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Sample records for bovine mammary gland

  1. Screen of Bovine Mammary Gland Epithelial Cell Specifcity Promotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-fei; Li Qing-zhang; Qiu You-wen; Gao Xue-jun

    2012-01-01

    Three lactoproteins (α-Sl-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and β-casein) promotors were cloned, sequenced and compared relative luciferase expression. The results showed that the promotor activity of bovine α-S1-casein gene was the best, and would be used to produce pharmaceutically and medically important proteins in the mammary gland of transgenic animals and also for the construction of an inducible eukaryotic expression vector.

  2. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other importan

  3. Enrichment for Repopulating Cells and Identification of Differentiation Markers in the Bovine Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Gat; Barash, Itamar

    2016-06-01

    Elucidating cell hierarchy in the mammary gland is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms governing its normal development and malignant transformation. There is relatively little information on cell hierarchy in the bovine mammary gland, despite its agricultural potential and relevance to breast cancer research. Challenges in bovine-to-mouse xenotransplantation and difficulties obtaining bovine-compatible antibodies hinder the study of mammary stem-cell dynamics in this species. In-vitro indications of distinct bovine mammary epithelial cell populations, sorted according to CD24 and CD49f expression, have been provided. Here, we successfully transplanted these bovine populations into the cleared fat pads of immunocompromised mice, providing in-vivo evidence for the multipotency and self-renewal capabilities of cells that are at the top of the cell hierarchy (termed mammary repopulating units). Additional outgrowths from transplantation, composed exclusively of myoepithelial cells, were indicative of unipotent basal stem cells or committed progenitors. Sorting luminal cells according to E-cadherin revealed three distinct populations: luminal progenitors, and early- and late-differentiating cells. Finally, miR-200c expression was negatively correlated with differentiation levels in both the luminal and basal branches of the bovine mammary cell hierarchy. Together, these experiments provide further evidence for the presence of a regenerative entity in the bovine mammary gland and for the multistage differentiation process within the luminal lineage. PMID:26615610

  4. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in the bovine mammary gland during lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mammary glands undergo functional and metabolic changes during virgin,lactation and dry periods.A total of 122 genes were identified as differentially expressed,including 79 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated genes during lactation compared with virgin and dry periods.Gene ontology analysis showed the functional classification of the up-regulated genes in lactation,including transport,biosynthetic process,signal transduction,catalytic activity,immune system process,cell death,and positive regulation of the developmental process.Microarray data clarified molecular events in bovine mammary gland lactation.

  5. Stromal fibroblasts derived from mammary gland of bovine with mastitis display inflammation-specific changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; He, Guiliang; Zhang, Wenyao; Xu, Tong; Qi, Hongliang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblasts are predominant components of mammary stromal cells and play crucial roles in the development and involution of bovine mammary gland; however, whether these cells contribute to mastitis has not been demonstrated. Thus, we have undertaken biological and molecular characterization of inflammation-associated fibroblasts (INFs) extracted from bovine mammary glands with clinical mastitis and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from slaughtered dairy cows because of fractured legs during lactation. The functional contributions of INFs to normal epithelial cells were also investigated by using an in vitro co-culture model. We present evidence that the INFs were activated fibroblasts and showed inflammation-related features. Moreover, INFs significantly inhibited the proliferation and β-casein secretion of epithelial cells, as well as upregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in epithelial cells. These findings indicate that functional alterations can occur in stromal fibroblasts within the bovine mammary gland during mastitis, demonstrating the importance of stromal fibroblasts in bovine mastitis and its treatment. PMID:27272504

  6. Effect of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis on apoptosis of bovine mammary gland lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Petr; Sladek, Zbysek; Rysanek, Dusan; Langrova, Tereza

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether lymphocyte apoptosis is modulated by infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Samples of cell populations were obtained by lavage of the mammary glands at 4 intervals (24, 48, 72 and 168 h) following infection. The percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes peaked at 168 h after challenge with S. aureus or S. uberis. Subsequent experiments focused on in vitro cultivation of mammary gland lymphocytes with S. aureus and S. uberis. These experiments showed a lower percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes following 3h of cultivating cells with bacteria than after cultivation without bacteria. The results demonstrate that during both experimental infection of bovine mammary glands with S. aureus or S. uberis and during in vitro cultivation of lymphocytes with S. aureus or S. uberis, apoptosis of lymphocytes is delayed.

  7. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46(+)/CD3(-)) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escherichia (E.) coli. A small number of NK cells was detected in milk from quarters before and during an E. coli challenge. In vitro cultures of primary bovine mammary gland epithelial cells stimulated with UV irradiated E. coli induced significant migration of peripheral blood NK cells (pbNK) within 2h. Furthermore, pbNK cells significantly reduced counts of live E. coli in vitro within 2h of culture. The results show that bovine NK cells have the capacity to migrate to the site of infection and produce antibacterial mediators. These findings introduce NK cells as a leukocyte population in the mammary gland with potential functions in the innate immune response in bovine mastitis. PMID:27638120

  8. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46+/CD3) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escheri

  9. Transcriptome MicroRNA Profiling of Bovine Mammary Glands Infected with Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that are important regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs impact the processes of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Thus, the regulation of miRNA expression profiles associated with mastitis will be conducive for its control. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus was administered to the mammary gland of Chinese Holstein cows to construct a bacteria-type mastitis model. Total RNA was isolated from bovine mammary gland tissue samples from the S. aureus-induced mastitis group and controls. miRNAs were analyzed using Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics processing for the experimental group and control group. Two miRNA libraries were constructed respectively. A total of 370 known bovine miRNAs and 341 novel mi RNAs were detected for the S. aureus and 358 known bovine miRNAs and 232 novel miRNAs for control groups. A total of 77 miRNAs in the S. aureus group showed significant differences compared to the control group. GO (Gene Ontology analysis showed these target genes were involved in the regulation of cells, binding, etc., while KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that these genes were enriched in endocytosis, and olfactory transduction pathways involved in cancer. These results provide an experimental basis to reveal the cause and regulatory mechanism of mastitis and also suggest the potential of miRNAs to serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows.

  10. Primary cilia distribution and orientation during involution of the bovine mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biet, J; Poole, C A; Stelwagen, K; Margerison, J K; Singh, K

    2016-05-01

    The regulation of mammary gland involution occurs through multiple levels including environmental factors, hormones, and local intramammary signals. Primary cilia (PC) are signaling organelles that sense biochemical and biophysical extracellular stimuli and are vital for cellular and tissue function. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution, incidence, and orientation of PC. Furthermore, we determined changes in expression levels of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)6 at the onset of bovine mammary gland involution. Mammary tissue was collected from pasture-fed, primiparous, nonpregnant Friesian dairy cows at mid lactation (n=5 per group) killed 6-h after milking (lactating controls) and during involution after 7 and 28 d of nonmilking (NM). Fluorescent immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy of tissue sections showed that PC were present on luminal secretory epithelial cells (SEC), myoepithelial cells (MEC), and stromal fibroblast cells (SFC). Furthermore, in all 3 experimental groups, different PC positions or orientations relative to the cell surface were identified on SEC and MEC, which projected toward the lumen and were either straight, bent, or deflected against the apical cell surface, whereas PC in SFC were confined to the interalveolar space. However, by 28-d NM, fewer PC projected into the luminal space and most appeared deflected or projected toward the interalveolar space. Furthermore, by 28-d NM, with the increase in stromal connective tissue, more PC were detected within the interalveolar and interlobular stroma. At 28-d NM, we observed a decrease in luminal cilia relative to the total number of cilia. The number of ciliated cells in the total fraction (SEC, MEC, and SFC) was the same for all 3 groups, although in the luminal fraction (SEC and MEC), PC per nuclei increased by 28-d NM relative to lactation. At all 3 stages, we detected variations in shape and orientation of PC within the same alveolus, with

  11. Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from the bovine mammary gland evade immune recognition by mammary epithelial cells, but not of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Juliane; Czabanska, Anna; Bauer, Isabel; Leigh, James A; Holst, Otto; Seyfert, Hans-Martin

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is frequently isolated from the mammary gland of dairy cattle. Infection with some strains can induce mild subclinical inflammation whilst others induce severe inflammation and clinical mastitis. We compared here the inflammatory response of primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) towards S. uberis strains collected from clinical or subclinical cases (seven strains each) of mastitis with the strong response elicited by Escherichia coli. Neither heat inactivated nor live S. uberis induced the expression of 10 key immune genes (including TNF, IL1B, IL6). The widely used virulent strain 0140J and the avirulent strain, EF20 elicited similar responses; as did mutants defective in capsule (hasA) or biofilm formation (sub0538 and sub0539). Streptococcus uberis failed to activate NF-κB in pbMEC or TLR2 in HEK293 cells, indicating that S. uberis particles did not induce any TLR-signaling in MEC. However, preparations of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from two strains strongly induced immune gene expression and activated NF-κB in pbMEC, without the involvement of TLR2. The immune-stimulatory LTA must be arranged in the intact S. uberis such that it is unrecognizable by the relevant pathogen receptors of the MEC. The absence of immune recognition is specific for MEC, since the same S. uberis preparations strongly induced immune gene expression and NF-κB activity in the murine macrophage model cell RAW264.7. Hence, the sluggish immune response of MEC and not of professional immune cells to this pathogen may aid establishment of the often encountered belated and subclinical phenotype of S. uberis mastitis. PMID:26738804

  12. Short communication: opposing effects of lactoferrin on the proliferation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells from bovine mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K; Itoh, F; Nakamura, M; Kawamura, A; Yamazaki, T; Kozakai, T; Takusari, N; Ishisaki, A

