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Sample records for bovine mastitis pathogens

  1. In vitro photoinactivation of bovine mastitis related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellera, Fábio Parra; Sabino, Caetano Padial; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Gargano, Ronaldo Gomes; Benites, Nilson Roberti; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio

    2016-03-01

    Bovine mastitis is considered the most important disease of worldwide dairy industry. Treatment of this disease is based on the application intramammary antibiotic, which favors an increase in the number of resistant bacteria in the last decade. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been investigated in different areas of Health Sciences, and has shown great potential for inactivating different pathogens, without any selection of resistant microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PDI in the inactivation of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. We tested the effectiveness of PDI against antibiotic resistant strains, isolated from bovine mastitis, from the following species: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Corynebacterium bovis, and the alga Prototheca zopfii. Nine experimental groups were evaluated: control, no treatment; light only, irradiation of a red light-emitting diode (λ=662 (20) nm) for 180 s; exposure to 50 μM methylene blue alone for 5 min; and PDI for 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 180 s. S. dysgalactiae, S. aureus, and C. bovis were inactivated after 30s of irradiation, whereas S. agalactiae was inactivated after 120 s and P. zopfii at 180 s of irradiation. These results show that PDI can be an interesting tool for inactivating pathogens for bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Proteomic Analysis to Elucidate the Antibacterial Action of Silver Ions Against Bovine Mastitis Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seog Jin; Cho, Yong Il; Kim, Ki Hyun; Cho, Eun Seok

    2016-05-01

    Silver ions act as a powerful, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent and are known to kill over 650 different kinds of pathogens. We investigated the protein expression pattern and identity after silver ion treatment in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are primarily responsible for the majority of bovine mastitis cases using proteomics. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that silver ion treatment significantly reduced 5 spot's density in E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. We identified 10 proteins (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C22 subunit, phosphoglucomutase, fructose-1-phosphate kinase, putative carbamoyl transferase, alpha-galactosidase, carbamate kinase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, fumarate hydratase class II, alcohol dehydrogenase, and conserved hypothetical protein) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF). These results demonstrated that silver ions have bactericidal effects through energy deprivation, inhibition of DNA replication, and accumulation of oxidants in bovine mastitis pathogens and suggested that silver ions can be applied for the treatment of bovine mastitis.

  3. Horizontal gene transfers link a human MRSA pathogen to contagious bovine mastitis bacteria.

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    Thomas Brody

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance by many clinically important bacteria can be traced to horizontal gene transfer (HGT between related or evolutionarily distant microflora. Comparative genomic analysis has become an important tool for identifying HGT DNA in emerging pathogens. We have adapted the multi-genome alignment tool EvoPrinter to facilitate discovery of HGT DNA sequences within bacterial genomes and within their mobile genetic elements. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EvoPrinter analysis of 13 different Staphylococcus aureus genomes revealed that one of the human isolates, the hospital epidemic methicillin-resistant MRSA252 strain, uniquely shares multiple putative HGT DNA sequences with different causative agents of bovine mastitis that are not found in the other human S. aureus isolates. MRSA252 shares over 14 different DNA sequence blocks with the bovine mastitis ET3 S. aureus strain RF122, and many of the HGT DNAs encode virulence factors. EvoPrinter analysis of the MRSA252 chromosome also uncovered virulence-factor encoding HGT events with the genome of Listeria monocytogenes and a Staphylococcus saprophyticus associated plasmid. Both bacteria are also causal agents of contagious bovine mastitis. CONCLUSIONS: EvoPrinter analysis reveals that the human MRSA252 strain uniquely shares multiple DNA sequence blocks with different causative agents of bovine mastitis, suggesting that HGT events may be occurring between these pathogens. These findings have important implications with regard to animal husbandry practices that inadvertently enhance the contact of human and livestock bacterial pathogens.

  4. Bovine mastitis disease/pathogenicity: evidence of the potential role of microbial biofilms.

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    Gomes, Fernanda; Saavedra, Maria José; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Bovine mastitis (BM) is a disease with high incidence worldwide and one of the most relevant bovine pathologies and the most costly to the dairy industry. BM is an inflammation of the udder and represents one of the most difficult veterinary diseases to control. Biofilm formation is considered a selective advantage for pathogens causing mastitis, facilitating bacterial persistence in the udder. In fact, recently some authors drew attention to the biofilm formation ability presented by several mastitis causing pathogens and to its possible relation with recurrent mastitis infections and with the increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune defence system. Actually, up to now, several researchers reported the potential role of cells in this mode of growth in the previous facts mentioned. As a consequence of the presence of biofilms, the infection here focused is more difficult to treat and eradicate, making this problem a more relevant pressing issue. Thus, we believe that a deeper knowledge of these structures in mastitis can help to determine the best control strategy to be used in veterinary practice in order to reduce losses in the dairy industry and to ensure milk safety and quality. The aim of this paper was to review the existing research and consequently to provide an overview of the role of biofilms in BM infections. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Short communication: N-Acetylcysteine-mediated modulation of antibiotic susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens.

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    Yang, F; Liu, L H; Li, X P; Luo, J Y; Zhang, Z; Yan, Z T; Zhang, S D; Li, H S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on antibiotic susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were tested by the agar-based E-test method. The presence of 10mM NAC reduced the MIC of penicillin and ampicillin but enhanced the MIC of erythromycin and ciprofloxacin for all of the strains. In addition, NAC-mediated modulation of MIC of kanamycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin was diverse, depending on the target bacterial pathogen and antibiotic being used. The results suggest that NAC is an important modulator of antibiotic activity against the major bovine mastitis pathogens. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  7. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  8. Innate immune response to a bovine mastitis pathogen profiled in milk and blood monocytes using a systems biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland which leads to reduced milk yield and increased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) resulting in an estimated annual cost to the dairy industry worldwide of ~ 2 billion euros. Mastitis has a complex etiology, with pathogenic, host and envi...

  9. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiology. Due to the high number of unknown causes of clinical mastitis, studies were undertaken to gain more insight into the role of viruses in this important disease. For the first time, we found tha...

  10. Characterizing bovine host responses to mastitis pathogens by targeted proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    Mastitis, som er betændelse i yverkirtlen forårsaget af indtrængende patogener, udgør en betydelig udfordring for dyresundhed- og velfærd i malkekvægsbesætninger. Identifikation af følsomme diagnostiske mastitismarkører vil kunne hjælpe med at stille en tidligere diagnose og gavne effekten af...... behandling. Patogenspecifikke biomarkører, der kan måles direkte i mælk, er lovende for at diagnosticere mastitis i de tidligste stadier af sygdommen. Dermed kan den korrekte antibiotika behandling påbegyndes, så snart en infektion i yveret opdages. Den massive tilstedeværelse af de dominerende...... hinanden. For at opfylde dette formål blev der udviklet en SRM metode rettet mod proteiner, som formodes at spille en stor rolle i mastitis. Under udviklingen af SRM metoden blev der først udvalgt 20 biomarkørkandidater, der relaterer til inflammation og mastitis. Derefter skulle der udvælges peptider, som...

  11. Characterizing bovine host responses to mastitis pathogens by targeted proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    mælkeproteiner såsom kasein er dog med til at komplicere analyserne af følsomme biomarkører i mælk. De seneste år er målrettet kvantitativ proteomics ved hjælp af metoden ’selected reaction monitoring’ (SRM) blevet udbredt. Ved SRM metoden bliver peptider fra et udvalgt protein detekteret og kvantificeret i en...... beskriver dette Bovine PeptideAtlas og dets indbyggede værktøjer til at understøtte SRM metoder. Ved hjælp af Bovine PeptideAtlas blev der udvalgt kvantificerbare og observerbare peptider, der er velegnede til udvikling af SRM metoden. To peptider per protein blev herefter genetisk udtrykt i et QconCAT...... protein som tungt isotop mærkede peptider. I manuskript II præsenteres udviklingen og valideringen af SRM metoden i yvervæv ved brug af QconCAT peptider rettet mod 20 proteiner. Resultaterne af dette forsøg var en solid bestemmelse af 17 kandidatproteiner og en pålidelig kvantificering af 12 af disse. I...

  12. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Pathogen Isolated from Bovine Mastitis Milk in Transylvania, Romania

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    Cosmina Bouari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in cows, one of the most common and economically important infectious diseases of dairy cattle, all over the world, with significant impact due to economic losses, occurs when the udder becomes inflamed because the leukocytes are released into the mammary gland usually in response to bacteria invasion of the teat canal. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from milk in order to design specific control programs for bovine mastitis in this area. A total of 204 milk samples aseptically collected both from farms and private owners were processed during May 2014 and March 2016 within the Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The microbiological examination was carried out by inoculation on blood agar and MacConkey medium. After the overnight incubation in aerobic conditions, the identification of the isolates was performed using microscopic, cultural and biochemical methods. Biochemical identification was based on API 20 Biomerieux system. Susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar; the antibiotics were represented by Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid, Ceftiofur, Florfenicol, Mastidiscs, Enrofloxacin, Penicillin and Tetracycline. Staphylococcus spp. was the most common isolated pathogen, in 54.9% of the specimens, followed by Streptococcus spp. in 20.1%, Escherichia coli in 10.78%, Klebsiella spp. in 8.34%, Bacillus spp. in 5.88%. The most frequent associations were represented by staphylococci-streptococci in 62.7% of the samples, followed by streptococci-bacillus in 19.8% of the samples. The most important etiological agents identified were Staphylococcus aureus, S uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for the total isolates revealed good sensitivity to Enrofloxacin, Mastidiscs and Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

  13. Relationships among superantigen toxin gene profiles, genotypes, and pathogenic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis.

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    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Limei; Yong, Changfu; Shen, Mingliang; Ali, Tariq; Shahid, Muhammad; Han, Kun; Zhou, Xuezhang; Han, Bo

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major etiological agents of bovine mastitis, harboring a wide variety of staphylococcal superantigen (SAg) toxin genes. The SAg toxin genes are reported to be closely associated with the pathogenicity of the Staph. aureus causing the bovine mastitis. This study was conducted to investigate SAg toxin gene profiles and to assess the relationships among SAg toxin genes, genotypes of Staph. aureus, and their pathogenic properties. A total of 327 quarter milk samples were collected from bovine mastitis cases for isolation and identification of pathogens. In total, 35 isolates were identified as Staph. aureus, and the prevalence of Staph. aureus in milk samples was 13.6% (35/256). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays were used to detect the SAg toxin genes and to genotype Staph. aureus strains isolated from milk samples of bovine mastitis in 10 dairy herds located in Ningxia, China, respectively. The results showed that among the Staph. aureus isolates (n = 35), 71.4% (n = 25) of isolates carried at least one SAg toxin gene. In total, 18 SAg genes and 21 different gene combination patterns were detected among these isolates. The most common SAg genes in Staph. aureus isolates were sei, sen, and seu (44.0% each), followed by seo, tst, and etB (28.0% each), etA (24.0%), sem and sep (16.0% each), seb, sec, sed, and sek (12.0% each), and sea and seh genes (8.0% each); the seg, sej, and ser genes were present in 4.0% of the isolates. Three gene combinations were found to be related to mobile genetic elements that carried 2 or more genes. The egc-cluster of the seg-sei-sem-sen-seo genes, located on the pathogenicity island Type I υSaβ, was detected in 16% of isolates. Interestingly, we observed 6 RAPD genotypes (I to VI) in Staph. aureus isolates, and 2 of these genotypes were strongly associated with the severity of bovine mastitis; there was a close relationship between the RAPD genotypes

  14. Rapid identification of bovine mastitis pathogens by high-resolution melt analysis of 16S rDNA sequences.

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    Ajitkumar, Praseeda; Barkema, Herman W; De Buck, Jeroen

    2012-03-23

    Accurate identification of mastitis pathogens is often compromised when using conventional culture-based methods. Here, we report a novel, rapid assay tested for speciation of bacterial mastitis pathogens using high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) of 16S rDNA sequences. Real-time PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment, spanning the variable region V5 and V6 was performed with a resulting amplicon of 290bp. First, a library was generated of melt curves of 9 common pathogens that are implicated in bovine mastitis. Six of the isolates, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycoplasma bovis, were type strains while the other 3, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Corynebacterium bovis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, were bovine mastitis field isolates. Four of the type strains, E. coli, S. agalactiae, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus, were found to be of human origin, while the other 3 type strains were isolated from bovine infections. Secondly, the melt curves and corresponding amplicon sequences of A. pyogenes, E. coli, S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, K. pneumoniae, S. uberis and S. aureus were compared with 10 bovine mastitis field isolates of each pathogen. Based on the distinct differences in melt curves and sequences between human and bovine isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, it was deemed necessary to select a set of bovine strains for these pathogens to be used as reference strains in the HRMA. Next, the HRMA was validated by three interpreters analyzing the differential clustering pattern of melt curves of 60 bacterial cultures obtained from mastitis milk samples. The three test interpreters were blinded to the culture and sequencing results of the isolates. Overall accuracy of the validation assay was 95% as there was difficulty in identifying the streptococci due to heterogeneity observed in the PCR amplicons of S. uberis. The present study revealed that broad-range real-time PCR with

  15. Pathogens associated with bovine mastitis in dairy herds in the south region of Brazil

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    Marta Bañolas Jobim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, through microbiological examinations, the etiology of bovine mastitis in 628 milk samples coming from dairy farms from Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul along the year of 2007 were evaluated. Out of this total 1,382 microorganisms were isolated. By taking into account the total of isolations, the following microorganisms and their percentage, respectively were found: Staphylococcus spp. (30.53%, Escherichia coli (21.64%, Streptococcus bovis (17.08%, Streptococcus agalactiae (11.07%, Enterobacter spp. (7.53%, Pseudomonas spp. (4.12% and others (8.03%. The microorganisms grouped into the others are: Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., gram negative rods, Shigella spp., Alcaligenes spp., Klebsiella spp., Edwarsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp., Salmonella spp. e Corynebacterium spp. The environmental pathogens predominated among the isolated microorganisms; 33.13% of the cultures presented more than three pathogens, suggesting contamination of the samples; in the mounts of November and December, there was an increase of the samples sent.

  16. Antibacterial susceptibility of bovine-mastitis pathogens tested directly in milk from infected quarters.

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    Louhi-Lehtiö, M; Sandholm, M; Myllys, V; Honkanen-Buzalski, T

    1994-04-01

    Antibacterial susceptibilities of bovine-mastitis pathogens were analysed directly in 57 mastitic milk samples without inoculation with exogenous organisms. Aseptically collected milk was mixed with serial dilutions of antibacterials and the growth was observed using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction the following day. The results were compared with those obtained by using calibrated bacterial inocula in turbidimetric minimum-inhibitory-concentration (MIC) determination in broth cultures, and in TTC-broth culture-test and TTC-normal milk-test. The results of different methods all correlated positively when the entire data was used. However, taking the direct test in mastitic milk as the 'true' result, the total discrepancies varied from 34.7% to 48.8%. Antibacterial activities of the trimethoprim-sulphadoxine combination, and of spiramycin and ampicillin, decreased significantly when nutrient broth was replaced by milk as the test medium. The efficacy of trimethoprim-sulphadoxine as an antibacterial agent was also dependent on the source of milk.

  17. Isolation, characterization and HPLC quantification of compounds from Aquilegia fragrans Benth: Their in vitro antibacterial activities against bovine mastitis pathogens.

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    Mushtaq, Saleem; Aga, Mushtaq A; Qazi, Parvaiz H; Ali, Md Niamat; Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Lone, Sajad Ahmad; Shah, Aiyatullah; Hussain, Aehtesham; Rasool, Faheem; Dar, Hafizullah; Shah, Zeeshan Hamid; Lone, Shabir H

    2016-02-03

    The underground parts of Aquilegia fragrans are traditionally used for the treatment of wounds and various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. However, there are no reports on the phytochemical characterization and antibacterial studies of A. fragrans. To isolate compounds from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans and determine their antibacterial activity against the pathogens of bovine mastitis. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of A. fragrans. Five compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans using silica gel column chromatography. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done using spectral data analysis and comparison with literature. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of isolated compounds in the crude methanol extract. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activities against mastitis pathogens using broth micro-dilution technique. The five isolated compounds were identified as (1) 2, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester (2) β-sitosterol (3) Aquilegiolide (4) Glochidionolactone-A and (5) Magnoflorine. A quick and sensitive HPLC method was developed for the first time for qualitative and quantitative determination of four isolated marker compounds from A. fragrans. The crude methanol extract and compound 5 exhibited weak antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (MIC=500-3000 µg/ml). The above results show that the crude methanol extract and isolated compounds from A. fragrans exhibit weak antibacterial activities. Further phytochemical and pharmacological studies are required for proper scientific validation of the folk use of this plant species in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

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    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  19. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of inhibition zone diameters of bovine mastitis pathogens in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supré, K; Lommelen, K; De Meulemeester, L

    2014-07-16

    In dairy farms, antimicrobial drugs are frequently used for treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis. Determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens is needed to come to a correct use of antimicrobials. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus (n=768), Streptococcus uberis (n=939), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=444), Escherichia coli (n=563), and Klebsiella species (n=59) originating from routine milk samples from (sub)clinical mastitis were subjected to the disk diffusion method. Disks contained representatives of frequently used antibiotics in dairy. A limited number of clinical breakpoints were available through CLSI, and showed that susceptibility of Staph. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella was moderate to high. For streptococcal species however, a large variation between the tested species and the different antimicrobials was observed. In a next step, wild type populations were described based on epidemiological cut off values (EUCAST). Because of the limited number of official cut off values, the data were observed as a mastitis subpopulation and self-generated cut off values were created and a putative wild type population was suggested. The need for accurate clinical breakpoints for veterinary pathogens is high. Despite the lack of these breakpoints, however, a population study can be performed based on the distribution of inhibition zone diameters on the condition that a large number of strains is tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Chinese Propolis in Protecting Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells against Mastitis Pathogens-Induced Cell Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Xiao-Lu; Shen, Xiao-Ge; Sun, Li-Ping; Wu, Li-Ming; Wei, Jiang-Qin; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; Hu, Fu-Liang; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese propolis (CP), an important hive product, can alleviate inflammatory responses. However, little is known regarding the potential of propolis treatment for mastitis control. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of CP on bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), we used a range of pathogens to induce cellular inflammatory damage. Cell viability was determined and expressions of inflammatory/antioxidant genes were measured. Using a cell-based reporter assay system, we evaluated CP and its primary constituents on the NF-κB and Nrf2-ARE transcription activation. MAC-T cells treated with bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), heat-inactivated Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus exhibited significant decreases in cell viability while TNF-α and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) did not. Pretreatment with CP prevented losses in cell viability associated with the addition of killed bacteria or bacterial endotoxins. There were also corresponding decreases in expressions of proinflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. Compared with the mastitis challenged cells, enhanced expressions of antioxidant genes HO-1, Txnrd-1, and GCLM were observed in CP-treated cells. CP and its polyphenolic active components (primarily caffeic acid phenethyl ester and quercetin) had strong inhibitive effects against NF-κB activation and increased the transcriptional activity of Nrf2-ARE. These findings suggest that propolis may be valuable in the control of bovine mastitis.

  2. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other importan

  3. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other

  4. Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Bulk Tank Milk in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya Jing; Qin, Yun; Guix Vallverdú, Roger; Maldonado García, Jaime; Sun, Wei; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the herd prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) in China dairy herds, to determine the relationship between the presence of mastitis pathogens and bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BTSCC), and to investigate the impact of different dairy cattle farming modes and region on bacterial species. BTM samples collected from 894 dairy herds in China were examined for the presence of mastitis pathogens. The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards were used for BTM sample collection, storage, and transportation and bacterial DNA amplification by real-time PCR. Among contagious pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were detected in 50.1, 92.2, and 72.3% of the 894 BTM samples, respectively. Among environmental pathogens, E. coli, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium bovis, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were detected in 28.6, 8.9, 35.7, 20.0, 1.3, 17.0, and 67.2% of the BTM samples, respectively. Staphylococcal β-lactamase gene was detected in 61.7% of the BTM samples. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were significantly associated with high BTSCC, respectively. Significant differences were found in presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in BTM sampled from the small household farms, dairy-farming communities, and large-scaled dairy farms. There were significant differences in the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, staphylococcal β-lactamase gene, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus uberis in BTM among Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Hebei province. In conclusion, contagious mammary pathogens are predominated among pathogens in BTM samples in China. PMID:27187065

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental bovine mastitis pathogens in west central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Kheirabadi, K H Pirali; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy herds of Chahar Mahal province in west central Iran. Out of the 620 milk samples collected from the four districts, 180 were CMT (California mastitis test) positive that cultured and yield, 7 (3.88%) coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS), 15 (8.33%) Streptococci other than agalactiae and 17 (9.44%) E. coli. CNS resistance to penicillin was 14.28% but for streptomycin, Oxytetracycline and Colistin, were 28.57%. Non agalactiae Streptococci resistance to Oxytetracycline and Kanamycin were 20 and 13.33%, respectively. E. coli resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and Colistin were 88.23, 82.35, 76.47, 76.47 and 52.94%, respectively.

  6. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.

  7. Assessment of an extraction protocol to detect the major mastitis-causing pathogens in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressier, B; Bissonnette, N

    2011-05-01

    Despite all efforts to control its spread, mastitis remains the most costly disease for dairy farmers worldwide. One key component of better control of this disease is identification of the causative bacterial agent during udder infections in cows. Mastitis is complex, however, given the diversity of pathogens that must be identified. Development of a rapid and efficient bacterial species identification tool is thus necessary. This study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of bacterial DNA extraction for the automated molecular detection of major mastitis-causing pathogens directly in milk samples to complement traditional microbiological identification. Extraction and detection procedures were designed and optimized to achieve detection in a respectable time frame, at a reasonable cost, and with a high throughput capacity. The following species were identified: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Klebsiella spp. (including Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The detection procedure includes specific genomic DNA amplification by multiplex PCR for each species, separation by capillary electrophoresis, and laser-assisted automated detection. The specificity of the primers was assessed with a panel of bacteria representing mastitis-negative control species. The extraction protocol comprised multiple steps, starting with centrifugation for fat removal, followed by heating in the presence of a cation exchange resin to trap divalent ions. The analytical sensitivity was 100 cfu/mL for milk samples spiked with Staph. aureus, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli, with a tendency for K. pneumoniae. The detection limit was 500 cfu/mL for Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae. The overall diagnostic sensitivity (95.4%) and specificity (97.3%) were determined in a double-blind randomized assay by processing 172 clinical milk samples with microbiological characterization as the

  8. Proposal for agar disk diffusion interpretive criteria for susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens using cefoperazone 30μg disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feßler, Andrea T; Kaspar, Heike; Lindeman, Cynthia J; Peters, Thomas; Watts, Jeffrey L; Schwarz, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Cefoperazone is a third generation cephalosporin which is commonly used for bovine mastitis therapy. Bacterial pathogens involved in bovine mastitis are frequently tested for their susceptibility to cefoperazone. So far, the cefoperazone susceptibility testing using 30μg disks has been hampered by the lack of quality control (QC) ranges as well as the lack of interpretive criteria. In 2014, QC ranges for 30 μg cefoperazone disks have been established for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC(®) 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC(®) 25922. As a next step, interpretive criteria for the susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens should be developed. For this, 637 bovine mastitis pathogens (including 112 S. aureus, 121 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 103 E. coli, 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 100 Streptococcus uberis) were investigated by agar disk diffusion according to the document Vet01-A4 of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) using 30μg cefoperazone disks and the results were compared to the corresponding MIC values as determined by broth microdilution also according to the aforementioned CLSI document. Based on the results obtained and taking into account the achievable milk concentration of cefoperazone after regular dosing, the following interpretive criteria were proposed as a guidance for mastitis diagnostic laboratories: for staphylococci and E. coli ≥23mm (susceptible), 18-22mm (intermediate) and ≤17mm (resistant) and for streptococci ≥18mm (susceptible), and ≤17mm (non-susceptible). These proposed interpretive criteria shall contribute to a harmonization of cefoperazone susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Vojislav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis poses a major economic and health problem in herds of dairy cows. The many years of taking different approaches to treating mastitis have not resulted in an adequate solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. The treatment of mastitis using antibiotics yields satisfactory results, but it implies substantial costs for treatment and losses in rejecting milk. Due to the above reasons, a new area of scientific research offers possibilities for finding new solutions to the ever present problem of mastitis - immunoprophylaxis. Vaccines against mastitis available at this time are still not sufficiently effective in general practice, and they are at the level of experimental vaccines. All barn vaccines which have been worked on so far have been significantly experimentally successful. The success is in a significant increase in the antibody titer in serum (but not in milk, as well as in reducing the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis cases among experimental and control animals. Nevertheless, it is still believed that immunoprophylaxis, as a method for preventing inflammation of the udder and the occurrence of mastitis, is still an insufficiently investigated field of scientific research. Many scientists are engaged on the problem of finding a vaccine against mastitis, but the coplexity of the mammary gland and the specific permeability of the blood-milk barrier do not permit these efforts to be as successful as they might be if this were not the case.

  10. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  11. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of the Bovine Mastitis Pathogen Mycoplasma californicum Strain ST-6T (ATCC 33461T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Fox, Lawrence K

    2014-07-03

    Mycoplasma californicum is one of several mycoplasmal species associated with bovine mastitis. The complete genome sequence of 793,841 bp has been determined and annotated for the M. californicum ST-6 type strain, providing a resource for the identification of surface antigens and putative pathoadaptive features.

  13. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    KANT, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis.

  14. Molecular detection and sensitivity to antibiotics and bacteriocins of pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in family dairy herds of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E; Lechuga-Arana, A Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P antibiotics tested in this study.

  15. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes. PMID:26809117

  16. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes.

  17. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two farms (n=535 cows located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM and clinical mastitis (CLM were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT (≥3 and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY, lactation number (LN, herd size (HS, and number of days in milk (DM were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH, LN, HS, and DM P<0.01, and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 P<0.01. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study.

  18. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma. Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E.; Lechuga-Arana, A. Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D.; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A.; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P < 0.01), and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 (P < 0.01). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:25815326

  19. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents among bovine mastitis pathogens isolated from North American dairy cattle, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Cynthia J; Portis, Ellen; Johansen, Lacie; Mullins, Lisa M; Stoltman, Gillian A

    2013-09-01

    Approximately 8,000 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, isolated by 25 veterinary laboratories across North America between 2002 and 2010, were tested for in vitro susceptibility to beta-lactam, macrolide, and lincosamide drugs. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the beta-lactam drugs remained low against most of the Gram-positive strains tested, and no substantial changes in the MIC distributions were seen over time. Of the beta-lactam antimicrobial agents tested, only ceftiofur showed good in vitro activity against E. coli. The MICs of the macrolides and lincosamides also remained low against Gram-positive mastitis pathogens. While the MIC values given by 50% of isolates (MIC50) for erythromycin and pirlimycin and the streptococci were all low (≤0.5 µg/ml), the MIC values given by 90% of isolates (MIC90) were higher and more variable, but with no apparent increase over time. Staphylococcus aureus showed little change in erythromycin susceptibility over time, but there may be a small, numerical increase in pirlimycin MIC50 and MIC90 values. Overall, the results suggest that mastitis pathogens in the United States and Canada have not shown any substantial changes in the in vitro susceptibility to beta-lactam, macrolide, and lincosamide drugs tested over the 9 years of the study.

  1. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    OpenAIRE

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the o...

  2. Genome Sequences of Two Bovine Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Florent; Loux, Valentin; Germon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the main pathogenic agents causing inflammatory infections in the bovine udder. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two strains isolated from different cases of clinical mastitis.

  3. Technological advances in bovine mastitis diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carla M; Freitas, Paulo P; Bexiga, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economic burden for dairy farmers and preventive control measures are crucial for the sustainability of any dairy business. The identification of etiological agents is necessary in controlling the disease, reducing risk of chronic infections and targeting antimicrobial therapy. The suitability of a detection method for routine diagnosis depends on several factors, including specificity, sensitivity, cost, time in producing results, and suitability for large-scale sampling of milk. This article focuses on current methodologies for identification of mastitis pathogens and for detection of inflammation, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. Emerging technologies, such as transcriptome and proteome analyses and nano- and microfabrication of portable devices, offer promising, sensitive methods for advanced detection of mastitis pathogens and biomarkers of inflammation. The demand for alternative, fast, and reliable diagnostic procedures is rising as farms become bigger. Several examples of technological and scientific advances are summarized which have given rise to more sensitive, reliable and faster diagnostic results.

  4. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien S Bouchard

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation; inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC; and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  5. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  6. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains involved in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Susana; García, Pilar; Fernández, Leonides; Jiménez, Esther; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; del Campo, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2011-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in different mammalian species. At present, it is unknown whether strains isolated from human mastitis cases share phenotypic properties and genetic background with those obtained from animal mastitis cases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize S. aureus strains isolated from women with lactational mastitis and to compare them with the strains responsible for bovine mastitis and noninfectious strains. All the strains were genotyped by both pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing and submitted to a characterization scheme that included diverse assays related to pathogenic potential and antibiotic resistance. Apart from siderophore production, no significant association was observed between the strains from bovine and human mastitis. Statistical differences between human- and bovine-mastitis-associated strains were detected for some traits and virulence determinants, such as the presence of prophages and cna and hlb genes, which were more frequently found within the bovine group. On the contrary, resistance to penicillin was significantly higher among strains isolated from human lactational mastitis, probably related to the common presence of the blaZ gene. A high genetic diversity was found among the strains involved in mastitis in breastfeeding women. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  8. Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Zaini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

  9. Bovine mastitis in selected areas of southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dego, O Kerro; Tareke, F

    2003-06-01

    A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian. were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.21%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples. Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%. Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area.

  10. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; van Wigcheren, Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; de Haas, Carla J. C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J. J. M.; van Kessel, Kok P. M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P. M. G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leukocidins in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus disease. We show that LukAB, in contrast to the γ-hemolysins, LukED, and LukMF′, was unable to kill bovine neutrophils, and identified CXCR2 as a bovine receptor for HlgAB and LukED. Furthermore, we assessed functional leukocidin secretion by bovine mastitis isolates and observed that, although leukocidin production was strain dependent, LukMF′ was most abundantly secreted and the major toxin killing bovine neutrophils. To determine the role of LukMF′ in bovine mastitis, cattle were challenged with high (S1444) or intermediate (S1449, S1463) LukMF′-producing isolates. Only animals infected with S1444 developed severe clinical symptoms. Importantly, LukM was produced in vivo during the course of infection and levels in milk were associated with the severity of mastitis. Altogether, these findings underline the importance of LukMF′ as a virulence factor and support the development of therapeutic approaches targeting LukMF′ to control S. aureus mastitis in cattle. PMID:27886237

  11. LukMF' is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M; van Wigcheren, Glenn F; Koymans, Kirsten J; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G; de Haas, Carla J C; Aerts, Piet C; Daemen, Ineke J J M; van Kessel, Kok P M; Koets, Ad P; Rutten, Victor P M G; Nuijten, Piet J M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-11-25

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leukocidins in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus disease. We show that LukAB, in contrast to the γ-hemolysins, LukED, and LukMF', was unable to kill bovine neutrophils, and identified CXCR2 as a bovine receptor for HlgAB and LukED. Furthermore, we assessed functional leukocidin secretion by bovine mastitis isolates and observed that, although leukocidin production was strain dependent, LukMF' was most abundantly secreted and the major toxin killing bovine neutrophils. To determine the role of LukMF' in bovine mastitis, cattle were challenged with high (S1444) or intermediate (S1449, S1463) LukMF'-producing isolates. Only animals infected with S1444 developed severe clinical symptoms. Importantly, LukM was produced in vivo during the course of infection and levels in milk were associated with the severity of mastitis. Altogether, these findings underline the importance of LukMF' as a virulence factor and support the development of therapeutic approaches targeting LukMF' to control S. aureus mastitis in cattle.

  12. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  13. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections.

  14. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; Wigcheren, Van Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; Haas, de Carla J.C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J.J.M.; Kessel, Van Kok P.M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; Strijp, van Jos A.G.; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leu

  15. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; Van Wigcheren, Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; de Haas, Carla J C; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J J M; van Kessel, Kok P M; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P M G; Nuijten, Piet J M; Van Strijp, Jos A G; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal

  16. LukMF' is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M; van Wigcheren, Glenn F; Koymans, Kirsten J; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G; de Haas, Carla J C; Aerts, Piet C; Daemen, Ineke J J M; van Kessel, Kok P M; Koets, Ad P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194306992; Rutten, Victor P M G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092848028; Nuijten, Piet J M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Benedictus, Lindert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37157742X

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal

  17. External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.; Rundsten, Carsten Friis

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess...... the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled...... the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics.The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying...

  18. 噬菌体内溶素对奶牛乳房炎致病菌的溶解作用%Lytic Effect of Bacteriophage and Its Endolysin to Bovine Mastitis Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方正; 田中杰; 田文儒

    2015-01-01

    奶牛乳房炎一直是困扰养牛业的顽疾。诱发奶牛乳房炎的致病菌通常包括金黄色葡萄球菌、无乳链球菌等致病菌,停乳链球菌、乳房链球菌、大肠埃希菌等环境致病菌以及表皮葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌、模仿葡萄球菌等机会性致病菌。噬菌体是一类细菌依赖性的病毒,可通过内溶素抑制肽聚糖的合成,或利用穿孔素-内溶素系统水解肽聚糖。在体外试验中,噬菌体及其内溶素可溶解、抑制细菌生物膜,裂解乳房炎致病菌;在体内试验中,可清除感染动物体内的乳房炎致病菌,对奶牛乳房炎具有治疗效果。因此,噬菌体及其内溶素在奶牛乳房炎治疗方面具有良好的应用前景。%Bovine mastitis has inflicted diary industry for a long time.Pathogenic bacteria that trigger the bovine mastitis include contagious organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae ;the environmental organisms such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae ,Streptococcus uberis ,Escherichia coli ;the opportunistic organisms such as Staphylococcus epidermidis ,Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus simulans .The bacteriophage is a kind of viruses that can infect bacteria.With the help of endolysin and holin,the bacteriophage is able to inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan and directly hydro-lyze it.Bacteriophages can not only lyse various biofilms and the mastitis pathogenic bacteria in vitro ,but clear colonies of pathogenic bacteria in infected animals and directly treat bovine mastitis.Therefore,the bacteriophage and its endolysin are promising in curing bovine mastitis.

  19. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases for Control of Mastitis Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis results in annual losses between $1.7 billion and $2 billion in the United States alone. Among the most relevant causative agents of this disease are Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B; GBS) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Group C; GCS) streptococci as well as Staphylococcus aureus. ...

  20. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  1. Antibacterial effect of copper on microorganisms isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica eReyes-Jara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25% and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively. In the central region, E. coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%, while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22%, 21% and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria.The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates. The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm, CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E.coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease.

  2. Bovine mastitis may be associated with the deprivation of gut Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C; Zhao, J; Xi, X; Ding, J; Wang, H; Zhang, H; Kwok, L Y

    2016-02-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economical important microbial disease in dairy industry. Some recent human clinical trials have shown that oral probiotics supplementation could effectively control clinical mastitis, suggesting that the mechanism of mastitis protection might be achieved via the host gut microbiota. We aimed to test our hypothesis that bovine mastitis was related to changes in both the mammary and gut microbial profiles. By quantitative PCR, the milk and faecal microbial profiles of cows with low (1×10(6) cells/ml) somatic cell count (SCC) were compared. Firstly, we observed drastic differences in both the milk and faecal microbial compositions at genus and Lactobacillus-species levels between the two groups. Secondly, the pattern of faecal microbial community changes of mastitis cows was similar to that of the milk, characterised by a general increase in the mastitis pathogens (Enterococcus, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and deprivation of Lactobacillus and its members (L. salivarius, L. sakei, L. ruminis, L. delbrueckii, L. buchneri, and L. acidophilus). Thirdly, only the faecal lactobacilli, but not bifidobacteria correlated with the milk microbial communities and SCC. Our data together hint to a close association between bovine mastitis, the host gut and milk microbiota.

  3. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halasa, T.; Huijps, K.; Osterás, O.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a

  4. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halasa, T.; Huijps, K.; Osterás, O.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a framew

  5. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing bovine subclinical mastitis in Eastern Hebei Province%冀东地区奶牛隐性乳房炎病原茵的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高桂生; 高光平; 邵新华; 史秋梅; 张艳英; 梁银聚

    2012-01-01

    According to the method of LMT, pH detection and count of the somatic cells, the epidemiology of recessive mastitis, the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria were carried out on 1 021 subclinical bovine from 8 bovine farms and 3 large bovine factories in Eastern Hebei Province. The results showed that the incidence rates of recessive mastitis and isolalion of bacteria were 60.63% (619/1021) and 88.21%(546/619),respectively.82 strains of bacteria were isolated from 546 subclinical mastitis cows and identified as 4 classes and 14 species. The main bacteria included 36 strains of Staphylococcus, 33 strains of Streptococcus, 8 strains of Enterobtwteria and 5 strains of Microbacterium. with the proportion of 43.90% ,40.24% ,9.76% and 6.10% ,respectively.The mare pathogenic bacteria causing bovine subclinical mastitis in Eastern Hebei Province were Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae.%通过LMT法、乳汁pH检验法和体细胞直接计数等方法相结合,对冀东地区3个大型奶牛场、8个奶牛养殖户选取的1021头奶牛进行隐性乳房炎流行病学调查与病菌分离鉴定。结果表明,隐性乳房炎发病率为60.63%(619/1021),乳房炎阳性乳样品中细菌分离率达88.21%(546/619)。从543头隐性乳房炎患牛的阳性乳区乳样中分得细菌共4类14种菌82株,其中葡萄球菌36株,占43.90%;链球菌33株,占40.24%;肠杆菌类8株,占9.76%;棒状杆菌5株。占6.10%。冀东地区奶牛隐性乳房炎主要病原菌为金黄色葡萄球菌和无乳链球菌。

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Ia Strain M19, a Multidrug-Resistant Isolate from a Cow with Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Feng; Li, Hongsheng; ZHANG, SHIDONG; WANG, XURONG

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine mastitis worldwide. We report here the draft sequence of S. agalactiae Ia strain M19, a multidrug-resistant isolate from a bovine mastitis case in Ningxia Hui autonomous region, China.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine.

  8. Short communication: Lactic acid bacteria from the honeybee inhibit the in vitro growth of mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccart, K; Vásquez, A; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S; Olofsson, T C

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of prevention and control strategies, bovine mastitis remains one of the most challenging diseases in the dairy industry. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of 13 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from the honey crop of the honeybee, on several mastitis pathogens. The viable LAB were first reintroduced into a sterilized heather honey matrix. More than 20 different bovine mastitis isolates were tested against the mixture of the 13 LAB species in the honey medium using a dual-culture overlay assay. The mastitis isolates were identified through bacteriological culturing, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Additionally, the mastitis isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing through disk diffusion. Growth of all tested mastitis pathogens, including the ones displaying antimicrobial resistance to one or more antimicrobial compounds, were inhibited to some extent by the honey and LAB combination. The antibacterial effect of these LAB opens up new perspectives on alternative treatment and prevention of bovine mastitis.

  9. Detection of mastitis pathogens by analysis of volatile bacterial metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to detect mastitis pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was studied. Milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli were collected. In

  10. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shimazaki, Kei-ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    ...s. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories...

  11. Isolation and characterization of three benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Thalictrum minus L. and their antibacterial activity against bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Saleem; Rather, Muzafar Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz H; Aga, Mushtaq A; Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Shah, Aiyatullah; Ali, Md Niamat

    2016-12-04

    The roots of Thalictrum minus are traditionally used in the treatment of inflammation and infectious diseases such as bovine mastitis. However, there are no reports available in literature till date regarding the antibacterial studies of T. minus against bovine mastitis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antibacterial potential of crude extract of T. minus (root) and some of its isolated constituents against bovine mastitis in order to scientifically validate its traditional use. A total of three alkaloid compounds were isolated from the DCM: MeOH extract of roots of T. minus using silica gel column chromatography. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done by using spectroscopic techniques like mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Pathogens were isolated from cases of bovine mastitis and identified by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The broth micro-dilution method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activities of DCM: MeOH extract and isolated compounds against mastitis pathogens. The three isolated compounds were identified as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (1) 5'-Hydroxythalidasine, (2) Thalrugosaminine and (3) O-Methylthalicberine. Compounds (2) and (3) are reported for the first time from the roots of T. minus. Five mastitis pathogens viz., Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus equorum, Enterococcus faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans were identified on the basis of sequence analysis of isolates using the nucleotide BLAST algorithm. This study reports for the first time the isolation and molecular characterization of mastitis pathogens from Kashmir valley, India. The DCM: MeOH extract exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (MIC=250-500µg/ml). 5'-Hydroxythalidasine and Thalrugosaminine showed promising antibacterial activity with MIC values of 64-128µg/ml while Staphylococcus species were found to be the most sensitive strains. The antibacterial

  12. Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7% had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pathological lesions and change in udder secretion, in addition to that 276 quarters (31.4% showed subclinical mastitis. The incidence of mastitis was found to be increased in older cows. Staphylococcus aurous was considered to be the most common cause of both clinical and subclinical mastitis and followed by coli forms, streptococcus spp., corynebacterium spp., proteus spp. and pseudomonas spp. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains using tertracycline, ampicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, penicillin G and sulphamethoxazol trimethoprim.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of streptococci from bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rato, Márcia G.; Bexiga, Ricardo; Florindo, Carlos;

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. T...

  14. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis.

  15. Short communication: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling and genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, T; Puacz, E; Lisowski, A; Siedlecki, P; Dudziak, W; Międzobrodzki, J; Krukowski, H

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant causative agent of bovine mastitis, a disease that remains a major economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. In this study, the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the genetic composition of 80 S. aureus mastitis isolates collected from 14 dairy farms in Eastern Poland were determined. Of the 10 antimicrobial agents evaluated, only testing for penicillin G produced drug resistance. As 41% of the S. aureus isolates were penicillin resistant, this drug along with other β-lactamase-sensitive β-lactams, should rather not be considered for the treatment of bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. Upon genotyping, with a triplex PCR method, a total of 11 distinct PCR types were produced. The population structure of S. aureus isolates was highly clonal, with 1 predominant genotype circulating on each farm. The observed similarities in the genotype composition of S. aureus populations from geographically distant farms underscore the significance of interfarm transmission of S. aureus in Poland. This, in turn, argues for the establishment of a nationwide surveillance program for bovine mastitis due to this pathogen. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina (Methods of detection of the bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedolla, CC

    2007-09-01

    detection of the bovine mastitis that is used more commonly in the world. The bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland caused by an infection by pathogens. Is one of the most frequent diseases of the production that affects the milk industry anywhere in the world. It can appear of clinical and subclinical way. The subclinical mastitis is long play and is much more frequent that the clinical mastitis. Within the methods that are used most frequently at field level to diagnose clinical mastitis, are the method of observation and palpation of udder and the physical tests, as the container of milking test, the black cloth test and cup test. The chemical tests, like the electrical conductivity of milk test, paper test of mastitis and whiteside test that they also serve to diagnose clinical and subclinical mastitis. The biological tests, as they are the California mastitis test, the Wisconsin test, the bacteriological diagnosis by the methods of isolation, culture, biochemical stain, tests and identification, the count of somatic cells by direct microscope and somaticell. Other methods used at the moment by their rapidity and effectiveness are the electronic ones like the fossomatic, the counter coulter and the, which mainly have a universal application in laboratories of control milk or dedicated to the diagnosis and investigation of the mastitis and the DeLaval cell counter. The methods of detection of mastitis are a tool that allows to identify the type of clinical infection or subclinical that can appear within a milk cattle ranch, reason why the method that is chosen to determine the tests will be essential to have a more precise diagnosis.

  17. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control c

  18. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control

  19. Probing vaccine antigens against bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Rosa; Prenafeta, Antoni; González-González, Luis; Pérez-Pons, Josep Antoni; Sitjà, Marta

    2016-07-19

    Streptococcus uberis is a worldwide pathogen that causes intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Because virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of S. uberis have not been clearly identified so far, a commercial vaccine is not yet available. Different S. uberis strains have the ability to form biofilm in vitro, although the association of this kind of growth with the development of mastitis is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use as vaccine antigens of proteins from S. uberis biofilms, previously identified by proteomic and immunological analyses. The capability of eliciting a protective immune response by targeted candidates was assayed on a murine model. Sera from rabbits immunized with S. uberis biofilm preparations and a convalescent cow intra-mammary infected with S. uberis were probed against cell wall proteins from biofilm and planktonic cells previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Using rabbit immunized serum, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in biofilm cells as compared to planktonic cells; when serum from the convalescent cow was used, up to sixteen biofilm proteins were detected. From these proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fructose-biphosphate aldolase (FBA), and elongation factor Ts (EFTs) were chosen to be tested as vaccine antigen candidates. For this purpose, different groups of mice were immunized with the three recombinant-expressed proteins (each one formulated separately in a vaccine), and thereafter intraperitoneally challenged with S. uberis. The three proteins induced specific IgG antibodies, but a significant reduction of mortality was only observed in the groups of mice vaccinated with FBA or EFTs. These results suggest that FBA and EFTs might be considered as strong antigenic candidates for a vaccine against S. uberis bovine mastitis. Moreover, this is the first study to indicate that also in S. uberis, GAPDH, FBA and EFTs, as proteins

  20. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA WITH ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST PATHOGENIC AGENT CAUSING OF BOVINE MASTITIS BACTERIAS ACIDO LACTICAS CON ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA CONTRA PATÓGENOS CAUSANTES DE MASTITIS BOVINA OUT BACTÉRIAS LÁTICAS COM ATIVIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA CONTRA OUT PATÓGENOS DA MASTITE BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA SERNA C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics to treat bovine mastitis, produces antibiotic residues in milk and decreased quality of dairy products. Lactic acid bacteria have been proposed as an alternative to avoid the use of antibiotics. This paper reports the antimicrobial activity against pathogens responsible of bovine mastitis, of 4 lactic acid strains isolated from cattle in a state of acidosis ruminal. It also evaluated the specific growth rate (m and antimicrobial activity of one of the strains, using two concentrations of carbon source (20 and 60 gl-1 in the commercial substrate MRS. The strains were biochemically identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermen-tum and Weissella confusa. Weissella confusa showed the best antimicrobial activity against the major pathogens responsible of bovine mastitis. When has been used 60 gl-1 of total sugars in the fermentation substrate, was obtained diameter of inhibition of 31 mm for Staphylococcus aureus and 36 mm for Streptococcus agalactiae. The antimicrobial activity of Weissella confusa is superior antimicrobial activity reported by many other lactic acid bacteria, therefore Weissella confusa could potentially be used to prevent bovine mastitis.El uso de antibióticos para el tratamiento de mastitis bovina, genera residuos de antibióticos en la leche y disminuye la calidad de los subproductos lácteos. Las bacterias ácido lácticas se han propuesto como una alternativa para evitar el uso de antibióticos. En este artículo se reporta la actividad antimicrobiana contra patógenos productores de mastitis bovina, de 4 cepas acido lácticas aisladas de bovinos en estado de acidosis ruminal. Se evaluó además la velocidad especifica de crecimiento (m y la actividad antimicrobiana de una de las cepas, utilizando dos concentraciones de fuente de carbono (20 y 60 gl-1 en el sustrato comercial MRS. Las cepas se identificaron bioquímicamente como Lactobacillus acidophilus

  1. A comparison of somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens in organic and conventional dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Boutet, Philippe; Detilleux, Johann; Motkin, Michel; Deliege, M.; PIRAUX, E.; Depinois, A.; Debliquy, P.; Mainil, Jacques; Czaplicki, G.; Lekeux, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens in organic and conventional dairy herds.Bovine subclinical mastitis is the most important disease affecting dairy cows. The fluctuating increase in somatic cell count (SCC) that occurs causes major economic losses in dairy industry. This comparative study between conventional and organic dairy herds was conducted in the aim to better characterize which consequences might have different manage...

  2. Combined analysis of DNA methylome and transcriptome reveal novel candidate genes with susceptibility to bovine Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minyan; He, Yanghua; Zhou, Huangkai; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xizhi; Yu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is a widely spread disease of lactating cows. Its major pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In this study, we performed genome-wide integrative analysis of DNA methylation and transcriptional expression to identify candidate genes and pathways relevant to bovine S. aureus subclinical mastitis. The genome-scale DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes in cows with S. aureus subclinical mastitis (SA group) and healthy controls (CK) were generated by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with microarrays. We identified 1078 differentially methylated genes in SA cows compared with the controls. By integrating DNA methylation and transcriptome data, 58 differentially methylated genes were shared with differently expressed genes, in which 20.7% distinctly hypermethylated genes showed down-regulated expression in SA versus CK, whereas 14.3% dramatically hypomethylated genes showed up-regulated expression. Integrated pathway analysis suggested that these genes were related to inflammation, ErbB signalling pathway and mismatch repair. Further functional analysis revealed that three genes, NRG1, MST1 and NAT9, were strongly correlated with the progression of S. aureus subclinical mastitis and could be used as powerful biomarkers for the improvement of bovine mastitis resistance. Our studies lay the groundwork for epigenetic modification and mechanistic studies on susceptibility of bovine mastitis. PMID:27411928

  3. Evaluation of Petrifilms(TM) as a diagnostic test to detect bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, George K; Bundi, Royford M; Vanleeuwen, John; Mulei, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    The study purpose was to validate Petrifilms(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) were cultured using standard laboratory culture methods and Petrifilms(TM) (Aerobic Count and Coliform Count -3M Microbiology, 2005), and results were compared. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium isolated (73 % of samples). Clinical mastitis was found in only three cows, and there were only two Gram-negative isolates, making it impossible to examine the agreement between the two tests for Gram-negative- or clinical mastitis samples. The observed agreement between the standard culture and Petrifilm(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) results for Gram-positive isolates was 85 %, and there was fair agreement beyond that expected due to chance alone, with a kappa (κ) of 0.38. Using culture results as a gold standard, the Petrifilms(TM) had a sensitivity of 90 % for Gram-positive samples and specificity of 51 %. With 87 % of CMT-positive samples resulting in Gram-positive pathogens cultured, there was a positive predictive value of 93 % and a negative predictive value of 43 %. Petrifilms(TM) should be considered for culture of mastitis organisms in developing countries, especially when Gram-positive bacteria are expected.

  4. Current trend of drug sensitivity in bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 190 milk samples of bovine mastitis and 138 samples were confirmed positives for microorganisms. All the 138 samples were subjected to drug sensitivity test. The most effective antibiotic was enrofloxacin (91.67% followed by ciprofloxacin (90.15%, amikacin (87.12%, ceftriaxone (84.10%, chloramphenicol (80.31%, cefotaxime (79.55% and gentamicin (77.27%. Microorganisms were mostly resistant to drugs like streptomycin, penicillinG, ampicillin, cloxacillin, amoxycillin and neomycin in increasing order of resistance. Hence, it is suggested that the line of treatment should be based on antibiogram study of various isolates from bovine mastitis. Further, the selection of drugs after culture and sensitivity test should be based on their ability to cross blood tissue barrier or mammary parenchyma, lipophilicity and ability to work in alkaline pH. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 17-20

  5. Susceptibilities of bovine summer mastitis bacteria to antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Jousimies-Somer, H; Pyörälä, S.; Kanervo, A

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility to 9 antimicrobial agents of 32 aerobic bacterial isolates and to 10 antimicrobial agents of 37 anaerobic bacterial isolates from 23 cases of bovine summer mastitis (16 Actinomyces pyogenes isolates, 8 Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates, 3 S. uberis isolates, 3 S. acidominimus isolates, 2 Streptococcus spp., 15 Peptostreptococcus indolicus isolates, 10 Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates, and 12 isolates of anaerobic gram-negative rods) was determined by the agar dilution m...

  6. Genetic parameters of pathogen-specific incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Barkema, H.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus

  7. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject comprises detecting the presence or absence of a genetic marker that is linked to a trait indicative of mastitis resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Locus...... (QTL) for the determination of mastitis resistance in a bovine subject. The determination of mastitis resistance involves resolution of the specific microsatellite status. Furthermore, the invention relates to a diagnostic kit for detection of genetic marker(s) associated with mastitis resistance....... The method and kit of the present invention can be applied for selection of bovine subjects for breeding purposes. Thus, the invention provides a method of genetically selecting bovine subjects with mastitis resistance, thereby yielding cows less prone to mastitis...

  8. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and

  9. Complete genome sequences of Escherichia coli strains 1303 and ECC-1470 isolated from bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Scheutz, Flemming; Schukken, Ynte; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection.

  10. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  11. Characterization studies on mycoplasmas isolated from bovine mastitis and the bovine respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, J D; Jasper, D E; Ilić, M

    1977-07-01

    Mycoplasmas isolated from bovine mastitis in California were classified into five distinct species. These included Mycoplasma bovis, M. bovigenitalium, M. alkalescens, M. canadenfe, and an unidentified strain, ST-6. Strains frequently recovered from the nose of young calves proved to be M. arginini, M. bovirhinis was recovered from the respiratory tract but was not a common finding.

  12. [Resistance patterns of ovine mastitis pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, P; Höflechner, A; Baumgartner, W

    1999-01-01

    For control of the udder health status of milk sheep the minimal inhibitory concentration of mastitis causing pathogens to 12 different chemotherapeutics was determined by means of Sensititre microplate method. 73 staphylococci- and 8 streptococci-strains was examined. Following staphylococci-strains were found: S. aureus (11), S. epidermidis (34), S. chromogenes and S. xylosus (6 each), S. hyicus and S. warneri (each 5) as well as S. sciuri and S. simulans (3 each). MIC-values to penicillin, amoxycillin and ampicillin of 2 penicillinase-positive S. aureus-strains were more than 4.0 micrograms/ml. The remaining isolates and the major part of coagulase-negative staphylococci displayed MIC-values up to 1.0 microgram/ml to beta-lactamantibiotics except cloxacillin. Against cephalosporines, cephalexin excluded, and aminoglycosides very low MIC-values concerning staphylococci were observed. In case of spiramycin MIC-levels more or less than 8.0 micrograms/ml were determined. Streptococci exhibited MIC-values in the range of 0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml against beta-lactamantibiotics with exclusion of cloxacillin, cefoperazone and cefquinome and spiramycin as well.

