile level)] limits. It was noticed that cancer and noncancer risk were within United States Environmental Protection Agency prescribed limits for both adults and children at the LB, but children were being exposed to greater risk for DDT and HCH at the 95th-percentile UB level. PMID:26008642

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a dairy herd with high prevalence of persistently infected calves

    OpenAIRE

    Helal, Mahmoud Atef Youssef; Okamatsu, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Motoshi

    2012-01-01

    A dairy herd including approximately 50 milking cows and 40 heifers and calves was investigated. This herd was detected with high prevalence of calves persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Nine PI animals including a milking cow and 8 newborn calves were detected in the herd within 4 months. Prevalence of PI animals in this herd was estimated 7.0% which was very high compared to that estimated in previous reports. All newborn PI calves were strongly suspected to ...

  3. Confirmatory analysis of firocoxib in bovine milk by rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Geraldine; Gallo, Pasquale; Regan, Liam

    2009-02-15

    A rapid method has been developed to analyse for firocoxib (FIRO) residue in bovine milk. Milk samples were extracted with acetonitrile and sample extracts were purified on Evolute ABN solid phase extraction cartridges. Aliquots were analysed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). The method was validated in bovine milk, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The decision limit (CCalpha) was 1.18ng/mL and for the detection capability a (CCbeta) value of 2.02ng/mL was obtained. The measurement uncertainty of the method was 27%. Fortifying bovine milk samples (n=18) in three separate assays, show the accuracy of the method to be between 96 and 105%. The precision of the method, expressed as RSD values for the within-lab reproducibility at the three levels of fortification (5, 7.5 and 10ng/mL) was less than 11% respectively. PMID:19179123

  4. Some factors influencing the syneresis of bovine, ovine, and caprine milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M M; Balcones, E

    2000-08-01

    The influence of the species, fat, curd incubation temperature (25, 30, and 35 degrees C), heat treatment of milk (70 degrees C for 5 or 30 min), and milk pH on the initial volume drained, syneresis rate, and the loss of proteins in drainage was studied. The volume drained as a function of the curd incubation time (up to 60 min) was adjusted to a first-order kinetic reaction. The k values (drained rate) and the initial volume obtained applying the equation were compared to establish the possible influence of the studied factors. In general, for all the factors studied, the syneresis rate of curd from caprine and ovine milk did not differ from those described previously in the literature for the curds from bovine milk. However, for each studied factor the pattern of syneresis rate was significantly different among the species in most of the experiments.

  5. Milk losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouarda Ayadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the impact of tropical theileriosis onset on milk yield decrease in 10 local bred cows in Skikda (Northern Algeria during 2015 summer season. The milk yield decrease estimated weekly during two months was 2.76 L/day/cow corresponding to 31.92% of the total milk yield. This decrease corresponds to 110.5 Algerian Dinars (1.02 US$/day/diseased cow. The relative variation of milk yield showed a dramatic decrease from 82.72% to 0.76% at Day 21 then became constant. Further studies are needed to improve these estimations of financial losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis in Algeria.

  6. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk; Radioinmunoensayo para progesterona en leche bovina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Miriam [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologia Nucleares, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: mirian@fctn.isctn.edu.cu; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro [Centro de Isotopos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2002-07-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  7. Fluorometric determination of free and total isocitrate in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Isocitrate is an intermediate metabolite in the citric acid cycle found both inside the mitochondria as well as outside in the cytosolic shunt. Oxidation of isocitrate is believed to deliver large fractions of energy [i.e., reducing equivalents (NADPH) in the bovine udder] used for fatty acid...

  8. Identification of the bovine $\\alpha$1-acid glycoprotein in colostrum and milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Pocacqua, Vanessa; Provasi, Elena; Comunian, Claudio; Bertolini, Alessandra; Bronzo, Valerio; Moroni, Paolo; Sartorelli, Paola

    2005-01-01

    International audience $\\alpha$1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is an immunomodulatory protein expressed by hepatocytes in response to the systemic reaction that follows tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection or trauma. This paper presents the detection of bovine AGP (boAGP) in mammary secretions (colostrum and milk) and mammary gland tissue. Bovine AGP was detected by Western blotting in all the samples analysed, and could be quantified in colostrum at 162 (± 63.7) $\\mu$g/mL and 114.5 (...

  9. The effect of pre-enrichment on recovery of Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and mycoplasma from bovine milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Thurmond, M C; Tyler, J W; Luiz, D. M.; Holmberg, C A; Picanso, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether pre-enrichment would increase sensitivity of detecting Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae, Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and mycoplasma in bovine milk. Two procedures were followed, one involving direct inoculation of milk on bovine blood agar, and the other involving preenrichment in broth followed by inoculation on agar. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of isolation as a function of culture procedure and two additional covariate...

  10. Doxorubicin-Induced Gut Toxicity in Piglets fed Bovine Milk and Colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René Liang; Rathe, Mathias; Jiang, Pingping;

    2016-01-01

    gut permeability and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were increased (all P enzymes, pro-inflammatory cytokines or tight-junction proteins in the intestine. Increasing BC supplementation to doxorubicin-treated piglets (Study 2) had...... no consistent effects on plasma CRP and citrulline levels, intestinal morphology, digestive enzymes, permeability, or proinflammatory cytokines. However, Only-BC pigs had lower diarrhea severity towards the end of the experiment (P ... gut toxicity. Colostrum supplementation had limited effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in milk-fed piglets suggesting that colostrum and a bovine milk diet enriched with whey protein provided similar...

  11. 2d electrophoresis of bovine milk proteins and milk fermented drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Mogut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the analysis of milk and milk fermented drink proteomes with the use of 2D electrophoresis. The criteria of proteins separation were the values of their isoelectric points (pI and molecular weights (MW. Our results showed that milk and milk fermented drink proteomes consisted of 118 and 121 spots, respectively. The computer analysis revealed the identity of 95 spots in both proteomes. Non-identical spots indicated the changes resulting from the action of bacterial proteinases on milk proteins during the production of milk fermented drink. Proteolytic starter cultures applied to produce the milk fermented drink led to a partial hydrolysis of milk proteins to peptides and free amino acid residues. Results obtained led to confirm the suitability of 2D electrophoresis to observe the changes in the proteomes of milk products, as well as other food products after the application of technological processes. The development of the methods of proteomic analysis will let, in the future, eliminate the artefacts, which may limit the possibility of errors during proteins’ identification.

  12. Innate immune response to a bovine mastitis pathogen profiled in milk and blood monocytes using a systems biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland which leads to reduced milk yield and increased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) resulting in an estimated annual cost to the dairy industry worldwide of ~ 2 billion euros. Mastitis has a complex etiology, with pathogenic, host and envi...

  13. Relationship between lactoferrin, minerals, and somatic cells in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Soyeurt, Hélène; Arnould, Valérie; Bruwier, Damien; Dardenne, Pierre; Romnee, Jean-Michel; Gengler, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Selection for increased mastitis resistance is hampered by lack of available data. Currently, somatic cell count or score are proven indicators. However, it should be a priority to increase the number of available indicator traits for mastitis resistance. The aim of this research was to study the relationships among potential indicator traits as lactoferrin content, concentrations of major minerals in milk (calcium, Ca; sodium, Na; phosphore, P), and somatic cell count. Firs...

  14. Influence of guar gum on the thermal stability of Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase during high-temperature short-time pasteurization of bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyasena, P; McKellar, R C

    1999-08-01

    Mathematical models describing the thermal inactivation of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (TP) and Listeria innocua in milk during high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization were validated with data from TP, L. innocua, and L. monocytogenes trials in guar gum-milk. Holding tube times were determined for turbulent flow using water, and for laminar flow using a guar gum (0.27% wt/wt)-sucrose (5.3% wt/wt)-water mixture. Inactivation of TP and L. innocua was lower in a solution of guar gum (0.25% wt/wt) in whole milk than was predicted by models derived from studies with whole milk alone. Use of laminar flow timings improved model fit but did not completely account for the observed protective effect. L. monocytogenes survival was close to that predicted by the L. innocua model, although some protection was afforded this pathogen under laminar flow. Considerable intertrial variability was noted for L. monocytogenes. Risk analysis simulations using @RISK, a Lotus 1-2-3W add-in, were used to account for intertrial variability. Simulated log10 %reductions consistently underpredicted experimental L. monocytogenes survival (fail-safe), thus the L. innocua model derived in milk is suitable for estimating L. monocytogenes survival in viscous products. Increased thermal tolerance during laminar flow may be attributed to the protective effect of stabilizer. PMID:10456737

  15. Double-antibody based immunoassay for the detection of β-casein in bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Song, F; Li, Y S; Liu, J Q; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Zhang, Y Y; Yang, L; Li, Z H; Zhang, J H; Wang, X R

    2013-11-01

    The concentration of casein (CN) is one of the most important parameters for measuring the quality of bovine milk. Traditional approach to CN concentration determination is Kjeldahl, which is an indirect method for determination of total nitrogen content. Here, we described a double-antibody based direct immunoassay for the detection of β-CN in bovine milk samples. Monoclonal antibody (McAb) was used as capture antibody and polyclonal antibody (PcAb) labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as detection antibody. With the direct immunoassay format, the linear range of the detection was 0.1-10.0 μg mL(-1). The detection limit was 0.04 μg mL(-1). In addition, the concentration of β-CN in real bovine milk samples has been detected by the developed immunoassay. There was a good correlation between the results obtained by the developed technique and Kjeldahl method from commercial samples. Compared to the traditional approach, the advantage of the assay is no need of time-consuming sample pretreatment.

  16. Mid-infrared prediction of lactoferrin content in bovine milk: potential indicator of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyeurt, H; Bastin, C; Colinet, F G; Arnould, V M-R; Berry, D P; Wall, E; Dehareng, F; Nguyen, H N; Dardenne, P; Schefers, J; Vandenplas, J; Weigel, K; Coffey, M; Théron, L; Detilleux, J; Reding, E; Gengler, N; McParland, S

    2012-11-01

    Lactoferrin (LTF) is a milk glycoprotein favorably associated with the immune system of dairy cows. Somatic cell count is often used as an indicator of mastitis in dairy cows, but knowledge on the milk LTF content could aid in mastitis detection. An inexpensive, rapid and robust method to predict milk LTF is required. The aim of this study was to develop an equation to quantify the LTF content in bovine milk using mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry. LTF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and all milk samples were analyzed by MIR. After discarding samples with a coefficient of variation between 2 ELISA measurements of more than 5% and the spectral outliers, the calibration set consisted of 2499 samples from Belgium (n = 110), Ireland (n = 1658) and Scotland (n = 731). Six statistical methods were evaluated to develop the LTF equation. The best method yielded a cross-validation coefficient of determination for LTF of 0.71 and a cross-validation standard error of 50.55 mg/l of milk. An external validation was undertaken using an additional dataset containing 274 Walloon samples. The validation coefficient of determination was 0.60. To assess the usefulness of the MIR predicted LTF, four logistic regressions using somatic cell score (SCS) and MIR LTF were developed to predict the presence of mastitis. The dataset used to build the logistic regressions consisted of 275 mastitis records and 13 507 MIR data collected in 18 Walloon herds. The LTF and the interaction SCS × LTF effects were significant (P test. In conclusion, this study confirms the possibility to quantify an LTF indicator from milk MIR spectra. It suggests the usefulness of this indicator associated to SCS to detect the presence of mastitis. Moreover, the knowledge of milk LTF could also improve the milk nutritional quality.

  17. Purification of bovine milk lactoperoxidase and investigation of antibacterial properties at different thiocyanate mediated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğuz, M T; Ozdemir, H

    2005-01-01

    Bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) was purified with amberlite CG 50 H+ resin, CM sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography from skim milk. The activity of lactoperoxidase was measured by using 2.2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6 sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as a choromogenic substrate at pH 6.0. Purification degree for the purified enzyme was controlled with SDS-PAGE and Rz value (A412/A280). Rz value for the purified LPO was 0.8. Km value at pH 6.0 at 20 degrees C for the LPO was 0.20 mM. Vmax value was 7.87 micromol/ml min at pH 6.0 at 20 degrees C. Bovine LPO showed high antibacterial activity in 100 mM thiocyanate--100 mM H2O2 medium for some pathogenic bacteria, such as Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Micrococcus luteus LA 2971, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Pseudomonas pyocyanea, Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 10, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 15753, Bacillus brevis FMC3, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 5, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Bacillus cereus EU, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Yersinia enterocolytica, Listeria monocytogenes scoot A, Bacillus megaterium EU, Bacillus megaterium DSM32, Klebsiella oxytocica, Staphylococcus aerogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067 and compared with well known antibacterial substances such as penicilline, ampicilline, amoxicillin-clavulanate and ceftriaxon. The LPO--100 mM thiocyanate--100 mM H2O2 system was purposed as an effective agent against many of the diseases causing organisms in human and animals.

  18. Study of the protein-bound fraction of calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc in bovine milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando V.; Lopes, Gisele S.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Souza, Gilberto B.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.

    2001-10-01

    Two approaches were used to study the interaction of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn with bovine milk proteins by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES). Selective separations in bovine milk samples were accomplished employing an acid protein precipitation using 100 g l -1 trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and an enzymatic protein hydrolysis using 50 g l -1 pepsin (PEP) solution, respectively. The results were compared with total mineral contents determined after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The results obtained by enzymatic and acid precipitation evidenced the different interaction forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn in the system formed by milk components. Iron was not solubilized by the TCA treatment, but was recovered completely after the enzymatic treatment. Quantitative recoveries of Ca, Mg and Zn were obtained using both approaches, showing that these analytes were bound to milk compounds affected by either treatment. Calcium, Mg and Zn are mainly associated with colloidal calcium phosphate and Fe is bound to the backbone of the casein polypeptide chain, cleaved by pepsin enzyme. The proposed approaches could be used to assess the complexity of these chemical interactions.

  19. Monitoring of pesticide residue in bovine milk from Nadia district, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aruna Kumari; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Monitoring of 210 bovine milk samples collected from local markets in the Nadia district of West Bengal during 2011 was performed. Samples were collected in summer and winter seasons. Analysis of pesticides was performed by using a multiresidue method validated in the laboratory. The quantification was performed using GC-ECD. Analysis revealed the presence of lindane in less than 1 % of milk samples. Endosulfan I and II were also detected and were found to exceed MRL recommended by Codex. Overall 1.90 % of the analyzed samples showed trace to measurable amount of pesticide residues. The monitored area provided pesticide residues data of milk, assisting in future scientific assessment on pesticide usage. PMID:23708263

  20. Effect of forage on the content of phyto-oestrogens in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hansen-Møller, Jens;

    2009-01-01

    ) affects the concentration of phyto-oestrogens in bovine milk. Sixteen Danish Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square design with four cows per treatment per period of 3 weeks. The four treatment diets were lucerne silage (LS), 2/3 lucerne silage and 1/3 maize silage (2/3LS), 1/3 lucerne silage...... and 2/3 maize silage (1/3LS) and GCS. Milk was collected at the end of each period and feed samples on day 6, 13 and 20 in each experimental period. Milk and pooled feed samples were analysed for the concentration of isoflavones, coumestans and lignans. The content of isoflavones was higher...

  1. Transcriptional response of HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells to human and bovine milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan A; O'Callaghan, John; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M

    2013-12-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) have been shown to interact directly with immune cells. However, large quantities of HMO are required for intervention or clinical studies, but these are unavailable in most cases. In this respect, bovine milk is potentially an excellent source of commercially viable analogues of these unique molecules. In the present study, we compared the transcriptional response of colonic epithelial cells (HT-29) to the entire pool of HMO and bovine colostrum oligosaccharides (BCO) to determine whether the oligosaccharides from bovine milk had effects on gene expression that were similar to those of their human counterparts. Gene set enrichment analysis of the transcriptional data revealed that there were a number of similar biological processes that may be influenced by both treatments including a response to stimulus, signalling, locomotion, and multicellular, developmental and immune system processes. For a more detailed insight into the effects of milk oligosaccharides, the effect on the expression of immune system-associated glycogenes was chosen as a case study when performing validation studies. Glycogenes in the current context are genes that are directly or indirectly regulated in the presence of glycans and/or glycoconjugates. RT-PCR analysis revealed that HMO and BCO influenced the expression of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, colony-stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage) (GM-CSF2), IL-17C and platelet factor 4 (PF4)), chemokines (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and CXCL2) and cell surface receptors (interferon γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2) and IL-10 receptor α (IL10RA)). The present study suggests

  2. 反相高效液相色谱法测定牛奶中的主要蛋白质%Determination of Major Bovine Milk Proteins by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 张庆合; 王志华; 李红梅

    2009-01-01

    A RP-HPLC method for the quantification of the six major bovine milk proteins (κ-casein (CN),α_(s2)-CN,α_(s1)-CN,β-CN,Whey,immunoglobulins (Igg) ) is described. Separation and quantification were achieved by a reversed phase analytical column (Agilent Zorbax 300SB-C_8,250 mm×4.6 mm ,5μm) and the gradient elution solvents of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water and 0.1% TFA in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0. 8 mL/min. Column temperature was set at 45℃ and the sample was monitored with photodiode array detector at 214 nm. A linear relationship( r >0. 999) between the concentrations of proteins and peak areas was observed over the concentration range. Recoveries of six target proteins spiked in milk were form 74. 8% to 132.5%. Nine kinds of milks of different brands were analyzed,and the difference of the concentration and relative ration of κ-CN,α_(s2)-CN,α_(s1)-CN,β-CN and Whey were found.%建立了测定牛奶中的主要蛋白质的反相高效液相色谱法,对前处理方法进行了优化,采用Agilent Zorbax 300SB-C_8(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,三氟乙酸-水-乙腈流动相梯度洗脱,214 nm检测,柱温45 ℃,外标法定量.测定κ-CN,α_(s2)-CN,α_(s1)-CN,β-CN,Whey和Igg的线性关系良好,相关系数均大于0 999,加标回收率在74.8%~132.5%之间.大豆蛋白质不影响分离与检测.采用本方法分析了9种牛奶样品中上述蛋白质的含量与总量,结果表明,本方法测定结果准确可靠.不同样品中4种酪蛋白与乳清蛋白的比例基本接近,但是不同品牌之间存在一定差异.

  3. Effects of phenylalanine and threonine oligopeptides on milk protein synthesis in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M M; Wu, Y M; Liu, H Y; Liu, J X

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of phenylalanine (Phe) and threonine (Thr) oligopeptides on αs1 casein gene expression and milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Primary mammary epithelial cells were obtained from Holstein dairy cows and incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-F12 medium (DMEM/F12) containing lactogenic hormones (prolactin and glucocorticoids). Free Phe (117 μg/ml) was substituted partly with peptide-bound Phe (phenylalanylphenylalanine, phenylalanyl threonine, threonyl-phenylalanyl-phenylalanine) in the experimental media. After incubation with experimental medium, cells were collected for gene expression analysis and medium was collected for milk protein or amino acid determination. The results showed that peptide-bound Phe at 10% (11.7 μg/ml) significantly enhanced αs1 casein gene expression and milk protein synthesis as compared with equivalent amount of free Phe. When 10% Phe was replaced by phenylalanylphenylalanine, the disappearance of most essential amino acids increased significantly, and gene expression of peptide transporter 2 and some amino acid transporters was significantly enhanced. These results indicate that the Phe and Thr oligopeptides are important for milk protein synthesis, and peptide-bound amino acids could be utilised more efficiently in milk protein synthesis than the equivalent amount of free amino acids.

  4. Sensors and management support in high-technology milking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, H.; Ouweltjes, W.

    2003-01-01

    Two directions can be distinguished in the development of high-tech milking equipment: 1) high-capacity milking parlors with a high throughput of cows per person per hour and 2) automatic milking systems in which manual labor is replaced by a milking robot. High-capacity milking parlors are develope

  5. Genetic and biochemical evidence that recombinant Enterococcus spp. strains expressing gelatinase (GelE) produce bovine milk-derived hydrolysates with high angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitory activity (ACE-IA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gútiez, Loreto; Borrero, Juan; Jiménez, Juan J; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Recio, Isidra; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E

    2014-06-18

    In this work, genes encoding gelatinase (gelE) and serine proteinase (sprE), two extracellular proteases produced by Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, were cloned in the protein expression vector pMG36c, containing the constitutive P32 promoter, generating the recombinant plasmids pCG, pCSP, and pCGSP encoding gelE, sprE, and gelE-sprE, respectively. Transformation of noncaseinolytic E. faecalis P36, E. faecalis JH2-2, E. faecium AR24, and E. hirae AR14 strains with these plasmids permitted detection of caseinolytic activity only in the strains transformed with pCG or pCGSP. Complementation of a deletion (knockout) mutant of E. faecalis V583 for production of gelatinase (GelE) with pCG unequivocally supported that gelE is responsible for the caseinolytic activity of the transformed strain grown in bovine skim milk (BSM). RP-HPLC-MS/MS analysis of hydrolysates of transformed Enterococcus spp. strains grown in BSM permitted the identification of 38 major peptide fragments including peptides with previously reported angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitory activity (ACE-IA), antihypertensive activity, and antioxidant activity.

  6. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh

    2013-10-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Reisolation of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine milk following experimental inoculation is influenced by fat percentage and specific immunoglobulin G1 titer in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerhout, E M; Koets, A P; Vernooij, J C M; Mols-Vorstermans, T G T; Nuijten, P J M; Rutten, V P M G; Bijlsma, J J E; Eisenberg, S W F

    2016-06-01

    The associations of management parameters, herd characteristics, and individual cow factors with bovine mastitis have been subject of many studies. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between milk composition parameters, including fat, protein, lactose, urea, and specific immunoglobulin levels, at the time of experimental bacterial inoculation of the mammary gland and subsequent shedding dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus. Sixty-eight cows were experimentally infected with S. aureus and closely monitored for 3 wk. Mixed model analyses were used to determine the influence of management and herd characteristics (farm and experimental group), individual cow factors (days in milk, milk yield, and quarter position), and a challenge-related parameter (inoculation dose) in combination with either the milk components fat, protein, lactose and urea, or the S. aureus-specific antibody isotype titers at the time of bacterial inoculation, on the number of S. aureus reisolated from milk after inoculation. A positive association was observed between the milk fat percentage and the number of S. aureus reisolated from quarter milk, and a negative relationship between the S. aureus-specific IgG1 titer in milk and the number of S. aureus. These findings should be considered in the development of a vaccine against S. aureus-induced bovine mastitis. PMID:26995117

  8. Determination of steroid hormones in bovine milk by LC-MS/MS and their levels in Swiss Holstein cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyon, Alexandre; Cai, Julia Zhenzhen; Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Hartmann, Christoph; Shao, Bing; Mottier, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic and natural steroid hormones have attracted some attention in recent years as endocrine active substances (EAS) that interact or interfere with the endocrine system. Endogenous hormones occur naturally in food of animal origin, among which bovine milk represents an important source. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of steroid hormones (oestrogens, androgens, progestogens and glucocorticoids) in cow's milk samples from three farms in Switzerland. An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of 12 hormones in milk. Some hormonal levels from individual cows showed large variations. The average levels of the hormones analysed (17α-estradiol = 31 ng kg(-)(1), 17β-estradiol = 6 ng kg(-)(1), estrone = 159 ng kg(-)(1), 4-androstenedione = 684 ng kg(-)(1), progesterone = 15486 ng kg(-)(1), 17-hydroxyprogesterone = 214 ng kg(-)(1), cortisone = 112 ng kg(-)(1), and cortisol = 235 ng kg(-)(1)) were comparable with literature data. Estriol, testosterone and androstenediols were not detected at their respective limit of quantification. No significant differences of hormonal content among milk from cows at different lactation/calving numbers were evidenced, except for progesterone and 4-androstenedione. Due to confounding parameters linked to the physiological stage of the animal, like pregnancy and gestational stage (pregnancy trimester), the causal correlation between the variation of the levels for these two hormones and the lactation/calving number could not be unambiguously demonstrated. PMID:27055356

  9. Temporal alterations in the bovine buttermilk glycome from parturition to milk maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sarah A; Gerlach, Jared Q; Gill, Satbir K; Lane, Jonathan A; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Hickey, Rita M; Joshi, Lokesh

    2016-11-15

    The bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) has many associated biological activities, many of which are linked with specific carbohydrate structures of MFGM glycoconjugates. Bovine buttermilk is a commercially viable source of MFGM and is an under-valued by-product of butter making. However, the changes in buttermilk glycosylation over the course of lactation have not been extensively investigated. In this study, buttermilk was generated from three individual multiparous cows at 13 time points over the first three months of lactation. Buttermilk glycosylation was profiled using lectin microarrays and lectin blotting. Suggested differences in glycosylation, including N-glycosylation, sialylation and fucosylation, were observed between early and late time points and between individual animals. Overall, these data suggest temporal changes in the glycosylation of buttermilk proteins which may have an important impact on commercial isolation of glycosylated ingredients. PMID:27283640

  10. Development of a single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarray platform for the identification of bovine milk protein genetic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, S; Chiatti, F; Ceriotti, G; Caroli, A; Consolandi, C; Pagnacco, G; Castiglioni, B

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a fast method for typing the main mutations of bovine milk protein genes by using microarray technology. An approach based on the ligation detection reaction (LDR) and a universal array (UA) was used. Polymorphisms in both the coding and noncoding sequences of alpha(S1)-casein, beta-casein, kappa-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin genes were considered because of their well-known effects on milk composition and cheese production. A total of 22 polymorphic sites, corresponding to 21 different variants, were included in the diagnostic microarray. First, a multiplex PCR was developed to amplify all the DNA target sequences simultaneously. Second, the LDR-UA assay was implemented. The method was validated by analyzing 100 Italian Friesian DNA samples, which were also genotyped by conventional methods both at the protein level by means of milk isoelectrofocusing and at the molecular level using PCR-RFLP and PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism techniques. The genotypes obtained using the LDR-UA approach were in full agreement with those obtained by the conventional analyses. An important result of the LDR-UA assay was a more accurate genotyping of the different milk protein alleles than was found with conventional typing methods. At the kappa-casein gene, in fact, 4 samples were heterozygous (3 reference samples and 1 validation sample) for an allele coding for Thr(136) and Ala(148). This variant, which can be considered as the wild type of the genus Bos, is not usually identifiable by the conventional typing methods used. The multiplex PCR-LDR-UA approach developed provides for an accurate, inexpensive, and high-throughput assay that does not exhibit false positive or false negative signals, thus making it highly suitable for animal genotyping.

  11. A proteomic perspective on the changes in milk proteins due to high somatic cell count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Boeren, J.A.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Although cows with subclinical mastitis have no difference in the appearance of their milk, milk composition and milk quality are altered because of the inflammation. To know the changes in milk quality with different somatic cell count (SCC) levels, 5 pooled bovine milk samples with SCC from 105 to

  12. Detection of antibiotic residues in bovine milk by a voltammetric electronic tongue system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zhenbo [Zhejiang University, Department of Bio-Systems Engineering, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China); Wang Jun, E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, Department of Bio-Systems Engineering, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)

    2011-05-23

    A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) was developed to detect antibiotic residues in bovine milk. Six antibiotics (Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Kanamycin sulfate, Neomycin sulfate, Streptomycin sulfate and Tetracycline HCl) spiked at four different concentration levels (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 maximum residue limits (MRLs)) were classified based on VE-tongue by two pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The VE-tongue was composed of five working electrodes (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and titanium) positioned in a standard three-electrode configuration. The Multi-frequency large amplitude pulse voltammetry (MLAPV) which consisted of four segments (1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz and 1000 Hz) was applied as potential waveform. The six antibiotics at the MRLs could not be separated from bovine milk completely by PCA, but all the samples were demarcated clearly by DFA. Three regression models: Principal Component Regression Analysis (PCR), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), and Least Squares-Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) were used for concentrations of antibiotics prediction. All the regression models performed well, and PCR had the most stable results.

  13. Extracellular thermostable proteolytic activity of the milk spoilage bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS19 on bovine caseins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuknytė, M; Decimo, M; Colzani, M; Silvetti, T; Brasca, M; Cattaneo, S; Aldini, G; De Noni, I

    2016-06-01

    We studied the thermostable proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens PS19 isolated from raw bovine milk. The heat-treated cell-free supernatant (HT-CFS) contained a thermostable protease of approximately 45 kDa, as revealed by casein zymography. We assigned this enzyme to P. fluorescens AprX metalloprotease (UniProtKB Acc. No. C9WKP6). After concentration by ultrafiltration at 10 kDa, the HT-CFS showed 2 other thermostable proteolytic bands on zymogram, with molecular masses of approximately 15 and 25 kDa. The former resulted a fragment of the AprX protease, whereas the 25-kDa protease was not homologous to any known protein of Pseudomonas spp. Subsequently, we assessed the proteolytic activity of the HT-CFS on bovine αS-, β-, and κ-casein during in vitro incubation at 7 or 22°C. By means of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we identified the released peptides (n=591). Some of them resisted proteolysis during the whole incubation period at both incubation temperatures and, therefore, they could be assumed as indicators of the proteolytic action of P. fluorescens PS19 on bovine caseins. PMID:26995139

  14. Electrical field assisted matrix solid phase dispersion as a powerful tool to improve the extraction efficiency and clean-up of fluoroquinolones in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Faria, Adriana Ferreira

    2016-08-26

    This work presents a new method by electrical matrix solid phase dispersion for the extraction and clean-up of marbofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin and sarafloxacin in bovine milk. Composition and pH of the eluent, applied electrical potential and polarity were optimized by experimental designs. The combination of the chromatographic and electrophoretic mechanisms allowed the extraction and clean-up in one step with low organic solvent consumption, high extraction throughput and elution automation. Linearity, precision, trueness and limit of quantification were evaluated and provided values in accordance with other methods recently developed for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in milk. This technique proved to be promising for the extraction and clean-up of ionizable analytes in different milk matrices. PMID:27492598

  15. Electrical field assisted matrix solid phase dispersion as a powerful tool to improve the extraction efficiency and clean-up of fluoroquinolones in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Faria, Adriana Ferreira

    2016-08-26

    This work presents a new method by electrical matrix solid phase dispersion for the extraction and clean-up of marbofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin and sarafloxacin in bovine milk. Composition and pH of the eluent, applied electrical potential and polarity were optimized by experimental designs. The combination of the chromatographic and electrophoretic mechanisms allowed the extraction and clean-up in one step with low organic solvent consumption, high extraction throughput and elution automation. Linearity, precision, trueness and limit of quantification were evaluated and provided values in accordance with other methods recently developed for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in milk. This technique proved to be promising for the extraction and clean-up of ionizable analytes in different milk matrices.

  16. Iron and Ferritin Levels in the Serum and Milk of Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Schnell, Star A.; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kakinuma, Seiichi; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Orino, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Iron metabolism was examined in 15 bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected dairy cows (2.6–7.8 years old). BLV infection was detected by measuring serum antibody titer against BLV virus antigen (gp51). The anti-BLV antibody titers of the BLV-infected cows were significantly higher in serum than in milk; a single serum-positive animal lacked detectable anti-BLV antibodies in its milk. Iron and ferritin concentrations also were significantly higher in serum than in milk. Although most of the BLV-i...

  17. Bovine and soybean milk bioactive compounds: Effects on inflammatory response of human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvello, Rosa; Aresta, Antonella; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo; Cianciulli, Antonia; Salvatore, Rosaria; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo; Panaro, Maria Antonietta

    2016-11-01

    In this study the effects of commercial bovine and soybean milks and their bioactive compounds, namely genistein, daidzein and equol, on the inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human intestinal Caco-2 cells were examined, in terms of nitric oxide (NO) release and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) expression. Both milks and their bioactive compounds significantly inhibited, dose-dependently, the expression of iNOS mRNA and protein, resulting in a decreased NO production. The NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated intestinal cells was also examined. In all cases we observed that cell pre-treatment before LPS activation inhibited the IkB phosphorylation. Accordingly, quantification of bioactive compounds by solid phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography has shown that they were absorbed, metabolized and released by Caco-2 cells in culture media. In conclusion, we demonstrated that milks and compounds tested are able to reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses from intestinal cells, interfering with NF-kB dependent molecular mechanisms. PMID:27211648

  18. Seasonal trends in organochlorine pesticide residues in raw bovine milk from rural areas of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, C P; Kaushik, A; Sharma, H R

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal trends in organochlorine pesticides residues namely, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites and endosulfan stereo isomers were investigated in raw bovine milk samples from rural areas of Ambala, Gurgaon and Hisar districts of the state of Haryana for winter, summer, and post-monsoon seasons. Highest concentration of HCH and DDT was found in 43 % and 53 % milk samples, respectively in post-monsoon season whereas highest values of endosulfan was reported in 36 % samples during winter season. During the study period only 2 % milk samples exceeded the maximum residue limit recommended by WHO for ΣHCH, 1 % samples each for α-HCH and γ-HCH, 9 % samples for β-HCH as recommended by PFAA and 30 % samples for ΣDDT as prescribed by FAO. No statistical difference in the mean concentration of ∑HCH and ∑Endosulfan could be observed in any of the three districts. However, ∑DDT concentration showed marked difference [F(2, 25) = 12.42, p = 0.00018)] among the three districts. PMID:24154613

  19. Effects of Cooling and Supplemental Bovine Somatotropin on Milk Production relating to Body Glucose Metabolism and Utilization of Glucose by the Mammary Gland in Crossbred Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siravit Sitprija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The low milk yield and shorter persistency of lactation of dairy cattle is the major problem for the dairy practices in the tropics. High environmental temperatures and rapid decline of plasma growth hormone level can influence milk production. Regulation of the milk yield of animals is mainly based on the mechanisms governing the quantity of glucose extracted by the mammary gland for lactose biosynthetic pathways. The mechanism(s underlying the effects of cooling and supplemental bovine somatotropin on milk production relating to body glucose metabolism and intracellular metabolism of glucose in the mammary gland of crossbred Holstein cattle in the tropics have not been investigated to date. Approach: Ten crossbred 87.5% Holstein cows were divided into two groups of five animals each. Animals were housed in Normal Shade barn (NS as non-cooled cows and cows in the second group were housed in barn which was equipped with a two Misty-Fan cooling system (MF as cooled cows. Supplementation of recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST (POSILAC, 500 mg per cow were performed in both groups to study body glucose metabolism and the utilization of glucose in the mammary gland using a continuous infusion of [3-3H] glucose and [U- 14C] glucose as markers in early, mid and late stages of lactation. Results: Milk yield significantly increased in both groups during supplemental rbST with a high level of mammary blood flow. Body glucose turnover rates were not significant different between cooled and non-cooled cows whether supplemental rbST or not. The glucose taken up by the mammary gland of both non-cooled and cooled cows increased flux through the lactose synthesis and the pentose cycle pathway with significant increases in NADPH formation for fatty acid synthesis during rbST supplementation. The utilization of glucose carbon incorporation into milk appeared to increase in milk lactose and milk triacylglycerol but not for

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine rennet whey powder in milk powder and buttermilk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Kemmers-Voncken, A.; Boers, E.A.M.; Frankhuizen, R.; Haasnoot, W.

    2008-01-01

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of bovine rennet whey (BRW) solids in skim milk powders (SMP) and buttermilk powders is presented. The BRW content was determined in a neutralised trichloroacetic acid sample extract by binding of the dissolved caseinomacropep

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Listeria monocytogenes Strain DPC6895, a Serotype 1/2b Isolate from Bovine Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Aidan; McAuliffe, Olivia; Coffey, Aidan; Hunt, Karen; Fanning, Seamus; Fox, Edward; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen and is the causative agent of listeriosis among humans and animals. The draft genome sequence of L. monocytogenes DPC6895, a serotype 1/2b strain isolated from the raw milk of a cow with subclinical bovine mastitis, is reported. PMID:26067969

  2. Expanded uncertainties of preconcentration neutron activation measurements of extractable organo-chlorine, bromine and iodine compounds in bovine milk lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk is known to contain organohalogen compounds. A mixture of hexane and isopropanol was used to extract lipids from bovine milk and neutron activation analysis (NAA) was employed to measure extractable organohalogens in the lipids. The samples were irradiated in a neutron flux of 2.5 × 1011 cm2 s-1 for 10 min, allowed to decay for 2 min, and counted for 10 min. Uncertainties associated with the preconcentration NAA measurements were investigated in detail. The mass fractions of halogens in mg kg-1 and their relative expanded uncertainties in percent in bovine milk lipids were: 32 (8.4 %), 2.65 (9.8 %) and 0.211 (6.6 %) for Cl, Br and I, respectively. (author)

  3. Bacteriostatic effect of human milk and bovine colostrum on Escherichia coli: importance of bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, E; Humphreys, J

    1977-01-01

    At pH 7.4 and in the presence of NaHCO3, human milk and bovine colostrum inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli O111. Adding sufficient iron to saturate the iron-binding capacity of the lactoferrin present in the milk or colostrum prevented bacteriostasis. At pH 6.8 neither molk nor colostrum inhibited E. coli 0111. Adjusting the pH to 7.4 with NaHCO3 resulted in the development of bacteriostatic activity. Adjusting the pH to 7.4 with NaOH was ineffective. Dialyzed colostrum and milk inhibited bacterial growth at pH 6.8 in the absence of added NaHCO3; addition of citrate or iron abolished bacteriostasis. The chromatographic elution profile of tyrosyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) from iron-replete E. coli differs significantly from that of tyrosyl-tRNA from iron-deficient organisms. Examination of the elution profile tyrosyl-tRNA from E. coli 0111 growing in colostrum without added NaHCO3 showed that such bacteria were fully replete in iron. The nature of the elution profile of tyrosyl-tRNA also showed that iron was freely available to the bacteria when citrate was added to dialyzed colostrum but not available in its absence, even at pH 6.8. Results support the idea that the bacteriostatic action of milk and colostrum, due to the combined action of antibody and lactoferrin, depends on the addition of bicarbonate to counteract the iron-mobilizing effect of the citrate normally present in these secretions. PMID:14890

  4. Survival rate of campylobacter coli strains in sterile buffalo and bovine milk Tasas de sobrevida de Campylobacter coli en leche de búfalo y de bovino

    OpenAIRE

    A. TRESIERRA-AYALA; Guzmán, A.; H Fernández

    2001-01-01

    The survival rate of five Campylobacter coli strains, isolated from bovine faeces (3) and from buffalo faeces (2), was studied in sterile buffalo and bovine milk kept at 4°C under aerobic conditions. All strains lost their viability substantially more rapidly in buffalo milk than in bovine milkSe determinó, en leche de bovino y de búfalo autoclavadas y mantenidas a 4ºC bajo condiciones de aerobiosis, la sobrevida de cinco cepas de Campylobacter coli aisladas de fecas de bovino (3) y ...

  5. Sensors and management support in high-technology milking

    OpenAIRE

    Hogeveen, H.; Ouweltjes, W.

    2003-01-01

    Two directions can be distinguished in the development of high-tech milking equipment: 1) high-capacity milking parlors with a high throughput of cows per person per hour and 2) automatic milking systems in which manual labor is replaced by a milking robot. High-capacity milking parlors are developed in such a way that one operator is able to milk many cows, partly by automation and partly by optimization of available labor. In such parlors, one operator can milk up to 125 cows per hour. This...

  6. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin in human milk from atopic and non-atopic mothers. Relationship to maternal intake of homogenized and unhomogenized milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Hansen, L G;

    1990-01-01

    Human milk samples (n = 300) were collected during a 3-week period from 10 healthy mothers and from 10 atopic mothers, all with healthy, solely breast-fed infants. The milk samples were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the content of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG......). In a cross-over design the atopic and non-atopic mothers alternated their intake of milk between homogenized and unhomogenized milk each week. On day 7, in each week, consecutive milk samples were taken before and 4, 8, 12 and 24 hr after a single ingestion of 500 ml of homogenized or unhomogenized milk....... Detectable amounts of BLG (0.9-150 micrograms/l, median value 4.2 micrograms/l) were measured in 19/20 of the mothers (95%), in 9 of 10 atopic mothers and in all 10 of 10 non-atopic mothers. No correlation was found between the type of milk preparation (homogenized or unhomogenized) and the presence of BLG...

  7. A proteomic perspective on the changes in milk proteins due to high somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Boeren, S; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Vervoort, J M; Hettinga, K A

    2015-08-01

    Although cows with subclinical mastitis have no difference in the appearance of their milk, milk composition and milk quality are altered because of the inflammation. To know the changes in milk quality with different somatic cell count (SCC) levels, 5 pooled bovine milk samples with SCC from 10(5) to 10(6) cells/mL were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using both one-dimension sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and filter-aided sample preparation coupled with dimethyl labeling, both followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Minor differences were found on the qualitative level in the proteome from milk with different SCC levels, whereas the concentration of milk proteins showed remarkable changes. Not only immune-related proteins (cathelicidins, IGK protein, CD59 molecule, complement regulatory protein, lactadherin), but also proteins with other biological functions (e.g., lipid metabolism: platelet glycoprotein 4, butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1, perilipin-2) were significantly different in milk from cows with high SCC level compared with low SCC level. The increased concentration of protease inhibitors in the milk with higher SCC levels may suggest a protective role in the mammary gland against protease activity. Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase showed a linear relation with SCC, which was confirmed with an ELISA. However, the correlation coefficient was lower in individual cows compared with bulk milk. These results indicate that prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase may be used as an indicator to evaluate bulk milk quality and thereby reduce the economic loss in the dairy industry. The results from this study reflect the biological phenomena occurring during subclinical mastitis and in addition provide a potential indicator for the detection of bulk milk with high SCC. PMID:26094216

  8. Metabolic safety-margins do not differ between cows of high and low genetic merit for milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Christopher Harold; Alamer, Mohammed A; Sorensen, Annette;

    2004-01-01

    Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of ea...... the commonly held belief that selective breeding of dairy cows for high milk production has rendered them markedly more susceptible to metabolic disturbances....

  9. Composition and microstructure of colostrum and mature bovine milk fat globule membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoqiang; Guo, Zheng; Jin, Qingzhe; Huang, Jianhua; Cheong, Lingzhi; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xingguo

    2015-10-15

    The microstructures of colostrum and mature bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at different temperatures, and the relationships between microstructure variations and the chemical compositions of the MFGM were also examined. Using a fluorophore-labeled phospholipid probe, we found that non-fluorescent domains on the MFGM were positively correlated with the amount of sphingomyelin at both room (20 °C) and physiological (37 °C) temperatures. However, at the storage temperature (4 °C), there were more non-fluorescent domains on the MFGM. These results indicate that the heterogeneities in the MFGM are most likely to be the result of the lateral segregation of sphingomyelin at the room and physiological temperatures, and at the storage temperature, phospholipids with saturated fatty acids affect the formation of these domains. PMID:25952880

  10. Quantitative proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk samples through iTRAQ labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Cong, Min; Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Junrui; Wu, Rina; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Yue, Xiqing

    2016-05-18

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins have many functions. To explore the different proteomics of human and bovine MFGM, MFGM proteins were separated from human and bovine colostrum and mature milk, and analyzed by the iTRAQ proteomic approach. A total of 411 proteins were recognized and quantified. Among these, 232 kinds of differentially expressed proteins were identified. These differentially expressed proteins were analyzed based on multivariate analysis, gene ontology (GO) annotation and KEGG pathway. Biological processes involved were response to stimulus, localization, establishment of localization, and the immune system process. Cellular components engaged were the extracellular space, extracellular region parts, cell fractions, and vesicles. Molecular functions touched upon were protein binding, nucleotide binding, and enzyme inhibitor activity. The KEGG pathway analysis showed several pathways, including regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, neurotrophin signaling pathway, leukocyte transendothelial migration, tight junction, complement and coagulation cascades, vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, and adherens junction. These results enhance our understanding of different proteomes of human and bovine MFGM across different lactation phases, which could provide important information and potential directions for the infant milk powder and functional food industries. PMID:27159491

  11. Caseins from bovine colostrum and milk strongly bind piscidin-1, an antimicrobial peptide from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kütt, Mary-Liis; Stagsted, Jan

    2014-09-01

    A model system of bovine colostrum and piscidin, a fish-derived antimicrobial peptide, was developed to study potential interactions of antimicrobial peptides in colostrum. We did not detect any antimicrobial activity of colostrum using the radial plate diffusion assay; in fact colostrum completely abrogated activity of added piscidin. This could not be explained by degradation of piscidin by colostrum, which was less than ten percent. We found that colostrum even protected piscidin against degradation by added proteases. We further observed that colostrum and milk rapidly quenched the fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin but not that of fluorescein. This effect was not seen with BSA and the specific quenching of fluorescein-piscidin by colostrum was saturably inhibited with unlabeled piscidin. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that fluorescein-piscidin bound to casein micelles with no apparent binding to IgG or whey proteins. Further, addition of pure caseins was able to quench fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin and to inhibit the antimicrobial activity of piscidin. The interaction between caseins and piscidin could be dissociated by guanidine hydrochloride and recovered piscidin had antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Based on our results we propose that caseins could be carriers for antimicrobial peptides in colostrum and milk. PMID:25036607

  12. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from goat and sheep milk seem to be closely related and differ from isolates detected among bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eMerz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dairy goat and sheep farms suffer severe economic losses due to intramammary infections, with S. aureus representing the main cause of clinical mastitis in small ruminants. In addition, S. aureus contamination of goat and sheep milk may cause staphylococcal food poisoning, as many traditional caprine and ovine milk products are not subjected to pasteurization. Data on virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as on the clonality of S. aureus detected in goat and sheep milk is scarce. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine i spa types and clonal complexes and ii virulence and resistance gene profiles of S. aureus isolated from goat and sheep milk. A total of 162 milk samples from sheep and goats presenting signs of an intramammary infection and 104 bulk milk samples were collected. While low prevalence rates of S. aureus were detected on single animal level, 46% of the bulk tank milk samples from small ruminants were positive for S. aureus. All isolates were spa typed and clonal complexes and virulence and resistance gene patterns were determined using a DNA microarray. Data from 49 S. aureus isolates was included in the statistical analysis and the construction of a SplitsTree. The analyzed isolates could be assigned to eleven clonal complexes, with the large majority of goat and sheep isolates being assigned to CC130 and CC133. The findings of this study suggest that S. aureus shows pronounced adaptation to small ruminants in general, but not to sheep or goats in particular. Although some common characteristics among S. aureus from caprine, ovine, and bovine milk samples were observed, S. aureus from small ruminants seem to form a distinct population. As 67% of the detected S. aureus strains exhibited at least one enterotoxin gene, many caprine or ovine raw milk products may be contaminated with low levels of enterotoxigenic S. aureus, stressing the importance of strict maintenance of the cold chain.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Goat and Sheep Milk Seem to Be Closely Related and Differ from Isolates Detected from Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Axel; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Dairy goat and sheep farms suffer severe economic losses due to intramammary infections, with Staphylococcus aureus representing the main cause of clinical mastitis in small ruminants. In addition, S. aureus contamination of goat and sheep milk may cause staphylococcal food poisoning, as many traditional caprine and ovine milk products are not subjected to pasteurization. Data on virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as on the clonality of S. aureus detected in goat and sheep milk is scarce. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine (i) spa types and clonal complexes (CC) and (ii) virulence and resistance gene profiles of S. aureus isolated from goat and sheep milk. A total of 162 milk samples from sheep and goats presenting signs of an intramammary infection and 104 bulk milk samples were collected. While low prevalence rates of S. aureus was detected on single animal level, 46% of the bulk tank milk samples from small ruminants were positive for S. aureus. All isolates were spa typed and CC and virulence and resistance gene patterns were determined using a DNA microarray. Data from 49 S. aureus isolates was included in the statistical analysis and the construction of a SplitsTree. The analyzed isolates could be assigned to eleven CC, with the large majority of goat and sheep isolates being assigned to CC130 and CC133. The findings of this study suggest that S. aureus shows pronounced adaptation to small ruminants in general, but not to sheep or goats in particular. Although some common characteristics among S. aureus from caprine, ovine, and bovine milk samples were observed, S. aureus from small ruminants seem to form a distinct population. As 67% of the detected S. aureus strains exhibited at least one enterotoxin gene, many caprine, or ovine raw milk products may be contaminated with low levels of enterotoxigenic S. aureus, stressing the importance of strict maintenance of the cold chain. PMID:27014240

  14. DETERMINATION OF PROTEINS FROM BUFFALO MILK USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CROMATOGRAPHY RP-HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURELIA PECE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the hereby paper, we have undertaken a study on buffalo milk proteins, employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. This RP-HPLC technique is commonly employed in the separation and assessment of caseins K, and in the fresh, as well as processed milk. These methods are also successfully applied in the authenticity and origin assessment of certain cheese products and the qualitative analysis of milk in bubalines, ovines, caprines and bovines (Ferreira si Cacote, 2003; Veloso si colab., 2002. In order to identify the main protein types, we found support in literature data (Miranda si colab., 2004, and thus achieved the chromatographic separation on whole milk, lactoserum and casein samples.