    2015-02-01

    Lactoferrin is present in several physiologic fluids, including milk and colostrum. Recently, evidence has accumulated that lactoferrin acts as a regulator of cell proliferation. Lactoferrin mRNA and protein levels in bovine mammary glands are known to markedly increase after cessation of milking. To clarify the role of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) in mammary involution and remodeling during dry periods, we investigated whether bLF affects the proliferation of cultured cells derived from bovine mammary gland and examined the mechanism underlying the proliferative response to bLF. Addition of bLF to the culture medium increased the proliferation of bovine mammary stromal fibroblasts (bMSF), but decreased that of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC). Proliferation was significantly increased in the bMSF treated with bLF (100μg/mL or greater) as compared with unstimulated cells. The maximal proliferative effect of bLF on bMSF occurred at 1,000μg/mL, such that the proliferation of the bLF-stimulated bMSF was approximately 2.5 times that of unstimulated cells. The bLF increased the production of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and rapid phosphorylation of the p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase in bMSF, but not in bMEC. The bLF-induced proliferation and production of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in bMSF was suppressed by U0126, a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, treatment with bLF for 24h decreased the mRNA levels of the 3 isoforms of transforming growth factor β in bMSF (16-66%) but upregulated those in bMEC (122-157%). These opposite effects of bLF on the proliferation of epithelial and fibroblast cells and their expression of transforming growth factor β may play a crucial role in bovine mammary involution and remodeling. PMID:25497822

  13. Characterization of primary cilia distribution and morphology during lactation, stasis, and involution in the bovine mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millier, Melanie J; Singh, Kuljeet; Poole, C Anthony

    2013-12-01

    Primary cilia are small, sensory organelles projecting from virtually all cells and are vital for cellular and tissue function. Their distribution in bovine mammary tissue has not previously been assessed, despite the potential for these organelles to provide specialized perceptive and regulatory functions to this acutely responsive and adaptive gland. The research objectives were to assess ciliary distribution and morphology during active lactation, milk stasis, and early involution using tissue samples obtained following the abrupt cessation of milk removal in nonpregnant, Friesian dairy cows at mid-lactation. Routinely processed tissue sections were obtained at intervals from 6 to 192 hr after the last milking (N = 3 animals per group) and assigned to active lactation (6-12 hr), milk stasis (18-36 hr), and early involution (72-192 hr). Primary cilia were observed in luminal secretory epithelial cells (SECs), myoepithelial cells, and stromal cells following fluorescent immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. In SECs, some primary cilia appeared deflected against the apical cell membrane. The proportion of those deflected was greater during milk stasis than active lactation. Data show that primary cilia were suitably placed in three important cell types to potentially coordinate various forms of signal transduction relying on both mechanosensation and chemosensation, according to the physical and physiological state of the gland. Their cell-type distribution and morphology provide new directions in the study of mammary regulation to enhance the understanding of how various mammary-specific cellular responses may be initiated by biochemical or local biophysical factors. PMID:24155176

  14. Measuring bovine mammary gland blood flow using a transit time ultrasonic flow probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorewit, R C; Aromando, M C; Bristol, D G

    1989-07-01

    Lactating cattle were used to validate a transit time ultrasonic blood flow metering system for measuring mammary gland arterial blood flow. Blood flow probes were surgically placed around the right external pudic artery. An electromagnetic flow probe was implanted in tandem with the ultrasonic probe in two cows for comparative measurements. The absolute accuracy of the implanted flow probes was assessed in vivo by mechanical means on anesthetized cows after 2 to 3 wk of implantation. The zero offset of the ultrasonic probes ranged from -12 to 8 ml/min. When the ultrasonic probe was properly implanted, the slopes of the calibration curves were linear and ranged from .92 to .95, tracking absolute flow to within 8%. The transit time instrument's performance was examined under a variety of physiological conditions. These included milking and hormone injections. The transit time ultrasonic flow meter accurately measured physiological changes in mammary arterial blood flow in chronically prepared conscious cattle. Blood flow increased 29% during milking. Epinephrine decreased mammary blood flow by 90 to 95%. Oxytocin doses increased mammary blood flow by 15 to 24%. PMID:2674232

  15. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  16. The effects of Brazilian propolis on etiological agents of mastitis and the viability of bovine mammary gland explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiordalisi, Samira A L; Honorato, Luciana A; Loiko, Márcia R; Avancini, César A M; Veleirinho, Maria B R; Machado Filho, Luiz C P; Kuhnen, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of Brazilian propolis from Urupema, São Joaquim, and Agua Doce (Santa Catarina State) and green propolis from Minas Gerais State, and the effects of propolis on bovine mammary gland explant viability. The propolis samples differed in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Green propolis showed the highest content of flavonoids, followed by the sample from São Joaquim. The propolis from Urupema showed the lowest flavonoid content along with the lowest antioxidant activity. The total phenolics were similar across all studied samples. Despite phytochemical differences, the propolis samples from Minas Gerais, São Joaquim, and Urupema presented the same level of antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains. The reduction in S. aureus growth was, on average, 1.5 and 4 log10 times at 200 and 500 μg/mL, respectively. At concentrations of 1,000 μg/mL, all propolis reduced bacterial growth to zero. On the other hand, when the propolis were tested against strains of Escherichia coli, the samples presented weak antimicrobial activity. Mammary explants were maintained in culture for 96h without a loss in viability, demonstrating the applicability of the model in evaluating the toxicity of propolis. The origin and chemical composition of the propolis had an effect on mammary explant viability. We encountered inhibitory concentrations of 272.4, 171.8, 63.85, and 13.26 μg/mL for the propolis from Água Doce, Urupema, São Joaquim, and Mina Gerais, respectively. A clear association between greater antimicrobial activity and toxicity for mammary explants was observed. Of all propolis tested, the Urupema sample was noteworthy, as it showed antimicrobial activity at less toxic concentrations than the other samples, reducing bacterial growth to an average of 9.3 × 10(2) cfu/mL after 6h of contact using 200 μg/mL of extract. The results demonstrate the potential for Brazilian

  17. The effects of Brazilian propolis on etiological agents of mastitis and the viability of bovine mammary gland explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiordalisi, Samira A L; Honorato, Luciana A; Loiko, Márcia R; Avancini, César A M; Veleirinho, Maria B R; Machado Filho, Luiz C P; Kuhnen, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of Brazilian propolis from Urupema, São Joaquim, and Agua Doce (Santa Catarina State) and green propolis from Minas Gerais State, and the effects of propolis on bovine mammary gland explant viability. The propolis samples differed in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Green propolis showed the highest content of flavonoids, followed by the sample from São Joaquim. The propolis from Urupema showed the lowest flavonoid content along with the lowest antioxidant activity. The total phenolics were similar across all studied samples. Despite phytochemical differences, the propolis samples from Minas Gerais, São Joaquim, and Urupema presented the same level of antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains. The reduction in S. aureus growth was, on average, 1.5 and 4 log10 times at 200 and 500 μg/mL, respectively. At concentrations of 1,000 μg/mL, all propolis reduced bacterial growth to zero. On the other hand, when the propolis were tested against strains of Escherichia coli, the samples presented weak antimicrobial activity. Mammary explants were maintained in culture for 96h without a loss in viability, demonstrating the applicability of the model in evaluating the toxicity of propolis. The origin and chemical composition of the propolis had an effect on mammary explant viability. We encountered inhibitory concentrations of 272.4, 171.8, 63.85, and 13.26 μg/mL for the propolis from Água Doce, Urupema, São Joaquim, and Mina Gerais, respectively. A clear association between greater antimicrobial activity and toxicity for mammary explants was observed. Of all propolis tested, the Urupema sample was noteworthy, as it showed antimicrobial activity at less toxic concentrations than the other samples, reducing bacterial growth to an average of 9.3 × 10(2) cfu/mL after 6h of contact using 200 μg/mL of extract. The results demonstrate the potential for Brazilian

  18. Differential expression and localization of lipid transporters in the bovine mammary gland during the pregnancy-lactation cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mani, O; Sørensen, M T; Sejrsen, K;

    2009-01-01

    The transport of lipids across mammary gland epithelial cells (MEC) determines milk lipid content and composition. We investigated the expression of lipid transporters and their regulators in comparison to blood metabolites during lactation and dry period (DP) in dairy cows. Repeated mammary gland...... the functional stages of the mammary gland. The ABCA1 protein was localized in MEC and showed differential activity between DP and lactation suggesting a role of ABCA1 in the removal of excess cellular cholesterol from MEC during the DP. The expression profiles of ABCA7 and NPC1 may reflect a role...... of these transporters in the clearance of apoptotic cells and the intracellular redistribution of cholesterol, respectively. Regulation of lipid transporters in the mammary gland is partially associated with transcription factors that control lipid homeostasis....

  19. Biophysical and immunological studies on bovine immune globulins with evidence for selective transport within the mammary gland from maternal plasma to colostrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A. E.; Feinstein, A.

    1965-01-01

    Three immune globulins in maternal serum and colostrum and newly born calf serum, have been characterized and compared. An examination was made to determine first, which of the maternal serum immune globulins accumulate in the circulation of the calf and secondly, the selectivity of the mammary gland for these proteins compared with the intestinal mucosa of the newly born calf. By difference in their electrophoretic mobilities three antigenically related immune globulins were isolated from bovine serum. The immune lactoglobulins in bovine colostrum were qualitatively similar to those in serum. However, marked differences were observed between the relative concentrations in serum and colostrum of the three immune globulins. An electrophoretically fast immune globulin (C1), present in colostrum at high concentration, was shown to be antigenically similar to an immune globulin (S1) present in the maternal serum at low concentration. These findings indicate that the mammary gland showed a highly selective preference for, and hence ability to concentrate in, colostrum, the electrophoretically fastest serum immune globulin. The slowest serum immune globulin and the component with intermediate electrophoretic mobility (S3 and S2 respectively) were both present at high concentration in bovine maternal serum, but were transmitted at different rates into the colostrum, so that the slowest serum immune globulin (S3) was present in the colostrum as a comparatively minor component (C3). In contrast to the mammary gland, the intestine of the newly born calf (permeable to undegraded protein during the first 24 hours of life) showed no selectivity. Immune globulins showing the three electrophoretic mobilities were absorbed equally readily. Thus, while the bovine mammary gland showed a highly selective preference for certain electrophoretically different serum proteins, no comparable selectivity was shown by the intestinal mucosa of the newly born calf. The results emphasize the

  20. Computational analysis of bovine milk exosomal miRNAs profiles derived from uninfected and Streptococcus uberis infected mammary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dairy cattle industry in the U.S. contributes an estimated 7 billion dollars to the agribusiness economy. Bacterial infections that cause disease like mastitis, affect health of the lactating mammary gland, and negatively impacts milk production and milk quality, costing producers an estimated 2...