  13. Acute phase proteins in the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Shahabeddin; Khoshvaghti, Ameneh; Jafarzadeh, Seyed Reza; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Nowrouzian, Iradj

    2009-12-01

    The California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly used for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cattle. Acute phase proteins (APPs), as alternative biomarkers of mastitis, may increase in concentration in the absence of macroscopic changes in the milk, or may precede the onset of clinical signs. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of APPs measured in milk and in serum with bacterial culture for the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis. One hundred and seventy-five Holstein cows were randomly selected from 7 dairy farms. Quarter milk and serum samples were taken from all cows. Milk samples were analyzed using a CMT and SCC, and for haptoglobin (MHp) and amyloid A (MAA) concentrations, and were also submitted for bacterial culture. Serum samples obtained concurrently were analyzed for haptoglobin (SHp) and amyloid A (SAA). Two-sample Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney) test was used to compare SCC, MAA, MHp, SAA, and SHp concentrations between culture-positive and culture-negative animals. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the performance of each test using bacterial culture as the reference method. MAA concentration was the most accurate of the 5 tests, with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 98.3% at concentrations >16.4 mg/L. MAA and MHp had significantly larger areas under the curve than the respective serum proteins, SAA and SHp. The results suggest that measuring haptoglobin and amyloid A in milk is more accurate than serum analysis for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows.

  14. Medicinal Plants Based Products Tested on Pathogens Isolated from Mastitis Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pașca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis a major disease that is commonly associated with bacterial infection. The common treatment is with antibiotics administered intramammary into infected quarters of the udder. The excessive use of antibiotics leads to multidrug resistance and associated risks for human health. In this context, the search for alternative drugs based on plants has become a priority in livestock medicine. These products have a low manufacturing cost and no reports of antimicrobial resistance to these have been documented. In this context, the main objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of extracts and products of several indigenous, or acclimatized plants on pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis. A total of eleven plant alcoholic extracts and eight plant-derived products were tested against 32 microorganisms isolated from milk. The obtained results have shown an inhibition of bacterial growth for all tested plants, with better results for Evernia prunastri, Artemisia absinthium, and Lavandula angustifolia. Moreover, E. prunastri, Populus nigra, and L. angustifolia presented small averages of minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. Among the plant-derived products, three out of eight have shown a strong anti-microbial effect comparable with the effect of florfenicol and enrofloxacin, and better than individual plant extracts possibly due to synergism. These results suggest an important anti-microbial effect of these products on pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis with a possible applicability in this disease.

  15. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  16. A review of the factors affecting the costs of bovine mastitis : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Petrovski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent production diseases affecting the dairy cattle industry worldwide. Its occurrence is associated with direct and indirect losses and expenditures. When estimating the cost of mastitis to the dairy industry the cost of the control programmes must be added. The direct losses of mastitis are the only costs obvious to the farmer. The difference between the costs of mastitis on one side and the benefits of mastitis control on the other side will give us a picture of the economic efficacy of the mastitis control programme. Continuing education of the farmer is needed for better mastitis control programmes. This article is an attempt to review briefly all relevant factors included in the economics of bovine mastitis and to illustrate the authors' view of some of the costs.

  17. Toxic bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in twin cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegsegger; Corti; Sihto; Johler

    2014-11-01

    In this report, we describe two cases of bovine toxic mastitis associated with S. aureus and we provide DNA microarray based characterization data of the strain causing the disease. Both cows had recently calved and suffered from anorexia, pyrexia, and an elevated heart rate. In both animals, at least one mammary gland was swollen, hardened, sensitive to touch, and produced brownish or bloody secretions. The clinical state of the animals deteriorated quickly and both cows had to be euthanized within 48 hours after presentation. The S. aureus strain, which was isolated from the mastitis milk of both cows, was assigned to spa type t267, agr type I, capsule type 5 and CC97, a clonal complex recently identified as the evolutionary origin of two emerging clones of human epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The strain did not harbour any genes conferring resistance to antimicrobial agents and we did not detect any genes coding for enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin, or exfoliative toxins. Taking into consideration that twin cows were affected by this rare disease, we suggest that host factors may play a crucial role in toxic mastitis associated with S. aureus.

  18. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject comprises detecting the presence or absence of a genetic marker that is linked to a trait indicative of mastitis resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Loc...

  19. Short communication: prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in Varamin, Tehran Province, Iran. All of the isolated Staph. aureus were identified by morphology and culture and confirmed using the API Staph identification system (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). Antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR with oligonucleotide primers specific for each gene. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 43 of 207 (20.1%) bovine clinical milk samples. Using disk diffusion, methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus was detected in 5 of 43 (11.6%) samples. The pathogen showed high resistance against penicillin G (86%) and tetracycline (76.7%). The blaZ (penicillin) (86%), tetM (tetracycline), and ermC (erythromycin) genes (39.5% each) were the most prevalent antibiotic resistance genes. The findings of this study are useful for designing specific control programs for bovine clinical mastitis caused by Staph. aureus in this region of Iran.

  20. Phylo-typing of clinical Escherichia coli isolates originating from bovine mastitis and canine pyometra and urinary tract infection by means of quadruplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müştak, Hamit Kaan; Günaydin, Elçin; Kaya, İnci Başak; Salar, Merve Özdal; Babacan, Orkun; Önat, Kaan; Ata, Zafer; Diker, Kadir Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the major causative agents of bovine mastitis worldwide, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. Besides this, E. coli strains which belong to the extra-intestinal pathogenic group are also the major cause of urinary tract infections and pyometra in dogs. In this study, it was aimed to investigate phylo-groups/subgroups in 155 E. coli isolates obtained from acute bovine mastitis, 43 from urinary tract infections of dogs and 20 from canine pyometra by a formerly described triplex PCR and recently described new quadruplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Group A1 (n = 118; 76%) and B1 (n = 71; 46%) were found to be the most prevalent groups by triplex and quadruplex PCR assays in mastitis isolates, respectively. Phylo-typing of 43 urinary tract isolates also revealed that most of the isolates belonged to A1 (n = 23; 54%) by triplex and B2 (n = 36; 84%) by quadruplex PCR assays. The isolates assigned as group A1 (n = 17; 85%) by triplex PCR could not be classified by quadruplex PCR in pyometra isolates. The results support the hypothesis that E. coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases are environmental. Also, groups C, E and F were identified as new phylo-groups for the first time in acute bovine mastitis cases. The comparison of triplex PCR with quadruplex PCR results revealed that most of the groups assigned in triplex PCR were altered by quadruplex PCR assay.

  1. Characterization of Prototheca zopfii Genotypes Isolated from Cases of Bovine Mastitis and Cow Barns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Hou, Rongguang; Zhang, Shiyao; Ding, Laidi; Han, Dandan; Deng, Zhaoju; Rahman, Abdur; Han, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Protothecal mastitis, caused mostly by Prototheca zopfii (P. zopfii), is increasing in dairy herds and is being reported globally. The present study was aimed at studying the epidemiology of mastitis and at molecular characterization of P. zopfii isolates from dairy herds and their surroundings in three provinces of China using microbiological, biochemical and molecular methods, and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Samples from milk (n = 620) of mastitic cows and their barns sources (n = 410) including feces, feed, bedding materials and drinking water were analyzed. Among other pathogens recovered from mastitic milk, 84 (13.5%) of the isolates were identified as P. zopfii. All of the P. zopfii isolates recovered from milk were recognized as genotype 2, whereas 58 (73.4%) and 21 (26.6%) isolates from environmental sources were found to be P. zopfii genotypes 1 and 2, respectively. The isolates were susceptible to some antibiotics and antifungal agents, including amikacin (78.1%), streptomycin (58.5%), gentamicin (17.8%), amphotericin B (68.6%) and nystatin (64.4%). Additionally, the two genotypes displayed versatile patterns of susceptibility to different antimicrobials agents. Phylogeny of the genotypes on the basis of 18S SSU rDNA and 28S SSU rDNA was also investigated. The isolates of the two genotypes separated into different clades, and no interrelationship was observed among these as shown by phylogenetic analysis. The genotype 1 isolates from cow barn sources were non-pathogenic and may not present any risk of mastitis. We conclude that P. zopfii genotype 2 might play an important role in bovine mastitis in China.

  2. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5-8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21-35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows.

  3. Bovine CCL28 Mediates Chemotaxis via CCR10 and Demonstrates Direct Antimicrobial Activity against Mastitis Causing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Kyler B; Mason, Sara; Nygaard, Tyler K; Liu, Bin; Griffith, Shannon; Jones, Jennifer; Linderman, Susanne; Hughes, Melissa; Erickson, David; Voyich, Jovanka M; Davis, Mary F; Wilson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the well characterized function of chemokines in mediating the homing and accumulation of leukocytes to tissues, some chemokines also exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. Little is known of the potential role of chemokines in bovine mammary gland health and disease. The chemokine CCL28 has previously been shown to play a key role in the homing and accumulation of IgA antibody secreting cells to the lactating murine mammary gland. CCL28 has also been shown to act as an antimicrobial peptide with activity demonstrated against a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Here we describe the cloning and function of bovine CCL28 and document the concentration of this chemokine in bovine milk. Bovine CCL28 was shown to mediate cellular chemotaxis via the CCR10 chemokine receptor and exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bovine mastitis causing organisms. The concentration of bovine CCL28 in milk was found to be highly correlated with the lactation cycle. Highest concentrations of CCL28 were observed soon after parturition, with levels decreasing over time. These results suggest a potential role for CCL28 in the prevention/resolution of bovine mastitis.

  4. Bovine CCL28 Mediates Chemotaxis via CCR10 and Demonstrates Direct Antimicrobial Activity against Mastitis Causing Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyler B Pallister

    Full Text Available In addition to the well characterized function of chemokines in mediating the homing and accumulation of leukocytes to tissues, some chemokines also exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. Little is known of the potential role of chemokines in bovine mammary gland health and disease. The chemokine CCL28 has previously been shown to play a key role in the homing and accumulation of IgA antibody secreting cells to the lactating murine mammary gland. CCL28 has also been shown to act as an antimicrobial peptide with activity demonstrated against a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Here we describe the cloning and function of bovine CCL28 and document the concentration of this chemokine in bovine milk. Bovine CCL28 was shown to mediate cellular chemotaxis via the CCR10 chemokine receptor and exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bovine mastitis causing organisms. The concentration of bovine CCL28 in milk was found to be highly correlated with the lactation cycle. Highest concentrations of CCL28 were observed soon after parturition, with levels decreasing over time. These results suggest a potential role for CCL28 in the prevention/resolution of bovine mastitis.

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of some Sinai medicinal plant extracts on bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Gamil S. G. Zeedan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis is the most economically important disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide from an economic, diagnostic and public-health point of view. The present study aimed to isolate and identify of bacteria causes mastitis in dairy cows and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of some selected medicinal plants extracts comparing antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 203 milk samples of dairy cows were collected during the period from February to June 2013 at different Governorates in Egypt. The use clinical inspection and California mastitis test examination were provided efficient diagnostic tool for detection of clinical, subclinical mastitis and apparently normal health cattle. The collected milk samples were cultured on Nutrient, Blood agar, Mannitol salt, Edward’s and MacConkey agar plates supporting the growth of various types of bacteria for their biochemical studies and isolation. The antimicrobial activity of plants extracts (Jasonia montana and Artemisia herb albawith different solvent (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and acetonewere studied in vitro against isolated bacteria from mastitis by paper desk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC. Results: The prevalence of clinical, subclinical mastitis and normal healthy animals were 34.50%, 24.7% and 40.8% respectively. The major pathogens isolated from collected milk samples were Escherichia coli (22.16%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.19%, Streptococcus spp. (13.3%, Streptococcus agalactiae (12.8%, Streptococcus dysgalactia (0.5%, Pasteurella spp. (2.45%, Klebsiella spp. (1.47%and Pseudomonas spp. (0.45%. The highest antibacterial activity of J. montana plant extracted with acetone solvent against S. agalactiae, E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococci with zone of inhibition values ± standard deviation (SD, ranging from 4.33±0.57 to 25.6±0.60 mm. The MIC values

  6. The bovine colostrum microbiome and its association with clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Svetlana F; Teixeira, Andre G V; Lima, Fabio S; Ganda, Erika K; Higgins, Catherine H; Oikonomou, Georgios; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2017-04-01

    In an effort to characterize colostrum microbial diversity and its potential associations with early-lactation clinical mastitis, we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the bovine colostrum microbiome. A prospective observational study was conducted that included 70 Holstein cows; colostrum samples were collected from all 4 mammary gland quarters. Colostrum samples were categorized according to whether the quarter was diagnosed (CMC) or not diagnosed (NCMC) with clinical mastitis during the first 30 d postpartum. Colostrum samples were dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Tenericutes phyla, with the 6 most common taxa [order (o), family (f), and genus (g)] being g_Staphylococcus, g_Prevotella, f_Ruminococcaceae, o_Bacteroidales, o_Clostridiales, and g_Pseudomonas. The colostrum microbiota of primiparous cows was significantly richer (higher number of bacterial species) than that of multiparous cows, and differences in colostrum taxonomic structure between parities were also observed. The microbial community of NCMC samples of primiparous cows was significantly more diverse than that of CMC samples, and the relative abundances of the Tenericutes and Fusobacteria phyla as well as the Mycoplasma and Fusobacterium genera were significantly higher in NCMC than in CMC samples of primiparous cows. The colostrum core microbiome, defined as the bacterial taxa common to all colostrum samples examined, was composed of 20 taxa and included bacterial genera already known to be associated with mastitis (e.g., Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma, and Streptococcus spp.). Our results indicate that the colostrum microbiome of primiparous cows differs from that of multiparous cows, and it harbors some diversity and taxonomic markers of mammary gland health specific to primiparous cows only. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of the amino acid motifs of BoLA-DRB3 alleles with mastitis pathogens in Japanese Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tatsuyuki; Mukoyama, Harutaka; Furuta, Hiroki; Kondo, Yasuko; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Aida, Yoko; Kosugiyama, Motoaki; Tomogane, Hiroshi

    2009-10-01

    The association of the polymorphism of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) genes, identified by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method, with resistance and susceptibility to mastitis caused by Streptococci, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from 170 Holstein cows (129 mastitis and 41 healthy cows) from 5 districts in Chiba prefecture, Japan. Susceptibility or resistance to the mastitis-causing pathogens was thought to vary by the presence of amino acid substitutions at the 9, 11, 13, and 30 positions. DRB3*0101 and DRB3*1501 had amino acid motifs of Glu(9), Ser(11), Ser(13), and Tyr(30), and they were considered to have susceptibility to all 4 mastitis pathogens. In contrast, DRB3*1101 and DRB3*1401 had amino acid motifs of Gln(9), His(11), Gly(13), and His(30) in these positions, and they also had Val(86), so these alleles were considered to have resistance to Streptococcal and coagulase-negative Staphylococcal mastitis. However, in the case of Escherichia coli mastitis, amino acid substitutions at the 9, 11, 13, and 30 positions had little effect, but rather substitutions at the 47, 67 positions of pocket 7, and at the 71, 74 positions of pocket 4, Tyr(47), Ile(67), Ala(71), and Ala(74), were associated with resistance. This motif was present in DRB3*1201.

  8. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf extract: An alternative approach for the treatment of staphylococcal bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordmuang, Auemphon; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic residues in dairy products as well as emergence of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens have been recognized as global public health concerns. The present work was aimed to study a potent antibacterial extract from natural product as an alternative treatment for staphylococcal bovine mastitis. Staphylococcal isolates (n=44) were isolated from milk samples freshly squeezed from individual cows. All staphylococcal isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin, except vancomycin. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf ethanolic extract was accessed for its antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory potential. The extract exhibited profound antibacterial activity against all of staphylococcal isolates with MIC and MBC values ranged from 16-64 μg/ml and 64->128 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the extract also exerted anti-protein denaturation and human red blood cell membrane stabilizing activity. The results support the use of R. tomentosa extract that could be applied to cure bovine mastitis and to reduce inflammatory injury caused by the bacterial infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic patterns of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Elina B Reinoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection.

  10. Genetic patterns of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Elina B; Lasagno, Mirta C; Odierno, Liliana M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection.

  11. Prevention of bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; King, S H; Torre, P M; Shull, E P; Dowlen, H H; Lewis, M J; Sordillo, L M

    1989-11-01

    A natural exposure study was conducted in a herd of 150 lactating dairy cows for 18 mo to determine the effectiveness of chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis. Right quarters of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal. Left quarters were not dipped and served as within-cow negative controls. The experimental teat dip reduced Staphylococcus aureus infections 67.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae infections 63.8%, and Streptococcus uberis infections 27.8%. Overall efficacy of the chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide teat dip against major mastitis pathogens was 52.2%. The experimental teat dip reduced Corynebacterium bovis infections and coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections also by 45.8 and 38.7%, respectively. Overall efficacy against minor mastitis pathogens was 43.4%. Under conditions of this trial, the experimental teat dip containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide was effective in preventing new intramammary infections against a variety of mastitis pathogens.

  12. Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L P; Mark, T; Sørensen, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5...... different pathogen-specific mastitis traits and lactation average somatic cell count from 5 to 170 d after first calving (LASCC170) with another index consisting of 1 unspecific mastitis trait and LASCC170. Economic values were estimated for mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus...... dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus uberis using a stochastic simulation model (SimHerd IV). Mastitis incidences for SimHerd IV were from incidences of mastitis treatments in primiparous Danish Holstein cows calving in 2007. Estimated costs ranged from €149...

  13. Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L P; Madsen, P; Mark, T

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus...... and 2006 were used in the analyses. Variances and covariances were estimated using uni- and bivariate threshold models via Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of heritabilities of pathogen-specific mastitis were lower than the heritability of unspecific mastitis, ranging from 0.035 to 0.076 for S. aureus and S....... uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations among the pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered...

  14. Molecular identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis and detection of β-lactam resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srednik, Mariela Elizabeth; Grieben, Mario Andres; Bentancor, Adriana; Gentilini, Elida Raquel

    2015-09-27

    Bovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in dairy herds. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are increasing in importance as causeof bovine intramammary infection (IMI) throughout the world in recent years. CoNShave been isolated from milk samples collected from cows with clinical andsubclinical mastitis in several countries. Identification of mastitis pathogensis important when selection appropriate antimicrobial therapy. A total of 93 strains of Staphylococcusspp isolated from bovine clinical andsubclinical mastitis in Argentina during 2010-2013 were identified by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR using the gap gene. The isolates were tested by PCR for the presence of blaZ gene and mecA gene and were tested by disk diffusion for the susceptibilityto penicillin and cefoxitin. The most common CoNS species was S.chromogenes 46.2% (43/93), followed by S. devriesei 11.8% (11/93) and S. haemolyticus 9.7% (9/93). The blaZ gene was detected in 19 (20.4%) but only 16 (17.2%) isolates were resistant to penicillin; the mecA was detected in6 (6.5%) isolates but only 4 (4.3) were resistant to cefoxitin. The 6 mecA-positive isolates showed oxaxillinMICs ≤ 0.5 μg/ml. CoNSare important minor mastitis pathogens and can be the cause of substantial economic losses. Despite the low resistance to PEN in Argentina, the presenceof MR isolates found in this study emphasize the importance of identificationof CoNS when an IMI is present because of the potentially risk of lateraltransfer of resistance genes between staphylococcal species.

  15. Prevalence of Pathogens Causing Subclinical Mastitis in Argentinean Dairy Herds

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    Silvana Andrea Dieser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different mastitis pathogens in Argentinean dairy farms. Composite milk samples were collected of 2296 cows from 51 randomly selected herds in Córdoba, Argentina. Somatic cell count was determined in all samples and bacterial examination of the milk samples with a SCC exceeding 200,000 cells/mL was performed. About 54%of cows were diagnosed with subclinical mastitis (SCC ≥200,000/mL. Bacteria were isolated in 83.1% of milk samples subjected to bacteriological analysis. The most frequently isolated pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (52.1%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%, Corynebacterium spp. (5.2%, Streptococcus agalactiae (4.4% and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.4%. This study demonstrates that among the major pathogens isolated, the contagious bacteria caused most of the subclinical infections of dairy cows in Cordoba, Argentina. Moreover, CNS was the most relevant group of minor pathogens causing subclinical mastitis.

  16. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject involves detecting presence or absence of genetic marker associated with trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off-spring from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    subject. The bovine subject is a member of Finnish Ayrshire, Swedish Red and White, or Danish Red cattle breed (claimed). ADVANTAGE - The method efficiently selects bovine subjects with increased resistance to mastitis and thereby avoiding economic losses in connection with animals suffering from mastitis......NOVELTY - Determining (m1) resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject, involves detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of at least one genetic marker that is associated with at least one trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off......-spring from it, where the genetic marker is located on the bovine chromosome BTA11 in the region flanked by and including the zeta-chain associated protein 70kD (ZAP70) and CD8B genes, where the presence or absence of the genetic marker is indicative of mastitis resistance. USE - For determining resistance...

  17. Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene against Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montironi, Ivana D; Cariddi, Laura N; Reinoso, Elina B

    Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes great economic losses per year, being Streptococcus uberis the main environmental pathogen involved. The aim of the present study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene for S. uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis. In addition, the effect of MIC on biofilm formation was analyzed. MIC values for the essential oil ranged from 14.3 to 114.5mg/ml (1.56-12.5%v/v) and MBC between 114.5 and 229mg/ml (12.5-25%v/v). MICs for limonene ranged from 3.3 to 52.5mg/ml (0.39-6.25%v/v) and MBC was 210mg/ml (25%v/v). Both compounds showed antibacterial activity and affected the biofilm formation of most of the strains tested. In conclusion, these compounds could be used as an alternative and/or complementary therapy for bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. In Vitro Assessment of the Probiotic Potential of Lactococcus lactis LMG 7930 against Ruminant Mastitis-Causing Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Federica; Camperio, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis in dairy ruminants is considered to be the most expensive disease to farmers worldwide. Recently, the intramammary infusion of lactic acid bacteria has emerged as a potential new alternative to antibiotics for preventing and treating bovine mastitis. In this study we have investigated in vitro the probiotic potential of Lactococcus lactis LMG 7930, a food-grade and nisin-producing strain, against mastitis-causing pathogens. We have characterized its carbohydrate fermentation and antibiotic susceptibility profiles, cell surface properties and antimicrobial activity, as well as its capabilities to adhere to and inhibit the invasion of pathogens into the bovine mammary epithelial cell line BME-UV1d. We found that L. lactis LMG 7930 was sensitive to tested drugs, according to the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP), and showed an improved carbohydrate fermentation capacity compared to starter strains. Moreover, the strain exhibited antagonistic properties towards many of the pathogens tested. It presented medium surface hydrophobicity, a low basic property and no electron acceptor capability. It showed low auto-aggregation and no co-aggregation abilities towards any of the tested pathogens. The strain was one of the most adhesive to bovine mammary epithelial cells among tested bacteria, but its internalisation was low. The strain did not affect significantly pathogen invasion; however, a trend to decrease internalization of some pathogens tested was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that this strain might be a promising candidate for the development of new strategies of mastitis control in ruminants. Future investigations are needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy under field conditions. PMID:28068371

  19. In Vitro Assessment of the Probiotic Potential of Lactococcus lactis LMG 7930 against Ruminant Mastitis-Causing Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Federica; Camperio, Cristina; Marianelli, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis in dairy ruminants is considered to be the most expensive disease to farmers worldwide. Recently, the intramammary infusion of lactic acid bacteria has emerged as a potential new alternative to antibiotics for preventing and treating bovine mastitis. In this study we have investigated in vitro the probiotic potential of Lactococcus lactis LMG 7930, a food-grade and nisin-producing strain, against mastitis-causing pathogens. We have characterized its carbohydrate fermentation and antibiotic susceptibility profiles, cell surface properties and antimicrobial activity, as well as its capabilities to adhere to and inhibit the invasion of pathogens into the bovine mammary epithelial cell line BME-UV1d. We found that L. lactis LMG 7930 was sensitive to tested drugs, according to the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP), and showed an improved carbohydrate fermentation capacity compared to starter strains. Moreover, the strain exhibited antagonistic properties towards many of the pathogens tested. It presented medium surface hydrophobicity, a low basic property and no electron acceptor capability. It showed low auto-aggregation and no co-aggregation abilities towards any of the tested pathogens. The strain was one of the most adhesive to bovine mammary epithelial cells among tested bacteria, but its internalisation was low. The strain did not affect significantly pathogen invasion; however, a trend to decrease internalization of some pathogens tested was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that this strain might be a promising candidate for the development of new strategies of mastitis control in ruminants. Future investigations are needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy under field conditions.

  20. Characteristics of Aerococcus viridans isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk SCC, yield, and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Yu, Dan; Zhang, Shiyao; Khan, Saeed U; Fanning, Séamus; Han, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Aerococcus viridians (A. viridans), an environmental Gram-positive bacterium, has been documented to be associated with bovine mastitis. However, its exact role in bovine mastitis and the changes it brings about in milk characteristics are not yet known. The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow. One-year sampling for subclinical mastitis composite milk was conducted based on monthly DHI data from September 2013 to August 2014, in a commercial herd located in Beijing, China. All samples were cultured and pathogens were identified using microbiology method. A. viridians isolates were further identified by API identification system and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing method. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to test the antibiotic resistance of A. viridians against kinds of antimicrobial substance. SCC, milk yield, and milk composition data were from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) results. Results showed that a total of 279 (16.67%) A. viridans isolates were identified from among 1674 bacterial isolates cultured from milk samples with high SCC. The incidence of mastitis caused by A. viridans was the highest (48-53%) during the summer season. Majority of the isolates were susceptible to most of antimicrobial compounds tested, especially to β-lactams, but were found to be resistant (50-90%) to aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. The average SCC of the A. viridans infected cows was significantly higher (1000.0 × 10(3) cells/mL) (P  0.05) by 1.86 kg/day. Reductions were also observed in fat content (P > 0.05), lactose (P  0.05), whereas protein content increased significantly (P bovine subclinical mastitis wherein it exerts an effect on SCC, milk yield, and composition.

  1. Linum usitatissimum (linseed/flaxseed) fixed oil: antimicrobial activity and efficacy in bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Mukerjee, Alok; Kumar, P; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2011-02-01

    In vitro antimicrobial activity and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of L. usitatissimum (linseed/flaxseed) fixed oil in bovine mastitis were investigated. In vitro antimicrobial activity of L. usitatissimum fixed oil was evaluated against a number of microorganisms by disc diffusion method and MIC determination. The in vivo efficacy of the oil was evaluated in nine mastitis-affected cows divided into three groups (three in each group), following once-a-day intramammary infusion of oil, cefoperazone or an oil-cefoperazone combination for 7 days and by monitoring the California mastitis test score, somatic cell count and microbial count in milk samples. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli was comparable to that of cefoperazone while the antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus and Candida albicans, was greater than that of cefoperazone. In the in vivo study, the oil exhibited significant reduction in the California mastitis test score and somatic cell count in milk samples from infected udders following 7 days of intramammary administration suggesting its anti-inflammatory effect. The microbial count in milk samples was also reduced significantly following oil treatment. The effects were comparable to the treatment by cefoperazone (Mastiwock) alone or in combination with the oil. Apparently, the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of the oil contribute to its therapeutic efficacy in mastitis; the oil could be used as an alternative treatment for bovine mastitis The results suggest possible therapeutic potential of L. usitatissimum fixed oil in bovine mastitis.

  2. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Borne, B.H.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836826

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was

  3. Prevalence of coagulase gene polymorphism in Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Dangler, C. A.; Sordillo, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate polymorphism of the coagulase gene of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis. One hundred eighty-seven strains of S. aureus were isolated from bovine mastitic milk samples obtained from 187 different Danish dairy farms. The isolates were characterised...

  4. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  5. Genetic correlations between pathogen-specific mastitis and somatic cell count in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas; Madsen, P.;

    2009-01-01

    _170) or 300 d (LASCC_300) after calving, and the mastitis traits were unspecific mastitis (all mastitis treatments, both clinical and subclinical, regardless of the causative pathogen) and mastitis caused by either Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS......, especially for Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and CNS and, to a lesser extent, for Staph. aureus and E. coli. Data recording should preferably be improved, and economic weights for the pathogen-specific mastitis traits should be estimated before implementing an udder health index that includes pathogen....... uberis, and E. coli (r(a) = 0.54 to 0.69) and were lowest for Staph. aureus mastitis (r(a) = 0.44). The genetic correlation between LASCC_300 and the mastitis traits were generally smaller (r(a) = 0.47 to 0.69). Caution should be taken when interpreting the results, however, because some posterior...

  6. Population structure and antimicrobial profile of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with bovine mastitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Li, Yuchen; Bao, Hongduo; Wei, Ruicheng; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Ran

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a significant bacterial pathogen associated with bovine mastitis. The aim of the present study was to investigate and characterize of S. aureus strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis in the mid-east of China. Among the 200 milk samples analyzed, 58 were positive for S. aureus, of these isolates, 11 isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). All of the 58 S. aureus strains were classified in agr group I, while seven different sequence type (ST) patterns were identified and among them the most common was ST630 followed by ST188. All of the S. aureus isolates belonging to ST630 were resistant to more than four antimicrobials, and 22.2% of isolates belonging to ST188 were resistant to eight antimicrobials. Interestingly, while strong biofilm producers demonstrated higher resistance to multiple antimicrobials, they exhibited lower intracellular survival rates. The results of this study illustrated the distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, genotype, and the ability of biofilm production and mammary epithelial cells invasion of these S. aureus isolates. This study can provide the basis for the development of a disease prevention program in dairy farms to reduce the potential risk in both animal and human health.

  7. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrino, MS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  8. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, MS; Frola, ID; Odierno, LM; Bogni, CI

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  9. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis

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    C. G. Unakal and B. B. Kaliwal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitic Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows. Milk samples for microbiological culture were collected from dairy herds. A total of 105 samples were screened and 68 confirmed Staphylococcus aureus were obtained. The a, ß and non haemolytic activity revealed 20.58%, 75% and 4.41% respectively in 68 isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus against 10 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. The highest 86.76% isolates were resistant to penicillin followed by ampicillin 70.50%, amoxicillin 63.23%, gentamycin 47.05%, amikacin 30.80%, erythromycin 27.94%, Ciprofloxacin 26.47%, methicillin 23.52%, cefotaxime 20.58% and the lowest resistant was shown in ceftriaxone 19.11%. The study revealed that the increase in prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of the Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 65-67

  10. Comparison phenotypic and genotypic identification of Staphylococcus species isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freitas Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In addition to Staphylococcus aureus nowadays other coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, earlier considered of minor importance, are now accepted as relevant pathogens for humans and animals. The involvement of these microorganisms in bovine mastitis etiology and the possibility their transmission through milk to humans justify the requirement of developing reliable methods for identification of the most frequent species among them. The purpose of this study was to compare the phenotypic techniques with the genotypic method carried out by sequencing of the rpoB gene in identification of several species of the genus Staphylococcus isolated from bovine mastitis. A total of 300 staphylococci isolates of bovine mastitis cases from several Brazilian dairy herds were studied by phenotypic and genotypic techniques, respectively: 150 CoPS and 150 CoNS strains. A total of 18 CoNS different species and 4 CoPS species were identified. Among the CoNS the following species were recognized: 48 (32% Staphylococcus warneri, 22(15% S. epidermidis, 20(13% S. hyicus, 10(7% S. xylosus, 7(5% S. haemolyticus, 6(4% S. simulans, 6(4% S. schleiferi subsp schleiferi, 6(4% S. hominis, 5(3% S. pasteuri, 4(2.7% S. cohnii, 3(2% S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus 3(2% S. chromogenes 3(2% S. sciuri, 2(1% S. saccharolyticus, 2(1% S. lugdunensi, 1(0,7% S. auricularis, 1(70% S. saprophyticus subsp. bovis, 1(0.7% S. capitis. And among the 150 CoPS were identified respectively: 105 (70% S. aureus, 21(14%, S. hyicus, 19(13% S. intermedius e 5(3% S. schleiferi subsp coagulans. Considering the 150 CoNS isolates, the identifications performed by phenotypic and genotypic tests presented 96.7% of concordance, kappa coefficient of agreement = 0.933, SE (standard error of kappa=0.021 (95% confidence interval: 0.893 to 0.974, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r = 0.9977, (confidence interval 95%: 0.9938 a 0.9992 and in relation

  11. Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Madsen, P.; Mark, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    . uberis, respectively. The heritabilities of groups of pathogen ranged from 0.053 to 0.087. Genetic correlations among the pathogen-specific mastitis traits ranged from 0.45 to 0.77. These estimates tended to be lowest for bacteria eliciting very different immune responses, which can be considered...... as the overall pleiotropic effect of genes affecting resistance to a specific pathogen, and highest for bacteria sharing characteritics regarding immune response. The genetic correlations between the groups of pathogens were high, 0.73 and 0.83. Results showed that the pathogen-specific traits used in this study......The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus...

  12. Occurrence and characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from bovine mastitis milk samples in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindonis, Veera; Taponen, Suvi; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Pyörälä, Satu; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Salmenlinna, Saara; Lindholm, Laura; Rantala, Merja

    2013-08-28

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates. The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillin-resistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring.

  13. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria of bovine subclinical mastitis in Harbin%哈尔滨地区奶牛隐性乳房炎病原菌的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 高学军

    2011-01-01

    通过BMT法、乳汁pH检验法和体细胞直接计数法等方法相结合,对哈尔滨市3个大型奶牛场、10户奶牛养殖户选取的1 000头奶牛,4000个乳区进行隐性乳房炎的流行病学调查,以及致病菌的分离鉴定.结果表明,其中隐性乳房炎的发病率为47.7%(477/1 000);乳区发病率为27.3%(1092/4000),从477头的隐性乳房炎奶牛的1 092个阳性乳区乳样中分得细菌共9种541株.其中葡萄球菌183株,占33.8%,革兰氏阴性杆菌113株,占20.1%.,链球菌132株,占24.4%.%According to the method of BMT, pH detection and count of the somatic cells, the epidemiologic investigation of recessive mastitis, isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria were studied on 4 000 breast areas of 1 000 subclinical cows from ten cow farms and three large cow factories in Harbin. The result showed that incidence rates of recessive mastitis and breast area were 47.7% (447/1 000) and 27.3% (1 092/4 000), respectively. And 12 species of the bacteria and 541 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from 1 092 breast areas of 477 subclinical mastitis cows. The main bacteria included 183 strains of Staphylococcus, 113 strains of Gram negative bacteria and 132 strains of Staphylococcus, with the proportion of 33.8%, 20.1%, and 24.4%, respectively.

  14. Comparison of the immune responses associated with experimental bovine mastitis caused by different strains of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Jacoby, Shamay; Krifucks, Oleg; Leitner, Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    We studied the mammary immune response to different mammary pathogenic Escherichia coli (MPEC) strains in cows, hypothesising that the dynamics of response would differ. E. coli is a major aetiologic agent of acute clinical bovine mastitis of various degrees of severity with specific strains being associated with persistent infections. We compared challenge with three distinct pathogenic MPEC strains (VL2874, VL2732 and P4), isolated from different forms of mastitis (per-acute, persistent and acute, respectively). A secondary objective was to verify the lack of mammary pathogenicity of an environmental isolate (K71) that is used for comparison against MPEC in genomic and phenotypic studies. Twelve cows were challenged by intra-mammary infusion with one of the strains. Cellular and chemokine responses and bacterial culture follow-up were performed for 35 d. All cows challenged by any of the MPEC strains developed clinical mastitis. Differences were found in the intensity and duration of response, in somatic cell count, secreted cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17) and levels of milk leucocyte membrane Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). A sharp decrease of TLR4 on leucocytes was observed concomitantly to peak bacterial counts in milk. Intra-mammary infusion of strain K71 did not elicit inflammation and bacteria were not recovered from milk. Results suggest some differences in the mammary immune response to distinct MPEC strains that could be correlated to their previously observed pathogenic traits. This is also the first report of an E. coli strain that is non-pathogenic to the bovine mammary gland.

  15. Involvement of fungal species in bovine mastitis in and around Mathura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Pachauri

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of mycotic mastitis in bovines of Mathura region. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 milk samples collected from seven different regions of Mathura were examined by cultural, morphological and biochemical methods. Results: Out of 100 milk samples processed 64 samples were found positive for fungal isolates. The most common isolates were Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that Candida spp and Aspergillus spp are the main fungi involved in bovine mastitis in this region. Good hygiene and sanitation practices of animal farm and judicious use of antibiotics will lower incidence of bovine mycotic mastitis. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 393-395

  16. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Plant-Derived Diterpenes against Bovine Mastitis Bacteria

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    Rodrigo C. S. Veneziani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL−1 against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect, but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis.

  17. Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis, its etiology and diagnosis of antibiotic resistance of dairy farms in four municipalities of a tropical region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pérez, Jaime; Kholif, Ahmed Eid; Rojas-Hernández, Saul; Elghandour, Mona Mohamed Mohamed Yasseen; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Bastida, Adrian Zaragoza; Velázquez-Reynoso, David; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Camacho-Díaz, Luis Miguel; Alonso-Fresán, María Uxúa; DiLorenzo, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    A region-wide survey was conducted in the tropical area of Tierra Caliente, State of Guerrero, Mexico to estimate the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis (SCM), distribution of mastitis pathogens, and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of different mastitis pathogens in dairy farms. In total, 1036 quarter milk samples were obtained from 259 cows at 87 different dairy farms. Collected quarter milk samples were submitted for California Mastitis Test (CMT), bacteriological examination, and testing for antimicrobial susceptibility. Overall prevalence of SCM in the studied area was 20.5 %. Prevalence in the different regions was as follows: 28 % in Arcelia municipality, 21 % in Tlalchapa municipality, 19.4 % in Pungarabato municipality, and 14.3 % in Finch Cutzamala municipality. Of all positive isolates, 97.5 % were Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, of all positive isolates, 37.5 % were Proteus vulgaris, 25 % Salmonella spp., 12.5 % Enterobacter aerogenes, and 10 % Escherichia coli. Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli were sensitive for netilmicin antimicrobial. However, E. coli was sensitive for pefloxacin and gentamicin with a sensitivity for pefloxacin for E. aerogenes, while Staphylococci were sensitive for gentamicin and dicloxacillin. It could be concluded that practices such as the implementation of mastitis control programs, improved milking hygiene together with an intramammary treatment with netilmicin, pefloxacin, and gentamicin antimicrobials should be considered for mastitis prevention in the study area of Tierra Caliente, in the tropical area of Guerrero, Mexico.

  18. Prevalence and major bacterial causes of bovine mastitis in Asella, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Matios; Tolosa, Tadele; Tigre, Worku

    2009-10-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted in and around Asella town from November 2007 to April 2008 on dairy cows to determine the prevalence of mastitis, impact of risk factors and isolate the dominant mastitis causing bacteria on total of 223 lactating cows, of which 92 were indigenous Arsi, and 131 Holstein Zebu cross by using clinical examination and California mastitis test (CMT). Of these 144 (65.6 %) were positive by clinical examination and CMT for clinical and sub clinical mastitis, with prevalence of 26.5 % and 38 %, respectively. There was a significant difference (P mastitis between cows kept under different hygiene of milking process. Similarly a significant difference on the prevalence of mastitis between the two breeds (P CMT and clinically positive milk samples analyzed microbiologically, 133 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and while 11 were negative. The dominant bacterial isolates in the study animals were Staphylococcus species (41.4 %), Streptococcus species (24.8 %), and other gram positive rods and gram negative enteric bacteria (33.8 %). Good hygiene in milking process, milking clinically infected cows at last, culling chronic mastitis carriers, treating clinically infected cows and dry period therapy could reduce the prevalence of contagious mastitis in the study area.

  19. Characterization of Staphylococcus simulans strains isolated from cases of bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Larsen, H. D.; Jensen, N. E.

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize Staphylococcus simulans isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. A total of 134 isolates of S. simulans selected from 80 quarters from 61 cows or heifers in 37 different herds were characterized by EcoRI ribotyping. From 22 quarters two to seven consecutive......, where 76 paired or multiple isolates were at disposal, the same ribotype was constantly found in the same quarter. This study showed that S. simulans causing bovine mastitis could be divided into relatively large number of different types, but that two types predominated. More than one type could...

  20. Isolation of nuc mutant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastempowska, E; Orczykowska-Kotyna, M; Lassa, H

    2014-06-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with a mutation in the nuclease (nuc) gene were recovered from cases of bovine mastitis in Poland. Three S. aureus isolates from cows in one herd had a 42 base pair duplication in the nuc gene. These isolates belonged to sequence type 97 (ST97) and clonal complex 97 (CC97). They had a different spa type and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) subtype than a S. aureus isolate without the nuc mutation from the same herd. Isolation of nuc mutant S. aureus strains from cases of bovine mastitis may confound diagnostic PCRs based on detection of the nuc gene.

  1. Isolation and identification of main mastitis pathogens in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Castañeda Vázquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a large epidemiological study aiming to detect the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to investigate the major udder pathogens in Jalisco State, western Mexico. For this purpose, 2205 dairy cows, representing 33 Mexican dairy herds, were involved. Of 2205 cows, 752 mastitic animals were diagnosed and only 2,979 milk samples could be obtained for further investigation. All 2979 milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT to differentiate clinical cases from subclinical ones where 1996 samples (67 % reacted positively. Of these, 1087 samples (54.5% came from cows suffering from clinical cases of mastitis. Bacteriological identification of the causative agents revealed the presence of a major group of pathogens including the Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, S.aureus, S.agalactiae, Corynebacterium spp. and Coliform bacteria which were detected in 464 (15.6%, 175 (5.9%, 200 (6.8%, 417 (14% and 123 (4.1% of the 2927 investigated quarters, 295 (15.4%, 118 (15.7%, 111 (14.8%, 227 (30.2% and 109 (14.5% of the 752 examined cows and in 33 (100%, 22 (66.7%, 19 (57.6%, 30 (90.1% and 27 (81.8% of the 33 herds involved, respectively. Other pathogens could be detected in the investigated milk samples such as S. dysgalactiae (0.4%, S.uberis (0.37%, Bacillus spp. (1%, Nocardia spp. (0.6% und Candida spp. (0.1%. Meanwhile, others were present in a negligible ratio; including the Aerococcus viridans, and Enterococcus spp., Lactococcus lactis, S. bovis.

  2. Therapeutic Chlamydophila abortus and C. pecorum vaccination transiently reduces bovine mastitis associated with Chlamydophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesenkamp-Uhe, Carolin; Li, Yihang; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Sachse, Konrad; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2007-02-01

    Infections with Chlamydophila abortus and C. pecorum are highly prevalent in cattle and have been associated with bovine mastitis. A prospective cohort study was conducted with a herd of 140 Holstein dairy cows to investigate the influence of Chlamydophila infection on subclinical inflammation of the bovine mammary gland as characterized by somatic cell numbers in milk. PCR detection of C. abortus and low serum antibody levels against Chlamydophila spp. were significantly associated with subclinical mastitis. To examine the effect of the infection by response modification, immune perturbation was done by two subcutaneous administrations of an experimental vaccine preparation of inactivated C. abortus and C. pecorum elementary bodies. Vaccination against Chlamydophila highly significantly decreased milk somatic cell numbers, thus reducing bovine mastitis, and increased antibody levels against Chlamydophila but did not eliminate shedding of C. abortus in milk as detected by PCR. The protective effect peaked at 11 weeks after vaccination and lasted for a total of 14 weeks. Vaccination with the Chlamydophila vaccine, a mock vaccine, or a combination vaccine against bovine viral diseases highly significantly increased C. abortus shedding in milk for 1 week, presumably mediated by the vaccine adjuvant. In summary, this study shows an etiological involvement of the widespread Chlamydophila infections in bovine mastitis, a herd disease of critical importance for the dairy industry. Furthermore, this investigation shows the potential for temporary improvement of chlamydial disease by therapeutic vaccination. Chlamydophila vaccination of cattle might serve as a testing ground for vaccines against human chlamydial infections.

  3. Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Mastitis By Mayo Clinic Staff Mastitis is an infection of the breast tissue that results in breast pain, swelling, warmth ... redness. You also might have fever and chills. Mastitis most commonly affects women who are breast-feeding ( ...

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-09-01

    Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Short communication: ELISA system for screening of bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Sato, Ayano; Sobukawa, Hideto; Sato, Yuko; Ito, Takaaki; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Prototheca zopfii is an achlorophyllic alga that causes bovine mastitis, resulting in a reduction in milk production and the secretion of thin, watery milk with white flakes. This study evaluated the use of an ELISA system for distinguishing cows with mastitis due to P. zopfii genotype 2 from healthy cows and cows with chronic candidal mastitis. We also investigated the transitional changes of specific antibody titers in healthy cows injected with inactivated P. zopfii genotype 2 cells. The ELISA system exhibited the highest sensitivity (94%) and specificity (100%) for chronic protothecal mastitis when the positive cutoff value was set at 43.4 ELISA units. Anti-protothecal IgG titers were positive in all cows after they were inoculated with inactivated P. zopfii genotype 2 cells. These results indicated that ELISA detection of anti-protothecal IgG in serum provided specificity and sensitivity sufficient for diagnosing protothecal mastitis. Thus, an ELISA system incorporating this specific antiserum is expected to be valuable for definitive field-based diagnosis of bovine mastitis due to P. zopfii genotype 2. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammation-related microRNA expression level in the bovine milk is affected by mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Chang; Fujikawa, Takuro; Maemura, Tadashi; Ando, Takaaki; Kitahara, Go; Endo, Yasuyuki; Yamato, Osamu; Koiwa, Masateru; Kubota, Chikara; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) in tissue and liquid samples have been shown to be associated with many diseases including inflammation. We aimed to identify inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine mastitis milk. Expression level of inflammation-related miRNA in milk from mastitis-affected and normal cows was analyzed using qPCR. We found that expression level of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 was significantly upregulated in California mastitis test positive (CMT+) milk. We further analyzed these miRNA using a chip-based QuantStudio Digital PCR System. The digital PCR results correlated with those of qPCR, demonstrating upregulation of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 in CMT+ milk. In conclusion, we identified miRNA that are upregulated in CMT+ milk. These miRNA exhibited sensitivity and specificity greater than 80% for differentiating between CMT+ milk and normal milk. Our findings suggest that inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine milk was affected by mastitis, and miRNA in milk have potential for use as biomarkers of bovine mastitis.

  7. Acute phase proteins in bovine milk in an experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersall, P D; Young, F J; Nolan, A M

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to establish the origin of 2 acute phase proteins in milk during subclinical bovine mastitis and to characterize the relationship between those proteins in milk and blood. Haptoglobin (Hp) and mammary-associated serum amyloid A (M-SAA3) appear in milk during mastitis, whereas Hp...... and serum amyloid A increase in serum during mastitis. The concentrations of these proteins were determined in an experimental model using a field strain of Staphylococcus aureus to induce subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The expression of mRNA coding for these proteins was assessed and the presence of M......-SAA3 in mammary tissues was determined using immunocytochemistry. Increases of M-SAA3 and Hp in milk occurred within 12 h of Staphylococcus aureus infusion, with peak concentrations occurring 3 d after infusion of the bacteria. The increase of acute phase proteins in milk (15 h) preceded the increase...

  8. Genome Sequence Analysis of Staphylococcus equorum Bovine Mastitis Isolate UMC-CNS-924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C; Middleton, John R

    2013-10-17

    Intramammary infections in dairy cattle are frequently caused by staphylococci, resulting in mastitis and associated economic losses. A draft genome sequence was determined for Staphylococcus equorum UMC-CNS-924, isolated from the milk of a Holstein cow, to better understand the genetic basis of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the bovine mammary gland.

  9. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wang,1 Yunmei Song,1 Kiro Petrovski,2 Patricia Eats,2 Darren J Trott,2 Hui San Wong,2 Stephen W Page,3 Jeanette Perry,2 Sanjay Garg11School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.Results: Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 µg/mL. The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than

  10. Association of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified by a sequence-based typing method with mastitis pathogens in Japanese Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tatsuyuki; Mukoyama, Harutaka; Furuta, Hiroki; Kondo, Yasuko; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Aida, Yoko; Kosugiyama, Motoaki; Tomogane, Hiroshi

    2009-10-01

    The association of the polymorphism of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) genes identified by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method with resistance and susceptibility to mastitis caused by pathogenic bacteria was investigated. Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from 194 Holstein cows (41 healthy cows and 153 mastitis cows including 24 mixed-infection cows infected with 2 or 3 species of pathogens) from 5 districts of Chiba prefecture, Japan. Sixteen BoLA-DRB3 alleles were detected. The 4 main alleles of DRB3*0101, *1501, *1201, and *1101 constituted 56.8% of the total number of alleles detected. Mastitis cows were divided into 2 groups: group 1 with single-infection cows and group 2 with all mastitis cows including 24 mixed-infection cows. The differences in the frequencies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles and the number of cows homozygous or heterozygous for each BoLA-DRB3 allele between healthy cows and the 2 groups of mastitis cows were evaluated. Furthermore, similar comparisons were performed between healthy cows and the 2 groups of mastitis cows for each mastitis pathogen. It was considered that the 4 alleles, namely, DRB3*0101, *1501, *1201, and *1101 had specific resistance and susceptibility to 4 different mastitis pathogens. Thus, DRB3*0101 might be associated with susceptibility to coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Escherichia coli, and DRB3*1501 might be associated with susceptibility to Escherichia coli. However, DRB3*1101 might be associated with resistance to Streptococci and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, and DRB3*1201, with resistance to Streptococci, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Screening method for Staphylococcus aureus identification in subclinical bovine mastitis from dairy farms

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    Natapol Pumipuntu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious bacteria causing subclinical bovine mastitis. This bacterial infection is commonly identified by determine the pathogen in bovine milk samples through conventional technique including coagulase test. However, this test has several disadvantages as low sensitivity, risk of biohazard, cost expensive, and limited preparation especially in local area. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare and assess the screening method, Mannitol fermentation test (Mannitol salt agar [MSA], and deoxyribonuclease (DNase test, for S. aureus identification in milk samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 224 subclinical bovine mastitis milk samples were collected from four provinces of Thailand and determined S. aureus using conventional method and also subjected to the screening test, MSA and DNase test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV among both tests were analyzed and compared to the tube coagulase test (TCT, as reference method. Immunological test by latex agglutination and molecular assay by determined spa gene were also used to identify and differentiate S. aureus. Results: A total of 130 staphylococci were isolated by selective media, Gram-stain, and catalase test. The number of S. aureus which identified using TCT, MSA and DNase test were 32, 102, and 74 isolates, respectively. All TCT results were correlated to results of latex agglutination and spa gene which were 32 S. aureus. MSA showed 100% sensitivity, 28.57% specificity, 31.37% PPV, and 100% NPV, whereas DNase showed 53.13% sensitivity, 41.84% specificity, 22.97% PPV, and 73.21% NPV. DNase test showed higher specificity value than MSA but the test presented 26.79% false negative results whereas no false-negative result from MSA when comparing to TCT. Conclusion: MSA had a tendency to be a good preference for screening S. aureus because of its high sensitivity and

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from bovine mastitis in Ningxia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Limei; Zhou, Xuezhang; He, Yulong; Yong, Changfu; Shen, Mingliang; Szenci, Otto; Han, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureusis the leading pathogen involved inbovine mastitis, but knowledgeabout antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus resulting in bovine mastitis in Ningxia, China, is limited. Therefore, antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of Staph. aureus were carried out. A total of 327 milk samples from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis in 4 regions of Ningxia were used for the isolation and identification of pathogens according to phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Antimicrobial susceptibility against 22 antimicrobial agents was determined by disk diffusion. The presence of 8 virulence genes in Staph. aureus isolates was tested by PCR. Genotypes of isolates were investigated based on RAPD. Results showed that 35 isolates obtained from mastitis milk samples were identified as Staph. aureus. The isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (100%), penicillin G (94.3%), ampicillin (94.3%), erythromycin (68.6%), azithromycin (68.6%), clindamycin (25.7%), amoxicillin (11.4%), and tetracycline (5.7%). All of the isolates contained one or more virulence genes with average (standard deviation) of 6.6±1.6. The most prevalent virulence genes were hlb (97.1%), followed by fnbpA, hla, coa (94.3% each), nuc (85.7%), fnbpB (80%), clfA (77.1%), and tsst-1 (40%). Nine different gene patterns were found and 3 of them were the dominant gene combinations (77.1%). Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n=35) were divided into 6 genotypes by RAPD tying, the genotypes III and VI were the most prevalent genotypes. There was greatvariation in genotypes of Staph. aureus isolates, not only among different farms, but also within the same herd in Ningxia province. The study showed a high incidence of Staph. aureus with genomic variation of resistance genes, which is matter of great concern in public and animal health in Ningxia province of China.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a virulent bacteriophage SPW specific for Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis of lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longping; Zhang, Zhiying

    2014-09-01

    Mastitis in dairy cattle continues to be an economically important disease. However, control is complicated by a high prevalence of resistance to antibiotics. Phage therapy, therefore, is considered as an alternative way of controlling bacterial infections and contaminations. In this study, we have described isolation and characterization of a highly virulent phage SPW from wastewater of dairy farm, which possesses a strong lytic capability against mastitis-associated Staphylococcus aureus, the most important pathogen in bovine clinical and subclinical mastitis. The phage SPW produced large, round and clear plaques on bacterial culture plates. TEM showed phage SPW has an icosahedral head 62.5 nm in diameter and long tail of 106 nm, head and tail were held together by a connector of 18 ± 1.5 nm long and can be classified as a member of the Myoviridae family. Restriction analysis indicated that phage SPW was a dsDNA virus with an approximate genome size of 65-69 kb. One-step growth kinetics showed a short latency period of about 10-15 min and a rise period of 50 min and a relatively small burst size was 44 ± 3 phages particles/infected cell. Moreover, adsorption rates were not influenced by calcium ions and phage SPW was relatively stable in a wide range of temperature and pH values, and resistant to chloroform and isopropanol. The optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) was 0.01. When phage SPW was used to infect five other clinically isolated pathogenic isolates, it showed relatively wide spectrum host range. Phage SPW was capable of eliciting efficient lysis of S. aureus, revealing it potentially as an effective approach to prophylaxis or treatment of S. aureus-associated mastitis in dairy cows.