  15. The association of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic compounds with native casein micelles in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, M; Mohan, M S; Campagna, S R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L; Harte, F M

    2015-08-01

    The agreed biological function of the casein micelles in milk is to carry minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) from mother to young along with amino acids for growth and development. Recently, native and modified casein micelles were used as encapsulating and delivery agents for various hydrophobic low-molecular-weight probes. The ability of modified casein micelles to bind certain probes may derive from the binding affinity of native casein micelles. Hence, a study with milk from single cows was conducted to further elucidate the association of hydrophobic molecules into native casein micelles and further understand their biological function. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic extraction followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis were performed over protein fractions obtained from size exclusion fractionation of raw skim milk. Hydrophobic compounds, including phosphatidylcholine, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, showed strong association exclusively to casein micelles as compared with whey proteins, whereas hydrophilic compounds did not display any preference for their association among milk proteins. Further analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 42 compounds associated solely with the casein-micelles fraction. Mass fragments in tandem mass spectrometry identified 4 of these compounds as phosphatidylcholine with fatty acid composition of 16:0/18:1, 14:0/16:0, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:0. These results support that transporting low-molecular-weight hydrophobic molecules is also a biological function of the casein micelles in milk.

  16. Direct screening of tetracyclines in water and bovine milk using room temperature phosphorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast and simple flow-through optosensor was designed and characterized for the direct screening of four tetracycline (TCC) antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline) in water and bovine milk samples. The proposed optosensor provides rapid binary yes/no overall responses, being appropriate for the screening of this family of antibiotics above or below a pre-set concentration threshold. The experimental set-up is based on a flow-injection manifold coupled on-line to a phosphorescence detector. Aliquots of the samples are pretreated with Eu(III) to form room temperature phosphorescent metal chelates and injected in the flow manifold. Those chelates are then on-line retained on a conventional flow-cell (packed with polymeric Amberlite XAD-4 particles) which is placed inside the cell holder of the phosphorimeter. After the emission is registered, the antibiotic-metal complexes are eluted from the packed resin with 1 M HCl (for milk samples a second regeneration step, using methanol, should be performed). A sample throughput of about 20 samples per hour was obtained. Optimum experimental conditions include a pH 9, a Eu(III) concentration of 2 x 10-4 M and 8 mM sodium sulphite as chemical deoxygenant. The phosphorescence emitted by the europium-TCC complexes was measured at 394 and 617 nm for excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The unreliability region, given by the probability of false positives and false negatives, respectively (set at 5% in both cases) was in the range between 0.2 and 11.6 nM for detection of tetracyclines in water samples (at a cut-off level of 4 nM) and in the range between 165 and 238 nM for detection of tetracyclines in milk (cut-off level fixed at the normative EU level of 200 nM). Finally, the applicability of the proposed screening optosensor was tested for the reliable control of tetracyclines in contaminated and uncontaminated water and milk samples

  17. Direct screening of tetracyclines in water and bovine milk using room temperature phosphorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traviesa-Alvarez, J.M. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, c/Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Costa-Fernandez, J.M. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, c/Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Pereiro, R. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, c/Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Sanz-Medel, A. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, c/Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)]. E-mail: asm@uniovi.es

    2007-04-18

    A fast and simple flow-through optosensor was designed and characterized for the direct screening of four tetracycline (TCC) antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline) in water and bovine milk samples. The proposed optosensor provides rapid binary yes/no overall responses, being appropriate for the screening of this family of antibiotics above or below a pre-set concentration threshold. The experimental set-up is based on a flow-injection manifold coupled on-line to a phosphorescence detector. Aliquots of the samples are pretreated with Eu(III) to form room temperature phosphorescent metal chelates and injected in the flow manifold. Those chelates are then on-line retained on a conventional flow-cell (packed with polymeric Amberlite XAD-4 particles) which is placed inside the cell holder of the phosphorimeter. After the emission is registered, the antibiotic-metal complexes are eluted from the packed resin with 1 M HCl (for milk samples a second regeneration step, using methanol, should be performed). A sample throughput of about 20 samples per hour was obtained. Optimum experimental conditions include a pH 9, a Eu(III) concentration of 2 x 10{sup -4} M and 8 mM sodium sulphite as chemical deoxygenant. The phosphorescence emitted by the europium-TCC complexes was measured at 394 and 617 nm for excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The unreliability region, given by the probability of false positives and false negatives, respectively (set at 5% in both cases) was in the range between 0.2 and 11.6 nM for detection of tetracyclines in water samples (at a cut-off level of 4 nM) and in the range between 165 and 238 nM for detection of tetracyclines in milk (cut-off level fixed at the normative EU level of 200 nM). Finally, the applicability of the proposed screening optosensor was tested for the reliable control of tetracyclines in contaminated and uncontaminated water and milk samples.

  18. Occurrence of B1 Aflatoxin in diet and M1 Aflatoxin in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Frizzarin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food quality is one of the principles of food safety. Food for dairy cattle may be contaminated by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which produce aflatoxins. The B1 aflatoxin, when ingested by animals, is biotransformed in liver in several other toxic metabolites, including M1 aflatoxin which is excreted in milk. M1 aflatoxin has a carcinogenic effect, which the presence in milk poses a serious risk to public health because milk and dairy products are consumed mainly by children, pregnant women and elderly. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of B1 aflatoxin in feed supplied to dairy cows and the presence of M1 aflatoxin in milk. Samples were collected from complete diet (corn silage and concentrate from a batch of 15 lactating cows from a dairy farm in the Campinas region. Two samples of diets were collected directly into the troughs in intervals of 24 hours at every 15 days, totalizing a period of 45 days. Milk samples of those cows were collected 24 hours after diet collection, directly from sample valves in the glass jars.. B1 and M1 aflatoxins were detected by the technique of High Performance Liquid Chromatography after extraction and purification on immunoaffinity columns. From the 40 samples of diets evaluated, 40% were contaminated with B1 aflatoxin, and the levels found ranged from 1.93 to 43.78μg/Kg. One sample showed result higher than the maximum recommended for grain and animal feed in Brazil (20μg/Kg. From the 75 milk samples analyzed, the presence of M1 aflatoxin was detected in 13.3% with levels ranging from 0.03 to 0.16μg/L, not exceeding the maximum permitted for marketing in the country of 0.5μg/L, however 80% of contaminated samples had values above the maximum permissible levels of 0.05μg/L, value found among countries with abundant milk production... The presence of aflatoxins highlights the importance of monitoring the production, the storage and the importance of handling food and

  19. THE DIRECT SALE OF RAW MILK: PREVALENCE OF PATHOGENS IN RAW MILK AND BOVINE FAECES COLLECTED IN FARMS WITHIN THE PROVINCE OF PESARO-URBINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tonucci

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, direct sale of raw milk by vending machines has largely increased in several European Countries and Italy. As a consequence, adequate hygienic measures and correct consumer’s information is required in order to reduce any potential risk linked to this product. In the present study, the occurrence of pathogens (Salmonella spp., verocytotoxigenic E.coli, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, S.aureus in raw milk and bovine faeces collected in 4 farms in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy, between January 2007 and March 2009 has been investigated; 99.5% of milk samples resulted negative for the pathogens considered and complying with the regulation S. aureus limits. Campylobacter has been found in 0.44% of the samples, collected during summer, while only one sample resulted positive to a non-verocytotoxigenic E.coli O157. In respect to faeces, 62.6% of the samples resulted negative, 33.6% were contaminated by Campylobacter spp. (68% Campylobacter coli and 32% Campylobacter jejuni and 3.8% by E.coli O157. No samples resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria monocytogenes. The results highlight the necessity of a strict plan of hygienic and sanitary controls, with particular attention to milking process hygiene and raw milk storage, to reduce the risk of contamination of the product.

  20. Investigation of risk factors of bovine mastitis in Ethiopia; Isolation of mastitis causing agents and determination of the content of somatic cells in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Frese, Mathias Lutz

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the risk factors of bovine mastitis in different milk production systems in Ethiopia were investigated. Furthermore, mastitis causing agents were isolated after California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used as the field test. Somatic cells were counted and compared with the CMT. Low milk production and low quality of milk are apparently related to a lack of proper hygienic measures throughout the farm clusters.

  1. The activity of milk leukocytes in response to a water-soluble fraction of Mycobacterium phlei in bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, R; Ram, G C; Dash, P K; Goswami, T

    2004-01-01

    The effect of a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a non-pathogenic strain of Mycobacterium phlei was studied in bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) by measuring the myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase enzyme levels in the milk leukocytes. Forty-five cows were divided into three equal groups. Group I, consisting of 15 healthy cows, served as the control, whereas groups II and III each contained 15 cows with subclinical mastitis on the basis of a positive reaction in the California mastitis test (CMT). The cows in group II received 100 microg of WSF in 5 ml sterile phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4 (PBS) once only, while those in group III received 5 ml sterile PBS daily for 7 days, both treatments being given by the intramammary route. Observations were made up to 30 days after treatment (AT). The CMT of the healthy milk was negative (0), whereas it ranged between 1 and 2 points in SCM. The somatic cell count (SCC) increased significantly (p < 0.05) on day 3, then fell steeply from day 7 up to day 30 AT in the cows in group II. A steady decrease in the total bacterial count (TBC) was observed in the group treated with WSF but the bacterial counts remained high in the groups treated with PBS. The mean acid phosphatase level was enhanced by 119% on day 3 AT in group II but only by 18.7% in the cows in group III. The mean myeloperoxidase level was enhanced by 100% in the cows in group II but only by 18% in those in group III on day 3 AT. This significant reduction in the bacterial load in infected cows caused by intramammary infusion of WSF may be due to activation of the microbicidal activity of the neutrophils, but this requires confirmation. PMID:14989362

  2. Thermal properties of milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins in pulsed electric field-treated bovine whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Oey, Indrawati; Everett, David W

    2016-09-15

    Thermodynamics of milk components (milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins) in pulsed electric field (PEF)-treated milk were compared with thermally treated milk (63 °C for 30 min and 73 °C for 15s). PEF treatments were applied at 20 or 26 kV cm(-1) for 34 μs with or without pre-heating of milk (55 °C for 24s), using bipolar square wave pulses in a continuous mode of operation. PEF treatments did not affect the final temperatures of fat melting (Tmelting) or xanthine oxidase denaturation (Tdenaturation), whereas thermal treatments increased both the Tmelting of milk fat and the Tdenaturation for xanthine oxidase by 2-3 °C. Xanthine oxidase denaturation was ∼13% less after PEF treatments compared with the thermal treatments. The enthalpy change (ΔH of denaturation) of whey proteins decreased in the treated-milk, and denaturation increased with the treatment intensity. New endothermic peaks in the calorimetric thermograms of treated milk revealed the formation of complexes due to interactions between MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and skim milk proteins. Evidence for the adsorption of complexes onto the MFGM surface was obtained from the increase in surface hydrophobicity of proteins, revealing the presence of unfolded hydrophobic regions. PMID:27080877

  3. Research of nitroxynil residues in bovine milk following a single administration in the dry period by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Chirollo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitroxynil (NIT is a halogenated phenol used to control fascioliasis in cattle and sheep. The Commission Regulation EU No 37/2010 has established maximum residue limits for NIT in bovine and ovine muscle (400 μg kg−1, fat (200 μg kg−1, liver (20 μg kg−1 and kidney (400 μg kg−1, and more recently in bovine and ovine milk (20 μg kg−1. Thirty-five pregnant dairy cows were treated in this study with nitroxynil (340 mg/mL solution for injection at the recommended dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at the start of the dry period, i.e. 53 to 74 days before the expected calving. Calving occurred between 43 days and 79 days after treatment. The concentrations of NIT in the milk were monitored for up to 120 days after calving. NIT residues were extracted using acetonitrile; magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride were added to induce liquid-liquid partitioning and purified by dispersive solid phase extraction for clean-up. NIT was detected by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS in negative ionization mode. The highest concentrations of this drug were found in two animals at the first milking, 48 and 53 day post treatment with levels of 362 and 657 μg kg–1, respectively. NIT residues were below the limit of detection of the method (0.24 μg/kg–1 between 67 and 106 day post-treatment. Following calving, residues rapidly depleted in animals and were non-detectable from 10 to 38 days post-calving. In particular, in all animals milk resulted compliant (<20 μg/kg−1 three days post partum.

  4. Effects of a Bovine Lactoferrin Formulation from Cow's Milk on Menstrual Distress in Volunteers: A Randomized, Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi M; Yoshise, Ran Emilie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kajimoto, Osami; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a highly prevalent complaint and highly undiagnosed gynecologic condition. Dairy products have a potential in the management of menstrual distress, and bovine lactoferrin can help the subjective dysphoria associated with dysmenorrhea. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a lactoferrin formulation isolated from cow's milk on menstrual symptoms in volunteers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the iron-lactoferrin complex (FeLf) was performed in thirty-five healthy Japanese women. Participants received the 150 mg FeLf (per day) or placebo from day ten of the luteal phase to day four of the follicular phase. The Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) was measured for menstrual distress, and heart rate variability was measured as an index of autonomic nerve balance during menses. A visual analog scale for menstrual pain, and a verbal rating scale for quality of life during the first three days of menstruation were measured. The MDQ score for the automatic nervous system subscale was lower and the parasympathetic nervous system activity was greater in FeLf than in placebo for intention-to-treat or per-protocol populations. The other variables were not different between the groups. No treatment-related side effects were observed during the study. The results indicate that FeLf can provide a beneficial effect on the psychological symptoms in women affected by menstrual distress. PMID:27258249

  5. Effects of a Bovine Lactoferrin Formulation from Cow’s Milk on Menstrual Distress in Volunteers: A Randomized, Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi M. Ueno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea is a highly prevalent complaint and highly undiagnosed gynecologic condition. Dairy products have a potential in the management of menstrual distress, and bovine lactoferrin can help the subjective dysphoria associated with dysmenorrhea. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a lactoferrin formulation isolated from cow’s milk on menstrual symptoms in volunteers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the iron-lactoferrin complex (FeLf was performed in thirty-five healthy Japanese women. Participants received the 150 mg FeLf (per day or placebo from day ten of the luteal phase to day four of the follicular phase. The Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ was measured for menstrual distress, and heart rate variability was measured as an index of autonomic nerve balance during menses. A visual analog scale for menstrual pain, and a verbal rating scale for quality of life during the first three days of menstruation were measured. The MDQ score for the automatic nervous system subscale was lower and the parasympathetic nervous system activity was greater in FeLf than in placebo for intention-to-treat or per-protocol populations. The other variables were not different between the groups. No treatment-related side effects were observed during the study. The results indicate that FeLf can provide a beneficial effect on the psychological symptoms in women affected by menstrual distress.

  6. Effects of a Bovine Lactoferrin Formulation from Cow’s Milk on Menstrual Distress in Volunteers: A Randomized, Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi M.; Yoshise, Ran Emilie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kajimoto, Osami; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a highly prevalent complaint and highly undiagnosed gynecologic condition. Dairy products have a potential in the management of menstrual distress, and bovine lactoferrin can help the subjective dysphoria associated with dysmenorrhea. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a lactoferrin formulation isolated from cow’s milk on menstrual symptoms in volunteers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the iron-lactoferrin complex (FeLf) was performed in thirty-five healthy Japanese women. Participants received the 150 mg FeLf (per day) or placebo from day ten of the luteal phase to day four of the follicular phase. The Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) was measured for menstrual distress, and heart rate variability was measured as an index of autonomic nerve balance during menses. A visual analog scale for menstrual pain, and a verbal rating scale for quality of life during the first three days of menstruation were measured. The MDQ score for the automatic nervous system subscale was lower and the parasympathetic nervous system activity was greater in FeLf than in placebo for intention-to-treat or per-protocol populations. The other variables were not different between the groups. No treatment-related side effects were observed during the study. The results indicate that FeLf can provide a beneficial effect on the psychological symptoms in women affected by menstrual distress. PMID:27258249

  7. Pesticide residues in bovine milk from a predominantly agricultural state of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H R; Kaushik, A; Kaushik, C P

    2007-06-01

    One hundred forty seven samples of bovine milk were collected from 14 districts of Haryana, India during December 1998-February 1999 and analysed for the presence of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues. summation operator HCH, summation operator DDT, summation operator endosulfan and aldrin were detected in 100%, 97%, 43% and 12% samples and with mean values of 0.0292, 0.0367, 0.0022 and 0.0036 microg/ml, respectively. Eight percent samples exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.10 mg/kg as recommended by WHO for summation operator HCH, 4% samples of 0.05 mg/kg for alpha-HCH, 5% samples of 0.01 mg/kg for gamma-HCH, 26% samples of 0.02 mg/kg for beta-HCH as recommended by PFAA and 24% samples of 0.05 mg/kg as recommended by FAO for summation operator DDT. Concentrations of beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were more as compared to other isomers and metabolites of HCH and DDT. PMID:17180431

  8. Fluorescence quenching study of quercetin interaction with bovine milk xanthine oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulzadeh, Farzaneh; Jabary, Hamideh Nadjarpour; Naseri, Abdolhossein; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2009-02-01

    Quercetin is a natural flavonoid with many important therapeutic properties. The interaction of this polyphenolic compound bovine milk xanthine oxidase as one of its major target proteins was studied using fluorescence quenching method for the first time. It was found that the fluorescence quenching of xanthine oxidase occurs through a static mechanism. The results revealed the presence of a single binding site on xanthine oxidase with the binding constant value equals to 1.153 × 10 4 l mol -1 at 310 K and pH 7.4. The thermodynamic parameters were also calculated at different temperatures. The enthalpy and entropy changes were found as -10.661 kJ mol -1 and +43.321 J mol -1 K -1 indicating that both hydrogen binding and hydrophobic are involved in the interaction of this polyphenolic natural compound with xanthine oxidase. The results may provide a ground for further studies with different flavonoids to find a safe alternative for allopurinol, the only xanthine oxidase inhibitor with clinical application.

  9. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium Complexes by Real-Time PCR in Bovine Milk from Brazilian Dairy Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira; Cenci, Alexander; Cerva, Cristine; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne diseases are a public health problem worldwide. The consumption of contaminated raw milk has been recognized as a major cause of transmission of bovine tuberculosis to humans. Other mycobacteria that may be present in raw milk and may cause diseases are those belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex. In this study, molecular biology tools were applied to investigate raw milk contamination with Mycobacterium spp. in family dairy farms from Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Furthermore, different variables related to the source of the milk, herd characteristics, and management were evaluated for their effect on milk contamination. Five hundred and two samples were analyzed, of which 354 were from the Northwest region (102 farms with samples from 93 bulk tanks and 261 animals) and 148 from the South region of the state (22 farms with samples from 23 bulk tanks and 125 animals). Among them, 10 (1.99%) and 7 (1.39%) were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (9 confirmed as Mycobacterium bovis) and M. avium complexes, respectively. There was no difference in the frequencies of positive samples between the regions or the sample sources. Of the positive samples, 4 were collected from a bulk tank (1 positive for M. avium and 3 for M. tuberculosis). Moreover, 1 sample was positive concomitantly for M. tuberculosis and M. avium complexes. On risk analysis, no variable was associated with raw milk contamination by M. tuberculosis complex species. However, washing the udders of all animals and drying them with paper towels were weakly classified as risk factors for M. avium contamination. Positive samples were obtained from both animals and bulk tanks, which emphasizes the importance of tuberculosis control programs and provides evidence that milk monitoring can be used as a control practice. Moreover, the findings of this study reinforce the need for awareness of the problems of raw milk consumption among the general population.

  10. HPLC Analysis of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin in Bovine Milk with C4 and C18 Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Xiao-yu; Wang Jing; Tang Yan-jun; Li Dan-dan; Zhang Nan-nan; Jiang Jin-dou; Liu Ning

    2012-01-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with C4 column and C18 column for analyzing β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in bovine milk was developed and the performance and characteristic of two columns were compared. Shiseido Proteonavi C4 column (250 mm×4.6 mm×5μm) and Shiseido CAPCELL PAK SG 300 C18 column (250 mm× 4.6 mm×5 μm) were used in the experiment. Phase A was composed of 0.1% (V/V) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in ultrapure water and Phase B (organic phase) was composed of 0.1% TFA in acetonitrile. Gradient elution was taken. Flow rate was 1 mL min-1. The detection wavelength was 215 nm. The injection volume was 20 μL and the column temperature was 30℃. The results showed that linear relationship was good and recovery of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin was 86.12%-104.38%, C18 column had stronger ability to resist acid and more stable, and the method with C4 column had excellent sensitivities and good separation.

  11. Genetic Variation in Vitamin B-12 Content of Bovine Milk and Its Association with SNP along the Bovine Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, Marc J. M.; Bouwman, Aniek C; R Corinne Sprong; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Visker, Marleen H. P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin) is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment of the milk vitamin B-12 content could be achieved through genetic selection, provided there is genetic variation between cows with respect to the vitamin B-12 content in their milk. A substantial...

  12. Iodine-125-labeled lipoprotein lipase as a tool to detect and study spontaneous lipolysis in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of lipoprotein lipase among cream, casein, and milk serum can be evaluated by addition of a trace amount of 125I-labeled lipoprotein lipase to milk. Radioactive lipase was distributed in parallel to endogenous lipase under several conditions. In some milk samples, binding of lipase to cream increased when the milk was cooled. Correlation was good between bound labeled lipase and degree of cold-induced lipolysis in corresponding milk samples. Binding of lipase to cream or to casein was not saturable by addition of two-to threefold more lipase than is normally present in milk. In milk with a relatively high fraction of lipase bound to cream, a correspondingly lower fraction was associated with casein, whereas the fraction of lipase in milk serum was similar in all milk samples. Cold-induced binding of lipoprotein lipase to cream was not fully reversed when the milk was warmed again. Heparin released lipase from casein and increased the amount of lipase bound to cream after cooling

  13. Iron and ferritin levels in the serum and milk of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOICHI eORINO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron metabolism was examined in 15 bovine leukemia virus (BLV -infected dairy cows (2.6-7.8 years old. BLV infection was detected by measuring serum antibody titer against BLV virus antigen (gp51. The anti-BLV antibody titers of the BLV-infected cows were significantly higher in serum than in milk; a single serum-positive animal lacked detectable anti-BLV antibodies in its milk. Iron and ferritin concentrations also were significantly higher in serum than in milk. Although most of the BLV-infected dairy cows had past or present anamneses (such as inflammatory diseases, including intramammary infection, the milk ferritin concentrations of the infected cows were significantly lower than those of normal cows; serum ferritin concentrations did not differ significantly between these two groups. The anti-BLV antibody titers in milk samples showed significant correlation with serum iron concentrations. These results suggest that BLV infection affects iron homeostasis through iron metabolism in the dairy cow mammary gland.

  14. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Green, L. E.; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005...... through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from ... was randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate...

  15. Proteomics data in support of the quantification of the changes of bovine milk proteins during mammary gland involution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Irina; Hine, Brad; Smolenksi, Grant; Hettinga, Kasper; Zhang, Lina; Wheeler, Thomas T

    2016-09-01

    Here we provide data from three proteomics techniques; two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by identification of selected spots using PSD MALDI-TOF MS/MS, one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by LC-MS/MS analysis of gel slices (GeLC) and dimethyl isotopic labelling of tryptic peptides followed by Orbitrap MS/MS (DML), to quantify the changes in the repertoire of bovine milk proteins that occurs after drying off. We analysed skim milk and whey sampled at day 0 and either day 3 or day 8 after drying off. These analyses identified 45 spots by MALDI-TOF, 51 proteins by GeLC and 161 proteins by DML, for which the detailed data work-up is presented as three Excel files. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication "Changes in the repertoire of bovine milk proteins during mammary involution" (Boggs et al., 2015) [1]. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers ProteomeXchange: PXD003110 and ProteomeXchange: PXD003011. PMID:27274532

  16. Effects of bovine mammary gland biopsy and increased milking frequency on post-procedure udder health, histology, and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J A M; Ruas, J R M; Vasconcelos, A C; Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Gheller, V A; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2016-05-01

    Sixteen cows in early lactation were randomly distributed into two groups in order to evaluate the effects of mammary biopsies and increased milking frequency on tissue characteristics, post-biopsy udder health and histology. One group was milked twice a day (2×) starting on the 2nd day after calving, until 28 days in milk (DIM). The other group was milked four times a day (4×) from two to 21 DIM, and twice a day (2×) from 22 to 28 DIM. On days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum, one fragment of secretory tissue was collected from one mammary quarter at a time. Collections were alternated between the four mammary quarters per collection day. A total of 80 mammary tissue samples were collected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the tissues were conducted by histologic examination. Animal health was assessed by observation of feed intake behavior immediately after biopsy, and weight and body condition score before and one week after biopsy. Udder health was assessed daily from calving to 60 DIM with California Mastitis Test (CMT) and by noting alterations in the milk such as blood, milk clots, blood clots, clinical signs of mastitis. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were analyzed before and after the biopsies. Milk production was evaluated before biopsy, on the day of biopsy, and after the biopsy. An average of 10 fields at 40× magnification was obtained from each sample. There were no evident changes in mammary morphology as a result of milking two or four times/day at any of the evaluated time points. Biopsy wounds healed rapidly without infection. Intramammary bleeding and CMT alterations were observed in 96% and 75% of the biopsied mammary quarters, respectively. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed in 12% of the biopsied quarters. Different milking frequencies had no effect on the frequency and duration of post-biopsy alterations. Milk production decreased after biopsies done on days 2 for 2× and 4× groups, but it returned to pre-biopsy values

  17. Effects of bovine mammary gland biopsy and increased milking frequency on post-procedure udder health, histology, and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J A M; Ruas, J R M; Vasconcelos, A C; Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Gheller, V A; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2016-05-01

    Sixteen cows in early lactation were randomly distributed into two groups in order to evaluate the effects of mammary biopsies and increased milking frequency on tissue characteristics, post-biopsy udder health and histology. One group was milked twice a day (2×) starting on the 2nd day after calving, until 28 days in milk (DIM). The other group was milked four times a day (4×) from two to 21 DIM, and twice a day (2×) from 22 to 28 DIM. On days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum, one fragment of secretory tissue was collected from one mammary quarter at a time. Collections were alternated between the four mammary quarters per collection day. A total of 80 mammary tissue samples were collected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the tissues were conducted by histologic examination. Animal health was assessed by observation of feed intake behavior immediately after biopsy, and weight and body condition score before and one week after biopsy. Udder health was assessed daily from calving to 60 DIM with California Mastitis Test (CMT) and by noting alterations in the milk such as blood, milk clots, blood clots, clinical signs of mastitis. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were analyzed before and after the biopsies. Milk production was evaluated before biopsy, on the day of biopsy, and after the biopsy. An average of 10 fields at 40× magnification was obtained from each sample. There were no evident changes in mammary morphology as a result of milking two or four times/day at any of the evaluated time points. Biopsy wounds healed rapidly without infection. Intramammary bleeding and CMT alterations were observed in 96% and 75% of the biopsied mammary quarters, respectively. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed in 12% of the biopsied quarters. Different milking frequencies had no effect on the frequency and duration of post-biopsy alterations. Milk production decreased after biopsies done on days 2 for 2× and 4× groups, but it returned to pre-biopsy values

  18. Bovine milk proteome: Quantitative changes in normal milk exosomes, milk fat globule membranes and whey proteomes resulting from Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of milk protein composition/expression in healthy cows and cows with mastitis will provide information important for the dairy food industry, mammary biology and immune function in the mammary gland. To facilitate maximum protein discovery, milk was fractioned into whey, milk fat globule ...

  19. Effect of thermal protectants on the stability of bovine milk immunoglobulin G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    pH stability, thermal stability, and the effect of homogenization and ultrasonic treatment on the stability of bovine milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) in model systems was studied. Separated IgG (0.02 mg/mL) was found to be unstable and susceptible to denaturation when incubated at pH 4 or 10 or thermally treated at temperature 75 degrees C. IgG in the colostrum, on the other hand, was found to be much more stable than in whey or in PBS when thermally treated at temperatures in the range of 75-100 degrees C. The residual IgC content reduced more sharply with increasing heating times, and almost no IgG content was detected when IgG in PBS (0.15 M NaCl/0.01 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0) was heated at 95 degrees C for 15 s, whereas the corresponding residual IgG contents in whey and colostrum were found to be 42 and 59%, respectively. For IgG in PBS heated at 95 degrees C for 15 s, addition of 5% fructose or maltose displayed most remarkable protection effects by raising the residual IgG content to 31%, followed by sucrose, lactose, glucose, and galactose. However, extravagant addition ( 30%) to IgG in PBS led to a decline in residual IgG content. Addition of 0.4% glutamic acid and 2% glycine to IgG in PBS heated at 95 degrees C for 15 s also remarkably improved the residual IgG content by 13.5 and 26.7%, respectively. Glycerol and sugar alcohol, such as sorbitol, stabilized IgG during the thermal treatment

  20. Microbiological Evaluation of Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT)-Treated Milk Close to Expiry Date and Routine Home Practices for Preservation of Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Udayalaxmi Jeppu; Namitha Jayaram; Sneha Satya; Amrutha Kandathil Purayil

    2015-01-01

    Background: As milk is an excellent medium for growth of microorganisms, milk gets contaminated very easily leading to its early spoilage and to milk-borne diseases. Objectives: To compare the quality of pasteurized milk with milk cooker-treated milk and to compare the quality of fresh ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk with that of UHT milk close to expiry date. Materials and Methods: Samples of pasteurized milk, milk heated in milk cooker, fresh UHT milk, and UHT milk nearing expiry date wer...

  1. Magnetic bead and gold nanoparticle probes based immunoassay for β-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Meng, X Y; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y Y; Meng, X M; Yang, L; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Wang, X R

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a double-probe based immunoassay was developed for rapid and sensitive determination of β-casein in bovine milk samples. In the method, magnetic beads (MBs), employed as supports for the immobilization of anti-β-casein polyclonal antibody (PAb), were used as the capture probe. Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), employed as a bridge for loading anti-β-casein monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were used as the amplification probe. The presence of β-casein causes the sandwich structures of MBs-PAb-β-casein-McAb-AuNPs through the interaction between β-casein and the anti-β-casein antibodies. The HRP, used as an enzymatic-amplified tracer, can catalytically oxidize the substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), generating optical signals that are proportional to the quantity of β-casein. The linear range of the immunoassay was from 6.5 to 1520ngmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.8ngmL(-1) which was 700 times lower than that of MBs-antibody-HRP based immunoassay and 6-7 times lower than that from the microplate-antibody-HRP based assay. The recoveries of β-casein from bovine milk samples were from 95.0% to 104.3% that had a good correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9956) with those obtained by an official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment and shorter time requirement of the antigen-antibody reaction, the developed immunoassay demonstrated the viability for detection of β-casein in bovine milk samples.

  2. Survival rate of campylobacter coli strains in sterile buffalo and bovine milk Tasas de sobrevida de Campylobacter coli en leche de búfalo y de bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TRESIERRA-AYALA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate of five Campylobacter coli strains, isolated from bovine faeces (3 and from buffalo faeces (2, was studied in sterile buffalo and bovine milk kept at 4°C under aerobic conditions. All strains lost their viability substantially more rapidly in buffalo milk than in bovine milkSe determinó, en leche de bovino y de búfalo autoclavadas y mantenidas a 4ºC bajo condiciones de aerobiosis, la sobrevida de cinco cepas de Campylobacter coli aisladas de fecas de bovino (3 y de búfalo (2. Todas las cepas perdieron su viabilidad más rápidamente en leche de búfalo que en leche bovina

  3. Effect of dairy farming system, herd, season, parity, and days in milk on modeling of the coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Malchiodi, F; Sturaro, E; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the variation in curd firmness model parameters obtained from coagulating bovine milk samples, and to investigate the effects of the dairy system, season, individual farm, and factors related to individual cows (days in milk and parity). Individual milk samples (n = 1,264) were collected during the evening milking of 85 farms representing different environments and farming systems in the northeastern Italian Alps. The dairy herds were classified into 4 farming system categories: traditional system with tied animals (29 herds), modern dairy systems with traditional feeding based on hay and compound feed (30 herds), modern dairy system with total mixed ration (TMR) that included silage as a large proportion of the diet (9 herds), and modern dairy system with silage-free TMR (17 herds). Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and coagulation properties, and parameters were modeled using curd firmness measures (CFt) collected every 15 s from a lacto-dynamographic analysis of 90 min. When compared with traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the curd firming measures showed greater variability and yielded a more accurate description of the milk coagulation process: the model converged for 93.1% of the milk samples, allowing estimation of 4 CFt parameters and 2 derived traits [maximum CF (CF(max)) and time from rennet addition to CF(max) (t(max))] for each sample. The milk samples whose CFt equations did not converge showed longer rennet coagulation times obtained from the model (RCT(eq)) and higher somatic cell score, and came from less-productive cows. Among the sources of variation tested for the CFt parameters, dairy herd system yielded the greatest differences for the contrast between the traditional farm and the 3 modern farms, with the latter showing earlier coagulation and greater instant syneresis rate constant (k(SR)). The use of TMR yielded a greater tmax because of a higher instant curd

  4. Quantitative analysis of gangliosides in bovine milk and colostrum-based dairy products by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; German, J Bruce; Kjelden, Randy; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Barile, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    Milk gangliosides have gained considerable attention because they participate in diverse biological processes, including neural development, pathogen binding, and activation of the immune system. Herein, we present a quantitative measurement of the gangliosides present in bovine milk and other dairy products and byproducts. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography separation was used for high-throughput analysis and achieved a short running time without sacrificing chromatographic resolution. Dynamic multiple reaction monitoring was conducted for 12 transitions for GM3 and 12 transitions for GD3. Transitions to sialic acid fragments (m/z 290.1) were chosen for the quantitation. There was a considerable amount of gangliosides in day 2 milk (GM3, 0.98 mg/L; GD3, 15.2 mg/L) which dramatically decreased at day 15 and day 90. GM3 and GD3 were also analyzed in pooled colostrum, colostrum cream, colostrum butter, and colostrum buttermilk. The separation and analytical approaches here proposed could be integrated into the dairy industry processing adding value to side-streams. PMID:24024650

  5. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for bovine milk protein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopen, G.C.B.; Koks, P.D.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk protein composition in 849 Holstein–Friesian cows originating from seven sires. One morning milk sample was analysed for the major milk proteins using capillary zone electrophoresis. A gen

  6. Molecular screening of bovine raw milk for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC on dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Vendramin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Milkborne transmission of Shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (STEC has raised considerable concern due to recent outbreaks worldwide and poses a threat to public health. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of STEC in bovine raw milk. To identify E. coli (ATCC 25922 contamination, the gene uspA was used, and PCR sensitivity and specificity were accessed by testing diluted samples ranging from 2 to 2.0 × 10(6 CFU/mL. To detect STEC, the stx1 and stx2 genes were selected as targets. After reaction standardization, the multiplex assay was tested in raw milk collected from 101 cows on dairy farms. PCR assay for E. coli detection had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 79% (P<0.0001, with a lower detection limit of 2 CFU/mL. Multiplex PCR assay had 100% sensitivity for E. coli positive raw milk samples, and 31.1% were contaminated with STEC, 28.3% of stx2, and 1.9% of stx1. The multiplex PCR assay described in the present study can be employed to identify and screen E. coli harboring stx1 and stx2 genes in raw milk on dairy farms and in industries.

  7. Determination of creatinine, uric and ascorbic acid in bovine milk and orange juice by hydrophilic interaction HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ruiting; Zhou, Si; Zuo, Yuegang; Deng, Yiwei

    2015-09-01

    Creatinine (Cr), uric (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) are common constituents in human fluids. Their abnormal concentrations in human fluids are associated with various diseases. Thus, apart from the endogenous formation in human body, it is also important to examine their sources from food products. In this study, a rapid and accurate HILIC method was developed for simultaneous determination of Cr, UA and AA in bovine milk and orange juice. Milk samples were pretreated by protein precipitation, centrifugation and filtration, followed by HPLC separation and quantification using a Waters Spherisorb S5NH2 column. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine the concentration of UA, AA and Cr in milk and fruit juice samples. The milk samples tested were found to contain UA and creatinine in the concentration range of 24.1-86.0 and 5.07-11.2 μg mL(-1), respectively. The orange juices contain AA over 212 μg mL(-1).

  8. A multiresidue liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric method for the detection and quantitation of 15 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in bovine meat and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pamel, Els; Daeseleire, Els

    2015-06-01

    This study concerns a validated liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) multiresidue method for the simultaneous detection, identification, and quantitation of 15 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in bovine meat and milk. The NSAIDs considered are carprofen, diclofenac, flufenamic acid, flunixin (5-hydroxyflunixin as marker metabolite in milk), ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, meloxicam, 4-methylaminoantipyrine (marker metabolite of metamizole in meat and milk), naproxen, niflumic acid, phenylbutazone (and metabolite oxyphenbutazone), ramifenazone, salicylic acid, and tolfenamic acid. These compounds were chosen as representatives of different chemical subclasses of NSAIDs. Flunixin-d3, diclofenac-d4, 4-aminoantipyrine-d3, and phenylbutazone-d10 were used as internal standards. Performance characteristics were validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC (Off J Eur Communities, L221: 8-36). Recovery percentages varied between 81 and 114% for bovine meat and between 79 and 118% for milk. Repeatability percentages were within the range of 1-12% for meat and between 1 and 17% for milk, whereas the intralaboratory reproducibility varied between 3 and 19% for meat and between 3 and 23% for milk. The decision limit and the detection capability for bovine meat were within the range of 0.5-579 μg kg(-1)and 0.6-642 μg kg(-1), respectively. Those for milk were within the range of 0.12-55 μg kg(-1) and 0.14-61 μg kg(-1), respectively. The methods developed were successfully applied for proficiency test samples and routine samples analyzed in the laboratory. The methodology concerns fast, user-friendly, and sensitive methods, which can be easily extended for other compounds and matrices. In general, such multiresidue methods contribute to the reduction of human exposure to these veterinary drug residues by consumption of contaminated bovine-derived products such as meat and milk.

  9. Assessment of an extraction protocol to detect the major mastitis-causing pathogens in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressier, B; Bissonnette, N

    2011-05-01

    Despite all efforts to control its spread, mastitis remains the most costly disease for dairy farmers worldwide. One key component of better control of this disease is identification of the causative bacterial agent during udder infections in cows. Mastitis is complex, however, given the diversity of pathogens that must be identified. Development of a rapid and efficient bacterial species identification tool is thus necessary. This study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of bacterial DNA extraction for the automated molecular detection of major mastitis-causing pathogens directly in milk samples to complement traditional microbiological identification. Extraction and detection procedures were designed and optimized to achieve detection in a respectable time frame, at a reasonable cost, and with a high throughput capacity. The following species were identified: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Klebsiella spp. (including Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The detection procedure includes specific genomic DNA amplification by multiplex PCR for each species, separation by capillary electrophoresis, and laser-assisted automated detection. The specificity of the primers was assessed with a panel of bacteria representing mastitis-negative control species. The extraction protocol comprised multiple steps, starting with centrifugation for fat removal, followed by heating in the presence of a cation exchange resin to trap divalent ions. The analytical sensitivity was 100 cfu/mL for milk samples spiked with Staph. aureus, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli, with a tendency for K. pneumoniae. The detection limit was 500 cfu/mL for Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae. The overall diagnostic sensitivity (95.4%) and specificity (97.3%) were determined in a double-blind randomized assay by processing 172 clinical milk samples with microbiological characterization as the

  10. Fully automated analysis of beta-lactams in bovine milk by online solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantiani, Lina; Farré, Marinella; Sibum, Martin; Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damiá

    2009-06-01

    A fully automated method for the detection of beta-lactam antibiotics, including six penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, and penicillin G) and four cephalosporins (cefazolin, ceftiofur, cefoperazone, and cefalexin) in bovine milk samples has been developed. The outlined method is based on online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography/electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/ESI-MS-MS). Target compounds were concentrated from 500 microL of centrifuged milk samples using an online SPE procedure with C18 HD cartridges. Target analytes were eluted with a gradient mobile phase (water + 0.1% formic acid/methanol + 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. Chromatographic separation was achieved within 10 min using a C-12 reversed phase analytical column. For unequivocal identification and confirmation, two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were acquired for each analyte in the positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI(+)). Method limits of detection (LODs) in milk were well below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the European Union for all compounds. Limits of quantification in milk were between 0.09 ng/mL and 1.44 ng/mL. The developed method was validated according to EU's requirements, and accuracy results ranged from 80 to 116%. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of twenty real samples previously screened by the inhibition of microbial growth test Eclipse 100. This new developed method offers high sensitivity and accuracy of results, minimum sample pre-treatment, and uses for the first time an automated online SPE offering a high throughput analysis. Because of all these characteristics, the proposed method is applicable and could be deemed necessary within the field of food control and safety. PMID:19402673

  11. Association between antibody status to bovine herpesvirus 1 and quality of milk in dairy herds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, J G; Larska, M; Grzeszuk, M; Rola, J

    2015-02-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) is one of the most important pathogens of cattle; however, its effect on somatic cell count and milk components is not completely understood. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of BoHV1 infection on quality of bovine bulk tank milk (BTM). A total of 1,790 individual blood samples collected at 28 dairy farms were used to determine the BoHV1 infection status of the herds with ELISA tests. The quality parameters of milk were evaluated by instrumental methods with BTM samples collected at monthly intervals from May 2011 to May 2012. The statistical analysis was performed to study the associations between BoHV1 herd status, quality of BTM, and herd-specific parameters. The risk factors influencing bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were estimated using the multivariable mixed-effects maximum likelihood regression model. The true prevalences of BoHV1 infection at the animal and herd levels were 49.3 and 64.6%, respectively. The average BMSCC differed significantly between the herds grouped accordingly to their BoHV1 infection status. Interestingly, the highest BMSCC was observed in the vaccinated herds (240.3×10(3) cells/mL). Additionally, the BoHV1 herd status had a significant effect on the fat content of BTM. The largest herds that were investigated had a BoHV1 seroprevalence over 30%. The herd status was considerably influenced by the numbers of cows in the herds. Besides, no significant differences in total bacterial count or protein content in milk from BoHV1-infected und uninfected herds were observed. An increase in BMSCC was observed during summer compared with the winter months regardless of the BoHV1 status of the herds. In the final multivariable regression model, the main risk factors associated with BMSCC were BoHV1 herd status, the percentage of BoHV1 infected animals in a herd, the number of cows in a herd, and the season. Our study suggests that BoHV1 infection may influence BMSCC levels, which are key

  12. [Multiresidue method for pesticides and veterinary drugs in bovine milk using GC/MS and LC/MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mizue; Kozutsumi, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Michiko; Kanbashi, Miho; Nakamura, Ruka; Sato, Yoshio; Endo, Mitsuharu

    2008-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and selective method with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been developed to detect 342 pesticides and veterinary drugs contaminating bovine milk at the maximum residue limits (MRLs) defined in the "positive list system". Sample preparation was performed by extracting the analytes with acetonitrile, followed by salting-out with sodium chloride. For some pesticides, the extract was further cleaned up by n-hexane partitioning and PSA cartridge column chromatography. GC/MS-EI or -NCI was used to determine pesticide residues, while LC/MS/MS-ESI was applicable to the determination of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. The variation of the recoveries of these drugs at MRL was relatively wide; however the relative standard deviations of the recovery of each drug were within 28%, suggesting that the present method is good enough for use as a screening test for contaminants at the MRLs. These results show that this method is useful for multiresidue analysis of numerous pesticides and veterinary drugs in bovine milk. PMID:18633208

  13. Long term farm study of organic milk production — moderate concentrate inputs and high milk yields on Tingvoll farm

    OpenAIRE

    Strøm, T; Ebbesvik, M.