  1. Effects of Cooling and Supplemental Bovine Somatotropin on Milk Production relating to Body Glucose Metabolism and Utilization of Glucose by the Mammary Gland in Crossbred Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siravit Sitprija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The low milk yield and shorter persistency of lactation of dairy cattle is the major problem for the dairy practices in the tropics. High environmental temperatures and rapid decline of plasma growth hormone level can influence milk production. Regulation of the milk yield of animals is mainly based on the mechanisms governing the quantity of glucose extracted by the mammary gland for lactose biosynthetic pathways. The mechanism(s underlying the effects of cooling and supplemental bovine somatotropin on milk production relating to body glucose metabolism and intracellular metabolism of glucose in the mammary gland of crossbred Holstein cattle in the tropics have not been investigated to date. Approach: Ten crossbred 87.5% Holstein cows were divided into two groups of five animals each. Animals were housed in Normal Shade barn (NS as non-cooled cows and cows in the second group were housed in barn which was equipped with a two Misty-Fan cooling system (MF as cooled cows. Supplementation of recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST (POSILAC, 500 mg per cow were performed in both groups to study body glucose metabolism and the utilization of glucose in the mammary gland using a continuous infusion of [3-3H] glucose and [U- 14C] glucose as markers in early, mid and late stages of lactation. Results: Milk yield significantly increased in both groups during supplemental rbST with a high level of mammary blood flow. Body glucose turnover rates were not significant different between cooled and non-cooled cows whether supplemental rbST or not. The glucose taken up by the mammary gland of both non-cooled and cooled cows increased flux through the lactose synthesis and the pentose cycle pathway with significant increases in NADPH formation for fatty acid synthesis during rbST supplementation. The utilization of glucose carbon incorporation into milk appeared to increase in milk lactose and milk triacylglycerol but not for

  2. In depth analysis of genes and pathways of the mammary gland involved in the pathogenesis of bovine Escherichia coli-mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Rontved, Christine M.; Edwards, Stefan McKinnon;

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine mastitis is one of the most costly and prevalent diseases affecting dairy cows worldwide. In order to develop new strategies to prevent Escherichia coli-induced mastitis, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the host immune response to an E. coli...... to the pro-inflammatory response and APR, but also identified significant representation of two unexpected pathways: natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity pathway (KEGG04650) and the Rig-I-like receptor signalling pathway (KEGG04622). Conclusions In E. coli-induced mastitis, infected mammary gland tissue...

  3. 奶牛乳腺体外培养模型应用研究进展%Research Progress on Application of in Vitro Cultured Lactating Bovine Mammary Gland Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周苗苗; 崔景香

    2014-01-01

    奶牛乳腺上皮细胞(BMEC)具有分泌乳汁的特殊功能,体外培养的奶牛乳腺细胞是研究乳成分合成调控和乳腺生理代谢的良好模型。近年来,奶牛乳腺体外培养模型受到越来越多的关注,其应用也更广泛。本文主要从奶牛乳腺体外培养模型在乳成分合成调控和乳腺生理代谢机制领域的应用两个方面进行简要综述。%Bovine mammary gland epithelial cells have special functions of synthesis and lactation, and lactating bovine mammary gland model cultured in vitro can be used to study the regulation of the synthesis of milk components and mammary gland physiological metabolism. In recent years, this model has attracted more and more attention, and its application is wider and wider. In this paper, cultural method and its application in regulation of milk composition synthesis and mammary physiological metabolism of in vitro cultured lactating bovine mammary gland model are reviewed.

  4. Survey of bovine mycotic mastitis in different mammary gland statuses in two north-eastern regions of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Samir; Djebir, Somia; Hadef, Youcef; Benakhla, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of mycotic mastitis in different mammary gland statuses. The study was conducted on 304 dairy cows from ten farms in two north-eastern regions in Algeria; Guelma and Souk Ahras with 922 and 199 samples, respectively, forming thus a total number of 1,121 milk samples. A total of 321 milk samples were collected from clinical mastitis, 544 milk samples from subclinical mastitis and 256 milk samples from healthy mammary glands. Mycological analyses revealed that 10.17% of the treated samples were positive recording 114 species of fungi including 88 yeasts and 26 moulds. The most frequent species was Candida kefyr followed by C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. colliculosa, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. inconspicua, Trichosporon sp., Rhodotorula glutinis and Saccharomyces fragilis. Mould species have also been isolated from samples of both healthy milk and clinical mastitis milk. Aspergillus amstelodami (from glaucus group), A. fumigatus and Geotrichum candidum were identified, while the other species including Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. were not identified. PMID:25481847

  5. Proteomics data in support of the quantification of the changes of bovine milk proteins during mammary gland involution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Irina; Hine, Brad; Smolenksi, Grant; Hettinga, Kasper; Zhang, Lina; Wheeler, Thomas T

    2016-09-01

    Here we provide data from three proteomics techniques; two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by identification of selected spots using PSD MALDI-TOF MS/MS, one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by LC-MS/MS analysis of gel slices (GeLC) and dimethyl isotopic labelling of tryptic peptides followed by Orbitrap MS/MS (DML), to quantify the changes in the repertoire of bovine milk proteins that occurs after drying off. We analysed skim milk and whey sampled at day 0 and either day 3 or day 8 after drying off. These analyses identified 45 spots by MALDI-TOF, 51 proteins by GeLC and 161 proteins by DML, for which the detailed data work-up is presented as three Excel files. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication "Changes in the repertoire of bovine milk proteins during mammary involution" (Boggs et al., 2015) [1]. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers ProteomeXchange: PXD003110 and ProteomeXchange: PXD003011. PMID:27274532

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the bovine mammary gland: Receptors, endogenous secretion, and appearance in milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first study to characterize both insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in bovine milk, to characterize the IGF-I receptor in the dry and lactating mammary gland, and to report de novo synthesis and secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP from normal mammary tissue. Immunoreactive IGF-I was principally associated with 45 kDa IGFBP in milk. Multiparous cows had a higher IGF-I concentration of 307 ng/ml than primiparous cows at 147 ng/ml. IGF-I concentration on day 56 of lactation was 34 ng/ml for combined parity groups. At parturition, IGF-I mass in blood and milk pools was 1.4 and 1.2 mg, respectively. Binding of {sup 125}I-IGF-I was specific for IGF-I with anIC{sub 50} of 2.2 ng which was a 10- and 1273-fold greater affinity than IGF-II and insulin, respectively. Association constants, as determined by Scatchard analysis, were similar for both pregnant and lactating cows at 3.5 and 4.0 L/nM, respectively. In addition, estimated mean receptor concentration was 0.25 and 0.23 pM/mg protein for pregnant and lactating cows, respectively. In a survey of mammary microscomes prepared from 48 cows, {sup 125}I-IGF-I binding declined with progressing lactation and a similar trend was observed during pregnancy.

  7. Expression profiles of microRNAs from lactating and non-lactating bovine mammary glands and identification of miRNA related to lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of milk protein synthesis and development of the mammary gland (MG. However, the specific functions of miRNAs in these regulations are not clear. Therefore, the elucidation of miRNA expression profiles in the MG is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms of lactogenesis. Results Two miRNA libraries were constructed from MG tissues taken from a lactating and a non-lactating Holstein dairy cow, respectively, and the short RNA sequences (18–30 nt in these libraries were sequenced by Solexa sequencing method. The libraries included 885 pre-miRNAs encoding for 921 miRNAs, of which 884 miRNAs were unique sequences and 544 (61.5% were expressed in both periods. A custom-designed microarray assay was then performed to compare miRNA expression patterns in the MG of lactating and non-lactating dairy cows. A total of 56 miRNAs in the lactating MG showed significant differences in expression compared to non-lactating MG (P Conclusion Our study provides a broad view of the bovine MG miRNA expression profile characteristics. Eight hundred and eighty-four miRNAs were identified in bovine MG. Differences in types and expression levels of miRNAs were observed between lactating and non-lactating bovine MG. Systematic predictions aided in the identification of lactation-related miRNAs, providing insight into the types of miRNAs and their possible mechanisms in regulating lactation.

  8. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs. PMID:10813628

  9. Bovine mammary stem cells: new perspective for dairy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignani, E; Cravero, D; Miretti, S; Accornero, P; Baratta, M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary stem cells provide opportunities for the cyclic remodelling of the bovine mammary gland. Therefore, understanding the character and regulation of mammary stem cells is important for increasing animal health and productivity. The exciting possibility that stem cell expansion can influence milk production is currently being investigated by several researchers. In fact, appropriate regulation of mammary stem cells could hopefully benefit milk yield, persistency of lactation, dry period management and tissue repair. Accordingly, we and others have attempted to characterize and regulate the function of bovine mammary stem cells. However, research on mammary stem cells requires tissue biopsies, which represents a limitation for the management of animal welfare. Interestingly, different studies recently reported the identification of putative mammary stem cells in human breast milk. The possible identification of primitive cell types within cow's milk may provide a non-invasive source of relevant mammary cells for a wide range of applications. In this review, we have summarized the main achievements in this field for dairy cow science and described the interesting perspectives open to manipulate milk persistency during lactation and to cope with oxidative stress during the transition period by regulating mammary stem cells.