  14. Update on bovine mastitis etiological, clinical and treatment aspects in Khartoum state, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Salih R.R.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in certain area at Khartoum State determine the causative agent of bovine mastitis and the susceptibility of different isolates to different antibiotics use for treatment of bovine mastitis. The total number of dairy cows, which were examined in 34 investigated farms, equals 500. The result as follows: 55% acute mastitis, 44% chronic mastitis and 1% gangrenous mastitis. The isolated genera were as follows: 74% Bacillus spp., 24% Staphylococcus spp., 1% Corynebacterium spp. and 1% Klebsiella spp. The isolated species were as follows: 31% Bacillus coagulans, 11% B. cereus, 9% B. subtilis, 9% B. licheniformis, 4% B. circulans, 2% B. lentus, 3% B. mycoides, 3% B. amyloliquefaciens, 2% B. megaterium, 16% Staphylococcus aureus, 8% Staphylococcus hyicus, 1% Corynebacterium spp. and 1% Klebsiella spp. Lastly, the sensitivity test was applied using different antibiotics were as follows: Hundred percent of isolates were sensitive for Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin, 91.6% for Gentamycin and Piperacillin/ Tazobactam, 83.3% for Pefloxacin and Tetracycline, 75% for Amikacin and Ofloxacin, 66.6% for Ceftizoxime, 33.3% for Co-Trimoxazole and Cefotaxime and 16.6% for Ampicillin/ Sulbactam. This study was depended at routine works at microbiological laboratory.

  15. Development of magnetic nanoparticle based calorimetric assay for the detection of bovine mastitis in cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappan, Raja; Al Attas, Sana; Kaman, Wendy E; Bikker, Floris J; Zourob, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    Mastitis in dairy cattle is an inflammatory reaction of the udder tissue. Mastitis increases plasmin levels, leading to an increased proteolysis of milk proteins such as casein, resulting in a significant decrease in milk quality and related dairy products. Due to its key-role in mastitis, we used plasmin proteolytic activity as a biomarker for the detection of mastitis in bovine mastitic milk. Inspired by earlier studies on protease activity using mastitic milk samples, we developed a simple colorimetric assay to distinguish mastitic milk from milk derived from healthy animals. The plasmin substrate coupled to magnetic nanoparticles form a black self-assembled monolayer on a gold sensor surface. In the presence of increased levels of plasmin, the substrate is cleaved and the peptide fragment attached to the magnetic beads, will be attracted by the magnet which is present under the sensor strips revealing the golden surface. We found the area of the golden color surface proportional to plasmin activity. The sensitivity of this method was determined to be 1 ng/ml of plasmin in vitro. Next, we tested the biosensor using mastitis positive milk of which infection is confirmed by bacterial cultures. This newly developed colorimetric biosensor has high potential in applications for the diagnosis of mastitis with potential spin offs to health, food and environmental sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Selective, reliable blood and milk bio-markers for diagnosing clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Kadry; Saleh, Ebeed; Ayoub, Mousa

    2017-02-01

    Mastitis is positioned as the most vital ailment in dairy cows in light of conventional cost examinations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of different acute phase proteins (APPs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy cows and in those with clinical or subclinical mastitis and to localize APP gene expression in the milk of mastitic cows. Therefore, 20 subclinical mastitic cows with positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) results and no clinical signs of mastitis, 15 clinically mastitic cows, and 15 healthy cows with negative CMT results and somatic cell count (SCC) of mastitis, except for total protein, albumin, and GSH levels and the TAC, which were significantly (p mastitis, while Fb expression was absent. The present study demonstrates that APPs, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and indicators of oxidative stress may serve as biomarkers of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Interestingly, the expression of SAA and Hp indicates the local de novo synthesis of these APPs within the mammary glands. Furthermore, the presence of SAA and Hp transcripts in milk cells derived from pathogen-free mammary glands proved their constitutive expression. However, future studies with more extensive baseline sampling are still needed to establish and validate the reference values for APPs, cytokines, and oxidative stress markers in cows.

  17. Detection of a mecC-positive Staphylococcus saprophyticus from bovine mastitis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srednik, Mariela E; Archambault, Marie; Jacques, Mario; Gentilini, Elida R

    2017-07-18

    Bovine mastitis causes important economic losses in the dairy industry. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a group of bacteria commonly isolated from bovine mastitis and can display resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to determine staphylococcal resistance towards β-lactam, macrolide and lincosamide antimicrobials in quarters previously treated with third-generation cephalosporin and after lincosamide intramammary therapy. Sick quarters of eighteen cows from Villaguay, Entre Ríos (Argentina) with clinical mastitis were studied. All staphylococcal isolates were tested by disk diffusion for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Cefoxitin resistance was investigated by PCR and sequencing for both the mecA and mecC genes. Resistances to penicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin were observed, whereas no resistance to macrolide and lincosamide was detected. A cefoxitin-resistant Staphylococcus saprophyticus was found to be mecA-negative but mecC-positive. This study reports for the first time the mecC gene from a CNS in bovine mastitis in South America. Because CNS may act as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes, they can be seen as a potential public health threat with respect to antimicrobial resistance and the development of multiple resistance. Also, the emergence of methicillin-resistant phenotypes will limit therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technical note: a pilot study using a mouse mastitis model to study differences between bovine associated coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyne, K; De Vliegher, S; De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Meyer, E

    2015-02-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a group of bacteria classified as either minor mastitis pathogens or commensal microbiota. Recent research suggests species- and even strain-related epidemiological and genetic differences within the large CNS group. The current pilot study investigated in 2 experiments whether a mouse mastitis model validated for bovine Staphylococcus aureus can be used to explore further differences between CNS species and strains. In a first dose titration experiment, a low inoculum dose of S. aureus Newbould 305 (positive control) was compared with increasing inoculum doses of a Staphylococcus chromogenes strain originating from a chronic bovine intramammary infection to a sham-inoculated mammary glands (negative control). In contrast to the high bacterial growth following inoculation with S. aureus, S. chromogenes was retrieved in very low levels at 24 h postinduction (p.i.). In a second experiment, the inflammation inflicted by 3 CNS strains was studied in mice. The host immune response induced by the S. chromogenes intramammary strain was compared with the one induced by a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from cow bedding sawdust and by a S. chromogenes strain originating from a teat apex of a heifer. As expected, at 28 and 48 h p.i., low bacterial growth and local neutrophil influx in the mammary gland were induced by all CNS strains. As hypothesized, bacterial growth p.i. was the lowest for S. fleurettii compared with that induced by the 2 S. chromogenes strains, and the overall immune response established by the 3 CNS strains was less pronounced compared with the one induced by S. aureus. Proinflammatory cytokine profiling revealed that S. aureus locally induced IL-6 and IL-1β but not TNF-α, whereas, overall, CNS-inoculated glands lacked a strong cytokine host response but also induced IL-1β locally. Compared with both other CNS strains, S. chromogenes from the teat apex inflicted a more variable IL-1β response

  19. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci for mastitis resistance on bovine chromosome 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, N F; Sahana, G; Iso-Touru, T;

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting clinical mastitis (CM) and somatic cell score (SCS) were mapped on bovine chromosome 11. The mapping population consisted of 14 grandsire families belonging to three Nordic red cattle breeds: Finnish Ayrshire (FA), Swedish Red and White (SRB) and Danish Red......, each affecting one trait; or one QTL affecting a single trait. A QTL affecting CM was fine-mapped. In FA, a haplotype having a strong association with a high negative effect on mastitis resistance was identified. The mapping precision of an earlier detected SCS-QTL was not improved by the LDLA analysis...

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of Chymotrypsin in acute bovine mastitis

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    Marco Leal G

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a proteolytic drug “chymotrypsin” combined with beta-lactam antibiotics in cows with acute mastitis. Material and Methods. Fourteen cows with acute mastitis. Three cows were treated with a beta-latam antibiotic (BLA and the other eleven cows were treated with chymotrypsin plus beta-lactam antibiotic (C+BLA. The response was evaluated according to the semiological findings, somatic cell count (SCC and a microbiological culture. Results. There was a therapeutic efficacy comparing the pre and post treatment period (SCC reduction, p<0.01 and a reduction of clinical signs in 84.7% of treated quarters in the first day of treatment (C+BLA compared with (BLA. Conclusions. Chymotrypsin improves the treatment of acute mastitis when is combined with BLA, controlling the infected mammary glands, compared with the group treated only with amoxicilina and clavulanic acid.

  1. Prevalence and pathogens of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanqing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xuanduo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Miaotao; Chen, Dekun

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical mastitis, a costly disease for the dairy industry, is usually caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and pathogens involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China. A total of 683 dairy goats in the main breeding areas of China were selected, and milk samples were collected. Out of these, 313 (45.82 %) goats were detected distinct or strong positive for subclinical mastitis by using California mastitis test. Among these positive goats, 209 milk samples were used to identify the causing agents by a multiplex PCR assay, and results were listed as follows: coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.52 %), Staphylococcus aureus (15.24 %), Escherichia coli (11.43 %), and Streptococcus spp. (10.95 %). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is a highly prevalent disease in dairy goats in China, and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the predominant pathogens.

  2. Antibiofilm and antibacterial effects of specific chitosan molecules on Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with bovine mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asli, Abdelhamid; Brouillette, Eric; Ster, Céline; Ghinet, Mariana Gabriela; Brzezinski, Ryszard; Lacasse, Pierre; Jacques, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens causing bovine intramammary infections (IMIs) and mastitis. Mastitis is the primary cause for the use of antibiotics in dairy farms but therapeutic failure is often observed. One of the reasons for the lack of effectiveness of antibiotic therapy despite the observed susceptibility of bacterial isolates in vitro are bacterial biofilms. In this study, we used chitosan of well-defined molecular weight (0.4–0.6, 1.3, 2.6 and 4.0 kDa) and investigated their antibiofilm and antibacterial activities in in vitro and in vivo models related to S. aureus IMIs. A chitosan of at least 6 units of glucosamine was necessary for maximum antibacterial activity. The 2.6 and 4.0 kDa forms were able to prevent biofilm production by the biofilm hyperproducer strain S. aureus 2117 and a bovine MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus). The intramammary administration of the 2.6 kDa chitosan showed no adverse effects in mice or in cows, as opposed to the slight inflammatory effect observed in mammary glands with the 4.0 kDa derivative. The 2.6 kDa chitosan killed bacteria embedded in pre-established biofilms in a dose-dependent manner with a >3 log10 reduction in CFU at 4 mg/ml. Also, the 2.6 kDa chitosan could prevent the persistence of the internalized MRSA into the mammary epithelial cell line MAC-T. An in vitro checkerboard assay showed that the 2.6 kDa chitosan produced a synergy with the macrolide class of antibiotics (e.g., tilmicosin) and reduced the MIC of both molecules by 2–8 times. Finally, the intramammary administration of the 2.6 kDa chitosan alone (P<0.01) or in combination with tilmicosin (P<0.0001) reduced the colonization of mammary glands in a murine IMI model. Our results suggest that the use of chitosan alone or in combination with a low dose of a macrolide could help reduce antibiotic use in dairy farms. PMID:28486482

  3. Identification and antibiogram of microbes associated with bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Patel, Mitisha S; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Kunjadia, Anju

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of Mastitis in cattle was carried out in Anand city and in nearby villages of Gujarat state using California Mastitis Test (CMT) kit. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was found to be 5.5% and 15.75%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was identified through strain specific polymerase chain reaction; the remaining isolates identified on the basis of molecular analysis by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were Staphylococcus species, B. pumilus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Bacillus species, and Pseudomonas species. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of all the isolates was checked against 13 different antibiotics using the agar disc diffusion method. Highest bacterial resistance was observed with penicillin G and oxacillin antibiotics. It was also observed that the patterns of bacterial resistance have not changed in India over the years. The data supports the decrease in the incidence of mastitis but the rate of decrease is minimal. More effective control strategies are required. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  4. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  5. Occurrence of mastitis pathogens in relation to somatic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vyletělová Klimešová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There were examined 161 cows from 4 farms in total. The suspect animals were selected according to viscosity test results, clinical symptoms and somatic cell count (SCC. Milk samples were examined for the presence of pathogens and for SCC. 55 mastitis pathogens were identified. The most frequently isolated species was Enterococcus faecalis (n = 20, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (n = 6 and Streptococcus uberis (n = 5. The SCC ranged from 9 to 24 204 ths.ml−1. There was positive occurrence of bacteria genus Staphylococcus and Enterococcus at lower SCC (50 ths.ml−1 and at higher SCC numbers (> 300 ths. ml−1 bacteria genus Streptococcus, Enterobacter and Escherichia coli. Differences in SCC were significant (P < 0.001 in negative samples xg 131 SCC versus 491 for positive, 611 for staphylococci and 464 ths.ml−1 for other positive. SCC discrimination limit for practical likelihood of pathogen occurrence estimation in infectious sample groups was calculated. This limit for suspicion of infection is 159 for positive group, 113 for staphylococci and 174 ths.ml−1 for other positive. This could be possible to recommend the value 174 ths.ml−1 for practical use with target to apply preventive or curative measures.

  6. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

  7. In silico characterization of putative drug targets in Staphylococcus saprophyticus, causing bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasme, Pramod C; Kurjogi, Mahantesh M; Sanakal, Rajeshwari D; Kaliwal, Rohit B; Kaliwal, Basappa B

    2013-01-01

    The bovine mastitis caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) has increased in many herds of urban and rural areas of India. Emergence of multi drug resistant bacteria has further made its management more complex and serious. Therefore, innovation of novel specific drug for the treatment of disease caused by particular organism remained to be a challenge. Hence, in the present study a bacterium was isolated from milk of the cow with bovine mastitis and was identified as S. saprophyticus, 44 pathways of S. saprophyticus retrieved (KEGG) from web server were found to be non homologous to the host Bos taurus, out of which 39 pathways were found to be in cytoplasm, 2 in cell wall and 3 in the cell membrane. The knowledge of the present study could make the drug discovery easier which have high affinity to the target site of the causative organism.

  8. Bovine Teat Microbiome Analysis Revealed Reduced Alpha Diversity and Significant Changes in Taxonomic Profiles in Quarters with a History of Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falentin, Hélène; Rault, Lucie; Nicolas, Aurélie; Bouchard, Damien S.; Lassalas, Jacques; Lamberton, Philippe; Aubry, Jean-Marc; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is a mammary gland inflammatory disease often due to bacterial infections. Like many other infections, it used to be considered as a host-pathogen interaction driven by host and bacterial determinants. Until now, the involvement of the bovine mammary gland microbiota in the host-pathogen interaction has been poorly investigated, and mainly during the infectious episode. In this study, the bovine teat microbiome was investigated in 31 quarters corresponding to 27 animals, which were all free of inflammation at sampling time but which had different histories regarding mastitis: from no episode of mastitis on all the previous lactations (Healthy quarter, Hq) to one or several clinical mastitis events (Mastitic quarter, Mq). Several quarters whose status was unclear (possible history of subclinical mastitis) were classified as NDq. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from foremilk samples and swab samples of the teat canal. Taxonomic profiles were determined by pyrosequencing on 16s amplicons of the V3-4 region. Hq quarters showed a higher diversity compared to Mq ones (Shannon index: ~8 and 6, respectively). Clustering of the quarters based on their bacterial composition made it possible to separate Mq and Hq quarters into two separate clusters (C1 and C2, respectively). Discriminant analysis of taxonomic profiles between these clusters revealed several differences and allowed the identification of taxonomic markers in relation to mastitis history. C2 quarters were associated with a higher proportion of the Clostridia class (including genera such as Ruminococcus, Oscillospira, Roseburia, Dorea, etc.), the Bacteroidetes phylum (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Paludibacter, etc.), and the Bifidobacteriales order (Bifidobacterium), whereas C1 quarters showed a higher proportion of the Bacilli class (Staphylococcus) and Chlamydiia class. These results indicate that microbiota is altered in udders which have already developed mastitis, even far from the infectious episode

  9. Prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in bovine mastitis in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kudinha

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %, followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 % and then Staphylococcus aureus (17.1 %, whereas in subclinical mastitis S. aureus (34.2 % and coagulase-negative staphylococci were (33.2 % the most common. Bacillus species were only isolated in milk samples from subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed in mixed infections with other bacteria in only 2.2 % of the 406 milk samples from clinical and subclinical mastitis where they were isolated together with Bacillus species in 6 of the 9 mixed infection cases. About 95 % of the milk samples from which 131 coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated had correspondingly high somatic cell counts. The coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated most frequently were S. chromogenes (7.9 %, S. epidermidis (7.4 % and S. hominis (5.9 %. They were all associated with high somatic cell counts. All the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin and erythromycin, and more than 90 %of the isolates were susceptible to neomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (17.6 %, followed by lincomycin (13.7 %. About 8 % of the isolates were resistant to both penicillin and streptomycin.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance levels amongst staphylococci isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Ibrahim; Behluli, Behlul; Mestani, Mergim; Ademi, Arsim; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2016-10-31

    Mastitis is one of the most frequent and costly disease in cattle. We studied milk samples from cattle with mastitis from farms in Kosovo to identify mastitis-causing pathogens and possible effective antibiotics. Our ultimate goal is to help implement adequate antibiotic management and treatment practices in Kosovo METHODOLOGY: A total of 152 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical mastitis from different farms in Kosovo. After identification of microorganisms, antibiotic susceptibility and the occurrence of enterotoxins was investigated. Staphylococci were found in 89 samples, of which 58 were coagulase negative and 31 coagulase positive. S. aureus was isolated from 27 samples, S. epidermidis from 25, and S. chromogenes from 15, while other species of staphylococci were isolated from the remaining 22 isolates. Interestingly, the bacterial diversity was different between cows in different periods of lactation and among different breeds. Most of the isolates (76/89) were resistant to two or more antibiotics. The highest resistance was to penicillin and ampicillin (> 65%), followed by tetracycline, oxacillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol (> 23%), and less than 3% to erythromycin. Of the 89 isolates, 40 produced enterotoxins that were most frequently typed as A and C. We detected human bacterial pathogens in the cultures of milk samples from cows with mastitis. The isolates demonstrated resistance to two or more antibiotics, some of which are frequently used to treat animal and human infections. We recommend increased control and more stringent use of antibiotics in veterinary as well as human medicine.

  11. Assessment of genetic variation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolone, Marco; Larrondo, Cristian; Yáñez, José M; Newman, Scott; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Portolano, Baldassare

    2016-07-28

    Mastitis resistance is a complex and multifactorial trait, and its expression depends on both genetic and environmental factors, including infection pressure. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic basis of mastitis resistance to specific pathogens using a repeatability threshold probit animal model. The most prevalent isolated pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); 39 % of records and 77 % of the animals infected at least one time in the whole period of study. There was significant genetic variation only for Streptococci (STR). In addition, there was a positive genetic correlation between STR and all pathogens together (ALL) (0.36 ± 0.22), and CNS and ALL (0.92 ± 0.04). The results of our study support the presence of significant genetic variation for mastitis caused by Streptococci and suggest the importance of discriminating between different pathogens causing mastitis due to the fact that they most likely influence different genetic traits. Low heritabilities for pathogen specific-mastitis resistance may be considered when including bacteriological status as a measure of mastitis presence to implement breeding strategies for improving udder health in dairy ewes.

  12. Evaluation of milk cathelicidin for detection of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, M F; Tedde, V; Puggioni, G M G; Pisanu, S; Casula, A; Locatelli, C; Rota, N; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P; Uzzau, S

    2016-10-01

    Mastitis due to intramammary infection is one of the most economically relevant diseases in dairy cows, causing reductions in milk quality and quantity. Currently, mastitis monitoring is based on somatic cell count (SCC) and bacteriologic culture (BC) of milk. Nevertheless, inflammation-specific protein markers might provide more sensitive and reliable assays, enabling immunoassay-based screening strategies. Cathelicidin is an inflammatory protein released in milk that has recently demonstrated fair reliability and diagnostic potential for ewe mastitis. To assess its performance in cows, 531 quarter milk samples from 2 herds were tested using cathelicidin ELISA, SCC, and BC. We found that 29.0% of samples were positive for cathelicidin, 18.8% had SCC >200,000 cells/mL, and 13.7% were BC-positive. Cathelicidin showed a strong positive correlation with SCC as demonstrated by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and by the clustering of cathelicidin-negative and cathelicidin-positive samples in association with low and high SCC values, respectively. For evaluating the diagnostic performance of a novel test, BC cannot be considered a reliable gold standard for true disease status because of its known limitations. Therefore, we assessed the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the milk cathelicidin ELISA using a latent class analysis approach together with BC and SCC by considering different diagnostic thresholds to identify the preferred Se/Sp combination. We modeled conditional dependence of cathelicidin and SCC to account for their close association. The cathelicidin ELISA showed higher Se than SCC and BC for almost all threshold combinations. In fact, at the best-performing threshold combination, the Se of cathelicidin was 80.6%, 6.2 percentage points higher than that of SCC >200,000 cells/mL (74.4%) and similar to that of SCC >100,000 cells/mL (80.2%). Most importantly, this Se was obtained with a loss in Sp of only 1.4 percentage points compared

  13. Providing probability distributions for the causal pathogen of clinical mastitis using naive Bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Gaag, van der L.C.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical mastitis (CM) can be caused by a wide variety of pathogens and farmers must start treatment before the actual causal pathogen is known. By providing a probability distribution for the causal pathogen, naive Bayesian networks (NBN) can serve as a management tool for farmers to decide which t

  14. Evaluation of the biofilm forming ability and its associated genes in Staphylococcus species isolates from bovine mastitis in Argentinean dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe, Verónica; Morgante, Carolina A; Somale, Paola S; Varroni, Florencia; Zingaretti, María L; Bachetti, Romina A; Correa, Silvia G; Porporatto, Carina

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of intramammary infection in dairy cattle, and their ability to produce biofilm is considered an important virulence property in the pathogenesis of mastitis. However, the published date on mechanisms and factors involved in infection persistence in the mammary gland remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the main Staphylococcus species involved in bovine intramammary infections possess specific characteristics that promote colonization of the udder. We evaluated the biofilm-forming ability and distribution of adhesion- and biofilm-associated genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis infected animals in Argentinean dairy farms. For this purpose, the phenotypic biofilm formation ability of 209 Staphylococcus spp. from bovine mastitis was investigated. All isolates produced biofilm in vitro, being 35,0% and 45,0% of the 127 S. aureus or 51,0% and 29,0% of the 82 CNS strong and moderate biofilm producers respectively. All S. aureus samples were PCR-positive for icaA, icaD, clfA, clfB and fnbpA genes, 76.3% were positive for fnbpB gene and 11.0% were positive for bap gene. In CNS isolates, the positive rates for icaA and icaD were 73.2%, while for clfA, clfB, fnbpA fnbpB and bap genes the percentage were lower. The results demonstrate that in Staphylococcus spp. biofilm formation, the polysaccharide and the adhesion- and biofilm-associated genes are of overall importance on bovine mastitis in Argentina. Therefore, future works should focus on these pathogenic specific factors for the development of more effective therapies of control, being essential to consider the ability of isolates to produce biofilm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t267, clonal ancestor of bovine subclinical mastitis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S D; Velu, D; Bhuvana, M; Krithiga, N; Banerjee, A; Shome, R; Rahman, H; Ghosh, S K; Shome, B R

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the virulence determinants and genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. PCR detection of virulence genes was performed for 173 Staph. aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. Further, genetic diversity was analysed by agr and spa typing followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of selected isolates. Screening of virulence genes (n = 19) showed the adherence genes viz. fnbA, clfA, fnbB and cna in 98·8, 97·1, 68·8 and 28·3 percentage of isolates, respectively, and 80 strains (46·24%) positive for enterotoxin genes were distributed as 23 toxinotypes, of which, 5 genotypes contained a single gene and the rest comprised of multiple toxin genes. Out of agr type-1 (87·3%), 74·2 per cent belonged to the three predominant spa types. Of 27 spa types, 11 were identified for the first time. The predominant spa types were t267 (N =44), t359 (N = 42) and t6877 (N =29), which together accounts to 66·5 per cent of isolates. PFGE analysis of isolates (N = 45) covering all the spa types revealed mostly similar or closely related pulsotypes. Local emergence of spa type t6877 in herd-dependant manner was observed. spa sequence-based phylogenetic analysis suggested t267 as the ancestral clone of t359, t6877 and other spa types except two. Heterogenous virulence profile of the isolates had no significant association with the genotype. High prevalence of agr group I reaffirms their association with persistent subclinical mastitis. The spa type t267 appears to be the ancestral clone endemic in the region causing subclinical mastitis. In addition, few new spa types have emerged in the geographic region. Gives an insight into the genetic and evolutionary behaviour of Staph. aureus associated with bovine subclinical mastitis in India. The study would pave the way for devising effective control strategy for bovine mastitis in Indian context. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Bacterial Analysis of Bovine Mastitis in Part Regions of Tianjin%天津部分地区奶牛乳房炎细菌学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利山; 王晓敏; 刘燕霏; 杨建德

    2015-01-01

    乳房炎是奶牛业最常见且损失最为严重的疾病之一.为了解天津地区奶牛场乳房炎病原,本研究对天津地区4个奶牛场的77份乳样进行了病原菌的分离与鉴定分析.通过病原分离、细菌形态学观察、生化试验鉴定发现,临床型及亚临床型乳房炎乳样分离菌均以金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌为优势菌群.药敏试验结果表明,分离菌对环丙沙星、头孢他啶、氧氟沙星、复方新诺明、庆大霉素、卡那霉素、四环素和新霉素敏感,对其他抗菌素药物均呈现不同程度的耐药.本研究明确了天津地区奶牛乳房炎的主要病原,并筛选出了敏感药物,这对该病的防治具有指导意义.%Bovine mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in the cow industry with severe economical loss. To understand the etiology of bovine mastitis and provide references for controlling bovine mastitis in Tianjin, in this study, the suspected milk samples of bovine mastitis from four cow farms in this region were analyzed by pathogen isolation, morphology observation, biochemical tests and drug sensitivity tests. The results show that Staphylococcus aureus andE coli. Were the main isolates and they were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline and neomycin, with various degrees of resistance to other antibiotics. The study demonstrated the main pathogens and sensitive drugs for bovine mastitis in part regions of Tianjin, and provided guiding significance for prevention and control of the disease.

  17. Identification of Staphylococus aureus genes expressed during growth in milk : a useful model for selection of genes important in bovine mastitis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Kruijt, E.; Kuijt, van de C.; Nuijten, P.J.M.; Smith, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of bovine mastitis. Since gene expression of many bacteria is known to be regulated by the environment, milk may play an important role in the regulation of the early steps in the pathogenesis of bovine mastitis by S. aureus. To get insight into the response of

  18. The activity of milk leukocytes in response to a water-soluble fraction of Mycobacterium phlei in bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, R; Ram, G C; Dash, P K; Goswami, T

    2004-01-01

    The effect of a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a non-pathogenic strain of Mycobacterium phlei was studied in bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) by measuring the myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase enzyme levels in the milk leukocytes. Forty-five cows were divided into three equal groups. Group I, consisting of 15 healthy cows, served as the control, whereas groups II and III each contained 15 cows with subclinical mastitis on the basis of a positive reaction in the California mastitis test (CMT). The cows in group II received 100 microg of WSF in 5 ml sterile phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4 (PBS) once only, while those in group III received 5 ml sterile PBS daily for 7 days, both treatments being given by the intramammary route. Observations were made up to 30 days after treatment (AT). The CMT of the healthy milk was negative (0), whereas it ranged between 1 and 2 points in SCM. The somatic cell count (SCC) increased significantly (p < 0.05) on day 3, then fell steeply from day 7 up to day 30 AT in the cows in group II. A steady decrease in the total bacterial count (TBC) was observed in the group treated with WSF but the bacterial counts remained high in the groups treated with PBS. The mean acid phosphatase level was enhanced by 119% on day 3 AT in group II but only by 18.7% in the cows in group III. The mean myeloperoxidase level was enhanced by 100% in the cows in group II but only by 18% in those in group III on day 3 AT. This significant reduction in the bacterial load in infected cows caused by intramammary infusion of WSF may be due to activation of the microbicidal activity of the neutrophils, but this requires confirmation.

  19. Prevalence and Characterization of Oxacillin Susceptible mecA-Positive Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiral; Sharma, Paresh; Mahato, Sudipta; Saravanan, R.; Kumar, P. Anand; Bhandari, Vasundhra

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a huge problem reported worldwide, resulting in prolonged antibiotic treatment and death of livestock. The current study is focused on surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility along with genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the pathogenic S. aureus strains causing mastitis in India. One hundred and sixty seven milk samples were collected from mastitis-affected cows from different farms in India resulting in thirty nine isolated S. aureus strains. Antibiotic sensitivity profiling revealed the majority of the strains (n = 24) to be multidrug resistant and eleven strains showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs = 2μg/ml). All strains were oxacillin sensitive, but 19 strains were positive for the mecA gene, which revealed the occurrence of oxacillin susceptible mecA positive strains (OS-MRSA) for the first time from India. Additionally, 32 strains were positive for the pvl gene, a virulence determinant; of these 17 were also OS-MRSA strains. Molecular characterization based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec classification revealed strains belonging to different groups. Moreover, strains showed spa types (t2526, t9602) and MLST sequence types, ST-72, ST-88 and ST-239 which have been earlier reported in human infections. The prevalence of OS-MRSA strains indicates the importance of including both the genetic and phenotypic tests in characterizing S. aureus strains. Increased genotypic variability with strain related to human infections and pvl positive isolates indicates a worrisome situation with the possibility of bilateral transfer. PMID:27603123

  20. Intramammary expression and therapeutic effect of a human lysozyme-expressing vector for treating bovine mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To develop a gene therapy strategy for treating bovine mastitis, a new mammary-specific vector containing human lysozyme (hLYZ) cDNA and kanamycin resistance gene was constructed for intramammary expression and clinical studies. After one time acupuncture or intracisternal infusion of healthy cows with 400 μg of the p215C3LYZ vector, over 2.0 μg/ml of rhLYZ could be detected by enzymatic assay for about 3 weeks in the milk samples. Western blotting showed that rhLYZ secreted into milk samples from the vector-injected cows had molecular weight similar to that of the natural hLYZ in human colostrums.Twenty days after the primary injection, the quarters were re-injected with the same vector by quarter acupuncture and even higher concentrations of rhLYZ could be detected. Indirect competitive ELISA of milk samples showed that the vector injection did not induce detectable humoral immune response against hLYZ. Clinical studies showed that twice acupuncture of quarters with the p215C3LYZ vector had overt therapeutic effect on clinical and subclinical mastitis previously treated with antibiotics, including disappearance of clinical symptoms and relatively high microbiological cure rates. These data provide a solid rationale for using the vector to develop gene therapy for treating bovine mastitis.

  1. Comparative erythromycin and tylosin susceptibility testing of streptococci from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kaspar, Heike; Kadlec, Kristina; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    Tylosin, a 16-membered macrolide, is - besides other indications - used for the treatment of bovine mastitis. So far, there is only limited information available on the tylosin susceptibility of streptococci isolated from mastitis. The aim of the present study was to comparatively investigate 303 streptococci from bovine mastitis, including 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 102 Streptococcus uberis, for their tylosin and erythromycin susceptibility by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion. Both tests followed the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). For erythromycin, the results were interpreted using the CLSI-approved clinical breakpoints. Moreover, erythromycin-resistant isolates were tested for the presence of macrolide resistance genes and for inducible macrolide resistance. In general, both testing methods showed a good correlation for the three streptococcal species, although for the erythromycin susceptibility testing 11 S. uberis isolates fell into the very major error category. All but one of the erythromycin-resistant isolates harbored at least one macrolide resistance gene, with the erm(B) gene being most common. Moreover, single isolates of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae proved to be inducibly macrolide-resistant. Since inducible macrolide resistance can easily switch to constitutive resistance, tylosin should not be used for the treatment of infections caused by inducibly resistant streptococci. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction-based identification of bacteria in milk samples from bovine clinical mastitis with no growth in conventional culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taponen, S; Salmikivi, L; Simojoki, H; Koskinen, M T; Pyörälä, S

    2009-06-01

    In more than 30% of milk samples from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis, bacteria fail to grow even after 48 h of conventional culture. The "no-growth" samples are problematic for mastitis laboratories, veterinarians, and dairy producers. This study provides the first investigation of the bacteriological etiology of such samples, using a real-time PCR-based commercial reagent kit. The assay targets the DNA of the 11 most common bacterial species or groups in mastitis and the staphylococcal blaZ gene (responsible for penicillin resistance) and can identify and quantify bacterial cells even if dead or growth-inhibited. A study was made of 79 mastitic milk samples with no-growth bacteria in conventional culture, originating from cows with clinical mastitis. Of the 79 samples, 34 (43%) were positive for 1 (32 samples) or 2 (2 samples) of the target bacteria. The positive findings included 11 Staphylococcus spp. (staphylococci other than Staphylococcus aureus), 10 Streptococcus uberis, 2 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 6 Corynebacterium bovis, 3 Staph. aureus, 1 Escherichia coli, 1 Enterococcus, and 1 Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The positive samples contained as many as 10(3) to 10(7) bacterial genome copies per milliliter of milk. This study demonstrates that in nearly half of the clinical mastitis cases in which conventional culture failed to detect bacteria, mastitis pathogens were still present, often in substantial quantities. The clearly elevated N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase activity values of the milk samples, together with clinical signs of the infected cows and quarters, confirmed the diagnosis of clinical mastitis and indicated that real-time, PCR-based bacterial findings are able to reveal bacteriological etiology. We conclude that all common mastitis bacteria can occur in large quantities in clinical mastitis samples that exhibit no growth in conventional culture, and that the real-time PCR assay is a useful tool for bacteriological diagnosis of such

  3. Bovine mastitis caused by gram negative bacteria in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. A. Al-Dabbagh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis from different areas in Mosul city, in a period from October 2009 to June 2010, for the detection of gram negative bacteriological causative agents. The bacteria were identified using morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. thirty tow (35.3% gram negative bacterial isolates were obtained from the total count which included 14 isolates (15.5% for Escherichia coli, 7 isolates (7.7% for Klebsiella spp, 4 isolates (4.4% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 3 isolates (3.3% for Enterobacter aerogenes ,2 isolates for Serratia marcescens and one isolates (1.1% for each of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pasteurella multocida. Results of antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that most of these isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin following by Gentamycin and Cotrimoxazole, while most of these organisms were resistant to Ampicillin, the isolates showed different percentages of sensitivity to Doxycycline, Tetracycline, Neomycin and Chloramphenicol.

  4. Nocardia cyriacigeogica from Bovine Mastitis Induced In vitro Apoptosis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells via Activation of Mitochondrial-Caspase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nocardia is one of the causing agents of bovine mastitis and increasing prevalence of nocardial mastitis in shape of serious outbreaks has been reported from many countries. However, the mechanisms by which this pathogen damages the bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs is not yet studied. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim to evaluate the apoptotic effects elicited by Nocardia and to investigate the pathway by which the Nocardia induce apoptosis in bMECs. Clinical Nocardia cyriacigeorgica strain from bovine mastitis was used to infect the bMECs for different time intervals, viz. 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 h, and then the induced effects on bMECs were studied using adhesion and invasion assays, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, apoptosis analysis by annexin V and propidium iodide (PI double staining, morphological, and ultrastructural observations under scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm assay using flow cytometry, and the protein quantification of mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase-9 and caspase-3 by western blotting. The results of this study showed that N. cyriacigeorgica possessed the abilities of adhesion and invasion to bMECs. N. cyriacigeorgica was found to collapse mitochondrial transmembrane potential, significantly (p < 0.05 release mitochondrial cytochrome c and ultimately induce cell apoptosis. Additionally, it promoted casepase-9 (p < 0.01 and casepase-3 (p < 0.05 levels, significantly (p < 0.01 increased the release of LDH and promoted DNA fragmentation which further confirmed the apoptosis. Furthermore, N. cyriacigeorgica induced apoptosis/necrosis manifested specific ultrastructure features under TEM, such as swollen endoplasmic reticulum, cristae degeneration, and swelling of mitochondria, vesicle formation on the cell surface, rupturing of cell membrane and nuclear membrane, clumping, fragmentation, and margination of

  5. Stem cell research: a novel boulevard towards improved bovine mastitis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry is a multi-billion dollar industry catering the nutritional needs of all age groups globally through the supply of milk. Clinical mastitis has a severe impact on udder tissue and is also an animal welfare issue. Moreover, it significantly reduces animal value and milk production. Mammary tissue damage reduces the number and activity of epithelial cells and consequently contributes to decreased milk production. The high incidence, low cure rate of this highly economic and sometimes deadly disease is an alarming for dairy sector as well as policy makers. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and their stem cells are very important in milk production and bioengineering. The adult mammary epithelium consists of two main cell types; an inner layer of luminal epithelial cells, which produce the milk during lactation, and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells resting on a basement membrane, which are responsible for pushing the milk through the ductal network to the teat cistern. Inner layer of columner/luminal cells of bovine MECs, is characterized by cytokeratin18, 19 (CK18, CK19) and outer layer such as myoepithelial cells which are characterized by CK14, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and p63. Much work has been done in mouse and human, on mammary gland stem cell research, particularly in cancer therapy, but stem cell research in bovine is still in its infancy. Such stem/progenitor cell discoveries in human and mouse mammary gland bring some hope for application in bovines. These progenitors may be therapeutically adopted to correct the structural/cytological defects in the bovine udder due to mastitis. In the present review we focused on various kinds of stem/progenitor cells which can have therapeutic utility and their possibilities to use as a potential stem cell therapy in the management of bovine post-mastitis damage in orders to restore milk production. The possibilities of bovine mammary stem cell therapy offers significant potential for

  6. Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet Erözgen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an infectious or non-infectious breast disease associated with breast inflammation. It is observed most frequently during milk stasis (engorgement and lactation period (puerperal with superimposed infection. Most mastitides heal with simple self-help measures, however, sometimes antibiotherapy and abscess drainage may be required. Other than lactating period, mastitides are encountered in the presence of recurrent infections and abscess. Although various factors, such as smoking, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis can at times be the root causes of mastitis, they are frequently observed in granulomatous mastitides. Treatment approaches not involving biopsy are disadvantageous and harmful in such cases which can be confused with breast cancer. Ultrasound-guided abscess drainage in patients with breast abscess and irrigation of the pouch with saline are the preferred treatment approach today. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 150-2

  7. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis cases in Australia and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi-Tiwari, J; Babra Waryah, C; Sunagar, R; Veeresh, H B; Nuthanalakshmi, V; Preethirani, P L; Sharada, R; Isloor, S; Bhat, A; Al-Salami, H; Hegde, N R; Mukkur, T K

    2015-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of the different capsular polysaccharide (CP) and major surface-associated non-CP antigen 336 (SP-336) types among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis cases in Australia and India. A total of 414 strains (154 from Australia, 260 from India) isolated from clinical bovine mastitis were included in the study. Mouse antisera raised against CP types (CP1, CP2, CP5, and CP8) or SP-336 were used in slide agglutination tests and compared with detection of cap1, cap5 and cap8 gene fragments by PCR. Serological studies revealed the presence of CP2, CP5, CP8 and SP-336 in 9.1%, 23.4%, 31.8%, and 5.8% of the Australian versus 0.8%, 46.9%, 13.1% and 0% of the Indian isolates, respectively. By PCR, CP1, CP5 and CP8 accounted for 0%, 26.6% and 32.4% of the Australian versus 3.9%, 85% and 8.1% of the Indian isolates, respectively. Both PCR and the serological method demonstrated that CP5 and CP8 are the predominant capsular types in Australia, whereas CP5 is the predominant capsular type in India. The study also demonstrated a strong correlation between both methods of typing for CP1, CP5, CP8 and non-typeable S. aureus strains. High-percentage prevalence of non-typeable isolates in both the countries highlights the importance of continued investigations of the identification of unique surface-associated polysaccharide antigens prevalent among S. aureus isolates for the formulation of CP- and SP-based vaccines for bovine mastitis. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Viviane F; Lancheros, Cesar A C; Narciso, Adélia M; Valereto, Elaine C S; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Seabra, Amedea B; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-10-01

    Bovine mastitis is a serious veterinary disease that causes great loss to the dairy industry worldwide. It is a major infectious disease and is difficult to manage and control. Furthermore, emerging multidrug resistant bacteria that cause mastitis have complicated such management. The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is a potent antimicrobial agent. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus (MBSA) and Escherichia coli (MBEC), which were isolated from bovine mastitis. Fifteen MBSA isolates and fifteen MBEC were collected from subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis. Biocompatible polymeric particles composed of alginate/chitosan or chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of thiol groups of MSA-containing particles formed S-nitroso-MSA particles, which are NO donors. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA particles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The antibacterial activity of NO-releasing particles was evaluated by incubating the particles with an MBSA multi-resistant strain, which is responsible for bovine mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration for S-nitroso-MSA-alginate/chitosan particles against MBSA ranged from 125 μg/mL to 250 μg/mL. The results indicate that NO-releasing polymeric particles are an interesting approach to combating bacteria resistance in bovine mastitis treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Intramammary administration of platelet concentrate as an unconventional therapy in bovine mastitis: first clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Consiglio, A; Spelta, C; Garlappi, R; Luini, M; Cremonesi, F

    2014-10-01

    Bovine udder infections induce a variety of changes in gene expression of different growth factors that may suggest their possible role in glandular tissue protection or repair processes. Growth factors and also chemokines and cytokines may act synergistically to increase the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages to promote angiogenesis, fibroplasia, matrix deposition, and, ultimately, re-epithelialization. Considering the vast applications, typically in human medicine, of platelet concentrate (PC) and its ease of preparation, the aim of our study was to evaluate an alternative therapy to stimulate the regeneration of glandular tissue, administering a concentration in excess of the growth factors contained in the PC. In each one of the 3 farms examined in the trial, PC was prepared from donor cows in good health, free from infections, and with no records of medications administered during the previous 2 mo. The platelet produced in one farm was used only for treating the cows of the same farm in a heterologous way. A total of 229 mastitic quarters were divided in 3 groups: antibiotic group (treated with intramammary antibiotic), antibiotic and PC group (treated intramammarily with antibiotics in association with PC), and PC group (treated with intramammary PC alone). The diagnosis of mastitis was based on somatic cell count and bacteriological evaluation of the milk from the affected quarter. Platelet concentrate, alone or in association with antibiotic, was used for 3 consecutive days as an unconventional therapy in bovine acute and chronic mastitis. Our data show that the associated action of antibiotic and PC performed significantly better than the antibiotic alone, either for the recovery of the affected mammary quarters or for somatic cell count reduction. In the same way, the association antibiotic plus PC showed significantly fewer relapses compared with the antibiotic alone, either for acute or chronic mastitis. The treatment with only PC did not show

  10. In vitro evaluation of a novel bacteriophage cocktail as a preventative for bovine coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J; Anderson, J; Carter, L; Donjacour, E; Paros, M

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of bacteriophage in preventing Escherichia coli mastitis on dairies. A cocktail consisting of 4 distinct bacteriophages was generated by screening against 36 E. coli isolates from dairy cows in Washington State with clinical mastitis. The bacteriophage significantly inhibited growth of 58% of the Washington State isolates and 54% of E. coli mastitis isolates from New York State, suggesting that the cocktail of phages had a relatively broad spectrum of action against relevant strains from 2 distinct geographies. The ability to suppress bacterial growth of these isolates in a liquid growth medium was not affected by the ratio of bacteriophage particles to bacterial cells (multiplicity of infection, MOI). For those E. coli that were completely inhibited by the phage cocktail, an MOI as low as 10 had the same effect as 10 µg/mL of ceftiofur on the growth rate of E. coli over a 12-h period using optical density measurements. A 3.3- to 5.6-log reduction of growth was achieved when E. coli was co-incubated with our phage cocktail in raw milk over a 12-h period at physiologic temperature. A modified gentamicin protection assay using bovine mammary epithelial cells provided a model to test whether bacteriophage could prevent cell attachment and invasion by chronic coliform mastitis strains. Pretreatment of cell cultures with the phage cocktail significantly reduced adhesion and intracellular survival of E. coli compared with controls. When combined with a bismuth-based teat sealant, the phage cocktail was able to inhibit bacterial growth when challenged with 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/mL of a clinical mastitis E. coli strain. In vitro results show bactericidal activity by our phage in raw milk and mammary tissue culture systems. Before a bacteriophage-based dry-cow treatment becomes a potential option for dairies, in vivo studies must be able to demonstrate that a specific dose of bacteriophage can protect cows from

  11. Mid-infrared prediction of lactoferrin content in bovine milk: potential indicator of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyeurt, H; Bastin, C; Colinet, F G; Arnould, V M-R; Berry, D P; Wall, E; Dehareng, F; Nguyen, H N; Dardenne, P; Schefers, J; Vandenplas, J; Weigel, K; Coffey, M; Théron, L; Detilleux, J; Reding, E; Gengler, N; McParland, S

    2012-11-01

    Lactoferrin (LTF) is a milk glycoprotein favorably associated with the immune system of dairy cows. Somatic cell count is often used as an indicator of mastitis in dairy cows, but knowledge on the milk LTF content could aid in mastitis detection. An inexpensive, rapid and robust method to predict milk LTF is required. The aim of this study was to develop an equation to quantify the LTF content in bovine milk using mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry. LTF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and all milk samples were analyzed by MIR. After discarding samples with a coefficient of variation between 2 ELISA measurements of more than 5% and the spectral outliers, the calibration set consisted of 2499 samples from Belgium (n = 110), Ireland (n = 1658) and Scotland (n = 731). Six statistical methods were evaluated to develop the LTF equation. The best method yielded a cross-validation coefficient of determination for LTF of 0.71 and a cross-validation standard error of 50.55 mg/l of milk. An external validation was undertaken using an additional dataset containing 274 Walloon samples. The validation coefficient of determination was 0.60. To assess the usefulness of the MIR predicted LTF, four logistic regressions using somatic cell score (SCS) and MIR LTF were developed to predict the presence of mastitis. The dataset used to build the logistic regressions consisted of 275 mastitis records and 13 507 MIR data collected in 18 Walloon herds. The LTF and the interaction SCS × LTF effects were significant (P validation) and data collected from a research herd at the University of Wisconsin - Madison (i.e. 5886 Wisconsin MIR records related to 93 mastistis events - external validation). Model specificity was better when LTF was included in the regression along with SCS when compared with SCS alone. Correct classification of non-mastitis records was 95.44% and 92.05% from Wisconsin and Walloon data, respectively. The same conclusion was formulated from the

  12. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject involves detecting presence or absence of genetic marker associated with trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off-spring from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    -spring from it, where the genetic marker is located on the bovine chromosome BTA11 in the region flanked by and including the zeta-chain associated protein 70kD (ZAP70) and CD8B genes, where the presence or absence of the genetic marker is indicative of mastitis resistance. USE - For determining resistance...

  13. Frequency, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in Iran. Listeria spp. were detected in 21/207 bovine mastitic milk samples from dairy farms in Iran, comprising L. monocytogenes (n=17), L. innocua (n=3) and L. ivanovii (n=1). L. monocytogenes isolates were grouped into serogroups '4b, 4d, 4e', '1/2a, 3a', '1/2b, 3b, 7' and '1/2c, 3c'; all harboured inlA, inlC and inlJ virulence genes. Listeria spp. were most frequently resistant to penicillin G (14/21 isolates, 66.7%) and tetracyclines (11/21 isolates, 52.4%).

  14. Macrolide-lincosamide-resistant phenotypes and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Cong-Ming; Lu, Li-Ming; Ren, Gao-Wa Na; Cao, Xing-Yuan; Shen, Jian-Zhong

    2008-07-27

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of macrolide-lincosamide (ML) resistance in 72 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with clinical mastitis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ML antibiotics were determined by the broth microdilution technique, inducible ML resistance phenotype by the D test, and ML resistance genes by PCR assay. The isolates showed a high level of resistance to erythromycin (93.1%), azithromycin (93.1%), spiramycin (41.7%), tylosin (40.3%), tilmicosin (27.8%), and clindamycin (36.1%). Macrolide-lincosamide MIC(90) values were > or = 128 mg/L. Inducible ML resistance (iML) phenotype was detected in 52.8% (38/72) of isolates. In erythromycin-resistant (ER-R) strains, methylase genes ermB and ermC, efflux gene msrA/msrB, and inactivating enzyme genes lnuA and mphC were present alone or in various combinations, with ermB and ermC genes predominating. This is the first report of ML resistance genes ermB, mrsA/mrsB and mphC in S. aureus isolated from bovine mastitis. The occurrence of high levels of resistance to ML antibiotics among the S. aureus isolates, and the high rate of iML phenotype, indicate that appropriate alternative antibiotics should be prescribed for treating bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. Furthermore, significant differences in the conformations of lactone rings of 16- and 14-membered macrolides could explain why some isolates with a constitutive ML resistance (cML) phenotype were sensitive to 16-membered macrolides alone. The different interaction of the 16-membered macrolides with the 50S ribosomal subunit is also presumably the reason why the susceptibility results of tilmcosin differed from those of tylosin and spiramycin.

  15. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliwal B.B.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis in and around Dharwad region. A total of 310 samples were screened and 180 confirmed Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were obtained. The antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci against 10 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. The highest numbers of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were susceptible to ceftriaxone 83.88% followed by cefotaxime 79.41%, methicillin 76.47%, ciprofloxacin 73.52%, erythromycin 70.05%, amikacin 66.11%, gentamycin 42.94%, amoxicillin 36.76%, ampicillin 29.41%, and the lowest susceptibility was shown in penicillin 23.23% . The results indicated that the increase in prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis exhibited the highest degree of susceptible to ceftriaxone of all the tested antimicrobial agents. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 158-161

  16. Investigation of biofilm forming ability in Staphylococci causing bovine mastitis using phenotypic and genotypic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Samah F; Asfour, Hanaa A E

    2013-01-01

    A total of 40 S. aureus and 68 coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates from bovine subclinical mastitis were investigated for their ability to form biofilm as one of the most important virulence factors.Using Congo Red Agar (CRA) method, 32.5%, 35%, and 32.5% of S. aureus strains were strong, intermediate, and negative biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 29.5%, 42.6%, and 27.9%, respectively. By microtiter plate (MTP) method, 52.5%, 27.5%, and 20% of S. aureus isolates were strong, moderate, and weak biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 44%, 30.9%, and 19.2%, respectively. Indian ink staining was used to detect the EPS layer of biofilm producers. All isolates were screened for presence of biofilm related genes, eno, icaA, icaD, and bap. In S. aureus isolates, the positive rates of eno, icaA, icaD, and bap genes were 75%, 15%, 62.5%, and 2.5% while in CNS were 92.6%, 5.9%, 47.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. The eno gene had the highest rate while the bap gene had the lowest rate. Presence of icaA and icaD genes was not always correlated with biofilm production. This study demonstrated high prevalence of Staphylococcus biofilm producers among bovine mastitis in Egypt. Therefore, attention must be paid toward implementation of new ways for effective treatment of such infections.

  17. Nisin and lysostaphin activity against preformed biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus involved in bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceotto-Vigoder, H; Marques, S L S; Santos, I N S; Alves, M D B; Barrias, E S; Potter, A; Alviano, D S; Bastos, M C F

    2016-07-01

    The biofilm produced by Staphylococcus aureus isolates involved in clinical or subclinical bovine mastitis and the activity of nisin and lysostaphin against the preformed biofilm produced by these strains were investigated. Eighteen strains were tested and all produced biofilm. Eight strains with distinct biofilm composition were selected for the antimicrobial activity assays. The minimal inhibitory concentration of each bacteriocin was determined against the planktonic cells and ranged from 15·6 to 500 μg ml(-1) for nisin, and from 3·9 to 50 μg ml(-1) , for lysostaphin. Lysostaphin treatment (0·4 μg ml(-1) ) for 4 h caused a strong Staph. aureus 4181 biofilm detachment and death of the majority of the sessile cells, while nisin treatment (100 μg ml(-1) ) for the same time caused only a great reduction in cell viability. Additionally, combination of both bacteriocins for 4 h resulted in significant death of the sessile cells but no biofilm detachment. The treatment with lysostaphin alone or in combination with nisin was effective in killing most biofilm sessile cells. The action of lysostaphin, either alone or in combination with nisin, against established staphylococcal biofilm may represent an alternative to bovine mastitis control. However, the duration of the treatment should be considered for its application so that the best effectiveness can be achieved. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Cell surface hydrophobicity and charge of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, W; Rozgonyi, F; Brown, A; Hjertén, S; Wadström, T

    1987-03-01

    The effects of seven growth media on cell surface hydrophobicity of a collection of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis were compared in the salt-aggregation test. Thirty-three per cent of Staph. aureus strains showed extremely high cell surface hydrophobicity (auto-aggregated) and 28% were moderately hydrophobic while 26% were hydrophilic after growth on horse blood agar at 37 degrees C for 18 h. There were great variations in the proportion and degree of the hydrophobicity depending on the medium used. Cultivations on/in capsule-inducing media caused a shift from a high to a low degree of hydrophobicity, although a microscopically detectable capsule or slime layer was seen in only one strain. This strain and encapsulated reference strains had a hydrophilic cell surface and migrated faster in free zone electrophoresis than cells of unencapsulated strains. Cells of strains grown on staphylococcus medium 110 agar migrated faster than those grown on horse blood agar regardless of their capsule production. Coagulase-negative staphylococci showed uniformly hydrophilic cell surface after cultivation on horse blood agar, but not when grown in tryptic soy broth or proteose peptone broth. It was concluded that most of the Staph. aureus strains from bovine mastitis under a variety of growth conditions in stationary phase culture constantly expressed hydrophobic cell surface.

  19. A study of phage- and ribotype patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Jensen, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution of phage and ribotypes of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis in the 5 Nordic countries. A total of 403 isolates of S. aureus was isolated from 403 different dairy herds. One hundred five strains were isolated in Denm...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C; Middleton, John R

    2013-12-12

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci are frequently isolated from cases of subclinical bovine mastitis. Reported here is a draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, an isolate recovered from a chronic intramammary infection of a Holstein cow. Unexpectedly, a cluster of genes encoding gas vesicle proteins was found within the 2,755-kb genome.

  1. A study of phage- and ribotype patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Jensen, N.E.;

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution of phage and ribotypes of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis in the 5 Nordic countries. A total of 403 isolates of S. aureus was isolated from 403 different dairy herds. One hundred five strains were isolated in Denm...

  2. A comparative study of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis during 1952-1956 and 1992

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Rosdahl, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    Fiftytwo strains of S. aureus isolated from cases of bovine subclinical mastitis in 52 different dairy herds in Denmark, in the peri ods 1952 to 1956 and 1992, were compared with regard to their phage- and EcoRI ribotypes. Furthermore, susceptibility to penicillin and production of fibrinolysin...