    2013-01-01

    Long term studies of organic milk production on a Norwegian organic farm (Tingvoll farm) show that it is possible to achieve high milk yields with moderate concentrate inputs in organic milk production with Norwegian Red Cattle. The milk yields at Tingvoll farm were generally higher, and the concentrate input lower than the average of all Norwegian dairy farms. Average annual milk yields, as well as annual concentrate consumption per cow increased during the study period both for organic and ...

  14. Quantitation of cytokine gene expression by real time PCR in bovine milk and colostrum cells from cows immunized with a bovine rotavirus VP6 experimental vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, D D; Rimondi, A; Perez Aguirreburualde, M S; Mozgovoj, M; Bellido, D; Wigdorovitz, A; Dus Santos, M J

    2013-10-01

    In a previous work, VP6 recombinant protein was produced using baculovirus system and it was evaluated in a colostrum-deprived calf model. This vaccine was able to protect calves against viral challenge without inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAb), suggesting that another immunological effectors were involved in the protection observed. In this work, groups of cows (n=4) were immunized in the last third of gestation with a bovine rotavirus (BRV) experimental vaccine and with a VP6 subunit vaccine. At birth, colostrums from vaccinated and non-vaccinated cows were processed and viable colostral mononuclear cells were obtained. With the purpose of determining the cytokine patterns generated by cells from immune secretions (colostrums and milk), a relative quantification by real time PCR was standardized. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine transcript levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and IFN-α from these cells. Colostral and milk mononuclear cells expressed a different cytokine transcript expression pattern regarding the vaccine used. These results demonstrated that the colostral cellular population was active and could exert its action influencing the final immune response. PMID:23602433

  15. Effect of mastitis on macro-minerals of bovine milk and blood serum in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    El Zubeir, I.E.M.; O.A.O. ElOwni; G.E. Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Milk and blood serum from clinically mastitis infected, subclinically mastitis infected and healthy Friesian cows (15 samples from each of 3 groups) were evaluated for macrominerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus). The milk from cows infected with subclinical mastitis revealed a significant decrease in potassium (P < 0.001) and a significant increase in sodium and phosphorus content (P < 0.01). Similarly, the milk from cows with the clinical form of the disease sh...

  16. Occurrence of B1 Aflatoxin in diet and M1 Aflatoxin in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Frizzarin; Thiago Pereira Motta; Thamires Martins; Livia Castelani; Heloisa Solda de Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring food quality is one of the principles of food safety. Food for dairy cattle may be contaminated by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which produce aflatoxins. The B1 aflatoxin, when ingested by animals, is biotransformed in liver in several other toxic metabolites, including M1 aflatoxin which is excreted in milk. M1 aflatoxin has a carcinogenic effect, which the presence in milk poses a serious risk to public health because milk and dairy products are consumed mainly by children, preg...

  17. Milk losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ouarda Ayadi; Mohamed Gharbi; Mohamed Cherif Benchikh Elfegoun

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied the impact of tropical theileriosis onset on milk yield decrease in 10 local bred cows in Skikda (Northern Algeria) during 2015 summer season. The milk yield decrease estimated weekly during two months was 2.76 L/day/cow corresponding to 31.92% of the total milk yield. This decrease corresponds to 110.5 Algerian Dinars (1.02 US$)/day/diseased cow. The relative variation of milk yield showed a dramatic decrease from 82.72% to 0.76% at Day 21 then became constant. Further st...

  18. Some nutritional effects of folate-binding protein in bovine milk on the bioavailability of folate to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, M.; Iwai, K.

    1984-04-01

    The excretions of folate compounds into both the urine and bile were investigated in rats after the administration of pteroylglutamic acid (PteGlu) with or without the folate-binding protein (FBP) prepared from bovine milk. When the sample solution, containing either free or bound (/sup 3/H)PteGlu (i.e., bound to the FBP from milk), was delivered to rats intragastrically via oral intubation, the amounts of (/sup 3/H)PteGlu excreted into the feces did not change. On the other hand, the urinary excretion of /sup 3/H-labeled folate compounds, especially (/sup 3/H)5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-CH/sub 3/-H/sub 4/PteGlu), after the administration of bound (/sup 3/H)PteGlu was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than that after the administration of free (/sup 3/H)PteGlu. The urinary excretion of (/sup 3/H)5-CH/sub 3/-H/sub 4/PteGlu was directly proportional to the initial amount of free (/sup 3/H)PteGlu administered. The similar effect of FBP was also observed when the biliary excretion of /sup 3/H-labeled folate compounds was investigated in situ. Furthermore, the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)PteGlu into folate-requiring intestinal microorganisms was considerably reduced when it was bound to FBP. These results suggest that milk FBP has some nutritional effects on the bioavailability of folate in vivo.

  19. Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; Durocher, Jean; Keefe, Greg

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs.

  20. MicroRNA expression profiles of bovine milk exosomes in response to Staphylococcus aureus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Milk exosomes are a rich source of microRNAs (miRNAs) that are protected from degradation. Ingestion of milk and subsequent absorption of miRNAs into recipient cells by endocytosis may play a role in the regulation of neonatal innate and adaptive immunity. In contrast, the miRNA content ...

  1. Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Bulk Tank Milk in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya Jing; Qin, Yun; Guix Vallverdú, Roger; Maldonado García, Jaime; Sun, Wei; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the herd prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) in China dairy herds, to determine the relationship between the presence of mastitis pathogens and bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BTSCC), and to investigate the impact of different dairy cattle farming modes and region on bacterial species. BTM samples collected from 894 dairy herds in China were examined for the presence of mastitis pathogens. The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards were used for BTM sample collection, storage, and transportation and bacterial DNA amplification by real-time PCR. Among contagious pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were detected in 50.1, 92.2, and 72.3% of the 894 BTM samples, respectively. Among environmental pathogens, E. coli, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium bovis, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were detected in 28.6, 8.9, 35.7, 20.0, 1.3, 17.0, and 67.2% of the BTM samples, respectively. Staphylococcal β-lactamase gene was detected in 61.7% of the BTM samples. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were significantly associated with high BTSCC, respectively. Significant differences were found in presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in BTM sampled from the small household farms, dairy-farming communities, and large-scaled dairy farms. There were significant differences in the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, staphylococcal β-lactamase gene, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus uberis in BTM among Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Hebei province. In conclusion, contagious mammary pathogens are predominated among pathogens in BTM samples in China. PMID:27187065

  2. Occurrence of flunixin residues in bovine milk samples from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, L W; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E; Smith, G W

    2013-01-01

    5-Hydroxy-flunixin concentrations in milk samples were quantified by two commercially available screening assays--CHARM® and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA)--to determine whether any concentrations could be detected above the tolerance limit of 2 ng g⁻¹ from different regions in the United States. Milk samples came from large tanker trucks hauling milk to processing plants, and had already been screened for antibiotics. Positive results for flunixin residues based on a screening assay were confirmed by ultra-HPLC with mass spectrometric detection. Of the 500 milk samples analysed in this study, one sample was found to have a 5-hydroxy-flunixin concentration greater than the tolerance limit. The results of this study indicate that flunixin residues in milk are possible. Regulatory agencies should be aware that such residues can occur, and should consider incorporating or expanding flunixin screening tests as part of routine drug monitoring in milk. Larger studies are needed to determine the true prevalence of flunixin residues in milk from other regions in the United States as well as different countries.

  3. Effect Of Dried Whey Milk Supplement On Some Blood Biochemical And Immunological Indices In Relation To Growth Performance Of Heat Stressed Bovine baladi Calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was carried out under hot environmental conditions, where temperature-humidity index was equivalent to 86 - 90 and 78 - 80 during day and night, respectively. Twelve bovine Baladi calves of 8 - 10 months old and 112 kg average initial live body weight were used in this study. The calves were divided into two groups of 6 animals each to study the effect of supplementation of dried whey milk on some blood biochemical and immunological indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions of Egypt. The results showed that supplementation of dried whey milk to the diet of heat-stressed calves at the level of 150 g / calf / day reduced significantly each of respiration rate and rectal temperature as well as serum lipid concentrations and their fractions e.g. total cholesterol and phospholipids. Also, dried whey milk supplement caused a significant decline in both AST and ALT activities and reduced significantly alpha globulin concentration, while non-significant changes were observed in each of beta globulin, gamma globulin and immunoglobulin G. However, supplementing dried whey milk to growing calves increased significantly serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorous, T3 and T4 . Moreover, dried whey milk improved significantly both feed efficiency and daily gain of growing calves. It could be concluded that addition of dried whey milk to the diet reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate and induced an improvement in most blood biochemical parameters and growth performance of heat-stressed bovine Baladi calves.

  4. A comparison of the determination of the rennet coagulation properties of bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pytel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was compared of two different methods (the visual method and the nephelo turbidimetry method for determination of rennet coagulation time. It was observed the effect of heat treatment of milk; types of rennet and addition of different amount of CaCl2 into the pasteurized milk. It was used two different chymosin rennet. For the visual method was milk sample (100 mL equilibrated at 35 °C, 1 mL of rennet was added into milk and was measured the time required for the first visible flakes (visual method. For the determination rennet coagulation time by nephelo-turbidimetry was removed part of milk with rennet and placed into nephelo-turbidimetry. Milk had a titratable acidity in the range from 6.5 to 7.0 °SH, average pH of milk was 6.68. Dry matter content was in range from 12.351 to 13.142%. The average content of protein by Kjeldahl was 3.14%, fat by Gerber 4.34%, lactose by polarimetry 4.68% and calcium content 1.1%. The pasteurized milk had the worst rennet coagulation time about 32 s compared to the raw milk. The difference coagulation time between milk with addition of 20 µL CaCl2 and 40 µL CaCl2 was in range 21 s to 26 s by visual method. The difference coagulation time between milk with addition of 20 µL CaCl2 and 40 µL CaCl2 was 15 s by nephelo-turbidimetry method. There occurred statistically non-significant differences in most of the measurements, comparing the visual and the nephelo-turbidimetric method. The heat treatment, addition of CaCl2 and using of different rennet had an influence on the curd category. It was obtained, that using nephelo-turbidimetry shown objective results for measuring the rennet coagulation time contrary the subjective visual method. Further, the results obtained by nephelo-turbidimetry are accurate and determined with the lower variation.

  5. Analysis on codon usage frequency in bovine milk protein%牛乳蛋白的遗传密码子使用频率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 于浩; 杨润军; 鲍永华; 李俊雅; 戴蕴平; 赵志辉

    2011-01-01

    研究牛乳蛋白不同氨基酸的密码子使用频率对利用乳腺生物反应器表达目标蛋白过程中密码子的优化具有重要意义.本试验运用ENBOSS的CHIPS和SMS中的密码子使用工具对7种牛乳蛋白编码的基因进行了分析,并将这7个编码序列拼接在一起进行了乳蛋白全基因组的密码子偏爱性研究,同时与绵羊、猪及小鼠的乳蛋白密码子偏爱性进行了比较.结果表明:牛乳蛋白的CHIPS分析Nc值为51.867,αs1-CN、αs2-2-CN、β-CN、κ-CN、α-LB、β-IG、LTF的Nc值分别为52.005、49.967、48.746、58.113、55.514、36.274、47.646,编码牛乳蛋白氨基酸的密码子出现频率较均一;牛乳蛋白V、A、R、I、T、L、Q、P等氨基酸的密码子使用频率与其他物种有较大差异.牛乳蛋白的密码予偏爱性与绵羊最为接近.%In order to analyze bovine milk protein codon preference,7 coding sequences and the whole genome of bovine milk proteins were analyzed by CHIPS of EMBOSS and codon usage of SMS. The results were compared with codon usage of sheep,pig,and mouse milk protein. The results showed that the Nc value of all milk proteins in bovine and αs1- CN,αs2- CN,β- CN,κ- CN,α-LB,β-LG,LTF are 52. 005,49. 967,48. 746,58. 113,55. 514,36. 274,47. 646, respectively. Alternative codons for V, A, R, I, T, L, Q, P amino acids in bovine milk protein are distinctly different comparing with those of other species. It could be concluded that Nc value demonstrated that the codon usage frequency of bovine milk protein was comparatively uniform. Codon preference of bovine milk protein was the most close to that of sheep.

  6. Kinetics of local and systemic isoforms of serum amyloid A in bovine mastitic milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Niewold, T.A.; Kornalijnslijper, E.;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise the serum amyloid A (SAA) response to intramammary inoculation of Escherichia coli and to examine the distribution of hepatically and extrahepatically pruduced SAA isoforms in plasma and milk fra cows with mastitis.......The aim of the present study was to characterise the serum amyloid A (SAA) response to intramammary inoculation of Escherichia coli and to examine the distribution of hepatically and extrahepatically pruduced SAA isoforms in plasma and milk fra cows with mastitis....

  7. Posttranslational ruling of xanthine oxidase activity in bovine milk by its substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that the substrates of xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine and hypoxanthine, are consumed while the milk is stored in the gland between milkings, and to explore how XO activity responds to bacteria commonly associated with subclinical infections in the mammary gland. Freshly secreted milk was obtained following complete evacuation of the gland and induction of milk ejection with oxytocin. In bacteria-free fresh milk xanthine and hypoxanthine were converted to uric acid within 30 min (T1/2 ∼ 10 min), which in turn provides electrons for formation of hydrogen peroxide and endows the alveolar lumen with passive protection against invading bacteria. On the other hand, the longer residence time of milk in the cistern compartment was not associated with oxidative stress as a result of XO idleness caused by exhaustion of its physiological fuels. The specific response of XO to bacteria species and the resulting bacteria-dependent nitrosative stress further demonstrates that it is part of the gland immune system

  8. Enterotoxin Gene Profile and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine Bulk Milk and Milk Products of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarekgne, Enquebaher K; Skjerdal, Taran; Skeie, Siv; Rudi, Knut; Porcellato, Davide; Félix, Benjamin; Narvhus, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S. aureus, of which 82 (51%) were found to harbor se genes by a modified multiplex PCR. Nine se genes were identified: sea (n = 12), seb (n = 3), sec (n = 3), sed(n = 4), seg (n = 49), seh (n = 2), sei (n = 40), sej (n = 1), and tsst-1 (n = 24). The classical type of genes accounted for 27%. Of the 82 enterotoxigenic isolates, 41.5 and 12.4% harbored two or more se genes, respectively. The highest gene association was observed between sei and seg, whereas sea and seb were always found together with the new types of se genes. Altogether, 18 genotypes of toxin genes were identified, and 33% of the samples contained > 5 log CFU ml(-1) S. aureus. spa typing identified 22 spa types and three novel spa sequences, which showed the high genetic diversity of the isolates. No apparent relationship was observed between spa type and se genes. Of the 25 spa types, 13 (52%) were from raw milk, 3 (12%) from milk products, and 9 (36%) from both types of sample. Types t314 (20.7%,n = 17), t458 (18.3%, n = 15), and t6218 (9.8%, n= 8) were the most common spa types identified and were widely distributed in three of the eight studied localities. This is the first study from the Tigray region to report the high distribution of enterotoxigenic S. aureus with a diversified genetic background from dairy food. The study may provide valuable data for microbial food safety risk assessment, molecular epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies of S. aureus in Ethiopia.

  9. Enterotoxin Gene Profile and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine Bulk Milk and Milk Products of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarekgne, Enquebaher K; Skjerdal, Taran; Skeie, Siv; Rudi, Knut; Porcellato, Davide; Félix, Benjamin; Narvhus, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S. aureus, of which 82 (51%) were found to harbor se genes by a modified multiplex PCR. Nine se genes were identified: sea (n = 12), seb (n = 3), sec (n = 3), sed(n = 4), seg (n = 49), seh (n = 2), sei (n = 40), sej (n = 1), and tsst-1 (n = 24). The classical type of genes accounted for 27%. Of the 82 enterotoxigenic isolates, 41.5 and 12.4% harbored two or more se genes, respectively. The highest gene association was observed between sei and seg, whereas sea and seb were always found together with the new types of se genes. Altogether, 18 genotypes of toxin genes were identified, and 33% of the samples contained > 5 log CFU ml(-1) S. aureus. spa typing identified 22 spa types and three novel spa sequences, which showed the high genetic diversity of the isolates. No apparent relationship was observed between spa type and se genes. Of the 25 spa types, 13 (52%) were from raw milk, 3 (12%) from milk products, and 9 (36%) from both types of sample. Types t314 (20.7%,n = 17), t458 (18.3%, n = 15), and t6218 (9.8%, n= 8) were the most common spa types identified and were widely distributed in three of the eight studied localities. This is the first study from the Tigray region to report the high distribution of enterotoxigenic S. aureus with a diversified genetic background from dairy food. The study may provide valuable data for microbial food safety risk assessment, molecular epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies of S. aureus in Ethiopia. PMID

  10. The influence of high temperatures on milk proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maćej Ognjen D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures Induce certain changes in milk constituents, but the degree of these changes depends on both the temperature and time of heat treatment. The most pronounced changes take place in milk proteins. The forewarming of milk causes an increase in acidity, the precipitation of soluble Ca-phosphate, whey protein denaturation and coagulation, as well as the interaction with casein micelles, the Maillard browning reaction, the dephosphorylation of casein, the hydrolysis of casein micelles, changes in whey proteins, an extension of the rennet coagulation time and an exchange of the rheological properties of the acid and rennet casein gels, changes in the zeta-potential and casein micelle hydration, the interaction between the milk proteins and proteins of milk fat globule membrane.

  11. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for bovine milk protein composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopen, G C B; Koks, P D; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H; Visker, M H P W

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk protein composition in 849 Holstein-Friesian cows originating from seven sires. One morning milk sample was analysed for the major milk proteins using capillary zone electrophoresis. A genetic map was constructed with 1341 single nucleotide polymorphisms, covering 2829 centimorgans (cM) and 95% of the cattle genome. The chromosomal regions most significantly related to milk protein composition (P(genome) casein, alpha(S2)-casein, beta-casein and kappa-casein. The QTL on BTA11 was found at 124 cM, and affected beta-lactoglobulin, and the QTL on BTA14 was found at 0 cM, and affected protein percentage. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL was 3.6% for beta-casein and 7.9% for kappa-casein on BTA6, 28.3% for beta-lactoglobulin on BTA11, and 8.6% for protein percentage on BTA14. The QTL affecting alpha(S2)-casein on BTA6 and 17 showed a significant interaction. We investigated the extent to which the detected QTL affecting milk protein composition could be explained by known polymorphisms in beta-casein, kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin and DGAT1 genes. Correction for these polymorphisms decreased the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL previously found on BTA6, 11 and 14. Thus, several significant QTL affecting milk protein composition were found, of which some QTL could partially be explained by polymorphisms in milk protein genes.

  12. Polymorphisms in bovine immune genes and their associations with somatic cell count and milk production in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magee David A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is a major source of economic loss on dairy farms. The aim of this study was to quantify the associations between two previously identified polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 and chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1 genes and mammary health indictor traits in (a 246 lactating dairy cow contemporaries representing five breeds from one research farm and (b 848 Holstein-Friesian bulls that represent a large proportion of the Irish dairy germplasm. To expand the study, a further 14 polymorphisms in immune genes were included for association studies in the bull population. Results TLR4-2021 associated (P SERPINA1 haplotype with superior genetic merit for milk protein yield and milk fat percentage (P Conclusion Of the sixteen polymorphisms in seven immune genes genotyped, just CXCR1-777 tended to associate with SCS, albeit only in the on-farm study. The lack of an association between the polymorphisms with SCS in the Holstein-Friesian data set would question the potential importance of these variants in selection for improved mastitis resistance in the Holstein-Friesian cow.

  13. Association of a lysine-232/alanine polymorphism in a bovine gene encoding acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) with variation at a quantitative trait locus for milk fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Andreas; Krämer, Wolfgang; Werner, Fabian A O; Kollers, Sonja; Kata, Srinivas; Durstewitz, Gregor; Buitkamp, Johannes; Womack, James E; Thaller, Georg; Fries, Ruedi

    2002-07-01

    DGAT1 encodes diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (EC ), a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. It became a functional candidate gene for lactation traits after studies indicated that mice lacking both copies of DGAT1 are completely devoid of milk secretion, most likely because of deficient triglyceride synthesis in the mammary gland. Our mapping studies placed DGAT1 close to the region of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on bovine chromosome 14 for variation in fat content of milk. Sequencing of DGAT1 from pooled DNA revealed significant frequency shifts at several variable positions between groups of animals with high and low breeding values for milk fat content in different breeds (Holstein-Friesian, Fleckvieh, and Braunvieh). Among the variants was a nonconservative substitution of lysine by alanine (K232A), with the lysine-encoding allele being associated with higher milk fat content. Haplotype analysis indicated the lysine variant to be ancestral. Two animals that were typed heterozygous (Qq) at the QTL based on marker-assisted QTL-genotyping were heterozygous for the K232A substitution, whereas 14 animals that are most likely qq at the QTL were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele. An independent association study in Fleckvieh animals confirmed the positive effect of the lysine variant on milk fat content. We consider the nonconservative K232A substitution to be directly responsible for the QTL variation, although our genetic studies cannot provide formal proof.

  14. Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Santos Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

  15. Occurrence of enterotoxin genes and macrorestriction analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis and bulk-tank milk samples in Italy. An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to genotypically compare S. aureus isolates from mastitis milk and raw milk to identify therelation between strains and to assess the enterotoxigenicity of the isolates. Eighty-three Staphylococcus aureus isolatesrecovered from cows and bulk tank milk of five farms in northern Italy were compared genotypically. The genes for theenterotoxins A, D, G and I, but not for B, C, E and H and the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, were detected byPCR amplification. Macrorestriction analysis with the restrictions enzyme SmaI revealed 14 pulsed-field gel electrophoresispatterns. These were in part different from each other only in a few fragments and thus displayed a closeclonal relation. The results of the present investigation showed that identical or closely related clones seemed to beresponsible for the cases of bovine mastitis in the farms investigated and partly responsible for contamination of bulktank milk.

  16. Evaluation of biofilm formation using milk in a flow cell model and microarray characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snel, G G M; Malvisi, M; Pilla, R; Piccinini, R

    2014-12-01

    It was hypothesized that biofilm could play an important role in the establishment of chronic Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis. The in vitro evaluation of biofilm formation can be performed either in closed/static or in flow-based systems. Efforts have been made to characterize the biofilm-forming ability of S. aureus mastitis isolates, however most authors used static systems and matrices other than UHT milk. It is not clear whether such results could be extrapolated to the mammary gland environment. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the biofilm-forming ability of S. aureus strains from subclinical bovine mastitis using the static method and a flow-based one. One hundred and twelve strains were tested by the classic tissue culture plate assay (TCP) and 30 out of them were also tested by a dynamic semi-quantitative assay using commercial UHT milk as culture medium (Milk Flow Culture, MFC) or Tryptic Soy Broth as control medium (TS Flow Culture, TSFC). Only 6 (20%) strains formed biofilm in milk under flow conditions, while 36.6% were considered biofilm-producers in TCP, and 93.3% produced biofilm in TSFC. No agreement was found between TCP, MFC and TSFC results. The association between strain genetic profile, determined by microarray, and biofilm-forming ability in milk was evaluated. Biofilm formation in MFC was significantly associated with the presence of those genes commonly found in bovine-associated strains, assigned to clonal complexes typically detected in mastitis. Based on our results, biofilm-forming potential of bovine strains should be critically analysed and tested applying conditions similar to mammary environment. PMID:25448449

  17. Similar efficacy of human banked milk and bovine colostrum to decrease incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michael L; Sangild, Per T; Lykke, Mikkel; Schmidt, Mette; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Preterm birth and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants. As mother's milk is often absent following preterm delivery, infant formula (IF) and human donor milk (HM) are frequently used as alternatives. We have previously shown that porcine and bovine colostrum (BC) provide similar NEC protection in preterm piglets relative to IF. We hypothesized that HM exerts similar effects and that this effect is partly species-independent. Preterm piglets (n = 40) received 2 days of total parenteral nutrition, followed by a rapid transition to full enteral feeding (15 ml·kg(-1)·2 h(-1)) for 2 days using BC (n = 13), HM (n = 13), or IF (n = 14). Intestinal passage time and hexose absorption were tested in vivo. Body and organ weights were recorded on day 5, and macroscopic NEC lesions in the gastrointestinal tract were assessed. Intestinal samples were collected for determination of histomorphology, histopathology, tissue IL-6 and IL-8, organic acids, bacterial adherence by fluorescence in situ hybridization score, and digestive enzyme activities. Relative to IF, pigs from BC and HM showed longer intestinal passage time; higher weight gain, hexose absorptive capacity, mucosal proportion, and enzyme activities; lower NEC incidence, organic acid concentration, and IL-8 concentration; and reduced histopathology lesions. Tissue IL-6 concentration and bacterial adherence score were lower for HM, relative to both BC and IF groups. We conclude that BC and HM are both superior to IF in stimulating gut structure, function, and NEC resistance in preterm piglets. BC may be a relevant alternative to HM when mother's milk is unavailable during the first week after preterm birth. PMID:23657639

  18. The occurrence of noncoagulating milk and the association of bovine milk coagulation properties with genetic variants of the caseins in 3 Scandinavian dairy breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Jensen, Hanne Bak;

    2013-01-01

    Substantial variation in milk coagulation properties has been observed among dairy cows. Consequently, raw milk from individual cows and breeds exhibits distinct coagulation capacities that potentially affect the technological properties and milk processing into cheese. This variation is largely...

  19. Dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the multi-residue analysis of pesticides in raw bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnac, Thierry; Garcia-Chao, Maria; Pulleiro, Paula; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2009-05-01

    A fast multi-residue method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of 44 pesticides in raw bovine milk. Raw bovine milk samples did not percolate through SPE cartridges usually applied for pesticide extraction from homogenized pasteurized milk samples. Therefore, a DSPE technique was implemented and validated for the first time in this work. Graphitized non-porous carbon and C18 modified silica materials were tested both in combination with magnesium sulfate and bonded silica with ethylenediamine-N-propyl phase. The efficiency of the DSPE process was studied at several concentration levels obtaining the higher recoveries with C18 material. The method performance was also assessed and the limits of quantification reached the ng g(-1) level, complying with the most recent maximum residue levels. The DSPE method was also shown to be suited to both the fatty and skimmed fractions issued from raw milk. Finally, the extraction method was successfully applied to the analysis of raw milk samples collected in 23 farms of dairy cattle from NW Spain (Galicia). PMID:19268955

  20. Time resolved bovine host reponse to virulence factors mapped in milk by selected reaction monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Codrea, Marius Cosmin;

    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington, USA Mastitis is beyond doubt the largest health problem in modern milk production. Many different pathogens can cause infections in the mammary gland, and give rise to severe toll on animal welfare, economic gain as well as on excessive use of antibiotics...

  1. KONSENTRASI MINIMUM SISTEM LAKTOPEROKSIDASE UNTUK MENEKAN PERTUMBUHAN Escherichia coli PADA SUSU SAPI SEGAR [Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Lactoperoxidase System Against Escherichia coli in Fresh Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Fitriansyah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh milk production in Central Java has increased every year resulting in the requirement of the rapid and good process for fresh milk handling to keep the quality against bacteria. Lactoperoxidase system (LPOS was well documented as a strategy to extend the shelf life of fresh milk but it hasn’t been known yet for the minimum level of lactoperoxidase (LPO utilization to activate LPOS in the milk. The purpose of this study was to analyze minimum concentration of LPO and its components by calculating minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against Escherichia coli and total bacteria in fresh milk. LPO was obtained from bovine whey and its purity was analyzed using SDS-PAGE. To activate the LPO performance, two substates namely H2O2 and KSCN were used with various concentrations. The MIC was analyzed 3 times using 3M™ Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count Plates. The result showed that 3.11 unit/mL LPO, 0.03 mM subs-trates have been found as MIC of LPOS against bacteria and Escherichia coli in milk. This result might provide benefit to the utilization of minimal LPOS in fresh milk to safe the amount of LPO.

  2. Optimization and characterization of an in vitro bovine mammary cell culture system to study regulation of milk protein synthesis and mammary differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talhouk, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A long term bovine mammary cell culture system that maintains normal mammary cell function was established and optimized to study milk protein synthesis and secretion and mammary differentiation. This culture system used bovine mammary acini isolated from developing or lactating mammary gland by enzymatic dissociation, and cryopreserved until thawed and plated for growth in vitro for these studies. Cells in M199 with lactogenic hormones {plus minus} fetal calf serum (FCS) were cultured on plastic, 100ul and 500ul type I collagen, and Matrigel, or embedded within type I collagen. Cell morphology, cell number, and total TCA-precipitable {sup 35}S-labelled proteins were monitored. Milk protein ({alpha}{sub s,1}-casein, lactoferrin (LF), {alpha}-lactalbumin, and {beta}-lactoglobulin) secretion and intracellular levels were determined by an ELISA assay.

  3. Quantitative determination of dexamethasone in bovine milk by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlet, Marc; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick

    2004-06-01

    Dexamethasone (DXM) is a synthetic glucocorticoid that is authorized for therapeutic use in veterinary medicine. The European Community (EC) fixed a maximum residue limit (MRL) at 2ng/g for liver, 0.75ng/g for muscle and kidney tissues, and 0.3ng/ml for milk, while its use as growth-promoter is completely banned. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a simple and reliable method to determine DXM residues in bovine milk. Milk proteins were removed by the addition of concentrated trichloroacetic acid and paper filtration. Solid-phase extraction clean-up on a C18 reversed phase column was performed to obtain an extract suitable for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Chromatographic separation of DXM and the internal standard desoximetasone, was achieved on a PLRP-S polymeric reversed phase column, using a mixture of 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid in water (mobile phase A) and acetonitrile (mobile phase B) as the mobile phases. They were identified using the MS/MS detection technique, and were subsequently quantified. The method has been validated according to the requirements of the EC at 0.15, 0.30 and 0.60ng/ml (being half the MRL, the MRL and double the MRL levels fixed by the EC). Calibration graphs were prepared in the 0.15-5ng/ml range and good linearity was achieved (r>or=0.99 and goodness of fit milk after intravenous administration of DXM to lactating cows to determine its depletion

  4. Application of Proteomics in Bovine Milk Research%蛋白质组学技术在乳品研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦晶; 刘鹭; 张书文; 吕加平

    2013-01-01

    Milk is an important nutritional food. Identification and application of its nutritional composition has been plagued by methodological limitations. With the development of proteomics technology, we have deeper understanding on protein composition and properties of milk. This paper introduces the steps of proteomics technology, reviews the research progress and applications in the bovine milk research, including casein proteomics, whey protein proteomics and milk fat globule membrane protein proteomics. It will help to fully understand the mechanism of milk synthesis and secretion, increase the milk production and utilization of bovine milk as source of nutrients.%牛乳是重要的营养食品,其营养组分的鉴定和应用已受到传统方法的限制。通过蛋白质组学技术的发展,对牛乳中蛋白质的组成和性质有了更深入的认识。本文综述了蛋白质组学技术的步骤及其在乳品研究中的应用进展,包括酪蛋白蛋白质组学、乳清蛋白质组学和乳脂肪球膜蛋白质组学的研究。为充分理解牛乳分泌机理,有效控制牛乳生产,提高牛乳营养价值及利用提供理论依据。

  5. Improvement of the stability and activity of immobilized trypsin on modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for hydrolysis of bovine serum albumin and its application in the bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atacan, Keziban; Çakıroğlu, Bekir; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-12-01

    Trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) was successfully immobilized on the surface of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles that had been pre-treated with gallic acid (GA). Measurements of protein load by using Bradford assay and the trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of Nα-Benzoyl-dl-arginine 4-nitroanilide hydrochloride (BApNA) were made for the immobilized enzyme. By using magnetic nanoparticles, which provides easy separation and decent support material for enzyme immobilization with high surface area to volume ratio, and by employing biocompatible material gallic acid, immobilized enzyme system was synthesized along with improving trypsin activity and stability. Immobilized trypsin (TR) was more stable than the free one and demonstrated higher enzymatic activity at elevated temperatures (45-55°C) and in the alkaline pH region (6-10.5). Fe3O4 NPs-GA-TR retained 92% of its initial activity after 120days of storage at 4°C in sodium phosphate buffer (0.1M, pH 7.5), whereas the free trypsin maintained about 64% of its initial activity during the same storage period. In addition, activity of the immobilized trypsin was preserved 54.5% of its initial activity after eight times successive reuse. The Michaelis-Menten kinetic constant (Km) and maximum reaction velocity (Vmax) for free trypsin were 5.1mM and 23mM/min, respectively, whereas Km and Vmax values of immobilized trypsin were 7.88mM and 18.3mM/min, respectively. The performance of the immobilized trypsin was demonstrated by carrying out the hydrolysis of bovine serum albumin (BSA) within 1h, and the assay was performed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. The hydrolysis of bovine milk as a real food was investigated by immobilized trypsin using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). PMID:27374556

  6. Bovine chromosomal regions affecting rheological traits in rennet-induced skim milk gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M;

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing cheese yield and quality is of central importance to cheese manufacturing. The yield is associated with the time it takes before the gel has an optimal consistency for further processing, and it is well known that gel formation differs between individual milk samples. By identifying...... genomic regions affecting traits related to rennet-induced gelation, the aim of this study was to identify potential candidate genes affecting these traits. Hence, rennet-induced gelation, including rennet coagulation time, gel strength, and yield stress, was measured in skim milk samples collected from...... with more than one trait. A major quantitative trait locus for all traits was identified around the casein cluster explaining between 9.3 to 15.2% of the phenotypic variation of the different traits. In addition, 3 other possible candidate genes were identified; that is, UDP...

  7. Prevalence of Bovine Brucellosis in Organized Dairy Farms, Using Milk ELISA, in Quetta City, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 200 milk samples from cattle (=86 and buffalo (=114 were evaluated using milk ring test (MRT and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence was found to be 3% and 8.5% in cattle and buffaloes using MRT and i-ELISA, respectively. The prevalence was 4.6% and 1.7% in cattle and buffalo using MRT, respectively, while i-ELISA exhibited 20% and 0% in cattle and buffalo, respectively. The prevalence was higher in government dairy farm, compared to privately owned dairy farm. This paper points out an alarming situation in the target area with respect to the public health significance.

  8. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in organized dairy farms, using milk ELISA, in quetta city, balochistan, pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafee, Muhammad; Rabbani, Masood; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Ahmad, Mansoor Din; Razzaq, Abdul

    2011-01-24

    A total of 200 milk samples from cattle (n = 86) and buffalo (n = 114) were evaluated using milk ring test (MRT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). The overall prevalence was found to be 3% and 8.5% in cattle and buffaloes using MRT and i-ELISA, respectively. The prevalence was 4.6% and 1.7% in cattle and buffalo using MRT, respectively, while i-ELISA exhibited 20% and 0% in cattle and buffalo, respectively. The prevalence was higher in government dairy farm, compared to privately owned dairy farm. This paper points out an alarming situation in the target area with respect to the public health significance.

  9. Sensitivity and Selectivity on Aptamer-Based Assay: The Determination of Tetracycline Residue in Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohee Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A competitive enzyme-linked aptamer assay (ELAA to detect tetracycline in milk was performed by using two different aptamers individually; one is 76 mer-DNA aptamer and the other is 57 mer-RNA aptamer. The best optimum condition was obtained without monovalent ion, Na+ and also by adding no Mg2+ ion in the assay buffer, along with RT incubation. The optimized ELAA showed a good sensitivity (LOD of 2.10 × 10−8 M with a wide dynamic range (3.16 × 10−8 M ~ 3.16 × 10−4 M. In addition, the average R.S.D. across all data points of the curve was less than 2.5% with good recoveries (~101.8% from the milk media. Thus, this method provides a good tool to monitor tetracycline in milk from MRLs’ point of view. However, this ELAA method was not superior to the ELISA method in terms of specificity. This paper describes that it does not always give better sensitivity and specificity in assays even though aptamers have several advantages over antibodies and have been known to be good binders for binding assays.

  10. Different screening tests and milk somatic cell count for the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Nazmul; Das, Ziban Chandra; Talukder, Anup Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Shah; Rahman, Abu Nasar Md Aminoor

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important tool for sustainable dairying and implementing effective mastitis control strategies. A total of 892 quarters milk samples from 228 lactating cows were screened by California mastitis test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf field mastitis test (SFMT), and somatic cell count (SCC) to study the prevalence of bovine SCM in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Out of 228 cows, 148 (64.9%), 138 (60.5%), 132 (57.9%), and 164 (71.9%) were found positive for SCM by CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC, respectively. The prevalence of bovine SCM was diagnosed 45.7, 40.2, 36.6, and 29.6% in Chittagong, Sirajgonj, Mymensingh, and Gazipur districts, respectively, based on a combination of all tests. The overall quarter-wise prevalence of SCM was 45.7, 43.5, 41.2, and 55.0% for CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC. Single quarters and left front quarters were more prone to SCM (P CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC was 65.8, 57.9, 51.0, and 82.5%; specificity 76.2, 72.4, 69.5, and 89.4%; percentage accuracy 70.0, 64.8, 59.9, and 85.2%; positive predictive value 75.2, 69.8, 64.9, and 92.7%, respectively. The categories of CMT reactions were strongly correlated with SCC (P tests (SCC>CMT>WST>SFMT). Thus, CMT was concluded to be the most accurate (r = 0.782) field diagnostic test after laboratory test like SCC (r = 0.924). However, the use of any single test may not be reliable in diagnosing SCM, while the result of CMT supported by SCC might be used effectively to pinpoint diagnosis of SCM in dairy animals than alone. PMID:25326717

  11. Detection and Enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk Samples by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Nara Ladeira; Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; Silva, Luis Felipe de Prada E; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with DNA extraction directly from composite milk and bulk tank samples for detection and enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae (SAG) causing subclinical mastitis. Dilutions of sterile reconstituted skim milk inoculated with SAG ATCC 13813 were used to establish a standard curve (cfu/mL) for the qPCR assay targeting SAG. The analytical sensitivity and repeatability of the qPCR assay were determined. Bulk tank (BTM; n = 38) and composite milk samples (CM; n = 26) collected from lactating cows with positive isolation of SAG were submitted to the qPCR protocol and SAG plate counting, with results from both methods compared. Amplification of DNA was not possible in two out of 64 samples, indicating that qPCR was able to detect SAG in 96 and 97% of BTM and CM samples, respectively. The inter-assay coefficient of variation was <5%, showing that the technique had adequate repeatability. The qPCR protocol can be a high-throughput and rapid diagnostic assay to accurately detect SAG from BTM and CM samples compared with conventional microbiological culture method. However, the evaluated qPCR protocol is not accurate for enumerating SAG in milk samples, probably due to quantification of DNA of non-viable cells. PMID:26134534

  12. Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis from milk samples from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, Bryce M; Wilson, Tania; Luo, Dongwen; Voges, Hinrich; Linscott, Richard; Martel, Edmond; Lawrence, John C; Neill, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Milk samples from dairy cows provide a ready source of material for measuring antibody responses to Mycobacterium bovis antigens. In this study, we evaluated the IDEXX enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of antibody responses to M. bovis antigens MPB70 and MPB83 in milk samples from New Zealand cattle. Test sensitivities for individual milk and serum samples were assessed in samples collected from 44 M. bovis-infected cows, and test specificities were assessed in milk samples collected from 356 cows from tuberculosis (TB)-free herds. Milk vat samples were collected from 505 herds from regions with relatively high or low prevalences of infection. The ELISA had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 97.5% for milk samples, and the test sensitivities for milk and serum samples were the same. Dilution of the positive test milk samples in milk from noninfected cows at 1/10, 1/20, and 1/50 dilutions reduced the proportions of positive responses to 13/21, 9/21, and 4/21, respectively. Small differences were observed in the ELISA responses of milk samples from individual TB-free cows collected at different times during lactation. No significant differences were detected in the ELISA responses of milk vat samples collected from infected and noninfected herds. This study shows that milk samples can be substituted for serum samples for screening individual cows for M. bovis infection, and pooling of milk samples from 10 to 20 animals can result in a reduction in the sensitivity by approximately 50%. However, screening of milk vat samples is unlikely to be useful in countries with low prevalences of M. bovis in cattle and large herd sizes.

  13. Effect of high-pressure homogenisation on rheological properties of rennet-induced skim milk and standardised milk gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodaite, Kristina; Chevalier, François; Armaforte, Emanuele; Kelly, Alan L

    2009-08-01

    The effects of high-pressure homogenisation (HPH) in the pressure range 100-300 MPa on the gel formation and rheological properties of rennet-induced skim milk (0.08%, fat, w/w) and standardised milk (3.60% fat, w/w) gels at pH 6.60 were studied. The average casein micelle size in skim milk was significantly reduced and the gel formation time decreased when skim milk was subjected to the pressures of 200 and 300 MPa. The storage modulus of rennet-induced skim milk gels at 2700 s after rennet addition was higher for samples homogenised at higher pressures, which contained smaller casein particles. HPH had little effect on the large deformation properties of rennet-induced skim milk gels. The gel formation time of renneted standardised milk was significantly reduced as a result of HPH, while the storage modulus of rennet-induced milk gels 2700 s after rennet addition increased with increasing homogenising pressure. The apparent fracture stress was slightly higher for standardised milk gels formed from HPH-treated milk, whereas the apparent strain at fracture was lower, than that of unhomogenised milk. In conclusion, HPH treatment influenced gel formation processes of skim milk and its small-deformation rheological properties, mainly through modification of casein micelles. HPH also significantly affected the gel formation process of standardised milk gels and its rheological properties as a result of an increase in volume fraction of aggregating particles, while the particle size was of lesser importance. PMID:19445828

  14. High pressure homogenization processing, thermal treatment and milk matrix affect in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolics in apple, grape and orange juice to different extents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Tao, Yadan; Zeng, Maomao; Zhang, Shuang; Tao, Guanjun; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The effects of high pressure homogenization processing (HPHP), thermal treatment (TT) and milk matrix (soy, skimmed and whole milk) on the phenolic bioaccessibility and the ABTS scavenging activity of apple, grape and orange juice (AJ, GJ and OJ) were investigated. HPHP and soy milk diminished AJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility 29.3%, 26.3%, respectively, whereas TT and bovine milk hardly affected it. HPHP had little effect on GJ's and OJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility, while TT enhanced them 27.3-33.9%, 19.0-29.2%, respectively, and milk matrix increased them 26.6-31.1%, 13.3-43.4%, respectively. Furthermore, TT (80 °C/30 min) and TT (90 °C/30 s) presented the similar influences on GJ's and OJ's phenolic bioaccessibility. Skimmed milk showed a better enhancing effect on OJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility than soy and whole milk, but had a similar effect on GJ's as whole milk. These results contribute to promoting the health benefits of fruit juices by optimizing the processing and formulas in the food industry. PMID:26830567

  15. High pressure homogenization processing, thermal treatment and milk matrix affect in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolics in apple, grape and orange juice to different extents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Tao, Yadan; Zeng, Maomao; Zhang, Shuang; Tao, Guanjun; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The effects of high pressure homogenization processing (HPHP), thermal treatment (TT) and milk matrix (soy, skimmed and whole milk) on the phenolic bioaccessibility and the ABTS scavenging activity of apple, grape and orange juice (AJ, GJ and OJ) were investigated. HPHP and soy milk diminished AJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility 29.3%, 26.3%, respectively, whereas TT and bovine milk hardly affected it. HPHP had little effect on GJ's and OJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility, while TT enhanced them 27.3-33.9%, 19.0-29.2%, respectively, and milk matrix increased them 26.6-31.1%, 13.3-43.4%, respectively. Furthermore, TT (80 °C/30 min) and TT (90 °C/30 s) presented the similar influences on GJ's and OJ's phenolic bioaccessibility. Skimmed milk showed a better enhancing effect on OJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility than soy and whole milk, but had a similar effect on GJ's as whole milk. These results contribute to promoting the health benefits of fruit juices by optimizing the processing and formulas in the food industry.

  16. NMR-Based Milk Metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Larsen, Lotte B; Sundekilde, Ulrik K

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the ...

  17. Diurnal differences in milk composition and its influence on in vitro growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in bovine quarter milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, S.W.F.; Boerhout, E.M.; Ravesloot, L.; Daemen, A.J.J.M.; Benedictus, L.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Koets, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    In experimental intramammary inoculation studies, it has been observed that mastitis susceptibility is influenced, among others, by cow factors. To identify milk characteristics leading to these differences, quarter milk samples of morning and evening milk were collected and analyzed for their co

  18. Effect of insoluble calcium concentration on endogenous syneresis rate in rennet-coagulated bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2015-09-01

    The rennet coagulation of milk has been extensively studied. Mathematical modeling of the gelation process has been performed, mainly for the purpose of predicting the gel point. Rheological profiles of rennet gels during aging (long reaction times) have indicated that the gel stiffness (modulus) attains a maximum and thereafter decreases. We wanted to model this type of behavior and used the Carlson model, which includes terms for the proteolysis of κ-casein hairs (creating active sites) and the crosslinking of these activated sites. To account for the observed decrease in the gel modulus with time, we modified the Carlson model by adding an exponential decay term, which we ascribe to endogenous syneresis. We believe that this decay (i.e., syneresis rate) would likely be influenced by the mobility of bonds within casein micelles (in gels as indicated by the rheological loss tangent parameter). To modify the internal structural bonding of casein micelles, reconstituted skim milk was acidified to pH values 6.4, 6.0, 5.8, 5.6, and 5.4, or EDTA was added to milk at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, and 6mM, and the final pH values of EDTA-treated samples were subsequently adjusted to pH 6.0. These treatments were then used to prepare rennet gel samples that were monitored by dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheometry. When the modified Carlson model was fitted to the actual experimental storage modulus values of each sample, it fitted the data reasonably well (especially the pH trial data). As the pH values of milk decreased, the modulus values at infinite reaction time (G'∞) increased; however, G'∞ decreased with an increase in the EDTA concentration. In the pH trial, the rate constants for the proteolysis of κ-casein hairs and the crosslinking of these activated sites exhibited a maximum at pH 5.6 and 6.0, respectively. The rate constant for endogenous syneresis increased at pH values syneresis was significantly positively correlated (r≥0.96) with the loss tangent

  19. Effect of Supplementation with Antioxidants on the Quality of Bovine Milk and Meat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Castillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health.