  10. MicroRNA content in milk exosomes as a phenotypic indicator of Staphylococcus aureus infection in the bovine mammary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous gene mapping research to understand the host genetic response to mammary infection based on somatic cell score has been unsuccessful due to the poor correlation of this confounding trait with mastitis, a disease costing the dairy industry an estimated $2 billion in annual costs. Recently, ...

  11. Effects of bovine mammary gland biopsy and increased milking frequency on post-procedure udder health, histology, and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J A M; Ruas, J R M; Vasconcelos, A C; Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Gheller, V A; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2016-05-01

    Sixteen cows in early lactation were randomly distributed into two groups in order to evaluate the effects of mammary biopsies and increased milking frequency on tissue characteristics, post-biopsy udder health and histology. One group was milked twice a day (2×) starting on the 2nd day after calving, until 28 days in milk (DIM). The other group was milked four times a day (4×) from two to 21 DIM, and twice a day (2×) from 22 to 28 DIM. On days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum, one fragment of secretory tissue was collected from one mammary quarter at a time. Collections were alternated between the four mammary quarters per collection day. A total of 80 mammary tissue samples were collected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the tissues were conducted by histologic examination. Animal health was assessed by observation of feed intake behavior immediately after biopsy, and weight and body condition score before and one week after biopsy. Udder health was assessed daily from calving to 60 DIM with California Mastitis Test (CMT) and by noting alterations in the milk such as blood, milk clots, blood clots, clinical signs of mastitis. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were analyzed before and after the biopsies. Milk production was evaluated before biopsy, on the day of biopsy, and after the biopsy. An average of 10 fields at 40× magnification was obtained from each sample. There were no evident changes in mammary morphology as a result of milking two or four times/day at any of the evaluated time points. Biopsy wounds healed rapidly without infection. Intramammary bleeding and CMT alterations were observed in 96% and 75% of the biopsied mammary quarters, respectively. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed in 12% of the biopsied quarters. Different milking frequencies had no effect on the frequency and duration of post-biopsy alterations. Milk production decreased after biopsies done on days 2 for 2× and 4× groups, but it returned to pre-biopsy values

  12. Effects of bovine mammary gland biopsy and increased milking frequency on post-procedure udder health, histology, and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J A M; Ruas, J R M; Vasconcelos, A C; Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Gheller, V A; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2016-05-01

    Sixteen cows in early lactation were randomly distributed into two groups in order to evaluate the effects of mammary biopsies and increased milking frequency on tissue characteristics, post-biopsy udder health and histology. One group was milked twice a day (2×) starting on the 2nd day after calving, until 28 days in milk (DIM). The other group was milked four times a day (4×) from two to 21 DIM, and twice a day (2×) from 22 to 28 DIM. On days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum, one fragment of secretory tissue was collected from one mammary quarter at a time. Collections were alternated between the four mammary quarters per collection day. A total of 80 mammary tissue samples were collected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the tissues were conducted by histologic examination. Animal health was assessed by observation of feed intake behavior immediately after biopsy, and weight and body condition score before and one week after biopsy. Udder health was assessed daily from calving to 60 DIM with California Mastitis Test (CMT) and by noting alterations in the milk such as blood, milk clots, blood clots, clinical signs of mastitis. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were analyzed before and after the biopsies. Milk production was evaluated before biopsy, on the day of biopsy, and after the biopsy. An average of 10 fields at 40× magnification was obtained from each sample. There were no evident changes in mammary morphology as a result of milking two or four times/day at any of the evaluated time points. Biopsy wounds healed rapidly without infection. Intramammary bleeding and CMT alterations were observed in 96% and 75% of the biopsied mammary quarters, respectively. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed in 12% of the biopsied quarters. Different milking frequencies had no effect on the frequency and duration of post-biopsy alterations. Milk production decreased after biopsies done on days 2 for 2× and 4× groups, but it returned to pre-biopsy values

  13. Evaluation of the Rapid Mastitis Test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, J L; Owens, W E

    1988-01-01

    A latex agglutination test system (Rapid Mastitis Test [RMT]; Immucell, Portland, Maine) containing reagents for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae from bovine intramammary infections was evaluated with 527 staphylococcal and 267 streptococcal isolates. The RMT Staphylococcus aureus reagent detected 94.2% of 242 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 80% of 25 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates, and 42.8% of 21 tube coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus isol...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus induces TGF-β1 and bFGF expression through the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factors in bovine mammary gland fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianmei; Ding, Yulin; Bi, Yannan; Wang, Yi; Zhi, Yu; Wang, Jinling; Wang, Fenglong

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common Gram-positive pathogen that causes bovine mastitis, a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland. To better understand the importance of bovine mammary fibroblasts (BMFBs) and the roles of the TLR-NF-κB and TLR-AP-1 signaling pathways in the regulation of S. aureus-associated mastitis and mammary fibosis, BMFBs cultured in vitro were stimulated with different concentrations of heat-inactivated S. aureus to analyze the gene and protein expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activation protein-1 (AP-1) by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. Specific NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitors were also used to investigate their effects on the regulation of TGF-β1 and bFGF expression. The results indicated that, in addition to increasing mRNA and protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4, S. aureus could also upregulate TGF-β1 and bFGF mRNA expression and secretion through the activation of NF-κB and AP-1. The increase in TGF-β1 and bFGF expression was shown to be inhibited by AP-1- and NF-κB-specific inhibitors. Taken together, S. aureus induces TGF-β1 and bFGF expression through the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB in BMFBs. This information offers new potential targets for the treatment of bovine mammary fibrosis. PMID:26948281

  15. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed without... accordance with the provisions of part 311 of this subchapter. (c) Lactating mammary glands of cattle, sheep... as “Brucellosis reactors” or as “Mastitis elimination cows” shall be condemned....

  16. Dietary fat, calories, and mammary gland tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, C W

    1992-01-01

    In this communication, a vast array of studies designed to examine the relationship between dietary fat and experimental mammary gland tumorigenesis was reviewed and critiqued. It is clear, as reported by many laboratories, that as the fat content of the diet is increased from a low or standard level to a high level, a consistent and substantial increase in the development of rodent mammary gland tumors is observed. The longer the duration the high-fat diet is fed, the greater the enhancing effect on tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet is observed even when fed commencing late in an animal's life. A multitude of studies also have provided evidence that the type of fat can markedly influence the development of rodent mammary gland tumors. In general, high dietary levels of unsaturated fats (e.g., corn oil, sunflower-seed oil) stimulate this tumorigenic process more than high levels of saturated fats (e.g., beef tallow, coconut oil); diets rich in certain fish oils (e.g., Menhaden oil, Max EPA) are often the most inhibitory to this tumorigenic process. Importantly, however, supplementation of saturated fat or fish oil diets with modest amounts of unsaturated fats, e.g., corn oil, often negates the mammary tumor inhibitory activities of these fats. Thus, rather extreme differences in the types of fat are required for a differential in mammary gland tumorigenesis; common proportionate blends of different fats of animal, plant, and/or fish origin are often unable to differentially influence this tumorigenic process. Diets rich in monoenoic fatty acids, e.g., those containing high levels of olive oil, have been examined in a number of studies; results from these studies have been inconsistent. A number of reports suggest that the increase in development of mammary tumors in rodents fed a high-fat diet, compared with those fed a low-fat diet, is due to specific metabolic activities of the fat per se, activities independent of a caloric

  17. Role of Oligopeptide Transporter 2 in Bovine Mammary Gland Phenylalanine Dipeptide Uptake%小肽转运载体2在奶牛乳腺小肽摄取中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周苗苗; 吴跃明; 刘红云; 赵珂; 刘建新

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the role of oligopeptide transporter 2 in small peptides uptake and milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary gland. Different doses of Phe dipeptide (0 and 11. 7 |xg/mL)and DEPC (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0. 5 and 1 mmol/L) were added to the culture medium of bovine mammary gland tissues. After incubated in the experimental medium, mammary tissues and medium were collected and used for gene expression and milk protein determination, respectively. The results showed that l) Phe dipeptide increased oligopeptide transporter 2 and αsl -casein gene expression and milk protein quantity in the medium (P0.05) in free Phe group. These results indicate that Phe dipeptide can be used for synthesis of milk protein by bovine mammary gland while PepT2 may play an important role in small peptides uptake by bovine mammary gland. [Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2011, 23(8):1303-1308]%本试验旨在研究2型小肽转运载体(oligopeptide transporter 2,PepT 2)在奶牛乳腺组织吸收利用小肽合成乳蛋白过程中的作用.在体外培养的奶牛乳腺组织培养液中分别添加不同浓度的苯丙氨酸二肽( Phe-Phe)(0和11.7 μg/mL)和/或焦碳酸二乙酯(DEPC)(0、0.01、0.1、0.5和1.0 mmol/L)进行培养,试验结束后收集乳腺组织和培养液分别用于基因表达和乳蛋白合成的检测.结果表明,Phe-Phe促进了PepT 2和αs1-酪蛋白基因表达及乳蛋白合成(P<0.05);随DEPC添加浓度的升高,αs1-酪蛋白基因表达(P<0.01)和乳蛋白合成(P<0.05)显著降低;0.5 mmol/L DEPC显著降低了Phe-Phe组αs1-酪蛋白的基因表达(P<0.05)和乳蛋白合成(P<0.01)以及不添加小肽组乳蛋白合成(P<0.05),但不影响不添加小肽组αs1-酪蛋白基因表达(P>0.05).结果提示,奶牛乳腺能摄取Phe-Phe用于乳蛋白的合成,PepT 2可能在乳腺小肽摄取过程中发挥重要作用.