  3. Inflammatory responses of stromal fibroblasts to inflammatory epithelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyao; Li, Xuezhong; Xu, Tong; Ma, Mengru; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2016-11-15

    Hypernomic secretion of epithelial cytokines has several effects on stromal cells. The contributions of inflammatory epithelial cells to stromal fibroblasts in bovine mammary glands with mastitis remain poorly understood. Here, we established an inflammatory epithelial cell model of bovine mastitis with gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) bacterial cell wall components. We characterized immune responses of mammary stromal fibroblasts induced by inflammatory epithelial cells. Our results showed that inflammatory epithelial cells affected stromal fibroblast characteristics by increasing inflammatory mediator expression, elevating extracellular matrix protein deposition, decreasing proliferation capacity, and enhancing migration ability. The changes in stromal fibroblast proliferation and migration abilities were mediated by signal molecules, such as WNT signal pathway components. LPS- and LTA-induced inflammatory epithelial cells triggered different immune responses in stromal fibroblasts. Thus, in mastitis, bovine mammary gland stromal fibroblasts were affected by inflammatory epithelial cells and displayed inflammation-specific changes, suggesting that fibroblasts play crucial roles in bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3.2 with immune response, mastitis, and production and type traits in Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, R; Hernandez, A; Mallard, B A

    2007-02-01

    Data collected from 328 Canadian Holsteins in a research herd at the University of Guelph were used to study associations among expression of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3.2 alleles, immune response, mastitis resistance via somatic cell counts (SCC), and clinical mastitis, as well as to extend these results to production and type traits. Accordingly, groups of cows were evaluated in vivo for both the antibody-mediated immune response (AMIR) and the cell-mediated immune response (CMIR), which generally predominate in responses to extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. Of note was that associations between BoLA DRB3.2 alleles and immune responses tended to be in the opposite sign for the 2 AMIR and CMIR traits examined. For example, alleles DRB3.2*3 and *24 were associated with higher AMIR but lower CMIR, whereas allele *22 was associated with lower AMIR but higher CMIR. This finding is in agreement with the hypothesis that both traits are genetically independent and represent opposing type 1 and type 2 immune responses. Additionally, BoLA DRB3.2*3 and *11 were associated with lower SCC, whereas alleles *22 and *23 were associated with higher SCC. Finally, allele DRB3.2*3 was also associated with less clinical mastitis, whereas allele *8 was associated with higher mastitis risk. Allele *3 was of particular relevance because it was associated with increased antibodies, as well as reduced mastitis and SCC. This could be due to an indirect relationship between the ability to produce a high antibody response and enhanced defense against intrammamary infections caused by extracellular pathogens. Consequently, the BoLA DRB3.2*3 allele should be investigated further as a candidate for resistance to some types of intramammary infections, the important caveat being its association with lower CMIR, particularly with one of the test antigens used to evaluate delayed-type hypersensitivity. The results of associations between BoLA DRB3.2 and production

  5. Role of an SNP in Alternative Splicing of Bovine NCF4 and Mastitis Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Changfa; Wang, Xiuge; Yang, Chunhong; Sun, Yan; Jiang, Qiang; Wang, Fei; Li, Mengjiao; Zhong, Jifeng; Huang, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil cytosolic factor 4 (NCF4) is component of the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex, a key factor in biochemical pathways and innate immune responses. In this study, splice variants and functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of NCF4 were identified to determine the variability and association of the gene with susceptibility to bovine mastitis characterized by inflammation. A novel splice variant, designated as NCF4-TV and characterized by the retention of a 48 bp sequence in intron 9, was detected in the mammary gland tissues of infected cows. The expression of the NCF4-reference main transcript in the mastitic mammary tissues was higher than that in normal tissues. A novel SNP, g.18174 A>G, was also found in the retained 48 bp region of intron 9. To determine whether NCF4-TV could be due to the g.18174 A>G mutation, we constructed two mini-gene expression vectors with the wild-type or mutant NCF4 g.18174 A>G fragment. The vectors were then transiently transfected into 293T cells, and alternative splicing of NCF4 was analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing. Mini-gene splicing assay demonstrated that the aberrantly spliced NCF4-TV with 48 bp retained fragment in intron 9 could be due to g.18174 A>G, which was associated with milk somatic count score and increased risk of mastitis infection in cows. NCF4 expression was also regulated by alternative splicing. This study proposes that NCF4 splice variants generated by functional SNP are important risk factors for mastitis susceptibility in dairy cows.

  6. Pérdidas económicas ocasionadas por la mastitis bovina en la industria lechera - Economic causalties inflicted by the bovine mastitis in the milk industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedolla, CC;

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente trabajo fue hacer una revisión bibliográfica sobre las pérdidas económicas que ocasiona la mastitis bovina en la industria lechera en el Mundo, en México y Michoacán. La mastitis es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa más costosa de las vacas lecheras debido a que induce a una disminución en la producción del 4 al 30% de leche y baja su calidad, además de incrementar los costos del cuidado de la salud del hato y un desecho prematuro de animales genéticamente mejorados. En el documento, se hace una descripción de los conceptos concernientes a la mastitis bovina, su clasificación, características de la enfermedad tanto en su forma de presentación clínica y subclínica en el ganado bovino lechero, así mismo se hace referencia a las pérdidas económicas que ésta ocasiona tanto en la industria lechera a nivel mundial, como en México y en el Estado deMichoacán; finalmente, se aborda lo relacionado a los costos de prevención, tratamiento y control de la enfermedad. Se concluye que las pérdidas económicas que ocasiona la mastitis bovina a la industria lechera son considerables, esto en base a diversos estudios reportados por diferentes autores.summaryThe objective of the present paper was to make a revision of literature on the economic causalties that the bovine mastitis in the milk industry in the World inflicts, in Mexico and Michoacan. The mastitis is considered infectious the disease more expensive of the milk cows because it induces to a diminution in the production from the 4 to 30% of low milk and his quality, besides to increase the costs of the care of the health of the cattle ranch and a premature animal remainder genetically improved. In the document, a description of the concepts concerning the bovine mastitis, its classification,characteristics of the disease as much in its form of clinical and subclinical presentation in the milk bovine cattle becomes, also reference to the economic

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and bacteriological characteristics of bovine Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens isolates from mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Mamoru; Sawada, Takuo; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashimoto, Mizuki; Hata, Eiji; Yonezawa, Chizuko; Kato, Hajime

    2011-12-29

    The presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) strains among bovine isolates of Gram-negative bacilli, and O-serotypes of bovine Serratia marcescens and P. aeruginosa isolates have been reported rarely. The aims of this study were to (1) elucidate antimicrobial susceptibilities and O-serotypes of P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens isolates from bovine mastitis and the presence of MBL-producers and MDRP strains among them and (2) evaluate their relationships to human isolates. We investigated the MICs of 24 antimicrobials and O-serotypes for 116 P. aeruginosa and 55 S. marcescens isolates in Japan, primarily in 2006. A total of 171 isolates exhibited high antimicrobial susceptibilities with the exception of a partial drug. P. aeruginosa isolates exhibited high susceptibilities of ≥ 95.7% to ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefoperazone/sulbactam, amikacin, tobramycin, and gentamicin; however, they exhibited a susceptibility of only 69.8% to aztreonam. They exhibited substantial resistances to ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, cefotaxime, and moxalactam. S. marcescens isolates exhibited high susceptibilities of ≥ 90.9% to kanamycin, ceftiofur, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and the 15 aforementioned drugs, but exhibited resistance to minocycline. Neither MBL-producers nor MDRP strains were detected among the 171 strains. The dominant serotypes of P. aeruginosa isolates were OG, OA, OB, OI, OF, OE, and OK; those of S. marcescens isolates were O6 and O5. Every S. marcescens isolate was pigmented. These findings suggest that bovine P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens isolates differ from human isolates from both antibiogram and phenotypic perspectives, and could help to evaluate differences in bacteriological characteristics between bovine and human isolates.

  8. COUNTS OF MICROORGANISMS CAUSING BOVINE MASTITIS AND STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused mainly by microorganisms, altering the characteristics of milk and results in significant economic losses for this production complex. The study aimed to determine the main causative agents of bovine mastitis in a dairy farm in Rio Pomba city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and evaluate the use of plant extract and antibiotics commonly used in the control of microorganisms that cause this disease. Raw milk samples coming from 47 dairy cow were individually collected for microbiological evaluation. We also evaluated the sensitivity of isolates from the plant extract and the antibiotics commonly used in the farm. It was found that 17.0 %, 31.9 %, 85.4 % and 38.3 % of the samples presented, respectively, Staphylococcus aureus, coliforms, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, most of the samples showed counts of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms and Streptococcus sp. between 104 and 105 CFU.mL-1, while the counts of S. aureus ranged between 102 and 103 CFU.mL-1 in most of samples. A higher efficacy of tetracycline on the isolates of S. aureus was verified and of ampicillin on the E. coli isolates. All isolates of the latter bacteria were resistant to plant extract. Due to the high incidence of microorganisms, we emphasize the need for implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in milk production, because these bacteria are coming from hair, skin, mucous membranes of animals and/or belonging to the enteric microbiota of mammals, respectively.

  9. Genetic analysis of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, K; Heringstad, B; Whist, A C

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) in Norwegian Red cows. In Norway, breeding values for mastitis are predicted based on records of veterinary treatments of clinical mastitis. Bacteriological milk sample results from the mastitis laboratories have been recorded routinely into the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System since 2000, but have so far not been used in genetic analyses. This additional source of data may provide valuable information on pathogen-specific CM. Records from 234,088 first-lactation Norwegian Red cows, daughters of 1,656 sires, were used for genetic analyses of unspecific, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli CM. The 4 CM traits were defined as binary and scored as 1 if the cow had at least 1 case of the CM in question and 0 otherwise. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was applied, and a multivariate threshold liability model was used for the analyses. The posterior mean (SD ≤ 0.01) of the heritabilities were 0.06 for liability of unspecific CM, 0.04 for Staph. aureus CM, 0.02 for Strep. dysgalactiae CM, and 0.03 for E. coli CM. The posterior mean (SD) of the genetic correlations were all high, ranging from 0.75 (0.14) to 0.87 (0.07). The highest genetic correlation was found between unspecific CM and Strep. dysgalactiae CM, whereas the lowest was found for E. coli CM and Staph. aureus CM. Genetic correlations lower than 1 indicate that mastitis caused by different pathogens can be considered as partly different traits. In spite of high rank correlations (0.95-0.98), some re-ranking of sires was observed. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mammary Gland Pathology Subsequent to Acute Infection with Strong versus Weak Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus aureus Bovine Mastitis Isolates: A Pilot Study Using Non-Invasive Mouse Mastitis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi-Tiwari, Jully; Williams, Vincent; Waryah, Charlene Babra; Costantino, Paul; Al-Salami, Hani; Mathavan, Sangeetha; Wells, Kelsi; Tiwari, Harish Kumar; Hegde, Nagendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Al-Sallami, Hesham; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    Background Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus is an important virulence attribute because of its potential to induce persistent antibiotic resistance, retard phagocytosis and either attenuate or promote inflammation, depending upon the disease syndrome, in vivo. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential significance of strength of biofilm formation by clinical bovine mastitis-associated S. aureus in mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model. Methods Two S. aureus strains of the same capsular phenotype with different biofilm forming strengths were used to non-invasively infect mammary glands of lactating mice. Biofilm forming potential of these strains were determined by tissue culture plate method, ica typing and virulence gene profile per detection by PCR. Delivery of the infectious dose of S. aureus was directly through the teat lactiferous duct without invasive scraping of the teat surface. Both bacteriological and histological methods were used for analysis of mammary gland pathology of mice post-infection. Results Histopathological analysis of the infected mammary glands revealed that mice inoculated with the strong biofilm forming S. aureus strain produced marked acute mastitic lesions, showing profuse infiltration predominantly with neutrophils, with evidence of necrosis in the affected mammary glands. In contrast, the damage was significantly less severe in mammary glands of mice infected with the weak biofilm-forming S. aureus strain. Although both IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory biomarkers were produced in infected mice, level of TNF-α produced was significantly higher (p<0.05) in mice inoculated with strong biofilm forming S. aureus than the weak biofilm forming strain. Conclusion This finding suggests an important role of TNF-α in mammary gland pathology post-infection with strong biofilm-forming S. aureus in the acute mouse mastitis model, and offers an opportunity for the development of novel strategies for reduction of

  11. Existence of two groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis based on biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular profile and agr-typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardiau, Marjorie; Caplin, Jonathan; Detilleux, Johann; Graber, Hans; Moroni, Paolo; Taminiau, Bernard; Mainil, Jacques G

    2016-03-15

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is recognised worldwide as an important pathogen causing contagious acute and chronic bovine mastitis. Chronic mastitis account for a significant part of all bovine cases and represent an important economic problem for dairy producers. Several properties (biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular expression and group agr) are thought to be associated with this chronic status. In a previous study, we found the existence of two groups of strains based on the association of these features. The aim of the present work was to confirm on a large international and non-related collection of strains the existence of these clusters and to associate them with case history records. In addition, the genomes of eight strains were sequenced to study the genomic differences between strains of each cluster. The results confirmed the existence of both groups based on capsular typing, intracellular survival and agr-typing: strains cap8-positive, belonging to agr group II, showing a low invasion rate and strains cap5-positive, belonging to agr group I, showing a high invasion rate. None of the two clusters were associated with the chronic status of the cow. When comparing the genomes of strains belonging to both clusters, the genes specific to the group "cap5-agrI" would suggest that these strains are better adapted to live in hostile environment. The existence of these two groups is highly important as they may represent two clusters that are adapted differently to the host and/or the surrounding environment.

  12. Resistance of Causing Bacteria of Bovine Mastitis in Regard to Common Antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Martínez Pacheco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria develop resistence against to the common antimicrobians, which is a limitant in the control and treatment of infectious diseases. In the sistems of production of bovine milk, one problem that affects the quantity and quality of the produced milk, is the mastitis, which in most cases has a bacterian origen. Addition to correct milking routine is used many antibacterial agents that for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics reasons are the first selection for this disease. Some cases the use of antibacterial agents is effective, while in other cases do not, due to the development of bacterial resistence. Recently, it has been possible to identify different mechanisms of resistence developed by bacteria. This has allowed pharmacology researchers to create new drugs or to modify existing, seeking to decrease the inefficacy caused by the mutation of the bacteria as an adaptative response mechanism. Therefore,the objective of this review is to offer an updated document on resistance mechanisms identified.

  13. Métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina (Methods of detection of the bovine mastitis)

    OpenAIRE

    Bedolla, CC; Castañeda, VH; W. Wolter

    2007-01-01

    ResumenEste artículo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre los métodos de detección de la mastitis bovina que se utilizan más comúnmente en el mundo. La mastitis bovina es la inflamación de la glándula mamaria causada por una infección por patógenos. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la producción que afecta a la industria lechera en todo el mundo. Puede presentarse de manera clínica y subclínica. La mastitis subclínica es de larga duración y es mucho más frecuente que la mastitis c...

  14. Investigation of Biofilm Forming Ability in Staphylococci Causing Bovine Mastitis Using Phenotypic and Genotypic Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Samah F.; Asfour, Hanaa A. E.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 40 S. aureus and 68 coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates from bovine subclinical mastitis were investigated for their ability to form biofilm as one of the most important virulence factors.Using Congo Red Agar (CRA) method, 32.5%, 35%, and 32.5% of S. aureus strains were strong, intermediate, and negative biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 29.5%, 42.6%, and 27.9%, respectively. By microtiter plate (MTP) method, 52.5%, 27.5%, and 20% of S. aureus isolates were strong, moderate, and weak biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 44%, 30.9%, and 19.2%, respectively. Indian ink staining was used to detect the EPS layer of biofilm producers. All isolates were screened for presence of biofilm related genes, eno, icaA, icaD, and bap. In S. aureus isolates, the positive rates of eno, icaA, icaD, and bap genes were 75%, 15%, 62.5%, and 2.5% while in CNS were 92.6%, 5.9%, 47.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. The eno gene had the highest rate while the bap gene had the lowest rate. Presence of icaA and icaD genes was not always correlated with biofilm production. This study demonstrated high prevalence of Staphylococcus biofilm producers among bovine mastitis in Egypt. Therefore, attention must be paid toward implementation of new ways for effective treatment of such infections. PMID:24298212

  15. [Recurrent clinical mastitis in dairy cattle - importance and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, A-S; Zoche-Golob, V; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V

    2014-01-01

    Clinical mastitis as a frequently recurrent event can cause substantive economic loss on dairy farms. The reason for recurrent mastitis can be either a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland by a mastitis pathogen or a reinfection of a quarter or udder after bacteriological cure. The virulence properties of a mastitis pathogen and the cure odds of an individual cow determine the development of persistent infections. Clinical episodes may alternate with periods without symptoms in the course of persistent infections. Strategies to reduce cases of recurrent mastitis have to include improved treatment concepts and measures to decrease new infection rates. The present literature review summarises the knowledge of definitions, frequencies, causes and effects of recurrent mastitis.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Algerian honey on subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated from goat's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bourabah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated from goat's milk and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Algerian honey on mastitis causing bacteria. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity against the isolated bacteria was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, using the agar incorporation method. Results: The results showed that both Micrococcus spp. and Klebsiella spp. were susceptible to Streptomycin and tetracycline, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E coli, Enterobacter spp., Bacillus spp., and Coagulase Negative Staphyloccoci (CNS were preferentially susceptible to Streptomycin. However, Streptococcus D was the most resistant to the tested antibiotics whereas Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to all the studied antibiotics. As regards to the antimicrobial activity of honey, the measured values were comprised between 11 and 14%. Conclusion: The results reveal that antimicrobial drugs susceptibility tests in goat subclinical mastitis might be necessary before the treatment. Algerian honey exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activity against different isolated bacteria in goat mastitis.

  17. Development and validation of a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet, O H; Grabowski, N T; Klein, G; Abdulmawjood, A

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is one of the most important animal pathogens causing bovine mastitis. Also, it is a major human pathogen that may produce a variety of toxins which cause staphylococcal food poisoning. In the present study a LAMP assay based on gene nuc to identify S. aureus was developed and validated. The specificity of the LAMP assay was confirmed by using 70 S. aureus isolates and 21 non-S. aureus strains. The optimal temperature-time combination to amplify gene nuc successfully was 65 °C and 30 min. The analytical sensitivity of the developed LAMP assay was 0.26 pg of S. aureus DNA per reaction. The limit of detection evaluated with milk spiked with S. aureus was 9 × 10(2) CFU mL(-1). The final results of this assay were available within less than 2 h. The present study showed that the LAMP assay based on gene nuc appeared to be rapid and simple, and could also be used to identify S. aureus isolates from mastitis milk of dairy cows.

  18. Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic methods for epidemiological typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, H. C.; Rosdahl, V. T.

    1995-01-01

    The value of five different typing methods (antibiogram typing, biotyping, phage typing, plasmid profiling and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (ribotyping)), in discriminating 105 Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine milk samples obtained....... The combination of phage, bio- or ribotyping or all three methods in combination are considered to be an efficient combination of typing methods for epidemiological investigation of S. aureus mastitis....

  19. Bovine mastitis and its association with selected risk factors in smallholder dairy farms in and around Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaw, G; Zerihun, A; Asfaw, Y

    2008-08-01

    Three hundred fifty one (195 local zebu and 156 Holstein x local zebu crosses) lactating cows of smallholder farms in Bahir Dar 'milk shed' were examined from September 2003 to March 2004 to determine mastitis prevalence, isolate pathogens and identify the role of some potential risk factors. Clinical prevalence was determined through examination of abnormalities of milk, udder or cow. California mastitis test (CMT) was used for determination of subclinical mastitis prevalence. Clinical prevalence at cow level was 3.9% in crossbreds and none in local zebu breeds. Subclinical mastitis at cow level based on CMT was high (34.4%) in crossbreds compared to indigenous zebu (17.9%) (p CMT was 17.9% and 4.9% in crossbreds and local zebu, respectively. The pathogens isolated from mastitic milk (CMT positive milk) were coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), S. aureus, Str. agalactiae, Str. dysgalactiae, Str. uberis, Micrococcus species, C. bovis, A. pyogens, B. cereus, and S. intermedius. Among these, the most frequent isolates were CNS (50%), S. aureus (19%), Str. agalactiae (8%) and Str. dysgalactiae (7%). Among potential risk factors considered, stage of lactation, parity and breed were found to affect the occurrence of mastitis significantly (p < 0.05).

  20. Bovine mastitis in the metropolitan area of Curitiba: antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial control of the infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Parada

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A study from cows with mastitis was performed and Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen in 46.4 % among 153 studied strains from 276 milk samples of infected cows. Antibiotic resistance of 71 S. aureus isolates was determined in order to search resistant strains to antibiotics of clinical interest, as well as to determine their degree of multi-resistance. It was found that 60% of the S. aureus strains presented resistance to β-lactams, but none to oxacillin, teicoplamin or vancomycin. On the other hand, with the aim of reducing the use of current antibiotics and their associated resistance, a new formulation was introduced. The antimicrobial compounds (P22-P32, demonstrated to be effective in 55% of the 76 mastitis cases studied. The use of P22-P32 reduced the number of somatic cell to less than 300,000 SCC/mL-1 in 75.2 % of milk samples analyzed, normalizing the milk quality, fat and lactose levels and increasing the volume of production in 10.1 %.

  1. Mammary Gland Pathology Subsequent to Acute Infection with Strong versus Weak Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus aureus Bovine Mastitis Isolates: A Pilot Study Using Non-Invasive Mouse Mastitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi-Tiwari, Jully; Williams, Vincent; Waryah, Charlene Babra; Costantino, Paul; Al-Salami, Hani; Mathavan, Sangeetha; Wells, Kelsi; Tiwari, Harish Kumar; Hegde, Nagendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Al-Sallami, Hesham; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus is an important virulence attribute because of its potential to induce persistent antibiotic resistance, retard phagocytosis and either attenuate or promote inflammation, depending upon the disease syndrome, in vivo. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential significance of strength of biofilm formation by clinical bovine mastitis-associated S. aureus in mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model. Two S. aureus strains of the same capsular phenotype with different biofilm forming strengths were used to non-invasively infect mammary glands of lactating mice. Biofilm forming potential of these strains were determined by tissue culture plate method, ica typing and virulence gene profile per detection by PCR. Delivery of the infectious dose of S. aureus was directly through the teat lactiferous duct without invasive scraping of the teat surface. Both bacteriological and histological methods were used for analysis of mammary gland pathology of mice post-infection. Histopathological analysis of the infected mammary glands revealed that mice inoculated with the strong biofilm forming S. aureus strain produced marked acute mastitic lesions, showing profuse infiltration predominantly with neutrophils, with evidence of necrosis in the affected mammary glands. In contrast, the damage was significantly less severe in mammary glands of mice infected with the weak biofilm-forming S. aureus strain. Although both IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory biomarkers were produced in infected mice, level of TNF-α produced was significantly higher (pmastitis model, and offers an opportunity for the development of novel strategies for reduction of mammary tissue damage, with or without use of antimicrobials and/or anti-inflammatory compounds for the treatment of bovine mastitis.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis

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    S. Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of methicillin-sensitive and Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA from bovine mastitis and to characterize them with respect to antibiotic resistance gene mecA. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 mastitic milk samples were screened for the presence of S. aureus. The presumptive positive isolates were confirmed using nuc and 23S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction. All the confirmed isolates were subjected to in vitro antibiogram using a number of antibiotics. Isolates which showed resistance against methicillin were characterized for the presence of mecA gene. Results: Out of the total 160 milk samples, 36 (22.5% samples yielded S. aureus. The in vitro antibiogram revealed that 16.6% S. aureus isolates were resistant to all antibiotics screened for and 5.5% isolates were sensitive to all of them. Furthermore, the study found 94.4%, 83.3%, 77.7%, 66.6%, 50%, and 27.7% of S. aureus isolates resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-sulbactam, enrofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and methicillin, respectively. Out of the 36 S. aureus isolates, only 6 (16.6% isolates were confirmed as MRSA while rest were MSSA. Conclusion: The higher occurrence of S. aureus-mediated mastitis was concluded due to improper hygienic and poor farm management. The multiple drug resistance reveals the indiscriminate use of drugs and presence of methicillin resistance gene determinant is an alarming situation as such infections are difficult to treat.

  3. Evaluation of the California mastitis test to detect an intramammary infection with a major pathogen in early lactation dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Dingwell, Randy T.; Leslie, Ken E.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Sargeant, Jan M.; Leo L Timms

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the California mastitis test (CMT) to detect an intramammary infection caused by a major mastitis pathogen in early lactation cows. The gold standard used for comparison was bacteriological culture of single milk samples. The sensitivity (82.4%) and specificity (80.6%) of a positive CMT were highest on the 4th day of lactation.

  4. Detection of bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 alleles as candidate markers for clinical mastitis resistance in Holstein x Zebu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjinda, M; Buayai, D; Pattarajinda, V; Phasuk, Y; Katawatin, S; Vongpralub, T; Chaiyotvittayakul, A

    2009-02-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 alleles from Holstein x Zebu crossbred dairy cows (n = 409) were analyzed using the PCR-RFLP technique. Exon II of DRB3 was amplified using locus-specific primers (HLO30/HLO32), followed by digestion with 3 restriction enzymes (RsaI, BstyI, and HaeIII). Forty alleles were found with frequency ranging from 0.005 to 0.139. The most frequently detected alleles of Holstein x Zebu were DRB3*16, *51, *23, *11, *8, and *1, accounting for 61.12% of the alleles in the population. Detection of candidate alleles for clinical mastitis occurrence was performed by logistic regression. It was found that percentage of Holstein fraction in crossbred cows had a nonsignificant effect (P > 0.05). However, parity had a significant effect on mastitis occurrence. In addition, DRB3*1 and *52 were the most associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis, whereas *15, *51, and *22 were associated with resistance in crossbred populations. This is the first report of association of DRB3*15 and *51 with mastitis resistance. The association was validated by examining the candidate alleles in another commercial population. Highly susceptible (n = 43) and resistant (n = 42) groups of Holstein x Zebu cows were investigated. The result confirmed that DRB3*1 and *52 could be considered as susceptibility alleles, whereas *15, *51, and *22 could be considered as resistant alleles in Holstein x Zebu raised under tropical conditions. In addition, allele effects on 305-d milk production were estimated by BLUP. It was shown that most alleles associated with high clinical mastitis occurrence were related to increased milk yield. This study revealed that allele DRB3*10 had the greatest effect on increasing milk yield with moderate resistance to clinical mastitis, which could be used as a potential marker for selection in dairy genetic evaluation.

  5. Identification and characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolase constructs with activity in cow milk as potential antimicrobials for treatment of staphylococcal bovine mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis in dairy cows is a widespread infection of the mammary glands that leads to high losses in dairy production. Most members of the Gram-positive genus Staphylococcus can cause mastitis, with Staphylococcus S. aureus being one of the major pathogens. Intramammary application of antibiotics i...

  6. Two splice variants of the bovine lactoferrin gene identified in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J M; Wang, Z Y; Ju, Z H; Wang, C F; Li, Q L; Sun, T; Hou, Q L; Hang, S Q; Hou, M H; Zhong, J F

    2011-12-21

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a member of the transferrin family; it plays an important role in the innate immune response. We identified novel splice variants of the bLF gene in mastitis-infected and healthy cows. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and clone sequencing analysis were used to screen the splice variants of the bLF gene in the mammary gland, spleen and liver tissues. One main transcript corresponding to the bLF reference sequence was found in three tissues in both healthy and mastitis-infected cows. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the LF gene's main transcript were not significantly different in tissues from healthy versus mastitis-infected cows. However, the new splice variant, LF-AS2, which has the exon-skipping alternative splicing pattern, was only identified in mammary glands infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Sequencing analysis showed that the new splice variant was 251 bp in length, including exon 1, part of exon 2, part of exon 16, and exon 17. We conclude that bLF may play a role in resistance to mastitis through alternative splicing mechanisms.

  7. Preliminary treatment of bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, with trx-SA1, recombinant endolysin of S. aureus bacteriophage IME-SA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jindai; Zeng, Zhiliang; Mai, Kaijie; Yang, Yu; Feng, Jiaqi; Bai, Yang; Sun, Baoli; Xie, Qingmei; Tong, Yigang; Ma, Jingyun

    2016-08-15

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a great threat to human and animal health and there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial agents to control this pathogen. The objective of this study was to obtain an active recombinant endolysin from the novel bacteriophage (IME-SA1), and conduct an efficacy trial of its effectiveness against bovine mastitis. We isolated a phage that was virulent and specific for S. aureus with an optimal multiplicity of infection of 0.01. Electron microscopy revealed that IME-SA1 was a member of the family Myoviridae, with an isometric head (98nm) and a long contractile tail (200nm). Experimental lysis experiments indicated the phage had an incubation period of 20min with a burst size of 80. When host bacteria were in early exponential growth stages, a multiplicity of infection of 0.01 resulted in a complete bacterial lysis after 9h. The endolysin gene (804bp) was cloned into the pET-32a bacterial expression vector and recombinant endolysin Trx-SA1 was successfully obtained with molecular size of about 47kDa. Preliminary results of therapeutic trials in cow udders showed that Trx-SA1 could effectively control mild clinical mastitis caused by S. aureus. The endolysin Trx-SA1 might be an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by S. aureus, including MRSA.

  8. Biofilm production and beta-lactamic resistance in Brazilian Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Figueira Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus spp. play an important role in the etiology of bovine mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus is considered the most relevant species due to the production of virulence factors such as slime, which is required for biofilm formation. This study aimed to evaluate biofilm production and its possible relation to beta-lactamic resistance in 20 S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitic milk. The isolates were characterized by pheno-genotypic and MALDI TOF-MS assays and tested for genes such as icaA, icaD, bap, agr RNAIII, agr I, agr II, agr III, and agr IV, which are related to slime production and its regulation. Biofilm production in microplates was evaluated considering the intervals determined along the bacterial growth curve. In addition, to determine the most suitable time interval for biofilm analysis, scanning electron microscopy was performed. Furthermore, genes such as mecA and blaZ that are related to beta-lactamic resistance and oxacillin susceptibility were tested. All the studied isolates were biofilm producers and mostly presented icaA and icaD. The Agr type II genes were significantly prevalent. According to the SEM, gradual changes in the bacterial arrangement were observed during biofilm formation along the growth curve phases, and the peak was reached at the stationary phase. In this study, the penicillin resistance was related to the production of beta-lactamase, and the high minimal bactericidal concentration for cefoxitin was possibly associated with biofilm protection. Therefore, further studies are warranted to better understand biofilm formation, possibly contributing to our knowledge about bacterial resistance in vivo.

  9. Evaluation of a 3% surf solution (surf field mastitis test) for the diagnosis of subclinical bovine and bubaline mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Naureen, Abeera; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate a 3% solution of household detergent viz., Surf Excel (Surf field mastitis test, SFMT) vis-à-vis California mastitis test (CMT), Whiteside test (WST), somatic cell counts (SCC; cut off limit = 5 x 10(5) cells per millilitre) and bacteriological cultures for the detection of subclinical mastitis in quarter foremilk samples (n=800) of dairy cows and buffaloes. Culture and SCC were used as gold standards. All tests were evaluated parallel and serial patterns. The sensitivities of SFMT, SCC, culture, CMT and WST in parallel testing were 72.82, 81.55, 87.38, 75.73 and 54.37%, respectively in cows, while 66.22, 79.73, 82.43, 70.27 and 50.00, respectively in buffaloes. SFMT was significantly (pCMT in both species. In serial testing, percent specificity of SFMT (87.12 in cow; 85.16 in buffaloes) was significantly (PCMT (83.33 in cow; 80.64 in buffaloes). The negative predictive values of SFMT (93.50 in cow; 96.35 in buffaloes) differed non-significantly from that of CMT (94.02 in cow; 96.15 in buffaloes). The kappa index between the tests was moderate to perfect both in parallel (0.54 to >0.80) and serial (0.58 to >0.8) testing. On the basis of closely similar diagnostic efficiency of SFMT to CMT in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa index together with inexpensive and ready availability of SFMT reagent, it tempting to suggest that SFMT can be use as a cheaper, user-friendly alternative animal-side subclinical mastitis diagnostic test in poor countries.

  10. Mastitis Pathogens with High Virulence in a Mouse Model Produce a Distinct Cytokine Profile In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnzon, Carl-Fredrik; Artursson, Karin; Söderlund, Robert; Guss, Bengt; Rönnberg, Elin; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is a serious medical condition of dairy cattle. Here, we evaluated whether the degree of virulence of mastitis pathogens in a mouse model can be linked to the inflammatory response that they provoke. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (strain 556 and 392) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) (676 and 127), and laboratory control strains [8325-4 (S. aureus) and MG1655 (E. coli)], were injected i.p. into mice, followed by the assessment of clinical scores and inflammatory parameters. As judged by clinical scoring, E. coli 127 exhibited the largest degree of virulence among the strains. All bacterial strains induced neutrophil recruitment. However, whereas E. coli 127 induced high peritoneal levels of CXCL1, G-CSF, and CCL2, strikingly lower levels of these were induced by the less virulent bacterial strains. High concentrations of these compounds were also seen in blood samples taken from animals infected with E. coli 127, suggesting systemic inflammation. Moreover, the levels of CXCL1 and G-CSF, both in the peritoneal fluid and in plasma, correlated with clinical score. Together, these findings suggest that highly virulent clinical mastitis isolates produce a distinct cytokine profile that shows a close correlation with the severity of the bacterial infection. PMID:27713743

  11. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden

    2015-07-14

    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5%) were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes.

  12. Different screening tests and milk somatic cell count for the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Nazmul; Das, Ziban Chandra; Talukder, Anup Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Shah; Rahman, Abu Nasar Md Aminoor

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important tool for sustainable dairying and implementing effective mastitis control strategies. A total of 892 quarters milk samples from 228 lactating cows were screened by California mastitis test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf field mastitis test (SFMT), and somatic cell count (SCC) to study the prevalence of bovine SCM in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Out of 228 cows, 148 (64.9%), 138 (60.5%), 132 (57.9%), and 164 (71.9%) were found positive for SCM by CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC, respectively. The prevalence of bovine SCM was diagnosed 45.7, 40.2, 36.6, and 29.6% in Chittagong, Sirajgonj, Mymensingh, and Gazipur districts, respectively, based on a combination of all tests. The overall quarter-wise prevalence of SCM was 45.7, 43.5, 41.2, and 55.0% for CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC. Single quarters and left front quarters were more prone to SCM (P CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC was 65.8, 57.9, 51.0, and 82.5%; specificity 76.2, 72.4, 69.5, and 89.4%; percentage accuracy 70.0, 64.8, 59.9, and 85.2%; positive predictive value 75.2, 69.8, 64.9, and 92.7%, respectively. The categories of CMT reactions were strongly correlated with SCC (P CMT>WST>SFMT). Thus, CMT was concluded to be the most accurate (r = 0.782) field diagnostic test after laboratory test like SCC (r = 0.924). However, the use of any single test may not be reliable in diagnosing SCM, while the result of CMT supported by SCC might be used effectively to pinpoint diagnosis of SCM in dairy animals than alone.

  13. Co-infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in bovine mastitis--three cases reported from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Samanta, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Debaraj; Nanda, Pramod Kumar; Kar, Debasish; Chowdhury, Jayanta; Dandapat, Premanshu; Das, Arun Kumar; Batul, Nayan; Mondal, Bimalendu; Dutta, Tapan Kumar; Das, Gunjan; Das, Bikash Chandra; Naskar, Syamal; Bandyopadhyay, Uttam Kumar; Das, Suresh Chandra; Bandyopadhyay, Subhasish

    2015-03-01

    Emergence of antimicrobial resistance among bovine mastitis pathogens is the major cause of frequent therapeutic failure and a cause of concern for veterinary practitioners. This study describes intra-mammary infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli in two Holstein Friesian crossbred cows with subclinical mastitis and one non-descript cow with clinical mastitis in two different districts of West Bengal, India. In total, three MRSE, one MRSA and three ESBL producing E. coli were isolated from these cases. Both the crossbreds were detected with MRSE (HFSE1 and HFSE2) and ESBL producing E. coli (HFEC1 and HFEC2), whereas, simultaneous infection of three pathogens viz. MRSA (NDSA1), MRSE (NDSE1) and ESBL producing E. coli (NDEC1) was found in the non-descript cow. The methicillin-resistant isolates possessed mecA gene and exhibited resistance to various antibiotics such as amikacin, tetracycline and glycopeptides. The ESBL producers were positive for blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes; in addition, HFEC1 and HFEC2 were positive for blaSHV and possessed the genes for class I integron (int1), sulphonamide resistance (sul1), quinolone resistance (qnrS) and other virulence factors (papC, iucD and ESTA1). All the ESBL producers exhibited resistance to a variety of antibiotics tested including third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and were also intermediately resistant to carbapenems. This is the first ever report on simultaneous occurrence of MRSE, MRSA and ESBL producing E. coli in bovine mastitis indicating a major concern for dairy industry and public health as well.

  14. Pathogen reduction in minimally managed composting of bovine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persistence of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in bovine feces and contaminated soils is an important risk factor in perpetuating the initial infection as well as re-infection of cattle and dissemination of pathogens throughout agricultural la...

  15. Relationship between mastitis causative pathogens and somatic cell counts in milk of dairy cows

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    Sharaf Eldeen Idriss

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk somatic cell count is a key component of national and international regulation for milk quality and an indicator of udder health and of the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk samples differed by somatic cell count (SCC in microbiologically positive samples. Also frequency of distribution of samples differed by SCC were studied in non infected samples as well. The milk samples were collected from individual quarters from the dairy farms located in Nitra region with problematic udder health of herd for SCC and bacteriological analysis. Totally, 390 milk samples were examined, and 288 (73.85% positive milk samples were detected. Four SCC groups of samples (400×103 /ml were used to identify presence of microorganisms in positive samples. The most frequently isolated pathogens in samples with high SCC >400×103 /ml according to year were Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (29.11 % in 2012, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (28.0% in 2010, yeasts (24.05% in 2012, Escherichia coli (22.78% in 2012, Bacillus sp. (20% in 2010 and Pseudomonas aerugenosa (11.88% in 2011. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (66.67% were the predominantly identified in the samples with low SCC <100×103 cells/ml, followed by Bacillus spp (50%, Entrococcus spp. (33.33% and Staphylococcus aureus (16.67% and E. coli (16.67%. The results of this study indicated that the SCC of individual milk samples corresponded with the health status of the udder of dairy cows represented by presence of mastitis microorganisms in milk. However, the contamination of milk samples could be also connected with low SCC. On the ohter side the samples with high SCC were found out without presence of microorganism. The further study is needed to identify the reason of high SCC in milk from negative samples.

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in Argentinean dairy farms

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    Mirta C Lasagno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Streptococcus uberis isolated from subclinical mastitis (SCM cases, and to examine the possible association between both characteristics. A total of 32 S. uberis were isolated from 772 quarter milk samples (SCM > 250,000 cells/ml collected from 195 cows selected randomly from 18 dairy farms located in Argentina. The S. uberis strains were characterized phenotypically by the presence of virulence factors as plasminogen activator factor (PAF, hyaluronidase (HYA, capsule (CAP and CAMP factor, and were further characterized genotypically by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. S. uberis strains expressed plasminogen activator factor, hyaluronidase or capsule (65.5 %, 56.3 %, 59.4 %, respectively, but only 25 % of isolates were CAMP factor positive. Thirteen different virulence profiles were identified on the basis of the combination of virulence factors. Eighteen PFGE patterns with 90% of similarity were identified among 32 S. uberis. A great diversity of virulence profiles and PFGE patterns were present among dairy farms. S. uberis strains with the same PFGE pattern showed different virulence profiles. Bovine S. uberis strains causing SCM included in the present study showed heterogeneity in regard to their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and the PFGE patterns are not associated with the virulence profiles.Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de Streptococcus uberis aislados de mastitis bovina subclínica en tambos de Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar las características fenotípicas y genotípicas de Streptococcus uberis aislados de casos de mastitis subclínica (MSC y examinar la posible asociación entre ambas características. Un total de 32 cepas de S. uberis fueron aisladas de 772 muestras de leche de cuartos mamarios (MSC > 25 0000 células/ml colectadas de 195 vacas seleccionadas al azar pertenecientes a 18 tambos

  17. Genotyping and study of the pauA and sua genes of Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrig, Melina S; Ambroggio, María B; Buzzola, Fernanda R; Marcipar, Iván S; Calvinho, Luis F; Veaute, Carolina M; Barbagelata, María Sol

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the clonal relationship among 137 Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine milk with subclinical or clinical mastitis in Argentina and to assess the prevalence and conservation of pauA and sua genes. This information is critical for the rational design of a vaccine for the prevention of bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. The isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The 137 isolates exhibited 61 different PFGE types and 25 distinct RAPD profiles. Simpson's diversity index was calculated both for PFGE (0.983) and for RAPD (0.941), showing a high discriminatory power in both techniques. The analysis of the relationship between pairs of isolates showed 92.6% concordance between both techniques indicating that any given pair of isolates distinguished by one method tended to be distinguished by the other. The prevalence of the sua and pauA genes was 97.8% (134/137) and 94.9% (130/137), respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the sua and pauA genes from 20 S. uberis selected isolates, based on their PFGE and RAPD types and geographical origin, showed an identity between 95% and 100% with respect to all reference sequences registered in GenBank. These results demonstrate that, in spite of S. uberis clonal diversity, the sua and pauA genes are prevalent and highly conserved, showing their importance to be included in future vaccine studies to prevent S. uberis bovine mastitis.

  18. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

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    Soveri T

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  19. Extended antibiotic treatment of persistent bovine mastitis during lactation : Efficacy, economics and social influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder caused by bacteria that invade the udder through the teat canal, causing either persistent intramammary infections, or short, transient infections. Mastitis is the most costly disease on a dairy farm because it directly affects the production of milk, the pri

  20. Extended antibiotic treatment of persistent bovine mastitis during lactation : Efficacy, economics and social influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder caused by bacteria that invade the udder through the teat canal, causing either persistent intramammary infections, or short, transient infections. Mastitis is the most costly disease on a dairy farm because it directly affects the production of milk, the

  1. Genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from humans and bovine mastitis samples in India

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    K Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that also causes important infections in cattle and sheep. The present study aimed to test genetic diversity among strains of S. aureus isolated from cattle (n=34 and humans (n=22 by DNA typing. Materials and Methods: Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP is the genotyping tool used in the study. The presence of the mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes among these strain groups was also checked. Results: A dendrogram deduced from FAFLP showed that all the strains clustered into 10 groups (A-J with a relative genetic divergence of less than 8%. Sixty-seven percent of the isolates from bovine sources clustered together in two clades (A and H, while another major cluster with 13 isolates (59% (Cluster G had all strains from a human host. The remaining strains from both the hosts clustered independently into smaller clusters with the exception of two strains of human origin, which clustered along with a bovine cluster. Thirteen strains belonging to cluster G were highly clonal. About 77% of strains obtained from human infections were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, whereas only 29% of strains from bovine origin were MRSA. Only three strains from human origin showed PVL positive, while no strain from cattle had PVL genes. The complete absence of PVL genes in all the bovine strains in the study appears to be significant. Conclusions: FAFLP can be successfully applied to assess the genetic relationship of S. aureus isolates from different hosts. The study also provided the valuable epidemiological data on S. aureus from bovine sources in India, which is lacking.

  2. Endotoxin-induced bovine mastitis: immunoglobulins, phagocytosis, and effect of flunixin meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K L; Smith, A R; Shanks, R D; Whitmore, H L; Davis, L E; Gustafsson, B K

    1986-11-01

    Milk whey immunoglobulins (Ig) and phagocytosis of staphylococci by milk polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMN) were measured in 12 cows (allotted to 6 pairs) during acute bovine mastitis induced by intramammary inoculation of endotoxin. Six of these cows (or 1 in each pair) were treated with flunixin meglumine and were compared with the others (given only saline solution). The endotoxin inoculation comprised 10 micrograms of Escherichia coli O26:B6 lipopolysaccharide injected into one of the rear quarters (mammae). Flunixin meglumine was administered parenterally at a dosage of 1.1 mg/kg every 8 hours (total of 7 doses) beginning at 2 hours after endotoxin was injected. Milk samples were obtained, and whey samples were prepared from each quarter of each cow 3 times before inoculation and at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 336 hours after endotoxin was inoculated. Significant increases (P less than 0.05) in milk whey IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA concentrations were observed in whey samples from endotoxin-inoculated quarters. Greatest relative increase was seen for IgG2. Increased whey Ig concentrations were not observed in quarters which were not inoculated with endotoxin. Concentrations of whey IgG1 and IgM in endotoxin-inoculated quarters were significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased in flunixin meglumine-treated cows, compared with those in saline solution-treated cows. Significant increases in phagocytosis of staphylococci by milk PMN were observed in whey samples from endotoxin-inoculated quarters. Significant differences in PMN phagocytosis were not found in whey samples from cows given flunixin meglumine when compared with whey samples from cows given saline solution.

  3. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 3. Untargeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Funmilola Clara; Mudaliar, Manikhandan; Tassi, Riccardo; McNeilly, Tom N; Burchmore, Richard; Burgess, Karl; Herzyk, Pawel; Zadoks, Ruth N; Eckersall, P David

    2016-08-16

    Intramammary infection leading to bovine mastitis is the leading disease problem affecting dairy cows and has marked effects on the milk produced by infected udder quarters. An experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis has previously been investigated for clinical, immunological and pathophysiological alteration in milk, and has been the subject of peptidomic and quantitative proteomic investigation. The same sample set has now been investigated with a metabolomics approach using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The analysis revealed over 3000 chromatographic peaks, of which 690 were putatively annotated with a metabolite. Hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis demonstrated that metabolite changes due to S. uberis infection were maximal at 81 hours post challenge with metabolites in the milk from the resolution phase at 312 hours post challenge being closest to the pre-challenge samples. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that the majority of the metabolites mapped to carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism show a decreasing trend in concentration up to 81 hours post-challenge whereas an increasing trend was found in lipid metabolites and di-, tri- and tetra-peptides up to the same time point. The increase in these peptides coincides with an increase in larger peptides found in the previous peptidomic analysis and is likely to be due to protease degradation of milk proteins. Components of bile acid metabolism, linked to the FXR pathway regulating inflammation, were also increased. Metabolomic analysis of the response in milk during mastitis provides an essential component to the full understanding of the mammary gland's response to infection.

  4. Bovine mastitis outbreak in Japan caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus New York/Japan clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    Many methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are multidrug-resistant; consequently, infectious diseases involving MRSA are recognized as troublesome diseases not only in human health care but also in animal health care. A bovine mastitis case caused by MRSA isolates of the New York/Japan clone (NJC), which occurred in Japan in 2005, was monitored in the current study. Isolates of the NJC are typical of hospital-acquired MRSA in Japan. The genetic backgrounds of these strains differ from those of bovine-associated S. aureus, which are typically of clonal complex (CC)97, CC705, and CC133. Moreover, the NJC isolates in this bovine outbreak possessed a β-hemolysin-converting bacteriophage and an immune evasion cluster, as found in the NJC isolates from humans, so it is possible that this clone was introduced into the dairy herd by a human carrier. Most bovine intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by the NJC isolates in our study were asymptomatic, and obvious clinical signs were recognized in only the first 3 infected cows. Of a total of 78 cows, 31 cows were MRSA carriers, and these carrier cows were detected by testing the milk of all lactating cows at 1-month intervals. These S. aureus carrier cows were culled or the infected quarter was dried off and no longer milked. Both IMI and mastitis caused by MRSA were completely eradicated after 5 months. Genotyping data suggested that exchanging of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (the determining factor in methicillin resistance) occurred easily between MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus in the udders of carrier cows. This case study demonstrates an effective procedure against the spread of MRSA in a dairy herd, and highlights the risk of emergence of new MRSA strains in a dairy herd.

  5. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ping LI; Hai-jian ZHOU; Lin YUAN; Ting HE; Song-hua HU

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcusaureus recovered from bovine mastitis in Zhejiang Province, China. Out of 3178 quarter milk samples from 846 lactating cows, among which 459 cows (54.3%) were found HMT positive, 890 quarters (28%) were found having subclinical mastitis. From 75 representative S. aureus isolates, 16 distinct types were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Four major PFGE types (A, B, C, and D) accounted for 82.7% of all isolates, and type A (41.3%) was observed in multiple herds across the studied areas. Each region was found to have a predominant type: Hangzhou type A (64.1%), Ningbo type C (34.5%) and type B (23.1%), Jinhua type D (53.3%), and Taizhou type C (62.5%). Results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that 90.7% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Resistance to penicillin and ampicillin (77.3%), tetracycline (60.0%), or erythromycin (48.0%) was observed. The bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin were commonly found. The information obtained from this study is useful for designing specific control programs for bovine S. aureus mastiffs in this region.

  6. Exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells in milk on bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with bacterial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yuya; Kiku, Yoshio; Sugawara, Kazue; Tanabe, Fuyuko; Hayashi, Tomohito

    2017-09-11

    The exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in milk is affected by physiological, breeding and environmental factors. Little is known about the relationship between the MEC exfoliation into milk and mammary-infected Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) load on bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between S. aureus load and the proportion of MEC exfoliation in milk using five substantial bovine mastitis models. In 64 randomly extracted milk samples from udders at 3-21 days after S. aureus infusion, there were various samples with different numbers of S. aureus counts and somatic cell counts. No significant correlations were found between the S. aureus counts and somatic cell count (r = 0.338). In contrast, a significant correlation was noted between S. aureus counts and the proportion of cytokeratin-positive cells in the milk from the infused udders (r = 0.734, P S. aureus may contribute to reduced milk yield. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. A peptide derived from human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) exerts bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical cases of bovine mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for approximately one-third of the clinical cases of bovine mastitis and can elicit a life-threatening, systemic inflammatory response. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a membrane component of all Gram-negative bacteria and is largely responsible for evoking the de...

  8. Contagem de células somáticas e isolamento de agentes causadores de mastite em búfalas (Bubalus bubalis Somatic cell count and mastitis causing pathogens isolation in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was accomplished in eight dairy water buffalo herds, randomically choosen in Região do Alto São Francisco, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Information was collected from March to November, 2003 during 270 days of observation. In order to determine the somatic cell count (SCC in presence or absence of microbial isolation, 1,393 samples were collected from 285 lactating females and microbiological exams and SCC were done. Samples obtained from udders without evidence of clinical or subclinical inflammation showed infection for a great variety of microbial mastitis pathogens. The low SCC did not necessarily indicate the absence of intramammary infection, suggesting that SCC patterns used for bovine cannot be appropriate in order to control mastitis in buffalo herds.

  9. Ultrasonography of the supramammary lymph nodes for diagnosis of bovine chronic subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramian, B; Vajhi, A; Ghasemzadeh-Nava, H; Ahrari-Khafi, M S; Bahonar, A

    2015-01-01

    Currently, somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial culture are considered as the gold standard of detecting subclinical Mastitis. Mastitis leads to proliferation of lymphocytes in the supramammary lymph nodes and subsequent enlargement of ipsilateral lymph node. Ultrasonography can be used to survey these changes. A portable ultrasound machine with a 2-5 MHz convex transducer was used to identify the supramammary lymph node size in 35 cows in a herd with chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. After pre-milking udder preparation, a California mastitis test (CMT) was performed and individual milk samples were taken from each quarter for bacterial culture and somatic cell count (SCC) in accordance with NMC recommendations. The mean length (range 5.77-12.90 cm) and width (range 2.07-7.41 cm) of the lymph node were 9.2 and 4.03 cm, respectively. There was a positive correlation between lymph node size (length and depth) and culture of milk samples on ipsilateral quarters. Also, there was a significant difference correlation between CMT or mean log SCC of each side and size of supramammary lymph node in the same side. This study showed significant changes in supramammary lymph node dimensions in mastitis cases, so ultrasonography of this lymph node is probably a useful method for mastitis detection, especially in situations that test on milk is impossible.

  10. Seven years survey of susceptibility to marbofloxacin of bovine pathogenic strains from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, D; Acar, J-F; Martel, J-L; Kroemer, S; Vallé, M

    2004-09-01

    This study was conducted from 1994 to 2001 to determine the susceptibility of bovine pathogenic bacteria to marbofloxacin (a third generation fluoroquinolone used only in individual administration for animals). Strains originated in bovine diseases from eight European countries. They were isolated from gut infections (Escherichia coli, salmonellae), mastitis (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae) and respiratory diseases (Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus somnus). There was no change in the MIC distributions for each species after the launch of marbofloxacin in 1997. In E. coli, a resistant population was present before the use of marbofloxacin having been induced by co- or cross-resistance to other antibiotics used previously. Over this period the only a significant change seen was an increase in MIC(90) of E. coli from the gut (1.275 microg/ml in 1994/1995 to 5.098 microg/ml in 2001). All the salmonellae were susceptible to marbofloxacin with a MIC(90) = 0.073 microg/ml in 2001 without development of high level resistance. The use of marbofloxacin seems not to have favoured a significant increase and spreading of resistant bacteria.

  11. An outbreak of acute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a dairy herd

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    Silva N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of coliform mastitis is described in a dairy herd from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During a four-month period 14 fatal cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae-related mastitis were observed in a herd of 104 lactating cows. The symptoms included peracute enterotoxemia in which the cows died 6 to 12 h after the detection of mastitis by CMT. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus agalactiae were also isolated although could not be associated with cases of acute fatal mastitis. Milking practices were also evaluated. The milking machine was being used correctly and adequate precautions for hygiene and pre-milking and post-milking teat dipping were used. The organism was sensitive to gentamicin. Therapy for acute toxic mastitis required early action for the treatment of infections, involving corticosteroids and fluid therapy. The use of a Klebsiella vaccine produced from the microorganisms isolated from the herd, associated with hygiene measures, resulted in the control of the outbreak.

  12. Prevalence and etiology of bovine mastitis in the Nova Tebas, Parana

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    Andreia Bittar Saab

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an infection which often commits animals assigned for milk production. It has been the major price raise factor for dairy cattle breeding. Economical losses impact on professional fees, drugs, death and early discard of the animal as well as dairy companies as a result of the downturn in product end-quality, decrease of industrial procedure regarding dairy product manufacturing and changes in mastitic milk composition. Considering the relevance of such disease, this study verifies mastitis prevalence and etiology in the region of Nova Tebas, PR by analyzing 336 lactating dairy cows from 17 farms, totalizing 1324 mammary quarters through CMT, SCS and bacterial isolation. Negative (1120 mammary quarters – 84.6% and positive (204 mammary quarters – 15.4% results for CMT were verified. Among the positive quarters, 155 (75.9% presented bacterial growth – higher prevalence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus – SCN 51 (32.9%, Streptococcus sp. 49 (31.6%; Corynebacterium bovis 19 (12.3%, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus – SCP 19 (12.3%, Gram-negative bacilli (BGN 12 (7.7%, Corynebacterium sp. 3 (1.9%, and Candida sp. 2 (1.2%. Results show that mastitis in the region of Nova Tebas is compatible to those found all over Brazil together with the highest prevalent etiological agents. Such profile of animals with mastitis can be noticed from screening tests used for mastitis such as CMT and SCS.