  20. Effect of supplementation with antioxidants on the quality of bovine milk and meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Víctor; Abuelo, Ángel; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS) is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health.

  1. The comparative studies of proteins of bovine and goat milk%牛羊乳蛋白组分比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宏新; 张小苗; 薛海燕

    2012-01-01

    Goat milk, which hailed as "The king of milk" by international nutrition academic, has been gradually accepted as daily life's nutritional supplements by people. This paper reviewed the differences of composition of protein (mainly the caseins and whey proteins), composition of amino acids and variants between proteins of goat milk and bovine milk, and the differences of casein micelle, as well, which provides a theoretical basis for the testing and processing of goat milk.%羊乳被国际营养学界誉为“奶中之王”,逐渐被人们列为日常生活的营养保健佳品.该文对羊乳和牛乳的蛋白组分(主要是酪蛋白和乳清蛋白)含量、氨基酸组成及变异体等方面的差异进行了综述,并且对两者酪蛋白胶束的差异进行了比较,为羊乳检验和加工提供理论依据.

  2. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin...

  3. Diurnal differences in milk composition and its influence on in vitro growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in bovine quarter milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, S W F; Boerhout, E M; Ravesloot, L; Daemen, A J J M; Benedictus, L; Rutten, V P M G; Koets, A P

    2016-07-01

    In experimental intramammary inoculation studies, it has been observed that mastitis susceptibility is influenced, among others, by cow factors. To identify milk characteristics leading to these differences, quarter milk samples of morning and evening milk were collected and analyzed for their composition (protein, fat, lactose, urea, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and β-lactoglobulin concentrations), somatic cell count, and antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, in vitro growth of S. aureus and Escherichia coli in fresh quarter milk samples was determined. All measured parameters differed significantly between quarters and also between morning and evening milk with the exception of lactose levels. In addition, quantitative growth of S. aureus and E. coli was significantly different in morning milk compared with evening milk. Mixed model analysis revealed that replication of S. aureus was negatively associated with the presence of fat, S. aureus-specific IgG1 antibodies, contamination of the milk sample and morning milk. Replication of E. coli was negatively associated with fat concentrations, and positively associated with morning milk. The significant difference between morning and evening milk supports the theory that changes in milk composition influence bacterial growth. Although all determined milk components differed significantly between quarters and in time no significant association with bacterial growth could be identified with the exception of fat for both studied species and IgG1 titers for S. aureus. The negative association of fat with bacterial growth was assumed to occur due to activation of lipolysis by milk handling and can most likely be neglected for in vivo relevance. The fact that S. aureus-specific IgG1 titers were negatively associated with S. aureus growth in vitro encourages the ongoing effort to develop a vaccine against S. aureus-induced mastitis.

  4. Diurnal differences in milk composition and its influence on in vitro growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in bovine quarter milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, S W F; Boerhout, E M; Ravesloot, L; Daemen, A J J M; Benedictus, L; Rutten, V P M G; Koets, A P

    2016-07-01

    In experimental intramammary inoculation studies, it has been observed that mastitis susceptibility is influenced, among others, by cow factors. To identify milk characteristics leading to these differences, quarter milk samples of morning and evening milk were collected and analyzed for their composition (protein, fat, lactose, urea, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and β-lactoglobulin concentrations), somatic cell count, and antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, in vitro growth of S. aureus and Escherichia coli in fresh quarter milk samples was determined. All measured parameters differed significantly between quarters and also between morning and evening milk with the exception of lactose levels. In addition, quantitative growth of S. aureus and E. coli was significantly different in morning milk compared with evening milk. Mixed model analysis revealed that replication of S. aureus was negatively associated with the presence of fat, S. aureus-specific IgG1 antibodies, contamination of the milk sample and morning milk. Replication of E. coli was negatively associated with fat concentrations, and positively associated with morning milk. The significant difference between morning and evening milk supports the theory that changes in milk composition influence bacterial growth. Although all determined milk components differed significantly between quarters and in time no significant association with bacterial growth could be identified with the exception of fat for both studied species and IgG1 titers for S. aureus. The negative association of fat with bacterial growth was assumed to occur due to activation of lipolysis by milk handling and can most likely be neglected for in vivo relevance. The fact that S. aureus-specific IgG1 titers were negatively associated with S. aureus growth in vitro encourages the ongoing effort to develop a vaccine against S. aureus-induced mastitis. PMID:27132103

  5. Determination of neonicotinoid insecticides residues in bovine milk samples by solid-phase extraction clean-up and liquid chromatography with diode-array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccia, Serenella; Fidente, Paola; Montesano, Domenico; Morrica, Patrizia

    2008-12-19

    In this paper we have developed an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four nicotinoid insecticides [acetamiprid (ACT), imidacloprid (ICL), thiacloprid (TCL) and thiamethoxam (TMX)] in bovine whole milk. These analytes were extracted, in a single step with dichloromethane, from fortified milk samples, using Chem Elut cartridges, containing diatomaceous earth material. Insecticide's determination and quantification were performed by HPLC with diode-array detection (DAD). Average recoveries of the four insecticides from bovine milk samples were between 85.1 and 99.7% at spiking levels 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg kg(-1). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were no larger than 10% for all of the recovery tests. The calculated limits of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 mg kg(-1) for the four insecticides, being equal to or lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by European legislation (0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1)). The developed method is linear at concentrations within the tested interval, with coefficients of determination higher than 0.9990. According to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, decision limit (CCalpha) and detection capability (CCbeta) have been calculated. The proposed method is rapid, simple and could be utilized for the routine analysis of pesticides residues. PMID:19004450

  6. A naturally occurring α(s1)-casein-derived peptide in bovine milk inhibits apoptosis of granulosa cells induced by serum-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T; Ganzorig, K; Miyamoto, A; Ishii, T; Urashima, T; Fukuda, K

    2014-03-01

    Several naturally occurring peptides in bovine milk were characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Chromatograms of peptide fractions (passed through an ultra-filtration membrane, nominal molecular weight limit 3000) prepared from colostrum (collected immediately after parturition) and transitional milk (collected 5 days postpartum) showed that they were almost identical. In total, six peptides, α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH), α(s1)-CN (f16-24) (RPKHPIKHQ), α(s1)-CN (f17-25) (PKHPIKHQG), α(s1)-CN (f46-52) (VFGKEKV), α(s1)-CN (f94-105) (HIQKEDVPSER), and β-CN (f121-128) (HKEMPFPK), were identified. One of the major peptides, the N-terminal fragment of αs1 -casein, varied structurally during early lactation: α(s1)-CN (f17-25) (PKHPIKHQG) and α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH)/α(s1)-CN (f16-24) (RPKHPIKHQ) were found in colostrum and transitional milk, respectively. A chemically synthesized peptide, α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH), inhibited apoptosis of bovine granulosa cells induced by serum-free conditions in a dose-dependent manner, in consequence of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suppressions. The physiological function of the peptide remains unclear, but it may have potential use as pharmaceutical agent and as an anti-apoptotic agent in cell culture medium. PMID:24399684

  7. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SORTING OF FATTY ACID IN BOVINE MILK IN RELATION TO BODY CONDITION OF CZECH FLECKVIEH DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir DUCHACEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids in milk are one of the most important components of milk. The aim of this study was to determinate relationships between groups of fatty acids and body condition score change in Czech Fleckvieh cows. Fatty acids were classification along its length of chain and its source of creation. To analysis was included total of 50 Czech Fleckvieh cows with different order of lactation. During the first 4 weeks of lactation, milk samples were collected at a weekly interval and body condition score was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Office Excel and the procedures MEANS and GLM of SAS 9.1. During the first four week of lactation, the proportions of short- and medium-chain fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids increased. Moreover the cows with a greater body condition score change mobilized storage depot fat more intensively, which resulted in higher proportions of dietary and depot fatty acids since week 1 of lactation, and long-chain fatty acids since week 2 of lactation. On the contrary, the animals with only a small body condition score change exhibited high proportions of short- and medium-fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids in the most part of the period analysed. This indicates abut negative energy balance in early part of lactation and its compensation. The results also confirm the relationships between different groups of fatty acids, body condition score and negative energy balance. As more accurate for evaluation of intensity of negative energy balance was confirmed rather classification along source of creation. These results further emphasize importance the monitoring of body condition, milk composition and good herd management in first part of lactation.

  8. Comparison of serological and milk tests for bovine brucellosis using a Monte Carlo simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Caporale

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union (EU Directive 97/12/EC allows the trade of cattle within the EU of animals originating from an 'officially brucellosis-free herd'. To qualify for this status, a number of different programmes must be implemented. Each EU Member Country is free to decide which procedure to use to qualify herds. The authors conducted a study to compare the merits and costs of testing programmes given in the Directive and of some alternative testing strategies. The effectiveness of testing programmes was evaluated by a Monte Carlo simulation model. Programmes listed in the Directive do not appear to have identical sensitivity and specificity. Simulations of the programmes showed that milk testing may be more effective and efficient than blood testing to identify infected herds. Results indicated that it could be advisable that legislation, rather than defining very detailed procedures both for laboratory tests and testing programmes, should establish minimal requirements in terms of efficacy of testing procedures (i.e. the probability of detecting an infected herd.

  9. Purification of MUC1 from bovine milk-fat globules and characterization of a corresponding full-length cDNA clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Andersen, Mikkel Holmen; Nielsen, Rune L.;

    2001-01-01

    acid sequences obtained by peptide mapping. The complete amino acid sequence of MUC1 was determined by cloning and sequencing the corresponding bovine mammary gland cDNA, which was shown to encode a protein of 580 amino acid residues comprising a cleavable signal peptide of 22 residues. The deduced...... amino acid sequence demonstrated structural features characteristic for mucins, including an extracellular tandem repeat region with 11 partially conserved repeats (20 amino acids each), a membrane-proximal SEA module, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic C-terminal region. Monosaccharide...... composition determinations suggested significant structural differences between O-linked glycans of MUC1 originating from either bovine or human milk. Interspecies differences of the consensus repeat sequence in MUC1 and the physiological functions are discussed....

  10. Arginine Supplementation Recovered the IFN-γ-Mediated Decrease in Milk Protein and Fat Synthesis by Inhibiting the GCN2/eIF2α Pathway, Which Induces Autophagy in Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaojing; Che, Yanyi; Gao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Shuang; Ao, Changjin; Yang, Hongjian; Liu, Juxiong; Liu, Guowen; Han, Wenyu; Wang, Yuping; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-05-31

    During the lactation cycle of the bovine mammary gland, autophagy is induced in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) as a cellular homeostasis and survival mechanism. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor that has been shown to induce autophagy in multiple cell lines in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether IFN-γ can induce autophagy and whether autophagy affects milk synthesis in BMECs. To understand whether IFN-γ affects milk synthesis, we isolated and purified primary BMECs and investigated the effect of IFN-γ on milk synthesis in primary BMECs in vitro. The results showed that IFN-γ significantly inhibits milk synthesis and that autophagy was clearly induced in primary BMECs in vitro within 24 h. Interestingly, autophagy was observed following IFN-γ treatment, and the inhibition of autophagy can improve milk protein and milk fat synthesis. Conversely, upregulation of autophagy decreased milk synthesis. Furthermore, mechanistic analysis confirmed that IFN-γ mediated autophagy by depleting arginine and inhibiting the general control nonderepressible-2 kinase (GCN2)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) signaling pathway in BMECs. Then, it was found that arginine supplementation could attenuate IFN-γ-induced autophagy and recover milk synthesis to some extent. These findings may not only provide a novel measure for preventing the IFN-γ-induced decrease in milk quality but also a useful therapeutic approach for IFN-γ-associated breast diseases in other animals and humans.

  11. Deep Sequencing and Screening of Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs Related to Milk Fat Metabolism in Bovine Primary Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binglei Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is a key factor affecting milk quality and is also a major trait targeted in dairy cow breeding. To determine how the synthesis and the metabolism of lipids in bovine milk is regulated at the miRNA level, primary mammary epithelial cells (pMEC derived from two Chinese Holstein dairy cows that produced extreme differences in milk fat percentage were cultured by the method of tissue nubbles culture. Small RNA libraries were constructed from each of the two pMEC groups, and Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were then used to determine the abundance of miRNAs and their differential expression pattern between pMECs. Target genes and functional prediction of differentially expressed miRNAs by Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis illustrated their roles in milk fat metabolism. Results show that a total of 292 known miRNAs and 116 novel miRNAs were detected in both pMECs. Identification of known and novel miRNA candidates demonstrated the feasibility and sensitivity of sequencing at the cellular level. Additionally, 97 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between the pMECs. Finally, three miRNAs including bta-miR-33a, bta-miR-152 and bta-miR-224 whose predicted target genes were annotated to the pathway of lipid metabolism were screened and verified by real-time qPCR and Western-blotting experiments. This study is the first comparative profiling of the miRNA transcriptome in pMECs that produce different milk fat content.

  12. 中国北方人初乳、牛初乳、牛常乳、牛血中胰岛素样生长因子-1和神经生长因子含量的比较%Comparison of IGF-1 and NGF in human colostrum, bovine colostrum,bovine milk and bovine blood serum in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 生庆海; 张玉梅; 赵艾; 贾梦; 薛勇; 王培玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To quantify and compare the levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 ( IGF-1 ) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in human colostrum, bovine colostrum, bovine milk and bovine blood serum. Methods Radioimmunoassay was used in the quantification of IGF-1 and NGF. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 13. 0. Results The levels of IGF-1 in human colostrum, bovine colostrum, bovine milk and bovine blood serum were 26. 91, 38.40, 20. 14 and 37.35 μg/L,respectively. The levels of NGF in human colostrum, bovine colostrum, milk and bovine blood serum were 300. 47,69.82, 110. 37 and 9. 63 ng/L, respectively. The differences between the levels of IGF-1 in human colostrum and bovine colostrum were not significant, but the levels of IGF-1 in bovine colostrum were obviously higher than that in bovine milk (P <0. 05), and there was no significant difference between the levels of IGF-1 in bovine milk and bovine blood serum.The level of NGF in human colostrum was obviously higher than that in bovine colostrum ( P < 0.05 ). There was no significant difference between the levels of NGF in bovine colostrum and bovine milk. The level of NGF in bovine blood serum was obviously lower than that in bovine milk ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The level of IGF-1 in human colostrum was not significantly different from that in bovine colostrum, but the level of NGF in human colostrum was much higher than that in bovine colostrum.%目的 检测人初乳、集中饲养的新西兰进口荷斯坦乳牛的初乳、常乳和血液中胰岛素样生长因子-1(IGF-1)和神经生长因子(NGF)的含量,比较人初乳和牛初乳、牛初乳和牛常乳以及牛乳和同期采集的血液中IGF-1、NGF的含量.方法 采用放射免疫试剂盒测定人初乳、牛初乳、牛常乳和血中IGF-1、NGF的含量,使用SPSS 13.0进行统计分析.结果 本研究中测定的人初乳中IGF-1的含量是26.91μg/L,荷斯坦乳牛的初乳、常乳和血清中IGF-1的含量分别是38.40、20.14和37.35

  13. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, tconst. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, pconst. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Marguerite; Saab, Matthew; Heider, Luke; McClure, J Trenton; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: (1) Streptococcus uberis (n = 70), (2) Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28), (3) other Streptococci spp. (n = 35), (4), Lactococcus spp. (n = 32), and (5) Enterococcus spp. (n = 27). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible S. uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin) to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin), with a median of 82%. All S. dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible) and tetracycline (18% susceptible). The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline) to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin) to 97% (for erythromycin), median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Marguerite; Saab, Matthew; Heider, Luke; McClure, J Trenton; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: (1) Streptococcus uberis (n = 70), (2) Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28), (3) other Streptococci spp. (n = 35), (4), Lactococcus spp. (n = 32), and (5) Enterococcus spp. (n = 27). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible S. uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin) to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin), with a median of 82%. All S. dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible) and tetracycline (18% susceptible). The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline) to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin) to 97% (for erythromycin), median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice

  16. A prospective study of cow's milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants. Incidence, pathogenetic role of early inadvertent exposure to cow's milk formula, and characterization of bovine milk protein in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Osterballe, O

    1988-01-01

    A cohort of 1,749 newborns in the municipality of Odense were followed prospectively for the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) during their first year of life. Altogether 39 fulfilled the criteria for CMA (2.2%). Out of the 39 infants, 17 developed symptoms of CMA during breast-feeding, in ...

  17. Correlation between mastitis occurrence and the count of microorganisms in bulk raw milk of bovine dairy herds in four selective culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Luís I M; Minagawa, Clarice Y; Telles, Evelise O; Garbuglio, Márcio A; Amaku, Marcos; Melville, Priscilla A; Dias, Ricardo A; Sakata, Sonia T; Benites, Nilson R

    2010-02-01

    Milk is the normal secretion of the mammary gland, practically free of colostrum and obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy animals. Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the mammary gland and it may cause alterations in the milk. The present work aimed to verify whether it is possible, by means of the counts of microorganism in the bulk raw milk in four selective culture media, to establish a correlation with the occurrence of mastitis and therefore, to monitor this disease in bovine dairy herds. The following selective culture media were used: KF Streptococcus Agar, Edwards Agar, Baird-Parker Agar, Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated in order to compare the occurrence of mastitis (percentage) in each herd with respective selective culture media counts of microorganisms in bulk raw milk. Thirty-six possibilities were analysed (Tamis and CMT-positive rates were compared with the log-transformed count in four selective culture media) and there was a negative correlation between Tamis 3 and the Baird-Parker Agar plate count. The total results of microbiological tests showed that there were three correlations of the counts in selective culture media. Fifty-two possibilities were analysed and there was a negative correlation between no-bacterial-growth mastitis rates and log10 of KF Streptoccocus Agar plate count and there were two positive correlations between coagulase-positive staphylococci and log10 of Baird-Parker Agar plate count and Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite plate count. PMID:19939321

  18. Pérdidas económicas ocasionadas por la mastitis bovina en la industria lechera - Economic causalties inflicted by the bovine mastitis in the milk industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedolla, CC;

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente trabajo fue hacer una revisión bibliográfica sobre las pérdidas económicas que ocasiona la mastitis bovina en la industria lechera en el Mundo, en México y Michoacán. La mastitis es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa más costosa de las vacas lecheras debido a que induce a una disminución en la producción del 4 al 30% de leche y baja su calidad, además de incrementar los costos del cuidado de la salud del hato y un desecho prematuro de animales genéticamente mejorados. En el documento, se hace una descripción de los conceptos concernientes a la mastitis bovina, su clasificación, características de la enfermedad tanto en su forma de presentación clínica y subclínica en el ganado bovino lechero, así mismo se hace referencia a las pérdidas económicas que ésta ocasiona tanto en la industria lechera a nivel mundial, como en México y en el Estado deMichoacán; finalmente, se aborda lo relacionado a los costos de prevención, tratamiento y control de la enfermedad. Se concluye que las pérdidas económicas que ocasiona la mastitis bovina a la industria lechera son considerables, esto en base a diversos estudios reportados por diferentes autores.summaryThe objective of the present paper was to make a revision of literature on the economic causalties that the bovine mastitis in the milk industry in the World inflicts, in Mexico and Michoacan. The mastitis is considered infectious the disease more expensive of the milk cows because it induces to a diminution in the production from the 4 to 30% of low milk and his quality, besides to increase the costs of the care of the health of the cattle ranch and a premature animal remainder genetically improved. In the document, a description of the concepts concerning the bovine mastitis, its classification,characteristics of the disease as much in its form of clinical and subclinical presentation in the milk bovine cattle becomes, also reference to the economic

  19. Fatty acid composition, fat soluble vitamin concentrations and oxidative stability in bovine milk produced on two pastures with different botanical composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Dahl, A V; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2013-01-01

    pratensis Huds.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and red clover and LP contained smooth meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.), white clover and a variety of unsown species. Sixteen cows were blocked according to milk yield, days in milk and sire, and randomly within block allocated to the 2 dietary treatments with...... a daily pasture allowance of 15–20 kg dry matter per cow, supplemented with 3.0 kg barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) concentrate. Milk was sampled during the last week of 3 experimental periods and analysed for FA composition by gas chromatography, concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins by high...

  20. Quantification of bovine milk protein composition and coagulation properties using infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics: A result of collinearity among reference variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, C E; Skov, T; Hansen, M S; Larsen, L B; Poulsen, N A

    2016-10-01

    Predicting protein fractions and coagulation properties in bovine milk using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements is desirable. However, such predictions may rely on correlations with total protein content. The aim of this study was to show how correlations between total protein content, protein fractions, and coagulation properties are responsible for the successful prediction of protein fractions and rennet-induced coagulation properties in milk samples. This study comprised 832 bovine milk samples from 2 breeds (426 Holstein and 406 Jersey). Holstein samples were collected from 20 Danish dairy herds from October to December 2009; Jersey samples were collected from 22 Danish dairy herds from February to April 2010. All samples were from conventional herds and taken while cows were housed. The results showed that κ-CN, αS1-CN, αS1-CN with 8 phosphorylated groups attached (αS1-CN 8P), and curd firming rate could be predicted from FT-IR measurements of the milk samples (with coefficients of determination between 0.66 and 0.71). However, the success of these FT-IR-based predictions was based on indirect relationships with total protein content. Hence, the FT-IR predictions relied on covariance structures with total protein content rather than absorption bands directly associated with the protein fractions and coagulation properties. If covariance structures between the protein fractions, coagulation properties, and total protein content used to calibrate partial least squares models were not conserved in future samples, these samples would show incorrect predictions of the protein fractions and coagulation properties. We demonstrated this using samples from 1 breed to calibrate and samples from the other breed to validate partial least squares models for β-CN. The 2 breeds had different covariance structures between β-CN and total protein content, and the validation samples yielded incorrect predictions. This finding may limit the usefulness of FT

  1. Molecular detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine raw milk samples obtained directly from bulk tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Acácia Orieth; Cortez, Adriana; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2012-08-01

    Mastitis is the most common infectious disease affecting dairy cattle; in addition, it remains the most economically important disease of dairy industries around the world. Streptococcus agalactiae, a contagious pathogen associated with subclinical mastitis, is highly infectious. This bacterium can cause an increase in bulk tank bacterial counts (BTBC) and bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC). The microbiological identification of S. agalactiae in samples from bulk tanks is an auxiliary method to control contagious mastitis. Thus, there are some limitations for time-consuming cultures or identification methods and additional concerns about the conservation and transport of samples. Bulk tank samples from 247 dairy farms were cultured and compared through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), directed to 16S rRNA genes of S. agalactiae, followed by BTBC and S. agalactiae isolation. The mean value of BTBC was 1.08×10(6) CFU mL(-1) and the bacterium was identified through the microbiological method in 98 (39.7%; CI(95%)=33.8-45.9%) and through PCR in 110 (44.5%; CI(95%)=38.5-50.8%) samples. Results indicated sensitivity of 0.8571±0.0353 (CI(95%)=0.7719-0.9196) and specificity of 0.8255±0.0311 (CI(95%)=0.7549-0.8827). The lack of significant difference between microbiological and molecular results (κ=0.6686±0.0477 and CI(95%)=0.5752-0.7620) indicated substantial agreement between the methods. This suggests that PCR can be used for bulk tank samples to detect contagious mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.

  2. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp;

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...... to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  3. Computational analysis of bovine milk exosomal miRNAs profiles derived from uninfected and Streptococcus uberis infected mammary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dairy cattle industry in the U.S. contributes an estimated 7 billion dollars to the agribusiness economy. Bacterial infections that cause disease like mastitis, affect health of the lactating mammary gland, and negatively impacts milk production and milk quality, costing producers an estimated 2...

  4. Challenges for bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibody detection in bulk milk by antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays due to changes in milk production levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is considered eradicated from Denmark. Currently, very few (if any) Danish cattle herds could be infected with BVD virus (BVDV). The Danish antibody blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been successfully used during the Danish BVD...

  5. Effect of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) heat treatment of bovine milk on the activities of some enzymes, the milk fat globule and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Jonathan Ahrens; Thorup Nielsen, Martin; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) treatment at temperatures 70–150 C on the enzymatic activities of the indigenous milk enzymes alkaline phosphatase, lactoperoxidase (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and plasmin in comparison with two...... reference heat treatments of 63 C for 30 s and of 72 C for 15 s by indirect heating. Milk fat globule (MFG) size distributions and pH were also monitored. Alkaline phosphatase, LPO, XO and LPL activities decreased with increasing LSI temperature. Plasmin activity was increased at temperatures <80 C and...

  6. The association between calfhood bovine respiratory disease complex and subsequent departure from the herd, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted. PMID:27135672

  7. Associations of a polymorphic AP-2 binding site in the 5'-flanking region of the bovine beta-lactoglobulin gene with milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, A W; Gogol, J; Geidermann, H

    2003-06-01

    Studies on a polymorphic position (R10) in an Activator-Protein-2 (AP-2) binding site of the bovine beta-Lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) gene promoter region and quantitative traits of individual milk proteins were based on material from 79 German Holstein Friesian (HF) and 61 Simmental (Sm) cows. At least four milk samples per cow were analyzed with alkaline Urea-PAGE in combination with densitometry for quantification of individual milk proteins. The two alleles of the R10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) carry either G or C in position -435 bp of the beta-Lg promoter region. G- and C-alleles were found in Sm with nearly equal frequencies, while in HF the C-allele frequency was higher (0.73) than that of the G-allele. In both breeds, the R10 G-homozygotes had higher (P beta-Lg secreted per day and proportion of beta-Lg in milk protein compared with the C-homozygotes. A similar association was found for alpha-lactalbumin, whereas the relative proportions and daily secreted amounts of caseins (alphaS1, beta, kappa) showed lower values in beta-Lg R10 G-homozygotes. A positive association (P beta-Lg locus to a candidate gene for this trait. The association between the SNP in the AP-2 binding site of the beta-Lg gene and its gene product can be explained as the result of differences in protein binding activity, and, therefore, allele specific differences in gene expression. Thus, our study clearly links a DNA polymorphism of molecular function very closely with in vivo expression parameters of the same locus.

  8. Identification of cephapirin metabolites and degradants in bovine milk by electrospray ionization--ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, D N; Kaplan, D A; Rummel, N G; von Bredow, J

    2000-12-01

    Liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization was used to identify cephapirin metabolites and degradants in milk from cows dosed with cephapirin. The milk was extracted according to a previously published procedure. Structures for various components were tentatively identified by their molecular weight, product ion mass spectra, and/or correspondence to standard mass spectra. These components may have occurred as metabolites or as degradants that occurred on storage or during extraction. Compounds identified in the milk included cephapirin, desacetylcephapirin, cephapirin lactone, hydrolyzed cephapirin, and a reduced cephapirin lactone that has not previously been reported. Methylcephapirin was also identified, possibly as a trace contaminant in the formulation. Analysis of incurred milk extracts showed that cephapirin and desacetylcephapirin are the major residues in milk. Desacetylcephapirin residues persisted about as long as the parent drug. The detection limit for both residues by LC-MS/MS was approximately 1 ng/mL in milk. These results have implications for microbiological methods or rapid test kits, if such methods or kits respond to cephapirin metabolites and degradants present in the milk. PMID:11141270

  9. Mediation analysis to estimate direct and indirect milk losses associated with bacterial load in bovine subclinical mammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, J; Theron, L; Duprez, J-N; Reding, E; Moula, N; Detilleux, M; Bertozzi, C; Hanzen, C; Mainil, J

    2016-08-01

    Milk losses associated with mastitis can be attributed to either effects of pathogens per se (i.e. direct losses) or to effects of the immune response triggered by the presence of mammary pathogens (i.e. indirect losses). Test-day milk somatic cell counts (SCC) and number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) found in milk samples are putative measures of the level of immune response and of the bacterial load, respectively. Mediation models, in which one independent variable affects a second variable which, in turn, affects a third one, are conceivable models to estimate direct and indirect losses. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of a mediation model in which test-day SCC and milk were regressed toward bacterial CFU measured at three selected sampling dates, 1 week apart. We applied this method on cows free of clinical signs and with records on up to 3 test-days before and after the date of the first bacteriological samples. Most bacteriological cultures were negative (52.38%), others contained either staphylococci (23.08%), streptococci (9.16%), mixed bacteria (8.79%) or were contaminated (6.59%). Only losses mediated by an increase in SCC were significantly different from null. In cows with three consecutive bacteriological positive results, we estimated a decreased milk yield of 0.28 kg per day for each unit increase in log2-transformed CFU that elicited one unit increase in log2-transformed SCC. In cows with one or two bacteriological positive results, indirect milk loss was not significantly different from null although test-day milk decreased by 0.74 kg per day for each unit increase of log2-transformed SCC. These results highlight the importance of milk losses that are mediated by an increase in SCC during mammary infection and the feasibility of decomposing total milk loss into its direct and indirect components. PMID:26923826

  10. The glycemic, insulinemic and plasma amino acid responses to equi-carbohydrate milk meals, a pilot- study of bovine and human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnerud, Ulrika; Holst, Jens Juul; Östman, Elin;

    2012-01-01

    Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect....

  11. Effect of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) heat treatment of bovine milk on the activities of some enzymes, the milk fat globule and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Jonatan A.; Nielsen, Martin Thorup; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) treatment at temperatures 70–150 C on the enzymatic activities of the indigenous milk enzymes alkaline phosphatase, lactoperoxidase (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and plasmin in comparison with two...

  12. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of Coxiella burnetii antibody ELISA tests in bovine blood and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Toft, Nils; Agerholm, Jørgen S.;

    2013-01-01

    Serological tests for Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever) antibodies are usually based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) although this method is not thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection...... of the ELISA methods on milk and blood were equal at 0.99. No conditional dependence was observed between the specificity estimates of the two test methods. However, the sensitivity estimates of both tests were significantly reduced when conditional covariances ≥40 were used. Collection of milk samples from...... to positive (S/P) cut-off of 40 for both blood and milk ELISAs. At this cut-off, sensitivity of milk ELISA was 0.86 (95% posterior credibility interval [PCI] [0.76; 0.96]). This was slightly but insignificantly higher than sensitivity of blood ELISA (0.84; 95% PCI [0.75; 0.93]). The specificity estimates...

  13. Inhibition of Escherichia coli by bovine colostrum and post-colostral milk. I. Complement-mediated bactericidal activity of antibodies to a serum susceptible strain of E. coli of the serotype O 111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, B; Brock, J H

    1975-01-01

    Bovine colostral whey diulted in unheated bovine milk or in Kolmer saline containing 5 per cent pre-colostral calf serum was bactericidal for Escherichia coli NCTC 9703 (serotype O 111). Whey diluted in saline without pre-colostral calf serum was inactive. Bactericidal activity was abolished by heating at 56 degrees for 30 minutes or by pre-incubating with N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethylester, indicating that complement present in milk or pre-colostral calf serum was involved in the bactericidal activity. Undiluted colostral whey was inactive even in the presence of up to 20 per cent pre-colostral calf serum, probably due to a prozone effect. Milk heated at 80 degrees for 10 minutes was also shown to have a limited anti-complementary effect. Post-colostral milk from some cows had bactericidal activity, whereas similar milks from other cows were either inactive or active only after addition of pre-colostral calf serum, indicating that antibodies to E. coli or complement or both may or may not be present in the post-colostral milk of different cows. The implications of these findings in relation to the bacterial flora of the intestinal tract of neonates are discussed. PMID:1090521

  14. Covalently bound phosphate residues in bovine milk xanthine oxidase and in glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger: A reevaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reported presence of covalently bound phosphate residues in flavoproteins has significant implications with regard to the catalytic mechanisms and structural stability of the specific enzymes themselves and in terms of general cellular metabolic regulation. These considerations have led to a reevaluation of the presence of covalently bound phosphorus in the flavoproteins xanthine oxidase and glucose oxidase. Milk xanthine oxidase purified by a procedure that includes anion-exchange chromatography is shown to contain three phosphate residues. All three are noncovalently associated with the protein, two with the FAD cofactor, and one with the molybdenum cofactor. Results of chemical analysis and 31P NMR spectroscopy indicate that enzyme purified by this method contains no phosphoserine residues. Xanthine oxidase preparations purified by chromatography on calcium phosphate gel in place of DEAE-Sephadex yielded higher phosphate-to-protein ratios, which could be reduced to the expected values by additional purification on a folate affinity column. Highly active, highly purified preparations of glucose oxidase are shown to contain only the two phosphate residues of the FAD cofactor. The covalently bound bridging phosphate reported by others may arise in aged or degraded preparations of the enzyme but appears not to be a constituent of functional glucose oxidase. These results suggest that the presence of covalent phosphate residues in other flavoproteins should be rigorously reevaluated as well

  15. In silico analysis of amino acid biosynthesis and proteolysis in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and the implications for bovine milk fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huajun; Liu, Enuo; Hao, Pei; Konno, Tomonobu; Oda, Munehiro; Ji, Zai-Si

    2012-08-01

    The amino acid biosynthesis pathway and proteolytic system of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 (L. bulgaricus 2038), a mainstay of large-scale yogurt production, were modeled based on its genomic sequence. L. bulgaricus 2038 retains more potential for amino acid synthesis and a more powerful proteolytic system than other L. bulgaricus strains, but favors amino acid uptake over de novo synthesis. Free amino acids and peptides in bovine milk provide the main nitrogen sources; whey is more important than casein for L. bulgaricus during fermentation. Free amino acids are imported by amino acid permeases and by ABC-type transport systems whereas exogenous oligopeptides are imported by ABC-type proteins only. Histidine is neither synthesized nor imported singly, which might explain why L. bulgaricus cannot grow in synthetic media.

  16. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  17. 牛奶和奶粉中维吉尼霉素残留量的液相色谱——串联质谱测定%Determination of Virginiamycin Residue in Bovine Milk and Milk Powder by LC-MS-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 李广仁; 乔德福; 苏海滨; 陶迎春; 杨晓旎; 张晨; 宋文斌

    2013-01-01

    The virginiamycin M1 residues in bovine milk and milk powder were determined with LC-MS-MS.This method solved the determination of virginiamycin M1 residues in bovine milk and milk powder.The calibration curve of cirginiamycin M1 showed good linearity in the range of 0.125μg/kg-8.00μg/kg with r=0.9998.The detection limit was 0.25μg/kg for bovine milk and 2.00μg/kg for milk powder.Spiked with standard at four levels(n=10),the samples had the recoveries of 62.04%-111.65% for bovine milk and 85.49%-106.44% for milk powder,the relative standard deviation was 8.455%-20.03% for bovine milk and 2.467%-3.014% for milk powder.%建立了牛奶和奶粉中维吉尼霉素virginiamycin M1残留量的液相色谱——串联质谱测定方法.结果表明,维吉尼霉素M1在0.125μg/kg~8.00μg/kg范围内,具有良好的线性关系,相关系数r=0.9998.牛奶中维吉尼霉素M1方法检出限为0.25μg/kg,奶粉中维吉尼霉素M1方法检出限为2.00μg/kg.在4个添加水平上进行回收实验(n=10),牛奶平均回收率为62.04%~~ 111.65%,相对标准偏差在8.455%~20.03%之间;奶粉平均回收率为85.49%~106.44%,相对标准偏差在2.467%~3.014%之间.

  18. Comparative 2D-DIGE Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells during Lactation Reveals Protein Signatures for Lactation Persistency and Milk Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Jena, Manoj K.; Varshney, Nishant; Kola, Srujana; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K.; Grover, Sunita; Dang, Ajay K.; Mukesh, Manishi; Prakash, B. S.; Mohanty, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC) reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling. PMID:25111801

  19. Bovine colostrum improves neonatal growth, digestive function, and gut immunity relative to donor human milk and infant formula in preterm pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Stine O; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette V; Rudloff, Silvia; Li, Yanqi; Roggenbuck, Michael; Bering, Stine B; Sangild, Per T

    2016-09-01

    Mother's own milk is the optimal first diet for preterm infants, but donor human milk (DM) or infant formula (IF) is used when supply is limited. We hypothesized that a gradual introduction of bovine colostrum (BC) or DM improves gut maturation, relative to IF during the first 11 days after preterm birth. Preterm pigs were fed gradually advancing doses of BC, DM, or IF (3-15 ml·kg(-1)·3 h(-1), n = 14-18) before measurements of gut structure, function, microbiology, and immunology. The BC pigs showed higher body growth, intestinal hexose uptake, and transit time and reduced diarrhea and gut permeability, relative to DM and IF pigs (P 50% of IF pigs, while only subclinical intestinal lesions were evident from DM and BC pigs. BC, and to some degree DM, are superior to preterm IF in stimulating gut maturation and body growth, using a gradual advancement of enteral feeding volume over the first 11 days after preterm birth in piglets. Whether the same is true in preterm infants remains to be tested. PMID:27445345

  20. Validation of a mycoplasma molecular diagnostic test and distribution of mycoplasma species in bovine milk among New York State dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, G; Werner, B; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma mastitis is a contagious and costly disease of dairy cattle that significantly affects animal health and milk productivity. Mycoplasma bovis is the most prevalent and invasive agent of mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cattle, and early detection is critical. Other mycoplasma have been isolated from milk; however, the role and prevalence of these species as mastitis pathogens are poorly understood. Routine screening of milk for mycoplasma by bacteriological culture is an important component of a farm control strategy to minimize a herd mycoplasma outbreak, but phenotypic methods have limited ability to speciate mycoplasma, affecting how farms and practitioners can understand the role and effect of species other than M. bovis in herd health. Fastidious mycoplasma culture can be lengthy and inconclusive, resulting in delayed or false negative reports. We developed and validated a multitarget PCR assay that can in the same day confirm or reject a presumptive positive mycoplasma culture found upon bacteriological testing of clinical specimens, further discriminate between Acholeplasma and Mycoplasma, and identify M. bovis. Coupled with sequence analysis isolates can be further identified as bovine mycoplasma Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma canadense, Mycoplasma bovirhinis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Mycoplasma californicum, Acholeplasma laidlawii, and Acholeplasma oculi. Assay validation included analysis of 845 mycoplasma representing these species and 30 additional bacterial species obtained from routine milk submissions to the Quality Milk Production Services from New York State farms and veterinary clinics between January 2012 and December 2015. Among 95 herds, we found 8 different Mycoplasma species and 3 different Acholeplasma species, with an overall prevalence of M. bovirhinis of 1%, A. oculi of 2%, M. arginini of 2%, M. californicum of 3%, M. canadense of 10%, M. bovigenitalium of 10%, A. laidlawii of 11%, M. alkalescens of 17

  1. Bovine milk proteome in the first 9 days: protein interactions in maturation of the immune and digestive system of the newborn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhang

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the milk proteome and its changes from colostrum to mature milk, samples taken at seven time points in the first 9 days from 4 individual cows were analyzed using proteomic techniques. Both the similarity in changes from day 0 to day 9 in the quantitative milk proteome, and the differences in specific protein abundance, were observed among four cows. One third of the quantified proteins showed a significant decrease in concentration over the first 9 days after calving, especially in the immune proteins (as much as 40 fold. Three relative high abundant enzymes (XDH, LPL, and RNASE1 and cell division and proliferation protein (CREG1 may be involved in the maturation of the gastro-intestinal tract. In addition, high correlations between proteins involved in complement and blood coagulation cascades illustrates the complex nature of biological interrelationships between milk proteins. The linear decrease of protease inhibitors and proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune system implies a protective role for protease inhibitor against degradation. In conclusion, the results found in this study not only improve our understanding of the role of colostrum in both host defense and development of the newborn calf but also provides guidance for the improvement of infant formula through better understanding of the complex interactions between milk proteins.

  2. Bovine milk proteome in the first 9 days: protein interactions in maturation of the immune and digestive system of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the milk proteome and its changes from colostrum to mature milk, samples taken at seven time points in the first 9 days from 4 individual cows were analyzed using proteomic techniques. Both the similarity in changes from day 0 to day 9 in the quantitative milk proteome, and the differences in specific protein abundance, were observed among four cows. One third of the quantified proteins showed a significant decrease in concentration over the first 9 days after calving, especially in the immune proteins (as much as 40 fold). Three relative high abundant enzymes (XDH, LPL, and RNASE1) and cell division and proliferation protein (CREG1) may be involved in the maturation of the gastro-intestinal tract. In addition, high correlations between proteins involved in complement and blood coagulation cascades illustrates the complex nature of biological interrelationships between milk proteins. The linear decrease of protease inhibitors and proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune system implies a protective role for protease inhibitor against degradation. In conclusion, the results found in this study not only improve our understanding of the role of colostrum in both host defense and development of the newborn calf but also provides guidance for the improvement of infant formula through better understanding of the complex interactions between milk proteins. PMID:25693162

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the bovine mammary gland: Receptors, endogenous secretion, and appearance in milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first study to characterize both insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in bovine milk, to characterize the IGF-I receptor in the dry and lactating mammary gland, and to report de novo synthesis and secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP from normal mammary tissue. Immunoreactive IGF-I was principally associated with 45 kDa IGFBP in milk. Multiparous cows had a higher IGF-I concentration of 307 ng/ml than primiparous cows at 147 ng/ml. IGF-I concentration on day 56 of lactation was 34 ng/ml for combined parity groups. At parturition, IGF-I mass in blood and milk pools was 1.4 and 1.2 mg, respectively. Binding of {sup 125}I-IGF-I was specific for IGF-I with anIC{sub 50} of 2.2 ng which was a 10- and 1273-fold greater affinity than IGF-II and insulin, respectively. Association constants, as determined by Scatchard analysis, were similar for both pregnant and lactating cows at 3.5 and 4.0 L/nM, respectively. In addition, estimated mean receptor concentration was 0.25 and 0.23 pM/mg protein for pregnant and lactating cows, respectively. In a survey of mammary microscomes prepared from 48 cows, {sup 125}I-IGF-I binding declined with progressing lactation and a similar trend was observed during pregnancy.

  4. Use of Bovine Somatotropin in the Management of Transition Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLAY, Mehmet Şükrü; HATİPOĞLU, Fatma Şefika

    2005-01-01

    The major objectives of an efficient dairy farm operation include a successful lactation period, high milk yield relative to the feed costs, reproductive competence, and finally the returning of the cow to the body condition score (BCS) that existed before lactation so she will be prepared for another lactation. In cows a milk yield response to bovine somatotropin (bST) treatments at 60 d after parturition has been well studied and fully documented. Milk production response to bST occurs bec...

  5. Simultaneously tracing the geographical origin and presence of bovine milk in Italian water buffalo Mozzarella cheese using MALDI-TOF data of casein signature peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Simonetta; Pinto, Gabriella; Nicolai, Maria Adalgisa; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Water buffalo (WB) casein (CN) and curd samples from indigenous Italian and international breeds were examined with the objective of identifying signature peptides that could function as an indicator to determine the origin of their milk products. CN in complex mixtures were digested with trypsin, and peptide fragments were subsequently identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The unique presence of a β-CN A variant and an internally deleted αs1-CN (f35-42) variant in international WB milk samples was ascertained by identifying signature tryptic peptides from either dephosphorylated or native CN. Four signature unphosphorylated peptides derived from β-CN A, i.e. (f49-68) Asn(68) (2223.6 Da), (f1-28) Ser(10) (3169.4 Da), (f1-29) Ser(10) (3297.4 Da) and (f33-48) Thr(41) (1982 Da) and two from αs1-CN (f35-42) deleted fragments, i.e. (f23-34) Met(31) (1415.7 Da) and (f43-58) Val(44) (1752.7 Da), were identified. Two signature casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), i.e. β-CN (f1-28) 4P (3489.1 Da) and β-CN (f33-48) 1P (2062.0 Da), were identified in the tryptic hydrolysate of native casein or curd and cheese samples using in-batch hydroxyapatite (HA) chromatography. All these fragments functioned as analytical surrogates of two αs1- and β-casein variants that specifically occur in the milk of international WB breeds. Furthermore, the bovine peptide β-CN (f1-28) 4P had a distinct and lower molecular mass compared with the WB counterpart and functioned as a species-specific marker for all breeds of WB. Advantages of this analytical approach are that (i) peptides are easier to separate than proteins, (ii) signature peptide probes originating from specific casein variants allow for the targeting of all international WB milk, curd and cheese samples and (iii) bovine and WB casein in mixtures can be simultaneously determined in protected designation of origin (PDO) "Mozzarella di Bufala Campana" cheese

  6. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformation...

  7. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  8. Expression Variants of the Lipogenic AGPAT6 Gene Affect Diverse Milk Composition Phenotypes in Bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    Littlejohn, Mathew D; Kathryn Tiplady; Thomas Lopdell; Law, Tania A.; Andrew Scott; Chad Harland; Ric Sherlock; Kristen Henty; Vlad Obolonkin; Klaus Lehnert; Alistair Macgibbon; Spelman, Richard J; Stephen R. Davis; Snell, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Milk is composed of a complex mixture of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and various vitamins and minerals as a source of nutrition for young mammals. The composition of milk varies between individuals, with lipid composition in particular being highly heritable. Recent reports have highlighted a region of bovine chromosome 27 harbouring variants affecting milk fat percentage and fatty acid content. We aimed to further investigate this locus in two independent cattle populations, consisting o...

  9. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance. PMID:26298757

  10. Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for minerals in Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Sehested, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine milk provides important minerals, essential for human nutrition and dairy product quality. For changing the mineral composition of the milk to improve dietary needs in human nutrition and technological properties of milk, a thorough understanding of the genetics underlying milk...... mineral contents is important. Therefore the aim of this study was to 1) estimate the genetic parameters for individual minerals in Danish Holstein (DH) (n = 371) and Danish Jersey (DJ) (n = 321) milk, and 2) detect genomic regions associated with mineral content in the milk using a genome....... Conclusion The results show that Ca, Zn, P and Mg show high heritabilities. In combination with the GWAS results this opens up possibilities to select for specific minerals in bovine milk....