  18. Regulation of leptin in involution of mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; LI Qingzhang

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, a protein hormone produced and secreted predominantly by white adipose tissue, has a critical role in the regulation and coordination of energy metabolism. Leptin is produced in the mammary gland by the fat tissue or by the mammary epithelium. In vitro study has shown that leptin triggers apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells. Mammary gland involution is characterized by extensive apoptosis of the epithelial cells. At the onset of involution, STAT3 is specifically activated. Various studies show that leptin act as a paracrine and autocrin factor to influence mammary epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. This paper reviewed the function of leptin to the involution of mammary gland.

  19. Resident macrophages influence stem cell activity in the mammary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Gyorki, D.E.; Asselin-Labat, M.L.; Rooijen, van, J.; Lindeman, G J; Visvader, J E

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Macrophages in the mammary gland are essential for morphogenesis of the ductal epithelial tree and have been implicated in promoting breast tumor metastasis. Although it is well established that macrophages influence normal mammopoiesis, the mammary cell types that these accessory cells influence have not been determined. Here we have explored a role for macrophages in regulating mammary stem cell (MaSC) activity, by assessing the ability of MaSCs to reconstitute a mammary gland ...

  20. Mfge8 is critical for mammary gland remodeling during involution

    OpenAIRE

    Atabai, Kamran; Fernandez, Rafael; Huang, Xiaozhu; Ueki, Iris; Kline, Ahnika; LI, YONG; Sadatmansoori, Sepid; Smith-Steinhart, Christine; Zhu, Weimin; Pytela, Robert; Werb, Zena; Sheppard, Dean

    2005-01-01

    Apoptosis is a critical process in normal mammary gland development and the rapid clearance of apoptotic cells prevents tissue injury associated with the release of intracellular antigens from dying cells. Milk fat globule-EGF-factor 8 (Mfge8) is a milk glycoprotein that is abundantly expressed in the mammary gland epithelium and has been shown to facilitate the clearance of apoptotic lymphocytes by splenic macrophages. We report that mice with disruption of Mfge8 had normal mammary gland dev...

  1. Histological and Morphometric Study of Lactating Mammary Glands in Sows

    OpenAIRE

    Svätoslav Hluchý; Norbert Bolcsó

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the quantitative histological morphometric description of the mammary glands of sows during the stage of lactation. As experimental animals were used White meat breed pigs (5 animals) kept in standard conditions VÚŽV in Nitra. After killing the animals we sampled mammary glands and have them processed by conventional histological and histochemical methods. Morphometric methods, we found that glandular parenchyma of mammary glands of sows consists of a lobules width 615.28...

  2. ABC- and SLC-Transporters in Murine and Bovine Mammary Epithelium--Effects of Prochloraz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagmur Yagdiran

    Full Text Available Some chemicals are ligands to efflux transporters which may result in high concentrations in milk. Limited knowledge is available on the influence of maternal exposure to chemicals on the expression and function of transporters in the lactating mammary gland. We determined gene expression of ABC and SLC transporters in murine mammary tissue of different gestation and lactation stages, in murine mammary cells (HC11 featuring resting and secreting phenotypes and in bovine mammary tissue and cells (BME-UV. Effects on transporter expression and function of the imidazole fungicide prochloraz, previously reported to influence BCRP in mammary cells, was investigated on transporter expression and function in the two cell lines. Transporters studied were BCRP, MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5/OATP1A2, OCTN1 and OCT1. Gene expressions of BCRP and OCT1 in murine mammary glands were increased during gestation and lactation, whereas MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5 and OCTN1 were decreased, compared to expressions in virgins. All transporters measured in mammary glands of mice were detected in bovine mammary tissue and in HC11 cells, while only MDR1 and MRP1 were detected in BME-UV cells. Prochloraz treatment induced MDR1 gene and protein expression in both differentiated HC11 and BME-UV cells and increased protein function in HC11 cells, resulting in decreased accumulation of the MDR1 substrate digoxin. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that murine (HC11 and bovine (BME-UV mammary epithelial cells can be applied to characterize expression and function of transporters as well as effects of contaminants on the mammary transporters. An altered expression, induced by a drug or toxic chemical, on any of the transporters expressed in the mammary epithelial cells during lactation may modulate the well-balanced composition of nutrients and/or secretion of contaminants in milk with potential adverse effects on breast-fed infants and dairy consumers.

  3. Mammary gland stem cells: More puzzles than explanations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suneesh Kaimala; Suneesh Kaimala; Satish Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers. At present, Lin–CD29hiCD49fhiCD24+/modSca-1– cells of the mammary gland have been reported to be enriched with MaSCs. We suggest that the inclusion of stem cell markers like Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the mammary gland differentiation marker BRCA-1 may further narrow down the search for MaSCs. In addition, we have discussed some of the other unresolved puzzles on the mammary gland stem cells, such as their similarities and/or differences with mammary cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional mammary gland structures in this review. Nevertheless, it is the lack of identity for a MaSC that is curtailing the advances in some of the above and other related areas.

  4. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  5. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  6. Effects of N-acetylimidazole on oxytocin binding in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.; Gorewit, R.C.; Currie, W.B. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of N-acetylimidazole on specific binding of oxytocin to microsomal fractions of bovine mammary gland were studied. N-acetylimidazole suppressed oxytocin binding, with time and concentration dependence. Decreased oxytocin binding activity appeared to be due to decreased affinity of the hormone for its receptor. Acetylation of oxytocin, rather than of oxytocin receptors, seemed to be responsible for the decreased binding.

  7. Study on apoptosis of bovine mammary gland in different development stages%奶牛不同发育时期乳腺细胞凋亡规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖阳; 李庆章; 张莉

    2012-01-01

    为系统地研究奶牛乳腺不同发育时期细胞凋亡的规律,应用TUNEL法对奶牛不同发育时期正常乳腺组织(冰冻切片)的乳腺细胞凋亡进行了系统检测.结果表明,青春期乳腺发育缓慢,结构变化较小,乳腺细胞凋亡量相对较少;妊娠期乳腺导管持续发育,凋亡量上升,其中妊娠初期2月,乳腺腺泡大量出现,脂肪细胞凋亡随之增加,出现了一个高峰;泌乳期乳腺的结构和功能最为完善,乳腺结构变化很小,细胞凋亡量维持在很低水平;退化期腺泡瓦解,大量细胞发生凋亡,其中退化初期乳腺细胞凋亡持续增加,退化3d达到最大值,之后凋亡量逐渐降低,退化30 d后乳腺已经基本恢复到青春期状态,凋亡细胞量也随之减少.%The purpose is to explore the regulation of apoptosis at different developmental stages in dairy cow mammary gland. Normal cow mammary gland tissues of different developmental stages were sliced in frozen. TUNEL was used to detect the apoptosis of mammary cell. The results showed that the virgin mammary gland developed slowly, little changes in mammary gland, and at this time, no apoptosis was detected. In pregnancy, mammary gland ductal continued to grow, and apoptosis increased. In initial pregnancy 2m, there were a lot of gland alveolus and simultaneously adipocyte apoptosis began to increase, and appearing a secondary apoptosis peak. In lactation, the structure and function of mammary gland were most complete, no changes in mammary gland structure and apoptosis level was low. In involution, gland alveolus collapsed and a lot of cells were apoptosis. In involution 3d, the apoptosis was highest and then decreased. In involution 30d, the mammary gland was recovered and apoptosis decreased.

  8. Clock circadian regulator (CLOCK) gene network expression patterns in bovine adipose, liver, and mammary gland at 3 time points during the transition from pregnancy into lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Zhou, Z; Khan, M J; Gao, J; Loor, J J

    2015-07-01

    The transition from late gestation to early lactation is the most critical phase of the lactation cycle for mammals. Research in rodents has revealed changes in the clock circadian regulator (CLOCK) gene network expression around parturition. However, their expression profiles and putative functions during the periparturient period in ruminants remain to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of the CLOCK network and selected metabolic genes simultaneously in mammary gland (MG), liver (LIV), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT). Seven dairy cows were biopsied at -10 (±2), 7, and 21 d relative to parturition. A day × tissue interaction was observed for ARNTL, CRY1, and PER2 due to upregulation at 7 and 21 d postpartum, with their expression being greater in AT and MG compared with LIV. No interaction was detected for CLOCK, CRY2, PER1, and PER3. In general, the expression of NPAS2, NR1D1, NR2F2, ALAS1, FECH, FBXW11, CCRN4L, PPARA, PPARGC1A, and FGF21 was lower at -10 d but increased postpartum in all tissues. The interaction detected for CSNK1D was associated with increased expression postpartum in AT and MG but not LIV. The interaction detected for CPT1A was due to upregulation in AT and LIV postpartum without a change in MG. In contrast, the interaction for PPARG was due to upregulation in AT and MG postpartum but a downregulation in LIV. Leptin was barely detectable in LIV, but there was an interaction effect in AT and MG associated with upregulation postpartum in MG and downregulation in AT. Together, these results suggest that the control of metabolic adaptations in LIV, MG, and AT around parturition might be partly regulated through the CLOCK gene network. Although the present study did not specifically address rhythmic control of tissue metabolism via the CLOCK gene network, the difference in expression of genes studied among tissues confirms that the behavior of circadian-controlled metabolic genes around parturition

  9. Resident macrophages influence stem cell activity in the mammary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyorki, D.E.; Asselin-Labat, M.L.; Rooijen, van N.; Lindeman, G.J.; Visvader, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Macrophages in the mammary gland are essential for morphogenesis of the ductal epithelial tree and have been implicated in promoting breast tumor metastasis. Although it is well established that macrophages influence normal mammopoiesis, the mammary cell types that these accessory cells

  10. Differential Acupuncture Treatment of Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进才

    2002-01-01

    @@ Hyperplasia of mammary glands is a common disease in the middle-aged women, and it is a precancerous lesion of mammary glands. For many years, the author has used Rugen (ST 18) of the Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming as the main point withcertain auxiliary points chosen on basis of the differentiation types to treat the disease and obtained satisfactory therapeutic effects. A report follows.