  13. ETIOLOGY OF THE BOVINE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN GOIÂNIA ETIOLOGIA DA MASTITE CLÍNICA BOVINA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA

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    Paulo César Moreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    There is an estimate that the mastitis in dairy herds causes production losses between 5 and 35%, equivalent from 85 to 500 million dollars per year. 231 milk samples from 231 cows on different stages of lactation, with clinic mastitis, from 35 farms of Goiânia, were analyzed in order to map the pathogens implicated in these process and to discover the microorganisms with major prevalence. All the samples had positive growth. The principal agents were Staphylococcus coagulase positive (32.90%, Streptococcus sp. (22.07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12.12%, Enterobacter sp. (10.38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8.65%, Escherichia coli (8.22%, Bacillus sp. (8.22%, Proteus sp. (6.49%, Klebsiella sp. (4.32% and Staphylococcus coagulase negative (3.46%. The Nocardia genus was isolated in 0.86% of the cases.

    KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; etiology; isolated microorganisms.

    Estima-se que a presença de mastite bovina em rebanhos produtores provoque perdas de produção entre 5 e 35%, o que equivale de 85 a 500 milhões de dólares ao ano. Com o objetivo de mapear os patógenos envolvidos nesse processo e evidenciar os microrganismos com maior freqüência foram examinadas amostras de leite de 231 vacas, em diferentes estágios de lactação, que apresentaram sinais de mastite clínica e eram pertencentes a 35 propriedades rurais da bacia leiteira de Goiânia. Todas as amostras tiveram crescimento bacteriano positivo. Os principais agentes isolados foram o Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (32,90%, Streptococcus sp. (22,07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12,12%, Enterobacter sp. (10,38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8,65%, Escherichia coli (8,22%, Bacillus sp. (8,22%,

  14. Cross-sectional study on bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in Ambo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

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    Edilu J. Sarba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 302 dairy cows were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo district of West Shewa Zone, Oromia region. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis followed by collection of milk sample for examination of gross changes of milk secretion and California mastitis test. Results: About 126 (41.7% cows had mastitis, of which 9.9% (30/302 were clinical and 32.8% (96/302 were subclinical mastitis cases. The quarter level prevalence was 44.4% (536/1208, comprising 9.3% (112/1208, clinical and 32.8% (396/1208 subclinical forms of mastitis. In addition, 5.5% (66/1208 of teats were found to be blind on the clinical examination of udder and teat. The Chi-square analysis of intrinsic risk factors revealed significantly (p<0.05 higher prevalence of mastitis in crossbred cattle (47.2% than indigenous (15.4%, in cattle above 7 years (75% than less than 2-6 years of age (28% and cows given more than 4 calves (81.3% than those with less than 4 calves (31.1% irrespective to their lactation stage. There was also significantly (p<0.05 higher mastitis prevalence in larger (46.6% than smaller herds (24.2% and among the farming systems in semi-intensive (47.1% and intensive (42.3% than extensive (8.1% management system. Conclusion: This study indicated a higher prevalence of mastitis linked with several risk factors. Thus, early diagnosis and regular screening of cows for subclinical mastitis together with proper therapeutic management of clinical cases are of paramount importance. Moreover, control and prevention strategies should be designed and implemented with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food security.

  15. Identification of Diagnostic Protein Markers of Subclinical Mastitis in Bovine Whey Using Comparative Proteomics

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    Bian Yanjie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The proteomics of inflammatory response in whey from cows with subclinical mastitis were analysed. Whey protein lysates were separated on 24 cm dry IPG strips (pH 3-10 linear and 24 cm dry IPG strips (pH 4-7 using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The results indicated that the whey proteins in milk from cows with subclinical mastitis are different from those in milk from healthy cows. All protein spots were found to have biologically relevant changes in relative abundance during subclinical mastitis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, including ß-1,4 galactosyltransferase, ß-2 microglobulin, complement 3, a-1-acid glycoprotein, ß-lactoglobulin A, a-S1 casein precursor, ß-casein B, and serotransferrin precursor. The mRNA expression of these genes was verified by quantitative real-time PCR. These proteins are involved in signal transduction, binding, transport, and immune defence activity. The results suggest that the markers may be used for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis.

  16. Interleukin-6 in quarter milk as a further prediction marker for bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakemi, Yoko; Tamura, Yutaka; Hagiwara, Katsuro

    2011-02-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SM) is a major concern in the dairy industry because it causes economic losses and can lead to clinical mastitis. The mechanisms of the onset and progression of SM are not fully understood, and a new procedure for the detection and appropriate prediction of SM leading to clinical mastitis is necessary for dairy cow management. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 are known to be present in inflamed mammary glands at the onset of mastitis, and IL-6 concentrations correlate with the levels of inflammation. In this study, the detection of IL-6 was examined for the evaluation for the future prediction of SM in 77 quarter milk samples from 20 cows. IL-6 concentrations in quarter milk were measured by sandwich ELISA, and the data were compared with milk somatic cell count (SCC) levels to diagnose SM. Average IL-6 concentration was significantly higher in SM quarter milk (207·0 ± 441·6 pg/ml) than in healthy control quarter milk (12·6 ± 33·4 pg/ml, P<0·01). Results of the cross-tabulation table show that SM prediction accuracy based on IL-6 concentration was almost equal or superior to SM prediction accuracy based on SCC. The detection of IL-6 in milk indicated SM earlier than did the detection of elevated SCC. Thus, the detection of IL-6 in milk could be a future prediction marker for SM.

  17. Investigation of the antibiotic resistance and biofilm-forming ability of Staphylococcus aureus from subclinical bovine mastitis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslantaş, Özkan; Demir, Cemil

    2016-11-01

    A total of 112 Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from subclinical bovine mastitis cases were examined for antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm-forming ability as well as genes responsible for antibiotic resistance, biofilm-forming ability, and adhesin. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates were determined by disk diffusion method. Biofilm forming ability of the isolates were investigated by Congo red agar method, standard tube method, and microplate method. The genes responsible for antibiotic resistance, biofilm-forming ability, and adhesion were examined by PCR. Five isolates (4.5%) were identified as methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus by antibiotic susceptibility testing and confirmed by mecA detection. The resistance rates to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, enrofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were 45.5, 39.3, 33, 26.8, 5.4, 0.9, and 0.9%, respectively. All isolates were susceptible against vancomycin and gentamicin. The blaZ (100%), tetK (67.6%), and ermA (70%) genes were the most common antibiotic-resistance genes. Using Congo red agar, microplate, and standard tube methods, 70.5, 67, and 62.5% of the isolates were found to be biofilm producers, respectively. The percentage rate of icaA, icaD, and bap genes in Staph. aureus isolates were 86.6, 86.6, and 13.4%, respectively. The adhesion molecules fnbA, can, and clfA were detected in 87 (77.7%), 98 (87.5%), and 75 (70%) isolates, respectively. The results indicated that Staph. aureus from sublinical bovine mastitis cases were mainly resistant to β-lactams and, to a lesser extent, to tetracycline and erythromycin. Also, biofilm- and adhesion-related genes, which are increasingly accepted as an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Staph. aureus infections, were detected at a high rate. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas; Sørensen, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus uberis using a stochastic simulation model (SimHerd IV). Mastitis incidences for SimHerd IV were from incidences of mastitis treatments in primiparous Danish Holstein cows calving in 2007. Estimated costs ranged from 149 euro...... goal was identical to selection index 3. Mastitis data from primiparous cows calving from 1998 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic parameters of the mastitis traits using linear models and AI-REML algorithm. These parameters were used for construction of the selection index equations...

  19. Design and characterisation of a polyethylene oxide matrix with the potential use as a teat insert for prevention/treatment of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sushila; Alany, Raid G; Bunt, Craig R; Abdelkader, Hamdy; Rathbone, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript reports (for the first time) on antibiotic-free polymeric inserts for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based inserts were prepared using different concentrations of various hydrophilic polymers and water-soluble and water-insoluble drug-release-modifying excipients. A simple and scalable melt-extrusion method was employed to prepare the inserts. The prepared inserts were characterised for their dimension, rheological and mechanical properties. The in vitro release of a model bacteriostatic drug (salicylic acid) from the prepared inserts was studied to demonstrate the effectiveness and reproducibility of the melt-extrusion manufacturing method. Further, the in vitro stability of the inserts was evaluated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to monitor any change in molecular weight under real-time and accelerated storage conditions. The investigated inserts were stable at accelerated storage conditions over a period of 6 months. PEO inserts have the potential to serve a dual purpose, act as a physical barrier against pathogens invading the teat canal of cows and possibly control the release of a drug.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of 7-Epiclusianone and Its Novel Copper Metal Complex on Streptococcus spp. Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and Their Cytotoxicity in MAC-T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Mariana; Perciano, Pedro Griffo; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; De Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Costa, Éderson D'Martin; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo

    2017-05-17

    Mastitis is an inflammation of mammary gland parenchyma that adversely affects bovine health and dairy production worldwide despite significant efforts to eradicate it. The aim of this work was to characterize the antimicrobial activity of 7-epiclusianone (7-epi), a compound extracted from the Rheedia brasiliensis fruit, its complex with copper against Streptococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis, and to assess their cytotoxicity to bovine mammary alveolar cells (MAC-T). The complex 7-epiclusianone-Cu (7-epi-Cu) was an amorphous green solid with optical activity. Its vibrational spectrum in the infrared region showed absorption bands in the high-frequency region, as well as bands that can be attributed to the unconjugated and conjugated stretching of the free ligand. The complex was anhydrous. One of the tested bacterial strains was not sensitive to the compounds, while the other three had MIC values of 7.8 µg mL(-1) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values between 15.6 and 31.3 µg mL(-1). These two compounds are bacteriostatic, did not cause damage to the cell wall and, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, did not induce bacterial adhesion. The compounds were not cytotoxic. Based on these results, 7-epi and 7-epi-Cu exhibited desirable antimicrobial properties and could potentially be used in bovine mastitis treatment.

  1. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis and correlation to phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artursson, Karin; Söderlund, Robert; Liu, Lihong; Monecke, Stefan; Schelin, Jenny

    2016-09-25

    Reducing the prevalence of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is essential to improve animal health and reduce economic losses for farmers. The clinical outcome of acute mastitis and risk of progression to persistent mastitis can, at least to some extent, be related to genetic variants of the strain causing the infection. In the present study we have used microarrays to investigate the presence of virulence genes in S. aureus isolates from dairy cows with acute clinical mastitis (n=70) and correlated the findings to other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Among the most commonly found virulence factors were genes encoding several hemolysin types, leukocidins D and lukM/lukF-P83, clumping factors A and B, fibrinogen binding protein and fibronectin-binding protein A. Some virulence factors e.g. fibronectin-binding protein B and Staphylococcus aureus surface protein G were less common. Genes coding for several staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) were commonly found, especially in one major pulsotype. No beta-lactamase genes were found in any common pulsotype, while present in some rare pulsotypes, indicated to be of human origin. Production of TSST-1, enterotoxins, hemolysins and beta-lactamase could all be positively correlated to presence of the corresponding genes. This study reveals a number of genotypic differences and similarities among common and rare pulsotypes of S. aureus from cases of mastitis in Sweden. The results could help the design of diagnostic tools to guide on-farm interventions according to the expected impact on udder health from a specific S. aureus genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensor measurements revealed: Predicting the Gram-status of clinical mastitis causal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, C.; Mollenhorst, H.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Automatic milking systems produce mastitis alert lists that report cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). A farmer has to check these listed cows to confirm a CM case and to start an antimicrobial treatment if necessary. In order to make a more informed decision, it would be beneficial to have

  3. Changing trends in mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zadoks RN; Fitzpatrick JL

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of ...

  4. Screening of bovine milk samples for sub-clinical mastitis and antibiogram of bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini H. and Sumathi B.R.

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM and to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms in lactating cows in and around Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara district of Karnataka state. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was assessed by the results of 3 different screening tests and bacteriological evaluation was done for the milk samples that were found positive. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (58% and Escherichia coli (23.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8%, Streptococcus sp. (5.5%, Klebsiella sp. (3% and Bacillus sp. (2%. The in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity for ciprofloxacin (89%, ofloxacin (85%, enrofloxacin (82%, gentamicin (80% and chloramphenicol (75%, resistant to colistin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 358-359

  5. Genotypes, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis from Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Memon§, Yongchun Yang§, Jam Kashifa, Muhammad Yaqoob, Rehana Buriroa, Jamila Soomroa, Wang Liping and Fan Hongjie*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the genotypes, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance traits of 34 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical mastitis in Eastern China. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC results showed resistance to erythromycin in all isolates. A high frequency of Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA; 29% was observed and these isolates were also highly resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol than methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA isolates. Thirteen pathogenic factors and seven resistance genes including mecA and blaZ gene were checked through PCR. The spaX gene was found in all isolates, whereas cna, spaIg, nuc, clfA, fnbpB, hlA, hlB and seA were present in 35, 79, 85, 59, 35, 85, 71 and 38% isolates, respectively. Nine isolates carried a group of 8 different virulence genes. Moreover, macrolide resistance genes ermB and ermC were present in all isolates. High resistance rate against methicillin was found but no isolate was positive for mecA gene, whereas blaZ and tetK were detected in 82 and 56% isolates, respectively. Genes; fnbpA, seB, seC, seD, dfrK and tetM were not found in any isolate. The statistical association between phenotypic resistance and virulence genes showed, clfA, fnbpB, hlB and seA, were potentially associated with penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, methicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline resistance (P≤0.05. REP-PCR based genotyping showed seven distinct genotypes (A-G prevalent in this region. This study reports the presence of multidrug resistant S. aureus in sub-clinical mastitis which were also highly virulent that could be a major obstacle in the treatment of mastitis in this region of China.

  6. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  7. Evaluation of a novel chemical sensor system to detect clinical mastitis in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, Toby; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Legin, Andrey; Fitzpatrick, Julie L; Eckersall, P David

    2007-05-15

    Automatic detection of clinical mastitis is an essential part of high performance and robotic milking. Currently available technology (conductivity monitoring) is unable to achieve acceptable specificity or sensitivity of detection of clinical mastitis or other clinical diseases. Arrays of sensors with high cross-sensitivity have been successfully applied for recognition and quantitative analysis of other multicomponent liquids. An experiment was conducted to determine whether a multisensor system ("electronic tongue") based on an array of chemical sensors and suitable data processing could be used to discriminate between milk secretions from infected and healthy glands. Measurements were made with a multisensor system of milk samples from two different farms in two experiments. A total of 67 samples of milk from both mastitic and healthy glands were in two sets. It was demonstrated that the multisensor system could distinguish between control and clinically mastitic milk samples (p=0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the sensor system (93 and 96% correspondingly) showed an improvement over conductivity (56 and 82% correspondingly). The multisensor system offers a novel method of improving mastitis detection.

  8. Evaluation of biofilm formation using milk in a flow cell model and microarray characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snel, G G M; Malvisi, M; Pilla, R; Piccinini, R

    2014-12-05

    It was hypothesized that biofilm could play an important role in the establishment of chronic Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis. The in vitro evaluation of biofilm formation can be performed either in closed/static or in flow-based systems. Efforts have been made to characterize the biofilm-forming ability of S. aureus mastitis isolates, however most authors used static systems and matrices other than UHT milk. It is not clear whether such results could be extrapolated to the mammary gland environment. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the biofilm-forming ability of S. aureus strains from subclinical bovine mastitis using the static method and a flow-based one. One hundred and twelve strains were tested by the classic tissue culture plate assay (TCP) and 30 out of them were also tested by a dynamic semi-quantitative assay using commercial UHT milk as culture medium (Milk Flow Culture, MFC) or Tryptic Soy Broth as control medium (TS Flow Culture, TSFC). Only 6 (20%) strains formed biofilm in milk under flow conditions, while 36.6% were considered biofilm-producers in TCP, and 93.3% produced biofilm in TSFC. No agreement was found between TCP, MFC and TSFC results. The association between strain genetic profile, determined by microarray, and biofilm-forming ability in milk was evaluated. Biofilm formation in MFC was significantly associated with the presence of those genes commonly found in bovine-associated strains, assigned to clonal complexes typically detected in mastitis. Based on our results, biofilm-forming potential of bovine strains should be critically analysed and tested applying conditions similar to mammary environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-sectional study on bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in Ambo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarba, Edilu J.; Tola, Getachew K.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 302 dairy cows were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo district of West Shewa Zone, Oromia region. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis followed by collection of milk sample for examination of gross changes of milk secretion and California mastitis test. Result: About 126 (41.7%) cows had mastitis, of which 9.9% (30/302) were clinical and 32.8% (96/302) were subclinical mastitis cases. The quarter level prevalence was 44.4% (536/1208), comprising 9.3% (112/1208), clinical and 32.8% (396/1208) subclinical forms of mastitis. In addition, 5.5% (66/1208) of teats were found to be blind on the clinical examination of udder and teat. The Chi-square analysis of intrinsic risk factors revealed significantly (pmastitis in crossbred cattle (47.2%) than indigenous (15.4%), in cattle above 7 years (75%) than less than 2-6 years of age (28%) and cows given more than 4 calves (81.3%) than those with less than 4 calves (31.1%) irrespective to their lactation stage. There was also significantly (pmastitis prevalence in larger (46.6%) than smaller herds (24.2%) and among the farming systems in semi-intensive (47.1%) and intensive (42.3%) than extensive (8.1%) management system. Conclusion: This study indicated a higher prevalence of mastitis linked with several risk factors. Thus, early diagnosis and regular screening of cows for subclinical mastitis together with proper therapeutic management of clinical cases are of paramount importance. Moreover, control and prevention strategies should be designed and implemented with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food security. PMID:28507411

  10. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and Close Human Contacts in South African Dairy Herds: Genetic Diversity and Inter-Species Host Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tracy; Kock, Marleen M.; Ehlers, Marthie M.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of contagious bovine mastitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize a collection of S. aureus isolates (bovine = 146, human = 12) recovered from cases of bovine mastitis and nasal swabs of close human contacts in the dairy environment. Isolates were screened for a combination of clinically significant antimicrobial and virulence gene markers whilst the molecular epidemiology of these isolates and possible inter-species host transmission was investigated using a combination of genotyping techniques. None of the isolates under evaluation tested positive for methicillin or vancomycin resistance encoding genes. Twenty seven percent of the bovine S. aureus isolates tested positive for one or more of the pyrogenic toxin superantigen (PTSAg) genes with the sec and sell genes predominating. Comparatively, 83% of the human S. aureus isolates tested positive for one or more PTSAg genes with a greater variety of genes being detected. Genomic DNA macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of the bovine isolates generated 58 electrophoretic patterns which grouped into 10 pulsotypes at an 80% similarity level. The majority of the bovine isolates, 93.2% (136/146), clustered into four major pulsotypes. Seven sequence types (ST) were identified among the representative bovine S. aureus isolates genotyped, including: ST8 (CC8), ST97 (CC97), ST351 (CC705), ST352 (CC97), ST508 (CC45), ST2992 (CC97) and a novel sequence type, ST3538 (CC97). Based on PFGE analysis, greater genetic diversity was observed among the human S. aureus isolates. Bovine and human isolates from three sampling sites clustered together and were genotypically indistinguishable. Two of the isolates, ST97 and ST352 belong to the common bovine lineage CC97, and their isolation from close human contacts suggests zoonotic transfer. In the context of this study, the third isolate, ST8 (CC8), is

  11. An alternative experimental case-control design for genetic association studies on bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffani, S; Del Corvo, M; Capoferri, R; Pedretti, A; Luini, M; Williams, J L; Pagnacco, G; Minvielle, F; Minozzi, G

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of using genetic control strategies to increase disease resistance to infectious diseases relies on the identification of markers to include in the breeding plans. Possible incomplete exposure of mastitis-free (control) animals, however, is a major issue to find relevant markers in genetic association studies for infectious diseases. Usually, designs based on elite dairy sires are used in association studies, but an epidemiological case-control strategy, based on cows repeatedly field-tested could be an alternative for disease traits. To test this hypothesis, genetic association results obtained in the present work from a cohort of Italian Holstein cows tested for mastitis over time were compared with those from a previous genome-wide scan on Italian Holstein sires genotyped with 50k single nucleotide polymorphisms for de-regressed estimated breeding values for somatic cell counts (SCCs) on Bos taurus autosome (BTA6) and BTA14. A total of 1121 cows were selected for the case-control approach (cases=550, controls=571), on a combination of herd level of SCC incidence and of within herd individual level of SCC. The association study was conducted on nine previously identified markers, six on BTA6 and four on BTA14, using the R statistical environment with the 'qtscore' function of the GenABEL package, on high/low adjusted linear score as a binomial trait. The results obtained in the cow cohort selected on epidemiological information were in agreement with those obtained from the previous sire genome-wide association study (GWAS). Six out of the nine markers showed significant association, four on BTA14 (rs109146371, rs109234250, rs109421300, rs109162116) and two on BTA6 (rs110527224 and rs42766480). Most importantly, using mastitis as a case study, the current work further validated the alternative use of historical field disease data in case-control designs for genetic analysis of infectious diseases in livestock.

  12. Comparative activity and mechanism of action of three types of bovine antimicrobial peptides against pathogenic Prototheca spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasinsig, Linda; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Scarsini, Michele; Guida, Filomena; Piccinini, Renata; Tossi, Alessandro; Zanetti, Margherita

    2012-02-01

    The yeast-like algae of the genus Prototheca are ubiquitous saprophytes causing infections in immunocompromised patients and granulomatous mastitis in cattle. Few available therapies and the rapid spread of resistant strains worldwide support the need for novel drugs against protothecosis. Host defence antimicrobial peptides inactivate a wide array of pathogens and are a rich source of leads, with the advantage of being largely unaffected by microbial resistance mechanisms. Three structurally diverse bovine peptides [BMAP-28, Bac5 and lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP)] have thus been tested for their capacity to inactivate Prototheca spp. In minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays, they were all effective in the micromolar range against clinical mastitis isolates as well as a Prototheca wickerhamii reference strain. BMAP-28 sterilized Prototheca cultures within 30-60 min at its MIC, induced cell permeabilization with near 100% release of cellular adenosine triphosphate and resulted in extensive surface blebbing and release of intracellular material as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Bac5 and LAP inactivated Prototheca following 3-6 h incubation at fourfold their MIC and did not result in detectable surface damage despite 70-90% killing, suggesting they act via non-lytic mechanisms. In circular dichroism studies, the conformation of BMAP-28, but not that of Bac5 or LAP, was affected by interaction with liposomes mimicking algal membranes. Our results indicate that BMAP-28, Bac5 and LAP kill Prototheca with distinct potencies, killing kinetics, and modes of action and may be appropriate for protothecal mastitis treatment. In addition, the ability of Bac5 and LAP to act via non-lytic mechanisms may be exploited for the development of target-selective drugs.

  13. SpA, ClfA, and FnbA Genetic Variations Lead to Staphaurex Test-Negative Phenotypes in Bovine Mastitis Staphylococcus aureus Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Katrin; Stephan, Roger; Tasara, Taurai

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus encodes many proteins that act as virulence factors, leading to a variety of diseases, including mastitis in cows. Among these virulence factors, SpA, ClfA, ClfB, FnbA, and FnbB are important for the ability of S. aureus to adhere to and invade host cells as well as to evade host immune responses. The interaction between these S. aureus surface proteins and human immunoglobulin G and fibrinogen that are coupled to latex particles is utilized to induce latex agglutination reactions, which are used widely in diagnostic kits for confirmation of presumptive S. aureus isolates. In this study, the Staphaurex latex agglutination test was performed on a collection of confirmed bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates. Notably, 54% (43/79 isolates) of these isolates exhibited latex agglutination-negative phenotypes (Staphaurex-negative result). To gain insights into the reasons for the high frequency of Staphaurex-negative bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates, the spa, clfA, clfB, fnbA, and fnbB genes were examined. Specific genetic changes in spa, clfA, and fnbA, as well as a loss of fnbB, which may impair SpA, ClfA, FnbA, and FnbB functions in latex agglutination reactions, were detected in Staphaurex-negative S. aureus isolates. The genetic changes included a premature stop codon in the spa gene, leading to a truncated SpA protein that is unable to participate in S. aureus cell-mediated agglutination of latex particles. In addition, clfA and fnbA genetic polymorphisms were detected that were linked to ClfA and FnbA amino acid changes that may significantly reduce fibrinogen-binding activity. The genetic variations in these S. aureus isolates might also have implications for their bovine mastitis virulence capacity. PMID:21147952

  14. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. and risk factors associated with bovine mastitis in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina C. Krewer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study the etiology of mastitis, determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. and to identify the risk factors associated with infection in dairy cows in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco, Brazil. From the 2,064 milk samples analyzed, 2.6% were associated with cases of clinical mastitis and 28.2% with subclinical mastitis. In the microbiological culture, Staphylococcus spp. (49.1% and Corynebacterium spp. (35.3% were the main agents found, followed by Prototheca spp. (4.6% and Gram negative bacilli (3.6%. In the antimicrobial susceptibility testing, all 218 Staphylococcus spp. were susceptible to rifampicin and the least effective drug was amoxicillin (32.6%. Multidrug resistance to three or more drugs was observed in 65.6% of Staphylococcus spp. The risk factors identified for mastitis were the extensive production system, not providing feed supplements, teat drying process, not disinfecting the teats before and after milking, and inadequate hygiene habits of the milking workers. The presence of multiresistant isolates in bovine milk demonstrates the importance of the choice and appropriate use of antimicrobial agents. Prophylactic and control measures, including teat antisepsis and best practices for achieving hygienic milking should be established in order to prevent new cases of the disease in herds.

  15. Correlation between mastitis occurrence and the count of microorganisms in bulk raw milk of bovine dairy herds in four selective culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Luís I M; Minagawa, Clarice Y; Telles, Evelise O; Garbuglio, Márcio A; Amaku, Marcos; Melville, Priscilla A; Dias, Ricardo A; Sakata, Sonia T; Benites, Nilson R

    2010-02-01

    Milk is the normal secretion of the mammary gland, practically free of colostrum and obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy animals. Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the mammary gland and it may cause alterations in the milk. The present work aimed to verify whether it is possible, by means of the counts of microorganism in the bulk raw milk in four selective culture media, to establish a correlation with the occurrence of mastitis and therefore, to monitor this disease in bovine dairy herds. The following selective culture media were used: KF Streptococcus Agar, Edwards Agar, Baird-Parker Agar, Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated in order to compare the occurrence of mastitis (percentage) in each herd with respective selective culture media counts of microorganisms in bulk raw milk. Thirty-six possibilities were analysed (Tamis and CMT-positive rates were compared with the log-transformed count in four selective culture media) and there was a negative correlation between Tamis 3 and the Baird-Parker Agar plate count. The total results of microbiological tests showed that there were three correlations of the counts in selective culture media. Fifty-two possibilities were analysed and there was a negative correlation between no-bacterial-growth mastitis rates and log10 of KF Streptoccocus Agar plate count and there were two positive correlations between coagulase-positive staphylococci and log10 of Baird-Parker Agar plate count and Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite plate count.

  16. Pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis in Flemish dairy herds, severity, and association with herd hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Joren; Piepers, Sofie; Supré, Karlien; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2014-11-01

    A one-year survey on clinical mastitis was conducted on 50 randomly selected commercial Flemish dairy herds to estimate the pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM). The severity of the cases and the potential associations with herd hygiene were studied. Participating producers sampled 845 cases and 692 dairy cows. The mean and median IRCM was estimated at 7.4 and 5.3 quarter cases per 10,000 cow-days at risk, respectively. A large between-herd variation was observed (range of 0-21.3). In general, the IRCM was lower in heifers compared with multiparous cows (2.9 vs. 11.0 quarter cases per 10,000 cow-days at risk). However, the overall IRCM in the first week after calving was higher in heifers compared with cows (43.4 vs. 31.6 quarter cases per 10,000 cow-days at risk). Streptococcus uberis (18.2% of the cases) and Escherichia coli (15.5%) were the most frequently isolated pathogens and no growth was observed in 19.9% of the cases. The majority of the cases (63.1%) were mild (only clots in milk). Moderate (hard quarter without general signs) and severe symptoms (systemic illness) were observed in 29.9 and 7.0% of the cases, respectively. Isolation of E. coli (vs. any other culture result) was more likely in moderate and severe cases compared with mild cases. Overall IRCM and E. coli IRCM were higher in dirty compared with clean herds based on udder hygiene scores (9.0 and 1.7 vs. 6.0 and 0.6 quarter cases per 10,000 cow-days at risk, respectively). This study broadens the knowledge on clinical mastitis in Flemish dairy herds and underlines the high risk of CM in early-lactation heifers, the role of the so-called environmental pathogens, and herd hygiene.

  17. Detection and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli CTX-M-15 and Klebsiella pneumoniae SHV-12 β-lactamases from bovine mastitis isolates in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofte, Dorina; Maciuca, Iuliana E; Evans, Nicholas J; Williams, Helen; Wattret, Andrew; Fick, Jenny C; Williams, Nicola J

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports raised concerns about the role that farm stock may play in the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. This study characterized the ESBLs in two Escherichia coli and three Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates from cases of clinical bovine mastitis in the United Kingdom. Bacterial culture and sensitivity testing of bovine mastitic milk samples identified Gram-negative cefpodoxime-resistant isolates, which were assessed for their ESBL phenotypes. Conjugation experiments and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) were used for characterization of transferable plasmids. E. coli isolates belonged to sequence type 88 (ST88; determined by multilocus sequence typing) and carried blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1, while K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates carried blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1 were carried on a conjugative plasmid in E. coli, and PBRT identified this to be an IncI1 plasmid. The resistance genes were nontransferable in K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates. Moreover, in the E. coli isolates, an association of ISEcp1 and IS26 with blaCTX-M-15 was found where the IS26 element was inserted upstream of both ISEcp1 and the blaCTX-M promoter, a genetic arrangement highly similar to that described in some United Kingdom human isolates. We report the first cases in Europe of bovine mastitis due to E. coli CTX-M-15 and also of bovine mastitis due to K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae SHV-12 β-lactamases in the United Kingdom. We also describe the genetic environment of blaCTX-M-15 and highlight the role that IncI1 plasmids may play in the spread and dissemination of ESBL genes, which have been described in both human and cattle isolates.

  18. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Subclinical Mastitis in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beytullah Kenar*, Yahya Kuyucuoğlu and Esra Şeker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 572 California Mastitis Test (CMT positive milk samples were collected from 423 lactating cows on 18 private farms in the Middle Western Anatolia. Coagulase–negative staphylococci colonies and CNS species identification was performed based on conventional biochemical techniques and using the API Staph test. Slime production was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines (NCCLS. A total of 67 (11.7% coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were isolated from CMT positive milk samples. In total, 11 CNS species: S. epidermidis (n=18, S. simulans (n=14, S. warneri (n=10, S. hominis (n=5, S. chromogenes (n=4, S. caprae (n=4, S. xylosus (n=3, S. haemolyticus (n=3, S. hyicus (n=3, S. cohnii (n=2, and S. capitis (n=1 were identified. The most commonly identified CNS species were Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.8% and Staphylococcus simulans (20.8% followed by Staphylococcus warneri (14.9%. Out of 67 CNS isolates, slime production was found in 37 (55.2% CNS strains. CNS isolates were the most resistance to trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole (76.2%, erythromycin (73.2%, oxacillin and ampicillin (70.2% followed by penicillin (58.3%, gentamicin (53.8%, tetracycline (52.3%, vancomycin (51.8%, ciprofloxacin (26.9%, cefoxitim (23.9%, and cephalothin (13.5%. These results indicate that CNS species are resistant at high rates to the beta-lactam antibiotics which are intensively used in the prevention and treatment of mastitis without any antibiotic susceptibility test in the Middle Western of Turkey.

  19. Virulence factors analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Franco G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 117 aislados bacterianos obtenidos de casos de mastitis bovina positivos a las pruebas de catalasa, coagulasa, termonucleasa, manitol y PCR fueron analizados para determinar la producción de los siguientes factores de virulencia: hemolisisnas (alfa y beta, factor de agregación y cápsula. Adicionalmente fue también evaluada la sensibilidad a oxitetraciclina, penicilina, oxacilina y estreptomicina. La producción de hemolisinas y el factor de agregación fueron los 2 factores de virulencia expresados en la mayoría de los aislados (78% y (83% respectivamente, mientras que la formación de cápsula se detectó en 31% de los aislados bovinos. Una fuerte correlación entre ausencia de cápsula y producción de hemolisinas fue observado, ya que 72 de un total de 92 cepas hemolíticas no mostraron cápsula. La ausencia de cápsula fue asociada a la producción del factor de agregación en 89% de los aislados bacterianos positivos a este factor. El 68% y 69% de los aislados bacterianos resultaron positivos a penicilina y oxacilina respectivamente. La mayoría de los aislados (116 expresaron al menos 1 factor de virulencia (hemolisinas, cápsula o factor de agregación. Finalmente, el papel de los factores de virulencia y su relación en la patogenicidad de S. aureus en la mastitis bovina en México es discutido.

  20. Impact of intramammary treatment on gene expression profiles in bovine Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Sipka

    Full Text Available Clinical mastitis caused by E. coli accounts for significant production losses and animal welfare concerns on dairy farms worldwide. The benefits of therapeutic intervention in mild to moderate cases are incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of intramammary treatment with cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone on gene expression profiles in experimentally-induced E. coli mastitis in six mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were challenged with E. coli in 3 quarters and received 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin in one quarter and 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin together with 20 mg prednisolone in another quarter. At 24 h (n = 3 or 48 h (n = 3 post-challenge, tissue samples from control and treated quarters were collected for microarray analysis. Gene expression analysis of challenged, un-treated quarters revealed an up-regulation of transcripts associated with immune response functions compared to un-challenged quarters. Both treatments resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts compared to challenged, un-treated quarters most prominently for genes representing Chemokine and TLR-signaling pathways. Gene expression of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP, CCL2 and CXCL2 were only significantly down-regulated in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters compared to un-treated controls. Down-regulation of chemokines was further confirmed on the basis of protein levels in milk whey for CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8 in both treatments with a greater decrease in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters. The data reveal a significant effect of treatment on cell recruitment with a more pronounced effect in cefapirin-prednisolone treated quarters. Provided a rapid bacteriological clearance, combination therapy may prevent neutrophil-induced tissue damage and promote recovery of the gland.

  1. Evidence of no protection for a recurrent case of pathogen specific clinical mastitis from a previous case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Elva; Hertl, Julia; Schukken, Ynte; Tauer, Loren; Welcome, Frank; Gröhn, Yrjö

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the occurrence of a previous case of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) protects Holstein dairy cows against a recurrent case. Pathogens studied were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trueperella pyogenes. A total of 40 864 lactations (17,265 primiparous and 23,599 multiparous) from 19 835 cows from 5 large, high milk producing New York State dairy herds were analysed. We estimated the effects of parity, calving diseases, milk yield, current season and number of CM cases in the previous lactation on the risk of a first CM case using generalised linear mixed models with a log link and Poisson error distribution. The aforementioned risk factors and the occurrence of previous cases of pathogen-specific CM within the current lactation were evaluated as risks for second and third cases of pathogen-specific CM. Cows with more CM cases in the previous lactation were at greater risk of pathogen-specific CM in the current lactation. Multiparous cows were at greater risk of a second CM case if they had suffered from a first CM case that was caused by the same pathogen as the second case. In contrast, a second CM case generally put cows at greater risk of a third case, irrespective of whether the third case was caused by the same or a different pathogen. Our results showed that a previous case of pathogen specific CM does not generally protect against a recurrent case.

  2. Occurrence of genes coding for MSCRAMM and biofilm-associated protein Bap in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis and relationship with somatic cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla A; Saidenberg, André B S; Laes, Marco A; Gonsales, Fernanda F; Salaberry, Sandra R S; Gregori, Fabio; Brandão, Paulo E; dos Santos, Franklin G B; Lincopan, Nilton E; Benites, Nilson R

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate aspects of the epidemiology of bovine subclinical mastitis through the assessment of genes encoding MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules - a group of adhesins) and protein Bap (implicated in biofilm formation), in coagulase-positive (CPS) and coagulase-negative (CNS) Staphylococcus isolated from subclinical mastitis. Milk samples were collected for microbiological exams, somatic cell count (SCC) and a survey of the genes coding for MSCRAMM (cna, eno, ebpS, fnbA, fnbB and fib) and biofilm-associated protein Bap (bap) in 106 Staphylococcus spp. isolates using PCR. The frequencies of occurrence of eno (82.1%), fnbA (72.6%), fib (71.7%) and bap (56.6%) were higher (P Staphylococcus without the assessed genes (P < 0.05) and negative samples (P < 0.01), which indicated that the presence of these MSCRAMM may be related to a higher intensity of the inflammatory process.

  3. Occurrence of enterotoxin genes and macrorestriction analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis and bulk-tank milk samples in Italy. An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to genotypically compare S. aureus isolates from mastitis milk and raw milk to identify therelation between strains and to assess the enterotoxigenicity of the isolates. Eighty-three Staphylococcus aureus isolatesrecovered from cows and bulk tank milk of five farms in northern Italy were compared genotypically. The genes for theenterotoxins A, D, G and I, but not for B, C, E and H and the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, were detected byPCR amplification. Macrorestriction analysis with the restrictions enzyme SmaI revealed 14 pulsed-field gel electrophoresispatterns. These were in part different from each other only in a few fragments and thus displayed a closeclonal relation. The results of the present investigation showed that identical or closely related clones seemed to beresponsible for the cases of bovine mastitis in the farms investigated and partly responsible for contamination of bulktank milk.

  4. The effects of Brazilian propolis on etiological agents of mastitis and the viability of bovine mammary gland explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiordalisi, Samira A L; Honorato, Luciana A; Loiko, Márcia R; Avancini, César A M; Veleirinho, Maria B R; Machado Filho, Luiz C P; Kuhnen, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of Brazilian propolis from Urupema, São Joaquim, and Agua Doce (Santa Catarina State) and green propolis from Minas Gerais State, and the effects of propolis on bovine mammary gland explant viability. The propolis samples differed in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Green propolis showed the highest content of flavonoids, followed by the sample from São Joaquim. The propolis from Urupema showed the lowest flavonoid content along with the lowest antioxidant activity. The total phenolics were similar across all studied samples. Despite phytochemical differences, the propolis samples from Minas Gerais, São Joaquim, and Urupema presented the same level of antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains. The reduction in S. aureus growth was, on average, 1.5 and 4 log10 times at 200 and 500 μg/mL, respectively. At concentrations of 1,000 μg/mL, all propolis reduced bacterial growth to zero. On the other hand, when the propolis were tested against strains of Escherichia coli, the samples presented weak antimicrobial activity. Mammary explants were maintained in culture for 96h without a loss in viability, demonstrating the applicability of the model in evaluating the toxicity of propolis. The origin and chemical composition of the propolis had an effect on mammary explant viability. We encountered inhibitory concentrations of 272.4, 171.8, 63.85, and 13.26 μg/mL for the propolis from Água Doce, Urupema, São Joaquim, and Mina Gerais, respectively. A clear association between greater antimicrobial activity and toxicity for mammary explants was observed. Of all propolis tested, the Urupema sample was noteworthy, as it showed antimicrobial activity at less toxic concentrations than the other samples, reducing bacterial growth to an average of 9.3 × 10(2) cfu/mL after 6h of contact using 200 μg/mL of extract. The results demonstrate the potential for Brazilian

  5. Preventing bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing acidified sodium chlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerton, J E; Cooper, J; Morelli, J

    2007-03-01

    A split-herd study was performed to determine if an acidified, sodium chlorite teat disinfectant, UDDERgold Platinum Germicidal Barrier Teat Dip (UG Pt, Ecolab Inc., Redmond, WA), was effective in preventing new intramammary infections (IMI) in lactating dairy cows compared with a licensed, iodophor teat disinfectant (Iosan, Novartis Animal Health, Ltd., Whittlesford, UK), and to show that the test product was tolerated equally well by teat skin. The study lasted 114 d and covered all weather conditions. The teats of 176 cows were dipped after each milking in UG Pt and the teats of 172 cows were dipped in Iosan, the positive-control product. Routine milk samples were taken from each quarter of every cow every 4 wk. Additional samples were taken from newly calved cows joining the trial and from cows with clinical signs of mastitis. Milk samples were cultured for the presence of bacteria and the cause of clinical mastitis. Each quarter was eligible for only 1 infection during the trial. The number of clinical cases was identical in each group (n = 13) and the number of subclinical infections was slightly lower in the UG Pt group than in the Iosan group (n = 27 and 31, respectively). These rates of infection suggest that the products did not differ in their ability to prevent a new IMI. At least 203 cows were assessed for skin integrity before the start of the trial and every 28 d throughout. The UG Pt teat dip had no adverse effects on teat condition. The prevalence of hyperkeratosis did not change with time for both groups (0.90 +/- 1.08 and 0.95 +/- 1.06 at wk 0 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.87 and 0.49 +/- 0.74 at wk 16 for fore and hind teats, respectively, for UG Pt and 1.02 +/- 1.25 and 1.16 +/- 1.11 at wk 0 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.71 and 0.45 +/- 0.65 at wk 16, respectively, for Iosan); no redness of the skin was observed in either group. Application of recommended statistical methods to demonstrate noninferiority was problematic.

  6. Lysis of mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cow milk samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... antibiotics in dairy herds for mastitis treatment can lead to both antimicrobial .... centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 15 min at 4°C to remove the supernatant. .... recombinant lysostaphin (rLYS) was determined using the micro.

  7. Staphylococcal aureus Enterotoxin C and Enterotoxin-Like L Associated with Post-partum Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina Træholt; Gumpert, Heidi; Olesen, Bente;

    2017-01-01

    between isolates from the two outbreaks revealed a S. aureus pathogenicity island containing enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L only in isolates from outbreak 2. Enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L carrying S. aureus are associated with bovine mastitis and our findings indicate that these may also...

  8. Characterization of resistance to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides of sheep mastitis pathogens: study of the effect of gene content on resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollai, S A; Ziccheddu, M; Duprè, I; Piras, D

    2016-10-01

    Mastitis causes economic losses and antimicrobials are frequently used for mastitis treatment. Antimicrobial resistance surveys are still rare in the ovine field and characterization of strains is important in order to acquire information about resistance and for optimization of therapy. Bacterial pathogens recovered in milk samples from mastitis-affected ewes were characterized for resistance to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides, members of which are frequently used antimicrobials in small ruminants. A total of 185 strains of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, common mastitis pathogens, were tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and for resistance genes by PCR. Effects of different tet genes arrangements on MICs were also investigated. Staphylococci expressed the lowest MIC for tetracycline and tet(K) was the most common gene recovered; tet(M) and tet(O) were also found. Gene content was shown to influence the tetracycline MIC values. Enterococci and streptococci showed higher MICs to tetracyclines and nonsusceptible strains always harboured at least one ribosomal protection gene (MIC above 8 μg ml(-1) ). Streptococci often harboured two or more tet determinants. As regards the resistance to aminoglycosides, staphylococci showed the lowest gentamicin and kanamycin median MIC along with streptomycin high level resistant (HLR) strains (MIC >1024 μg ml(-1) ) all harbouring str gene. The resistance determinant aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia was present in few strains. Streptococci were basically nonsusceptible to aminoglycosides but neither HLR isolates nor resistance genes were detected. Enterococci revealed the highest MICs for gentamicin; two str harbouring isolates were shown to be HLR to streptomycin. Evidence was obtained for the circulation of antimicrobial-resistant strains and genes in sheep dairy farming. Tetracycline MIC of 64 μg ml(-1) and high

  9. Geographical variation in the presence of genes encoding superantigenic exotoxins and beta-hemolysin among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H. D.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.

    2002-01-01

    for the presence of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, and H, toxic shock toxin-1 (TSST-1), and beta-hemolysin, and 128 of these were examined for exfoliative toxins A and B. The detection was done by PCR. Phenotypic methods were used to confirm the PCR-results. None of the 128 isolates carried...... for the individual exotoxins. The genes encoding enterotoxin C, TSST-1, and enterotoxin D were the most common superantigens. The present and earlier studies demonstrate that the superantigenic exotoxins that were investigated in this study, do not play a role in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus mastitis...

  10. Prevalence of 16S rRNA Methylase Gene rmtB Among Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Ningxia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting; He, Tao; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Jin-Bao; Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Rong-Ming; Wang, Gui-Qin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the prevalence and molecular characterization of 16S rRNA methylase gene, rmtB, among Escherichia coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis in China. A total of 245 E. coli isolates were collected from bovine mastitis in China between 2013 and 2014 and were screened for 16S rRNA methylase genes (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE, and npmA) by polymerase chain reaction. About 5.3% (13/245) of the isolates carried the rmtB gene; the isolates were highly resistant to amikacin. Thirteen rmtB-positive strains were analyzed for the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M), bla(OXA), and bla(SHV)). All the isolates harbored both bla(TEM-1) and bla(CTX-M-15) genes and two of the isolates were also positive for bla(OXA-1). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis indicated that the nine rmtB-positive strains belonging to ST10 from one farm showed the similar PFGE pattern, indicating a clonal expansion in this farm. S1-PFGE and Southern blotting showed that 12 isolates harbored the rmtB gene in plasmids of two different sizes (≈45 kb [n=10] and ≈48 kb [n=2]), while only 1 strain harbored the rmtB gene in the chromosome. These plasmids were transferable by conjugation studies, and two isolates from two respective farms carried the same size of plasmid, suggesting that the horizontal transmission of plasmids also contributed to the spread of rmtB gene. This is the first report of prevalence of the 16S rRNA methylase gene rmtB among E. coli isolated from bovine mastitis in China, and rmtB-carrying E. coli may pose a threat to the treatment of bovine mastitis.

  11. Die Immunantwort boviner und capriner Euterepithelzellen auf verschiedene Mastitiserreger

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Infections of the bovine mammary gland are, in addition to the affliction of the animals, a great economic burden in the dairy industry. A better understanding of the innate immune response of the host could lead to a better selection of mastitis resistant cows or to better prophylactic and therapeutical treatments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the epithelial cells into the outcome of mastitis induced by different pathogens. Primary epithelial cell ...

  12. Bovine mastitis: prevalence, risk factors and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy herds at Hawassa milk shed, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Rahmeto; Hatiya, Hagere; Abera, Mesele; Megersa, Bekele; Asmare, Kassahun

    2016-12-03

    Mastitis is a disease of major economic importance in dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries like Ethiopia, where milk and milk products are scarce. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of mastitis, identify the cow-and herd-level potential risk factors and isolate Staphylococcus aureus, one of etiological agents for contagious mastitis, from cows positive for mastitis. A total of 529 lactating cows selected randomly from 95 herds were screened by California mastitis test (CMT) for sub-clinical mastitis. Also 172 milk samples collected from CMT positive cows were cultured for isolation of S. aureus. Based on CMT result and clinical examination, the prevalence of mastitis at herd-level was 74.7% (95% CI: 64.5, 82.8). The corresponding cow-level prevalence was 62.6% (95% CI: 58.3, 66.7), of which 59.2 and 3.4% were sub-clinical and clinical mastitis cases, respectively. S. aureus was isolated from 51.2% of the milk samples cultured and 73.2% of the herds affected with mastitis. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the herd-level factors significantly associated (p mastitis were herd size, bedding material, and milking mastitic cows last, while at cow-level, breed, parity, stage of lactation, udder and leg hygiene, and teat end shape were noted to have a significant effect on mastitis occurrence. The very high prevalence of mastitis, more importantly the sub-clinical one, in the herds examined revealed the huge potential economic loss the sector suffers. Perhaps this was attributed to lack of implementation of the routine mastitis prevention and control practices by all of the herd owners. The findings of this study warrants the need for strategic approach including dairy extension that focus on enhancing dairy farmers' awareness and practice of hygienic milking, regular screening for sub-clinical mastitis, dry cow therapy and culling of chronically infected cows.

  13. Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood samples were collected after confirmation of clinical and subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count and bacterial identification. Serum haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, total sialic acid (TSA, lipid bound sialic acid (LBSA and protein bound sialic acid (PBSA were measured by validated standard methods. Haptoglobin and SAA increased significantly in both types of mastitis compared with control group (P<0.001. However, the ratio of HP/SAA was significantly different from the control group only in clinical mastitis. The results showed that TSA and LBSA were significantly different in control group compared with clinical and subclinical mastitis (P<0.001. Protein bound sialic acid did not change in subclinical mastitis in comparison with control group (P=0.86. There was positive correlation between LBSA and PBSA in clinical mastitis (r=0.72, P=0.02 whereas significant negative correlation was observed between LBSA and PBSA in subclinical mastitis (r=-0.62, P<0.001. Results also showed no correlation between Hp and SAA with each other or with any other parameters in study groups.

  14. Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katholm, Jørgen; Bennedsgaard, T.W.; Koskinen, M.T.;

    2012-01-01

    Results of a commercial real-time PCR analysis for 11 mastitis pathogens from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from all 4,258 Danish dairy herds in November 2009 to January 2010 were compared with somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacteria count (TBC) estimates in BTM. For Streptococcus agalactiae, ...

  15. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol-conjugated bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for reducing the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis in periparturient dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassfurther, Renee L; TerHune, Terry N; Canning, Peter C

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate effects of various doses of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (bG-CSF) on the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis in periparturient dairy cattle. 211 periparturient Holstein cows and heifers. Approximately 7 days before the anticipated date of parturition (day of parturition = day 0), healthy cattle received SC injections of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) or PEG-bG-CSF at 5, 10, or 20 μg/kg. Cattle were commingled and housed in a pen with dirt flooring, which was kept wet to maximize the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis. Within 24 hours after parturition, each animal again received the assigned treatment. Mammary glands and milk were visually scored for abnormalities twice daily for 28 days after parturition. Milk samples were aseptically collected from mammary glands with an abnormal appearance or abnormal milk and submitted for microbial culture. Daily milk production was recorded, and milk composition was assessed on days 3, 5, 7, and 10. Cattle treated with PEG-bG-CSF at 10 and 20 μg/kg had significantly fewer cases of clinical mastitis (9/54 and 5/53, respectively), compared with control cattle (18/53). Administration of PEG -bG-CSF did not significantly affect daily milk production or milk composition. Results suggested that PEG-bG-CSF was effective for reducing the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis in periparturient dairy cattle. Further investigations of the use of PEG-bG-CSF as a potential preventative intervention should be conducted.

  16. Antibacterial susceptibility profiles of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated in Batna and Setif Governorates (East of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamache Bakir

    Full Text Available Sub-clinical mastitis is a main pathology of dairy husbandry because it is not clinically recognized by the owners and the veterinarians. For this reason, its economic loss is usually underestimated in milk production. This study has been undertaken in order to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of sub-clinicalmastitis in Batna and Setif governorates (East of Algeria. For this purpose, a detailed bacteriological study of all bacterial strains isolated from sub-clinical mastitis followed by a study of their antibacterial susceptibility profiles has been undertaken. 89 bacterial strains distributed as follows were studied: 27 strains of staphylococci among which 23 were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS that are generally incriminated in sub-clinical mastitis. 39 strains of streptococci among which 10 were Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis strains. 23 strains of enterobacteria represented mainly by Escherichia coli (E.coli. All these bacterial strains were isolated from cow milk of 3 different farms. The antibacterial susceptibility profiles have revealed a susceptibility of the isolated strains to a large number of antibiotics mainly to the Neomycin, the Cephalexin and the Spiramycin. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 537-541

  17. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  18. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Moatamedi, Azar; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Mirshokraei, Pejhman

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6%) isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  19. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 2. Label-free relative quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaliar, Manikhandan; Tassi, Riccardo; Thomas, Funmilola C; McNeilly, Tom N; Weidt, Stefan K; McLaughlin, Mark; Wilson, David; Burchmore, Richard; Herzyk, Pawel; Eckersall, P David; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2016-08-16

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle in the western world. It is primarily caused by bacteria, with Streptococcus uberis as one of the most prevalent causative agents. To characterize the proteome during Streptococcus uberis mastitis, an experimentally induced model of intramammary infection was used. Milk whey samples obtained from 6 cows at 6 time points were processed using label-free relative quantitative proteomics. This proteomic analysis complements clinical, bacteriological and immunological studies as well as peptidomic and metabolomic analysis of the same challenge model. A total of 2552 non-redundant bovine peptides were identified, and from these, 570 bovine proteins were quantified. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed clear clustering of results by stage of infection, with similarities between pre-infection and resolution stages (0 and 312 h post challenge), early infection stages (36 and 42 h post challenge) and late infection stages (57 and 81 h post challenge). Ingenuity pathway analysis identified upregulation of acute phase protein pathways over the course of infection, with dominance of different acute phase proteins at different time points based on differential expression analysis. Antimicrobial peptides, notably cathelicidins and peptidoglycan recognition protein, were upregulated at all time points post challenge and peaked at 57 h, which coincided with 10 000-fold decrease in average bacterial counts. The integration of clinical, bacteriological, immunological and quantitative proteomics and other-omic data provides a more detailed systems level view of the host response to mastitis than has been achieved previously.

  20. DNA carryover in milk samples from routine milk recording used for PCR-based diagnosis of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    milking order must be considered in mastitis control efforts. We suggest a practical interpretation of PCR results: cows with a Ct-value 37 and 32-37 can be labeled "very likely to be negative for Staph. aureus...