  11. Genome Signature of Artificial Selection for High Milk Yield in Holstein Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial selection for high milk yield in Holstein cattle during the past forty years achieved tremendous increases in milk yield but had an unintended consequence of reduced fertility. It was unknown how artificial selection changed the Holstein genome and what genome changes were associated wit...

  12. Simultaneous quantification of carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols in forage, bovine plasma, and milk: validation of a novel UPLC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauveau-Duriot, B.; Doreau, M.; Noziere, P.; Graulet, B. [UR1213 Research Unit on Herbivores, INRA, Saint Genes Champanelle (France)

    2010-05-15

    Simultaneous quantification of various liposoluble micronutrients is not a new area of interest since these compounds participate in the nutritional quality of feeds that is largely explored in human, and also in animal diet. However, the development of related methods is still under concern, especially when the carotenoid composition is complex such as in forage given to ruminants or in lipid-rich matrices like milk. In this paper, an original method for simultaneous extraction and quantification of all carotenoids, vitamins E, and A in milk was proposed. Moreover, a new UPLC method allowing simultaneous determination of carotenoids and vitamins A and E in forage, plasma and milk, and separation of 23 peaks of carotenoids in forage was described. This UPLC method using a HSS T3 column and a gradient solvent system was compared to a previously published reverse-phase HPLC using two C18 columns in series and an isocratic solvent system. The UPLC method gave similar concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins A and E than the HPLC method. Moreover, UPLC allowed a better resolution for xanthophylls, especially lutein and zeaxanthin, for the three isomers of {beta}-carotene (all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z-) and for vitamins A, an equal or better sensitivity according to gradient, and a better reproducibility of peak areas and retention times, but did not reduce the time required for analysis. (orig.)

  13. Low-fat Gouda cheese made from bovine milk-olive oil emulsion: physicochemical and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfoul, Imène; Bornaz, Salwa; Baccouche, Aroua; Sahli, Ali; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effect of milk-fat replacement on Gouda cheeses composition, lipolysis and sensory characteristics. A Gouda cheese-like product was prepared from the substitution of milk fat with emulsified olive oil. For comparison, the low-fat variant without fat replacers and the full-fat cheese were also studied. Milk samples are initially pasteurized at 72 °C for 3 s, cooled to 35 °C, and added with 0.016 g L(-1) of lactic ferments and 0.30 mL L(-1) of microbial rennet. Total solids content was lower in cheeses containing fat replacers than in full and low-fat control cheeses due to the higher water-binding capacity of fat replacers. Free fatty acids rates were the highest in the case of reduced fat cheese-like product. The full-fat cheese showed a significantly higher overall impression score than all low-fat products.

  14. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 2. Label-free relative quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaliar, Manikhandan; Tassi, Riccardo; Thomas, Funmilola C; McNeilly, Tom N; Weidt, Stefan K; McLaughlin, Mark; Wilson, David; Burchmore, Richard; Herzyk, Pawel; Eckersall, P David; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2016-08-16

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle in the western world. It is primarily caused by bacteria, with Streptococcus uberis as one of the most prevalent causative agents. To characterize the proteome during Streptococcus uberis mastitis, an experimentally induced model of intramammary infection was used. Milk whey samples obtained from 6 cows at 6 time points were processed using label-free relative quantitative proteomics. This proteomic analysis complements clinical, bacteriological and immunological studies as well as peptidomic and metabolomic analysis of the same challenge model. A total of 2552 non-redundant bovine peptides were identified, and from these, 570 bovine proteins were quantified. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed clear clustering of results by stage of infection, with similarities between pre-infection and resolution stages (0 and 312 h post challenge), early infection stages (36 and 42 h post challenge) and late infection stages (57 and 81 h post challenge). Ingenuity pathway analysis identified upregulation of acute phase protein pathways over the course of infection, with dominance of different acute phase proteins at different time points based on differential expression analysis. Antimicrobial peptides, notably cathelicidins and peptidoglycan recognition protein, were upregulated at all time points post challenge and peaked at 57 h, which coincided with 10 000-fold decrease in average bacterial counts. The integration of clinical, bacteriological, immunological and quantitative proteomics and other-omic data provides a more detailed systems level view of the host response to mastitis than has been achieved previously. PMID:27412694

  15. Amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ragona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1. In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis- causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/ allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Transformation of serum-susceptible Escherichia coli O111 with p16Slux plasmid to allow for real-time monitoring of complement-based inactivation of bacterial growth in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, S; Stanton, C; Fitzgerald, G F; Kelly, P M

    2016-01-01

    Complement activity has only recently been characterized in raw bovine milk. However, the activity of this component of the innate immune system was found to diminish as milk was subjected to heat or partitioning during cream separation. Detection of complement in milk relies on a bactericidal assay. This assay exploits the specific growth susceptibility of Escherichia coli O111 to the presence of complement. Practical application of the assay was demonstrated when a reduction in complement activity was recorded in the case of pasteurized and reduced-fat milks. This presented an opportunity to improve the functionality of the bactericidal assay by incorporating bioluminescence capability into the target organism. Following some adaptation, the strain was transformed by correctly integrating the p16Slux plasmid. Growth properties of the transformed strain of E. coli O111 were unaffected by the modification. The efficacy of the strain adaptation was correlated using the LINEST function analysis [r=0.966; standard error of prediction (SEy)=0.957] bioluminescence with that of bactericidal assay total plate counts within the range of 7.5 to 9.2 log cfu/mL using a combination of raw and processed milk samples. Importantly, the transformed E. coli O111 p16Slux strain could be identified in milk and broth samples using bioluminescence measurement, thus enabling the bactericidal assay-viability test to be monitored in real time throughout incubation.

  17. Ultra High Pressure Homogenization of Soy Milk: Effect on Quality Attributes during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep S. Sidhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzed soy milk prepared from whole dehulled soybeans. The traditional method of soy milk preparation leads to wastage of about 35% of soybean solids in the form of okara, which gets filtered out. In the current study, soy milk was prepared with practically 100% recovery of soybean solids and treated with continuous flow high pressure processing (207 and 276 MPa pressure, 121 and 145 °C exit temperatures, and 0.75 and 1.25 L/min flow rates, and the changes in the physical, chemical, microbial, and sensory properties during 28 days of storage at 4 °C were analyzed. The treated soy milk remained stable for 28 days. There was a significant reduction in the particle size of soybean solids which did not change during storage. The pH of the treated soy milk was significantly lower than the untreated soy milk and it reduced further upon storage. The soy milk was pasteurized with high pressure processing coupled with preheating. No lipoxygenase activity was detected. Compared to commercial samples, there was no significant difference in the astringency, bitterness, or chalkiness of soy milk prepared in the study.

  18. Analysis of factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels using a simulated milking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is typically caused by microbial infection of the udder, but the factors responsible for this condition are varied. One potential cause is the milking system, and although previous studies have investigated various methods for inspecting these devices, most have not assessed methods for evaluating the milking units. With this in mind, we analyzed the factors that affect the vacuum inside the milking claw by using a simulated milking device and by measuring milking claw vacuum when adjusting the flow rate in five stages. The factors analyzed in each milking system were the vacuum pressure settings (high and low line system) , milk tube length (200-328 cm), aperture diameter (14-22.2 mm), constricted aperture diameter (12 mm), tubing configurations, lift formation (0-80 cm), claw type (bottom and top flow) and use or non-use of a milk sampler. The study findings demonstrated that all of these variables had a significant impact on claw vacuum and suggest that a diagnostic method using a simulated milking device should be considered when inspecting modern milking systems. PMID:26336796

  19. 用食品BDI-GS体系综合评价牛奶的营养健康效应%Comprehensive evaluation on nutrition and health of bovine milk using food BDI-GS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙伟; 沈秀; 王德芝; 王浩; 王晓光; 白佳利; 周则卫

    2013-01-01

    In this issue,study functions and safety of pure bovine milk through mice trial,establish a novel comprehensive system and method to evaluate nutrition,health-promotion and safety of food.The ICR male mice during growth were used in the trial,the experimental mice were feed with low nutrient maize and blending bovine milk feeds for 12 days,display and evaluate the effects of bovine milk with animal experiment data through observing and statistics the mice body weights,organ weights,organ indexes and its effect Benefit-damage Indexes (BDI).The study demonstrated that bovine milk possesses comprehensive and overall nutrition functions,certain health-promoting and foodtherapy functions for diabetes mellitus,and attenuating obesity effect,but some adverse response to bone mass.Bovine milk intake fits for nutrition of growing and nourishing for children and adolescents,nevertheless,drinking for a long period in large amount is not suitable for preventing adults and olds osteoporosis.The evaluation system has intuition,concrete,overall and comprehension features.This method can be used to evaluate nutrition,health-promotion and safety for various foods.%通过建立的食品功效安全BDI-GS评价体系和低营养小鼠模型方法综合评价纯牛奶的营养及健康效应.实验用生长期ICR雄性小鼠,通过12 d低营养玉米饲料和5%,10%及15%纯牛奶掺和饲料喂养,考察统计小鼠体质量、脏器质量、系数及其效应的损益指数(BDI)等指标,用动物实验数据评价牛奶功效.结果表明,牛奶的营养功效综合、全面;牛奶对II型糖尿病有一定的预防保健功效及控制体重(减肥)作用,但对骨质健康影响轻微.牛奶适合儿童、青少年生长发育饮用,适量饮用对中老年健康有益,而长期大量饮用对中老年防治骨质疏松不利.

  20. β-lactam antibiotics residues analysis in bovine milk by LC-ESI-MS/MS: a simple and fast liquid-liquid extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, L; Hoff, R B; Tarouco, P C; Barreto, F; Pizzolato, T M

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the development and validation of a simple method for the detection and quantification of six β-lactam antibiotics residues (ceftiofur, penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin) in bovine milk using a fast liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LLE consisted of the addition of acetonitrile to the sample, followed by addition of sodium chloride, centrifugation and direct injection of an aliquot into the LC-MS/MS system. Separation was performed in a C(18) column, using acetonitrile and water, both with 0.1% of formic acid, as mobile phase. Method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Limits of detection ranged from 0.4 (penicillin G and penicillin V) to 10.0 ng ml(-1) (ceftiofur), and linearity was achieved. The decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), accuracy, inter- and intra-day repeatability of the method are reported. PMID:21988179

  1. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  2. Calcium availability in bovine milk with treatment with gamma rays; Disponibilidade de calcio em leite bovino tratado por raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardi, Ana Lucia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin, E-mail: leonardi@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Milk is an important food because it is rich in calcium and proteins. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co on the calcium availability and sensorial aspects. The milk samples were packed in bags similar to those used for commercial products. The samples were submitted to gamma radiation at doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy and stored at 4 deg C with evaluations on the 1st, 4th, 7th, and 10th days of storage. The calcium amount and centesimal composition were evaluated at the beginning of the study. Calcium dialysis in vitro was performed at different times of storage. Sensorial analysis was conducted on two doses with a more stable pH under the lowest radiation dose and the second lowest radiation dose, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy, respectively. Data analysis was conducted using the Tukey test (5%). Physicochemical analysis showed an increase in calcium availability, and the most adequate dose found was 1 kGy due to its highest pH stability in the period of 10 days, but the sensorial analysis showed that the samples were not well accepted by the testers. (author)

  3. The influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in highly trained cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, C M; Jenkins, D G; Stevenson, L; Coombes, J S

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of low dose bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in cyclists over a 10 week period that included 5 days of high intensity training (HIT). Methods Over 7 days of preliminary testing, 29 highly trained male road cyclists completed a VO2max test (in which their ventilatory threshold was estimated), a time to fatigue test at 110% of ventilatory threshold, and a 40 km time trial (TT40). Cyclists were then assigned to either a supplement (n = 14, 10 g/day bovine colostrum protein concentrate (CPC)) or a placebo group (n = 15, 10 g/day whey protein) and resumed their normal training. Following 5 weeks of supplementation, the cyclists returned to the laboratory to complete a second series of performance testing (week 7). They then underwent five consecutive days of HIT (week 8) followed by a further series of performance tests (week 9). Results The influence of bovine CPC on TT40 performance during normal training was unclear (week 7: 1±3.1%, week 9: 0.1±2.1%; mean±90% confidence limits). However, at the end of the HIT period, bovine CPC supplementation, compared to the placebo, elicited a 1.9±2.2% improvement from baseline in TT40 performance and a 2.3±6.0% increase in time trial intensity (% VO2max), and maintained TT40 heart rate (2.5±3.7%). In addition, bovine CPC supplementation prevented a decrease in ventilatory threshold following the HIT period (4.6±4.6%). Conclusion Low dose bovine CPC supplementation elicited improvements in TT40 performance during an HIT period and maintained ventilatory threshold following five consecutive days of HIT. PMID:16825268

  4. PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING ANEW METHOD TO OPTIMIZE A SPRAY DRYER PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY MILK POWDER FROM COW, GOAT AND SHE-ASS MILK CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Altieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As quality is a very important factor in milk powder produced by drying, the optimal process must protect both nutritional and sensorial properties. Although heat damage indices (namely the insolubility index (IINS, thermal damage (IDT, protein denaturation could be used to evaluate the correct processing of milk, they are very time-consuming. Hence a chemical marker, like vitamin C, is proposed for rapid assessment of the overall damage to the quality of the produced milk powder. Trials were carried out on milk concentrates from cow, goat and she-ass so as to optimize the process performance of the spray dryer, for each kind of milk, at three inlet temperatures (120, 150, 185 °C; the feed flow rate was set at 0.5 dm3/h with outlet air RH% in the range 10-40%; raw milk was concentrated using a low pressure evaporator until an average level of 23% dry matter was reached. As expected, the thermal damage of the milk powder increased as the inlet air temperature increased; the outlet powder RH% was 96-98% poorly correlated with the mass flow rate of the concentrate inlet. Moreover, the destruction kinetic of vitamin C was found highly correlated with the thermal damage to the milk powder. At 175 °C inlet air temperature the overall thermal treatment on the she-ass milk concentrate, which is very heat-sensitive due to its high lactose content, was “weak” (IDT<80 and the milk powder of “premium or extra” quality (IINS<1.25ml and lactic acid = 0.07% < 0.15% ADMI. The titratable acidity values are uncorrelated with the process air temperature but depend uniquely from the raw milk freshness.

  5. Similar efficacy of human banked milk and bovine colostrum to decrease incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael L.; Sangild, Per Torp; Lykke, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    for determination of histomorphology, histopathology, tissue IL-6 and IL-8, organic acids, bacterial adherence by fluorescence in situ hybridization score, and digestive enzyme activities. Relative to IF, pigs from BC and HM showed longer intestinal passage time; higher weight gain, hexose absorptive capacity......, mucosal proportion, and enzyme activities; lower NEC incidence, organic acid concentration, and IL-8 concentration; and reduced histopathology lesions. Tissue IL-6 concentration and bacterial adherence score were lower for HM, relative to both BC and IF groups. We conclude that BC and HM are both superior...... to IF in stimulating gut structure, function, and NEC resistance in preterm piglets. BC may be a relevant alternative to HM when mother's milk is unavailable during the first week after preterm birth....

  6. Construction of transgenic mice producing CAT to milk by co-injection of two overlapping fragments of bovine αs1-casein-CAT gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳为德; 刘伟; 成国祥; 徐少甫; 成勇

    1996-01-01

    Two αs1-casein/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene constructs overlapping by 3.0kb were constructed and co-injected into murine zygotes. In 9 of 10 lines of transgenic mice obtained, based on analysis of structure and expression of the transgene, accurate extrachromosomal homologous recombination (ECR) between the two overlapping DNA fragments was found. Different levels of CAT activity were detected in milk from these lines. The highest CAT activity was about 25-50μg/mL milk. In some mice. CAT activity was found in salvia gland, thymus and spleen extracts. The high frequency and accuracy of ECR reported here will be applicable in the experimental manipulation for generation of relatively large transgene.

  7. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  8. Extraction and characterization of highly purified collagen from bovine pericardium for potential bioengineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine pericardium is widely used as a raw material in bioengineering as a source of collagen, a fundamental structural molecule. The physical, chemical, and biocompatibility characteristics of these natural fibers enable their broad use in several areas of the health sciences. For these applications, it is important to obtain collagen of the highest possible purity. The lack of a method to produce these pure biocompatible materials using simple and economically feasible techniques presents a major challenge to their production on an industrial scale. This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the type I collagen protein originating from bovine pericardium, considered to be an abundant tissue resource. The pericardium tissue was collected from male animals at slaughter age. Pieces of bovine pericardium were enzymatically digested, followed by a novel protocol developed for protein purification using ion-exchange chromatography. The material was extensively characterized by electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a purified material with morphological properties and chemical functionalities compatible with type I collagen and similar to a highly purified commercial collagen. Thus, an innovative and relatively simple processing method was developed to extract and purify type I collagen from bovine tissue with potential applications as a biomaterial for regenerative tissue engineering. - Highlights: ► Type I collagen was obtained from bovine pericardium, an abundant tissue resource. ► A simple and feasible processing technique was developed to purify bovine collagen. ► The appropriate process may be performed on industrial scale. ► The pure collagen presented appropriate morphological and molecular characteristics. ► The purify collagen has shown potential use as a biomaterial in tissue engineering.

  9. Development and validation of an ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Yin-Liang; Lv, Yan; Xu, Xiu-Qin; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Ting

    2013-07-15

    A simple, sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in bovine milk by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Samples were directly purified through HLB cartridge after dilution with 50mM phosphate buffer solution (pH 8.5). Then the eluate was dried under nitrogen and the residue was redissolved in mobile phase. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column with gradient elution. The samples were quantified using ceftiofur-D3 as internal standard. The proposed method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The CCα values were 111, 0.04, 140, 55, 55, 67, 23, 23, 68, 0.10 and 113μg/kg for cefalexin, cefradine, cefacetrile, cefazolin, cefoperazone, cefapirin, cefalonium, cefquinome, desacetylcefapirin, cefotaxime and ceftiofur, respectively. The mean recoveries, repeatability (expressed as coefficient of variation, CVr), and reproducibility (CVR) varied from 94.6% to 117.1%, from 5.6% to 13.6% (CVr), and from 5.9% to 27.9% (CVR), respectively. The method is demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in bovine milk. The total time required for the analysis of one sample, including sample preparation, was about 40min. PMID:23747425

  10. Effect of ultra high pressure homogenization treatment on the bioactive compounds of soya milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fusté, J; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2014-01-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) is a useful novel technology to obtain safe and high-quality liquid foods. The effect of UHPH at 200 and 300 MPa in combination with different inlet temperatures (Tin) (55, 65 and 75 °C) on the bioactive compounds of soya milk was studied. Total phytosterols increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. The main phytosterol was β-sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol. Total tocopherols in UHPH-treated soya milks decreased as the temperature and pressure increased. UHPH treatment also affected the different chemical forms of tocopherols. No biogenic amines were detected in any of the analyzed soya milks. Meanwhile, the polyamines SPD and SPM were found in all soya milks, being stable to the UHPH treatment. Total isoflavones increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. No differences in the isoflavone profile were found, with β-glucoside conjugates being the predominant form.

  11. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  12. Genetic and environmental relationships of different measures of individual cheese yield and curd nutrients recovery with coagulation properties of bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2016-03-01

    .801 for CFmax) and the nutrient recovery traits (additive genetic correlations varied from 0.296 to 0.901 for a45; 0.428 to 0.697 for CFP; and 0.412 to 0.941 for CFmax). Moreover, the nutrient recoveries for fat, solids, and energy exhibited large additive genetic correlations with the other coagulation and curd firming traits. In particular, recovery of protein and fat were found to be powerful instruments for understanding the relationships between milk technological properties and cheese quantity or quality. We observed only weak genetic relationships with the milk quality and MCP traits, suggesting that the highly heritable trait of protein recovery should perhaps be included as a genetic index when seeking to improve cheesemaking efficiency at the population level. In contrast, we found that fat recovery exhibited moderate genetic variation and could be improved through the CF over time traits, especially using those recorded during the late phase of the curd firming process. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the traditional MCP have limited relevance for predicting individual cheese yield. Therefore, their use for this purpose in the dairy industry and breeding programs seems questionable.

  13. Impact of three inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus vaccines on bulk milk p80 (NS3) ELISA test results in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Ríona G; Sayers, Gearóid P; Graham, David A; Arkins, Sean

    2015-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is endemic in many countries and vaccines are used as a component of control and eradication strategies. Surveillance programmes to detect exposure to BVDV often incorporate the use of bulk milk (BM) testing for antibodies against BVDV p80 (NS3), but vaccination can interfere with these results. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BVDV vaccines would confound BM testing for specific antibodies in a nationally representative group of commercial dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland. A total of 256 commercial dairy herds were included in the statistical analysis. Quarterly BM or serum samples from selected weanling heifers (unvaccinated homeborn youngstock) were assessed by ELISA for antibodies against the BVDV p80 subunit and whole virus. Wilcoxon rank-sum and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to examine differences among groups vaccinated with one of three commercially available inactivated BVDV vaccines. Two of the three vaccines showed evidence of interference with ELISA testing of BM samples. ROC analysis highlighted that one vaccine did not reduce the discriminatory power of the BVDV p80 ELISA for identification of herds with evidence of recent BVDV circulation, when compared with unvaccinated herds; thus, administration of this vaccine would allow uncomplicated interpretation of BM ELISA test results in vaccinated seropositive herds. Seasonal differences in BM antibody results were identified, suggesting that the latter half of lactation is the most suitable time for sampling dairy herds containing predominantly spring calving cows. The results of the present study are likely to prove useful in countries allowing vaccination during or following BVDV eradication, where BM testing is required as part of the surveillance strategy. PMID:25986132

  14. A tryptic hydrolysate from bovine milk αs1-casein enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice via the GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Peña, Irene Joy I; Kim, Hee Jin; de la Peña, June Bryan; Kim, Mikyung; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; You, Kyung Yi; Woo, Taeseon; Lee, Yong Soo; Jung, Jae-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-10-15

    Studies have shown that enzymatic hydrolysis of casein, the primary protein component of cow's milk, produces peptides with various biological activities, and some of these peptides may have sleep-promoting effects. In the present study, we evaluated the sedative and sleep-promoting effects of bovine αS1-casein tryptic hydrolysate (CH), containing a decapeptide αS1-casein known as alpha-casozepine. CH was orally administered to ICR mice at various concentrations (75, 150, 300, or 500mg/kg). An hour after administration, assessment of its sedative (open-field and rota-rod tests) and sleep-potentiating effects (pentobarbital-induced sleeping test and EEG monitoring) were conducted. Although a trend can be observed, CH treatment did not significantly alter the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor function of mice in the open-field and rota-rod tests. On the other hand, CH (150mg/kg, respectively) enhanced the sleep induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. It also promoted slow-wave (delta) EEG activity in rats; a pattern indicative of sleep or relaxation. These behavioral results indicate that CH has sleep-promoting effects, but no or has minimal sedative effects. To elucidate the probable mechanism behind the effects of CH, we examined its action on intracellular chloride ion influx in cultured human neuroblastoma cells. CH dose-dependently increased chloride ion influx, which was blocked by co-administration of bicuculline, a competitive GABAA receptor antagonist. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that CH has sleep-promoting properties which are probably mediated through the GABAA receptor-chloride ion channel complex. PMID:27401107

  15. High-Throughput Quantification of Monofluoroacetate (1080) in Milk as a Response to an Extortion Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Terry P; Varelis, Peter; Bendall, Justin G

    2016-02-01

    As a food defense measure against an extortion threat to poison infant formula with monofluoroacetate, a robust methodology for monofluoroacetate analysis in fluid milk and powdered dairy products was developed and optimized. Critical challenges posed by this situation required that the analytical methodology provide (i) high specificity, (ii) high throughput capable of analyzing thousands of samples of fluid milk per day, and (iii) trace-level detection of 1 ng/g or lower to achieve the maximum residue limit. Solid-phase extraction-purified acetone extracts of fluid milk were derivatized with aniline, and after ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography using a Kinetex-C18 column packed with 1.3-μm shell particles, the resulting N-phenyl 2-fluoroacetamide could be determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in a highly specific manner and with a limit of quantification of 0.5 ng/ml. By using 4-(4-chlorophenoxy)aniline as a derivatizing agent, the method could be extended to powdered dairy products with the same limit of quantification. Between January and July 2015, some 136,000 fluid milk samples were tested using this method. This analytical testing of fluid milk formed one element in a larger program of work by multiple agencies to ensure that consumers could continue to have confidence in the safety of New Zealand milk and dairy products.

  16. High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in human breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV and mouse mammary tumour virus have been identified in human milk. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV sequences have been identified in breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if viral sequences are present in human milk from normal lactating women. Findings Standard (liquid and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques were used to identify HPV and EBV in human milk samples from normal lactating Australian women who had no history of breast cancer. High risk human papillomavirus was identified in milk samples of 6 of 40 (15% from normal lactating women - sequencing on four samples showed three were HPV 16 and one was HPV 18. Epstein Barr virus was identified in fourteen samples (33%. Conclusion The presence of high risk HPV and EBV in human milk suggests the possibility of milk transmission of these viruses. However, given the rarity of viral associated malignancies in young people, it is possible but unlikely, that such transmission is associated with breast or other cancers.

  17. Bovine P-selectin mediates leukocyte adhesion and is highly polymorphic in dairy breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Cheng, Zhangrui; Werling, Dirk; Pollott, Geoffrey E; Salavati, Mazdak; Johnson, Kate F; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Wathes, D Claire; Zhang, Shujun

    2016-10-01

    Bovine P-selectin (SELP) mediates leukocyte rolling and primes leukocyte adhesion to endothelium, both essential for leukocyte recruitment to an infection site. We investigated SELP-mediated adhesion between bovine peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells pre-activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We examined gene polymorphism for bovine selectins SELP, l-selectin (SELL) and E-selectin (SELE) and compared their SNP frequency between five dairy breeds (Holstein, Friesian, Jersey, Ayrshire and Brown Swiss). LPS treatment caused a rapid (10min) and slower (4h) enhancement of PBL adhesion (PCR2 and CR5. The Val475Met variant locus in the CR4 and CR5 linking region was very close to a predicted N-acetyl-d-glucosamine glycosylation site, which is likely to influence SELP function. The AA genotype was under-represented, only being found in 1% of 373 heifers genotyped from the 5 breeds (P=0.056), suggesting that AA homozygous animals carrying the Val475Met substitution for SELP may have compromised development. Our study thus confirmed that SELP mediates the attachment of PBL to endothelium and provides novel evidence that its high polymorphism is likely to affect biological function. This may potentially influence leukocyte migration and fertility, both key to successful performance in dairy cows. PMID:27663375

  18. Hydrolysis characteristics of bovine milk fat and monoacid triglycerides mediated by pregastric lipase from goats and kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, D T; MacKenzie, A D; O'Connor, C J; Turner, K W

    1997-10-01

    Commercial extracts from oro-pharyngeal tissues of goats and kids have been used as the source of pregastric lipase and have been processed to yield partially purified samples of the primary pregastric lipase. The activity of these lipases against tributyrylglycerol has been determined over a range of pH and temperatures. Optimum pH conditions for pregastric lipase ranged from pH 5.6 to 6.5 for goats and from pH 5.5 to 6.2 for kids, respectively; the optimum temperature ranged from 43 to 60 degrees C. Optima for kid lipase extended slightly below pH 5.5 and higher than 60 degrees C; which were the limits of the test conditions. The enzymes were also used as catalysts for the hydrolysis of monoacid triglycerides (C4:0 to C12:0) at 40 degrees C and pH 6.5; activity was maximum against tributyrylglycerol (C4:0). Values for the Michaelis-Menten constant, increased as carbon chain length of the carboxylic moiety on the triglycerides increased, but values were identical for pregastric lipases of both goats and kids. Anhydrous milk fat was hydrolyzed by the commercial extracts of pregastric lipases of goats and kids, and the resulting profiles for free fatty acids were very similar to one another and to the corresponding profile for a commercial sample of Parmesan cheese. There appear to be no significant differences in activity between the enzyme preparations from goats and kids.

  19. A retrospective evaluation of a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibody ELISA on bulk-tank milk samples for classification of the BHV-1 status of Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylin, Britta; Strøger, Ulla; Rønsholt, Leif

    2000-01-01

    Bulk-tank milk samples analysed in a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) blocking ELISA are still in use in the Danish BHV-1 programme as a tool to classify dairy herds as BHV-1 infected or BHV-1 free herds. in this retrospective study, we used data from the Danish BHV-1 eradication campaign to evaluate...... performance characteristics of the BHV-1 blocking ELISA in 1039 BHV-1-seropositive and 502 repeatedly BHV-1-negative dairy herds using the results of blood testing of the individual animals as the true infection status. At a cut-off value of 30% blocking reaction, the herd-level relative sensitivity...

  20. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. PMID:22226014

  1. Distinct composition of bovine milk from Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows with good, poor or non-coagulation properties as reflected in protein genetic variants and isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Bak; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Andersen, Kell Kleiner;

    2012-01-01

    , relative to total αS1-CN, along with a lower fraction of glycosylated κ-CN relative to total κ-CN. Thus, apparent variation was observed in the milk and protein composition, in the genetic makeup of the major milk proteins, and in the posttranslational modification level of CN between milk samples...

  2. 营养素调控奶牛乳蛋白合成的研究进展%Recent Advance in Research on the Regulatory Effect of Nutrients on Bovine Milk Protein Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕微微; 高学军; 林叶; 李庆章

    2012-01-01

    乳蛋白含有机体几乎所有的必需氨基酸,有较高的营养价值。随着蛋白质营养研究的深入,如何提高乳蛋白的产量,改善乳品质已成为当今研究的热点。本文从营养素角度,对碳水化合物、氨基酸及小肽三方面对奶牛乳蛋白合成调控的影响做综述。%Milk proteins contain nearly all the essential amino acids for the human body,which have great nutritional value.Today,how to increase milk protein production and improve milk quality has become the focus of increasingly intensive studies on protein nutrition.This paper provides a review of the regulatory effect of nutrients on bovine milk protein synthesis.

  3. Effect of high-pressure treatment on denaturation of bovine lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazri, C; Sánchez, L; Ramos, S J; Calvo, M; Pérez, M D

    2012-02-01

    Lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase are whey proteins with biological properties that may provide health benefits to consumers. These properties are vulnerable to potentially denaturing conditions during processing. High-pressure treatment is an appealing alternative to the traditional heat processing of foods because it exerts an antimicrobial effect without changing the sensory and nutritional quality of foods. In this work, the effect of high-pressure treatment on the denaturation of lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase present in skim milk and whey, and as isolated proteins in buffer, was studied over a pressure range of 450 to 700 MPa at 20°C. Denaturation of lactoferrin was measured by the loss of reactivity with their specific antibodies using a sandwich ELISA. Denaturation of lactoperoxidase was determined by measuring the loss of enzymatic activity using a spectrophotometric technique. No substantial inactivation of lactoperoxidase was observed in any treatment assayed. The concentration of the residual immunoreactive lactoferrin after each pressure treatment was determined, and the data were subjected to kinetic analysis to obtain D and Z values. Denaturation of lactoferrin increased with pressure and holding time, and D values were lower when lactoferrin was treated in whey than in milk, and lower in both whey and milk than in phosphate buffer. Thus, protein is denatured more slowly in buffer and in milk than in whey. Denaturation of lactoferrin in the 3 media was found to follow a reaction order of n=1.5. Volumes of activation of about -34.77, -24.35, and -24.09 mL/mol were obtained for lactoferrin treated in skim milk, whey, and buffer, respectively, indicating a decrease in protein volume under pressure.

  4. Interspecies and seasonal differences of retinol in dairy ruminant´s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Hodulová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an essential source of macronutrients and among lipophilic vitamins is significant source of retinol. The contribution of milk to the reference daily intake for retinol varies from 11% to 16%, worldwide. The most consumed dairy products are fresh, dehydrated and condensed milk in which the amonuts of retinol are not modified to those of in whole milk. Retinol is essential to ensure a good functionality of the immune system and plays a critical role in vision, reproduction, cell differentiation as well as growth and development and is found only in animal tissues. The aim of our study was to evaluate the interspecies differences in the retinol concentration of whole raw bovine, caprine and ovine milk and to observe seasonal variation of retinol in bulk tank milk samples. Samples of raw milk were colleceted on different farms in the Czech Republic between 2013 and 2014. Retinol was measured by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (325 nm in isocratic mode after alkaline saponification with methanolic potassium hydroxide solution and liquid-liquid extraction into non polar organic solvent of whole raw milk. To avoid vitamin losses or degradation during the procedure, antioxidants were added to the sample extraction media. Our results indicate significant interspecies differences between bovine and ovine milk and caprine and ovine milk. Concentration of retinol is very similar in bovine and caprine milk 0.96 ±0.11 mg/L, 0.94 ±0.25 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration in sheep´s milk is 1.75 ±0.24 mg/L. The seasonal variation of retinol in raw bovine milk was detected as high significant, with the highest concentration during winter. These results contribute to the nutrition evaluation of milk in the Czech Republic and indicate, that the sheep´s milk is the best source of retinol among the milks of ruminants kept in the Czech Republic, however it is not used in its fluid form for human consumption.

  5. Método eletroforético rápido para detecção da adulteração do leite caprino com leite bovino Fast electrophoretic detection method of adulteration of caprine milk by bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Egito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os métodos de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE em presença de uréia (uréia-PAGE e dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE para identificar a adulteração do leite de cabra pela adição do leite de vaca. Um método foi otimizado para preparação do caseinato de sódio em poucos minutos para análise eletroforética. Uréia-PAGE foi o método mais apropriado para identificação desse tipo de fraude, em decorrência da presença da caseína alfas1 com migração mais rápida no leite bovino. A presença da alfas1-caseína bovina foi detectada a partir da adição de 2,5% de leite de vaca utilizando uréia-PAGE. O limite de detecção, a repetibilidade, o tempo para execução indicaram que esse método pode ser aplicado como rotina no controle de qualidade do leite de cabra recebido pelas indústrias de processamento.Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE in presence of urea (urea-PAGE or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE was evaluated to detect the presence of cow milk added to goat milk. A method was optimized to prepare sodium caseinate from milk in few minutes. After that, the sodium caseinate was analyzed by PAGE. The urea-PAGE was the most appropriated method to identify adulteration as caprine and bovine alphas1-caseins displayed different migration rates. When cow milk was added to goat milk at different proportions, the presence of bovine alphas1-casein was detected in the mixture by urea-PAGE for a minimal proportion of 2.5% of cow milk added to goat milk. The good sensitivity, the repeatability and the short time for execution indicate that the described method will be able to be routinely applied for the quality control of goat milk in dairy industry.

  6. DNA methylation and transcription in a distal region upstream from the bovine AlphaS1 casein gene after once or twice daily milking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Nguyen

    Full Text Available Once daily milking (ODM induces a reduction in milk production when compared to twice daily milking (TDM. Unilateral ODM of one udder half and TDM of the other half, enables the study of underlying mechanisms independently of inter-individual variability (same genetic background and of environmental factors. Our results show that in first-calf heifers three CpG, located 10 kb upstream from the CSN1S1 gene were methylated to 33, 34 and 28%, respectively, after TDM but these levels were higher after ODM, 38, 38 and 33%, respectively. These methylation levels were much lower than those observed in the mammary gland during pregnancy (57, 59 and 50%, respectively or in the liver (74, 78 and 61%, respectively. The methylation level of a fourth CpG (CpG4, located close by (29% during TDM was not altered after ODM. CpG4 methylation reached 39.7% and 59.5%, during pregnancy or in the liver, respectively. CpG4 is located within a weak STAT5 binding element, arranged in tandem with a second high affinity STAT5 element. STAT5 binding is only marginally modulated by CpG4 methylation, but it may be altered by the methylation levels of the three other CpG nearby. Our results therefore shed light on mechanisms that help to explain how milk production is almost, but not fully, restored when TDM is resumed (15.1 ± 0.2 kg/day instead of 16.2 ± 0.2 kg/day, p<0.01. The STAT5 elements are 100 bp away from a region transcribed in the antisense orientation, in the mammary gland during lactation, but not during pregnancy or in other reproductive organs (ovary or testes. We now need to clarify whether the transcription of this novel RNA is a consequence of STAT5 interacting with the CSN1S1 distal region, or whether it plays a role in the chromatin structure of this region.

  7. DNA Methylation and Transcription in a Distal Region Upstream from the Bovine AlphaS1 Casein Gene after Once or Twice Daily Milking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh; Boutinaud, Marion; Pétridou, Barbara; Gabory, Anne; Pannetier, Maëlle; Chat, Sophie; Bouet, Stephan; Jouneau, Luc; Jaffrezic, Florence; Laloë, Denis; Klopp, Christophe; Brun, Nicolas; Kress, Clémence; Jammes, Hélène; Charlier, Madia; Devinoy, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Once daily milking (ODM) induces a reduction in milk production when compared to twice daily milking (TDM). Unilateral ODM of one udder half and TDM of the other half, enables the study of underlying mechanisms independently of inter-individual variability (same genetic background) and of environmental factors. Our results show that in first-calf heifers three CpG, located 10 kb upstream from the CSN1S1 gene were methylated to 33, 34 and 28%, respectively, after TDM but these levels were higher after ODM, 38, 38 and 33%, respectively. These methylation levels were much lower than those observed in the mammary gland during pregnancy (57, 59 and 50%, respectively) or in the liver (74, 78 and 61%, respectively). The methylation level of a fourth CpG (CpG4), located close by (29% during TDM) was not altered after ODM. CpG4 methylation reached 39.7% and 59.5%, during pregnancy or in the liver, respectively. CpG4 is located within a weak STAT5 binding element, arranged in tandem with a second high affinity STAT5 element. STAT5 binding is only marginally modulated by CpG4 methylation, but it may be altered by the methylation levels of the three other CpG nearby. Our results therefore shed light on mechanisms that help to explain how milk production is almost, but not fully, restored when TDM is resumed (15.1±0.2 kg/day instead of 16.2±0.2 kg/day, p<0.01). The STAT5 elements are 100 bp away from a region transcribed in the antisense orientation, in the mammary gland during lactation, but not during pregnancy or in other reproductive organs (ovary or testes). We now need to clarify whether the transcription of this novel RNA is a consequence of STAT5 interacting with the CSN1S1 distal region, or whether it plays a role in the chromatin structure of this region. PMID:25369064

  8. Screening Brucella spp. in bovine raw milk by real-time quantitative PCR and conventional methods in a pilot region of vaccination, Edirne, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynak-Onurdag, F; Okten, S; Sen, B

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease transmitted to humans by consumption of contaminated milk and milk products. Brucellosis is endemic in Turkey, and Edirne has a high Brucella prevalence. Brucellosis is prevented by live-attenuated vaccines for animals and the vaccination program has been in place since 1984 in Turkey. Thrace is the pilot region for this vaccination program. The gold standard diagnostic technique for brucellosis is still the isolation of suspicious bacterial colonies followed by bacteriological identification, but it is very time consuming and laborious. In many studies, Brucella has been investigated by PCR techniques. However, PCR-based methods cannot differentiate between the vaccine strain and the virulent strain; thus, the vaccine strain may interfere with the virulent strain and causes false-positive reactions. To monitor brucellosis control programs effectively, it is important to distinguish vaccine and field strains of Brucella spp. In this study, raw milk samples were collected from 99 cows at 12 different barns in 5 villages of Edirne (Turkey). Bacteriological analyses and real-time quantitative (q)PCR experiments were applied to all samples. The DNA was isolated using Biospeedy DNA-Tricky Purification Kit (Bioeksen, Istanbul, Turkey). For all reactions, Roche Light Cycler Nano (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) instrument and Biospeedy EvaGreen qPCR Pre-Mix (Bioeksen) were used. The data were analyzed using Roche LightCycler NanoSoftware 1.0. For samples that were negative by bacteriological analyses and positive by qPCR, we developed a novel qPCR-based method to differentiate the virulent B. abortus strains and B. abortus S19 vaccine strain. We designed qPCR primers targeting the outer membrane protein of B. abortus. The qPCR products were sequenced using the ABI Prism Big Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction Kit on an ABI Prism 377 DNA sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). In total, 2.02% of the

  9. Immobilization of Bovine Serum Albumin Upon Multiwall Carbon Nanotube for High Speed Humidity Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sankhya; Sasmal, Milan

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-speed humidity sensor based on immobilization of bovine serum albumin upon multiwall carbon nanotube (IBC). A simple and versatile drop casting technique was employed to make the humidity sensor using novel material IBC at room temperature. IBC was synthesized using easy solution process technique. The working principle of the IBC humidity sensor depends upon the variation of output current or conductance with the exposure of different humidity level. Humidity sensing properties of our device is explained on the basis of charge transfer from water molecules to IBC and bovine serum albumin to multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). Our sensor exhibits faster response time around 1.2 s and recovery time 1.5 s respectively. PMID:26841403

  10. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and native microflora in human milk by high pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windyga, Bożena; Rutkowska, Małgorzata; Sokołowska, Barbara; Skąpska, Sylwia; Wesołowska, Aleksandra; Wilińska, Maria; Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Rzoska, Sylwester J.

    2015-04-01

    The storage of unpreserved food, including breast milk, is associated with the growth of microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria. It is therefore necessary to use suitable processes to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms and reduce the total microbial count in order to ensure product safety for consumers. In the present study, samples of milk obtained from volunteers donating to the human milk bank were artificially contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. This bacteria was the model microorganism of choice, being relatively resistant to high pressure as well as posing the most serious risk to infant health. The results obtained show that high pressure processing can reduce the count of S. aureus by about 5 log units at 4°C and about 8 log units at 50°C, and totally eliminate Enterobacteriaceae after 5 min of treatment, and result in a total microbial count reduction after 10 min treatment at 500 MPa at 20°C and 50°C. This suggests the possibility of this technology being applied to ensure the adequate safety and quality of human breast milk in human milk banks. This paper was presented at the LIIth European High Pressure Research Group (EHPRG 52) Meeting in Lyon (France), 7-12 September 2014.

  11. The correlation between milk and blood urea nitrogen in high and low yielding dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess rumen degradable protein in the diet leads to high ammonia production, which elevates rumen pH and rate of ammonia absorption, raising urea-nitrogen concentration in blood. Urea, which is a normal constituent of milk, diffuses quickly from blood into milk. An urea-nitrogen concentration higher than 20 mg/dL of milk suggests excess of protein supply in the diet, which can decrease production, cause fertility problems, and increase nitrogen excretion into the environment. The measurement of urea nitrogen in blood and milk has been proposed as a tool to monitor protein nutrition. A study was carried out in two dairy farms (Olocuilta and Los Conacastes) in the central region of El Salvador. Sixty Holstein cows were grouped according to milk yield and days in milk: high yielding (HY, 30 to 90 d in milk) and low yielding cows (LY, >180 d in milk). The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of the milk yield and time after feeding on milk and blood urea-nitrogen concentration, and to establish a correlation between these two parameters. Dietary crude protein was analyzed and a protein balance was done for each group using the NRC (2001) Dairy Cattle Program. Blood and milk samples were taken after feeding at 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 hours. Blood samples were centrifuged and sera were then stored at -20 deg C until analyzed. Blood urea-nitrogen (BUN) concentration was determined using a commercially available kit (HUMAN, Wiesbaden, Germany). Milk urea-nitrogen (MUN) was also determined with the use of a spectofotometric procedure (MERCK, Darmstadt, Germany). Blood and milk urea-nitrogen concentrations were analyzed using repeated measures analysis and the MIXED procedure of SAS. To determine the correlation between BUN and MUN, the GLM procedure of SAS was used (SAS Institute, Version 9.1.3, 2006). In Olocuilta HY cows presented the highest BUN and MUN concentrations. BUN least squares concentration was 12.77 mg/dL and 13.98 mg/dL for the LY and HY cows

  12. High fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk reduces the toxic effects of mercury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Salam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, we have all been unfortunately exposed to an increasingly toxic and polluted world. Among the most dangerous of these pollutants is mercury, which is considered to be the most toxic non-radioactive heavy metal. Fermented foods may help cleanse the body of heavy metals. Fermentation breaks down the nutrients in foods by the action of beneficial microorganisms and creates natural chelators that are available to bind toxins and remove them from the body. Aims: The current study was designed to determine the impact of feeding a high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk on the biological effects of mercury toxicity in rat model. Methods and Materials: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was prepared and its sensory properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity were determined. A rat model of mercury toxicity was used. The effect of feeding the high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk to rats, along with mercury ingestion, was determined by the analysis of several biochemical markers in serum and histopathological examinations of brain and kidney. Results: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was found to be acceptable by all test panels and volunteers. Mercury ingestion was found to cause biochemical and histopathological alterations in rat serum and tissues. The mercury-treated rats showed a decrease in body weight and an increase in kidney weight. Sera of the mercury treated rats showed alterations in biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes in brain and kidney. However, the rats fed high fiber fermented mare`s milk along with mercury ingestion showed improved histopathology of kidney and brain, and there was restoration of the biochemical parameters in serum to almost normal values. Conclusions: Feeding high fiber fermented mare`s milk may reduce the toxic effects of mercury.

  13. Environmental assessment of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenisation for milk and fresh cheese production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy;

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the application of Ultra High Pressure Homogenisation (UHPH), an innovative technology for food sterilisation that relies on pressure up to 400MPa, for the treatment of cow milk. The technology is forseen to provide equal or higher quality products compared to Ultra High...

  14. NMR-Based Milk Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne C. Bertram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers or as bioactive compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining a better understanding of how milk composition is linked to nutritional or quality traits.