  11. Optimization and characterization of an in vitro bovine mammary cell culture system to study regulation of milk protein synthesis and mammary differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talhouk, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A long term bovine mammary cell culture system that maintains normal mammary cell function was established and optimized to study milk protein synthesis and secretion and mammary differentiation. This culture system used bovine mammary acini isolated from developing or lactating mammary gland by enzymatic dissociation, and cryopreserved until thawed and plated for growth in vitro for these studies. Cells in M199 with lactogenic hormones {plus minus} fetal calf serum (FCS) were cultured on plastic, 100ul and 500ul type I collagen, and Matrigel, or embedded within type I collagen. Cell morphology, cell number, and total TCA-precipitable {sup 35}S-labelled proteins were monitored. Milk protein ({alpha}{sub s,1}-casein, lactoferrin (LF), {alpha}-lactalbumin, and {beta}-lactoglobulin) secretion and intracellular levels were determined by an ELISA assay.

  12. Imunidade inata da glândula mamária bovina: resposta à infecção Innate immunity of the bovine mammary gland: response to infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolinda Maria Vieira Filha Carneiro

    2009-09-01

    infection's site by numerous stimulations, and these answers are not enhanced by repeated exposure to the same agent. The first obstacle to be faced by the agent is the barrier represented by the teat sphincter and the keratin plug. When the pathogenic agent crosses the teat canal and reaches the teat cistern, starts to act the humoral factors and the phagocytic cells starts do act. Among the humoral mediators there are the lactoperoxidase, complement, cytokines, lactoferrin, lysozyme and NAGase. The non-specific cellular defenses are represented by neutrophils, macrophages and natural killer cells. If these mechanisms have been functioning adequately, the majority of pathogens will be eliminated in a short time, before the specific immune system be activated. The fast elimination of the microorganisms will not allow these alterations in the amount or quality of produced milk. The best understanding of the defense mechanisms of the mammary gland and its alterations during the critical periods of infection, is an useful tool in devising and developing methods to control the mastitis, the major illness of dairy ruminants. This paper overviewed the most important aspects of the innate immunity of bovine mammary gland.

  13. Xanthosine administration does not affect the proportion of epithelial stem cells in bovine mammary tissue, but has a latent negative effect on cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge in manipulating the proportion of somatic stem cells lies in having to override tissue homeostasis. Xanthosine infusion via the teat canal has been reported to augment the number of label-retaining cells in the mammary gland of 3-month-old bovine calves. To further delineate xanthosine's effect on defined stem cells in the mammary gland of heifers—which are candidates for increased prospective milk production following such manipulation—bovine mammary parenchymal tissue was transplanted and integrated into the cleared mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice. Xanthosine administration for 14 days did not affect the number of label-retaining cells after 10- and 11-week chases. No change in stem cell proportion, analyzed according to CD49f and CD24 expression, was noted. Clone formation and propagation rate of cultured cells, as well as expression of stem cell markers, were also unaffected. In contrast, a latent 50% decrease in bovine mammary cell proliferation rate was observed 11 weeks after xanthosine administration. Tumor development in mice was also limited by xanthosine administration. These effects may have resulted from an initial decrease in expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in guanine synthesis, IMPDH. The data indicate that caution should be exerted when considering xanthosine for stem cell manipulation. - Highlights: • Novel “bovinized“ mouse model for exogenous effects on bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine did not affect stem cell number/function in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine caused an immediate decrease in IMPDH expression in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine had latent negative effect on cell proliferation in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine administration limited mammary tumor growth

  14. Xanthosine administration does not affect the proportion of epithelial stem cells in bovine mammary tissue, but has a latent negative effect on cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauner, Gat, E-mail: gat.rauner@mail.huji.ac.il [Institute of Animal Science, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250 (Israel); The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel); Barash, Itamar, E-mail: itamar.barash@mail.huji.ac.il [Institute of Animal Science, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250 (Israel)

    2014-10-15

    The challenge in manipulating the proportion of somatic stem cells lies in having to override tissue homeostasis. Xanthosine infusion via the teat canal has been reported to augment the number of label-retaining cells in the mammary gland of 3-month-old bovine calves. To further delineate xanthosine's effect on defined stem cells in the mammary gland of heifers—which are candidates for increased prospective milk production following such manipulation—bovine mammary parenchymal tissue was transplanted and integrated into the cleared mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice. Xanthosine administration for 14 days did not affect the number of label-retaining cells after 10- and 11-week chases. No change in stem cell proportion, analyzed according to CD49f and CD24 expression, was noted. Clone formation and propagation rate of cultured cells, as well as expression of stem cell markers, were also unaffected. In contrast, a latent 50% decrease in bovine mammary cell proliferation rate was observed 11 weeks after xanthosine administration. Tumor development in mice was also limited by xanthosine administration. These effects may have resulted from an initial decrease in expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in guanine synthesis, IMPDH. The data indicate that caution should be exerted when considering xanthosine for stem cell manipulation. - Highlights: • Novel “bovinized“ mouse model for exogenous effects on bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine did not affect stem cell number/function in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine caused an immediate decrease in IMPDH expression in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine had latent negative effect on cell proliferation in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine administration limited mammary tumor growth.

  15. INDUCTION OF MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary glands from the estrogen receptor knockout ( ERKO) mouse do not undergo ductal morphogenesis or alveolar development. Disrupted Er signaling may result in reduced estrogen-responsive gene products in the mammary gland or reduced mammotropic hormones that contribute t...

  16. Epidermal growth factor in mammary glands and milk from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba;

    1993-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF......-immunoreactivity was revealed homogeneously in the cytoplasm of the secretory cells, which might suggest that EGF is present as a precursor molecule in the mammary glands. Altered glucose metabolism during lactation results in secondary hypoinsulinaemia in the lactating rat. As insulin is also known to affect lactation...... of the cobalamin-binding protein, haptocorrin (HC) [37.7 (15.8-110.4) nM vs. 23.5 (15.5-70.1) nM]. In conclusion, the highly insulin-sensitive lactating mammary glands were affected by exogenous insulin, since the milk concentrations of EGF, HC, total protein and the fat percentage were increased....

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  19. Evaluation of Mammary Gland Development and Function in Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Plante, Isabelle; Stewart, Michael K.G.; Laird, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    The human mammary gland is composed of 15-20 lobes that secrete milk into a branching duct system opening at the nipple. Those lobes are themselves composed of a number of terminal duct lobular units made of secretory alveoli and converging ducts1. In mice, a similar architecture is observed at pregnancy in which ducts and alveoli are interspersed within the connective tissue stroma. The mouse mammary gland epithelium is a tree like system of ducts composed of two layers of cells, an inner la...

  20. Lymph Drainage of the Mammary Glands in Female Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Raharison, Fidiniaina; Sautet, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The mammary gland is a common site of neoplasms in the female cat. All the malignant tumors metastasize to a lesser or a greater extent through the lymphatic system. However, the anatomical knowledge of this system is not sufficiently well known in cats to develop a reasoned model for the extirpation of these glands in case of malignant tumors. A study of the lymph drainage in 50 female cats was done by indirect injection in vivo of India ink inside the mammary parenchyma. After a waiting inte...

  1. Expression of Putative Stem Cell Marker, Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 Alpha, in Mammary Gland of Water Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ratan K; Choudhary, Shanti; Kaur, Harmanjot; Pathak, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Buffaloes account for more than 56% of total milk production in India. Cyclic remodeling of mammary glands of human, mice, cow, sheep, and goat is determined by mammary stem cells. It is logical to assume that buffalo mammary gland will have mammary stem/progenitor cells. Thus far, no report exists on identification of buffalo mammary stem cells. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) is a candidate marker for hepatic progenitor cells and has recently been suggested as a marker of bovine mammary stem/progenitor cells. We hypothesized that ( 1 ) HNF4A identifies putative buffalo mammary stem/progenitor cells and ( 2 ) the number of HNF4A-positive cells increases during mastitis. Sixteen buffalo mammary samples were collected from a local slaughterhouse. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were performed on 5-micron thick sections and on the basis of gross examination and histomorphology of the mammary glands, physiological stages of the animals were estimated as non-lactating (n = 4), mastitis (n = 9), and prepubertal (n = 3). In total, 24048 cells were counted (5-10 microscopic fields/animal; n = 16 animals) of which, 40% cells were mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and 60% cells were the stromal cells. The percentage of MEC in non-lactating animals was higher compared to mastitic animals (47.3% vs. 37.3%), which was likely due to loss of MEC in mastitis. HNF4A staining was observed in nuclei of MEC of ducts, alveoli, and stromal cells. Basal location and low frequency of HNF4A-positive MEC (ranges from 0.4-4.5%) were consistent with stem cell characteristics. Preliminary study showed coexpression of HNF4A with MSI1 (a mammary stem cell marker in sheep), suggesting HNF4A was likely to be a putative mammary stem/progenitor cell marker in buffalo. HNF4A-positive MEC (basal and luminal; light and dark stained) tended to be higher in non-lactating than the mastitic animals (8.73 ± 1.71% vs. 4.29 ± 1.19%; P = 0.07). The first hypothesis that HNF4A identify

  2. Research on the Changes of Endocrine Hormones in Mammary Cancer and Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chengqi

    2002-01-01

    Objective Based on a comparison of endocrine hormones between patients of mammary cancer and those of hyperplasia of mammary glands, a preliminary analysis of the interaction between endocrine hormones and the immune system was oonducted. Methods The experiment involved 50 cases of mammary cancer and hyperplasia of mammary glands each.Blood samples were taken from pre - menopausal and menopausal patients; six kinds of hypophyseal hommones(PRL, GH, TSH,ACTH, FSH and LH) and three kinds of sex hormones ( E2,P and T) were subjected to RIA tests.Results Wilcoxon matchpaired assay and normal approximation of the experiment indicated that the FSH level before pre - menopause and the ACTH level during menopause in patients with mammary canoer were higher that those of patients suffering hyperplasia of mamary glands. Conclusion Statistics show the the normal rhythm between endocrine hormones and the immune system is disrupted in mammary cancer patients, the feedback mechanism of the hypothalamo- hypophyseal- adrenal system is maladjusted,resulting in inhibition of the immune function. Female hormones induce the gene mutation and the sensitivity of the cells is increased, resulting in a significant acceleration of the hyperplasia of cancer cells.