  1. Production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Vanleeuwen, J A; Dohoo, I R; Keefe, G P; Haddad, J P; Tremblay, R; Scott, H M; Whiting, T

    2007-02-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against BLV (IDEXX ELISA; IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME), MAP (IDEXX or Biocor ELISA; Biocor Animal Health, Inc., Omaha, NE), and NC (IDEXX or Biovet ELISA; Biovet Inc., St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada). Up to 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 mo of age were tested for virus-neutralizing antibodies to the Singer strain of type 1 BVDV. Dairy Herd Improvement records were obtained electronically for all sampled cows. Linear mixed models with herd and cow as random variables were fit, with significant restricted maximum likelihood estimates of outcome effects being obtained, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Bovine leukemia virus seropositivity was not associated with 305-d milk, 305-d fat, or 305-d protein production. Cows in BVDV-seropositive herds (at least one unvaccinated animal with a titer > or =1:64) had reductions in 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 368, 10.2, and 9.5 kg, respectively, compared with cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seropositivity was associated with lower 305-d milk of 212 kg in 4+-lactation cows compared with MAP-seronegative 4+-lactation cows. Neospora caninum seropositivity in primiparous cows was associated with lower 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 158, 5.5, and 3.3 kg, respectively, compared with NC-seronegative primiparous cows. There were no interactions among seropositivity for any of the pathogens and their effects on any of the outcomes examined, although the low MAP seroprevalence limited this analysis. Results from this research

  2. Improved rapid and efficient method for Staphylococcus aureus DNA extraction from milk for identification of mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Hirotaka; Inada, Mika; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Hashimoto, Michie; Ito, Keiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Nikaido, Masaru; Hayashi, Tomohito; Hata, Eiji; Katsuda, Ken; Kiku, Yoshio; Tagawa, Yuichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-01

    A rapid and efficient DNA extraction method was developed for detecting mastitis pathogens in milk. The first critical step involved cell wall disruption by bead-beating, as physical disruption using beads was more effective for DNA extraction from Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, than enzymatic disruption using proteinase K. The second critical step involves the use of acetic acid and ammonium sulfate in the purification process, as these reagents effectively and efficiently remove the lipids and proteins in milk. Using these methods, DNA suitable for loop-mediated isothermal amplification was obtained within 30 min. Also, the rapid and sensitive detection of S. aureus in milk was possible at levels as low as 200 cfu/ml.

  3. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Anderson, Mark L.; McEligot, Heather A.; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Neibergs, Holly L.; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  4. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  5. Genotypic to expression profiling of bovine calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha-2/delta subunit 1 gene, and their association with bovine mastitis among Frieswal (HFX Sahiwal) crossbred cattle of Indian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Rani; Sengar, Gyanendra; Mann, Sandeep; Sharma, Arjava

    2014-04-01

    Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha-2/delta subunit 1 (CACNA2D1) gene is considered to be an important noncytokine candidate gene influencing mastitis. Scanty of reports are available until today regarding the role play of CACNA2D1 gene on the susceptibility of bovine mastitis. We interrogated the CACNA2D1 G519663A [A>G] SNP by PCR-RFLP among two hundreds Frieswal (HF X Sahiwal) crossbred cattle of Indian origin. Genotypic frequency of AA (51.5, n=101) was comparatively higher than AG (35, n=70) and GG (14.5, n=29). Association of Somatic cell score (SCS) with genotypes revealed that, GG genotypes showing lesser count (less susceptible to mastitis) compare to AA and AG. Relative expression of CACNA2D1 transcript (in milk samples) was significantly higher among GG than AG and AA. Further we have also isolated blood sample from the all groups and PBMCs were cultured from each blood sample as per the standard protocol. They were treated with Calcium channel blocker and the expression level of the CACNA2D1 gene was evaluated by Real Time PCR. Results show that expression level decline in each genotypic group after treatment and expression level of GG are again significantly higher than AA and AG. Thus, it may be concluded that GG genotypic animals are favorable for selecting disease resistant breeds.

  6. Relationship between results of in vitro susceptibility tests and outcomes following treatment with pirlimycin hydrochloride in cows with subclinical mastitis associated with gram-positive pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparao, Dhananjay; Oliveira, Leane; Ruegg, Pamela L

    2009-06-01

    To determine the association between results of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility tests and outcomes in cows that received intramammary treatment with pirlimycin hydrochloride for subclinical mastitis associated with gram-positive pathogens. Case-control study. 132 dairy cows (178 mammary glands with subclinical mastitis caused by 194 pathogen isolates). Cows with positive results for a California mastitis test (CMT) were assigned to receive 50 mg of pirlimycin via intramammary administration into each CMT-positive mammary gland every 24 hours for 2 consecutive days or no treatment. Duplicate milk samples were collected before treatment and approximately 21 days later. Target pathogens included coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp (n = 118 isolates), Streptococcus spp (28), Staphylococcus aureus (7), and other gram-positive cocci (30). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined via broth microdilution. Overall treatment success rate was 66% (128/194) for both groups. In vitro resistance to pirlimycin ranged from 0% (0/7 isolates of S aureus) to 50% (13/26 isolates of other gram-positive cocci). For the treated group, 62 of 94 (66%) target pathogens were classified as treatment successes and 32 (34%) were classified as failures. Similarly for the control group, 66 of 100 (66%) target pathogens were classified as treatment successes, whereas 34 (34%) were classified as failures. Many target pathogens from cows with subclinical mastitis were eliminated without treatment, and treatment with pirlimycin did not improve the treatment success rate. Results of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility tests were not useful as predictors of treatment success following intramammary treatment with pirlimycin.

  7. Mode of action and in vitro susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to macedocin ST91KM and preparation of a teat seal containing the bacteriocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Pieterse

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most economically costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Regular dosage of animals with antibiotics, including use of prophylactic concentrations, may select for resistant strains. The purpose of this study was to determine the mode of action of a new bacteriocin (macedocin ST91KM, to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens to antibiotics commonly used in treatment remedies, and to introduce the possible use of an alternative antimicrobial agent. The bacteriocin macedocin ST91KM, produced by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus ST91KM, is bactericidal to Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus associated with mastitis infections, including strains resistant to methicillin and oxacillin. Sensitive cells were deformed and secreted nucleotides, K+ and β-galactosidase when exposed to macedocin ST91KM. Adsorption of the peptide to target cells decreased in the presence of solvents, suggesting that receptors on the cell surfaces have lipid moieties. No adsorption was recorded in the presence of MgCl2, KI and Na2CO3, suggesting that ionic strength plays an important role. A teat seal preparation containing macedocin ST91KM effectively released the peptide and inhibited the growth of S. agalactiae. Macedocin ST91KM could form the basis for alternative dry cow therapy to prevent mastitis infections in dairy cows as it is effective against pathogens that display resistance to conventional antibiotic therapy.

  8. Evaluación epizootiològica de la mastitis bovina en cuatro vaquerias (Epizootiological evaluation of bovine mastitis in four dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Insua, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en tres vaquerías con ordeño manual y una con ordeño mecanizado durante el período comprendido entre febrero y mayo del 2004. En total, se ordeñaban 192 vacas en el momento del estudio, realizándose una exploración al 100% de las vacas en producción para detectar mastitis subclínica. Se determinó la estructura epizoótica y prevalencia definiéndose los principales factores de riesgo causantes de la enfermedad. Los resultados más importantes revelaron un 23,6% de prevalencia de mastitis subclínica aislándose en la mayoría de las unidades una frecuencia mayor de Streptococcus agalactiae (62,5% que de Staphylococcus aureus (12,5%. Se comprobó la influencia en la presentación de la enfermedad de prácticas inapropiadas de ordeño y el mal estado e higiene del equipamiento.

  9. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulasenegative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Farms from Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Sánchez Bonilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antimicrobial presence and susceptibility of the coagulase-negative staphylococci group (ECN, for its initials in Spanish in some cattle farms from Tolima, Colombia. Materials and methods: Using the California test for the diagnosis of mastitis (CMT, for its initials in Spanish, 484 quarters belonging to 121 cows from five small production ranches from a region of central Tolima were evaluated. CMT positive samples were cultivated for bacterial isolation. The ECN found were tested for susceptibility to the antibiotics. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: 252 (52% quarters did not show any type of reaction to the CMT, nor did they show any clinical signs of mastitis, therefore they were considered free of the disease. From the quarters, 73 (15% turned positive for CMT and bacteriological culture. From these, 36 strains of ECN were isolated (7.4% of the total of quarters; S. aureus-ECP, 28 (5.8%; Streptococcus spp., 6 (1.2%.; Escherichia coli, 2 (0.4%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 (0.2%. The clinical and subclinical mastitis in the quarter occurred in 1.4% and 13.6%, respectively. In 5 (1.0% of the quarters, clinical mastitis caused by ECN was found and subclinical mastitis in 31 (6.4%. 61% of the ECN strains were resistant to penicillin, and 58%, to tetracycline; 97% were sensitive to cefoperazone. Conclusion: The ECN group, considered a global emergent of mastitis, is evidenced with high frequency in ranches from Tolima, Colombia, causing clinical and subclinical mastitis with varied response to antimicrobials.

  10. Optimal insemination and replacement decisions to minimize the cost of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, E; Kristensen, A R; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is a serious production-limiting disease, with effects on milk yield, milk quality, and conception rate, and an increase in the risk of mortality and culling. The objective of this study was 2-fold: (1) to develop an economic optimization model that incorporates all the different types of pathogens that cause clinical mastitis (CM) categorized into 8 classes of culture results, and account for whether the CM was a first, second, or third case in the current lactation and whether the cow had a previous case or cases of CM in the preceding lactation; and (2) to develop this decision model to be versatile enough to add additional pathogens, diseases, or other cow characteristics as more information becomes available without significant alterations to the basic structure of the model. The model provides economically optimal decisions depending on the individual characteristics of the cow and the specific pathogen causing CM. The net returns for the basic herd scenario (with all CM included) were $507/cow per year, where the incidence of CM (cases per 100 cow-years) was 35.6, of which 91.8% of cases were recommended for treatment under an optimal replacement policy. The cost per case of CM was $216.11. The CM cases comprised (incidences, %) Staphylococcus spp. (1.6), Staphylococcus aureus (1.8), Streptococcus spp. (6.9), Escherichia coli (8.1), Klebsiella spp. (2.2), other treated cases (e.g., Pseudomonas; 1.1), other not treated cases (e.g., Trueperella pyogenes; 1.2), and negative culture cases (12.7). The average cost per case, even under optimal decisions, was greatest for Klebsiella spp. ($477), followed by E. coli ($361), other treated cases ($297), and other not treated cases ($280). This was followed by the gram-positive pathogens; among these, the greatest cost per case was due to Staph. aureus ($266), followed by Streptococcus spp. ($174) and Staphylococcus spp. ($135); negative culture had the lowest cost ($115). The model recommended treatment for

  11. Comparison of Virulence Gene Identification, Ribosomal Spacer PCR, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Cases of Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Pamela R F; Middleton, John R; Fox, Lawrence K

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in dairy cattle worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine if recently described S. aureus genotype B was present among previously characterized isolates from cases of bovine intramammary infection in the United States and to compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the combination of ribosomal spacer PCR (RS-PCR) and virulence gene identification for typing of S. aureus strains. The hypothesis was that isolates that were previously characterized as contagious would be identified as genotype B and that the results of the two strain-typing methods would be comparable. Isolates were selected from a collection of S. aureus isolates from eight dairy farms. Mammary quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) and N-acetyl-β-d-gluconaminidase (NAGase) activity data were known and used to evaluate strain pathogenicity. RS-PCR was performed with conventional gel electrophoresis, and PCR was used for toxin gene identification. RS-PCR patterns were associated with a specific virulence gene pattern, as previously reported. Five RS-PCR banding patterns were identified. None of the isolates were characterized as genotype B. No association between RS-PCR types and milk SCC was found; however, NAGase activity was significantly higher in milk from mammary glands infected with RS-PCR banding type 1 (RSP type 1) than in milk from those infected with RSP type 2. The discriminatory power values were 1.0 and 0.46 for PFGE and RS-PCR, respectively. These data suggest that genotype B may have a limited geographic distribution and that PFGE is more discriminatory than RS-PCR performed with conventional gel electrophoresis for typing of S. aureus isolates of bovine origin. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Quantotypic Properties of QconCAT Peptides Targeting Bovine Host Response to Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Codrea, Marius Cosmin

    2012-01-01

    with host response to pathogens remains a challenging task. In this paper we present a targeted proteome analysis of a panel of 20 proteins that are widely believed to be key players and indicators of bovine host response to mastitis pathogens. Stable isotope labeled variants of two concordant proteotypic...

  13. Fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii Risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Artioli Machado Yamamura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca spp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água, solo, fezes e swab de teteiras. Prototheca spp. foi isolada de amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica em uma propriedade e de amostras de leite e do ambiente em quatro propriedades, nas quais foi isolada em amostras de: água de bebedouro, abastecimento, esgoto, empoçada no piso de estábulo e sala de ordenha, solo de piquete e pasto, teteiras, fezes de bezerros e suínos. Do total de 383 vacas examinadas, Prototheca spp. foi isolada em 20 (5,2% vacas, sendo caracterizada como P. zopfii em 18. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite causada por P. zopfii foram: criação das vacas a pasto, alimentação dos animais com pasto e silagem, realização de ordenha mecânica em estábulo, permanência das vacas após ordenha em piquete sem alimento, criação de suínos próxima às instalações dos bovinos, existência de cães, gatos e roedores, falta de higienização dos tetos com água, pré-imersão dos tetos em aplicador com retorno e sem a troca do anti-séptico, alimentação dos bezerros com leite de vacas com mastite clínica e serem as vacas da raça holandesa.This research had as objective the study of risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii. Thirteen dairy herds in Paraná and São Paulo states were analyzed and selected according to the following criteria: previous confirmation of Prototheca spp. mastitis cases, screening of Prototheca spp. in bulk tanks and

  14. Antibiogram of mastitis pathogens in the milk of crossbred cows in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jeykumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and drug sensitivity pattern of causative agents of mastitis in and around Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 milk samples were collected and bacterial isolates from 72 samples were obtained and subjected to in-vitro chemotherapeutic sensitivity test. Results: Out of 72 samples, 32 (44.44% were found positive for Staphylococci species, 4 (5.5% for Streptococci species, 30 (41.66% for E.coli and 6 (8.33% for Klebsiella species. The drug sensitivity test performed irrespective of isolates, revealed sensitivity of organisms to various antibiotics and none of the isolates were found to be sensitive to penicillin G. Conclusion: Enrofloxacin was found to be more effective antibiotic among all the tested antibiotics. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 354-356

  15. Bioeconomic modeling of intervention against clinical mastitis caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    , and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and an environmental spread of Escherichia coli IMI in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were calculated into the total annual net costs of IMI during lactation per scenario and compared with a default scenario......The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of intervention against contagious clinical mastitis during lactation. A bioeconomic model of intramammary infections (IMI) was used to simulate contagious spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis...... transmission, number of IMI cases, and persistent subclinical IMI cases. Nonetheless, the high associated costs of culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows made the other scenarios with a long and intensive antibiotic treatment, but without culling, the most cost effective. The model...

  16. Short communication: Antimicrobial efficacy of intramammary treatment with a novel biphenomycin compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli-induced mouse mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demon, Dieter; Breyne, Koen; Schiffer, Guido; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis undermines udder health, jeopardizes milk production, and entails prohibitive costs, estimated at $2 billion per year in the dairy industry of the United States. Despite intensive research, the dairy industry has not managed to eradicate the 3 major bovine mastitis-inducing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of a newly formulated biphenomycin compound (AIC102827) was assessed against intramammary Staph. aureus, Strep. uberis, and E. coli infections, using an experimental mouse mastitis model. Based on its effective and protective doses, AIC102827 applied into the mammary gland was most efficient to treat Staph. aureus, but also adequately reduced growth of Strep. uberis or E. coli, indicating its potential as a broad-spectrum candidate to treat staphylococcal, streptococcal, and coliform mastitis in dairy cattle.

  17. Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pinto Loguercio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis.The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (94.4% and Streptococcus sp. (85.2% showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

  18. Transcriptional profiling of the bovine hepatic response to experimentally induced E. coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Buitenhuis, Bart; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2012-01-01

    -induced mastitis. At time = 0, each of 16 periparturient dairy cows received 20-40 CFU of live E. coli in one front quarter of the udder. A time series of liver biopsies was collected at -144, 12, 24 and 192 hours relative to time of inoculation. Changes in transcription levels in response to E. coli inoculation...

  19. Compromised neutrophil function and severe bovine E.coli mastitis: is C5a the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Around the periparturient period and during early lactation dairy cows have an elevated risk for clinical mastitis. The severity of Gram-negative infections during these periods has been correlated with reduced neutrophil functions. In this review we focus on the potential role of C5a in the develop...

  20. Molecular characterization and expression profile of partial TLR4 gene in association to mastitis in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Manjit; Sharma, Arjava; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Crossbred cattle are more prone to mastitis in comparison to indigenous cattle. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands, for example, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli and mediates signaling to initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Mutations in TLR4 can compromise the host immune response to certain pathogens, so it may be a potential candidate for marker assisted selection to enhance mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Hence, in this study role of bovine TLR4 gene in mastitis resistance was investigated by association as well as expression profiling analysis in crossbred cattle. The animals were divided into mastitis affected and unaffected groups on the basis of history of animals and California Mastitis Test (CMT). PCR-SSCP and Sequence analysis revealed three genotypes of coreceptor binding region 1 (CRBR1) fragment of TLR4 gene namely AA, AB, and BB in both groups of cattle. The logistic regression model did not show any significant effect of these genotypes on the occurrence of clinical mastitis. Moreover, in vitro challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with LPS failed to show any association of the genotypes with TLR4 gene expression. In a nutshell, in the present study enough evidence was not found for association of the SNP variants of CRBR1 fragment of TLR4 gene with mastitis susceptibility in crossbred cattle.

  1. 奶牛乳房炎检测方法与分子抗病育种研究进展%Advances of Bovine Mastitis Detection Methods and Molecular Disease-Resistance Breeding Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦艺媛; 俞英

    2011-01-01

    奶牛乳房炎即奶牛乳腺发生炎症反应,是一种常见的奶牛疾病,对乳业造成的经济损失极大.本文通过分析其致病原因,对奶牛乳房炎的检测方法做出总结,在分析传统检测方法的基础上,介绍最新的检测方法,说明乳房炎检测逐渐向低成本高效率的趋势发展.另外还以乳房炎抗性候选基因和表观遗传标记为出发点,对乳房炎发生发展的预测方法做了介绍,并就乳房炎研究方向针对奶牛本身的分子抗病育种方向发展的趋势进行了展望.%Bovine mastitis is a common disease of dairy cows and characterized by inflammation of mammary glands, which can decrease milk productions and canse significant economic losses of dairy industry. This review not only gives a summary of conventional detection methods but also presents the lastest detection ways for bovine mastitis. It is concluded that the techniques for detecting mastitis are becoming more economical and efficient. Furthermore, the paper gives a comprehensive description for the candidate genes and epigenetic marks associated with bovine mastitis resistance. Finally, the developments and applications for molecular breeding on Dairy mastitis-resistance are prospected.

  2. Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil

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    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

  3. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from bovine subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in the central region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspanti, Claudia G; Bonetto, Cesar C; Vissio, Claudina; Pellegrino, Matías S; Reinoso, Elina B; Dieser, Silvana A; Bogni, Cristina I; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

    2016-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM). The prevalence of CNS species causing SCM identified by genotyping varies among countries. Overall, the antimicrobial resistance in this group of organisms is increasing worldwide; however, little information exists about a CNS species resistant to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize CNS at species level and to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of CNS species isolated from bovine SCM in 51 dairy herds located in the central region of the province of Cordoba, Argentina. In this study, we identified 219 CNS isolates at species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the groEL gene. Staphylococcus chromogenes (46.6%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (32%) were the most prevalent species. A minimum of three different CNS species were present in 41.2% of the herds. S. chromogenes was isolated from most of the herds (86.3%), whereas S. haemolyticus was isolated from 66.7% of them. The broth microdilution method was used to test in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance to a single compound or two related compounds was expressed in 43.8% of the isolates. S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus showed a very high proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin. Resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials was found in 30.6% of all CNS. S. haemolyticus exhibited a higher frequency of resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials than S. chromogenes.

  4. 我国部分地区奶牛乳房炎源大肠杆菌生物学特性及耐药性分析%Characterization and Antibiotic Resistance of Ninety-five Strains of Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine with Mastitis in Some Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐继英; 刘俊林; 李先波; 霍生东; 杨志强

    2012-01-01

    调查奶牛乳房炎源大肠杆菌的某些生物学特性及其耐药状况,以提高药物疗效,减少牛乳中药物的残留.本研究从国内7个省、市、自治区部分地区患乳房炎奶牛的乳样中分离纯化与鉴定出95株大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli),并对大肠杆菌分离株进行O血清型鉴定、小鼠(Mus musculus)致病性试验以及抗菌药物敏感性分析.研究结果显示,95株大肠杆菌共鉴定出37种血清型,覆盖了54株分离株,另有2株自凝,39株未鉴定出型,较常见血清型为093和09;大肠杆菌分离株接种小白鼠剖检可见明显病变;95株大肠杆菌对16种抗菌药物中的8种药物耐药率超过50%,青霉素的耐药率甚至达到100%,同一菌株最多耐药14种,最少耐药2种,耐药6种以上菌株占到51.58%.表明,奶牛乳房炎源大肠杆菌分离株血清型比较复杂,且对多种药物产生不同程度的耐药性,存在着严重的多重耐药情况.本研究为奶牛乳房炎疫苗的研制和乳房炎的临床治疗提供理论依据.%The aim of the study was to investigate that characterization and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine mastitis in some areas of China for raising therapeutic effect and decreasing drug residues. Milk samples of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis were collected from seven provinces in China and a total of 95 E. Coli isolates were further identified by microbiological tests. Following, serotype, pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance of 95 strains were also studied. The results showed that for the 95 E. Coli strains, 54 isolates were identified as 37 serogroups, 2 isolates were self-clumpinged and 39 isolates could not be serotyped, 093 and 09 serotypes were the most common serogroups. Obviously pathological changes were observed in internal organs of dissected experiment mouse (Mus musculus). Among the 95 strains, the rate of drug fast to 8 out of 16 antibacterial drugs exceeded 50%, and a same

  5. Short communication: Outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated mastitis in a closed dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, F F; Manzi, M P; Joaquim, S F; Richini-Pereira, V B; Langoni, H

    2017-01-01

    Cows are probably the main source of contamination of raw milk with Staphylococcus aureus. Mammary glands with subclinical mastitis can shed large numbers of Staph. aureus in milk. Because of the risk of this pathogen to human health as well as animal health, the aim of this paper was to describe an outbreak of mastitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA), oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staph. aureus (OS-MRSA), and methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (MSSA) on a dairy farm. Milk samples were obtained from all quarters, showing an elevated somatic cell count by the California Mastitis Test. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 53% (61/115) of the milk samples, with 60 isolates identified as Staph. aureus (98.4%) and 1 isolate identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.6%). The presence of the mecA gene was verified in 48.3% of Staph. aureus isolates. Of the Staph. aureus isolates, 23.3% were MRSA and 25.0% were OS-MRSA. The total of mastitis cases infected with MRSA was 12.2%. The detection of this large percentage of mastitis cases caused by MRSA and OS-MRSA is of great concern for the animals' health, because β-lactams are still the most important antimicrobials used to treat mastitis. In addition, Staph. aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis represent a public health risk.

  6. New method for early detection of two random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD groups of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis infection in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Dicezar Gonçalves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a fast and accurate molecular approach to allow early detection of two RAPD groups of S. aureus causing bovine mastitis. Seventy five S. aureus isolates from infected animals were characterized by RAPD. Genomic fragments isolated from the unique bands present in either group were cloned and sequenced. Based on the DNA sequences, specific primers were designed to allow for the simultaneous detection of either group by multiplex PCR of S. aureus DNA isolated from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. Results showed that these proposed primers set could be used to detect various clinical and subclinical S. aureus isolates as well as the detection of the microorganism in bulk milk. Their use as a specific method for effective and early diagnostic tool for S. aureus infection in dairy herds is suggested.Esta pesquisa objetivou o desenvolvimento de técnica rápida e eficiente para diagnosticar precocemente diferentes linhagens de S. aureus causadoras de mastite bovina. Como resultados da metodologia empregada, foram isoladas duas linhagens destas bactérias que causam diferentes tipos de mastite bovina. Os fragmentos de DNA genômico caracterizando ambas as linhagens, por meio de RAPD foram inseridos em vetor plasmidial pGEM e clonados por meio de clones T10 F1 de Escherichia coli. As seqüências obtidas permitiram desenhar iniciadores específicos para o reconhecimento de ambas as linhagens, os quais foram testados com amostras de S. aureus e com outras linhagens próximas. O diagnóstico por meios moleculares, pode ser realizado diretamente de amostras coletadas de rebanhos leiteiros assim como dos equipamentos de ordenha. A significância deste estudo consiste em um rápido e acurado método para localizar animais infectados, representando importante ferramenta no manejo do rebanho, na redução de custos com tratamentos e, rápida recuperação de rebanhos infectados.

  7. Caracterização de biótipos de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite bovina Biotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

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    M.A.V.P. Brito

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos e dezoito amostras de Staphylococcus aureus, isoladas de infecção intramamária de vacas de 44 rebanhos leiteiros, foram classificadas em biótipos de acordo com os testes de produção de estafiloquinase (K, beta-hemolisina (beta , coagulação do plasma bovino (Pl e crescimento na presença de cristal violeta (CV. As amostras foram distribuídas em 10 biótipos e 63 delas foram classificadas nas ecovariedades bovina (35, ovina (17, aviária (10 e humana (1 e 155 não apresentaram características específicas de hospedeiro. Estas últimas podem ser isoladas de homem, cabra, coelho, suíno, alimentos e de mastite bovina. O biótipo 1, encontrado com maior freqüência (37,2%, apresentou o padrão K (-, beta (+, Pl (- e CV (azul. Em sete rebanhos nos quais se examinaram 10 ou mais amostras, verificou-se que, apesar da ocorrência simultânea de mais de um biótipo por rebanho, houve predominância de um sobre os demais.Two hundred and eighteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections, obtained from 44 different dairy herds, were classified in biotypes based on staphylokinase (K and beta-haemolysin (beta production, bovine plasma coagulation (Pl and growth on crystal violet agar (CV. The strains were assigned to 10 different types, with 63 in the bovine (35, ovine (17, poultry (10 and human (1 ecovars and 155 in non-host specific biotypes. The latter can be isolated from man, goat, rabbit, pig, food, and bovine mastitis. The biotype 1, with reaction pattern K (-, beta (+, Pl (- and CV (blue, was the most frequently found (37,2%. From seven herds ten or more strains were examined. It was found that in spite of the presence of different biotypes per herd, there was always one prevalent biotype.

  8. PREVALÊNCIA E ETIOLOGIA DA MASTITE BOVINA NO MUNICÍPIO DE TERESINA, PIAUÍ ETIOLOGY AND PREVALENCE BOVINE MASTITIS IN THE TEREZINA CITY, PI

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    Nicodemus Alves de Macedo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a prevalência e a etiologia da mastite em rebanhos leiteiros pertencentes à bacia leiteira do mu¬nicípio de Teresina, Piauí. Analisaram-se 852 amostras de leite, provenientes de vacas em período médio de lactação pertencentes a oito propriedades produtoras de leite tipo C. Verificou-se que 41,10% das amostras foram reagentes à prova de CMT nos mais variados graus (+, ++ e +++. Desse total, 252 (72,83% foram positivas ao exame bac¬teriológico, sendo o gênero Staphylococcus o mais preva¬lente (74,60%. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: CMT, epidemiologia, leite, Piauí (PI, Staphylococcus. The aim of present study was to verify the etiology and prevalence of bovine mastitis in the Terezina, city. A total of 852 quarters from cows during avery lactating pe¬riod raised on 8 dairy farms in Terezina, Piauí, were exa¬mined. Out of 346 (41.10% positive cows by CMT (+, ++ e +++. A total of 252 (72.83% were confirmed though bacteriological methods. From the agents isolated in pure or mixed cultures, the Staphylococcus was most frequen¬tly observed (74.60%. KEY-WORDS: CMT, epidemiology, milk, Piauí, Staphylococcus.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and SCCmec types of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from subclinical bovine mastitis in Hatay, Turkey

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    Aslantaş Özkan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-nine isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS of eight species from subclinical bovine mastitis were screened for the phenotypic and genotypic methicilline-resistance. In addition, all methicillin-resistant (MR isolates indicating the mecA gene were examined by PCR for the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec types were also determined by multiplex PCR. A total of 21 (23.6% CoNS isolates were found to be resistant to oxacillin in broth microdilution assay. All isolates phenotypically resistant to oxacillin did not have the mecA gene, which was only found in 14.6% (13 of the isolates. Most MR-CoNS isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin (92.3%, fusidic acid (84.6%, penicillin (76.9%, and rifampycin (61.5%, and susceptible to mupirocin (100%, tetracycline (100%, vancomycin (100%, clindamycin (92.3%, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (69.2%. In conclusion, a high rate of antimicrobial resistance among MR-CoNS isolated from food producing animals emphasises the need for periodic surveillance of their resistance.

  10. Bovine mycoplasmal mastitis from intramammary inoculations of small numbers of Mycoplasma bovis: local and systemic antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R H; Jasper, D E

    1980-06-01

    Typical mycoplasma mastitis spread to all four quarters in each of four cows after each cow was inoculated in one quarter with 70 colony-forming units of Mycoplasma bovis. Up to 50 days after inoculation, immunoglobulin (Ig) M was the predominant Ig responsible for serum indirect hemagglutination titers. After 57 days, IgG was predominant. Milk whey indirect hemagglutination titers did not distinguish between quarters resolving the infection and those that did not. Milk whey IgG and IgA concentrations increased in quarters that resolved the infection and in quarters that did not. In the initially inoculated quarters, total daily production of IgG was greater in the quarter resolving the infection than in the three quarters not resolving the infection. Total IgA production was also higher at and after the peak of infection in the quarter resolving the infection than in the quarters that did not.

  11. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-04-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

  12. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes. PMID:22081877

  13. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

  14. Comparison of methods for the detection of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Melo, Poliana; Ferreira, Luciano Menezes; Filho, Antônio Nader; Zafalon, Luiz Francisco; Vicente, Hinig Isa Godoy; de Souza, Viviane

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation is considered to be a selective advantage for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis isolates by facilitating bacterial persistence in the udder. It requires attachment to mammary epithelium, proliferation and accumulation of cells in multilayers. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of three techniques for the detection of S. aureus biofilm-positive strains. Two phenotypic tests, including growth on microtitre plates and Congo red agar, were compared with a PCR technique using 94 S. aureus strains obtained from cows with subclinical mastitis from two farms in the state of São Paulo. These strains were characterised by in vitro slime production on Congo red agar, biofilm formation on microtitre plates and the presence of the icaA and icaD genes. The results revealed that 85% of the isolates tested produced slime on the Congo red agar, 98.9% of the isolates produced biofilms in vitro by adhering to sterile 96-well “U” bottom polystyrene tissue culture plates, and 95.7% of the isolates carried the icaA and icaD genes. The results of the phenotypic tests for biofilm formation were compared with those of the molecular analysis, and the sensitivity and specificity of the Congo red agar test were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, while those of the microtitre plate test were 100% and 25%, respectively. When the phenotypic methods for the detection of biofilm producers, namely growth on microtitre plates and Congo red agar, were compared, the sensitivity and specificity were 86% and 100%, respectively. Therefore, growth on Congo red agar and the microtitre plate test are methods that could be used to determine whether an isolate has the potential for biofilm production. PMID:24159293

  15. Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and Distribution of Pathogens in Dairy Farms of Rubavu and Nyabihu Districts, Rwanda

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    J. P. Mpatswenumugabo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2016 to January 2017 in Rubavu and Nyabihu districts, Western Rwanda, aiming at estimating the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM and identifying its causative bacteria. Management practices and milking procedures were recorded through a questionnaire. 123 crossbreed milking cows from 13 dairy farms were randomly selected and screened for SCM using California Mastitis Test (CMT. Composite CMT positive milk samples were processed for bacterial isolation and identification. The overall SCM prevalence at cow level was 50.4%. 68 bacterial isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. They included, Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (51.5%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.6%, Streptococcus species (10.3%, Bacillus species (10.3%, Streptococcus agalactiae (5.8%, and Escherichia coli (1.5%. About 67.1% of the farmers checked for mastitis; of these, 58.9% relied on clinical signs and only 6.8% screened with CMT. Only 5.5% and 2.7% of the farmers tried to control mastitis using dry cow therapy and teat dips, respectively. Thus, to reduce the prevalence of SCM, farmers in the study area need to be trained on good milking practices, including regular use of teat dips, application of dry cow therapy, and SCM screening. This will improve their sales and their financial status.

  16. Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and Distribution of Pathogens in Dairy Farms of Rubavu and Nyabihu Districts, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpatswenumugabo, J P; Bebora, L C; Gitao, G C; Mobegi, V A; Iraguha, B; Kamana, O; Shumbusho, B

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2016 to January 2017 in Rubavu and Nyabihu districts, Western Rwanda, aiming at estimating the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and identifying its causative bacteria. Management practices and milking procedures were recorded through a questionnaire. 123 crossbreed milking cows from 13 dairy farms were randomly selected and screened for SCM using California Mastitis Test (CMT). Composite CMT positive milk samples were processed for bacterial isolation and identification. The overall SCM prevalence at cow level was 50.4%. 68 bacterial isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. They included, Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (51.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.6%), Streptococcus species (10.3%), Bacillus species (10.3%), Streptococcus agalactiae (5.8%), and Escherichia coli (1.5%). About 67.1% of the farmers checked for mastitis; of these, 58.9% relied on clinical signs and only 6.8% screened with CMT. Only 5.5% and 2.7% of the farmers tried to control mastitis using dry cow therapy and teat dips, respectively. Thus, to reduce the prevalence of SCM, farmers in the study area need to be trained on good milking practices, including regular use of teat dips, application of dry cow therapy, and SCM screening. This will improve their sales and their financial status.

  17. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire...... was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured...... for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms...

  18. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire...... was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured...... for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms...

  19. [Microbiological colonisation of bovine teat canal--significance and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Krömker, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The teat canal of lactating dairy cattle is of particular importance for the defence of facultative pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., staphylococci) invading the bovine udder. Furthermore the canal is usually colonized with microorganisms, too. In addition to microorganisms inhibiting mastitis pathogens the teat canal is colonized by staphylococci. The microbial colonization can be influenced by the environment of the animals, the care and disinfection of the teat skin and indirectly by the effects of forces being associated with machine milking. Because of vacuum fluctuations occurring under the teat tip microorganisms, which colonize the teat canal, can invade the bovine mammary gland and cause infections there. This paper gives a review of the microbial colonization of the bovine teat duct and of influencing factors on the microbial populations as well as of the significance of the teat canal colonization for the development of mastitis.

  20. Expression of the Bovine NK-Lysin Gene Family and Activity against Respiratory Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfeng; Yang, Chingyuan; Tizioto, Polyana C.; Huang, Huan; Lee, Mi O. K.; Payne, Harold R.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals. The effects of synthetic peptides corresponding to functional region helices 2 and 3 of each gene product were tested on both model membranes and bio-membranes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that these peptides adopted a more helical secondary structure upon binding to an anionic model membrane and liposome leakage assays suggested that these peptides disrupt membranes. Bacterial killing assays further confirmed the antimicrobial effects of these peptides on BRD-associated bacteria, including both Pasteurella multocida and Mannhemia haemolytica and an ultrastructural examination of NK-lysin-treated P. multocida cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the lysis of target membranes. These studies demonstrate that the expanded bovine NK-lysin gene family is potentially important in host defense against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease. PMID:27409794

  1. Expression of the Bovine NK-Lysin Gene Family and Activity against Respiratory Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Chen

    Full Text Available Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq. The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals. The effects of synthetic peptides corresponding to functional region helices 2 and 3 of each gene product were tested on both model membranes and bio-membranes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that these peptides adopted a more helical secondary structure upon binding to an anionic model membrane and liposome leakage assays suggested that these peptides disrupt membranes. Bacterial killing assays further confirmed the antimicrobial effects of these peptides on BRD-associated bacteria, including both Pasteurella multocida and Mannhemia haemolytica and an ultrastructural examination of NK-lysin-treated P. multocida cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the lysis of target membranes. These studies demonstrate that the expanded bovine NK-lysin gene family is potentially important in host defense against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease.

  2. 奶牛隐性乳房炎病原菌的分离鉴定与DGGE追溯%Isolation and Identification of the Cow Subclinical Mastitis Pathogens and DGGE Retrospective Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高潮; 刘国庆; 连英琪; 朱明; 余晓峰; 张克春

    2013-01-01

    通过对隐性乳房炎病原菌的分离鉴定和药敏试验,以及对治疗前的奶样进行DGGE追溯性分析,研究乳房炎奶样中微生物区系结构对乳房炎的治疗和复发的影响.结果显示,引起奶牛隐性乳房炎的主要病原菌为大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、无乳链球菌、表皮葡萄球菌以及克雷伯菌.通过对大肠杆菌性乳房炎奶样进行DGGE追溯性分析,发现乳房炎奶样中除大肠杆菌外,还有假单胞菌、芽孢杆菌、链球菌、沙雷氏菌等其他的致病菌,并且奶样中微生物区系结构与奶牛乳房炎的治愈时间和乳房炎复发有着紧密的联系,区系结构越复杂,治愈的时间越长,越容易复发,引起后期乳房炎复发的病原菌包含在治疗前的奶样中.%In order to clarify the impacts of microbial community structure in mastitis milk samples upon the treatment and recurrence of mastitis,in this study,we performed isolation,identification and susceptibility test of pathogenic bacteria of recessive mastitis and retrospective analysis of DGGE in milk samples before the treatment of mastitis.The results showed that the major pathogenic bacteria causing recessive mastitis in diary cattle were Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus agalactiae,Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella.Based on the retrospective analysis of DGGE in milk samples of E.coli mastitis,it was found that Pseudomonas,Bacillus,Streptococcus,Serratia and other pathogenic bacteria were detected in the milk samples except E.coli.In addition,the microbial community structure in milk samples indicated close relationship with the healing time and recurrence of cow mastitis.The more complicated the community structure,the more time it should cost for the mastitis to heal and the more opportunities there are for mastitis to recur.

  3. Pathogen diagnosis of the bovine pasteurellosis%牛出败的病原诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生庆; 张西云; 范玉霞; 胡国元; 李志宁; 王亭亭; 黄荣

    2012-01-01

    对大通县某养殖场送检的病死牛脏器进行细病原诊断,经病原的分离培养与鉴定,结合临床症状和病理变化,初步诊断该病是由牛巴氏杆菌引起的。%Pathogen diagnosis of the dead cattle organs from the DaTong farms,Through isolation and identification of pathogens, combining clinical symptoms and pathological changes. The disease is caused by the bovine pasteurellosis.

  4. Potential use of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriocins to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Chávez, A J; Martínez-Ortega, E A; Valencia-Posadas, M; León-Galván, M F; de la Fuente-Salcido, N M; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis caused by microbial infections in dairy goats reduces milk yield, modifies milk composition, and potentially contributes to morbidity in herds and consumers of dairy products. Microorganisms associated with mastitis in dairy goats are commonly controlled with antibiotics, but it is known that continued use of these chemical agents promotes antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations. Recently, it has been shown that bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis inhibit growth of food-borne pathogens and also bacteria associated with bovine mastitis. However, there is no report on their ability to inhibit microorganisms linked to mastitis in dairy goats. In this study, using 16S rDNA and ITS regions of rDNA, we identified nine bacterial isolates and an encapsulated yeast associated with mastitis in dairy goats. Enterococcus durans, Brevibacillus sp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis 2 were resistant to, respectively, 75, ~67, ~42, and ~42 % of the antibiotics screened. In addition, 60 % of the bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and dicloxacillin. Importantly, 60 % of the isolates were inhibited by the bacteriocins, but S. epidermidis 1, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia vulneris, and Cryptococcus neoformans were not susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. Using Brevibacillus sp. and Staphylococcus chromogenes as indicator bacteria, we show that peptides of ~10 kDa that correspond to the molecular mass of bacteriocins used in this study are responsible for the inhibitory activity. Our results demonstrate that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy goats from Guanajuato, Mexico, are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by B. thuringiensis.

  5. Diagnosis and Prevention of Cow Mastitis%奶牛乳房炎的诊断与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高长品

    2015-01-01

    乳房炎是国际性的难题,也是成年奶牛最易患的一种疾病。奶牛乳房炎分为2种:隐性乳房炎和临床型乳房炎。奶牛一旦感染乳房炎,则会给养殖户造成巨大的经济损失。文中对乳房炎的病原、诊断和预防措施等进行了分类阐述,旨在为今后预防该病的发生提供参考。%Mastitis is an international problem, but also the most susceptible disease to an adult dairy cow. Bovine mastitis is divided into two kinds: sub-clinical mastitis and clinical mastitis. Once dairy cow infected mastitis, it will cause huge economic losses. The pathogen, diagnosis and prevention mea-sures of mastitis were classified elaborat-ed, aims to provide a reference for the prevention of the disease in the future.

  6. BOVINE MASTITIS IN THE GOIÂNIA DAIRY BASIN MASTITE BOVINA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberval Rodrigues da Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This investigation was carried on in six counties of milk region around Goiânia city, state of Goiás. Seven hundred and one (701 cows in lactation were examined, from which 87 (12.41% showed c1inica1 and subclinical mastitis. The tests CMT/ Whiteside were dome on 2,717 samples of milk and from those 393 (41.46% were positive. The rnicroorganisms isolated from 701 lactocultures were: Staphilococcus aureus 172 (67.70%; Streptococcus spp. 38 (l4.96%; Corynebacterium spp. 42 (16.53%; Staphylococcu.s epidermides 38 (14.96%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21 (8.26%; Eschericheir coli 18 (7.08%; Serratia marceceus 12 (4.72%; Klebsiella spp 5 (1.96%; Proteus vulgaris 4 (1.57%; Candida spp 5 (1.96%; Candida spp 5 (1.96% and in 23 (9.05% there was no growing.

    Esta pesquisa foi realizada em seis municípios da bacia leiteira de Goiânia tendo sido examinadas 701 vacas lactantes, das quais 87 (12,41% apresentaram mastite clínica e subclínica. Os testes CMT/Whiteside foram realizados em 2.717 amostras de leite, sendo que 393 (14,46% resultaram positivas. Os microrganismos isolados das 701 lactoculturas foram: Staphilococcus aureus 172 (67,70%; Streptococcus spp. 38 (l4,96%; Corynebacterium spp. 42 (16 ,53%; Staphylococcu.s epidermides 38 (14 ,96%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21 (8,26%; Eschericheir coli 18 (7,08%; Serratia marceceus 12 (4,72%; Klebsiella spp 5 (1,96%; Proteus vulgaris 4 (1,57%; Candida spp 5 (1,96%; Candida spp 5 (1,96% e em 23 (9,05% não houve crescimento.

  7. Bovine mastitis Staphylococcus aureus: antibiotic susceptibility profile, resistance genes and molecular typing of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dengfeng; Wang, Zhicai; Yan, Zuoting; Wu, Jianyong; Ali, Tariq; Li, Jianjun; Lv, Yanli; Han, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in dairy animals is of great concern for livestock and public health. The aim of present study was to detect new trends of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) towards antibiotic susceptibility, resistance genes and molecular typing by methods of disc diffusion, multiplex PCR assay and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 219 S. aureus strains were isolated from bovine mastitis cases from six provinces of China, including 34 MRSA strains. The results revealed that more than 70% isolated strains showed resistance to various antibiotics, and multiple-drugs resistance to more than five categories of antibiotics was found more common. The ermC was the most prevalent resistance gene, followed by other genes; however, ermA was the least frequently detected gene. Twenty-eight mecA-negative MRSA and six mecA-positive MRSA strains were detected, and in which three strains were ST97-MRSA-IV, others were ST965-MRSA-IV, ST6-MRSA-IV and ST9-MRSA-SCCmec-NT. The mecA-negative MRSA strains were found resistant to most of the antibiotics, and harbored aac(6')/aph(2''), aph(3')-III and tetM genes higher than MSSA strains. The resistance to most of the antibiotics was significantly higher in MRSA than in MSSA strains. The MLST profiles showed that these strains mainly belonged to CC5, CC398, CC121 and CC50 lineage, especially within ST97 and ST398, while some novel sequence types (ST2154, ST2165 and ST2166) were identified and deposited in the MLST database. This indicates that the resistance of S. aureus is becoming more complicated by changes in multi-drug resistance mechanism and appearance of mecA-negative MRSA isolates, and importantly, MRSA-IV strains in different MLST types are emerging.

  8. PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS PATHOGENS AND THEIR RESISTANCE AGAINST ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS IN AWASSI SHEEP IN AL-BALQA PROVINCE OF JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi D. Hawari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to establish data on mastitis in Awassi Sheep in Al-Balqa Province of Jordan. Milk samples were collected from 260 lactating ewes that selected randomly from eight flocks. California Mastitis Test (CMT gave result with 220 milk samples; 122 samples (55.5% showed positive CMT. Infection with some bacterial species was associated with positive CMT. About 26% of the ewes revealed clinical signs of mastitis. The highest percentage of bacterial count, which range from 3×102 to <3.0 103 cfu mL-1 was founded in the milk samples. The most predominant bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium spp. and Coagulase negative Staphylococci. Sensitivity tests were applied to different isolated strains., Gentamycim, Ampicillin and Tetracycline were the most effective antimicrobial agents against the bacterial isolates.

  9. Misidentification of Streptococcus uberis as a Human Pathogen: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus uberis is an environmental bacterium responsible for bovine mastitis. It is occasionally described as a human pathogen, though in most cases the identification was based on biochemical phenotyping techniques. This report shows that the biochemical phenotyping may incorrectly identify Enterococcus faecium as S. uberis.

  10. Misidentification of Streptococcus uberis as a human pathogen: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Enea Gino; Toma, Luigi; Prignano, Grazia; Pelagalli, Lorella; Police, Andrea; Cavallotti, Claudia; Torelli, Riccardo; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus uberis is an environmental bacterium responsible for bovine mastitis. It is occasionally described as a human pathogen, though in most cases the identification was based on biochemical phenotyping techniques. This report shows that the biochemical phenotyping may incorrectly identify Enterococcus faecium as S. uberis.

  11. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure.

  12. PREVALENCE AND INFECTIOUS ETIOLOGY OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN THE MICROREGION OF CUIABÁ, MT, BRAZIL PREVALÊNCIA E ETIOLOGIA INFECCIOSA DA MASTITE BOVINA NA MICRORREGIÃO DE CUIABÁ-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Prado Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the prevalence and infectious etiology of bovine mastitis in dairy farms of the microregion of Cuiabá, state of  Mato Grosso, Brazil. One hundred eight cows belonging to herds from this microregion were examined. Afterwards, 279 milk samples from mastitic mammary quarters were submitted to microbiological examinations. Among the examined animals, 85.2% were carriers of mastitis in one mammary quarter at least. The percentile of mammary quarters affected by clinical and subclinical mastitis was 5.8 and 65% respectively. Corynebacterium sp. (27.6% and Staphylococcus aureus (21.5% were the major causative agents among the subclinical infections. Among the clinical cases, S. aureus (44.0% and Corynebacterium sp. (12.0% were more frequently isolated. Although the high prevalence of S. aureus and Corynebacterium sp. as mastitis causatives confirms the results obtained in studies developed in other Brazilian regions, the low prevalence of the genus Streptococcus in the cases analyzed disagrees to those records.

    KEY WORDS: Cuiabá-MT, bovine mastitis, microorganisms.
    Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a prevalência e etiologia infecciosa da mastite bovina em propriedades leiteiras da microrregião de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso. Foram examinadas 108 vacas pertencentes a rebanhos desta microrregião. Em seguida, submeteram-se 279 amostras de leite provenientes de quartos mamários mastíticos a provas microbiológicas. Dos animais examinados, 85,2% eram portadores de mastite em pelo menos um quarto mamário. O percentual de quartos mamários afetados pela mastite clínica e subclínica foi de 5,8 e 65%, respectivamente. Quanto à etiologia, nos casos de mastite subclínica os agentes causais mais isolados foram Corynebacterium spp. (27,6% e Staphylococcus aureus (21,5%. Dentre os casos de mastite clínica, isolaram-se com maior freqüência S. aureus (44,0% e Corynebacterium spp. (12,0%. Embora a

  13. Differential expression profiling of proteomes of pathogenic and commensal strains of Staphylococcus aureus using SILAC

    OpenAIRE

    Manickam, Manisha

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the etiological agent of food-borne diseases, skin infections in humans and mastitis in bovines. S. aureus is also known to exist as a commensal on skin, nose and other mucosal surfaces of the host. This symbiotic association is a result of immune dampening or tolerance induced in the host by this pathogen. We proposed the variation in protein expression by commensal and pathogenic strain as an important factor behind the difference in pathogenicity. The i...

  14. Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic methods for epidemiological typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, H. C.; Rosdahl, V. T.

    1995-01-01

    The value of five different typing methods (antibiogram typing, biotyping, phage typing, plasmid profiling and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (ribotyping)), in discriminating 105 Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine milk samples obtained...... from 105 different Danish dairy herds was investigated. A total of 85 strains (81%) proved susceptible to all of the 11 antibiotics tested, and the remaining 20 strains could be divided into 5 different antibiogram patterns. The predominant resistance pattern, penicillin resistance, was observed in 15...... (75%) of the 20 antibiotic resistant strains. Biotyping assigned the strains to 14 different types, with the most common type accounting for 25.7% of the strains. Ninety eight (93.3%) strains could be typed by phages, assigning them to 19 different phage types. The predominant phage type accounted...

  15. Mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii: relato de um caso Clinical bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Um caso de mastite clínica causada por Prototheca zopfii em uma vaca de um rebanho leiteiro localizado na Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais foi estudado. O animal apresentou sinais clínicos nos quartos mamárias anteriores e queda acentuada na produção de leite. Após o diagnóstico inicial, o animal foi observado durante onze meses, do início da manifestação da doença até 12 dias após o parto. Exames microbiológicos do leite foram realizadas aos 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 e 331 dias após o isolamento inicial, sendo os dois últimos exames realizados 7 e 12 dias após o parto. As amostras de P. zopfii isoladas apresentaram resistência in vitro a: ampicilina, canamicina, cefatoridina, enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, neomicina, oxacilina, penicilina, sulfonamidas e trimetoprim x sulfametoxazol. Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade in vitro das amostras de P. zopfii a um produto natural constituído de extrato de sementes de frutas cítricas, obtido comercialmente. A menor concentração que inibiu totalmente a alga foi 1:500. Recomendou-se um tratamento com a diluição a 1:200 do extrato em solução fisiológica estéril contendo timerosal a 1:30.000 como conservante, em doses diárias de 20ml, por via intramamária. O tratamento foi realizado inicialmente durante sete dias. Após este período houve redução, mas não a completa eliminação dos organismos do leite. Foi, então, recomendado mais um período de 15 dias de tratamento, de modo semelhante ao primeiro. Trinta e nove dias após o diagnóstico inicial não foi mais isolado P. zopfii do leite dos quartos afetados e a produção retornou a níveis semelhantes de antes da infecção. Amostras de leite naturalmente infectadas foram congelados a -20°C. Células viáveis de P. zopfii foram recuperadas de amostras mantidas até 38 dias nestas condições.A clinical case of mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in a cow from a dairy herd located in the region of Zona da

  16. Taming C-terminal peptides of Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxin M for B-cell response: Implication in improved subclinical bovine mastitis diagnosis and protective efficacy in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaja, Radhakrishnan Jayasree; Halami, Prakash Motiram

    2016-09-01

    Leukotoxin M/F'-PV (LukM/F'-PV) produced by bovine mastitis causing Staphylococcus aureus structurally comprises three domains, the β-sandwich, rim and stem domain. The rim and stem domains interacting with target cell membrane lipid rafts contributes to the virulent trait of the toxin. In the present study, two facts were hypothesized that neutralization of these domains will ebb LukM/F'-PV leukotoxicity. Secondly, the neutralizing antibodies can improve the leukotoxin detection sensitivity in bovine mastitis milk samples. The in silico mapping of S. aureus LukM C-termini comprising these domains predicted seven linear B-cell antigenic epitopes. The immune response of C-terminal truncated recombinant peptides rCtM19 (19 kDa; near carboxy-terminal) having four epitopes and rCtM15 (15 kDa; C-terminal) with three epitopes were evaluated for their diagnostic and neutralization potential. Anti-rCtM19 and anti-rCtM15 antibodies with enhanced immunogenicity had the most striking outcome in IgG-ELISA for detecting native determinants of leukotoxin. For the obtained ELISA values, ROC curve inferred a cut-off score of >0.102 OD405. The assay sensitivity in the range of 90-96% along with 100% specificity and AUC of 0.93-0.98 categorized subclinical and clinical from healthy bovine milk samples. As observed through in vitro neutralization and LDH assays, C-terminus specific antibodies (1:42 titer) deactivating leukotoxicity abolished LukM from interacting with lipid bilayer and LukF for forming pores on bovine neutrophil membrane. As a proof of concept, it was proved that peptide antibodies can be a more specific serodiagnostic and passive therapeutic molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Retrospective studies of the trends of occurrence of ruminant mastitis pathogens in a veterinary teaching hospital in Northwest, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara N Kwanashie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study to determine the pattern of isolation of mastitis causing organisms from milk samples of cattle, sheep and goats submitted to the Microbiology laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology Ahmadu Bello University Zaria from 1980-1991 and 1999-2009 was conducted. The samples were subjected to cultural isolation and biochemical characterization. The results of the isolates were assembled, reviewed and summarised. A total of 227 milk samples were submitted from cattle (40, sheep (31 and goats (156 respectively, from the years 1980 to 1991 and 1999 to 2009 and subjected to cultural isolation and biochemical characterization. A total of 18 different organisms were isolated from 158 of the samples submitted. Six of the submitted samples were un-typeable while 63 were culture negative i.e showed no growth. The most commonly isolated mastitis causing organisms from all samples were: Staphylococcus aureus (26.51%, Escherichia coli (12.20%, Staphylococcus spp (10.24%, Streptococcus spp (6.63% and Corynebacterium spp (7.32%. Other organisms are, Micrococcus (1.22%, α-hemolytic Streptococcus (1.83%, β- haemolytic Streptococcus (2.42%, Pseudomonas aeroginosa (4.88%, Enterobacter spp (1.83%, Proteus spp (4.89%, Lactobacillus spp (2.42%, Pasteurella spp (4.27%, Klebsiella spp (3.05%, Citrobacter spp (0.61%, Candida albican (0.61%, Flavobacterium spp (0.61%, Bacillus spp (3.67%, Acinetobacter spp (1.20% and Sarcina spp (0.61%. Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant organism isolated from cattle, sheep and goat milk. There was a significant reduction in occurrence of mastitis from 201 (88.55% cases within 1980-1991 and 26 (11.45% cases within 1999-2009.