  15. NMR-Based Milk Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Larsen, Lotte B; Bertram, Hanne C

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers or as bioactive compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining a better understanding of how milk composition is linked to nutritional or quality traits. PMID:24957988

  16. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  17. Production of transgenic cattle highly expressing human serum albumin in milk by phiC31 integrase-mediated gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Lan, Hui; Shao, Minghao; Yu, Yuan; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic cattle expressing high levels of recombinant human serum albumin (HSA) in their milk may as an alternative source for commercial production. Our objective was to produce transgenic cattle highly expressing HSA in milk by using phiC31 integrase system and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The mammary-specific expression plasmid pIACH(-), containing the attB recognition site for phiC31 integrase, were co-transfected with integrase expression plasmid pCMVInt into bovine fetal fibroblast cells (BFFs). PhiC31 integrase-mediated integrations in genome of BFFs were screened by nested inverse PCR. After analysis of sequence of the PCR products, 46.0% (23/50) of the both attB-genome junction sites (attL and attR) were confirmed, and four pseudo attP sites were identified. The integration rates in BF3, BF11, BF19 and BF4 sites were 4.0% (2/50), 6.0% (3/50), 16.0% (8/50) and 20.0% (10/50), respectively. BF3 is located in the bovine chromosome 3 collagen alpha-3 (VI) chain isomer 2 gene, while the other three sites are located in the non-coding region. The transgenic cell lines from BF11, BF19 and BF4 sites were used as donors for SCNT. Two calves from transgenic cells BF19 were born, one died within a few hours after birth, and another calf survived healthy. PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed integration of the transgene in the genome of cloned calves. The nested reverse PCR confirmed that the integration site in cloned calves was identical to the donor cells. The western blotting assessment indicated that recombinant HSA was expressed in the milk of transgenic cattle and the expression level was about 4-8 mg/mL. The present study demonstrated that phiC31 integrase system was an efficient and safety gene delivery tool for producing HSA transgenic cattle. The production of recombinant HSA in the milk of cattle may provide a large-scale and cost-effective resource.

  18. Protection of gnotobiotic rats against dental caries by passive immunization with bovine milk antibodies to Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Michalek, S M; Gregory, R L; Harmon, C C; Katz, J.; Richardson, G J; Hilton, T.; Filler, S J; McGhee, J R

    1987-01-01

    A multivalent vaccine consisting of whole cell antigens of seven strains, representing four serotypes (b, c, d and g), of mutans streptococci was used to hyperimmunize a group of cows. Serum samples from these animals contained immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody activity to seven serotypes (a to g) of mutans streptococci. Whey obtained from the animal with the highest serum antibody activity, which also contained high levels of IgG1 antibody, was used in passive caries immunity studies. Gnotob...

  19. Problemática del arsénico en la llanura sudeste de la provincia de Córdoba: Biotransferencia a leche bovina Arsenic in the southeast plains of Cordoba province, Argentine: Biotransference to bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pérez Carrera

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La transferencia de elementos traza desde matrices ambientales a la cadena agroalimentaria es un fenómeno que está siendo estudiado en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, la información acerca de los niveles en alimentos, particularmente la leche, es escasa. En nuestro país, un elemento de particular relevancia es el arsénico (As, por su ocurrencia natural en aguas subterráneas en una amplia zona de nuestro territorio. En este trabajo se determinaron las concentraciones de As en agua de bebida animal, suelo, forraje y leche en establecimientos lecheros del sudeste de la provincia de Córdoba. Los niveles de As determinados en agua de bebida, en particular en aquellos establecimientos que extraían el agua de la capa freática, sugerían la posibilidad de transferencia de As a la leche bovina. Los niveles en suelo y forraje estuvieron dentro de los rangos de valores normales para regiones de abundancia natural de As. Las concentraciones de As determinadas en muestras de leche no revestían toxicidad para consumo humano. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron estimar un factor de biotransferencia (FBT de As a leche bovina a partir de la ingesta de este elemento por parte de los animales, en las condiciones productivas y edafoclimáticas de nuestro país.Trace element transference from environmental matrices to the agricultural food chain is an actual phenomenon that is being analyzed in different regions of the world. Nevertheless, knowledge about trace element content in food, particularly in milk, is scarce. In Argentine, an element of great concern is arsenic due to its natural occurrence in groundwater in large areas of the country. The aim of the present work was determine arsenic content in livestock drinking water and milk from dairy farms located in the southeast of the Cordoba province. Arsenic concentrations in all collected phreatic samples suggested the possibility of transference to bovine milk. Arsenic levels in soils and

  20. A high-solids steam injection process for the manufacture of powdered infant milk formula

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Eoin; Tobin, John; Roos, Yrjo; Fenelon, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of more energy efficient processing practices, such as increasing the initial solids content from which powder is manufactured, is of interest to the infant formula industry. This study evaluated the use of an inline rotor-stator mixer followed by direct steam injection to disperse and heat-treat (110 °C, 3 s) high-solids (60% w/w) formulations, for the production of powdered infant milk formula. As a control, 30% w/w infant milk formulations were subjected to a typical process, ...

  1. Genome-wide scan for bovine milk-fat composition. I. Quantitative trait loci for short- and medium-chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.; Schennink, A.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Mullaart, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    A genome-wide scan was performed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for short- and medium-chain fatty acids (expressed in wt/wt %). Milk samples were available from 1,905 cows from 398 commercial herds in the Netherlands, and milk-fat composition was measured by gas chromatography. DNA was av

  2. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Østergaard, Søren; Emanuelson, U;

    2010-01-01

    no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted...... to affect the profitability of withdrawing milk with high SCC and this was investigated by applying high, low or no uncertainty to true SCC. The yearly avoidable cost of mastitis was estimated at €8235, assuming that the initial incidence of mastitis could be reduced by 50%. This cost corresponded to 5......% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was €55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at €278 and €60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk...

  3. NMR-based milk metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality...... compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining...

  4. Correlation between milk and blood urea nitrogen in high and low yielding dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out in two dairy farms (Olocuilta and Los Conacastes) in the central region of El Salvador. Sixty Holstein cows were grouped according to milk yield and days in milk: high yielding (HY, 30-90 d in milk) and low yielding cows (LY, >180 d in milk). The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of milk yield and time after feeding on milk and blood urea-nitrogen (BUN) concentration, and to establish a correlation between these two parameters. On Olocuilta, HY cows had the highest BUN and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentrations. Blood urea nitrogen least squares concentration was 12.77 mg/dL and 13.98 mg/dL for the LY and HY cows, respectively; while the MUN average concentration was 12.30 mg/dL and 14.82 mg/dL for the LY and HY cows, respectively. BUN and MUN concentrations were similar at 30 min, one and two h post-feeding but by four h post-feeding BUN concentrations had decreased and were significantly lower than those of MUN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, in Conacastes the highest values were found for the LY group. BUN least square concentration was 11.22 mg/dL and 9.12 mg/dL for the LY and HY cows, respectively; while the MUN average concentration was 10.18 mg/dL and 8.83 mg/dL for the LY and HY cows, respectively. The reason for these differences seems to be related to protein balance. For instance on the Los Conacastes farm, protein balance was negative in the HY group (-88 g/d) while on Oloculita farm the balance was positive. The correlation between BUN and MUN for the Olocuilta farm had a regression coefficient of 0.84, and a correlation (r2) of 0.7543. For Los Conacastes these values were 1.04 and 0.9017, respectively. It should be noted that BUN and MUN concentrations were better correlated at 30 min, one h and two h after feeding and that the correlation decreased at four h post-feeding due to a drop in BUN concentration. It is concluded that BUN and MUN concentrations are not related directly to milk yield but with the

  5. Probiotic Crescenza cheese containing Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus manufactured with high-pressure homogenized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, P; Patrignani, F; Serrazanetti, D; Vinderola, G C; Reinheimer, J A; Lanciotti, R; Guerzoni, M E

    2008-02-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional thermal treatment of food preservation and diversification. Its effectiveness on the deactivation of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in model systems and real food is well documented. To evaluate the potential of milk treated by HPH for the production of Crescenza cheese with commercial probiotic lactobacilli added, 4 types of cheeses were made: HPH (from HPH-treated milk), P (from pasteurized milk), HPH-P (HPH-treated milk plus probiotics), and P-P (pasteurized milk plus probiotics) cheeses. A strain of Streptococcus thermophilus was used as starter culture for cheese production. Compositional, microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic analyses were carried out at 1, 5, 8, and 12 d of refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). According to results obtained, no significant differences among the 4 cheese types were observed for gross composition (protein, fat, moisture) and pH. Differently, the HPH treatment of milk increased the cheese yield about 1% and positively affected the viability during the refrigerated storage of the probiotic bacteria. In fact, after 12 d of storage, the Lactobacillus paracasei A13 cell loads were 8 log cfu/ g, whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus H5 exhibited, in P-P cheese, a cell load decrease of about 1 log cfu/g with respect to the HPH-P cheese. The hyperbaric treatment had a significant positive effect on free fatty acids release and cheese proteolysis. Also, probiotic cultures affected proteolytic and lipolytic cheese patterns. No significant differences were found for the sensory descriptors salty and creamy among HPH and P cheeses as well as for acid, piquant, sweet, milky, salty, creamy, and overall acceptance among HPH, HPH-P, and P-P Crescenza cheeses.

  6. High density genome wide genotyping-by-sequencing and association identifies common and low frequency SNPs, and novel candidate genes influencing cow milk traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.; Peters, Sunday O.; Akwanji, Kingsley A.; Imumorin, Ikhide G.; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have increased the ability to detect sequence variations for complex trait improvement. A high throughput genome wide genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) method was used to generate 515,787 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from which 76,355 SNPs with call rates >85% and minor allele frequency ≥1.5% were used in genome wide association study (GWAS) of 44 milk traits in 1,246 Canadian Holstein cows. GWAS was accomplished with a mixed linear model procedure implementing the additive and dominant models. A strong signal within the centromeric region of bovine chromosome 14 was associated with test day fat percentage. Several SNPs were associated with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, CLA:9c11t and gamma linolenic acid. Most of the significant SNPs for 44 traits studied are novel and located in intergenic regions or introns of genes. Novel potential candidate genes for milk traits or mammary gland functions include ERCC6, TONSL, NPAS2, ACER3, ITGB4, GGT6, ACOX3, MECR, ADAM12, ACHE, LRRC14, FUK, NPRL3, EVL, SLCO3A1, PSMA4, FTO, ADCK5, PP1R16A and TEP1. Our study further demonstrates the utility of the GBS approach for identifying population-specific SNPs for use in improvement of complex dairy traits. PMID:27506634

  7. The High Mannose Glycans from Bovine Ribonuclease B Isomer Characterization by Ion Trap MS

    OpenAIRE

    Prien, Justin M.; Ashline, David J.; Lapadula, Anthony J.; Zhang, Hailong; Reinhold, Vernon N.

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen high mannose isomers have been structurally characterized within three glycomers, Man5GlcNAc2, Man7GlcNAc2, and Man8GlcNAc2 released from bovine ribonuclease B, six previously unreported. The study was carried out with a single ion trap instrument involving no chromatography. Three previously characterized isomers from Man7 and Man8 (three each) have been identified plus one unreported Man7 isomer. Incomplete α-glucosidase activity on the Man6 and Man7 glycoproteins appears to accoun...

  8. Serological evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 in cattle-breeding systems on Colombia’s high plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Bovine herpesvirus – 1 (BoHV- 1 and Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 neutralizing antibodies in herds on the Colombian high plains and their correlation with the level of cross-protection against both herpesviruses. Materials and methods. This study was carried out on cattle farms located around the towns of Puerto López and Puerto Gaitán in Colombia’s Meta department. Sampling was made by convenience. Twenty-three farms were involved in the study; 488 sera samples were taken by random sampling. Virus neutralization test were performed according to the protocols of the OIE. Each serum was evaluated independently for each virus, BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Results. The serological test confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infections in the Colombian bovine population in 100% and 73.9% respectively. However, crossreaction for both viruses was not evident in all farms evaluated. Conclusions. Alpha-herpesviruses are amongst the most significant infectious agents affecting cattle. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 is found throughout the whole world and is endemic in Colombian bovine population, whereas bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 has limited geographical distribution, mainly being reported in South-America (Brazil and Argentina, and we also confirmed the presence of BoHV-5 in Colombia.

  9. Milk metabolites and neurodegeneration: Is there crosstalk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Keshav; Anand, Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Milk has been considered as a natural source of nutrition for decades. Milk is known to be nutrient-rich which aids the growth and development of the human body. Milk contains both macro- and micronutrients. Breast milk is widely regarded as the optimal source of neonatal nutrition due to its composition of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and antibodies. However, despite the wide use of milk products, investigations into the role of milk in degenerative diseases have been limited. This review will examine the relationship between the β-casein gene found in bovine milk and disease states by using age-related macular degeneration as an example. PMID:26526864

  10. Prevalencia y distribución espacial de brucelosis, leucosis bovina, diarrea viral bovina y rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina a partir del análisis ELISA de estanques prediales en lecherías de la IX Región, Chile Prevalence and space distribution of brucellosis, bovine leukaemia, bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by using bulk milk ELISA test in dairy herds of the IX Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Felmer

    2009-01-01

    of the OIE List, including foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever. However, several infectious diseases are known to remain among herds, which produce a major effect in production due to losses by abortion, decrease of fertility and what it is more important, some of them represent barriers for export and constitute a risk of zoonosis for the population. In this work, a monitoring system based on the analysis of bulk milk antibodies by means of ELISA test, was implemented to study the epidemiology and distribution of 4 of the main bovine diseases that currently affect the IX Region of Chile (brucellosis, bovine leukaemia, IBR and BVD. The system allowed the surveillance of 279 dairies, which represented 43% of the dairies registered in IX the Region, and included 19,635 milking cows (14%. With this system, a high prevalence for leukaemia (59%, IBR (76% and BVD (96% could be established, whereas it was confirmed that brucellosis is restricted to a few dairies (5%. The surveillance system coupled to the satellite geographic information analysis, allowed to establish the space distribution of these diseases in the different communes of the Region, demonstrating to be an excellent and low cost support tool for the monitoring of the diseases in the herd, which guarantees the possibility of establishing this platform in the Region and its feasibility to project it at national level.

  11. Filter-aided sample preparation with dimethyl labeling to identify and quantify milk fat globule membrane proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Boeren, J.A.; Vries, de S.C.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine milk is a major nutrient source in many countries and it is produced at an industrial scale. Milk is a complex mixture of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The composition of the bovine milk samples can vary depending on the genetic makeup of the bovine species as well as

  12. Effects of bovine subclinical mastitis caused by Corynebacterium spp. on somatic cell count, milk yield and composition by comparing contralateral quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Tomazi, Tiago; Barreiro, Juliana Regina; Beuron, Daniele Cristine; Arcari, Marcos André; Lee, Sarah Hwa In; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; Araújo Junior, João Pessoa; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2016-03-01

    Subclinical mastitis caused by Corynebacterium spp. (as a group and at the species level) was investigated by evaluating contralateral (healthy and infected) mammary quarters for somatic cell count (SCC), milk yield and composition. Selection of cows with subclinical mastitis caused by Corynebacterium spp. was performed by microbiological culture of composite samples collected from 1242 dairy cows from 21 dairy herds. For each of the selected cows, milk yield was measured and milk samples were collected at the mammary quarter level (i.e., 1140 mammary samples collected from 285 cows) for analysis of milk composition and SCC. The identification of Corynebacterium spp. isolates was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. One hundred and eighty Corynebacterium spp. isolates were identified, of which 167 (92.77%) were C.bovis and eight (4.44%) non-C.bovis; for five of the Corynebacterium spp. isolates (2.77%), sequencing of 16S rRNA genes did not allow identification at the species level. Mammary quarters infected with Corynebacterium spp. as a group had a higher geometric mean SCC (197,900 cells/mL) than healthy contralateral mammary quarters (85,800 cells/mL). Species of Corynebacterium non-C.bovis were infrequently isolated and did not change SCC, milk yield or milk solid contents when evaluated at the contralateral quarter level. Although C.bovis infection showed no effect on milk yield, fat, protein, casein or total solids in milk, it increased SCC and decreased lactose and milk solids non-fat content. PMID:26831159

  13. Effect of bovine colostrum feeding in comparison with milk replacer and natural feeding on the immune responses and colonisation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tissue of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; Canibe, Nuria; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2015-03-28

    The present study investigated the effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to piglets in comparison with feeding a milk replacer (MR) and conventional rearing by the sow on the intestinal immune system and number of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonising the intestinal tissue. Piglets (23-d-old) were allocated to one of the following four groups: (1) killed at the beginning of the experiment (Base); (2) separated from the sow and fed BC (BC-fed); (3) separated from the sow and fed a MR (MR-fed); (4) kept with the sow (Sow-Milk). Blood was sampled on days 1 and 8, and faecal samples were collected on days 1, 3, 5 and 8. On day 8, piglets were killed and gastrointestinal digesta and intestinal segments were collected. The frequency of diarrhoea was found to be higher (P≤ 0·019) in MR-fed piglets than in BC-fed and Sow-Milk piglets. Piglets from the MR-fed group had the lowest lactic acid bacteria:haemolytic E. coli ratio (P(treat)= 0·064) in the faeces. The number of E. coli colonising the intestinal tissue was higher (P< 0·001) in piglets from the MR-fed group than in those from the BC-fed and Sow-Milk groups. Piglets from the Sow-Milk group had a higher (P= 0·020) mucosal IgG concentration than those from the MR-fed group, but did not exhibit any difference when compared with piglets from the Base and BC-fed groups. Piglets from the BC-fed group exhibited a reduced (P≤ 0·037) expression level of Toll-like receptor-4 in the intestinal mucosa when compared with those from the MR-fed and Sow-Milk groups. The expression level of IL-2 was higher (P≤ 0·051) in piglets from the MR-fed group than in those from the other treatment groups. In conclusion, feeding BC rather than MR to the piglets reduced the colonisation of intestine by ETEC and modulated the intestinal immune system, whereas no differences were observed in piglets fed BC and conventionally reared by the sows. PMID:25743486

  14. Lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy complicating treatment with highly purified bovine and porcine insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, P G; Jowett, N I; Kurinczuk, J J; Peck, R W; Hearnshaw, J R

    1988-11-01

    Lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy were the most frequently reported local complications of conventional insulin therapy. Early reports following the introduction of highly purified insulins suggested a reduction in the frequency of lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy. Since highly purified insulins have been in common usage for 10 years, the present frequency of these complications was assessed in a study of 281 insulin treated diabetics. Lipohypertrophy was recorded in 76 (27.1%) patients including 3 with associated lipoatrophy. Lipoatrophy was found in 7 (2.5%) cases (3 porcine and 4 bovine insulin treated), 4 of which had only ever used highly purified insulins. Despite the introduction of highly purified insulins, lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy remain prevalent in insulin treated patients. This common complication may be limited by routinely inspecting injection sites.

  15. The biology of milk synthesis from a proteomics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Large variation in bovine milk composition of Dutch Holstein cows has been observed. The factors influencing the milk synthesis and secretion process in the mammary gland and the variations in this process lead to variation in milk composition. The understanding of milk synthesis was improved during

  16. [Determination of clavulanic acid residue in milk by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Huang, Xianhui; Guo, Chunna; Fang, Qiuhua; He, Limin

    2012-06-01

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of clavulanic acid (CLAV) in milk by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A 2 g milk sample was deproteinized by ethanol. The supernatant was transferred into a pear-shaped bottle to be evaporated to about 0.5 mL, and the residue was dissolved with ammonium acetate solution. The sample was determined by HPLC-MS/MS after the purification. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Luna 5u C8 column using 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phases with gradient elution. The identification of CLAV was carried out by MS/MS equipped with electrospray ionization in negative scanning and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. Matrix-matched calibration standard was used for the quantification. The calibration curve showed perfect linear in the range of 10 - 400 microg/kg with the correlation coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N > or = 3) was 10 microg/kg in milk, and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) was 20 microg/kg. The mean recoveries varied from 80.00% to 91.25% at the four spiked levels of LOQ, 1/2MRL (the maximum residue limit), MRL, and 2MRL with the relative standard deviations of 5.60% -8.77%. In conclusion, the established method can be applied for the determination of CLAV residues in milk.

  17. A novel ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for the rapid determination of β-lactoglobulin as heat load indicator in commercial milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitz, Lisa I; Fiechter, Gregor; Seifried, Reinhold K; Mayer, Helmut K

    2015-03-20

    The level of undenatured acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin can be used as an indicator to assess the heat load applied to liquid milk, thus further allowing the discrimination between milk originating from different thermal production processes. In this work, a new UHPLC method for the rapid determination of bovine β-lactoglobulin in 1.8min only (total runtime 3min) is presented using simple UV detection at 205nm. Separation selectivity for possibly co-eluting other major whey proteins (bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin G) was verified, and the method validated for the analysis of liquid milk samples regarding linearity (20-560μg/mL, R(2)>0.99), instrumentation precision (RSDsESL) milk, quite diverse levels were determined ranging from ∼100 up to 4000mg/L, thus clearly illustrating variable applied heat loads and impacts on the "nativeness" of milk essentially due to the fact that the production technologies used for ESL milk may differ significantly, and are currently not regulated in the EU.

  18. Effect of bovine colostrum feeding in comparison with milk replacer and natural feeding on the immune responses and colonisation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tissue of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; Canibe, Nuria;

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to piglets in comparison with feeding a milk replacer (MR) and conventional rearing by the sow on the intestinal immune system and number of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonising the intestinal tissue. Piglets...... lactic acid bacteria:haemolytic E. coli ratio (Ptreat= 0·064) in the faeces. The number of E. coli colonising the intestinal tissue was higher (P...G concentration than those from the MR-fed group, but did not exhibit any difference when compared with piglets from the Base and BC-fed groups. Piglets from the BC-fed group exhibited a reduced (P≤ 0·037) expression level of Toll-like receptor-4 in the intestinal mucosa when compared with those from the MR...

  19. Bovine subclinical intramammary infection caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci increases somatic cell count but has no effect on milk yield or composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazi, T; Gonçalves, J L; Barreiro, J R; Arcari, M A; dos Santos, M V

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) as a group and by specific CNS species on milk yield and composition and somatic cell count (SCC) of dairy cows. Selection of cows with IMI caused by CNS was performed by microbiological cultures of composite samples collected from 1,242 dairy cows distributed in 21 dairy herds. After selection of cows, milk yield was measured and milk samples were collected at the mammary quarter level (i.e., 1,140 mammary samples collected from 285 cows) for analysis of milk composition and SCC. In total, 108 isolates of CNS were identified at the species level by PCR-RFLP analysis. Forty-one pairs of contralateral mammary quarters, with and without IMI, were used to evaluate the effect of CNS on milk yield and composition. Mammary quarters infected with CNS had higher geometric mean SCC (306,106 cells/mL) than noninfected contralateral mammary quarters (62,807 cells/mL). Intramammary infection caused by CNS had no effect on milk yield or on contents of fat, crude protein, casein, lactose, total solids, and solids-not-fat. Staphylococcus chromogenes was the most prevalent CNS species in this study and the only species that allowed within-cow evaluation. The IMI caused by S. chromogenes increased SCC but had no effect on milk yield and composition at the quarter level. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis caused by CNS increased the SCC but had no effect on milk yield and composition of dairy cows. PMID:25726098

  20. High milk production in dairy cows: A danger or a challenge for metabolism, fertility and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    strive for higher milk yields exploited this fylogenetic prioritization leading to a high metabolic pressure on reproduction and general health. During the transition period, cows are unable to compensate for the increased energy demands (gravid uterus and increasing milk production) by increasing feed intake, and this result in a status of negative energy balance. The consequential catabolic status is characterised by low insulin, and glucose concentrations and reduced insulin sensitivity, leading to a massive mobilisation of the body reserves. Dairy cows can lose up to 10% of their body weight during the first weeks post partum. It has been shown that the degree and duration of energy deficit during this early post partum period is positively correlated with the number of days to first oestrus. We demonstrated that such a metabolic condition can directly hamper growth and function of the ovarian follicle. After a whole series of in vivo and in vitro experiments, we now have sufficient evidence that also oocyte and embryo quality is jeopardized under such metabolic conditions. Especially the elevated free fatty acid and the low glucose concentrations are toxic for the granulosa cells and the oocyte. These scientific findings are supported by field observations, showing disappointing conception rates and an increasingly high incidence of early embryonic mortality. Fertilisation of oocytes from high genetic merit dairy cows resulted in significantly lower blastocyst yields in vitro, irrespective of milk production as such. Furthermore, a higher proportion of non-viable embryos were flushed from lactating cows compared with non-lactating cows. Taken together, the female gamete in high producing dairy cows is in danger due to genetic and direct metabolic but probably also due to epigenetic effects. In the USA, only 50 to 60% of dairy cows survived beyond their second lactation. The increased incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases is also responsible for the high

  1. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...

  2. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from five dairy farms in the Guangxi province of China. A sample of each milk was pasteurized, and both r...

  3. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  4. Changes in milk composition in obese rats consuming a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, C J; Montaño, S; Ramirez, V; Morales, A; Nathanielsz, P W; Bobadilla, N A; Zambrano, E

    2016-02-14

    Maternal obesity programmes offspring development. We addressed maternal obesity effects induced by high-fat diets on maternal mammary gland (MG) structure and function and offspring brain, liver and fat outcomes. Mothers were fed control (C, n 5) or obesogenic (MO, n 5) diet from the time they were weaned through pregnancy beginning at 120 d, through lactation. At offspring postnatal day (PND) 20, milk leptin and nutrients were determined. At the end of lactation, maternal liver and MG fatty acid profile were measured. Desaturase (Δ6D and Δ5D) and elongase (ELOVL 5 and ELOVL 2) protein was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting (WB) in the liver and WB in the MG. In mothers, liver, MG and milk fat content were higher in MO than in C. Liver arachidonic acid (AA) and EPA and MG EPA were lower in MO than in C. Liver desaturases were higher in MO. The MG was heavier in MO than in C, with decreased Δ5D expression in MO. Desaturases and elongases were immunolocalised in parenchymal cells of both groups. Milk yield, water, carbohydrate content, EPA and DHA were lower, whereas milk leptin and AA were higher in MO than in C. At PND 21 and 36, brain weight was less and fat depots were greater in MO offspring than in C. MO decreased male absolute brain weight but not female absolute brain weight. In conclusion, maternal obesity induced by an obesogenic diet negatively affects maternal liver and MG function with the production of significant changes in milk composition. Maternal obesity adversely affects offspring metabolism and development. PMID:26608475

  5. Identification of unprecedented anticancer properties of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (HMW-bLf).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Fawzi; Shankaranarayanan, Jayanth Suryanarayanan; Kanwar, Jagat R; Gurudevan, Sneha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2014-01-01

    With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (≥250 kDa), from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo) lactoferrin (∼78-80 kDa), retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (pcells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis) and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further. PMID:25222273

  6. Identification of unprecedented anticancer properties of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (HMW-bLf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Ebrahim

    Full Text Available With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (≥250 kDa, from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo lactoferrin (∼78-80 kDa, retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01 of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further.

  7. Milk: the new sports drink? A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Brian D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There has been growing interest in the potential use of bovine milk as an exercise beverage, especially during recovery from resistance training and endurance sports. Based on the limited research, milk appears to be an effective post-resistance exercise beverage that results in favourable acute alterations in protein metabolism. Milk consumption acutely increases muscle protein synthesis, leading to an improved net muscle protein balance. Furthermore, when post-exercise milk consump...

  8. Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, R V; Kristensen, D; Nielsen, Jacob Holm;

    2006-01-01

    and lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary......Oxidation in 3 types of bovine milk with different fatty acid profiles obtained through manipulation of feed was evaluated by analytical methods quantifying the content of potential antioxidants, the tendency of formation of free radicals, and the accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation...

  9. Entrainment in solution of an oscillating NADH oxidase activity from the bovine milk fat globule membrane with a temperature-compensated period length suggestive of an ultradian time-keeping (clock) function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Lawler, Juliana; Wang, Sui; Keenan, Thomas W.; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    Entrainment in solution of an oscillating activity with a temperature compensated period of 24 min is described for a NADH oxidase (NOX) activity of the bovine milk fat globule membrane, a derivative of the mammary epithelial cell plasma membrane. The period of 24 min remained unchanged at 17 degrees C, 27 degrees C and 37 degrees C whereas the amplitude approximately doubled with each 10 degree C rise in temperature (Q(10)congruent with 2). The periodicity was observed with both intact milk fat globule membranes and with detergent-solubilized membranes, demonstrating that the oscillations did not require an association with membranes. The periodicity was not the result of instrument variation or of chemical interactions among reactants in solution. Preparations with different periodicities entrained (autosynchronized) when mixed. Upon mixing, the preparations exhibited two oscillatory patterns but eventually a single pattern representing the mean of the farthest separated maxima of the two preparations analyzed separately emerged. The cell surface NOX protein is the first reported example of an entrainable biochemical entity with a temperature-compensated periodicity potentially capable of functioning as an ultradian or circadian clock driver.

  10. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  11. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  12. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrino, MS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  13. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, MS; Frola, ID; Odierno, LM; Bogni, CI

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  14. Effects of Prolactin and Leptin on Gene Expressions of Milk Proteins and Key Factors Related to Milk Protein Synthesis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells%催乳素和瘦素对奶牛乳腺上皮细胞乳蛋白及乳蛋白合成信号通路关键因子基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜瑞平; 王春艳; 张兴夫; 高民

    2015-01-01

    protein synthesis of bovine mammary epithelial cells under pri-mary culture condition. The primary bovine mammary epithelial cells ( pBMECs) were cultured by collagenase digestion. The epithelial origin of pBMECs was identified by morphological observation, growth curve assay and specific milk protein gene expressions detection. There were four treatments with four concentrations of prolactin (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0μg/mL, respectively), leptin concentration was the same (100 ng/mL), and each treatment had six replicates. Thiazole blue ( MTT) assay was used to detected the effects of prolactin and leptin on cells proliferation, and real time PCR was used to assay the effects of prolactin and leptin on gene ex-pressions of main milk proteins [α-casein,β-casein,κ-casein andβ-lactoglobulin (β-LGB) ] , Janus kinase 2 ( JAK2) , signal transduction and transcription activator 5 ( STAT5 ) and mammalian target of rapamycin ( mTOR) . The results showed that based on certain concentration of leptin ( 100 ng/mL ) , compared with 0 μg/mL prolactin treatment: the treatments of 0.1 and 1.0 μg/mL prolactin significantly promoted pBMECs proliferation (P<0.05); the treatments of 0.1 and 10.0 μg/mL prolactin significantly decreased the gene ex-pressions of αs1-casein, αs2-casein, β-casein and β-LGB(P<0.05); the treatment of 1.0 μg/mL prolactin significantly increased the gene expressions ofαs1-casein,κ-casein,β-LGB ( P<0.05);all supplemental treat-ments of prolactin exerted promotion effects on JAK2 gene expression ( P<0. 05 ); only the treatment of 1.0 μg/mL prolactin significantly increased STAT5 and mTOR gene expressions ( P<0. 05 ) . In conclusion, based on 100 ng/mL leptin in culture medium, positive effects of prolactin on gene expressions of milk pro-teins and key factors related to milk protein synthesis are observed, but the concentration should be limited in a certain range (0.1 to 1.0 μg/mL), and reverse inhibition effects emerge with high or low concentration

  15. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Bainbridge

    Full Text Available Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA. The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO, Jersey (JE, and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM, 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM.

  16. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM. PMID:26930646

  17. Ultra high pressure homogenization of almond milk: Physico-chemical and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briviba, Karlis; Gräf, Volker; Walz, Elke; Guamis, Buenaventura; Butz, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) of food is a processing technology to improve food safety and shelf life. However, despite very short treatment duration UHPH may lead to changes in chemical and physico-chemical properties including formation of submicro-/nano-particles. This may affect the physiological or toxicological properties of the treated food. Here, we treated raw almond milk (AMr) with UHPH at 350 MPa and 85 °C (AMuhph), known able to inactivate food relevant microorganisms. UHPH-treatment led to about a threefold increase of the mean particle size. There was a nearly complete loss of antigenicity investigated by ELISA for determination of traces of almond proteins. The content of vitamins B1 and B2 remained unchanged, while free exposed sulfhydryl groups decreased. Despite of observed modifications, UHPH-treatment of almond milk did not cause any changes in cyto- or genotoxic effects and antigenotoxic capability of protecting intestinal cells against iron induced DNA damage in vitro.

  18. Determination of triazine herbicides in milk by cloud point extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Cao, Peng; Geng, Jinpei; Li, Jinqiang; Wang, Mingzhen; Wang, Minglin; Li, Xiaoyu; Yin, Dalu

    2014-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was used to detect four triazines in milk. An efficient pretreatment method known as cloud point extraction (CPE) was proposed for extracting and preconcentrating analytes. The parameters of CPE including surfactant type and concentration, electrolyte, sample pH, incubation temperature and duration were investigated. Under optimal conditions, satisfying recoveries in the range of 70.5-96.9% were achieved for four triazines. The limits of detection ranged from 6.79 to 11.19μg L(-1). The linear range of quantitation for the four triazines was 50-2000μg L(-1), and the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were all 0.9999. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was efficient and reliable for the determination of triazine herbicides in milk samples.

  19. High-level expression and secondary structure analysis of the bovine mature prion protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By using the recombinant DNA technology, the gene of the bovine mature prion protein (bPrPCL) has been cloned into pET30a and the resulting plasmid has been expressed in E.coli BL21(DE3). After solubilizing in 8 mol/L urea, the expression product was purified by cation ion exchange chromatography. The purified product was refolded by dilution and the recovery was about 15%. Analysis of mass spectrum, circular dichroism (CD) spectrum and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum demonstrate that the molecular weight of the bPrPCL is 23 630 u, the bPrPCL has a high α-helix content (36.1%) and low β-sheet content (11.9%).

  20. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Contaminating a High-Passage RK-13 Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Bora; Li, Ganwu; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Jianqiang; Shuck, Kathleen M.; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.

    2015-01-01

    A high-passage rabbit kidney RK-13 cell line (HP-RK-13[KY], originally derived from the ATCC CCL-37 cell line) used in certain laboratories worldwide is contaminated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV). On complete genome sequence analysis, the virus strain was found to belong to BVDV group 1b.

  2. Proteose-peptone content in the milk of Italian Friesian cows with moderate and high somatic cell values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk with elevated somatic cell count has an impaired quality and reduced value, especially for the manufacture of cheese (Schællibaum, 2002. If the milk has a high cell count, the deterioration during syneresis with a longer clotting time and weak curd leads to an increased moisture content and a lower dry matter yield (Politis and Ng-Kwai-Hang, 1988; Urech et al., 1999; Cooney et al., 2000. Most of proteose-peptones (PP and γ-caseins of the milk result from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the native casein (Pâquet, 1989; Bastian and Brown, 1996......

  3. Site-specific glycosylation of donkey milk lactoferrin investigated by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Serafina; Saletti, Rosaria; Cunsolo, Vincenzo;

    2016-01-01

    , electrospray mass spectrometry, and high collision dissociation fragmentation. The results obtained allowed identifying 26 different glycan structures, including high mannose, complex and hybrid N-glycans, linked to the protein backbone via an amide bond to asparagine residues located at the positions 137, 281...... and 476. Altogether, the N-glycan structures determined revealed that most of the N-glycans identified in donkey milk lactoferrin are neutral complex/hybrid. Indeed, 10 neutral non-fucosylated complex/hybrid N-glycans and 4 neutral fucosylated complex/hybrid N-glycans were found. In addition, two high...

  4. Efficiency of N2 gas flushing compared to the lactoperoxidase system at controlling bacterial growth in bovine raw milk stored at mild temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eMunsch-Alatossava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To prevent excessive bacterial growth in raw milk, the FAO recommends two options: either cold storage or activation of the lactoperoxidase system (LPs/ HT in milk with the addition of two chemical preservatives, hydrogen peroxide (H and thiocyanate (T. N2 gas flushing of raw milk has shown great potential to control bacterial growth in a temperature range of 6 to 12°C without promoting undesired side effects. Here, the effect of N2 gas (N was tested as a single treatment and in combination with the lactoperoxidase system (NHT on seven raw milk samples stored at 15 or 25°C. For the ratio defined as bacterial counts from a certain treatment/counts on the corresponding control, a classical Analyse of Variance (ANOVA was performed, followed by mean comparison with the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test (REGWQ. Altogether, the growth inhibition was slightly but significantly higher at 25°C than at 15°C. Except for one sample, all ratios were lower for HT than for N alone; however, these differences were not judged to be significant for five samples by the REGWQ test; in the remaining two samples, N was more effective than HT in one case and less effective in the other case. This study shows that N2 gas flushing, which inhibited bacterial growth in raw milk at 15 and 25°C for 24 and 12 h, respectively, could constitute an alternative to LPs where no cold storage facilities exist, especially as a replacement for adulterating substances.

  5. Efficiency of N2 Gas Flushing Compared to the Lactoperoxidase System at Controlling Bacterial Growth in Bovine Raw Milk Stored at Mild Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Quintyn, Romanie; De Man, Ingrid; Alatossava, Tapani; Gauchi, Jean-Pierrre

    2016-01-01

    To prevent excessive bacterial growth in raw milk, the FAO recommends two options: either cold storage or activation of the lactoperoxidase system (LPs/HT) in milk with the addition of two chemical preservatives, hydrogen peroxide (H) and thiocyanate (T). N2 gas flushing of raw milk has shown great potential to control bacterial growth in a temperature range of 6–12°C without promoting undesired side effects. Here, the effect of N2 gas (N) was tested as a single treatment and in combination with the lactoperoxidase system (NHT) on seven raw milk samples stored at 15 or 25°C. For the ratio defined as bacterial counts from a certain treatment/counts on the corresponding control, a classical Analyse of Variance (ANOVA) was performed, followed by mean comparison with the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test (REGWQ). Altogether, the growth inhibition was slightly but significantly higher at 25°C than at 15°C. Except for one sample, all ratios were lower for HT than for N alone; however, these differences were not judged to be significant for five samples by the REGWQ test; in the remaining two samples, N was more effective than HT in one case and less effective in the other case. This study shows that N2 gas flushing, which inhibited bacterial growth in raw milk at 15 and 25°C for 24 and 12 h, respectively, could constitute an alternative to LPs where no cold storage facilities exist, especially as a replacement for adulterating substances. PMID:27313575

  6. Bovine colostrum CMP-NeuAc:Gal beta(1-->4)GlcNAc-R alpha(2-->6)-sialyltransferase is involved in the synthesis of the terminal NeuAc alpha(2-->6)GalNAc beta(1-->4)GlcNAc sequence occurring on N-linked glycans of bovine milk glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemansky, M; Van den Eijnden, D H

    1992-01-01

    Bovine colostrum CMP-NeuAc:Gal beta(-->4)GlcNAc-R alpha(2-->6)-sialyltransferase (alpha 6-sialyltransferase) appears to be capable of catalysing alpha 6-sialylation of the disaccharide GalNAc beta(1-->4)GlcNAc to yield the trisaccharide NeuAc alpha(2-->6)GalNAc beta(1-->4)GlcNAc. This provides an enzymic basis for the occurrence of this sialylated structure on the N-linked glycans of a number of bovine milk glycoproteins. Competition experiments using Gal beta(1-->4)GlcNAc and GalNAc beta(-->4)GlcNAc as acceptors indicate that both substrates are recognized by a single active site on the alpha 6-sialyltransferase. Extrapolation of these results suggests that the NeuAc alpha(2-->6)GalNAc beta(1-->4)GlcNAc structural element occurring on the N-linked glycans of several human glycoproteins are similarly synthesized by the action of a Gal beta(1-->4)GlcNAc-R alpha(2-->6)-sialyltransferase. PMID:1417784

  7. Free Maillard Reaction Products in Milk Reflect Nutritional Intake of Glycated Proteins and Can Be Used to Distinguish "Organic" and "Conventionally" Produced Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Hofmann, Thomas; Sparmann, Nina; Henle, Thomas

    2016-06-22

    Using LC-MS/MS and isotopically labeled standard substances, quantitation of free Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (pyrraline, PYR), N(δ)-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H), and N(ε)-fructosyllysine (FL), in bovine milk was achieved. Considerable variations in the amounts of the individual MRPs were found, most likely as a consequence of the nutritional uptake of glycated proteins. When comparing commercial milk samples labeled as originating from "organic" or "conventional" farming, respectively, significant differences in the content of free PYR (organic milk, 20-300 pmol/mL; conventional milk, 400-1000 pmol/mL) were observed. An analysis of feed samples indicated that rapeseed and sugar beet are the main sources for MRPs in conventional farming. Furthermore, milk of different dairy animals (cow, buffalo, donkey, goat, ewe, mare, camel) as well as for the first time human milk was analyzed for free MRPs. The distribution of their concentrations, with FL and PYR as the most abundant in human milk and with a high individual variability, also points to a nutritional influence. As the components of concentrated feed do not belong to the natural food sources of ruminants and equidae, free MRPs in milk might serve as indicators for an adequate animal feeding in near-natural farming and can be suitable parameters to distinguish between an "organic" and "conventional" production method of milk. PMID:27213835

  8. Bovine CCL28 Mediates Chemotaxis via CCR10 and Demonstrates Direct Antimicrobial Activity against Mastitis Causing Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyler B Pallister

    Full Text Available In addition to the well characterized function of chemokines in mediating the homing and accumulation of leukocytes to tissues, some chemokines also exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. Little is known of the potential role of chemokines in bovine mammary gland health and disease. The chemokine CCL28 has previously been shown to play a key role in the homing and accumulation of IgA antibody secreting cells to the lactating murine mammary gland. CCL28 has also been shown to act as an antimicrobial peptide with activity demonstrated against a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Here we describe the cloning and function of bovine CCL28 and document the concentration of this chemokine in bovine milk. Bovine CCL28 was shown to mediate cellular chemotaxis via the CCR10 chemokine receptor and exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bovine mastitis causing organisms. The concentration of bovine CCL28 in milk was found to be highly correlated with the lactation cycle. Highest concentrations of CCL28 were observed soon after parturition, with levels decreasing over time. These results suggest a potential role for CCL28 in the prevention/resolution of bovine mastitis.

  9. Male-specific region of the bovine Y chromosome is gene rich with a high transcriptomic activity in testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ti-Cheng; Yang, Yang; Retzel, Ernest F; Liu, Wan-Sheng

    2013-07-23

    The male-specific region of the mammalian Y chromosome (MSY) contains clusters of genes essential for male reproduction. The highly repetitive and degenerative nature of the Y chromosome impedes genomic and transcriptomic characterization. Although the Y chromosome sequence is available for the human, chimpanzee, and macaque, little is known about the annotation and transcriptome of nonprimate MSY. Here, we investigated the transcriptome of the MSY in cattle by direct testis cDNA selection and RNA-seq approaches. The bovine MSY differs radically from the primate Y chromosomes with respect to its structure, gene content, and density. Among the 28 protein-coding genes/families identified on the bovine MSY (12 single- and 16 multicopy genes), 16 are bovid specific. The 1,274 genes identified in this study made the bovine MSY gene density the highest in the genome; in comparison, primate MSYs have only 31-78 genes. Our results, along with the highly transcriptional activities observed from these Y-chromosome genes and 375 additional noncoding RNAs, challenge the widely accepted hypothesis that the MSY is gene poor and transcriptionally inert. The bovine MSY genes are predominantly expressed and are differentially regulated during the testicular development. Synonymous substitution rate analyses of the multicopy MSY genes indicated that two major periods of expansion occurred during the Miocene and Pliocene, contributing to the adaptive radiation of bovids. The massive amplification and vigorous transcription suggest that the MSY serves as a genomic niche regulating male reproduction during bovid expansion. PMID:23842086

  10. Comparing the mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin agar plating method with the three-tube most-probable-number method for enumeration of Bacillus cereus spores in raw and high-temperature, short-time pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nigel M; Getty, Kelly J K; Schmidt, Karen A; Nutsch, Abbey L; Linton, Richard H

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual recommends two enumeration methods for Bacillus cereus: (i) standard plate count method with mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin (MYP) agar and (ii) a most-probable-number (MPN) method with tryptic soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 0.1% polymyxin sulfate. This study compared the effectiveness of MYP and MPN methods for detecting and enumerating B. cereus in raw and high-temperature, short-time pasteurized skim (0.5%), 2%, and whole (3.5%) bovine milk stored at 4°C for 96 h. Each milk sample was inoculated with B. cereus EZ-Spores and sampled at 0, 48, and 96 h after inoculation. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in B. cereus populations among sampling times for all milk types, so data were pooled to obtain overall mean values for each treatment. The overall B. cereus population mean of pooled sampling times for the MPN method (2.59 log CFU/ml) was greater (P plate count method (1.89 log CFU/ml). B. cereus populations in the inoculated milk samples ranged from 2.36 to 3.46 and 2.66 to 3.58 log CFU/ml for inoculated milk treatments for the MYP plate count and MPN methods, respectively, which is below the level necessary for toxin production. The MPN method recovered more B. cereus, which makes it useful for validation research. However, the MYP plate count method for enumeration of B. cereus also had advantages, including its ease of use and faster time to results (2 versus 5 days for MPN).