  3. Precursors of hexoneogenesis within the human mammary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human mammary gland is capable of de novo synthesis of glucose and galactose (hexoneogenesis); however, the carbon source is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of acetate, glutamine, lactate and glycerol as potential carbon sources for hexoneogenesis. Healthy breast...

  4. Neither bovine somatotropin nor growth hormone-releasing factor alters expression of thyroid hormone receptors in liver and mammary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuco, A V; Binelli, M; Tucker, H A

    2011-10-01

    Physiological effects of thyroid hormones are mediated primarily by binding of triiodothyronine to specific nuclear receptors. Organ-specific changes in production of triiodothyronine from its prohormone, thyroxine, have been hypothesized to target the action of thyroid hormones on the mammary gland and play a role in mediating or augmenting a galactopoietic response to bovine somatotropin (bST). Additionally, tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones may be altered by changes in the number or affinity of nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones. In the present study, effects of bST and bovine growth hormone-releasing factor (bGRF) on thyroid hormone receptors in liver and mammary gland were studied. Lactating Holstein cows received continuous infusions of bST or bGRF for 63 d or served as uninfused controls. Nuclei were isolated from harvested mammary and liver tissues and incubated with [(125)I]-triiodothyronine. Treatments did not alter the capacity or affinity of specific binding sites for triiodothyronine in liver or mammary nuclei. Evaluation of transcript abundance for thyroid hormone receptors showed that isoforms of thyroid hormone receptor or retinoid receptor (which may influence thyroid receptor action) expressed in the mammary gland were not altered by bST or bGRF treatment. Data do not support the hypothesis that administration of bST or bGRF alters sensitivity of mammary tissue by changing expression of thyroid hormone receptors.

  5. Mammary gland specific knockdown of the physiological surge in Cx26 during lactation retains normal mammary gland development and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K G Stewart

    Full Text Available Connexin26 (Cx26 is the major Cx protein expressed in the human mammary gland and is up-regulated during pregnancy while remaining elevated throughout lactation. It is currently unknown if patients with loss-of-function Cx26 mutations that result in hearing loss and skin diseases have a greater susceptibility to impaired breast development. To investigate if Cx26 plays a critical role in mammary gland development and differentiation, a novel Cx26 conditional knockout mouse model was generated by crossing Cx26fl/fl mice with mice expressing Cre under the β-Lactoglobulin promoter. Conditional knockdown of Cx26 from the mammary gland resulted in a dramatic reduction in detectable gap junction plaques confirmed by a significant ∼65-70% reduction in Cx26 mRNA and protein throughout parturition and lactation. Interestingly, this reduction was accompanied by a decrease in mammary gland Cx30 gap junction plaques at parturition, while no change was observed for Cx32 or Cx43. Whole mount, histological and immunofluorescent assessment of breast tissue revealed comparatively normal lobuloalveolar development following pregnancy in the conditionally knockdown mice compared to control mice. In addition, glands from genetically-modified mice were capable of producing milk proteins that were evident in the lumen of alveoli and ducts at similar levels as controls, suggesting normal gland function. Together, our results suggest that low levels of Cx26 expression throughout pregnancy and lactation, and not the physiological surge in Cx26, is sufficient for normal gland development and function.

  6. The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharo Elizabeth A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A. Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Results Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1 and early lactation (Phase 2A. The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI, spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5 genes. Conclusions Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species.

  7. Tissue proteomics of the human mammary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso; Cabezón, Teresa; Gromova, Irina;

    2010-01-01

    of patients harboring precancerous breast lesions. As a result, there is a need to identify biomarkers that can better determine the outcome of early breast lesions by identifying subpopulations of cells in breast premalignant disease that are at high-risk of progression to invasive disease. A first step...... towards achieving this goal will be to define the molecular phenotypes of the various cell types and precursors - generated by the stem cell hierarchy - that are present in normal and benign conditions of the breast. To date there have been very few systematic proteomic studies aimed at characterizing...... the phenotypes of the different cell subpopulations present in normal human mammary tissue, partly due to the formidable heterogeneity of mammary tissue, but also due to limitations of the current proteomic technologies. Work in our laboratories has attempted to address in a systematic fashion some...

  8. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mammary gland in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahira, R; Michishita, M; Yoshimura, H; Hatakeyama, H; Takahashi, K

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old female border collie was presented with a mass (2 cm diameter) in the fifth mammary gland. The mass was located in the subcutis and the cut surface was grey-white in colour. Microscopically, the mass was composed of tumour cells arranged in nests of various sizes separated by delicate fibrovascular stroma. The tumour cells had small, round hypochromatic nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. Metastases were observed in the inguinal lymph node. Immunohistochemically, most tumour cells expressed cytokeratin (CK) 20, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and oestrogen receptor-β, but not low molecular weight CK (CAM5.2), p63 and insulin. Ultrastructurally, the tumour cells contained a large number of electron-dense granules corresponding to neuroendocrine granules. Based on these findings, this case was diagnosed as a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mammary gland. PMID:25670668

  9. Modeling and analysis of transport in the mammary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Ana; Vafai, Kambiz

    2014-08-01

    The transport of three toxins moving from the blood stream into the ducts of the mammary glands is analyzed in this work. The model predictions are compared with experimental data from the literature. The utility of the model lies in its potential to improve our understanding of toxin transport as a pre-disposing factor to breast cancer. This work is based on a multi-layer transport model to analyze the toxins present in the breast milk. The breast milk in comparison with other sampling strategies allows us to understand the mass transport of toxins once inside the bloodstream of breastfeeding women. The multi-layer model presented describes the transport of caffeine, DDT and cimetidine. The analysis performed takes into account the unique transport mechanisms for each of the toxins. Our model predicts the movement of toxins and/or drugs within the mammary glands as well as their bioaccumulation in the tissues.

  10. Intracellular behaviour of samarium and europium in lactating mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayadi Ahlem; Maghraoui Samira; El Hili Ali; Galle Pierre; Tekaya Leila

    2012-01-01

    The subcellular localization of samarium and europium,two rare-earths,increasingly used in both medical and industrial fields,has been studied in several organs such as liver and kidney but never in the mammary gland despite of its importance in the biology of lactation and nutrition domains.The intracellular behaviour of samarium and europium after their intra-peritoneal administration in the lactating mammary gland cells was investigated.The results showed the presence of very electron dense deposits in the glandular epithelial cell lysosomes.These particular lysosomes were never observed in the marnrnary cell lysosomes of control rats.These intralysosomal deposits were probably composed of insoluble samarium or europium phosphates by analogy with previous studies,the transmission electron microscopy,the ion mass microscopy and the electron probe microanalysis,and other techniques allowing the identification of the chemical structure of the intralysosomal deposits.

  11. Mammary gland tumor formation in transgenic mice overexpressing stromelysin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1995-06-01

    An intact basement membrane (BM) is essential for the proper function, differentiation and morphology of many epithelial cells. The disruption or loss of this BM occurs during normal development as well as in the disease state. To examine the importance of BM during mammary gland development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that inappropriately express autoactivating isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. The mammary glands from these mice are both functionally and morphologically altered throughout development. We have now documented a dramatic incidence of breast tumors in several independent lines of these mice. These data suggest that overexpression of stromelysin-1 and disruption of the BM may be a key step in the multi-step process of breast cancer.

  12. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Challana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2 cm (34 days to 108 cm CVRL (curved crown rump length (317 days were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days, mammary hillock at 1.7 cm (37 days, and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7 cm CVRL (58 days whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4 cm CVRL (62 days and 15 cm CVRL (96 days, respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1 cm CVRL (129 days. Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days, rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days, and keratin plug at 45.5 cm CVRL (176 days foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2 cm CVRL (122 days of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69 cm (229 days in group III foetuses.

  13. Role of JNK in mammary gland development and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cellurale, Cristina; Girnius, Nomeda; Jiang, Feng; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Lu, Shaolei; Garlick, David S.; Mercurio, Arthur M.; Davis, Roger J

    2011-01-01

    JNK signaling has been implicated in the developmental morphogenesis of epithelial organs. In this study we employed a compound deletion of the murine Jnk1 and Jnk2 genes in the mammary gland to evaluate the requirement for these ubiquitously expressed genes in breast development and tumorigenesis. JNK1/2 was not required for breast epithelial cell proliferation or motility. However, JNK1/2 deficiency caused increased branching morphogenesis and defects in the clearance of lumenal epithelial ...

  14. Functional Characterization of Stem Cell Activity in the Mouse Mammary Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Robert D.; Smith, Gilbert H.

    2011-01-01

    Any portion of the mouse mammary gland is capable of recapitulating a clonally derived complete and functional mammary tree upon transplantation into an epithelial divested mammary fat-pad of a recipient host. As such, it is an ideal model tissue for the study somatic stem cell function. This review will outline what is known regarding the function of stem/progenitor cells in the mouse mammary gland, including how progenitor populations can be functionally defined, the evidence for and potent...

  15. Amino acids and mammary gland development: nutritional implications for milk production and neonatal growth

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Reza; Wu, Zhenlong; Hou, Yongqing; Bazer, Fuller W.; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Milk is synthesized by mammary epithelial cells of lactating mammals. The synthetic capacity of the mammary gland depends largely on the number and efficiency of functional mammary epithelial cells. Structural development of the mammary gland occurs during fetal growth, prepubertal and post-pubertal periods, pregnancy, and lactation under the control of various hormones (particularly estrogen, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, progesterone, placental lactogen, and prolactin) in a ...