  18. Identification of Emerging Human Mastitis Pathogens by MALDI-TOF and Assessment of Their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marín

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactational mastitis constitutes one of the main causes of undesired weaning, depriving the mother–infant pair from the benefits of breastfeeding; therefore, this condition should be considered a relevant public health issue. The role of specific microorganisms remains unclear since human milk cultures and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST are not routinely performed, despite the fact that this would be key to ensure an early and effective diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to describe the culturable microbial diversity in 647 milk samples from breastfeeding women with clinical symptoms of mastitis by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF VITEK MS technology and to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a collection of isolates from these samples by the VITEK 2 AST system. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species isolated from mastitis samples (87.6%, while Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 22.1%. Streptococci constituted the second (68.6% most prevalent bacterial group, with Streptococcus mitis/oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus parasanguinis detected with frequencies of 40.8, 36.8, and 14.4%, respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of 642 staphylococcal isolates indicated a remarkable resistance to benzylpenicillin (88.3% and erythromycin (67.3% with differences between species. A high percentage of Staphylococcus isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic (Staphylococcus hominis, 100%; S. epidermidis, 98.2%; S. aureus, 92.9%; Staphylococcus lugdunensis, 90.5% and the percentage of multidrug-resistance (MDR isolates was noticeable (S. hominis, 81%; S. epidermidis, 64.4%; S. aureus, 11.5%; S. lugdunensis, 10.5%. In relation to streptococcal isolates (n = 524, AST revealed high or moderate percentages of resistance to erythromycin (68.7%, benzylpenicillin (63.7%, ampicillin (51.5%, and tetracycline

  19. Fatores de virulência em linhagens de Escherichia coli isoladas de mastite bovina Virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Ribeiro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fatores de virulência e do sorotipo O157:H7 em 120 linhagens de Escherichia coli, isoladas de 80 casos de mastite clínica bovina e 40 de mastite subclínica. Verificou-se alfa-hemolisina em oito (6,7% linhagens, isoladas de cinco casos de mastite clínica e três de mastite subclínica e em nenhuma das estirpes detectou-se enteroemolisina. A presença de sideróforos foi encontrada em 11 (9,2% linhagens, sete de mastite clínica e quatro de subclínica. Em duas (1,7% estirpes isoladas de mastite subclínica, identificou-se enterotoxina STa. Observou-se efeito citopático em células vero compatível com a produção de verotoxina-VT em cinco (4,2% linhagens, duas de mastite clínica e três subclínicas. Em uma (0,8% linhagem isolada de mastite clínica, detectou-se efeito citopático compatível com o fator necrosante citotóxico. Nenhuma estirpe apresentou-se sorbitol-negativa no MacConkey-sorbitol, tampouco aglutinou com o sorotipo O157:H7. Os antimicrobianos mais efetivos foram polimixina B (97,5% e norfloxacina (95,8%. Observou-se multi-resistência a dois ou mais antimicrobianos em 24 (20% estirpes, principalmente com o uso de ampicilina e ceftiofur.The occurrence of different virulence factors and O157:H7 serotype investigation in 120 Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical (80 cases and subclinical (40 cases bovine mastitis was evaluated. Alpha-haemolysin was detected in 8 (6.7% strains (5 clinical and 3 subclinical cases. None strain showed enterohaemolysin production. E. coli growth under iron restriction conditions (siderophores production was observed in 11 (9.2% strains (7 clinical and 4 subclinical cases. STa enterotoxin was detected in 2 (1.7% strains from subclinical cases. Cytotoxic effect in vero cells compatible with verotoxin-VT production was observed in 5 (4.2% strains (2 clinical and 3 subclinical cases. One strain (0.8% isolated from clinical mastitis showed cytophatic effect in vero

  20. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Risco

    Full Text Available Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa, a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes, or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs, was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV, swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures

  1. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  2. Sequencing of Escherichia coli that cause persistent and transient Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomes of two strains of Escherichia coli that cause bovine mastitis were sequenced. These strains are known to be associated with persistent and transient mastitis: strain ECA-B causes a transient infection, and ECC-M leads to a persistent infection....

  3. 奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生规律及其%OCCURANCE REGULARITY OF DAIRY CATTLE'S SUBCLINIC MASTITIS SEPARATING PATHOGENES AND MEDICINE SENSITIZATION TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    双金; 嗄尔迪; 包鹏云; 乌云达来; 刘智利

    2001-01-01

    本文对内蒙古大黑河奶牛场的泌乳牛群进行隐性乳房炎的检测,及其致病菌的分离鉴别与药物敏感试验,其结果:①共检测泌乳牛283头次1078个乳区,隐性乳房炎的头阳性率为61.84%,乳区阳性率为32.28%,并且其发生率与管理、挤奶卫生及其程序、泌乳期、年龄、胎次有很大关系;②致病菌的总检出率为92.31%,其主要病原菌为金黄色葡萄球菌,无乳链球菌和大肠杆菌,分别占总检出率的41.66%、20.83%和16.67%。③对所检出的病菌,一些新特药物敏感性较好,而一些常用药物效果较次。%Experiments of Inner Mongolia Daheihe dairy farm were cmdacted todetermine dairy cattle`s subclinic mastitis,separste pathogenes and medicine sensitization test(STT).The result showed:①283 dairy cattles and 1078 udder reigiones were determined,head positive incidence of subclinic mastitis took up 61.84%,udder region positive incidence was 32.28% and the incidence was connected with management,milking sanitation and program,lactifer period,age and birth obviously.②Pathogenes contained Staphly-Lococcus aureus (41.66%).S.agalactiae(20.83%)and Bacillus Coli(16.67%).The gross detectable rate was 92.31%.③The detected pathogenes were more sensitive to new and special medicines than some usual medicines.

  4. 奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌基因检测技术研究进展%Advances in the Research on Gene Detection Technology of Main Pathogenic Bacteria of Cow Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩旭; 武瑞; 孙东波

    2012-01-01

    Cow mastitis is one of three major disease in cow,bringing serious economic loss,at the same time,indirectly impact on human health. It is very important to pathogens rapid,accurate diagnosis for cow mastitis treatment and prevention. In this paper,the technology of PCR, real-time PCR,gene chip and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology were comprehensive reviewed in the cow mastitis,in order to provide reference to integrated control of mastitis in cows.%奶牛乳房炎是奶牛三大疾病之一,给奶牛业带来严重经济损失的同时,也间接影响人类的健康.奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌快速、准确的诊断对奶牛乳房炎的治疗与预防具有重要的意义.文章全面综述了PCR、real-time PCR、基因芯片和环介导等温扩增(LAMP)技术在奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌诊断中的应用,旨在为奶牛乳房炎的综合防制提供参考.

  5. Clinical characteristics and persistence of bovine mastitis caused by different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci identified with API or AFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taponen, S.; Simojoki, H.; Haveri, M.;

    2006-01-01

    treatment. Mastitis due to P-lactamase-negative CNS was treated with penicillin G and that due to beta-lactamase-positive CNS with cloxacillin. Nineteen percent of the isolates were P-lactamase-positive. The bacterial cure rate for quarters treated with antimicrobials was high, 85.9%, as opposed to only 45......The coagulase-negative staphylococcal species causing mastitis in lactating cattle were identified and possible differences in the clinical characteristics or persistence of mastitis caused by different CNS were evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial treatment was also assessed. In addition, AFLP.......5% for untreated quarters. Bacterial cure rates for the most common CNS species or AFLP clusters were not statistically different. Further studies on identification of CNS species are needed....

  6. Effect of intramammary infusion of recombinant bovine GM-CSF and IL-8 on CMT score, somatic cell count, and milk mononuclear cell populations in Holstein cows with Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, Yoshio; Ozawa, Tomomi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kushibiki, Shiro; Inumaru, Shigeki; Shingu, Hiroyuki; Nagasawa, Yuya; Watanabe, Atsushi; Hata, Eiji; Hayashi, Tomohito

    2017-09-01

    The effect of intramammary infusion of recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rbGM-CSF) and interleukin-8 (rbIL-8) on mononuclear cell populations in quarters, somatic cell count (SCC) and the California Mastitis Test (CMT) score were investigated. From the selected cows with naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis, one quarter of each cow were selected for the infusions of rbGM-CSF (400 μg/5 mL/quarter, n = 9), rbIL-8 (1 mg/5 mL/quarter, n = 9), and phosphate-buffered saline (5 mL/quarter, n = 7). The CMT score of both cytokines post infusion temporarily increased between days 0 and 1 and significantly decreased between days 7 and 14 compared to the preinfusion level. The SCC on day 14 after infusions of rbGM-CSF tended to be lower than that of the control group. The percentage of CD14+ cells increased on days 1 and 2 post infusion of rbGM-CSF. The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells also increased on days 2 and 3, suggesting that the infusion of rbGM-CSF enhanced cellular immunity in the mammary gland. In contrast, the percentage of CD14+ cells decreased on days 0.25 and 1 post infusion of rbIL-8. No significant changes in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in milk after infusion of rbIL-8 were evident during the experimental period, which suggested that rbIL-8 had little effect on the function of T cells in the mammary gland. These results indicated that rbGM-CSF and rbIL-8 decreased the CMT score by a different mechanism and may have a potential as therapeutic agents for subclinical mastitis.

  7. In depth analysis of genes and pathways of the mammary gland involved in the pathogenesis of bovine Escherichia coli-mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Rontved, Christine M.; Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2011-01-01

    .i. to represent the acute phase response (APR) and chronic stage, respectively. Differentially expressed (DE) genes for each stage were analyzed and the DE genes detected at T=24h were also compared to data collected from two previous E. coli mastitis studies that were carried out on post mortem tissue. Results...... of the up-regulated transcripts were associated with tissue healing processes. Comparison of T=24h DE genes detected in the three E. coli mastitis studies revealed 248 were common and mainly involved immune response functions. KEGG pathway analysis indicated these genes were involved in 12 pathways related...

  8. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  9. Primeiro relato no Brasil de mastite necrótica bovina por Clostridium perfringens tipo A First report in Brazil of bovine necrotic mastitis due to Clostridium perfringens type A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Aramuni Gonçalves

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o primeiro caso no Brasil de mastite bovina por Clostridium perfringens tipo A. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por necrose da papila mamária e porção ventral do quarto afetado. O agente foi isolado em cultura pura e identificado como tipo A por PCR a partir do leite do quarto mamário afetado.This report describes a case of bovine mastitis due to Clostridium perfringens type A for first time in Brazil. The unical case showed necrosis of papilla mammary and ventral portion of the affected quarter. The microorganism was isolated in pure culture and identified as type A by PCR from milk of the affected mammary quarter.

  10. Bovine milk proteome: Quantitative changes in normal milk exosomes, milk fat globule membranes and whey proteomes resulting from Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of milk protein composition/expression in healthy cows and cows with mastitis will provide information important for the dairy food industry, mammary biology and immune function in the mammary gland. To facilitate maximum protein discovery, milk was fractioned into whey, milk fat globule ...

  11. Staphylococcus aureus from 152 cases of bovine, ovine and caprine mastitis investigated by Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonier, Dominique; Sobral, Daniel; Feßler, Andrea T; Jacquet, Eric; Gilbert, Florence B; Schwarz, Stefan; Treilles, Michaël; Bouloc, Philippe; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2014-10-02

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in ruminants. In the present retrospective study, we evaluated the potential interest of a previously described automated multiple loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Assay (MLVA) comprising 16 loci as a first line tool to investigate the population structure of S. aureus from mastitis. We determined the genetic diversity of S. aureus strains from cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle (n = 118, of which 16 were methicillin-resistant), sheep (n = 18) and goats (n = 16). The 152 strains could be subdivided into 115 MLVA genotypes (including 14 genotypes for the ovine strains and 15 genotypes for the caprine strains). This corresponds to a discriminatory index (D) value of 0.9936. Comparison with published MLVA data obtained using the same protocol applied to strains from diverse human and animal origins revealed a low number (8.5%) of human-related MLVA genotypes among the present collection. Eighteen percent of the S. aureus mastitis collection belonged to clonal complexes apparently not associated with other pathological conditions. Some of them displayed a relatively low level of diversity in agreement with a restricted ecological niche. These findings provide arguments suggesting that specific S. aureus lineages particularly adapted to ruminant mammary glands have emerged and that MLVA is a convenient tool to provide a broad overview of the population, owing to the availability via internet of databases compiling published MLVA genotypes.

  12. Staphylococcal aureus Enterotoxin C and Enterotoxin-Like L Associated with Post-partum Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Kristina T; Gumpert, Heidi; Olesen, Bente; Larsen, Anders R; Petersen, Andreas; Bangsborg, Jette; Albertsen, Per; Westh, Henrik; Bartels, Mette D

    2017-01-01

    Denmark is a low prevalence country with regard to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In 2008 and 2014, two neonatal wards in the Copenhagen area experienced outbreaks with a typical community acquired MRSA belonging to the same spa type and sequence type (t015:ST45) and both were PVL and ACME negative. In outbreak 1, the isolates harbored SCCmec IVa and in outbreak 2 SCCmec V. The clinical presentation differed between the two outbreaks, as none of five MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 1 had mastitis vs. five of six MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 2 (p < 0.02). To investigate if whole-genome sequencing could identify virulence genes associated with mastitis, t015:ST45 isolates from Denmark (N = 101) were whole-genome sequenced. Sequence analysis confirmed two separate outbreaks with no sign of sustained spread into the community. Analysis of the accessory genome between isolates from the two outbreaks revealed a S. aureus pathogenicity island containing enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L only in isolates from outbreak 2. Enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L carrying S. aureus are associated with bovine mastitis and our findings indicate that these may also be important virulence factors for human mastitis.

  13. Survey of marbofloxacin susceptibility of bacteria isolated from cattle with respiratory disease and mastitis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, S; Galland, D; Guérin-Faublée, V; Giboin, H; Woehrlé-Fontaine, F

    2012-01-01

    A monitoring programme conducted in Europe since 1994 to survey the marbofloxacin susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle has established the susceptibility of bacterial strains isolated before any antibiotic treatment from bovine mastitis and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases between 2002 and 2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by a standardised microdilution technique. For respiratory pathogens, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica isolates (751 and 514 strains, respectively) were highly susceptible to marbofloxacin (MIC≤0.03 µg/ml for 77.39 per cent of the strains) and only 1.75 per cent of M haemolytica strains were resistant (MIC≥4 µg/ml). Histophilus somni isolates (73 strains) were highly susceptible to marbofloxacin (0.008 to 0.06 µg/ml). Mycoplasma bovis MIC (171 strains) ranged from 0.5 to 4 µg/ml. For mastitis pathogens, the majority of Escherichia coli isolates were highly susceptible to marbofloxacin (95.8 per cent of 617 strains). Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (568 and 280 strains) had a homogenous population with MIC centred on 0.25 µg/ml. Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (660 and 217 strains) were moderately susceptible with MIC centred on 1 µg/ml. Marbofloxacin MIC for these various pathogens appeared stable over the seven years of the monitoring programme and was similar to previously published MIC results.

  14. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Borne, B. H. P.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Van Schaik, G.;

    2010-01-01

    of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli during lactation and the dry period in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. Input parameters on cure were obtained from recent Dutch field data. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were....... Changing the probability of cure resulted in a nonlinear change in the cumulative incidence of IMI cases and associated costs. Lactational treatment was able to prevent IMI epidemics in dairy herds at high transmission rates of Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli. Lactational treatment did......This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics...

  15. Screening of medicinal plants for antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis Screening de plantas medicinais com atividade antimicrobiana contra cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa A. N. Diaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative agent of bovine mastitis. The activity of several extracts from ten medicinal plants traditionally used in Brazil as antiseptic was investigated against fifteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals with mastitis manifestation by the disc diffusion method and broth microdilution assay. The interference of the extracts on cell in the form of adherent colonies was also evaluated. MIC values ranged from 0.5 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL and biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC were between 0.25 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL. Results revealed the potential of extracts of Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus and Baccharis dracunculifolia as antibacterial agents against S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis and support the possible use of these phytotherapic agents in the clinical management of the disease.Staphylococcus aureus é o principal agente causador de mastite bovina. A atividade de diversos extratos de dez plantas medicinais tradicionalmente usadas no Brasil como anti-sépticas foi investigada contra quinze cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de animais com manifestação de mastite pelo método de difusão em ágar e ensaio de microdiluição. A interferência dos extratos na célula bacteriana em forma de colônias aderidas também foi avaliada. Os valores de MIC variaram de 0.5 mg/mL a 1.0 mg/mL e a concentração inibitória de biofilme (BIC variou de 0.25 mg/mL a 0.8 mg/mL. Os resultados revelaram o potencial dos extratos de Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus e Baccharis dracunculifolia como agentes antibacterianos contra cepas de S. aureus isolados de mastite bovina e suportam o possível uso destas plantas no manejo clínico da doença.

  16. Carbapenem-resistance and pathogenicity of bovine Acinetobacter indicus-like isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Ursula; Semmler, Torsten; Scheufen, Sandra; Ewers, Christa

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45) from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A. indicus-like. A phylogenetic tree based on partial rpoB sequences indicated closest relation of the two bovine isolates to the A. indicus type strain A648T and human clinical A. indicus isolates, while whole genome comparison revealed considerable intraspecies diversity. High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that both isolates harboured blaOXA-23 localized on the chromosome and surrounded by interrupted Tn2008 transposon structures. Since the pathogenic potential of A. indicus is unknown, pathogenicity was assessed employing the Galleria (G.) mellonella infection model and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay using A549 human lung epithelial cells. Pathogenicity in vivo (G. mellonella killing assay) and in vitro (cytotoxicity assay) of the two A. indicus-like isolates was lower compared to A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and similar to A. lwoffii ATCC 15309. The reduced pathogenicity of A. indicus compared to A. baumannii correlated with the absence of important virulence genes encoding like phospholipase C1+C2, acinetobactin outer membrane protein BauA, RND-type efflux system proteins AdeRS and AdeAB or the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Ata. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and revealing genetic

  17. 山东省某奶牛场奶牛乳房炎的调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis of Bovine Mastitis in A Certain Dairy Farm of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈申秒; 马景霞; 王金生; 朱后顺

    2011-01-01

    This study Investigated the prevalence of mastiffs of 300 dairy cows chosen randomly from a certain farm and isolate and identify the pathogen.As it was demonstrated from the result of the SMT test, the infection rate of mastitis was 49.67% and the positive rate of subclinical mastitis was 32.33%.There is no significant difference(P>0.05) of the incidence rate among the four mammary regions which were distinguished as left anterior, right anterior, left posterior and fight posterior region.The diversity of the incidence rate of different months was quite significant(P<0.001 ).The incidence of mastitis turns out to be much higher when it was in summer and winter.Chi-square test showed that the difference of the incidence rate of the cow was not significant(P=0.3126>0.05)before its first four birth but from then on the incidence tends to be ascending.%随机对某奶牛场的300头奶牛进行乳房炎调查和病原菌的分离鉴定,经SMT试验结果显示,该场奶牛乳房炎感染率49.67%,隐性乳房炎的阳性率占为32.33%,按左前、右前、左后、右后乳区的发病率差异均不显著(P>0.05);不同月份发病率差异极显著(P0.05),但第4胎起发病率升高应引起注意.

  18. CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Cases of Bovine Mastitis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) were obtained from three dairy cows with clinical mastitis in two farms in western Japan. Two of the 3 isolates from cows in different farms were able to transfer plasmids carrying the bla CTX-M-2 gene to Escherichia coli recipient. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the 2 isolates were different from each other, although restricted-fragment patterns of the two conjugative plasmids...

  19. [Studies of Mycoplasma mastitis in cattle. 5. Studies of udder pathogenicity of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma strains of different origins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, H

    1979-01-01

    Isolated acholeplasma laidlawii strains exhibited highly differentiated behaviours regarding their udder pathogenicity. Twelve of 16 tested strains were pathogenic to udder. Symptoms of acute udder inflammation were caused by all ten A. laidlawii strains isolated from differentiated material of calf, but by only two of six strains isolated from differentiated material of cattle. Intracisternal instillation of both strains from milk and one strain each from udder skin or cervical mucus caused merely temporary disorders of secretion. Ultrasonic extracts of A. laidlawii strains, some of them additionally heated, were intracisternally applied, as well. Udder irritation was caused only by those acholeplasma strains which were udder-patha was assumed to be attributable to a toxin of the polysaccharide type. Pathogenicity to udder was recorded also from one M. alkalescens strain isolated from a nose swab taken of cattle as well as from two A. granularum strains isolated from calf lungs.

  20. The distribution and drug resistance of acute mastitis pathogens%急性乳腺炎病原菌分布与耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灵燕; 金璐; 周芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查导致急性乳腺炎感染的病原菌分布及其对常用抗生素的耐药情况以指导临床合理选用抗菌药物.方法 穿刺法收集186例门诊和住院急性乳腺炎患者脓液标本进行细菌分离培养和药敏试验,采用全自动微生物分析仪进行菌种鉴定,药物敏感试验采用K-B纸片法.β-内酰胺酶检测采用头孢硝噻吩纸片法.结果 标本细菌检出率为54.3%(101/186).其中96株为需氧或兼性厌氧菌,以金黄色葡萄球菌为主(81.2%);5株为厌氧菌,均为口腔正常菌群.药敏结果显示葡萄球菌对复方新诺明、红霉素、阿齐霉素及左氧氟沙星有较高耐药率,尤其对青霉素有极高耐药率;而对苯唑西林、二代/三代头孢菌素、丁胺卡那及呋喃妥因较为敏感;未发现万古霉素耐药的菌株.葡萄球菌产β-内酰胺酶率为14.7%,其中凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(MRCNS)产酶率(46.2%)远高于金黄色葡萄球菌(9.8%).此外,MRCNS流行率亦远高于耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA).结论 急性乳腺炎的主要病原菌为金黄色葡萄球菌,其对青霉素高度耐药,但对苯唑西林或二代以上头孢菌素较为敏感.因此,苯唑西林或二代以上头孢菌素是目前治疗急性乳腺炎的首选药物.%Objective To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of acute mastitis pathogens in order to guide the rational use of antibiotics. Methods 186 pus specimens were collected from the outpatients or inpatients with acute mastitis using a sterile needle for bacterial isolation. Automated microbial analyzer was used to identify the bacteria strain, and antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by K-B disk diffusion method, β-lactamases were detected by Nitrocefin slip method. Results The bacterial isolation rate was 54. 3% ( 101/186 ) . 96 strains were aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, of which 81.2% was Staphylococcus aureus. The other 5 strains belong to anaerobic

  1. A literature review of antimicrobial resistance in Pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a critical review of the literature as it pertains to the current status of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle and to provide a concise yet informative narrative on the most relevant publications available. As such, the scientific literature contained in PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB were searched in February of 2014 for articles related to susceptibility testing of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni from cases of BRD. Titles and abstracts were read and 105 articles that were relevant to the subject of BRD antibiotic resistance were attained for further review. After the application of exclusion criterion (publications must have originated from North America, be in English, adhere to standards set forth by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and be concerning antimicrobial resistance in BRD in beef cattle), 16 articles remained and are the focus of this publication. Due to the disparate data from the few studies that investigate susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens, a quantitative assessment or meta-analysis was not performed on the studies presented in this review. However, considering diagnostic lab data, there appears to be a clear trend of a decrease in susceptibility of the three major BRD pathogens to the antimicrobials used commonly for treatment and control of BRD. Studies performing sensitivity testing on healthy cattle report much lower resistance, but it remains unclear if this is because of a true lack of resistance mechanisms, or if the isolates do contain quiescent genes for resistance that are only phenotypically expressed following the administration of an antimicrobial for either treatment or control of BRD. Future research to address this question of genotype and phenotypic expression before and after antimicrobial administration will further advance our knowledge in this area.

  2. Effect of bovine respiratory disease and overall pathogenic disease incidence on carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M D; Thallman, R M; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Casas, E

    2010-02-01

    The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used. The first population included crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 642) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The second population included crossbred steers (GPE8; n = 621) derived from tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds and Bos indicus-influenced breeds: Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano, as well as Hereford and Angus. Treatment records for BRD, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, and infectious pododermatitis were available for these populations. Incidence of BRD was treated as an independent effect. Incidences of the 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were pooled into a single trait to represent overall pathogenic disease incidence. Traits evaluated were HCW; KPH; LM area; marbling score; fat thickness; dressing percentage; yield grade; retail, fat, and bone yields; and meat tenderness. Both BRD and IPD were associated with differences in yield grade in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.004, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Incidence of BRD and IPD were associated with a reduction in fat thickness in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.01, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD also had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.002, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for BRD (P carcass traits should be given consideration by future studies that aim to develop selection strategies based on specific

  3. Prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in the dry period and the determination of their antibiotic sensitivity in Tabriz, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samad Mosaferi; Reza Ghabouli Mehrabani; Mansoor Khakpoor; Nader Ghabouli Mehrabani; Amir Maleksabet; Faezeh Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of mastitis-causing bacteria in the dry period and its antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: In this study, 852 dry cows were examined. A total of 30 cows with clinical mastitis symptoms were detected and their milk samples were collected. In order to purify the bacteria, brain heart infusion and blood agar media were applied and single colonies were used for Gram staining, oxidase and catalase testing, cultivating in O-F medium to determine the genus and species of bacteria. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of isolated bacteria was 2.46%, in which coagulase positive Staphylococcus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast were (9/99)%, (6/66)%, (13/32)%, (3/33%), (6/66)%, (13/32)%, (9/99)% and (6/66)%, respectively. After tests of antibiotic susceptibility, the most and the least sensitivity were reported to enrofloxacin and ampicillin respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that Streptococcus dysgalactiae is the most commonly isolated bacteria with the greatest sensitivity to enrofloxacin and tetracycline which can be used to treat mastitis in the dry period in Tabriz.

  4. Molecular characterization and combined genotype association study of bovine cluster of differentiation 14 gene with clinical mastitis in crossbred dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, A Sakthivel; Gupta, I D; Verma, A; Chaudhari, M V; Magotra, A

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize and to analyze combined genotypes of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) gene to explore its association with clinical mastitis in Karan Fries (KF) cows maintained in the National Dairy Research Institute herd, Karnal. Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected 94 KF lactating cattle by phenol-chloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using six sets of reported gene-specific primers to amplify complete KF CD14 gene. The forward and reverse sequences for each PCR fragments were assembled to form complete sequence for the respective region of KF CD14 gene. The multiple sequence alignments of the edited sequence with the corresponding reference with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1) were performed with ClustalW software to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis was performed to compare the sequence identity of KF CD14 gene with other species. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was carried out in all KF cows using Helicobacter pylori 188I (Hpy188I) (contig 2) and Haemophilus influenzae I (HinfI) (contig 4) restriction enzyme (RE). Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCR-RFLP analysis, and association study was done using Chi-square (χ (2)) test. The genotypes of both contigs (loci) number 2 and 4 were combined with respect to each animal to construct combined genotype patterns. Two types of sequences of KF were obtained: One with 2630 bp having one insertion at 616 nucleotide (nt) position and one deletion at 1117 nt position, and the another sequence was of 2629 bp having only one deletion at 615 nt position. ClustalW, multiple alignments of KF CD14 gene sequence with B. taurus cattle sequence (EU148610.1), revealed 24 nt changes (SNPs). Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with Hpy188I (contig 2) and HinfI (contig 4) RE

  5. Molecular characterization and combined genotype association study of bovine cluster of differentiation 14 gene with clinical mastitis in crossbred dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sakthivel Selvan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize and to analyze combined genotypes of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14 gene to explore its association with clinical mastitis in Karan Fries (KF cows maintained in the National Dairy Research Institute herd, Karnal. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected 94 KF lactating cattle by phenolchloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out using six sets of reported gene-specific primers to amplify complete KF CD14 gene. The forward and reverse sequences for each PCR fragments were assembled to form complete sequence for the respective region of KF CD14 gene. The multiple sequence alignments of the edited sequence with the corresponding reference with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1 were performed with ClustalW software to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis was performed to compare the sequence identity of KF CD14 gene with other species. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis was carried out in all KF cows using Helicobacter pylori 188I (Hpy188I (contig 2 and Haemophilus influenzae I (HinfI (contig 4 restriction enzyme (RE. Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCRRFLP analysis, and association study was done using Chi-square (χ2 test. The genotypes of both contigs (loci number 2 and 4 were combined with respect to each animal to construct combined genotype patterns. Results: Two types of sequences of KF were obtained: One with 2630 bp having one insertion at 616 nucleotide (nt position and one deletion at 1117 nt position, and the another sequence was of 2629 bp having only one deletion at 615 nt position. ClustalW, multiple alignments of KF CD14 gene sequence with B. taurus cattle sequence (EU148610.1, revealed 24 nt changes (SNPs. Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with Hpy188I

  6. Utilização da enrofloxacina (Baytril® no tratamento da mastite bovina estafilocócica Utilization of enrofloxacina (Baytril® on staphylococcal bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Langoni

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A ação da enrofloxacina pela administração via intramamária e sistêmica na mastite bovina subclínica por Staphylococcus aureus foi avaliada. Como tratamento local, infundiram-se, após as ordenhas da manhã e da tarde, 250mg do produto, diluídos em água estéril, a um volume final de 10ml, durante três dias. O tratamento sistêmico constituiu na aplicação de 5mg/kg do produto, pela via intramuscular, uma vez ao dia, durante o mesmo período. A estimativa de cura deu-se através da realização do California Mastitis Test (CMT e do cultivo bacteriano em agar sangue e MacConkey, três semanas após o término do tratamento. Dos 184 quartos acometidos por Staphylococcus aureus, a droga mostrou-se eficiente em 72,0% e 75,0%, pelas vias intramamária e sistêmica, respectivamente. A análise dos resultados mostrou não haver diferença estatística significante, com pThe activity of Enrofloxacina on bovine subclinical mastitis after systemic and intramammary administration was evaluated. As local treatment, 250mg of the product diluted in sterile distilled water to a final volume of 10ml, was infused into the teat during three days. The systemic treatment was performed with 5mg/kg of product administred intramuscularly, once a day, during the same period. The recovery was estimated three weeks after the treatment had finished through California Mastitis Test (CMT and milk culture on blood agar and MacConkey agar. The drug was effective in 72.0% and 75.0% of 184 quarters with Staphylococcus aureus after intramammary and systemic treatments, respectively. Statystical analysis showed no significant differences (p<0.50 between both forms of treatment.

  7. Bovine leukemia virus structural gene vectors are immunogenic and lack pathogenicity in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerova, L; Altanerova, V; Altaner, C; Boris-Lawrie, K

    1999-10-01

    Infection with a replication-competent bovine leukemia virus structural gene vector (BLV SGV) is an innovative vaccination approach to prevent disease by complex retroviruses. Previously we developed BLV SGV that constitutively expresses BLV gag, pol, and env and related cis-acting sequences but lacks tax, rex, RIII, and GIV and most of the BLV long terminal repeat sequences, including the cis-acting Tax and Rex response elements. The novel SGV virus is replication competent and replicates a selectable vector to a titer similar to that of the parental BLV in cell culture. The overall goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that infection with BLV SGV is nonpathogenic in rabbits. BLV infection of rabbits by inoculation of cell-free BLV or cell-associated BLV typically causes an immunodeficiency-like syndrome and death by 1 year postinfection. We sought to evaluate whether in vivo transfection of BLV provirus recapitulates pathogenic BLV infection and to compare BLV and BLV SGV with respect to infection, immunogenicity, and clinical outcome. Three groups of rabbits were subjected to in vivo transfection with BLV, BLV SGV, or negative control DNA. The results of our 20-month study indicate that in vivo transfection of rabbits with BLV recapitulates the fatal BLV infection produced by cell-free or cell-associated BLV. The BLV-infected rabbits exhibited sudden onset of clinical decline and immunodeficiency-like symptoms that culminated in death. BLV and BLV SGV infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells and induced similar levels of seroconversion to BLV structural proteins. However, BLV SGV exhibited a reduced proviral load and did not trigger the immunodeficiency-like syndrome. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that BLV SGV is infectious and immunogenic and lacks BLV pathogenicity in rabbits, and they support the use of this modified proviral vector delivery system for vaccines against complex retroviruses like BLV.

  8. 急性临床型奶牛乳房炎病原菌的分离鉴定与药敏试验%Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pathogens Isolated from Clinical Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 李旭廷; 黄伟; 曹良

    2012-01-01

    Identification,pathogenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility of the pathogens that were isolated from an acute clinical mastitis cow were proceeded in this study.This case of clinical mastitis was caused by Staphyloccocus aureus,Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa mixed infection.Staphyloccocus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed stronger pathogenic to mice.The three bacteria strains had the high antibiotics resistance to the antibiotics used frequently in the veterinary clinical.%本文对一起群发性急性临床型奶牛乳房炎进行了病原分离鉴定、致病性及药敏试验,结果表明该乳房炎是由金黄色葡萄球菌、停乳链球菌和铜绿假单胞菌混合感染引起,其中金黄色葡萄球菌和铜绿假单胞菌对小鼠表现出较强的致病性,三株菌对兽医临床常用抗生素均表现出较强的耐药性。

  9. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  10. Bactericidal and Anti-biofilm Effects of Polyhexamethylene Biguanide in Models of Intracellular and Biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzzaman, Nor F; Chong, Stacy Q Y; Edmondson-Brown, Kamina M; Ntow-Boahene, Winnie; Bardiau, Marjorie; Good, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infection is a common cause of mastitis, reducing milk yield, affecting animal welfare and causing huge economic losses within the dairy industry. In addition to the problem of acquired drug resistance, bacterial invasion into udder cells and the formation of surface biofilms are believed to reduce antibiotic efficacy, leading to treatment failure. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activities of enrofloxacin, an antibiotic that is commonly used in mastitis therapy and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), an antimicrobial polymer. The antimicrobial activities were tested against intracellular S. aureus in infected Mac-T cells (host cells). Also, fluorescein-tagged PHMB was used to study PHMB uptake and localization with S. aureus within the infected Mac-T cells. Anti-biofilm activities were tested by treating S. aureus biofilms and measuring effects on biofilm mass in vitro. Enrofloxacin and PHMB at 15 mg/L killed between 42 to 92 and 99.9% of intracellular S. aureus, respectively. PHMB-FITC entered and colocalized with the intracellular S. aureus, suggesting direct interaction of the drug with the bacteria inside the host cells. Enrofloxacin and PHMB at 15 mg/L reduced between 10 to 27% and 28 to 37% of biofilms' mass, respectively. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) obtained from a cytotoxicity assay were 345 ± 91 and 21 ± 2 mg/L for enrofloxacin and PHMB, respectively; therefore, both compounds were tolerated by the host cells at high concentrations. These findings suggest that both antimicrobials are effective against intracellular S. aureus and can disrupt biofilm structures, with PHMB being more potent against intracellular S. aureus, highlighting the potential application of PHMB in mastitis therapy.

  11. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

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    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  12. How to Evaluate Efficacy of Staphylococcus Aureus Vaccines for Bovine Mastitis%如何进行奶牛乳房炎金黄色葡萄球菌疫苗的合理评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭荣; 李建喜; 王小辉; 李宏胜; 杨志强; 孟嘉仁

    2011-01-01

    奶牛乳房炎是造成全球奶业经济损失的主要原因,而金黄色葡萄球菌是最主要的病原菌。本文系统、直观地对研究奶牛乳房炎金黄色葡萄球菌疫苗的科研结论进行量化总结和评估,目的是为奶牛乳房炎疫苗的研发提供新思路,为设计合理的奶牛乳房炎疫苗给动物评估试验方案提供科学依据。本文在Pubmed、Science数据库和CNKI数据库对"奶牛乳房炎疫苗"类的文章进行了合理的电子检索,然后对细菌疫苗、细菌类毒素疫苗、DNA-重组蛋白疫苗、单一的重组蛋白疫苗等方面的科研论文从试验设计、方法、疫苗类型和研究结果 4个方面进行了全面的分析。结果表明,采用DNA、重组蛋白新技术的疫苗和传统的细菌疫苗已取得良好效果,疫苗可以成为预防和控制金黄色葡萄球菌性奶牛乳房炎的最好或最有前景的一种途径。但是研究方法差异和双盲试验的缺乏阻碍对疫苗效果的合理评估。%Bovine mastitis is the main cause of economic loss in milk production worldwide and Staphylococcus aureus is the agent most frequently associated with the disease.The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of vaccines for bovine mastitis caused by S.aureus and suggest the immunotherapeutic protocols that have achieved the best and/or most promising results.An electronic search was made of the PubMed and Web of Science databases as well as CNKI database.Only studies that tested vaccines in vivo in cows were included.The experimental design,methodological quality,type of vaccine and results of the studies were analyzed.In general,bacterin-toxoid vaccines,vaccines of DNA-recombinant protein and single recombinant protein were investigated in the studies selected.This systematic review suggests that vaccines that employ new technologies(DNA and/or recombinant protein vaccines) and some long-standing bacterins have achieved good results

  13. Profilaxis, immunoprophylaxis and therapy of staphylococcal mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis, in cows presents one of the most acute problems in intensive milk production, incurring huge economic losses which reach from 20-80% even in developed countries in the past decade. On the grounds of the programme of the respective Ministry, the Veterinary Service of the Republic of Serbia is obliged to monitor, detect, curb and control infective inflammation of the mammary gland caused by staphylococcus and streptococcus. Long-term different approaches to mastitis treatment did not result in the required solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. In order to prevent the infiltration of the pathogenic cause into the mammary gland, its populating and multiplication, it is necessary to maintain constant and regular controls of milk, as well as undertake of preventive and therapeutic measures aimed at reducing the incidence of mastitis. Immunization and immunotherapy of mastitis are new and very interesting areas for scientific investigations and work. In the recent decades vaccines against staphylococcal mastitis are being successfully developed, whose success is reflected in the reduced incidence of clinical and subcilinical mastitis.

  14. [Pathogenic role of strains of specific Escherichia coli serotypes in the development of mastitis in cows. I. Clinical course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, E

    1984-01-01

    The studies were carried out on 14 cows. For infection of the cows pathogenic (from the field) E. coli strains from the serological groups: 093, 010,086 and non pathogenic strains (museum) belonging to serogroups: 0132, 0120, 093 were used. The microorganisms of each group were injected into the udders of two cows. Two successive cows were injected into the udders E. coli endotoxin (group 093). In 6 hr after infusion of the strain or endotoxin, the experimental quarters were swollen, reddened, became hot, painful and hard. The internal temperature values (40,9-41,7 degrees C), pulse rate (100-120) and breathing rate (over 40) rapidly increased. The animals stopped taking food and ruminating. There appeared convulsions, serous discharges from the nose and eyes, sialorrhea, diarrhea. Then the general symptoms disappeared after 9 hr in cows which received endotoxin, and after 12 hr in cows infected with the museum strains. However, the cows infected with the field E. coli strains showed a very weak appetite for 2-4 days, despite the temperature dropped. After the general symptoms disappeared, changes in the experimental udder quarters were intensified and then they were observed to retreat. During 10 days the disease symptoms disappeared in the cows which were given endotoxin. These symptoms persisted longer (up to 14 days) in cows infected with the museum strains. However, in cows infected with the field strains (particularly from group 093) the inflammatory state in the udder lasted till the end of 14-day observation.

  15. Antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles along with protein synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cattle mastitis

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    Malahat Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen in dairy ruminants which is also found in healthy carriage and can be a major cause of mastitis. Various mastitis control programs have been used to combat the problem but have not always been efficient. In most countries, antibiotic resistance is extremely common. Silver nanoparticles have shown antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. In the present study the effect of silver nanoparticles on S. aureus isolated from cattle mastitis along with antibiotics of operative on protein bacterial synthesis investigated. Materials and methods: Three hundred eleven milk samples were collected from the cow farms. Each milk sample was cultured on mannitol salt agar and was incubated. A total of 72 isolates of S. aureus were isolated from the bovine mastitis milk samples. S. aureus DNA extracted by DNA purification kit according to the manufacturer protocol. 58 isolates were confirmed as S. aureus by biochemical tests as well as nuc gene detection. MIC and MBC determined for silver nanoparticles with antibiotics on 50 isolates. Results: The resistance of S. aureus isolates against erythromycin, gentamicin, streptomycin and doxycycline were 100, 22, 100 and 8%, respectively. 8 of all isolates were sensitive to 25 µg/ml concentration of silver nanoparticles. The 92% growth of the samples were inhibited at concentrations between 50-100 µg/ml. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that antibiotics which can inhibit protein synthesis have significant synergistic effect along with silver nanoparticles.

  16. L-lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activities in bovine milk as indicators of non-specific mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagunda, Mizeck Gg; Larsen, Torben; Bjerring, Martin; Ingvartsen, Klaus L

    2006-11-01

    Systematic factors affecting the activities of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and somatic cell count (SCC), the association between the activities of LDH and NAGase and SCC with respect to udder health status, and the ability of LDH and NAGase to classify cows in udder health categories for early detection of mastitis were studied. A dataset of records from 74 Danish Holstein, 76 Danish Red and 47 Jersey cows on one research farm was used. Cows were grouped into healthy and clinically mastitic. A healthy cow was defined as having no veterinary treatment and SCCmastitis and SCC >800,000 cells/ml. Breed, month of production, and days in milk significantly influenced (Pmastitis. NAGase activity had numerically higher variation in healthy cows than in clinically mastitic cows (CV=56.2% v. CV=53.5%). The relationship between LDH activity and SCC was stronger in milk from clinically mastitic than from healthy cows (r=0.76 v. r=0.48 and r=0.67 v. r=0.44 for correlation of observed values and residuals, respectively). LDH activity had higher sensitivity than NAGase activity (73-95% v. 35-77%) while specificities were in a similar range (92-99%). Further, sensitivities for LDH activity were more robust to changes in the threshold value than those for NAGase activity. Opportunities for automated, in-line real-time mastitis detection are discussed.

  17. Establishment of a Detection Approach of 4 Major Cow Mastitis Pathogens via PCR-Pyrosequencing Technology%PCR-焦磷酸测序技术检测奶牛乳房炎4种主要致病菌方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    剧慧栋; 李月颖; 张乐祎; 李秀娟; 赵宝华; 徐保红

    2012-01-01

    Via PCR-pyrosequencing technology, a new rapid method to detect and identify Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, Salmonella sp. and Slaphylococcus aureus, 4 major cow mastitis pathogens was established. According to the conserved sequences retrieved from CenBank of sip of Streptococcus agalactiae, Up of S. dysgalactiae, sin of Salmonella sp. and clfa of Staphylococcus aureus, two amplification primers and one sequencing primer were designed for each gene accordingly. Using all the above pairs of amplification primers in turn, target gene fragments were amplified by PCR from 108 S. agalactiae strains, 100 5. dysgalactiae strains, 136 SaL sp. strains, 203 St. aureus strains and several other reference strains. Then, sequence the conserved regions of the positive PCR products by pyrosequencing technology. Finally, the PCR and pyrosequencing results of all the target strains and reference strains were as expected, and the repeatability was credible. PCR-pyrosequencing technology was applicable to detect and identify the above-mentioned 4 major bovine mastitis pathogens. The method had good points of accuracy and rapidity.%应用PCR-焦磷酸测序技术(pyrosequencing)一种新型快速检测奶牛乳房炎(bovine mastitis)4种主要致病菌无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)、停乳链球菌(S.dysgalactiae)、沙门氏菌(Salmonella sp.)和金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)的方法.根据GenBank中无乳链球菌的sip基因、停乳链球菌的isp基因、沙门氏菌的stn基因和金黄色葡萄球菌的clfa基因的序列信息,分别设计各基因保守区段的PCR扩增引物及焦磷酸测序引物.分别以108株无乳链球菌、100株停乳链球菌、136株沙门氏菌、203株金黄色葡萄球菌,以及多株其他参照菌为模板,轮流使用上述各扩增引物进行PCR扩增目的基因片段.随后采用焦磷酸测序技术针对阳性PCR扩增片段进行核苷酸保守区段的测序分析.最终得到预期的PCR扩

  18. Isolation and Identification of Main Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Hu Sheep Mastitis%河南某湖羊场乳房炎的病原菌分离鉴定及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 王改玲; 赵泽慧; 何晓丽; 许立华

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to understand the mastitis incidence in a Hu sheep farm,identify the main path-ogenic bacteria and determine drug resistance,finally provide theoretical basis and scientific guidance for the prevention and treatment of Hu sheep mastitis.The bacteria were isolated from milk samples and iden-tified and the drug sensitivity test was conducted.The result showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Esch-erichia coli in 30 strains of isolated bacteria were the main pathogens in Hu sheep mastitis,including 8 strains of Staphylococcus for 26.7% and 22 strains of Escherichia coli for 73.3%.Drug sensitivity test showed that two kinds of pathogens were highly sensitive to florfenicol and doxycycline,but resistant to amoxicillin,spectinomycin and pefloxacin.According to the results,the measures were made for treatment and prevention of mastitis in this Hu sheep farm.%以某湖羊场发生的乳房炎病例为对象,通过细菌分离鉴定及生化试验,并对所分离的菌株进行药物敏感试验,确定主要致病菌及其耐药特性,为该场湖羊乳房炎的预防和治疗提供理论依据和科学指导。试验共分离得到30株细菌,其中葡萄球菌8株,占26.7%;大肠埃希菌22株,占73.3%。检测结果显示,葡萄球菌和大肠埃希菌是导致该场湖羊乳房炎的主要病原菌。药敏试验结果显示,这两种病菌对氟苯尼考、头孢噻呋钠和多西环素高度敏感,而对阿莫西林、大观霉素和培氟沙星等有耐药性。在此基础上,制定出针对该羊场湖羊乳房炎的相应治疗及预防措施。

  19. 昆明地区奶牛临床型乳房炎病原菌分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation,identification and drug sensitivity of pathogen causingbovine clinical mastitis in Kunming area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 荀来武; 杨玉艾; 王桂瑛

    2012-01-01

    对昆明地区多个奶牛场的奶牛临床型乳房炎病原菌进行分离、鉴定,从114份乳样中共分离出细菌13种305株,经培养特性、染色镜检、生化鉴定等,鉴定出金黄色葡萄球菌63株,占20.66%;表皮葡萄球菌26株,占8.52%;无乳链球菌53株,占17.38%;停乳链球菌23株,占7.54%;乳房链球菌19株,占6.23%;乳链球菌14株,占4.59%;粪链球菌15株,占4.92%;化脓链球菌14株,占4.59%;大肠杆菌48株,占15.74%;真菌12株,占3.93%。分别对分离菌株进行17种药物的敏感性试验,除真菌外,所有菌株对庆大霉素、新霉素、环丙沙星、诺氟沙星、林可霉素、乳肿康均高度敏感,对临床常用的青霉素、链霉素、鱼腥草等具有较强的耐药性。%305 strains of pathogen causing bovine clinical mastitis in Kunming area was isolated from 114 milk samples and belonged to 13 species after cultivation,staining identification and biochemical test.Among these pathogen,Staphylococcus aureus was 63 strains(20.66%),Staphylococcus epidermidis was 26 strains(8.52%),Streptococcus agalactiae was 53 strains(17.38%),Streptococcus dysgalactiae was 23 strains(7.54%),Streptococcus uberis was 19 strains(6.23%),Streptococcus lactis was 14 strains(4.59%),Streptococcus faecium was 15 strains(4.92%),Streptococcus pyogenes was 14 strains(4.59%),Escherichia coli was 48 strains(15.74%)and the fungus was 12 strains(3.93%).Drug sensitive test showed that all bacteria except the fungus were sensitive to Gentamicin,Neomycin,Ciprofloxacin,Norfloxacin,Lincomycin etc.,and resistant to Penicilin,Streptomycin and Houttuynia cordata.

  20. Evaluation of a simplified key for the identification of coagulasepositive Staphylococcus isolated from bovine mastitis = Avaliação de uma chave de identificação simplificada para Staphylococcus coagulase-positivos isolados de mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses de Pádua Pereira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of a simplified key for the identification of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus isolated from bovine mastitis. Three hundred fourty four strains of coagulasepositive Staphylococcus (CPS, isolated from mastitis cases, underwent phenotypic and genotypictests to evaluate the efficiency of a simplified key, based on phenotypic tests for the discrimination of these microorganisms. The tests consisted of amplification of the femA gene and hemolysis in blood agar, production of acetoin and fermentation of maltose, mannitol and trehalose. Strains that showed negative results in the amplification test of the femA gene or that were not identified as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus by phenotypic tests were tested with the APISTAPH kit (Biomériux-France, for precise identification of species. Phenotypic tests revealed 338 strains (98.25% as S. aureus, three strains (0.86% as Staphylococcus hyicus, and threemicroorganisms (0.86% as Staphylococcus intermedius. PCR demonstrated that 338 (98.25% strains belonged to the S. aureus species, confirming the results for 336 strains from 338 identified, through a simplified phenotypic key. A high rate of correlation (98.83% was verifeid between the results of genotypic and phenotypic tests for the identification of S. aureus, demonstrating the applicability of the proposed key, for the discrimination of this microorganism in CPS isolated from bovine mastitis.Visando testar a eficiência de uma chave simplificada baseada em testes fenotípicos para a discriminação de Staphylocococcus coagulasepositivos (SCP isolados de infecções intramamárias de bovinos, 344 amostras destes microrganismos foram submetidas a testes fenotípicos e genotípicos. Estes consistiram na amplificação do gene femA, na observação de hemólise em ágar sangue, produção de acetoína efermentação de maltose, manitol e trealose. Amostras que apresentaram resultado negativo na amplificação do gene femA ou que foram

  1. 重组溶菌酶质粒pcDNAKLYZ治疗泌乳期奶牛乳房炎%The Treatment of Lactating Bovine Mastitis by Using Recombinant Plasmid pcDNAKLYZ Containing Lysozyme Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈诚; 林源; 叶承荣; 金耀忠; 俞向前; 孙怀昌; 朱建国

    2011-01-01

    通过比较注射人溶菌酶重组质粒pcDNAKLYZ的隐性乳房炎奶牛注射前后的奶样中细菌计数结果,对重组溶菌酶基因工程质粒治疗奶牛乳房炎的效果进行分析.对乳房炎患牛的156个乳区治疗前后312份奶样进行细菌培养,其中在注射前的乳样的培养结果中,阴性率为0(0/156),菌落数在50以内的比率为12.82%(20/156),在51~100的比率为16.67%(26/156),大于等于100的比率为70.51%(110/150);在注射人溶菌酶的重组质粒pcDNAKLYz后的奶牛乳样的培养结果中,阴性率为51.92%(81/156),菌落数在50以内的比率为45.51%(71/156),菌落数在51~100的比率为0%(0/156),大于等于100的比率为2.56%(4/156).因此,从细菌计数结果来看,重组质粒组的阴性及小于50的比率(97.44%)远高于治疗前(12.82%),重组质粒的抑菌效果显著(P<0.05),该重组质粒对奶牛乳房炎具有较好的治疗效果.%To analysis the curative effect to bovine mastitis by using the recombinant plasmid pcDNAKLYZ containing lysozyme gene, We make several bacterial cultures with 312 parts of milk samples collected from 156 mammary area of cattle infected with subclinical or clinical mastitis to compare the bacterial colonies between the pre-and-post-injection of the recombinant plasmid. In the sample of pre-injection, the culture result showing negative result of samples accounts for 0(0/156), the number of samples showing bacterial colonies from 1 to 50 accounts for 12.82%(20/156), the number of samples showing bacterial colonies from 51 to 100 accounts for 16.67% (26/156), the number of samples show bacterial colonies above 100 accounts for 70.51% (110/156); In the post-injection sample, the culture result showing negative result of samples accounts for 51.92%(81/156), the number of samples showing bacterial colonies from 1 to 50 accounts for 45.51%(71/156), the number of samples showing bacterial colonies from 51 to 100 accounts for 0(0/156), the number of samples

  2. Isolation rates and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapy failure in the management of mastitis could result from pathological changes that occur in the udder, aetiology related factors ... pathogens causing mastitis and evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of ..... Saunders Company.

  3. Quantification of bovine oxylipids during intramammary Streptococcus uberis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus uberis mastitis results in severe mammary tissue damage in dairy cows due to uncontrolled inflammation. Oxylipids are potent lipid mediators that orchestrate pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, however, changes in oxylipid biosynthesis during S. uberis mastitis are unknown. Thus, ...

  4. Associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbo, T; Ruegg, P L; Stocco, G; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Pasotto, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-03-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven coagulation traits were measured: 5 traditional milk coagulation properties [time from rennet addition to milk gelation (RCT, min), curd-firming rate as the time to a curd firmness (CF) of 20 mm (k20, min), and CF at 30, 45, and 60 min from rennet addition (a30, a45, and a60, mm)], and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time (CFP, mm), curd-firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), curd syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), modeled RCT (RCTeq, min), maximum CF value (CFmax, mm), and time at CFmax (tmax, min)]. We also measured 3 cheese yield traits, expressing the weights of total fresh curd (%CYCURD), dry matter (%CYSOLIDS), and water (%CYWATER) in the curd as percentages of the weight of the processed milk, and 4 nutrient recovery traits (RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY), representing the percentage ratio between each nutrient in the curd and milk. Milk samples with SCC > 100,000 cells/mL were subjected to bacteriological examination. All samples were divided into 7 clusters of udder health (UH) status: healthy (cows with milk SCC cheese production was observed in the 2 UH status groups with the highest milk SCC (i.e., contagious IMI and culture-negative samples with high SCC), revealing a discrepancy

  5. Isolation, Identification and Drug Sensitivity Test of the Pathogenic Bacteria of Cow Subclinical Mastitis in Dalian Area%大连地区奶牛隐性乳房炎主要病原菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海勇; 韩国华; 崔京春

    2011-01-01

    In order to clarify the major pathogenic bacteria and the incidence of cow subclinical mastitis in Dalian area,256 cows of the different lactation time were investigated from different areas of Dalian. The major pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from the milk samples of the subclinical mastitis in dairy cows, and the susceptibility to antibiotics for the major pathogenic bacteria was tested. The results showed that the positive rate of subclinical mastitis was 65. 63% and the mammary region positive rate of subclinical mastitis was 51. 95% in the tested cows; Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli were the major pathogenic bacteria causing cow subclinical mastitis,and the cases of cow subclinical mastitis caused with this three kinds of pathogenic bacteria were 83. 33 % ; the hypersensitive antibiotics to the major pathogenic bacteria of cow subclinical mastitis were screened by the drug sensitivity test in vitro, these hypersensitive antibiotics could efficiently treat cow subclinical mastitis in Dalian area.%为了明确引起大连地区奶牛隐性乳房炎的主要病原菌及其发病情况,对大连市不同地区的256头黑白花泌乳奶牛进行调查研究,对奶牛隐性乳房炎奶样进行病原菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验.结果表明,检出奶牛隐性乳房炎阳性率为65.63%、乳区阳性率为51.95%;病原菌以金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、链球菌(Streptococcus)和大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)为主,占检出细菌总数的83.33%;体外药敏试验筛选出了对主要病原菌高度敏感的药物,能有效地治疗奶牛隐性乳房炎.