  11. Post-milking teat dip use in dairy herds with high or low somatic cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, R J; Eberhart, R J

    1991-12-15

    Milk samples for bacteriologic culture were submitted from 71 dairy herds, 24 with low somatic cell count (SCC) and 47 with high SCC and high prevalence of subclinical mastitis. At the time of sample submission to the Mastitis Diagnostic Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University, information regarding the herd mastitis control practices was collected. A combined program of post-milking teat dipping (PMTD) and antibiotic treatment of all cows at the start of the nonlactating period was practiced more frequently for herds with low SCC, (P less than 0.001) than for herds with high SCC. Among all herds for which PMTD was practiced, a higher proportion (P less than 0.001) of those for which chlorhexidine-based products were used had low SCC than high SCC. Conversely, a higher proportion of herds for which a dip with an acrylic latex barrier was used had high SCC rather than low SCC (P = 0.002). For herds with high prevalence of subclinical mastitis, and despite a program of PMTD and treatment of all cows at the start of the nonlactating period, a change to a different germicidal teat dip product may be indicated to help reduce prevalence of infection. PMID:1813466

  12. Short communication: Milk fat depression induced by conjugated linoleic acid and a high-oil and low-fiber diet occurs equally across the day in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L; Cook, K L; Bauman, D E; Harvatine, K J

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a circadian rhythm of milk and milk component synthesis has been characterized that is partially dependent on the timing of feed intake. Our objective was to determine if inhibition of milk fat synthesis during diet-induced milk fat depression occurred to a higher degree during certain phases of the day. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 2 experiments that induced milk fat depression while milking cows 3 times per day at equal intervals. The response at each milking was analyzed using mixed model ANOVA with repeated measures. In experiment 1, nine multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a 3×3 Latin square design, and treatments were control, 3-d intravenous infusion of 10 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and a low-forage and high-fat diet for 10 d. In experiment 2, ten multiparous ruminally cannulated cows were arranged in a replicated design and milk samples were collected during a control period or after 5 d of abomasal infusion of 10 g/d of CLA. The daily pattern of milk fat concentration and yield did not differ between treatments in either experiment. In experiment 1, an effect was found of treatment and milking time on milk fat concentration and yield. Similarly, in experiment 2, main effects were found of treatment and milking time on milk fat concentration and an effect of treatment, but no effect of milking time on milk fat yield. Milk fat percent was increased from 3.41 to 4.06% and 3.25 to 3.48% from the morning to the afternoon milking in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Additionally, milk fatty acid profile, including trans intermediates, was changed over the day in experiment 1, but the magnitude of the changes were small and the pattern did not differ among treatments. A daily rhythm of milk fat concentration and yield was observed in cows milked 3 times a day, but milk fat depression decreases milk fat yield equally over the day.

  13. The Effect of Body Energy Reserve Mobilization on the Fatty Acid Profile of Milk in High-yielding Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalski, Zenon; Wroński, Marek; Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Mochol, Magdalena; Pogorzelska, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the amount of body condition loss in the dry period and early lactation in 42 high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows on milk yield and the share of fatty acids in milk fat. Energy reserves were estimated based on the body condition scoring (BCS) and backfat thickness (BFT). Milk yield and milk composition were determined over 305-d lactation. From d 6 to 60 of lactation, the concentrations of 43 fatty acids in milk fat were determined by gas chromatography. Cows were categorized based on body condition loss from the beginning of the dry period to the lowest point of the BCS curve in early lactation into three groups: low condition loss group (L) ≤0.5 points (n = 14); moderate condition loss group (M) 0.75 to 1.0 points (n = 16) and high condition loss group (H) >1.0 points (n = 12). Cows whose body energy reserves were mobilized at 0.8 BCS and 11 mm BFT, produced 12,987 kg ECM over 305-d lactation, i.e. 1,429 kg ECM more than cows whose BCS and BFT decreased by 0.3 and 5 mm, respectively. In group H, milk yield reached 12,818 kg ECM at body fat reserve mobilization of 1.3 BCS and 17 mm BFT. High mobilization of body fat reserves led to a significant (approx. 5%) increase in the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids-MUFA (mostly C18:1 cis-9, followed by C18:1 trans-11), a significant decrease in the levels of fatty acids adversely affecting human health, and a drop in the content of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in milk fat. In successive weeks of lactation, an improved energy balance contributed to a decrease in the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and an increase in the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat. PMID:25049536

  14. Treatment of Bovine Milk by Horseradish Peroxidase and Its Impact on the Quality of Set-yoghurt%牛乳的过氧化物酶处理与凝固型酸奶品质的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温研; 赵新淮

    2011-01-01

    利用辣根过氧化物酶和阿魏酸处理牛乳并制备凝固型酸奶,采用质构仪和流变仪分别对不同酸奶样品的质构和流变特性进行对比研究.研究结果表明,辣根过氧化物酶、阿魏酸和明胶的添加对酸奶样品的主要成分组成没有影响,但对酸奶质构和流变特性的影响较大.与对照样相比,添加明胶、添加酶和阿魏酸、添加酶酸奶样品的硬度分别增加38.03%、34.07%和17.08%,黏度分别增加45.13%、40.85%和28.36%,而乳清析出率分别降低12.02%、6.28%和3.41%.同时,酸奶的表观黏度、触变性和粘弹性也都增加,增幅最大者为添加明胶酸奶样品,其次是添加酶和阿魏酸的酸奶样品,增幅最小的是添加酶的酸奶样品.研究结果显示利用辣根过氧化物酶、阿魏酸处理牛乳可以改善凝固型酸奶的品质.%Bovine milk was treated with horseradish peroxidase or/and ferulic acid, and used to prepare set-yoghurt.The textural and rheological properties of the yoghurt samples prepared were measured with Texture Profile Analyzer and Rheometer and compared to that of control.The results showed that treatment of bovine milk with horseradish peroxidase or/and ferulic acid did not impact the main compositions of the yoghurt samples, but clear influence on the texture and rheology.Compared to that of control, the hardness or the adhesiveness of the yoghurt samples with gelatin addition, horseradish peroxidase treatment, or horseradish peroxidase plus ferulic acid treatment had an increase of 38.03, 34.07 and 17.08% , or 45.13 , 40.85 and 28.36% , respectively, while the syneresis of these samples had a decrease of 12.02, 6.28 and 3.41% , respectively.Also, the apparent viscosities, thixotropy and viscoelastic behaviors of these samples were in the order of the yoghurt with gelatin addition, the yoghurt with horseradish peroxidase plus ferulic acid treatment, the yoghurt samples with horseradish peroxidase treatment

  15. Effect of colostrum on gravity separation of milk somatic cells in skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, S R; Barbano, D M

    2014-02-01

    Our objective was to determine if immunoglobulins play a role in the gravity separation (rising to the top) of somatic cells (SC) in skim milk. Other researchers have shown that gravity separation of milk fat globules is enhanced by IgM. Our recent research found that bacteria and SC gravity separate in both raw whole and skim milk and that heating milk to >76.9 °C for 25s stopped gravity separation of milk fat, SC, and bacteria. Bovine colostrum is a good natural source of immunoglobulins. An experiment was designed where skim milk was heated at high temperatures (76 °C for 7 min) to stop the gravity separation of SC and then colostrum was added back to try to restore the gravity separation of SC in increments to achieve 0, 0.4, 0.8, 2.0, and 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins. The milk was allowed to gravity separate for 22 h at 4 °C. The heat treatment of skim milk was sufficient to stop the gravity separation of SC. The treatment of 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins was successful in restoring the gravity separation of SC as compared with raw skim milk. Preliminary spore data on the third replicate suggested that bacterial spores gravity separate the same way as the SC in heated skim milk and heated skim milk with 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins. Strong evidence exists that immunoglobulins are at least one of the factors necessary for the gravity separation of SC and bacterial spores. It is uncertain at this time whether SC are a necessary component for gravity separation of fat, bacteria, and spores to occur. Further research is needed to determine separately the role of immunoglobulins and SC in gravity separation of bacteria and spores. Understanding the mechanism of gravity separation may allow the development of a continuous flow technology to remove SC, bacteria, and spores from milk. PMID:24342686

  16. Sequence Variations in the Bovine Growth Hormone Gene Characterized by Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (Sscp) Analysis and Their Association with Milk Production Traits in Holsteins

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, J; Aggrey, S E; Zadworny, D.; Hayes, J. F.; Kuhnlein, U

    1996-01-01

    Sequence variations in the bovine growth hormone (GH) gene were investigated by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of seven amplified fragments covering almost the entire gene (2.7 kb). SSCPs were detected in four of these fragments and a total of six polymorphisms were found in a sample of 128 Holstein bulls. Two polymorphisms, a T->C transition in the third intron (designated GH4.1) and an A->C transversion in the fifth exon (designated GH6.2), were shown to be associat...

  17. Screening of adulterants in milk powder using a high-throughput Raman chemical imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk is one of the most common targets for economically motivated adulteration. Adulterants in milk can cause illness and death when consumed, thus rapid and accurate detection method is needed for authenticating milk products. Our previous studies based on a point-scan Raman imaging system have dem...

  18. Técnica rápida de neutralização viral para a detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV no leite A rapid virus-neutralization test for detection of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer Charles Fernando Capinos

    2002-04-01

    positivos através do leite enviado rotineiramente para contagem de células somáticas (CCS, reduzindo significativamente os custos com a coleta individual, transporte e teste de amostras.The identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV positive herds through detection of antibodies in milk may viabilize large scale control/eradication programs. With this objective, the virus neutralization test (VN was adapted to detect BVDV antibodies in milk. The adaptation consisted of a reduction in the time of incubation followed by detection of viral antigens in the indicator cells by immunofluorescence (IFA and allowed readings at 24 hours. The rapid virus neutralization test (RVN was initially tested in 1,335 serum samples, showing a 93.7% sensitivity and 91.1% agreement with the traditional VN. The RVN was also used to test 423 bovine sera that were toxic for cell culture in the traditional VN test, detecting 316 (74.7% positive samples. Testing of matched serum and milk samples from BVDV seropositive cows showed that the VNR can detect antibodies in the milk of cows with serum neutralizing titers as low as 10. Anti-BVDV neutralizing activity was detected in milk of 97.4% (191/196 of cows with serum titers ³320; in 92.9% (79/85 of cows with titers of 160; in 88% (59/67 of cows with serum titers of 80. The frequency of BVDV antibodies in milk was 76.9% (40/52 for cows with serum titers of 40; 61.3% (19/31 for cows with titers of 20 and 33.3% (10/30 for cows with serum titers of 20. These results demonstrate that the RVN test is adequate for detecting BVDV antibodies in milk, mainly in cows having moderate to high serum titers, and therefore may be used for testing bulk milk samples to identify herds with viral activity. The use of this test may viabilize large scale programs for control/eradication of BVDV infection. It allows to assay a large number of samples and identify positive herds through testing milk routinely submitted for somatic cell counts (SCC, reducing costs

  19. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G' value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese.

  20. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ricardo de Castro Leite Júnior

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH (up to 190 MPa on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities, and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure. Although the proteolytic activity (PA was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G' value 92% higher after 90 minutes when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy. These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese.

  1. Milk: the new sports drink? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Brian D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been growing interest in the potential use of bovine milk as an exercise beverage, especially during recovery from resistance training and endurance sports. Based on the limited research, milk appears to be an effective post-resistance exercise beverage that results in favourable acute alterations in protein metabolism. Milk consumption acutely increases muscle protein synthesis, leading to an improved net muscle protein balance. Furthermore, when post-exercise milk consumption is combined with resistance training (12 weeks minimum, greater increases in muscle hypertrophy and lean mass have been observed. Although research with milk is limited, there is some evidence to suggest that milk may be an effective post-exercise beverage for endurance activities. Low-fat milk has been shown to be as effective, if not more effective, than commercially available sports drinks as a rehydration beverage. Milk represents a more nutrient dense beverage choice for individuals who partake in strength and endurance activities, compared to traditional sports drinks. Bovine low-fat fluid milk is a safe and effective post exercise beverage for most individuals, except for those who are lactose intolerant. Further research is warranted to better delineate the possible applications and efficacy of bovine milk in the field of sports nutrition.

  2. Milk: the new sports drink? A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Brian D

    2008-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the potential use of bovine milk as an exercise beverage, especially during recovery from resistance training and endurance sports. Based on the limited research, milk appears to be an effective post-resistance exercise beverage that results in favourable acute alterations in protein metabolism. Milk consumption acutely increases muscle protein synthesis, leading to an improved net muscle protein balance. Furthermore, when post-exercise milk consumption is combined with resistance training (12 weeks minimum), greater increases in muscle hypertrophy and lean mass have been observed. Although research with milk is limited, there is some evidence to suggest that milk may be an effective post-exercise beverage for endurance activities. Low-fat milk has been shown to be as effective, if not more effective, than commercially available sports drinks as a rehydration beverage. Milk represents a more nutrient dense beverage choice for individuals who partake in strength and endurance activities, compared to traditional sports drinks. Bovine low-fat fluid milk is a safe and effective post exercise beverage for most individuals, except for those who are lactose intolerant. Further research is warranted to better delineate the possible applications and efficacy of bovine milk in the field of sports nutrition.

  3. Lactoperoxidase activity in milk is correlated with somatic cell count in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, N; Kubota, H; Yamasaki, A; Yoshimura, Y

    2011-08-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is a milk protein with antimicrobial function. The present study was undertaken to examine the correlation between LPO activity and somatic cell count (SCC) in milk to use LPO activity as an indicator of mastitis. Composite milk of 36 cows and quarter milk of 3 cows were collected once per week from 0 to 300 d postpartum and twice per day for 1 wk, respectively. For the measurement of LPO activity, milk was mixed with tetramethylbenzidine solution and incubated at 37°C for 30 min, followed by the measurement of optical density. When only milk with low SCC (132±12×10(3) cells/mL) was used, a significant decrease in LPO activity was detected in primiparous cows from 0 to 4 mo postpartum. Lactoperoxidase activities of primiparous cows in mo 1, 2, and 3 postpartum were significantly higher than those in multiparous cows. When composite milk was divided based on LPO activity, the SCC was significantly higher in the groups with LPO activity >5 and from 3 to 3.9 U/mL in the second- and fourth-parity cows, respectively, compared with the group with LPO activity <2U/mL. Extremely high SCC were found in the ≥fifth-parity cows, even in low-LPO activity groups. In the case of quarter milk, higher LPO activity was associated with increased SCC in all 3 cows. The percentage of quarter milk samples with high SCC (4,062±415×10(3) cells/mL) increased with an increase in the LPO activity. The percentage of quarter milk samples with high SCC was 50.0 to 100% in the milk with LPO activity ≥5 U/mL. These results indicate that the correlation of LPO activity to the SCC in bovine milk may point to the potential use of the former as an indicator of SCC.

  4. Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Fretté, Xavier; Kristensen, Troels;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to study to what extent grazing large amounts ofwhite clover (WCL), red clover (RCL), lucerne (LUC) or chicory (CHI) was suitable for production of bovine milk with a high milk fat content of tocopherols, carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and conjugated......), carotenoids (6 μg g−1) and α-tocopherol (21 μg g−1 milk fat). There were minor differences between herbage types and periods, but multivariate analysis of these data showed no clear grouping. Chemical composition of herbage varied with species as well as period, but it was not possible to relatemilk and feed...... contents of specific fatty acids, carotenoids or tocopherols. CONCLUSION: All four herbages tested were suitable for production of milk with a high content of beneficial compounds. Thus any of these herbages could be used in production of such differentiated milk based on a large proportion of grazing...

  5. Mass spectrometric detection of multiple extended series of neutral highly fucosylated N-acetyllactosamine oligosaccharides in human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenninger, Anja; Chan, Shiu-Yung; Karas, Michael; Finke, Berndt; Stahl, Bernd; Costello, Catherine E.

    2008-12-01

    Complex mixtures of high-molecular weight fractions of pooled neutral human milk oligosaccharides (obtained via gel permeation chromatography) have been investigated. The subfractions were each permethylated and analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry, in order to investigate their oligosaccharide compositions. The obtained spectra reveal that human milk contains more complex neutral oligosaccharides than have been described previously; the data show that these oligosaccharides can be highly fucosylated, and that their poly-N-acetyllactosamine cores are substituted with up to 10 fucose residues on an oligosaccharide that has 7-N-acetyllactosamine units. This is the first report of the existence in human milk of this large range of highly fucosylated oligosaccharides which possess novel, potentially immunologically active structures.

  6. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of...

  7. Ocorrência de mastite bovina em fazendas produtoras de leite B no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of bovine mastitis in grade B milk farms in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Laranja

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período compreendido entre os meses de Março/1991 e Fevereiro /1992 foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a prevalência da mastite bovina em 07 fazendas produtoras de leite tipo B de diferentes regiões do estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas 1683 vacas que deram origem a 7695 resultados do CMT e das quais foram coletadas 983 amostras de leite para realização do exame microbiológico. A análise do CMT indicou 47,0% de vacas com CMT negativo, 15,1% CMT + e 37,5% CMT ++/+ + + . Os escores do CMT foram distribuidos segundo o número de lactação (1ª lactação, 2ª lactação e 3ª ou + lactações e segundo o estágio de lactação (1-30 dias de lactação, 31-90 dias, 91-250 dias e > 250 dias. A análise dos dados demonstrou que houve um efeito significativo (p From March/1991 to February/1992 1,683 cows from seven grade "B" milk producing dairy farms were used in a study on the prevalence of bovine mastitis. GMT tests (7,695 were 47.0% negative; 15.1% " +" and 37.5% "++/+ + +". CMT scores were grouped by number of lactation (1st, 2nd, 3rd or more and by stage of lactation (1-30 days in milk; 31-90 days; 91-250 and > 250 days. Both stage of lactation and number of lactation had significant effect on % of cows CMT "++/+ + + ". Microbiological results from 983 milk samples were 50.97% positive. From the positive samples were isolated Staphylococcus sp (44.6%, Corynebacteríum sp (15.0%, Streptococcus sp (8.2%, Yeast/Fungi (5.4%. Bacillus sp (4.4%, E. coli (3.2% and Klebsiella sp (0.2%. Considering both pure and mixed culture isolation, Staphylococcus sp represents 55.6%, Corynebacteríum sp, 18.6% and Streptococcus sp, 15.0%.

  8. Biotribological behavior of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene composites containing bovine bone hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-long; ZHU Yuan-yuan; WANG Qing-liang; GE Shi-rong

    2008-01-01

    Wear particles of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are the main cause of long-term failure of total joint replacements. Therefore, increasing its wear resistance or bioactivity will be very useful in order to obtain high quality artificial joints. In our study, UHMWPE composites filled with the bovine bone hydroxyapatite (BHA) were prepared by the method of compression moulding. A ball-on-disc wear test was carried out with a Universal Micro-Tribometer to investigate the friction and wear behavior of a Si3N4 ceramic ball, cross-sliding against the UHMWPE/BHA composites with human plasma lubrication. At the same time, the profiles of the worn grooves on the UHMWPE/BHA surface were scanned. The experimental results indicate that the addition of BHA to UHMWPE had a significant effect on the biotribological behavior of UHMWPE cross-sliding against the Si3N4 ceramic ball. The addition of BHA powder enhanced the hardness and modulus of elasticity of these composites and decreased the friction coefficients and wear rates under conditions of human plasma lubrication. When the added amount of BHA powders was up to 20%~30%, UHMWPE/BHA composites demonstrated the designed performance of the mechanical properties and biotribological behavior.

  9. Bovine lactoperoxidase - a versatile one- and two-electron catalyst of high structural and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Srijib; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO), a member of the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily, is found in multiple human exocrine secretions and acts as a first line of defense against invading microorganisms by production of antimicrobial oxidants. Because of its ability to efficiently catalyze one- and two-electron oxidation reactions of inorganic and organic compounds, the heme peroxidase is widely used in food biotechnology, cosmetic industry, and diagnostic kits. In order to probe its structural integrity, conformational, and thermal stability, we have undertaken a comprehensive investigation by using complementary biophysical techniques including UV-Vis, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The oxidoreductase exhibits a high chemical and thermal stability under oxidizing conditions but is significantly destabilized by addition of DTT. Due to its unique ester bonds between the prosthetic group and the protein as well as six intra-chain disulfides, unfolding of the central compact (-helical core occurs concomitantly with denaturation of the heme cavity. The corresponding enthalpic and entropic contributions to the free enthalpy of unfolding are presented. Together with spectroscopic data they will be discussed with respect to the known structure of bovine LPO and homologous myeloperoxidase as well as to its practical application.

  10. [Biomaterials for bone filling: comparisons between autograft, hydroxyapatite and one highly purified bovine xenograft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappard, D; Zhioua, A; Grizon, F; Basle, M F; Rebel, A

    1993-12-01

    Bone grafts are becoming increasingly common in orthopaedics, neurosurgery and periodontology. Twenty one New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study comparing several materials usable as bone substitutes. A 4.5 mm hole was drilled in the inner femoral condyles. Holes were filled with either an autograft (from the opposite condyle), an hydroxylapatite (Bioapatite), or a highly purified bovine xenograft (T650 Lubboc). Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months post implantation and a quantitative analysis of newly-formed bone volume (BNF/IV) and remaining biomaterials (BMAT/IV) was done. In addition, some holes were left unfilled and served as controls. At 6 months, there was no tendency for spontaneous repair in the control animals. The autografted animals have repaired their trabecular mass and architecture within the first month. Hydroxylapatite appeared unresorbed at six months and only thin and scanty new trabeculae were observed. The xenograft induced woven bone trabeculae formation on the first month. This was associated with resorption of the material by two multinucleated cell populations. At six months, the epiphyseal architecture was restored and the biomaterial has disappeared in most cases. Xenografts appear a promising alternative to autografts and allografts, whose infectious risks and ethical problems should always be borne in mind.

  11. Effect of high-pressure-moderate-temperature processing on the volatile profile of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Landaverde, Pedro A; Torres, J Antonio; Qian, Michael C

    2006-11-29

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure on volatile generation in milk were investigated in this study. Raw milk samples were treated under different pressures (482, 586, and 620 MPa), temperatures (25 and 60 degrees C), and holding times (1, 3, and 5 min). Samples submitted to heat treatments alone (25, 60, and 80 degrees C for 1, 3, and 5 min) were used for comparison. Trace volatile sulfur compounds were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography (GC) with pulsed-flame photometric detection (PFPD), whereas the rest of the volatile compounds were analyzed using SPME-GC with flame ionization detection (FID). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the effect of pressure, temperature, and time on volatile generation. Relative concentration increases of 27 selected volatile compounds were compared to an untreated sample. It was found that pressure, temperature, and time, as well as their interactions, all had significant effects (P samples at 60 degrees C was different from that of heated-alone samples. Heat treatment tended to promote the formation of methanethiol, hydrogen sulfide, methyl ketones, and aldehydes, whereas high-pressure treatment favored the formation of hydrogen sulfide and aldehydes. PMID:17117808

  12. Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Tao

    Full Text Available High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD group and low concentrate diet (LCD group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, fatty acid synthetase (FASN and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA, ACCα involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk.

  13. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen

    2014-04-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans. PMID:24571383

  14. Structure, function and nutritional potential of milk osteopontin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Brian Søndergaard; Sørensen, Esben Skipper

    2016-01-01

    in cancer related events. In this article, we review the differences between milk-derived OPN and OPN derived from transformed cells and compare the structure of OPN from human and bovine milk. Furthermore, current knowledge about the function of OPN in milk and recent findings about the effect of orally...

  15. New method for the analysis of flukicide and other anthelmintic residues in bovine milk and liver using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Brian; Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovska, Katerina; Lightfield, Alan R; Furey, Ambrose; Danaher, Martin

    2009-04-01

    A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous quantification and identification of 38 residues of the most widely used anthelmintic veterinary drugs (including benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones, and flukicides) in milk and liver has been developed and validated. For sample preparation, we used a simple modification of the QuEChERS method, which was initially developed for pesticide residue analysis. The method involved extracting sample (10 g) with acetonitrile (10 mL), followed by phase separation from water (salting out) with MgSO(4):NaCl (4:1, w/w). After centrifugation, an aliquot of the extract (1 mL) was purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction with MgSO(4) (150 mg) and C(18) (50mg), prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Two injections of the same extract were required with the LC-MS/MS instrument to cover the 30 electrospray positive and 8 electrospray negative analytes. The limit of quantitation of the method was 5 microgkg(-1) for 37 analytes (and 10 microgkg(-1) for dichlorvos). The method was successfully validated according to the 2002/657/EC guidelines. Recovery of analytes was typically in the 70-120% range, with repeatabilities and reproducibilities typically milk and <20% in liver. PMID:19286030

  16. 响应面法优化牛乳蛋白的水解工艺研究%Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Bovine Milk Protein Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付莉; 岳喜庆; 赵凯

    2012-01-01

    为降低牛乳蛋白中的致敏蛋白含量,制备婴儿配方乳.利用蛋白酶水解牛乳蛋白,在筛选出最佳酶解用酶的基础上,以胰蛋白酶浓度、酶解时间、酶解温度为影响因子,在单因素试验结果的基础上,应用Centure-Composite Design中心组合方法进行三因素三水平的实验设计,以牛乳蛋白水解度为响应值,运用响应面法对水解条件进行进一步优化.结果表明:酶浓度、酶解时间对牛乳蛋白水解度影响显著;牛乳蛋白质水解的最佳工艺为:以胰蛋白酶为水解用酶,水解温度为54.65℃,酶添加量为0.79%,酶解时间为47.01 min.回归方程预测牛乳蛋白水解度理论值可达到20.78%;3次验证实验的平均水解度20.74%,与预测值相对误差为0.2%.说明利用响应面实验设计研究出胰蛋白酶水解牛乳蛋白最佳工艺,为婴儿配方乳的生产奠定了基础.%The aim was to reduce allergenic protein content in milk proteins for producing infant formula milk. We hydrolyzed milk protein based on screened best enzyme and based on trypsin concentration, hydrolysis time, hydrolysis temperature viewed as influence factors. We used single factor experiments and Centure-composite Design Center combination method of three factors and three levels experimental design to further optimize hydrolysis condition. The effect of enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time were significant. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were optimized as following: enzyme concentration 0.79%, hydrolysis temperature 54.65℃ and time 47.01 min. Regression equations predicting milk protein hydrolysis degree theory value could reached 20.78%, the average degree of hydrolysis of three times experiment could reached 20.74%, compared with predictive value the relative error was 0.2%. We successfully developed the optimum hydrolysis conditions of trypsin by response surface experimental design which laid a foundation on infant formula milk production.

  17. Impact of Diet Supplemented by Coconut Milk on Corticosterone and Acute Phase Protein Level under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of coconut milk supplementation on corticosterone and acute phase protein level under high stocking density. A total 300 Cobb 500 male chicks were placed in cages and stocked as 10 birds/cage (normal stocking density and 15 birds/cage (high stocking density. The treatments were as (i control diet and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (ii control diet + 3% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (iii control diet + 5% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage. On day 42, 20 birds per treatment were slaughtered to collect blood samples. The results showed higher level of corticosterone and acute phase protein level in control diet compare to other supplemented diets with coconut milk. In conclusion, coconut milk decreased the level of corticosterone and acute phase protein when chicks were subjected to high stocking density.

  18. Evaluating the Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (UHPH and Pasteurization effects on the quality and shelf life of donkey milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cephas Nii Akwei Addo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donkey milk has functional properties of great interest to human nutrition. The effects of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH at 100 MPa, 200 MPa and 300 MPa in comparison with different pasteurization treatments of 70 °C for 1 min and 85 °C for 1 min on the physicochemical quality and shelf-life of treated and raw (untreated donkey milk were studied. Gross composition and pH, total mesophilic counts, lysozyme activity and physical stability were studied during storage at 4 °C for 28 days. The compositional profile showed resemblance to that of human milk characterized by high lactose, low fat and low protein content and was least affected by the treatments. UHPH treatments at 200 MPa, 300 MPa and 85 °C were able to maintain steady pH during storage whereas the low intensity treatments showed a significant decrease. The observed lysozyme activity in the samples was generally high and appeared to have been enhanced by the applied UHPH and pasteurization treatments with no significant change during storage. Although the raw milk showed good initial microbial quality, extensive growth of mesophilic microorganisms occurred after 7 days of storage, unlike the treated samples which were able to maintain significantly low counts throughout the storage period. The physical stability of milk was negatively influenced by the higher UHPH treatments of 200 MPa and 300 MPa which exhibited sedimentation phenomenon, while creaming was insignificant.

  19. Food contaminant analysis at high resolution mass spectrometry: application for the determination of veterinary drugs in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-González, R; Aguilera-Luiz, M M; Plaza-Bolaños, P; Frenich, A Garrido; Vidal, J L Martínez

    2011-12-30

    Veterinary drugs (VDs) can remain in milk as a consequence of their use in livestock. In order to control the levels of VD residues in milk, screening methodologies can be applied for a rapid discrimination among negative and non-negative samples. In a second stage, non-negative samples are classified as negative or positive samples by using a confirmation method. Pre-target screening methods in low resolution MS (LRMS) are normally applied, but the number of analytes is limited, whereas the information obtained by full scan acquisition in high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is improved. Here, three screening methods (running time<4 min) based on Orbitrap, quadrupole-time of flight (QqTOF) and triple quadrupole (QqQ) have been compared, using in all cases ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). For HRMS, the identification of the VDs was based on retention time (RT) and accurate mass measurements. Confirmation was based on the monitoring of fragments generated without precursor selection. The performance characteristics of the screening method provided reliable information regarding the presence or absence of the compounds below an established value, including uncertainty region and cut-off values. Better results in terms of cut-off values (≤ 5.0 μg kg(-1), except for spiramycin with a cut-off of 13.4 μg kg(-1) for milk samples and 43.1 μg kg(-1) for powdered milk based, emamectin with a cut-off of 42.2 μg kg(-1) for milk samples and doxycycline, with a cut-off value of 15.8 μg kg(-1) in powdered milk-based infant formulae) and uncertainty region were obtained using the Orbitrap-based screening method, which was submitted to further validation and used to analyze different real milk samples. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis, providing reliable results. PMID:22098928

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of milk epithelial mucin of yaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yucai; ZHAO Xingbo; JIN Suyu; PENG Xianwen; BAI Wenlin

    2006-01-01

    Milk epithelial mucin (MUC1) of yaks was separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A total of nine types of MUC1 were revealed in 427 yaks from five yak breeds including Maiwa yak, Jiulong yak, Tianzhu white yak, Qinghai yak and Tibetan yak. The molecular weights of MUC1 are from 163 kD to 208 kD, most of which are larger than those of bovine. Population genetic analysis shows that the gene frequency and genotype frequency of yak MUC1 differ among breeds, with relatively high gene heterozygosity.The five yak breeds studied fall into two groups according to their milk MUC1 gene frequency, suggesting that milk MUC1 exhibits specificities for local yak groups.

  1. [Determination of six pesticides in milk using cloud point extraction-high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Cui, Yanmei; Liu, Wei; Yang, Mingmin; Chen, Jianbo

    2007-11-01

    The feasibility of employing cloud point extraction (CPE) as extraction and preconcentration method for the recovery of herbicides from milk samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis is demonstrated. An aqueous surfactant solution containing 60 g/L Tween 20 or Triton X-100 was heated with an appropriate concentration of (NH4)2SO4 or NaCl for the extraction of herbicides. The extract was analyzed by HPLC subsequently. Six herbicides in milk were analyzed simultaneously. The results showed that the linear dynamic ranges of detection were 20 - 10 000 microg/L for tralkoxydim, metribuzin and bromoxynil, 30 - 10 000 microg/L for mefenacet, and 50 - 10 000 microg/L for bensulfuron-methyl and nicosulfuron. The correlation coefficients were 0.998 1 - 0.999 7. The average recoveries of the six herbicides ranged from 85.09% to 96.74%. The relative standard deviations for the six herbicides were in the range of 1.90% - 3.98%. The limits of detection for the six pesticides were lower than the maximum residue limits (MRL) of China. The results indicate that the method is easier, faster, sensitive and produces less pollutants. PMID:18257303

  2. [Determination of six pesticides in milk using cloud point extraction-high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Cui, Yanmei; Liu, Wei; Yang, Mingmin; Chen, Jianbo

    2007-11-01

    The feasibility of employing cloud point extraction (CPE) as extraction and preconcentration method for the recovery of herbicides from milk samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis is demonstrated. An aqueous surfactant solution containing 60 g/L Tween 20 or Triton X-100 was heated with an appropriate concentration of (NH4)2SO4 or NaCl for the extraction of herbicides. The extract was analyzed by HPLC subsequently. Six herbicides in milk were analyzed simultaneously. The results showed that the linear dynamic ranges of detection were 20 - 10 000 microg/L for tralkoxydim, metribuzin and bromoxynil, 30 - 10 000 microg/L for mefenacet, and 50 - 10 000 microg/L for bensulfuron-methyl and nicosulfuron. The correlation coefficients were 0.998 1 - 0.999 7. The average recoveries of the six herbicides ranged from 85.09% to 96.74%. The relative standard deviations for the six herbicides were in the range of 1.90% - 3.98%. The limits of detection for the six pesticides were lower than the maximum residue limits (MRL) of China. The results indicate that the method is easier, faster, sensitive and produces less pollutants.

  3. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    OpenAIRE

    R. Giangiacomo; M.C. Curadi; M Orlandi; Civardi, G; T.M.P. Cattaneo

    2011-01-01

    Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975). Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002). In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and...

  4. Variation of Vitamin D in Cow’s Milk and Interaction with β-Lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gigliotti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is the collective name for a group of closely related lipids, whose main biological function is to maintain serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals from the diet. We used a commercially available ELISA method for the determination of vitamin D in bovine milk. Individual milk samples from two different Italian Friesian herds were analysed. The enzyme immunoassay method used was confirmed as a useful tool to measure the vitamin D in the milk as it greatly reduces the time required to perform the conventional HPLC analysis. An interesting variation was found among individual animals that may be associated with management factors and specific genetic effects. A relationship was highlighted between vitamin D and the genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin, the main bovine whey protein which is involved in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as retinol and vitamin D. The relatively high content of vitamin D in most milk samples suggests an opportunity to improve the natural content of vitamin D in milk either by acting on the herd management or selecting individuals genetically predisposed to produce milk with a higher vitamin D content.

  5. Biosynthesis of milk fat, protein, and lactose: roles of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Johan S; Lohakare, Jayant; Bionaz, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The demand for high-quality milk is increasing worldwide. The efficiency of milk synthesis can be improved by taking advantage of the accumulated knowledge of the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in the synthesis of fat, protein, and lactose in the mammary gland. Research in this area is relatively new, but data accumulated in the last 10 years provide a relatively clear picture. Milk fat synthesis appears to be regulated, at least in bovines, by an interactive network between SREBP1, PPARγ, and LXRα, with a potential role for other transcription factors, such as Spot14, ChREBP, and Sp1. Milk protein synthesis is highly regulated by insulin, amino acids, and amino acid transporters via transcriptional and posttranscriptional routes, with the insulin-mTOR pathway playing a central role. The transcriptional regulation of lactose synthesis is still poorly understood, but it is clear that glucose transporters play an important role. They can also cooperatively interact with amino acid transporters and the mTOR pathway. Recent data indicate the possibility of nutrigenomic interventions to increase milk fat synthesis by feeding long-chain fatty acids and milk protein synthesis by feeding amino acids. We propose a transcriptional network model to account for all available findings. This model encompasses a complex network of proteins that control milk synthesis with a cross talk between milk fat, protein, and lactose regulation, with mTOR functioning as a central hub.

  6. Determination of oxytetracycline in milk samples by polymer inclusion membrane separation coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Silva, Irma; Rodríguez, José A; Ramírez-Silva, Ma Teresa; Páez-Hernández, Ma Elena

    2012-03-01

    The determination of oxytetracycline in milk samples using a polymer inclusion membrane concept with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was studied. The membranes developed are composed by cellulose acetate as polymer base, Cyanex 923 as carrier and o-nitrophenyl octyl ether as plasticizer. In the optimal conditions, the method exhibits good linearity in the range 0.03-0.20 mg L(-1) with a limit of detection and quantification of 8.2 and 27.3 μg L(-1) respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of milk samples with high selectivity.

  7. Production of a highly immunogenic subunit ISCOM vaccine against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Roensholt, L.; Jensen, M.Holm;

    1999-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle in most countries. The main reservoir of virus in herds are BVDV persistently infected animals, which arise as a result of infection of the bovine fetus early in gestation. The spread of virus to the unborn fetus may be prevented......, concentration, and insertion of antigens into immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs). Vaccines based on two different Danish strains of BVDV were injected into calves and the antisera produced were tested for neutralising activity against a panel of Danish BVDV strains. The two vaccines induced different...

  8. 牛乳蛋白抗原性研究现状概述%Research on antigenic proteins of bovine milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宏新; 潘洁; 薛海燕

    2011-01-01

    Milk protein is an important indicator of the nutritional value of dairy products. The paper summarizes the major component, conformation,characteristic and the antigenicity of cow's protein. Specificity, interaction and the detection limitation of different determination were compared. In addition, the advantage and disadvantage of,enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were discussed.%乳蛋白是衡量乳制品营养价值的重要指标.文中介绍了牛乳蛋白的种类、结构、性质和抗原性强弱,比较了不同蛋白抗原的免疫抗体的特异性、交叉性、采用不同检测方法的检测限等.对酶联免疫吸附测定乳蛋白的优缺点进行了阐述,并展望了其应用前景.

  9. Composition of the milks of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops trucatus) and the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, S; Brew, K

    1986-01-01

    Milk samples from four individual bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) of known lactation stages were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate and lipid composition, as well as for activity levels of alpha-lactalbumin, the regulatory protein of lactose synthase. The milk from both species had relatively high protein and lipid levels, as reported previously for other marine mammals. The major proportion of the lipid was in the form of triglycerides. Dolphin milk contained an average of 2.2% neutral sugars, which was essentially all in the form of lactose, as determined by several criteria. Manatee milk samples contained 0.6% of neutral sugars, and a larger proportion (about 2%) of amino sugars. Lactose was not detected by enzymatic assay or paper chromatography, but HPLC analysis indicated the presence of low levels of lactose together with two components that were tentatively identified as oligosaccharides. alpha-Lactalbumin activity, determined by assay with bovine galactosyltransferase, was found in both dolphin and manatee milk. The level in dolphin milk was comparable with that found in bovine and other milk, but the level in the manatee was less than 10% of that in the dolphin. PMID:2873935

  10. Subunit and whole molecule specificity of the anti-bovine casein immune response in recent onset psychosis and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dickerson, F.B.; Halling, M.; Krivogorsky, B.; Haile, L.; Yang, S.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Bossis, I.; Xiao, J.; Dupont, D.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies show increased antibody levels to bovine casein in some individuals with schizophrenia. The immunogenicity of specific domains of bovine casein varies among people with milk sensitivities and thus could vary among different neuropsychiatric disorders. Using ELISAs and immunoblotting

  11. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina Louise; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products.

  12. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human...

  13. Determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) in probiotic cow's and goat's fermented milks and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marion P; Balthazar, Celso F; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Lazaro, Cesar A; Silva, Adriana C O; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte Junior, Carlos A

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the presence of biogenic amines in fermented cow's and goat's milks containing probiotic bacteria, during the first 10 days of chilled storage (4 ± 2°C), when the probiotic strains are most viable. The overall acceptance of both fermented milks, produced using the same starter culture and probiotics, was tested. In both products, the initially high levels of tyramine (560 mg kg(-1) means for both fermented milks), the predominant biogenic amine, increased during the storage period, which may be considered this amine as a quality index for fermented milks. The other principal biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and spermidine) were produced on days 1-5 of storage, and thereafter decreased. At the end of the 10th day, these amines, respectively, showed values of fermented cow's milk 20.26, 29.09, 17.97, and 82.07 mg kg(-1); and values of fermented goat's milk 22.92, 29.09, 34.85, and 53.85 mg kg(-1), in fermented cow's and goat's milk. Fermented cow's milk was well accepted compared to fermented goat's milk. The results suggested that the content of biogenic amines may be a criterion for selecting lactic acid bacteria used to produce fermented milks. PMID:25987991

  14. Highly sensitive detection of bovine serum albumin based on the aggregation of triangular silver nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling Ling; Ma, Fang Fang; Kuang, Yang Fang; Cheng, Shu; Long, Yun Fei; Xiao, Qiu Guo

    2016-02-01

    A simple, fast and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been developed based on the interactions between triangular silver nanoplates (TAgNPs) and BSA in the presence of Britton-Robison buffer solution (BR). Particularly, the wavelength of absorption maximum (λmax) of TAgNPs is red shifted in the presence of BSA together with Britton-Robinson buffer solution (BR, pH = 2.56), and the color of the solution changed from blue to light blue. This may be due to the interactions between BSA molecules on the surface of TAgNPs through electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic effects and van der Waals forces at pH 2.56, which leads to the aggregation of TAgNPs. The determination of BSA was achieved by measuring the change of λmax corresponding to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from UV-visible spectrophotometry. It was found that the shift value in the wavelength of absorption maximum (Δλ, the difference in absorption maxima of the TAgNPs/BSA/BR mixture and the TAgNPs/BR mixture) was proportionate to the concentration of BSA in the range of 1.0 ng mL- 1 to 100.0 ng mL- 1 with the correlation coefficient of r = 0.9969. The detection limit (3 σ/k) for BSA was found to be as low as 0.5 ng mL- 1.

  15. Bovine CD2-/NKp46+ cells are fully functional natural killer cells with a high activation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Preben; Olsen, Ingrid; Berg, Ingvild; Kulberg, Siri; Johansen, Grethe M; Storset, Anne K

    2006-01-01

    Background Natural killer (NK) cells in the cow have been elusive due to the lack of specific NK cell markers, and various criteria including a CD3-/CD2+ phenotype have been used to identify such cells. The recent characterization of the NK-specific NKp46 receptor has allowed a more precise definition of bovine NK cells. NK cells are known as a heterogeneous cell group, and we here report the first functional study of bovine NK cell subsets, based on the expression of CD2. Results Bovine CD2- NK cells, a minor subset in blood, proliferated more rapidly in the presence of IL-2, dominating the cultures after a few days. Grown separately with IL-2, CD2- and CD2+ NK cell subsets did not change CD2 expression for at least two weeks. In blood, CD2- NK cells showed a higher expression of CD44 and CD25, consistent with a high activation status. A higher proportion of CD2- NK cells had intracellular interferon-gamma in the cytoplasm in response to IL-2 and IL-12 stimulation, and the CD2- subset secreted more interferon-gamma when cultured separately. Cytotoxic capacity was similar in both subsets, and both carried transcripts for the NK cell receptors KIR, CD16, CD94 and KLRJ. Ligation by one out of two tested anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies could trigger interferon-gamma production from NK cells, but neither of them could alter cytotoxicity. Conclusion These results provide evidence that bovine CD2- as well as CD2+ cells of the NKp46+ phenotype are fully functional NK cells, the CD2- subset showing signs of being more activated in the circulation. PMID:16643649

  16. Microstructural Changes in High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded or Toasted Milk Protein Concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2016-02-01

    Milk protein concentrates with more than 80% protein (that is, MPC80) are underutilized as the primary protein source in high-protein nutrition bars as they impart crumbliness and cause hardening during storage. High-protein nutrition bar texture changes are often associated with internal protein aggregations and macronutrient phase separation. These changes were investigated in model high-protein nutrition bars formulated with MPC80 and physically modified MPC80s. High-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80s hardened slower than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80. Extruded MPC80 had reduced free sulfhydryl group exposure, whereas measurable increases were seen in the toasted MPC80. High-protein nutrition bar textural performance may be related to the number of exposed free sulfhydryl groups in MPC80. Protein aggregations resulting from ingredient modification and high-protein nutrition bar storage were studied with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disulfide-based protein aggregations and changes in free sulfhydryl concentration were not consistently relatable to high-protein nutrition bar texture change. However, the high-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were less prone to phase separations, as depicted by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and underwent less texture change during storage than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80.

  17. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    The central step in cheese making is the separation of milk into curd and whey. This can be done enzymatically by hydrolysis of the Phe105-Met106 bond or nearby bonds in bovine κ-casein, which releases its hydrophilic C-terminal leading to coagulation of the milk. The preferred enzyme...... and characterised, and turned out to have an even higher activity and specificity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond than bovine chymosin. The sequences of bovine and camel chymosin are 85% identical, and yet they have significantly different cheese making properties. The aim of the project was to explain...... this difference through the study of the structures of bovine and camel chymosin, and preparation of catalytically inactive enzymes in complex with substrate. Their milk-clotting activities was determined using the traditional assay on skimmed milk, and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay...

  18. N-acetyl -β-D-glucosaminidase activity in cow milk as an indicator of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovinen, Mari; Simojoki, Heli; Pösö, Reeta; Suolaniemi, Jenni; Kalmus, Piret; Suojala, Leena; Pyörälä, Satu

    2016-05-01

    Activity of lysosomal N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in milk has been used as an indicator of bovine mastitis. We studied NAGase activity of 808 milk samples from healthy quarters and quarters of cows with spontaneous subclinical and clinical mastitis. Associations between milk NAGase activity and milk somatic cell count (SCC), mastitis causing pathogen, quarter, parity, days in milk (DIM) and season were studied. In addition, the performance of NAGase activity in detecting clinical and subclinical mastitis and distinguishing infections caused by minor and major bacteria was investigated. Our results indicate that NAGase activity can be used to detect both subclinical and clinical mastitis with a high level of accuracy (0·85 and 0·99). Incomplete correlation between NAGase activity and SCC suggests that a substantial proportion of NAGase activity comes from damaged epithelial cells of the udder in addition to somatic cells. We therefore recommend determination of NAGase activity from quarter foremilk after at least six hours from the last milking using the method described. Samples should be frozen before analysis. NAGase activity should be interpreted according to DIM, at least during the first month of lactation. Based on the results of the present study, a reference value for normal milk NAGase activity of 0·1-1·04 pmoles 4-MU/min/μl for cows with ≥30 DIM (196 samples) could be proposed. We consider milk NAGase activity to be an accurate indicator of subclinical and clinical mastitis. PMID:27210494

  19. High prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus 'bovine genotype' in faecal samples from domestic pigs at a farm where bovine trichomonosis has not been reported for over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kai; Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Gilchrist, Katrina; Brown, Graeme; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-09-15

    Bovine venereal trichomonosis caused by the flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is a notifiable disease in Australia. While, T. foetus is pathogenic in both cattle and cats, it has long been established that the same T. foetus colonises the stomach, caecum and nasal cavity of pigs without apparent clinical significance. Multi-locus genotyping grouped the non-pathogenic porcine T. foetus with the pathogenic 'bovine genotype', rather than with the 'feline genotype' T. foetus. Bovine trichomonosis is now uncommon due to wide-spread use of artificial insemination, however, whether T. foetus remains prevalent in pigs where bovine trichomonosis has been eradicated remains unknown. We surveyed faecal samples from pigs farmed in close proximity with T. foetus-negative cattle. The Modified Diamond's Medium assay used were 77.4% (24/31) positive for trichomonads and 64.50% (20/31) were T. foetus-positive based on real-time PCR and conventional PCR. An axenic reference strain of T. foetus, designated PIG30/1 was established. In addition, a novel trichomonad ITS rDNA, PIG12, closely related to sequences from Trichomitus spp is reported. Multi-locus genotyping at nine loci matched PIG30/1 to the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus. In conclusion, cross-species transmission of T. foetus between pigs and cows from environmental exposure of T. foetus-contaminated pig faeces is unlikely. Domestic T. foetus-positive pigs possess a negligible risk of a successful T. foetus transmission event to cattle. PMID:26315128

  20. Inhibition of Escherichia coli by bovine colostrum and post-colostral milk. II. The bacteriostatic effect of lactoferrin on a serum susceptible and serum resistant strain of E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, B; Brock, J H; Steel, E D

    1975-01-01

    Two strains of Escherichia coli were inhibited by complement-inactivated cow serum and to a lesser extent by precolostral calf serum devoid of specific antibodies. They were not inhibited by undiluted colostral whey or milk but colostral whey became bacteriostatic after dialysis or dilution in Kolmer saline and addition of precolostral calf serum or lactoferrin. The inhibition in all these fluids was due to iron-binding proteins (transferrin or lactoferrin). Undiluted dialysed milk was not inhibitory because of its low content of lactoferrin but became inhibitory after addition of 1 mg/ml of lactoferrin. The lack of inhibition in undiluted whey is due to the high concentration of citrate in colostral whey (and milk) and it is suggested that citrate competes with the iron-binding proteins for iron and makes it availabe to the bacteria. Addition of bicarbonate, which is required for the binding of iron by transferrin and lactoferrin, can overcome the effect of citrate; hence, the bacteriostatic effect of cow serum and precolostral calf serum is due to the presence of both transferrin and bicarbonate as well as the low lefel of citrate. PMID:1090522

  1. Bacillus cereus in Brazilian Ultra High Temperature milk Bacillus cereus em leite UHT brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana de Paula Pacheco-Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Ultra High Temperature (UHT milk consumption has increased during the last decade from 187 to 4,200 million liters. In the continuous UHT process, milk is submitted for 2-4 s to 130-150ºC, in a continuous flow system with immediate refrigeration and aseptical packing in hermetic packages. This research had the purpose to verify the incidence of B. cereus species from the B. cereus group, in UHT milk. In 1998 high indexes of these organisms were reported, reaching 34.14% of the analyzed samples. Beyond this fact, there was the need to establish methods and processes adjusted for correct identification of B. cereus. Thus, commercial sterility tests of 6,500 UHT milk packages were investigated in two assays, after ten days incubation at 37ºC and 7ºC to germinate all possible spores and/or to recuperate injured vegetative cells followed by pH measurement. Samples (1,300 packages each from five Brazilian UHT plants of whole UHT milk processed by direct steam injection, packaged in carton were investigated for the presence of Bacillus cereus through phenotypic and genetic (PCR tests. Values of pH were different for the samples, ranging between 6.57 and 6.73. After storage of the samples, only four packages with pH measurement below the lower limit of 6.5 were found and analyzed for the presence of B. cereus. This organism was not detected in any of the samples indicating that the five Brazilian UHT milk processors control pathogenic microorganisms and it can be said that the consumption of UHT milk does not present safety problems to consumers. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and PCR tests were efficient and must be adopted to confirm the biochemical series for B. cereus.O consumo de leite ultra-alta temperatura (UHT brasileiro aumentou, durante a última década, de 187 milhões de litros para 4,200 milhões de litros. No processo contínuo de leite UHT o leite é submetido por 2-4 seg a 130-150ºC, em sistemas de

  2. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula. PMID:27234410

  3. The determination of the concentrations of Isoforms of Vitamin E in tissues, milk and blood via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) after short-term feeding in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of change in the concentrations of the four isoforms of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol) in bovine tissues (liver, mammary and muscle), blood and milk after short-term feeding of a vegetable-derived oil (Tmix) particularl...

  4. Characterizing Milk Production Related Genes in Holstein Using RNA-seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minseok; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Jeong, Jin Young; Park, Sungkwon; Oh, Young Kyun; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Although the chemical, physical, and nutritional properties of bovine milk have been extensively studied, only a few studies have attempted to characterize milk-synthesizing genes using RNA-seq data. RNA-seq data was collected from 21 Holstein samples, along with group information about milk production ability; milk yield; and protein, fat, and solid contents. Meta-analysis was employed in order to generally characterize genes related to milk production. In addition, we attempted to investigate the relationship between milk related traits, parity, and lactation period. We observed that milk fat is highly correlated with lactation period; this result indicates that this effect should be considered in the model in order to accurately detect milk production related genes. By employing our developed model, 271 genes were significantly (false discovery rate [FDR] adjusted p-valuemilk production related differentially expressed genes. Of these genes, five (albumin, nitric oxide synthase 3, RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 3, secreted and transmembrane 1, and serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit B) were technically validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in order to check the accuracy of RNA-seq analysis. Finally, 83 gene ontology biological processes including several blood vessel and mammary gland development related terms, were significantly detected using DAVID gene-set enrichment analysis. From these results, we observed that detected milk production related genes are highly enriched in the circulation system process and mammary gland related biological functions. In addition, we observed that detected genes including caveolin 1, mammary serum amyloid A3.2, lingual antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin 4 (CATHL4), cathelicidin 6 (CATHL6) have been reported in other species as milk production related gene. For this reason, we concluded that our detected 271 genes would be strong candidates for determining milk production

  5. The effect of high-sugar grass on predicted nitrogen excretion and milk yield simulated using a dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Parsons, A.J.; Rasmussen, S.; Edwards, G.R.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.

    2011-01-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential to reduce nitrogen (N) excretion and increase milk yield in cattle. However, considerable variation exists in the magnitude of response in published results. The purpose of this study is to explain the variation in r

  6. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Renye, John A; Feng, Ling; Zeng, Qingkun; Tang, Yan; Huang, Li; Ren, Daxi; Yang, Pan

    2016-09-01

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High-quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from 3 dairy farms in the Guangxi province in southern China. Five liters of each milk sample were pasteurized (72°C; 15 s); and both raw and pasteurized milks were stored at refrigeration temperature (1-4°C) for various times with their microbial communities characterized using the Illumina Miseq platform (Novogene, Beijing, China). Results showed that both raw and pasteurized milks contained a diverse microbial population and that the populations changed over time during storage. In raw buffalo milk, Lactococcus and Streptococcus dominated the population within the first 24h; however, when stored for up to 72h the dominant bacteria were members of the Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera, totaling more than 60% of the community. In pasteurized buffalo milk, the microbial population shifted from a Lactococcus-dominated community (7d), to one containing more than 84% Paenibacillus by 21d of storage. To increase the shelf-life of buffalo milk and its products, raw milk needs to be refrigerated immediately after milking and throughout transport, and should be monitored for the presence of Paenibacillus. Results from this study suggest pasteurization should be performed within 24h of raw milk collection, when the number of psychrotrophic bacteria are low; however, as Paenibacillus spores are resistant to pasteurization, additional antimicrobial treatments may be required to extend shelf-life. The findings from this study are expected to aid in improving the quality and safety of raw and pasteurized buffalo milk. PMID:27372588

  7. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  8. Gravity separation of fat, somatic cells, and bacteria in raw and pasteurized milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Melilli, C; Barbano, D M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to determine if the extent of gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells is influenced by the time and temperature of gravity separation or the level of contaminating bacteria present in the raw milk. The objective of experiment 2 was to determine if different temperatures of milk heat treatment affected the gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. In raw milk, fat, bacteria, and somatic cells rose to the top of columns during gravity separation. About 50 to 80% of the fat and bacteria were present in the top 8% of the milk after gravity separation of raw milk. Gravity separation for 7h at 12°C or for 22h at 4°C produced equivalent separation of fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. The completeness of gravity separation of fat was influenced by the level of bacteria in the milk before separation. Milk with a high bacterial count had less (about 50 to 55%) gravity separation of fat than milk with low bacteria count (about 80%) in 22h at 4°C. Gravity separation caused fat, bacteria, and somatic cells to rise to the top of columns for raw whole milk and high temperature, short-time pasteurized (72.6°C, 25s) whole milk. Pasteurization at ≥76.9°C for 25s prevented all 3 components from rising, possibly due to denaturation of native bovine immunoglobulins that normally associate with fat, bacteria, and somatic cells during gravity separation. Gravity separation can be used to produce reduced-fat milk with decreased bacterial and somatic cell counts, and may be a critical factor in the history of safe and unique traditional Italian hard cheeses produced from gravity-separated raw milk. A better understanding of the mechanism of this natural process could lead to the development of new nonthermal thermal technology (that does not involve heating the milk to high temperatures) to remove bacteria and spores from milk or other liquids.

  9. Transcriptomic and genomic evidence for Streptococcus agalactiae adaptation to the bovine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bovine mastitis, which is the dominant health disorder affecting milk production within the dairy industry and is responsible for substantial financial losses to the industry worldwide. However, there is considerable evidence for host adaptation (ecotypes) within S. agalactiae, with both bovine and human sourced isolates showing a high degree of distinctiveness, suggesting differing ability to cause mastitis. Here, we (i) generate RNAseq data from three S. agalactiae isolates (two putative bovine adapted and one human) and (ii) compare publicly available whole genome shotgun sequence data from an additional 202 isolates, obtained from six host species, to elucidate possible genetic factors/adaptations likely important for S. agalactiae growth and survival in the bovine mammary gland. Results Tests for differential expression showed distinct expression profiles for the three isolates when grown in bovine milk. A key finding for the two putatively bovine adapted isolates was the up regulation of a lactose metabolism operon (Lac.2) that was strongly correlated with the bovine environment (all 36 bovine sourced isolates on GenBank possessed the operon, in contrast to only 8/151 human sourced isolates). Multi locus sequence typing of all genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis using conserved operon genes from 44 S. agalactiae isolates and 16 additional Streptococcus species provided strong evidence for acquisition of the operon via multiple lateral gene transfer events, with all Streptococcus species known to be major causes of mastitis, identified as possible donors. Furthermore, lactose fermentation tests were only positive for isolates possessing Lac.2. Combined, these findings suggest that lactose metabolism is likely an important adaptation to the bovine environment. Additional up regulation in the bovine adapted isolates included genes involved in copper homeostasis, metabolism of purine, pyrimidine

  10. Induction and repair of DNA strand breaks in bovine lens epithelial cells after high LET irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark-Khan, C.; Heilmann, J.; Rink, H.

    The lens epithelium is the initiation site for the development of radiation induced cataracts. Radiation in the cortex and nucleus interacts with proteins, while in the epithelium, experimental results reveal mutagenic and cytotoxic effects. It is suggested that incorrectly repaired DNA damage may be lethal in terms of cellular reproduction and also may initiate the development of mutations or transformations in surviving cells. The occurrence of such genetically modified cells may lead to lens opacification. For a quantitative risk estimation for astronauts and space travelers it is necessary to know the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), because the spacial and temporal distribution of initial physical damage induced by cosmic radiation differ significantly from that of X-rays. RBEs for the induction of DNA strand breaks and the efficiency of repair of these breaks were measured in cultured diploid bovine lens epithelial cells exposed to different LET irradiation to either 300 kV X-rays or to heavy ions at the UNILAC accelerator at GSI. Accelerated ions from Z=8 (O) to Z=92 (U) were used. Strand breaks were measured by hydroxyapatite chromatography of alkaline unwound DNA (overall strand breaks). Results showed that DNA damage occurs as a function of dose, of kinetic energy and of LET. For particles having the same LET the severity of the DNA damage increases with dose. For a given particle dose, as the LET rises, the numbers of DNA strand breaks increase to a maximum and then reach a plateau or decrease. Repair kinetics depend on the fluence (irradiation dose). At any LET value, repair is much slower after heavy ion exposure than after X-irradiation. For ions with an LET of less than 10,000 keV μ -1 more than 90 percent of the strand breaks induced are repaired within 24 hours. At higher particle fluences, especially for low energetic particles with a very high local density of energy deposition within the particle track, a higher proportion of non

  11. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  12. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hwan Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa. The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX. The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  13. PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING ANEW METHOD TO OPTIMIZE A SPRAY DRYER PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY MILK POWDER FROM COW, GOAT AND SHE-ASS MILK CONCENTRATES

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Altieri; Giovanni Carlo Di Renzo; Francesco Genovese

    2008-01-01

    As quality is a very important factor in milk powder produced by drying, the optimal process must protect both nutritional and sensorial properties. Although heat damage indices (namely the insolubility index (IINS), thermal damage (IDT), protein denaturation) could be used to evaluate the correct processing of milk, they are very time-consuming. Hence a chemical marker, like vitamin C, is proposed for rapid assessment of the overall damage to the quality of the produced milk powder. Trials w...

  14. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J.D.; Hang’ombe, M. Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M.; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of

  15. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore J.D. Knight-Jones

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min, where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB and Brucellosis. Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration, with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more

  16. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow's Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J D; Hang'ombe, M Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow's milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30-120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100-223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of milk

  17. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doherty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine perinatal mortality is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high and low herd-level calf mortality. Thirty herds with a history of either high (case or low (control calf mortality were recruited. A herd-level questionnaire was used to gather information on management practices likely to impact bovine perinatal mortality. The questionnaire was divided into four subsections dealing with pre-calving (breeding, diet and body condition score, endemic infectious diseases and calving factors. Most of the significant differences between case and control herds were found in calving management. For example, in case herds, pregnant cattle were less likely to be moved to the calving unit two or more days and more likely to be moved less than 12 hours pre-calving, they were also less likely to calve in group-calving facilities and their calves were more likely to receive intranasal or hypothermal resuscitation. These management procedures may cause social isolation and periparturient psychogenic uterine atony leading to dystocia, more weak calves requiring resuscitation and high perinatal calf mortality. The key finding is that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality.

  18. Species distribution and resistance profiles of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, A.; Stephan, R.; DE ZIEGLER, D.; Johler, S.

    2013-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of bovine intra-mammary infections. They can lead to chronic infections and were reported to significantly increase milk somatic cell counts. The goal of our study was to determine the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of CNS in bovine mastitis milk samples in Switzerland. Between March 2011 and February 2012, a total of 120 CNS were isolated from mastitis milk samples from 117 different animals at 7...

  19. Milk and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health. PMID:21335990

  20. Effect of high pressures on the enzymatic activity of commercial milk protein coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Krystyna; Reps, Arnold; Jankowska, Agnieszka

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of high pressures in the range of 100-1000 MPa/15 min, applied in 100 MPa increments, on the coagulating and proteolytic activity of commercial coagulants produced with genetic engineering methods: Maxiren, Chymogen, Chymax and of a natural rennin preparation, Hala. The coagulating activity of Hala preparation differed compared with the other preparations, due to greater resistance to high pressures, especially in the range of 500-600 MPa. The preparations produced with genetic engineering methods lost their capability for milk protein coagulation by 500 MPa. Pressurization at 200 MPa contributed to their reduced capability for casein macroproteolysis. In contrast, an increase in Chymax, Chymogen, Maxiren and Hala preparations' hydrolytic capability for the macroproteolysis of isoelectric casein was observed upon pressure treatment at 100 and 400 MPa and for microproteolysis after pressure treatment at 200 MPa. Storage (48 h/5°C) of the pressurized preparations had an insignificant effect on their coagulating and proteolytic activities.

  1. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high yielding dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    de Visser

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, etc.During the last decades milk production from Dutch dairy herds has increased considerably. This increase in production, yield and content, was the result of a combination of improvements in genetic potential, due to br...

  2. QUALITY AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN MILK PRODUCTION AT S.C.D.C.B. ARAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANUŢA MAGDIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to highlight the importance of milking system on the quality and efficiency of milk production. The works were performed on 400 Romanian Simmental - Fleckvieh type cow from Research and Development Station for Bovine Raising – Arad. Milking system used consists of a milking equipment type Bradulet 2 x 14, with which milk 28 cows simultaneously. Data obtained from this study revealed a significant influence of the milking system used on the quantity, quality and economic efficiency. As a result of applying this milking technology obtain a ”clean" milk, creating the possibility of placement in the quality standards imposed by the EU.

  3. Effect of carryover and presampling procedures on the results of real-time PCR used for diagnosis of bovine intramammary infections with Streptococcus agalactiae at routine milk recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser; Mweu, Marshal Mutinda; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2014-01-01

    with Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in dairy herds with conventional milking parlours. Misclassification may result in unnecessary costs for treatment and culling. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the effect of carryover on PCR-positivity for S. agalactiae at different PCR cycle threshold...... (Ct) cut-offs by estimating the between-cow correlation while accounting for the milking order, and (2) evaluate the effect of aseptic presampling procedures (PSP) on PCR-positivity at the different Ct-value cut-offs. The study was conducted in four herds with conventional milking parlours at routine...... milk recordings. Following the farmers' routine pre-milking preparation, 411 of 794 cows were randomly selected for the PSP treatment. These procedures included removing the first streams of milk and 70% alcohol teat disinfection. Composite milk samples were then collected from all cows and tested...

  4. Freezing point of milk in a herd of high yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Golc Teger

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting the freezing point of milk in a herd of 200 Black and White cows with the average milk yield of 8 386 kg in the lactation and 8 328 kg in the standard lactation were examinated. Over the period of one year (2002 and based upon 1 773 individual monthly collected milk samples with the average contents of 3.91% fat, 3.26% protein, 4.54% lactose, 33.4 mg/100 ml urea and 331000 somatic cells per ml in milk were determined. The average freezing point of milk (n = 1 680 was estimated to be –0.527 ºC, with a range from -0.562 ºC to -0.423 ºC. In 210 (12.5% samples was higher than -0.515 ºC. The lowest freezing point (-0.532 ºC was found in the samples collected in the first month after calving and highest (-0.522 ºC in the samples of 12th month of lactation. The differences between the freezing point of milk after the first and the second calving (-0.530 ºC; P < 0.05 and those after the fifth calving (-0.523 ºC; P < 0.05 were also significant. The samples collected in month from January to April (-0.538 ºC to -0.532 ºC were significantly lower in comparison to samples collected in May and June (-0.517 ºC and -0.519 ºC. The following statistically significant correlation coefficients between cows' properties, milk composition and the freezing point of milk were found: month of lactation r = 0.233 (P < 0.001; lactation number r = 0.196 (P < 0.001; age of cows (years r = 0.231 (P < 0.001; month of the year r = 0.0253 (P < 0.001; milk yield per milking day r = -0.106 (P < 0.001; fat corrected milk content (FCM per milking day r = -0.234 (P < 0.001; lactose % r = -0.530 (P < 0.001; fat % r = -0.351 (P < 0.001; protein % r = 0.058 (P < 0.05; urea mg/100 mL r = 0.091 (P < 0.001 and somatic cell count r = 0.154 (P < 0.001. The sum of effects (month of the year, lactation lenght and fat, protein and lactose content of milk was found to account for about 70% variability of the total depression of milk freezing point (R2 = 0.698.

  5. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Heweliusza str 1., 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4{sup 0}C and 20{sup 0}C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20{sup 0}C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4{sup 0}C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  6. Monotreme Lactation Protein Is Highly Expressed in Monotreme Milk and Provides Antimicrobial Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R.; Nicol, Stewart C.; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Sharp, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female’s abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples. PMID:25245409

  7. Influence of high levels of dietary zinc in milk performance and biochemistry of lactating cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.J.; Clifton, C.M.; Fowler, P.R.; Perkins, H.F.

    1965-01-01

    Twenty-four lactating dairy cows were fed either a) 0, b) 500, c) 1000, or d) 2000 ppm of supplemental zinc (as ZnO) in the concentrate portion of the diet for 6 wk. Coastal Bermudagrass and Sudan grass silages were fed ad libitum as the only source of forage and constituted 43% of dry matter intake. Average zinc contents of the total dry matter of the four groups were: a) 44, b) 372, c) 692, and d) 1279 ppm. The level of supplemental zinc did not significantly affect milk production; FCM production; fat, SNF, protein, or magnesium content of milk; voluntary forage dry matter intake; body weight changes; blood hemoglobin; packed cell volume; blood serum lactic dehydrogenase; blood scrum alkaline phosphatase; or apparent animal health. The addition of the supplement zinc materially increased the zinc content of the milk. However, the higher levels had progressively less effect with the milk from cows given 1000 ppm supplemental zinc containing as much zinc as those fed 2000 ppm. The average ppm of zinc in the milk of the four groups were: a) 4.2, b) 6.7, c) 8.0, and d) 8.4. Recoveries of zinc in the milk as percentages of dietary zinc were: a) 12.5, b) 2.2, c) 1.6 and d) 0.8 for those fed the four levels of zinc. The blood plasma zinc concentration increased with increasing levels of supplemental zinc. The values were: a) 2.1, b) 3.2, c) 4.0, and d) 7.5 ppm. Thus, the zinc concentrations increased at a much more rapid rate in plasma than in milk. This suggests that the udder is discriminating against zinc at the higher dietary and blood levels. 14 references, 2 tables.

  8. Micellar high performance liquid chromatographic determination of flunixin meglumine in bulk, pharmaceutical dosage forms, bovine liver and kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathalla F. Belal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the analysis of flunixin meglumine (flunixin-M in bulk, pharmaceutical dosage forms, bovine liver and kidney. Analytical separation was performed in less than 4 min using a C18 column with UV detection at 284 nm. A micellar solution composed of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 8% n-butanol and 0.3% triethylamine in 0.02 M phosphoric acid buffered at pH 7.0 was used as the mobile phase. The method was fully validated in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were 0.02 and 0.06 μg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries obtained were in range of 95.58–106.94% for bovine liver and kidney. High extraction efficiency was obtained without matrix interference in the extraction process and in the subsequent chromatographic determination. The method showed good repeatability, linearity and sensitivity according to the evaluation of the validation parameters.

  9. QuEChERS-based extraction with dispersive solid phase extraction clean-up using PSA and ZrO2-based sorbents for determination of pesticides in bovine milk samples by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejczak, Tomasz; Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2017-02-15

    In this study, a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique was adapted to develop a simple sample treatment for multi-residue pesticide analysis in milk samples. The proposed method is based on liquid-liquid partitioning with acetonitrile followed by dispersive solid phase extraction clean-up using primary secondary amine along with zirconia-coated silica particles for extract purification. Identification and quantification of 30 pesticides was conducted via high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Recoveries were from 70 to 100% for the vast majority of the analytes, with relative standard deviations less than 20% being observed. HPLC-DAD provided suitable linearity, precision and accuracy. For 28 of 30 analytes in the study method limit of quantification values (mLOQs) comply with the most recent European Union guidelines for the maximum residue levels (MRLs) in milk. Negligible matrix effect was observed due to efficient extract clean-up with ZrO2-based sorbents. PMID:27664630

  10. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A G de Andrade

    Full Text Available The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP technique.The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations.The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention measures and controls.

  11. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begot, Alberto L.; Ramos, Ofir de S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Methodology We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. Findings The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations. Conclusion The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention

  12. Identification and characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolase constructs with activity in cow milk as potential antimicrobials for treatment of staphylococcal bovine mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis in dairy cows is a widespread infection of the mammary glands that leads to high losses in dairy production. Most members of the Gram-positive genus Staphylococcus can cause mastitis, with Staphylococcus S. aureus being one of the major pathogens. Intramammary application of antibiotics i...

  13. High breast milk IL-1β level is associated with reduced risk of childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A A; Chawes, B L; Carson, C G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated a dual effect of breastfeeding with increased risk of eczema and decreased risk of wheezing in early childhood by increasing breastfeeding length. We hypothesize that immune mediators in breast milk could explain such association either through a direct effect...... or as a surrogate marker of maternal immune constitution. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible association between cytokine and chemokine levels in breast milk and development of eczema and recurrent wheeze during early childhood. METHODS: Levels of 19 pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory...... eczema (aHR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68-0.98; P = 0.03). No associations were observed for recurrent wheeze. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Elevated breast milk IL-1β level was associated with decreased risk of early childhood eczema suggesting either a direct protective effect of IL-1β or IL-1b acting as...

  14. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in colostrum and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2011-01-01

    a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases....... The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted......, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes...

  15. A Highly Selective Colorimetric Sensor for Cysteine in Water Solution and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefang Shang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple colorimetric sensor, 2-bromonaphthalene-1,4-dione, has been developed for the Cysteine detection. The sensor showed its best performance in a mixture of ethanol and HEPES (5 : 5, v/v solution at pH of 7.0. The results of UV-vis and fluorescence indicated that 2-bromonaphthalene-1,4-dione was selective and sensitive for Cysteine detection without the interference of other amino acids (Cysteine, Alanine, Arginine, Aspartinie, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Phenylalanine, Valine, Tryptophan, and Hydroxyproline. 2-Bromonaphthalene-1,4-dione also showed binding ability for Cysteine in bovine serum albumin and could be used as a potential colorimetric sensor among eighteen kinds of natural amino acids. Importantly, the recognition of CySH could be observed by naked eye.

  16. Effects of β-Hydroxybutyric Acid on Relative Expression Levels of Genes Related to Milk Fat Synthesis in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells%β-羟丁酸对奶牛乳腺上皮细胞内乳脂肪合成及其相关基因相对表达量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常晨城; 齐利枝; 闫素梅; 生冉; 赵艳丽

    2015-01-01

    each well, then the plates were maintained in an incubator with 5% CO2 at 37 ℃. After 48 h, cells were ran-domly divided into 6 groups and cultured in DMEM/F12 medium containing different concentrations of BH-BA, FBS in medium was replaced with 1 g/L fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin ( BSA) . The final concen-trations of BHBA in reaction systems were 0 ( control) , 0.58, 1.16, 2.32, 4.64, 9.28 mmol/L, respectively. Continuous incubation in an incubator with 5% CO2 at 37℃ for 48 h. The results showed that BMECs prolifer-ation [ relative growth rate ( RGR) ] was significantly quadratic increased with BHBA concentration increasing (P=0.041), and BMECs proliferation of 0.58 to 4.64 mmol/L BHAB groups was high, but 9.28 mmol/L BHBA group was low. BHBA at low concentration (0.58 to 2.32 mmol/L) promoted lipid droplet formation, and the promoting effect of BHBA at high concentration (4.64 to 9.28 mmol/L) was weakened. No significant linear and quadratic relationships were found between BHBA concentration and TAG content (P>0.05). No significant linear and quadratic relationships were found between BHBA concentration and relative expression levels of genes related to milk fat synthesis ( fatty acid synthetase, acetyl-CoA carboxylaseα, stearyl coenzyme A desaturase, fatty acid binding protein 3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγand cluster of differenti-ation 36) ( P>0.05) . In conclusion, BMECs proliferation significantly quadratic increase with BHBA concen-tration increasing, namely BMECs proliferation has significant concentration-dependent relationship with BHBA concentration, and the milk fat synthesis has a improve trend by BHBA concentration.

  17. A 660-Kb Deletion with Antagonistic Effects on Fertility and Milk Production Segregates at High Frequency in Nordic Red Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole;

    The spectacular increase in productivity of dairy cattle has been accompanied by a decline in fertility. It is assumed that this reduction is due to the negative energy balance of high producing cows. We herein describe the dissection of a fertility QTL in Nordic Red cattle to a 660-Kb deletion...... on BTa 12. The deletion encompasses four genes and affects fertility by causing death in homozygous embryos. Despite its deleterious effect 32% of the Finnish Ayrshire animals carry the deletion. We show that the deletion has a positive effect on milk yield and that the balancing selection maintains...... it at a higher frequency. Our study demonstrates the Embryonic lethal mutations are partly responsible for decline in fertility and that associated positive effects on milk yield may partly account for the negative genetic correlation....

  18. A 660-Kb deletion with antagonistic effects on fertility and milk production segregates at high frequency in Nordic Red cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole;

    2014-01-01

    traits and found that the deletion has strong positive effects on milk yield. This study demonstrates that embryonic lethal mutations account for a non-negligible fraction of the decline in fertility of domestic cattle, and that associated positive effects on milk yield may account for part......In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has concomitantly severely declined. It is generally assumed that this reduction is primarily due...... to the negative energy balance of high-producing cows at the peak of lactation. We herein describe the fine-mapping of a major fertility QTL in Nordic Red cattle, and identify a 660-kb deletion encompassing four genes as the causative variant. We show that the deletion is a recessive embryonically lethal mutation...

  19. Diagnóstico de brucelosis bovina en leche por el Ring Test y ELISA en lecherías de la provincia de Ñuble (VIII Región Bovine brucellosis diagnosis in milk by Ring Test and ELISA in dairy farms of Ñuble (VIII Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. LOPEZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron los métodos de ELISA y Ring Test en leche para diagnosticar brucelosis bovina en estanques de recolección en frío a 60 predios lecheros de la provincia de Ñuble, VIII Región de Chile, durante los meses de noviembre y diciembre de 1995. Estos fueron estratificados en relación al número de vacas en producción de leche. Los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos fueron similares,18 muestras positivas y 42 negativas. La diferencia se estableció en 5 muestras (8.3% que fueron clasificadas como positivas débiles al Ring Test y confirmadas como positivas por ELISA. Se determinó que la prevalencia predial de brucelosis bovina fue de un 30% en predios lecheros con estanque enfriador en la provincia de Ñuble. El métodode ELISA resultó ser una prueba confiable para diagnosticar brucelosis bovina en leches colectivas.ELISA and Ring Test were compared as diagnostic tests for bovine brucellosis in bulk tank refrigerated milk from 60 dairies in the Ñuble Province, VIII Region, Chile, from November to December. Samples were stratified according to the number of cows in the farm. Diagnosis obtained from both methods gave similar results: 18 positive and 42 negative. The difference was established in 5 samples (8.3% that were classified as weak positive to the Ring Test and confirmed as positives by ELISA. Furthermore, it was determined that there was 30% prevalence of bovine brucellosis in dairies with refrigerated tanks in the Ñuble province. The ELISA proved to be a reliable diagnostic test of bovine brucellosis in bulk milk

  20. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  1. Avaliação sensorial de sorvete formulado com produto de soro ácido de leite bovino Ice-cream sensory evaluation formulated with product of acid bovine milk serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O soro de leite bovino é um subproduto da fabricação do queijo ou da caseína, existente na forma ácida ou doce. Constituído basicamente de água, proteínas, lactose e minerais, quando concentrado, implica na obtenção de vários ingredientes protéicos de alta funcionalidade e valor nutricional. Entretanto, a concentração do soro tem sido realizada apenas ao soro doce, sendo o soro ácido, devido às suas características, geralmente tratado como resíduo. Neste contexto, este artigo apresenta os resultados obtidos com a introdução de produto de soro ácido de leite na formulação de sorvete, em sistema modelo, verificando a percepção dos provadores para diferentes percentuais de substituição do leite desnatado. As amostras de sorvete foram preparadas com composição de mistura: 2,5% de gordura látea, 18,3% de sacarose, 2,3% de gema de ovo em pó e 0,3% de estabilizante-emulsificante e essência de baunilha. O sorvete padrão (P foi formulado com 10,09% de leite desnatado em pó. Quatro outras misturas foram preparadas com o produto de soro ácido em pó (SAP, substituindo o leite desnatado, em níveis 100, 80, 60 e 30%. A avaliação do efeito provocado no sorvete, devido à substituição do leite desnatado por SAP, foi efetuada por ensaio sensorial direcionado à percepção do gosto doce. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa (pWhey, by-product of cheese or casein production, is classified in sweet or acid whey. Composed by water, proteins, lactose and minerals, when concentrated it produces proteins ingredients with high functionality and nutritional value. However, whey protein manufacturing has been applied only to sweet whey. Acid whey has been generally dumped down as dairy waste. This paper shows results obtained from acid whey product addition in ice cream formulation, in model system, ascertaining by sensory evaluation the panelists acceptance for five different milk substitutions levels. Ice cream

  2. Markets, breastfeeding and trade in mothers' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie P

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to a special issue on the economics of breastfeeding draws attention to the lack of economic justice for women. Human milk is being bought and sold. Commodifying and marketing human milk and breastfeeding risk reinforcing social and gender economic inequities. Yet there are potential benefits for breastfeeding, and some of the world's poorest women might profit. How can we improve on the present situation where everyone except the woman who donates her milk benefits? Breastfeeding is a global food production system with unsurpassed capacity to promote children's food security and maternal and child health, but it is side-lined by trade negotiators who seek instead to expand world markets for cow's milk-based formula. Regulators focus on potential risks of feeding donated human milk, rather than on health risks of exposing infants and young children to highly processed bovine milk. Similarly, policymakers aspire to provide universal health care access that may be unaffordable when two thirds of the world's children are not optimally nourished in infancy, resulting in a global double burden of infectious and chronic disease. Universal breastfeeding requires greater commitment of resources, but such investment remains lacking despite the cost effectiveness of breastfeeding protection, support and promotion in and beyond health services. Women invest substantially in breastfeeding but current policy - epitomised by the G20 approach to the 'gender gap' - fails to acknowledge the economic value of this unpaid care work. Economic incentives for mothers to optimally breastfeed are dwarfed by health system and commercial incentives promoting formula feeding and by government fiscal policies which ignore the resulting economic costs. 'The market' fails to protect breastfeeding, because market prices give the wrong signals. An economic approach to the problem of premature weaning from optimal breastfeeding may help prioritise global maternity protection as

  3. Determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) in probiotic cow's and goat's fermented milks and acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Marion P; Balthazar, Celso F; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Lazaro, Cesar A; Silva, Adriana C O; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte Junior, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the presence of biogenic amines in fermented cow's and goat's milks containing probiotic bacteria, during the first 10 days of chilled storage (4 ± 2°C), when the probiotic strains are most viable. The overall acceptance of both fermented milks, produced using the same starter culture and probiotics, was tested. In both products, the initially high levels of tyramine (560 mg kg−1 means for both fermented milks), the predominant biogenic amine, increased during the storage...

  4. Application of MoS2 modified screen-printed electrodes for highly sensitive detection of bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkar, Manil; Sharma, Ashish; Kumar, Parveen; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash

    2016-10-01

    The present work reports the application of a new molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)-based electrochemical platform for highly sensitive quantitation of an iron-binding protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). The gold screen-printed electrodes were modified with MoS2 nanoflakes, followed by bioconjugation with anti-BSA antibodies. Using the above bioelectrode, cyclic voltammetric analysis was carried out in the presence of a Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) redox probe which exhibited a linear response of peak current with varying concentrations of BSA up to 10 ng/mL (with a detection limit of 0.006 ng/mL). This study is novel in that it shows a considerable enhancement of signal during electrochemical sensing of a protein. PMID:27639148

  5. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high yielding dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de H.

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, etc.During the last decad

  6. Determination of Beta-Lactam residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Brandão de Brito

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay beta-lactam residues in milk was developed and validated. Milk samples were spiked with standard solutions and deproteinated. The extract was cleaned-up on C18 SPE cartridge, the antibiotics eluted with acetonitrile:water (50:50 v/v and derivatized with acetic anhydride and 1-methyl-imidazole solution containing HgCl2. The chromatographic analysis was performed on C18 column using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 6.5 in the presence of Na2S2O3 gradient and detection at 325 nm. The method was selective for ampicillin, penicillin G and penicillin V, the latter used as internal standard. Average recoveries for ampicillin and penicillin G ranged, respectively, from 60.0% to 104.9% and from 82.7% to 109.2%, with coefficients of variation from 11.1% to 24.6%, and from 2.1% to 25.2%, indicating accuracy and precision. Detection limit of 4.0 µg/L for ampicillin and 3.0 µg/L for penicillin G, and quantification limits of 4.0 µg/L for both were estimated.Um método para determinar resíduos de antibióticos beta-lactâmicos em leite por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foi desenvolvido e validado. Amostras brancas foram adicionadas de padrão e desproteinizadas. O extrato foi purificado por extração em fase sólida C18, os antibióticos eluídos com acetonitrila:água (50:50 v/v e posteriormente derivatizados com anidrido acético e solução de 1-metil-imidazol contendo HgCl2. A análise cromatográfica foi realizada utilizando coluna C18, fase móvel composta por acetonitrila e tampão fosfato pH 6,5, na presença de Na2S2O3 em gradiente e detecção a 325 nm. O método foi seletivo para ampicilina, penicilina G e penicilina V, sendo este último utilizado como padrão interno. As médias de recuperação para ampicilina e penicilina G situaram-se, respectivamente, na faixa de 60,0% a 104,9% e de 82,7% a 109,2%, com coeficientes de varia

  7. Metabolic profile modifications in milk after enrofloxacin administration studied by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junza, A; Saurina, J; Barrón, D; Minguillón, C

    2016-08-19

    High resolution accurate mass spectrometry (HRMS) operating in full scan MS mode was used in the search and identification of metabolites in raw milk from cows medicated with enrofloxacin. Data consisting of m/z features were taken throughout the entire chromatogram of milk samples from medicated animals and were compared with blank samples. Twenty six different compounds were identified. Some of them were attributed to structures related to enrofloxacin while others were dipeptides or tripeptides. Additionally, enrofloxacin was administered in a controlled treatment for three days. Milk was collected daily from the first day of treatment and until four days after in the search for the identified compounds. The obtained data were chemometrically treated by Principal Component Analysis. Samples were classified by this method into three different groups corresponding to days 1-2, day 3 and days 4-7 considering the different concentration profile evolution of metabolites during the days studied. Tentative metabolic pathways were designed to rationalize the presence of the newly identified compounds. PMID:27425761

  8. Zeus, Aesculapius, Amalthea and the proteome of goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Fasoli, Elisa; Saletti, Rosaria; Muccilli, Vera; Gallina, Serafina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Foti, Salvatore

    2015-10-14

    The goat whey proteome has been explored in depth via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) at three different pH values. A total of 452 unique species have been tabulated, a proteome discovery so far unmatched in any single other investigation of milk from any mammalian species. This massive discovery is probably related to: i) the extraordinary load of proteins onto the CPLL beads (i.e. 2 g for each different pH captures) vs. barely 100 μL of beads; ii) the high resolution/high mass accuracy of mass spectral data; and iii) the use of two complementary tools, Mascot and PEAKS, each one contributing to a set of unique protein IDs. Due to the relative paucity of available protein annotations for goat, only 10% of the identified proteins belong to the capra, whereas 52% are specific of sheep and 37% are homologous to that of bovine milk. This work reports the largest description so far of the goat milk proteome, which has been compared with cow's milk proteome and would thus help to understand the importance of low-abundance proteins with respect to the unique biological properties of this nutrient. PMID:26193489

  9. [Determination of fructooligosaccharides in milk powder using high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Lijuan; Huang, Junrong; Feng, Feng; Jiang, Pingping; Chu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Feng; Ling, Yun

    2014-12-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are usually added in milk powder as a kind of prebiotic. Thus, quantitative analysis of the FOS is very important for the quality control of milk powder. In this study, a simple method for the simultaneous determination of three FOS components with degrees of polymerization (DP) 3-5 in milk powder was developed by high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The samples were extracted with 50% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solution and defatted by an On Guard RP pretreatment column. The separation was performed on a CarboPac PA200 column by gradient elution using deionized water, 0. 2 mol/L NaOH solution and 0. 4 mol/L NaAc solution as the mobile phases. The flow rate was 0. 4 mL/min. The column temperature was 30 °C; and the injection volume was 25 µL. Good linear response was observed in the concentration range of 0.05-10 mg/L (r2 >0. 9993). The limits of quantification were 0. 02, 0. 005 and 0. 02 mg/L for 1-kestose, nystose and fructofuranosyl-nystose, respectively. The mean recoveries varied from 86. 0% to 114. 0% at three spiked levels of 0. 5, 1. 0 and 5. 0 mg/L. The short-chain fructooligosaccharides from inulooligosaccharides (IOS) were successfully separated by the developed HPAEC-PAD method. The method is simple, accurate, sensitive, and helpful for the quality control of milk powder. PMID:25902647

  10. Efeito da utilização da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST sobre a produção de leite em búfalas Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST utilization on milk production from buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Jorge

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o resultado da utilização da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST atuando na produção de leite em búfalas da raça Murrah. Empregaram-se 28 búfalas multíparas da raça Murrah, divididas em dois grupos homogêneos de 14 animais, recebendo os seguintes tratamentos: Grupo 1 ¾ Controle (solução salina e Grupo 2 ¾ 500 mg de bST/cabeça a cada 14 dias, durante 7 meses. Búfalas tratadas com bST exibiram incrementos de 48,52%, 32,80% e 32,80% nas produções total de leite, corrigida, depois, para 4% de gordura e média diária, respectivamente. A somatotropina elevou a produção total de gordura sem alterar a porcentagem dela no leite. A administração de bST não afetou a porcentagem de proteína do leite todavia, a produção total de proteína foi aumentada. Quanto à duração da lactação, o tratamento com bST diferiu do controle, o que demonstra a maior persistência da lactação de búfalas tratadas com bST.The objective of this work was to study the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST utilization on milk production from Murrah buffaloes. Twenty eight multiparous Murrah buffaloes were used and divided into two homogeneous groups of 14 animals, receiving the following treatments: Group 1 ¾ Control (salt solution and Group 2 ¾ 500 mg of bST/head every 14 days during 7 months. Buffaloes treated with bST presented increase of 48.52%, 32.80% and 32.80% on total milk yield, adjusted to 4% of fat and average daily milk yield, respectively. Somatotropin increased total fat milk yield without alter fat percentage of milk. Administration of bST did not affect protein percentage of milk while total protein milk yield increased. As for the lactating period, the treatment with bST differed of the control, what might have denoted in larger persistence of the lactation from buffaloes treated with bST.

  11. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  12. Índices sobre astas bovinas altamente discriminantes - Highly discriminative bovine horn indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere-Miquel Parés Casanova.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPara este estudio fué examinada morfométricamente una pequeña muestrade veinte astas bovinas. A partir de las diferentes medidas lineales eíndices obtenidos se aplicó un análisis de componentes principales (ACP a fin de obtener las variables que capturaban una mayor variación en la muestra estudiada. El ACP indicó que los tres primeros componentes principales explicaban el 99,9 % de la variación total observada. of total morphological variation was explained with the first three principal components.SummaryMorphometrics of a small sample of twenty bovine horns are examined.Different lineal measures and indexes obtained as a result of theapplication of this procedure are then simplified by means of principal component analysis (PCA, in order to obtain variables that capture the greater possible variation in the analyzed sample. PCA indicated that 99.9 % of total morphological variation was explained with the first three principal components.

  13. IMPACT OF ZOOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS ON CELL QUALITY OF CATTLE MILK (SEMI-ARID COSTAL TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HAJ MBAREK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The work was realized on a sample of 50 cattle herds, conducted in aboveground, in a coastal area of the semi-arid Tunisia, by using investigation related to cows and their breeding and milking conditions as well as despoliation in milk control data. Analysis of the data relating to the parameters of udder conformation and cow cleanliness revealed that “Udder depth” settings “Udder cleanliness” have been shown to affect the ICC and are considered factors risk of bovine mastitis. The study of breeding and milking conditions highlight some significant factors on changes on the variation of cell counts and the probability of the spread of mastitis, especially the "No disinfection of teat." The level of housing, the analysis revealed that the use of a litter reduced to half the average of ICC which proved highly related to the cleanliness of both the sleeping area as the udder.

  14. Determination of Fructooligosaccharides in Milk and Milk Products by High Performance Ion Exchange Chromatography%高效离子色谱法测定乳及乳制品中低聚果糖含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉峰; 李东; 唐华澄; 张绩觅

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method was established to determine fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in milk and milk products by high performance ion exchange chromatography method with pulsed amperometric detection. The column was a CarboPac PAl (4 mm x 250 mm) anion exchange column. Fructooligosaccharides were separated under gradient elution mode. The mobile phase A was 150 mmol/L NaOH and the mobile phased B was composed of 150 mmol/L NaOH and 100 mmol/L sodium acetate. The relative standard derivations for 6 replicate determinations of four fructooligosaccharides in liquid milk were less than 9%. The average spike recovery rates for three fructooligosaccharides in liquid milk varied between 94.8% and 103.6%. The method was simple, fast and suitable for determining FOS in milk and milk products.%建立离子色谱法定量测定乳及乳制品中低聚果糖的方法,应用CarboPacTMPA1(4mm×250mm)阴离子交换柱、氢氧化钠和醋酸钠淋洗液梯度淋洗、脉冲安培检测器检测。6次测定液态奶中低聚果糖的含量,相对标准偏差小于9%,3种糖的加标回收率在94.8%~103.6%之间。本方法简单快捷,适用于乳及乳制品中低聚果糖含量的检测。

  15. Plasmin: indigenous milk proteinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important characteristic of plasmin, as significant indigenous milk proteinase, its concentration, concentration measuring procedure and activity of plasmin are described. The most important factors, which have an influence on concentration and plasmin activity in milk, are stage of lactation and mastitis (high somatic cell count – SCC. In high SCC milk indigenous proteinase activity increased, especially in plasmin and plasminogen system.Specific hydrolytic activity of plasmin during primary proteolysis of some casein fractions is described. ß-CN is most susceptible fraction, but αs1-CN and αs2-Cn are less susceptible to degradation by plasmin. Almost all fractions of κ-CN are resistant to degradation by plasmin. Activation of plasminogen to plasmin is very complex biochemical process influenced by activators and inhibitors in milk, and can be increased in high SCC milk. There are many various types of inhibitors in milk serum and ßlactoglobulin is the most important after its thermal denaturation. Addition of aprotinin and soybean tripsin inhibitors in milk inhibits plasmin activity. Most important characteristic of plasmin is its thermostability onpasteurisation and even sterilisation. Mechanism of thermal inactivation of plasmin with developing covalent disulphide interaction between molecule of plasmin and serum proteins (mostly ß-laktoglobulin is described. Thermosensitive inhibitors of plasminogen activators and inhibitors of plasmin are inactivated by short pasteurisation and therefore increase plasmin activity,while higher temperature and longer treatment time inactivate plasmin activity.

  16. Hepatic accumulation of intestinal cholesterol is decreased and fecal cholesterol excretion is increased in mice fed