  6. Isolation of microbial pathogens of subclinical mastitis from raw sheep's milk of Epirus (Greece) and their role in its hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Voidarou, Ch; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Avgeris, I; Bezirtzoglou, E; Akrida-Demertzi, K; Demertzis, P G

    2011-12-01

    The natural raw milk microflora is a factor that expresses its sensorial characteristics. The microbial charge into the mammary gland of healthy animal is low and the application of right and healthy conditions during milking and cheese making procedure, prevents from contaminating as well as maintains the natural microflora in order to lend the particular characteristics of milk. The purpose of the present project was the study of the Total Viable Count (T.V.C.) and the count of total psychrotropic bacteria of raw sheep milk from Boutsiko and Karamaniko breeds, collected from healthy animals, as well as the isolation, identification and enumeration of pathogenic bacteria related with the hygiene and the quality of raw sheep milk (with a particular interest in bacteria that may cause human infection). During the experiment we examined two hundred forty (240) samples of raw sheep milk. In these samples a) Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens (vegetative cells and spores) and Bacillus sp. were isolated and identified b) the Total Viable Count and the total number of psychrotropic bacteria were also specified. The sampling, the preparation of samples and decimal dilutions were based on international methods. The Total viable count was determined using the standard methods of the American Public Health Association, 2002. The total number of psychrotropic bacteria was determined using APHA 1976, 1978 rules. The identification of the bacteria was carried out according to the Bergey's manual. Microscopic examination of Gram stained cells, catalase, oxidase and biochemical tests were performed when necessary to further identify. From the 240 milk samples tested, only 5% were E. coli positive, with mean counts ranged from 2 × 10(3) to 2.4 × 10(4) cfu/ml. S. aureus was isolated from 24% of the samples and the mean count per ml was ranged from milk samples such as Salmonella, which was only detected in 5% of the samples. Listeria

  7. CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saishu, Nobukazu; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2014-08-01

    Three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) were obtained from three dairy cows with clinical mastitis in two farms in western Japan. Two of the 3 isolates from cows in different farms were able to transfer plasmids carrying the blaCTX-M-2 gene to Escherichia coli recipient. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the 2 isolates were different from each other, although restricted-fragment patterns of the two conjugative plasmids were similar to each other. Additionally, PCR-based replicon typing revealed that both the plasmids belonged to type Inc.T. These results suggest that ESBL-encoding genes can be distributed in bacteria on dairy farms through the plasmids.

  8. Stochastic bio—economic modeling of mastitis in Ethiopian dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getaneh, Abraham Mekibeb; Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that is considered to be one of the most frequent and costly diseases in the dairy industry. Also in Ethiopia, bovine mastitis is one of the most frequently encountered diseases of dairy cows. However, there was no study, so far, regarding the costs

  9. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research

  10. 奶牛乳房炎病原分离鉴定及其治疗方法研究%Contrast Study on Treatment Methods of Isolation and Identification of Dairy Cattle Mastitis Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡菊梅; 温嘉琪; 郑晓培; 王娟

    2012-01-01

    In order to formulate prevention and treatment measures for dairy cattle mastitis,50 mastitis samples from 6 different dairy farms in Tianshui area were collected and pathogen isolation,identification and drug sensitive test,106 strains of bacteria belong to 3 categories were isolated.They were showed as follows,Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus epidermidis,Staphylococcus saprophyticus,Staphylococcus haemolyticus,Streptococcus agalactiae,Streptococcus breast,stop Streptococcus agalactiae,Escherichia coli,Salmonella,sand Ray and Proteus bacteria.The detection rate of Staphylococcus aureus was 24.5%,the highest of them.Meanwhile,treatment effects of different measures were compared.Therefore,therapy of combining traditional Chinese and Western medicine is the better measure to cure mastitis,which has high cure rate and quick effect.%为进一步制定奶牛乳房炎的防治措施,对天水地区6个不同奶牛场50份乳房炎奶样,进行病原分离、鉴定和药敏试验,共分离得到3类106株细菌,分别为:金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌、溶血葡萄球菌、无乳链球菌、乳房链球菌、停乳链球菌、大肠杆菌、沙门菌、沙雷菌和变形杆菌。金黄色葡萄球菌检出率最高,为24.5%。同时比较了不同治疗方法对奶牛乳房炎的治疗效果,认为中西医结合治疗乳房炎,其治愈率高,见效快。

  11. 牛源耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的检测%Detection of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏洋; 蒲万霞; 邓海平; 李春慧; 梁红雁; 陈智华

    2013-01-01

    本研究旨在了解甘肃地区奶牛乳房炎金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药性和耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的感染情况,为奶牛乳房炎的防制提供理论依据.采用KB纸片扩散法,检测17株金黄色葡萄球菌对8种不同抗菌药物的敏感性;再用琼脂稀释法检测了苯唑西林、万古霉素对金黄色葡萄球菌的最小抑菌浓度(MICs);头孢西丁纸片扩散法和PCR扩增特异性mecA耐药基因对所有受试菌株进行全面的耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌检测.结果表明,菌株对青霉素、磺胺异恶唑具有较强抗性,而对环丙沙星、头孢唑啉、万古霉素和苯唑西林全敏感;头孢西丁纸片扩散法未能检测出表型为MRSA的阳性菌株,而PCR方法却检测出8株mecA基因阳性菌株,且这些菌株的苯唑西林MIC均小于2μg/mL.菌株的耐药情况较严重,对甲氧西林敏感而携带mecA基因的菌株高频存在于被调查地区的奶牛场中.%The aim of present study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from bovine mastitis in Gansu province, to provide credible theory evidence for prevention and treatment on bovine mastitis. Eight commonly used antimicrobial agents were used for determining antimicrobial susceptibility of 17 total S. aureus strains by disk diffusion method. Agar screen method was used for determining the oxacil-lin and vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration value as well. Disk diffusion method using the cephamycin antibiotics ce-foxitin and detection of mecA gene by PCR assay were performed to detect the presence of MRSA. Most of strains showed a high resistance for penicillin and sulfafurazole, yet keeping complete sensitivity for ciprofloxacin, cefazolin, vancomycin and ox-acillin. None MRS A isolate was identified by the phenotypic detection method, but eight MRSA isolates with the MIC of oxac-illin lower than 2 μg/mL were

  12. Evaluation of automatic mastitis detection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre-Egziabher, A; Wood, H C; Robar, J D; Blankenagel, G

    1979-07-01

    An electronic sensor was evaluated as an instrument for early detection of mastitis. This method involved measuring the conductivity of milk continuously throughout the milking process and then establishing a conductivity ratio. The lowest conductivity measurement of the four quarters was a basis for assessing the degree of mastitis in the other quarters. This assumed that at least one of the quarters was normal at examination and the lowest reading was normal conductivity. The conductivity ratio was evaluated by comparison with the leukocyte concentration and combined leukocyte concentrations and cultural examiniations of milk samples from 1028 quarters. In healthy cows conductivities of milk from each of the quarters were similar. If, however, one or more quarters were infected, this milk showed higher conductivity compared to the noninfected quarter of the same cow. The conductivity ratio correctly identified 69% of the established cases of mastitis. For the Wisconsin Mastitis Test, 93.2% of the normal quarters were detected correctly by the conductivity ratio. Leukocyte counts were frequently high when there was no other evidence of mastitis. We believe the conductivity ratio is effective in detecting mastitis at an early stage of infection caused by most of the pathogenic microorganisms.

  13. Evaluation of a postmilking teat disinfectant containing a phenolic combination for the prevention of mastitis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Lewis, M J; Gillespie, B E; Ivey, S J; Coleman, L H; Almeida, R A; Fang, W; Lamar, K

    1999-11-01

    A trial was conducted for 12 months in a herd of 120 Holstein cows in order to determine the efficacy of a teat disinfectant, which contained a phenolic combination, for the prevention of bovine intramammary infections during lactation. Postmilking teat disinfection was compared to a negative control using a split-udder experimental design. The percentage of quarters newly infected by mastitis pathogens was 45% lower in mammary glands with teats that had been dipped in the experimental teat disinfectant after milking than it was in undipped controls. New infections caused by Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, and Corynebacterium bovis were significantly lower in mammary glands with teats that had been dipped in the experimental teat disinfectant than in undipped controls. No statistical differences in the incidence of clinical mastitis between treatment groups were observed. No irritation or chapping of teats dipped in the experimental teat disinfectant were observed. The results of this study suggest that the experimental teat disinfectant containing a phenolic combination is an effective postmilking teat disinfectant for use in the prevention of new intramammary infections by both contagious and environmental mastitis pathogens.

  14. 临沂市奶牛乳房炎病原菌的分离鉴定与药敏试验%Isolation, identification and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria causing dairy cattle mastitis in Linyi city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振

    2011-01-01

    目的 为弄清临沂市奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌种类及其药物敏感情况,为科学防治本病提供依据.方法 采集患乳房炎奶牛的乳样进行细菌分离鉴定,并对主要病原菌做药敏试验.结果 从115份乳样中,分离出6种127株病原菌,其中金黄色葡萄球菌46株,占36.22%,无乳链球菌33株,占25.98%,停乳链球菌21株,占16.53%,大肠埃希菌17株,占13.39%,乳房链球菌8株,占6.3%,沙门菌2株,占1.57%;主要病原菌均对头孢喹诺和左氧氟沙星高度敏感.结论 临沂市奶牛乳房炎主要致病菌为金黄色葡萄球菌、链球菌和大肠埃希菌.首选药物为头孢喹诺和左氧氟沙星.因此,治疗奶牛乳房炎应通过药敏试验,合理地选择药物.%Objective To explore the main pathogenic bacteria causing dairy cow mastitis, identify the susceptivity of main pathogens to antibacterials in Linyi city, and provide scientific basis for the treatment of this disease.Method Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the milk of cows suffered from mastitis and identified.Then drug sensitivity test was performed.Result 6 kinds of pathogenic bacteria (127 strains) were isolated from 115 milk samples.46 strains among them were Staphylococcus aureus (36.22 % ), 33 strains were Streptococcus agalactiae (25.98%), 21 strains were Streptococcus dysgalactiae (16.53% ), 17 strains were Escherichia coli (13.39% ), 8 strains were Streptococcus uberis (6.3%), 2 strains were Salmonellas (1.57%).The main pathogenic bacteria showed high sensitivity to Cefquinome, Levofloxacin.Conclusion The main pathogens causing dairy cow mastitis are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus and Escherichial coli chosen based on in Linyi city.They are all highly sensitive to Cefquinome and Levofloxacin.Therefore, the drugs that treat dairy cow mastitis shall be chosen based on drug sensitivity test.

  15. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  16. The Comparison of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Fish and Bovine using Multilocus Sequence Typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has greater utility for determining the recent ancestral lineage and the relatedness of individual strains. Group B streptococci (GBS is one of the major causes of subclinical mastitis of dairy cattle in several countries. GBS also sporadically causes epizootic infections in fish. The aim of this study was to compare the evolutionary lineage of fish and bovine isolates in relation to the S. agalactiae global population as a whole by comparing the MLST profiles. Twenty S. agalactiae isolates were obtained from dairy cattle and fish. PCR products were amplified with seven different oligonucleotide primer pairs designed from the NEM316 GBS genome sequence. Clone complexes demonstrated that bovine and fish isolates were separate populations. These findings lead us to conclude that fish S. agalactiae is not a zoonotic agent for bovine. MLST could help clarify the emergence of pathogenic clones and to decide whether the host acts as a reservoir for another pathogenic lineage.

  17. Recovery from Mastitis in Dairy Cows – Development of Behaviour, Milk Production and Inflammatory Markers in the Weeks during and after Naturally Occurring Clinical Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop

    2015-01-01

    after bovine mastitis and to create a basis for future facilitation of recovery, the present thesis focussed on two selected aspects of recovery; a behavioural as well as an inflammatory aspect, aiming to 1) describe the behaviour of dairy cows in the days before, during and after antibiotic treatment...... and the infected cows were not fully recovered within eight weeks after antibiotic treatment. The presented combination of inflammatory as well as behavioural aspects of the recovery from bovine mastitis is new, and these results provide a more complete description of the recovery status of individual cows after...... of culling and death. Although mastitis has received significant scientific attention, one aspect of bovine mastitis has only been touched upon very briefly; the characterization of the recovery period and its potential for modulation. Hence, in order to increase the understanding of the recovery period...

  18. The cell wall component lipoteichoic acid of Staphylococcus aureus induces chemokine gene expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIKU, Yoshio; NAGASAWA, Yuya; TANABE, Fuyuko; SUGAWARA, Kazue; WATANABE, Atsushi; HATA, Eiji; OZAWA, Tomomi; NAKAJIMA, Kei-ichi; ARAI, Toshiro; HAYASHI, Tomohito

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a major cause of bovine mastitis, but its pathogenic mechanism remains poorly understood. To evaluate the role of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in the immune or inflammatory response of SA mastitis, we investigated the gene expression profile in bovine mammary epithelial cells stimulated with LTA alone or with formalin-killed SA (FKSA) using cap analysis of gene expression. Seven common differentially expressed genes related to immune or inflammatory mediators were up-regulated under both LTA and FKSA stimulations. Three of these genes encode chemokines (IL-8, CXCL6 and CCL2) functioning as chemoattractant molecules for neutrophils and macrophages. These results suggest that the initial inflammatory response of SA infection in mammary gland may be related with LTA induced chemokine genes. PMID:27211287

  19. California mastitis test in the diagnostic of subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Crisléia Rodrigues Monção de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Brazil is undoubtedly one of the most important Brazilian agroindustrial complex. Moves large sums of money, the dairy industry employs millions of the people, having potential to provide the domestic and foreign markets. Besides surpassing year by year the index production. The quality of milk is increasingly demanded by consumers and there are bonus programs for milk with low somatic cell counts, which reveal, indirectely, the udder sanity. Mastitis, the udder inflamation, is the main factor that substantially compromises the milk quality. Several methods can diagnose the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. One these methods, the California Mastitis Test (CMT has as advantages being practical, low cost and the results are immediately available. The CMT method consists of adding the anionic neutral detergent to a milk sample in order to disrupt milk somatic cell membranes and release nucleic material. The viscousity formed by this reaction allows estimating the number of somatic cells (immunity cells presents in the milk. According to the degree of gelatinization obtained in this reaction, the interpretation of the scores varies from zero, no viscosity, to three crosses, highly viscous. This study was aimed to evaluate the CMT of eight dairy herds of different farms in Sao Paulo state, described by the letters A to H. The scores 1, 2 and 3 were considered positive for subclinical mastitis, while 0 was negative. The results were determined in relative frequency (%. It is evident that the herd D is the most affected by subclinical mastitis, because of the greater number of CMT positive (60%. This may be due to the mismanagement and poor conditions of milking. The properties C, F and G require greater attention, as the result of CMT could corroborate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and infected cows can quickly transmit the infection to the healthy ones. Note that the farms A, B and H are the ones with

  20. ESQUEMA SIMPLIFICADO PARA IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE ESTAFILOCOCOS COAGULASE-POSITIVOS ISOLADOS DE MASTITE BOVINA SIMPLIFIED SCHEME FOR IDENTIFICATION OF COAGULASE-POSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM BOVINE MASTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Os testes de produção de acetoína, determinação da atividade da enzima beta-galactosidase e utilização anaeróbica do manitol em conjunto com a susceptibilidade à acriflavina foram avaliados para diferenciação de amostras de Staphylococcus coagulase-positivas (SCP isoladas de mastite bovina. As amostras foram classificadas no gênero Staphylococcus por meio da sensibilidade a furazolidona, resistência à bacitracina, produção de ácido em aerobiose a partir de glicerol na presença de 0,4mig m-1 de eritromicina e catalase, e foram positivas no teste de coagulase do plasma de coelho em tubos. A susceptibilidade à acriflavina foi testada em placas de ágar Baird Parker e ágar P com 7,0mig m-1 de acriflavina. Como controle dos testes, foram incluídas cinco amostras coagulase-negativas de S. hyicus isoladas de leite bovino e identificadas pelo sistema API Staph e a amostra de S. aureus ATCC 29213. Trinta e oito das 49 amostras de SCP foram identificadas como S. aureus e 11 como S. hyicus, não sendo identificada nenhuma como S. intermedius. O sistema API Staph foi empregado para confirmar a identificação das amostras coagulase-positivas de S. hyicus, sete amostras de S. aureus negativas no teste de produção de acetoína e quatro negativas na fermentação anaeróbica do manitol. Todas as amostras de S. aureus foram resistentes a acriflavina, enquanto as de S. hyicus foram sensíveis. Concluiu-se que a sensibilidade a acriflavina pode ser empregada juntamente com os testes de coagulase e produção de acetoína na diferenciação de SCP isolados de mastite bovina.Production of acetoin, acid production from mannitol under anaerobiosis and beta-galactosidase activity in addition to acriflavin susceptibility were evaluated to differentiate between coagulase-positive strains of Staphylococcus (CPS isolated from bovine mastitis. The strains were classified in the genus Staphylococcus by means of sensitivity to furazolidone, resistance

  1. Mastitis in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, T; Molla, B

    2001-01-01

    Quarter milk samples (n = 543) from 152 traditionally managed lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia were examined to determine the prevalence of camel mastitis and identify its bacterial causes. Out of 152 camels examined, 19 (12.5%) were diagnosed as clinical mastitis cases based on clinical signs and bacteriological examinations. Of the 257 California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive quarter milk samples 162 (63.0%) yielded pathogenic bacteria. A positive correlation was observed between CMT positive results and presence of major pathogens in camel milk samples. The main mastitis pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, and other species of streptococci, Pasteurella haemolytica and E. coli. Results of the present study suggest that mastitis in Afar camels is prevalent, Gram-positive cocci are the major isolates from camel milk samples and the CMT can be used as a screening test for the detection of mastitis in camels.

  2. The immune response of bovine mammary epithelial cells to live or heat-inactivated Mycoplasma bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, Christina; Pilo, Paola; Frey, Joachim; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Wellnitz, Olga

    2015-09-30

    Mycoplasma bovis is an emerging bacterial agent causing bovine mastitis. Although these cell wall-free bacteria lack classical virulence factors, they are able to activate the immune system of the host. However, effects on the bovine mammary immune system are not yet well characterized and detailed knowledge would improve the prevention and therapy of mycoplasmal mastitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenic effects of M. bovis on the mammary gland in an established primary bovine mammary epithelial cell (bMEC) culture system. Primary bMEC of four different cows were challenged with live and heat-inactivated M. bovis strain JF4278 isolated from acute bovine mastitis, as well as with the type strain PG45. The immune response was evaluated 6 and 24h after mycoplasmal challenge by measuring the relative mRNA expression of selected immune factors by quantitative PCR. M. bovis triggered an immune response in bMEC, reflected by the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, lactoferrin, Toll-like receptor-2, RANTES, and serum amyloid A mRNA. Interestingly, this cellular reaction was only observed in response to live, but not to heat-inactivated M. bovis, in contrast to other bacterial pathogens of mastitis such as Staphylococcus aureus. This study provides evidence that bMEC exhibit a strong inflammatory reaction in response to live M. bovis. The lack of a cellular response to heat-inactivated M. bovis supports the current hypothesis that mycoplasmas activate the immune system through secreted secondary metabolites.

  3. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kr. Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10% and services (5.47%. Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.

  4. QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.

  5. Molecular Basis of Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Seyffert, Nubia; Jardin, Julien; Hernandez, David; Jan, Gwenaël; Rault, Lucie; Azevedo, Vasco; François, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; van de Guchte, Maarten; Even, Sergine; Berkova, Nadia; Thiéry, Richard; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2011-01-01

    Background S. aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis worldwide. The severity of staphylococcal infection is highly variable, ranging from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. This work represents an in-depth characterization of S. aureus mastitis isolates to identify bacterial factors involved in severity of mastitis infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to comprehensively compare two clonally related S. aureus strains that reproducibly induce severe (strain O11) and milder (strain O46) mastitis in ewes. Variation in the content of mobile genetic elements, iron acquisition and metabolism, transcriptional regulation and exoprotein production was observed. In particular, O11 produced relatively high levels of exoproteins, including toxins and proteases known to be important in virulence. A characteristic we observed in other S. aureus strains isolated from clinical mastitis cases. Conclusions/Significance Our data are consistent with a dose-dependant role of some staphylococcal factors in the hypervirulence of strains isolated from severe mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, transcriptional regulators, exoproteins and iron acquisition pathways constitute good targets for further research to define the underlying mechanisms of mastitis severity. PMID:22096559

  6. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage isolates from bovines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemeghaire, Stéphanie; Argudín, M Angeles; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    ...)-MRSA have been recovered from bovine mastitis.In this study, we investigated the prevalence and types of MRSA present in the nose of healthy bovines of different age groups and rearing practices...

  7. Mastitis Olgularında Virusların Rolü "The roles of Viruses in Mastitis"

    OpenAIRE

    ALPAY, Gizem; YEŞİLBAĞ, Kadir

    2009-01-01

    Bu derlemede özellikle sığır mastitis olgularının etiyolojisinde virusların rolleri irdelenmiştir. Viruslar sığır mastitis olgularında hem hazırlayıcı hem de primer etiyolojik ajan olarak rol oynayabilirler. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia virus, sığır çiçeği virusu, yalancı sığır çiçeği virusu, vesicular stomatitis virusu, şap hastalığı virusu ve bovine papillomavirus memede lezyon oluşturarak memenin doğal savunma mekanizmasını sekteye uğratırlar. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea...

  8. Mycoplasma mastitis: causes, transmission, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lawrence K

    2012-07-01

    Mycoplasma mastitis is an emerging mastitis pathogen. Herd prevalence has increased over the past decade, and this increase parallels the increase in average dairy herd size. It has been documented that the importation of cattle into a herd can result in new cases of Mycoplasma disease in general and Mycoplasma mastitis specifically. Thus, expanding herds are likely to have a greater incidence of this disease. Transmission of the agent can result from either contact with diseased animals or with colonized or asymptomatically infected cattle. Initial transmission might occur via nose-to-nose contact and result in an outbreak of Mycoplasma mastitis, or it might occur during the milking time. This would suggest that new, incoming animals should be quarantined before being comingled with original herd animals. Quarantining does not seem to be a biosecurity strategy often practiced in control of Mycoplasma mastitis and may not be warranted in herds with excellent milking time hygiene practices. The ability to monitor for the incipient stages of an outbreak, often done through bulk tank milk culturing, is recommended.

  9. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 2. Label-free relative quantitative proteomics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6mb00290k Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaliar, Manikhandan; Tassi, Riccardo; Thomas, Funmilola C.; McNeilly, Tom N.; Weidt, Stefan K.; McLaughlin, Mark; Wilson, David; Burchmore, Richard; Herzyk, Pawel; Eckersall, P. David

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle in the western world. It is primarily caused by bacteria, with Streptococcus uberis as one of the most prevalent causative agents. To characterize the proteome during Streptococcus uberis mastitis, an experimentally induced model of intramammary infection was used. Milk whey samples obtained from 6 cows at 6 time points were processed using label-free relative quantitative proteomics. This proteomic analysis complements clinical, bacteriological and immunological studies as well as peptidomic and metabolomic analysis of the same challenge model. A total of 2552 non-redundant bovine peptides were identified, and from these, 570 bovine proteins were quantified. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed clear clustering of results by stage of infection, with similarities between pre-infection and resolution stages (0 and 312 h post challenge), early infection stages (36 and 42 h post challenge) and late infection stages (57 and 81 h post challenge). Ingenuity pathway analysis identified upregulation of acute phase protein pathways over the course of infection, with dominance of different acute phase proteins at different time points based on differential expression analysis. Antimicrobial peptides, notably cathelicidins and peptidoglycan recognition protein, were upregulated at all time points post challenge and peaked at 57 h, which coincided with 10 000-fold decrease in average bacterial counts. The integration of clinical, bacteriological, immunological and quantitative proteomics and other-omic data provides a more detailed systems level view of the host response to mastitis than has been achieved previously. PMID:27412694

  10. Aetiology of clinical mastitis in six Somerset dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A J; Green, M J

    2001-06-02

    Clinical mastitis was monitored in six Somerset dairy herds for one year. The herds all had three-month geometric mean bulk milk somatic cell counts of less than 250,000 cells/ml. Escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen isolated on all the farms and in all months of the year. Environmental pathogens accounted for 61.4 per cent of all cases of clinical mastitis and for 79.3 per cent of the mastitis cases in which an aetiological agent was identified. The mean annual incidence was 41.6 cases per 100 cows (range 14 to 75). Affected cows suffered a mean of 1.5 cases and 16.4 per cent of quarters suffered at least one repeat case. Mastitis due to E. coli was more severe than mastitis due to other causes and it tended to be more severe in early lactation and during the housing period. Mastitis was significantly more severe (grades 2 and 3) in the herd with the lowest bulk milk somatic cell count and in the herd which was kept indoors throughout the year than in the other four herds. Mastitis was fatal in 2.2 per cent of cases and resulted in the death of 0.6 per cent of the lactating cows.

  11. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana C Tizioto

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent.

  12. Chimeric phage lysins act synergistically with lysostaphin to kill mastitis causing staphylococcus aureus in murine mammary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococci cause bovine mastitis with Staphylococcus aureus being responsible for the majority of the mastitis-based losses to the dairy industry (up to $2 billion/annum). Treatment is primarily with antibiotics that are often ineffective and potentially contribute to resistance development. Bac...

  13. Quantifying Preferences of Farmers and Veterinarians for National Animal Health Programs: The Example of Bovine Mastitis and Antimicrobial Usage in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Borne, Bart H. P.; van Soest, Felix J. S.; Reist, Martin; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Bovine udder health in Switzerland is of a relatively high level. However, antimicrobial usage (AMU) seems high in comparison to other European countries also. A new udder health and AMU improvement program could improve this situation but it is uncertain whether there is support from the field. This study aimed to quantify preferences of dairy farmers and veterinarians for the start and design characteristics of a new national udder health and AMU improvement program in Switzerland. A total of 478 dairy farmers and 98 veterinarians completed an online questionnaire. Questions on their demographics and their mindset toward AMU were complemented with an adaptive choice-based conjoint interview, a novel conjoint analysis technique to quantify preferences of respondents for characteristics of a product for which multiple trade-off decisions must be made (here a bovine udder health and AMU improvement program). The conjoint analysis was followed by a multivariate multiple regression analysis to identify groups of respondents with different program design preferences. Logistic regression models were used to associate covariates with respondents’ preference to start a new udder health and AMU improvement program. Most farmers (55%) and veterinarians (62%) were in favor of starting a new voluntary udder health and AMU improvement program, but the program design preferences agreed moderately between the two stakeholder groups. Farmers preferred an udder health and AMU improvement program that did not contain a penalty system for high AMU, was voluntary for all dairy herds, and aimed to simultaneously improve udder health and reduce AMU. Veterinarians preferred a program that had the veterinary organization and the government taking the lead in program design decision making, did not contain a penalty system for high AMU, and aimed to simultaneously improve udder health and reduce AMU. Differences between groups of farmers and veterinarians concerning their start

  14. Variabilidades fenotípica e genotípica de estirpes de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas em casos de mastite subclínica bovina Phenotypic and genotypic variabilities of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Menezes Ferreira

    2006-08-01

    antibiotics tested. Of the 19 isolates which presented resistance to antibiotics, 14 (73.7% were grouped in three ribotypes, and 13 (92.9% of them were resistant to eritromycin and/or lincomycin. The large number of ribotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns found in this single dairy herd showed that one must be careful when considering the results of in vitro susceptibility tests obtained from a few S. aureus strains, because there is a high heterogeneity among naturally occurring populations of S. aureus, which must be taken into consideration in control programs against bovine mastitis.

  15. Association of CXCR2 polymorphisms with subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngerman, S M; Saxton, A M; Oliver, S P; Pighetti, G M

    2004-08-01

    The ability to identify objectively cows that are more or less susceptible to mastitis has been a long-standing goal. Genetic markers associated with inflammatory responses during mastitis could aid in selection of these cattle. One potential marker is CXCR2, a chemokine receptor required for neutrophil migration to infection sites, which contains single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the gene. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the association of CXCR2 SNP genotypes with subclinical and clinical mastitis. Thirty-seven Holstein and 42 Jersey cows that completed at least 2 full lactations were used. Quarter foremilk samples were collected for bacteriological examination quarterly and when cows exhibited clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis was defined as the presence of the same pathogen in the same quarter in at least 2 of 3 consecutive samples. A significant association was detected between CXCR2 SNP +777 genotype and percentages of subclinical mastitis cases in Holsteins. Holsteins expressing genotype GG had decreased percentages of subclinical mastitis, but genotype CC cows had increased percentages of subclinical mastitis. Significant differences in clinical mastitis incidence were not detected between genotypes for either breed. This approach of genetically identifying mastitis resistant cows may represent an effective means of marker-assisted selection for mastitis and other inflammatory diseases involving neutrophils.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance and detection of mecA and blaZ genes in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Lidiane C. Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS species isolated from dairy cows milk, specially concerning to oxacillin. Of 100 CNS isolates, the S. xylosus was the prevalent species, followed by S. cohnii, S. hominis, S. capitis and S. haemolyticus. Only 6% were phenotypically susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested in disk diffusion assay. Penicillin and ampicillin resistance rates were significantly higher than others antimicrobials. Four isolates were positive to mecA gene (4%, all represented by the S. xylosus species. The blaZ gene was detected in 16% of the isolates (16/100. It was noticed that all mecA + were also positive to this gene and the presence of both genes was correlated to phenotypic beta-lactamic resistance. We conclude that CNS species from bovine milk presented significantly distinct antimicrobial resistance profiles, evaluated by phenotypic and genotypic tests, which has implications for treatment and management decisions.

  17. The effect of discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection in low somatic cell count herds. I. Incidence of clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T J; van Vliet, J H; Schukken, Y H; Grommers, F J; van Velden-Russcher, A; Barkema, H W; Brand, A

    1997-06-01

    Results are described of a split-udder trial on the effect of discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection on the incidence of clinical mastitis in seven dairy herds with a low bulk milk somatic cell count and a high incidence of clinical mastitis. Overall incidence of clinical mastitis was non-significantly lower (18%), whereas the incidence of the most prevalent pathogen associated with clinical mastitis, Escherichia coli, was significantly lower in quarters for which postmilking teat disinfection was discontinued. We concluded that discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection may decrease the incidence of clinical Escherichia coli mastitis in herds for which standard mastitis prevention measures are executed adequately, bulk milk somatic cell count is low, and incidence of clinical mastitis is high. However, because an increase in intramammary infections with contagious pathogens may occur, care is recommended when advising discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection.

  18. Variação da contagem de células somáticas em vacas leiteiras de acordo com patógenos da mastite Somatic cell counts variation in dairy cows according to mastitis pathogens

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    G.N. Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de patógenos da mastite sobre a contagem de células somáticas (CCS em leite. Foram coletadas 3.987 amostras de leite de 2.657 animais oriundos de 24 rebanhos leiteiros localizados nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Minas Gerais. As amostras de leite foram usadas para CCS e identificação de patógenos da mastite. Estatísticas descritivas, teste T para amostras independentes e modelo linear generalizado foram usados para análise dos dados. O modelo linear generalizado identificou os efeitos de rebanho, animal dentro de rebanho, ordem de parto, estação do ano e infecção intramamária causada por Streptococcus agalactiae e Streptococcus spp. que não S. agalactiae como significativos na variação da CCS. O efeito de animal dentro de rebanho foi maior que o efeito de rebanho. S. agalactiae foi o patógeno responsável pelo maior aumento da CCS em vacas e apresentou em média 1.520.000 células/mL. Foi observado efeito específico dos patógenos na variação da CCS.The influence of mastitis pathogens on variation of milk somatic cell count (SCC was evaluated. Three thousand nine hundred eighty-seven milk samples were colected from 2,657 dairy cows in 24 herds located in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The milk samples were used to SCC and identification of mastitis pathogens. Descriptive statistics, T test for independent samples, and generalized linear model were used to data analysis. The generalized linear model identified the effects of herd, animal within herd, parity, year season, intramammary infection, and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus spp. except S. agalactiae as significant on SCC variation. The effect of animal within herd was higher than the effect of herd. S. agalactiae was the pathogen responsible for higher SCC increasing and presented the average of 1,520,000 cells/mL. The specific effect on SCC variation was observed in the study.

  19. 春季某牛场奶牛乳房炎与环境中主要致病菌相关性研究%The Environmental Pathogenic Bacteria and Relationship with Mastitis in the Cow Farm in Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春燕; 吴树清; 海岩; 张爱荣; 杜山; 张明月

    2011-01-01

    本试验根据锡林浩特市某奶牛场临床型或隐性乳房炎的发病情况,采集47份乳样、35份环境样品,进行细菌分离鉴定、并对其主要病原菌进行药敏试验。从乳样中分离出13种细菌共81株,从环境样中分离出主要致病菌6种34株。选择27种抗生素对主要致病菌进行药物敏感性试验,结果表明,乳样和环境中的致病菌都对头孢菌素类、喹诺酮类药物较为敏感。乳样中的致病菌对青霉素、链霉素及磺胺类等药物均产生不同程度的耐药性,而环境中主要致病菌对青霉素G、新生霉素、氨苄西林表现出具有耐药性。对乳样中分离得到细菌和相应环境分离得到的细菌进行对比分析.发现两者药物敏感性和耐药性方面存在一定的相关性。%In this study, 47 milk samples and 35 environmental samples were collected for bacteria isolation and identification. Eight-one strains of bacteria were isolated from 47 milk samples of dairy cows with mastitis or subclinical mastitis. Thirty-four strains of bacteria were isolated from 35 environmental samples. Drug sensitivity test for 27 kind of antibiotics showed that while pathogenic bacteria of environmental were resistant to novobiocin, Penicillinum G and ampicillin. All pathogenic bacteria of milk samples were resistant to penicillin and streptomycin. Cephalosporins, Quinolones had a fairly good inhibiting effect on the pathogenic bacteria of milk and environmental samples. There were some correlation between the bacteria from milk and environmental samples.

  20. Ocorrência de mastite bovina em fazendas produtoras de leite B no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of bovine mastitis in grade B milk farms in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Laranja

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período compreendido entre os meses de Março/1991 e Fevereiro /1992 foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a prevalência da mastite bovina em 07 fazendas produtoras de leite tipo B de diferentes regiões do estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas 1683 vacas que deram origem a 7695 resultados do CMT e das quais foram coletadas 983 amostras de leite para realização do exame microbiológico. A análise do CMT indicou 47,0% de vacas com CMT negativo, 15,1% CMT + e 37,5% CMT ++/+ + + . Os escores do CMT foram distribuidos segundo o número de lactação (1ª lactação, 2ª lactação e 3ª ou + lactações e segundo o estágio de lactação (1-30 dias de lactação, 31-90 dias, 91-250 dias e > 250 dias. A análise dos dados demonstrou que houve um efeito significativo (p From March/1991 to February/1992 1,683 cows from seven grade "B" milk producing dairy farms were used in a study on the prevalence of bovine mastitis. GMT tests (7,695 were 47.0% negative; 15.1% " +" and 37.5% "++/+ + +". CMT scores were grouped by number of lactation (1st, 2nd, 3rd or more and by stage of lactation (1-30 days in milk; 31-90 days; 91-250 and > 250 days. Both stage of lactation and number of lactation had significant effect on % of cows CMT "++/+ + + ". Microbiological results from 983 milk samples were 50.97% positive. From the positive samples were isolated Staphylococcus sp (44.6%, Corynebacteríum sp (15.0%, Streptococcus sp (8.2%, Yeast/Fungi (5.4%. Bacillus sp (4.4%, E. coli (3.2% and Klebsiella sp (0.2%. Considering both pure and mixed culture isolation, Staphylococcus sp represents 55.6%, Corynebacteríum sp, 18.6% and Streptococcus sp, 15.0%.

  1. Isolation and identification of main mastitis pathogens in Mexico Isolação e identificação dos micróbios patogênicos principais da mastite em México

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    H. Castañeda Vázquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a large epidemiological study aiming to detect the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to investigate the major udder pathogens in Jalisco State, western Mexico. For this purpose, 2205 dairy cows, representing 33 Mexican dairy herds, were involved. Of 2205 cows, 752 mastitic animals were diagnosed and only 2,979 milk samples could be obtained for further investigation. All 2979 milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT to differentiate clinical cases from subclinical ones where 1996 samples (67 % reacted positively. Of these, 1087 samples (54.5% came from cows suffering from clinical cases of mastitis. Bacteriological identification of the causative agents revealed the presence of a major group of pathogens including the Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, S.aureus, S.agalactiae, Corynebacterium spp. and Coliform bacteria which were detected in 464 (15.6%, 175 (5.9%, 200 (6.8%, 417 (14% and 123 (4.1% of the 2927 investigated quarters, 295 (15.4%, 118 (15.7%, 111 (14.8%, 227 (30.2% and 109 (14.5% of the 752 examined cows and in 33 (100%, 22 (66.7%, 19 (57.6%, 30 (90.1% and 27 (81.8% of the 33 herds involved, respectively. Other pathogens could be detected in the investigated milk samples such as S. dysgalactiae (0.4%, S.uberis (0.37%, Bacillus spp. (1%, Nocardia spp. (0.6% und Candida spp. (0.1%. Meanwhile, others were present in a negligible ratio; including the Aerococcus viridans, and Enterococcus spp., Lactococcus lactis, S. bovis.O trabalho atual é um estudo epidemiológico que objetiva detectar a predominância da mastite subclínica e investigar os micróbios patogênicos principais do úbere no México ocidental. Com esta finalidade, foram utilizadas 2205 vacas leiteiras, representando 33 rebanhos de leiteiras mexicanas. Além dessas 2205 vacas, 752 animais com mastite foram diagnosticados, considerando-se que somente 2979 amostras do leite poderiam ser obtidas para a posterior investiga

  2. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen.

  3. Treatment of mastitis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Erin; Wagner, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of mastitis, its cause, and the rationale for treatment or nontreatment of mastitis under various circumstances continues to evolve. This article presents research-based evidence about the use or nonuse of drugs to treat mastitis. Nondrug factors involved in decision making about mastitis, including cow characteristics and the epidemiology of mastitis, are also briefly discussed. This article provides information that helps in the making of knowledgeable, evidence-based decisions about therapy for mastitis. Focus is primarily on the use of antimicrobial drugs.

  4. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

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    Peyman Alibeigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.

  5. Sonographic Elastography of Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousaris, Nicholas; Barr, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Sonographic elastography has been shown to be a useful imaging modality in characterizing breast lesions as benign or malignant. However, in preliminary research, mastitis has given false-positive findings on both strain and shear wave elastography. In this article, we review the findings in mastitis with and without abscess formation on both strain and shear wave elastography. The elastographic findings in all cases were suggestive of a malignancy according to published thresholds. In cases of mastitis with abscess formation, there is a characteristic appearance, with a central very soft area (abscess cavity) and a very stiff outer rim (edema and inflammation). This appearance should raise the suspicion of mastitis with abscess formation, since these findings are rare in breast cancers.

  6. Kosten mastitis onderschat: Hoogste kostenpost bij mastitis is melkproductieverlies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Mastitis kost geld. Maar hoeveel? Beduidend meer dan melkveehouders denken, zo blijkt uit recent onderzoek van het Uiergezondheidscentrum Nederland en de faculteit Diergeneeskunde onder 64 veehouders. Vooral het productieverlies bij subklinische mastitis kost veel euro’s

  7. Kosten mastitis onderschat: Hoogste kostenpost bij mastitis is melkproductieverlies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Mastitis kost geld. Maar hoeveel? Beduidend meer dan melkveehouders denken, zo blijkt uit recent onderzoek van het Uiergezondheidscentrum Nederland en de faculteit Diergeneeskunde onder 64 veehouders. Vooral het productieverlies bij subklinische mastitis kost veel euro’s

  8. Granulomatous lobular mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Zhou; Li-Xiang Yu; Zhong-Bing Ma; Zhi-Gang Yu

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is an unusual breast benign inflammatory disorder with unknown aetiology. It is generally emerged with the clinical symptoms of breast mass, abscess, inflammation and mammary duct fistula. The diagnosis is made by histopathology with a chronic non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in lobules of the breast tissue as the microscopic feature. Therapy of granulomatous lobular mastitis consists of surgical, medication treatment or combination of both, but now researches suggest that observational management is an acceptable treatment.

  9. 新疆铁门关地区奶牛乳房炎病原菌分离鉴定及主要病原菌药敏试验%Isolation and Identiifcation of Pathogenic Bacteria for Dairy Cow Mastitis in Tiemenguan Area and the Medicine Sensitivity Test of Main Pathogenic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃杰; 龙杰; 张伟; 张浩钿

    2014-01-01

    A total of 166 mastitis milk samples from Tiemenguan area were collected to isolate and identify the pathogenic bacteria, medicine sensitive test of the main pathogenic bacteria was made. The results showed that 267 strains for 12 kinds of bacteria were isolated from milk samples. The main pathogenic bacteria were as follows:86 strains of Staphylococcus aureus,the detection rate was 33.6%; 68 strains of Escherichia coli, the detection rate was 25.5%; 33 strains of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, the positive rate was 12.4%; 25 strains of no Streptococcus lactis, the detection rate was 9.4%. Clinical mastitis was most for mixed infection (infection rate 61.4%). Recessive mastitis was mostly single infection(infection rate 88.5%). Then 16 kinds of antibiotics were susceptibility tested to pathogenic bacteria by discagar diffusion, the four kinds main pathogenic bacteria were Ceftriaxonee, Cefoperazone and lforfenicol sensitive. The experiments provided a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of local dairy cow mastitis.%本试验从新疆铁门关地区采集166份乳房炎患牛的奶样,进行了细菌分离鉴定并对主要病原菌进行药敏试验。结果表明,从奶样中共分离出12种267株细菌,其中主要病原菌为:金黄色葡萄球菌86株,检出率33.6%;大肠杆菌68株,检出率25.5%;停乳链球菌33株,检出率12.4%;无乳链球菌25株,检出率9.4%。临床型乳房炎大部分为混合感染(混合感染的感染率为61.4%),隐性乳房炎大部分为单独感染(单独感染的感染率为88.5%)。选择16种抗生素采用K-B纸片法对分离出的病原菌进行药敏试验,4种主要病原菌对头孢曲松钠、头孢哌酮、克林霉素、氟苯尼考敏感。该试验为本地区奶牛乳房炎的防治提供了理论依据。

  10. The bovine paranasal sinuses: Bacterial flora, epithelial expression of nitric oxide and potential role in the in-herd persistence of respiratory disease pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Rónan G.; Lee, Alison M.; McElroy, Máire C.; More, Simon J.; Monagle, Aisling; Earley, Bernadette; Cassidy, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    The bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. While lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. Furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. The paranasal sinuses of clinically normal cattle (n = 99) and of cattle submitted for post-mortem examination (PME: n = 34) were examined by microbial culture, PCR and serology to include bacterial and viral pathogens typically associated with BRD: Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (BPIV-3). Overall, the paranasal sinuses were either predominantly sterile or did not contain detectable microbes (83.5%: 94.9% of clinically normal and 50.0% of cattle submitted for PME). Bacteria, including BRD causing pathogens, were identified in relatively small numbers of cattle (<10%). While serology indicated widespread exposure of both clinically normal and cattle submitted for PME to BPIV-3 and BRSV (seroprevalences of 91.6% and 84.7%, respectively), PCR identified BPIV-3 in only one animal. To further explore these findings we investigated the potential role of the antimicrobial molecule nitric oxide (NO) within paranasal sinus epithelium using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the enzyme responsible for NO synthesis, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), was detected to varying degrees in 76.5% of a sub-sample of animals suggesting production of this compound plays a similar protective role in the bovine sinus as it does in humans. PMID:28282443

  11. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria in South African Wildlife: Neglected Pathogens and Potential Impediments for Bovine Tuberculosis Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Hlokwe, Tiny M.

    2017-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The NTM identified in this study include the following species which were isolated from tissue with tuberculosis- like lesions in the absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) implying their potential role as pathogens of animals: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium sinense JMD 601, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense, and Mycobacterium septicum/M. peregrinum. Mycobaterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, and a potential novel Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii were found for the first time in this study to be potential pathogens of animals. Mycobacterium simiae was isolated from a sample originating from a tuberculin skin test positive reactor, demonstrating its potential to elicit inappropriate immune responses in animals that may interfere with diagnosis of tuberculosis by immunology. Mycobacterium abscessus

  12. Altered Microbiomes in Bovine Digital Dermatitis Lesions, and the Gut as a Pathogen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinicola, Martin; Lima, Fabio; Lima, Svetlana; Machado, Vinicius; Gomez, Marilia; Döpfer, Dörte; Guard, Charles; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative) and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative) are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions. PMID:25781328

  13. Altered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zinicola

    Full Text Available Bovine digital dermatitis (DD is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

  14. Relatie tussen celgetal en mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, A.

    1993-01-01

    Het vóórkomen en de kosten van mastitis blijven hoog, ondanks de vele pogingen tot preventie van de ziekte. Mastitispreventie programma's zijn veelal gebaseerd op de positieve relatie tussen celgetal en het optreden van mastitis.

  15. Relatie tussen celgetal en mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, A.

    1993-01-01

    Het vóórkomen en de kosten van mastitis blijven hoog, ondanks de vele pogingen tot preventie van de ziekte. Mastitispreventie programma's zijn veelal gebaseerd op de positieve relatie tussen celgetal en het optreden van mastitis.

  16. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini I Damayanti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were used as control animals. Isolate I and III were originated from semen from IBR positive bulls number G 867 and G 148 respectively whereas isolate II was collected from vaginal mucosa and isolate IV was from nasal mucosa of IBR positive cattle treated with dexamethasone. Clinical response, gross-pathological and histopathological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the antigen in tissue section. The results show that the BHV-1 local isolates could produce IBR syndrome namely fever and changes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts even though the clinical responses seemed to be disappeared by 21 days PI. Grossly there were hyperaemic nasal and vaginal mucosa and pneumonia whereas histologically there were non suppurative rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia and vulvovaginitis. Immunohistochemically the antigen was detected in the nasal concha and trachea. Dexamethasone treatment at 60-64 days PI could produce less severe clinical features and the second necroppsy at 69 days PI also results in less severe pathological responses. The findings also suggest that the pathogenicity of BHV-1 local isolates were as follows: isolates I, II, IV and III.

  17. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by 15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands.

  18. Partial budget of the discounted annual benefit of mastitis control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allore, H G; Erb, H N

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this study was to rank the benefits associated with various mastitis control strategies in simulated herds with intramammary infections caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus spp. other than Strep. agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Escherichia coli. The control strategies tested were prevention, vaccination for E. coli, lactation therapy, and dry cow antibiotic therapy. Partial budgets were based on changes caused by mastitis control strategies from the mean values for milk, fat, and protein yields of the control herd and the number of cows that were culled under a fixed mastitis culling criterion. Each annual benefit (dollars per cow per year) of a mastitis control strategy was compared with the revenue for the control herd and was calculated under two different milk pricing plans (3.5% milk fat and multiple-component pricing), three net replacement costs, and three prevalences of pathogen-specific intramammary infection. Twenty replicates of each control strategy were run with SIMMAST (a dynamic discrete event stochastic simulation model) for 5 simulated yr. Rankings of discounted annual benefits differed only slightly according to milk pricing plans within a pathogen group but differed among the pathogen groups. Differences in net replacement costs for cows culled because of mastitis did not change the ranking of control strategies within a pathogen group. Both prevention and dry cow therapy were important mastitis control strategies. For herds primarily infected with environmental pathogens, strategies that included vaccination for mastitis caused by E. coli dominated strategies that did not include vaccination against this microorganism.

  19. The microbiota of water buffalo milk during mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catozzi, Carlotta; Sanchez Bonastre, Armand; Francino, Olga; Lecchi, Cristina; De Carlo, Esterina; Vecchio, Domenico; Martucciello, Alessandra; Fraulo, Pasquale; Bronzo, Valerio; Cuscó, Anna; D’Andreano, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the microbiota of water buffalo milk during sub-clinical and clinical mastitis, as compared to healthy status, by using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 137 quarter samples were included in the experimental design: 27 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters, with a Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of less than 200,000 cells/ml; 27 samples from quarters with clinical mastitis; 83 samples were collected from quarters with subclinical mastitis, with a SCC number greater of 200,000 cells/ml and/or culture positive for udder pathogens, without clinical signs of mastitis. Bacterial DNA was purified and the 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified and sequenced. Significant differences were found in milk samples from healthy quarters and those with sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. The microbiota diversity of milk from healthy quarters was richer as compared to samples with sub-clinical mastitis, whose microbiota diversity was in turn richer as compared to those from clinical mastitis. The core microbiota of water buffalo milk, defined as the asset of microorganisms shared by all healthy milk samples, includes 15 genera, namely Micrococcus, Propionibacterium, 5-7N15, Solibacillus, Staphylococcus, Aerococcus, Facklamia, Trichococcus, Turicibacter, 02d06, SMB53, Clostridium, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Pseudomonas. Only two genera (Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas) were present in all the samples from sub-clinical mastitis, and no genus was shared across all in clinical mastitis milk samples. The presence of mastitis was found to be related to the change in the relative abundance of genera, such as Psychrobacter, whose relative abundance decreased from 16.26% in the milk samples from healthy quarters to 3.2% in clinical mastitis. Other genera, such as SMB53 and Solibacillus, were decreased as well. Discriminant analysis presents the evidence that the microbial community of healthy and clinical

  20. Detection of methicillin resistance and slime factor production of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis Detecção de resistência a meticilina e produção do fator slime por Staphylococcus aureus em mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Ciftci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect methicillin resistant and slime producing Staphylococcus aureus in cases of bovine mastitis. A triplex PCR was optimized targetting 16S rRNA, nuc and mecA genes for detection of Staphylococcus species, S. aureus and methicillin resistance, respectively. Furthermore, for detection of slime producing strains, a PCR assay targetting icaA and icaD genes was performed. In this study, 59 strains were detected as S. aureus by both conventional tests and PCR, and 13 of them were found to be methicillin resistant and 4 (30.7% were positive for mecA gene. Although 22 of 59 (37.2% S. aureus isolates were slime-producing in Congo Red Agar, in PCR analysis only 15 were positive for both icaA and icaD genes. Sixteen and 38 out of 59 strains were positive for icaA and icaD gene, respectively. Only 2 of 59 strains were positive for both methicillin resistance and slime producing, phenotypically, suggesting lack of correlation between methicillin resistance and slime production in these isolates. In conclusion, the optimized triplex PCR in this study was useful for rapid and reliable detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus. Furthermore, only PCR targetting icaA and icaD may not sufficient to detect slime production and further studies targetting other ica genes should be conducted for accurate evaluation of slime production characters of S. aureus strains.Este estudo objetivou a detecção de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina e produtor do fator slime em casos de mastite bovina. Um PCR triplex foi otimizado, com alvo no genes 16SrRNA, nuc e mecA para detecção de Staphylococcus spp, S. aureus e resistencia a meticilina, respectivamente. Para detecção das cepas produtoras do fator slime, empregou-se um PCR com alvo nos genes icaA e icaD. No estudo, 59 cepas foram identificadas como S. aureus por testes convencionais e PCR, sendo 13 resistentes a meticilina e quatro positivas para o gene mecA. Embora 22 das 59 cepas

  1. Isolation, Identification and Drug Susceptibility Test of Dairy Clinical Mastitis Pathogenic Bacteria%临床型乳房炎病原菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松; 杨建辉; 李铁拴

    2012-01-01

    本研究无菌采集唐山市某奶牛场临床型乳房炎病牛的奶样30份,对奶样进行了病原菌的分离培养、生化鉴定及药敏试验。从30份奶样中共分离到8种156株细菌,其中金黄色葡萄球菌58株(37.2%)、大肠杆菌17株(10.9%)、表皮葡萄球菌1(1株(6.4%)、无乳链球菌38株(24.4%)、乳房链球菌15株(9.6%)、停乳链球菌16株(10.3%)、克雷伯氏菌1株(0.6%)、变形杆菌1株(0.6%)。结果表明,葡萄球菌、链球菌为主要病原菌,其次是大肠杆菌,占总菌数的98.7%(154/156);药敏试验结果表明,主要致病菌对中药组方1(M、G)(蒲公英、连翘、瓜蒌、通草、川芎、土贝母、芙蓉叶、金银花、王不留行、当归)、中药组方2(G)(黄芪、党参、当归、通草、川芎、白术、木通、甘草、王不留行、路路通)、中药复方黄连乳腺炎注射液(M)、新霉素呈高度敏感。%30 milk samples of clinical dairy cow mastitis were collected from a dairy cow farm of Tangshan area, and the isolation, culture and biochemical identification of pathogenic bacteria, and drug susceptibility test were carried out in this study. The results showed that 156 bacteria and 8 species were isolated from30 samples, including 58 Staphylococ-cus aureus (37.2%), 17 Escherichia Coli (10.9%), 10 Staphylococcus epidermidis 6.4%),38 Streptococcus uberis(24.4%), 15 Streptococcus mastitidis(9.6%), 16 Streptococcus dysgalactiae (10.3%), 1 Klebsiella(0.6%), 1 Bacillus termo (0.6%). Staphylococci and Streptococcus were the main bacteria for causing cow clinical mastitis. The second pathogens were Streptococcus, accounted for 98.7% (154/156). The drug susceptibility test showed that the most sensitive antibiotics to pathogenic bacteria were TCM formula l(dandelion, fructus forsythiae, Snakegourd Fruit, Ricepaperplant Pith

  2. Mastitis diagnosis in ten Galician dairy herds (NW Spain) with automatic milking systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.; Pereira, J.M.; Amiama, C.; Bueno, J.

    2015-07-01

    Over the last few years, the adoption of automatic milking systems (AMS) has experienced significant increase. However, hardly any studies have been conducted to investigate the distribution of mastitis pathogens in dairy herds with AMS. Because quick mastitis