  16. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  17. Modern View of the Mammary Gland Cancer Local Recurrence Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddubnaya I.V.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The notions of local, regional and locoregional recurrences of the mammary gland cancer are singled out in modern literature. A confusion of the recurrence notions leads to difficulties not only in detection of their appearance rate and a clinicomorphological characteristic, but in assessment of the disease treatment and prognosis possibilities. The world data of the recurrence appearance clinicomorphological risk factors such as a primary tumor size, the regional lymph node lesion, the patient age, a presence of multiple centers and peritumoral tumor invasion, a use of postoperative radial therapy and etc. is systematized in the review. The data of the tumor receptor status and genetic factor role in development of the mammary gland local recurrences is presented. A clinicomorphological characteristic of the local recurrences considering a localization, number of tumoral nodes, a tumor shift, a presence of calcinates and such complications as a tumor ulceration or decomposition, a germination of neighboring structures and infection is given. The different types of the local recurrence treatment (surgical, medicinal, radial method and their combinations and a site of local recurrence in prognosis of disease in patients with a mammary gland cancer are studied.

  18. Automatic segmentation of histological structures in mammary gland tissue sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Deschamps, Thomas; Idica, Adam K.; Malladi, Ravikanth; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos

    2004-02-17

    Real-time three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of epithelial structures in human mammary gland tissue blocks mapped with selected markers would be an extremely helpful tool for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment planning. Besides its clear clinical application, this tool could also shed a great deal of light on the molecular basis of breast cancer initiation and progression. In this paper we present a framework for real-time segmentation of epithelial structures in two-dimensional (2D) images of sections of normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue blocks. Complete 3D rendering of the tissue can then be done by surface rendering of the structures detected in consecutive sections of the blocks. Paraffin embedded or frozen tissue blocks are first sliced, and sections are stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. The sections are then imaged using conventional bright field microscopy and their background is corrected using a phantom image. We then use the Fast-Marching algorithm to roughly extract the contours of the different morphological structures in the images. The result is then refined with the Level-Set method which converges to an accurate (sub-pixel) solution for the segmentation problem. Finally, our system stacks together the 2D results obtained in order to reconstruct a 3D representation of the entire tissue block under study. Our method is illustrated with results from the segmentation of human and mouse mammary gland tissue samples.

  19. Transcriptional profiling of mammary gland in Holstein cows with extremely different milk protein and fat percentage using RNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has rapidly emerged as a major transcriptome profiling system. Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland transcriptome by RNA-seq is essential for identifying candidate genes that contribute to milk composition traits in dairy cattle. Results We used massive, parallel, high-throughput, RNA-seq to generate the bovine transcriptome from the mammary glands of four lactating Holstein cows with extremely high and low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. In total, we obtained 48,967,376–75,572,578 uniquely mapped reads that covered 82.25% of the current annotated transcripts, which represented 15549 mRNA transcripts, across all the four mammary gland samples. Among them, 31 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05, false discovery rate q < 0.05) between the high and low groups of cows were revealed. Gene ontology and pathway analysis demonstrated that the 31 differently expressed genes were enriched in specific biological processes with regard to protein metabolism, fat metabolism, and mammary gland development (p < 0.05). Integrated analysis of differential gene expression, previously reported quantitative trait loci, and genome-wide association studies indicated that TRIB3, SAA (SAA1, SAA3, and M-SAA3.2), VEGFA, PTHLH, and RPL23A were the most promising candidate genes affecting milk protein and fat percentage. Conclusions This study investigated the complexity of the mammary gland transcriptome in dairy cattle using RNA-seq. Integrated analysis of differential gene expression and the reported quantitative trait loci and genome-wide association study data permitted the identification of candidate key genes for milk composition traits. PMID:24655368

  20. Two distinct phases of apoptosis in mammary gland involution: proteinase-independent and -dependent pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Leif R.; Rømer, John; Thomasset, Nicole; Solberg, Helene; Pyke, Charles; Bissell, Mina J.; Danø, Keld; Werb, Zena

    1996-01-01

    Postlactational involution of the mammary gland is characterized by two distinct physiological events: apoptosis of the secretory, epithelial cells undergoing programmed cell death, and proteolytic degradation of the mammary gland basement membrane. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of apoptotic cells in relation to those of proteinases during involution of the BALB/c mouse mammary gland. Apoptosis was almost absent during lactation but became evident at day 2 of involution, when ...

  1. Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2012-01-01

    Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals......, indicating progressed development of mammary glands when exposed to oestrogens early in life. However, laboratories use different parameters to evaluate the development of mammary glands, making studies difficult to compare. Moreover, studies of whole mounts in Wistar rats are lacking. In the present study...

  2. Effects of feeding rapeseed oil, soybean oil, or linseed oil on stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression in the mammary gland of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.A.; Taweel, H.Z.H.; Hendriks, W.H.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is an important enzyme in the bovine mammary gland, and it introduces a double bond at the ¿(9) location of primarily myristoyl-, palmitoyl-, and stearoyl-CoA. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of various fatty acids (FA) typically present in d

  3. Experimental manipulation of radiographic density in mouse mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive mammographic density in women is associated with increased risk for breast cancer. Mouse models provide a powerful approach to the study of human diseases, but there is currently no model that is suited to the study of mammographic density. We performed individual manipulations of the stromal, epithelial and matrix components of the mouse mammary gland and examined the alterations using in vivo and ex vivo radiology, whole mount staining and histology. Areas of density were generated that resembled densities in mammographic images of the human breast, and the nature of the imposed changes was confirmed at the cellular level. Furthermore, two genetic models, one deficient in epithelial structure (Pten conditional tissue specific knockout) and one with hyperplastic epithelium and mammary tumors (MMTV-PyMT), were used to examine radiographic density. Our data show the feasibility of altering and imaging mouse mammary gland radiographic density by experimental and genetic means, providing the first step toward modelling the biological processes that are responsible for mammographic density in the mouse

  4. Homeobox genes in mammary gland development and neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both normal development and neoplastic progression involve cellular transitions from one physiological state to another. Whereas much is being discovered about signal transduction networks involved in regulating these transitions, little progress has been made in identifying the higher order genetic determinants that establish and maintain mammary cell identity and dictate cell type-specific responses to mammotropic signals. Homeobox genes are a large superfamily of genes whose members function in establishing and maintaining cell fate and cell identity throughout embryonic development. Recent genetic and expression analyses strongly suggest that homeobox genes may perform similar functions at specific developmental transition points in the mammary gland. These analyses also suggest that homeobox genes may play a contributory or causal role in breast cancer

  5. Serotoninergic and Circadian Systems: Driving Mammary Gland Development and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Trujillo, Aridany; Casey, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    Since lactation is one of the most metabolically demanding states in adult female mammals, beautifully complex regulatory mechanisms are in place to time lactation to begin after birth and cease when the neonate is weaned. Lactation is regulated by numerous different homeorhetic factors, all of them tightly coordinated with the demands of milk production. Emerging evidence support that among these factors are the serotonergic and circadian clock systems. Here we review the serotoninergic and circadian clock systems and their roles in the regulation of mammary gland development and lactation physiology. We conclude by presenting our hypothesis that these two systems interact to accommodate the metabolic demands of lactation and thus adaptive changes in these systems occur to maintain mammary and systemic homeostasis through the reproductive cycles of female mammals. PMID:27471474

  6. Comparison of mouse mammary gland imaging techniques and applications: Reflectance confocal microscopy, GFP Imaging, and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetically engineered mouse models of mammary gland cancer enable the in vivo study of molecular mechanisms and signaling during development and cancer pathophysiology. However, traditional whole mount and histological imaging modalities are only applicable to non-viable tissue. We evaluated three techniques that can be quickly applied to living tissue for imaging normal and cancerous mammary gland: reflectance confocal microscopy, green fluorescent protein imaging, and ultrasound imaging. In the current study, reflectance confocal imaging offered the highest resolution and was used to optically section mammary ductal structures in the whole mammary gland. Glands remained viable in mammary gland whole organ culture when 1% acetic acid was used as a contrast agent. Our application of using green fluorescent protein expressing transgenic mice in our study allowed for whole mammary gland ductal structures imaging and enabled straightforward serial imaging of mammary gland ducts in whole organ culture to visualize the growth and differentiation process. Ultrasound imaging showed the lowest resolution. However, ultrasound was able to detect mammary preneoplastic lesions 0.2 mm in size and was used to follow cancer growth with serial imaging in living mice. In conclusion, each technique enabled serial imaging of living mammary tissue and visualization of growth and development, quickly and with minimal tissue preparation. The use of the higher resolution reflectance confocal and green fluorescent protein imaging techniques and lower resolution ultrasound were complementary

  7. Comparison of mouse mammary gland imaging techniques and applications: Reflectance confocal microscopy, GFP Imaging, and ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotarla Ion

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically engineered mouse models of mammary gland cancer enable the in vivo study of molecular mechanisms and signaling during development and cancer pathophysiology. However, traditional whole mount and histological imaging modalities are only applicable to non-viable tissue. Methods We evaluated three techniques that can be quickly applied to living tissue for imaging normal and cancerous mammary gland: reflectance confocal microscopy, green fluorescent protein imaging, and ultrasound imaging. Results In the current study, reflectance confocal imaging offered the highest resolution and was used to optically section mammary ductal structures in the whole mammary gland. Glands remained viable in mammary gland whole organ culture when 1% acetic acid was used as a contrast agent. Our application of using green fluorescent protein expressing transgenic mice in our study allowed for whole mammary gland ductal structures imaging and enabled straightforward serial imaging of mammary gland ducts in whole organ culture to visualize the growth and differentiation process. Ultrasound imaging showed the lowest resolution. However, ultrasound was able to detect mammary preneoplastic lesions 0.2 mm in size and was used to follow cancer growth with serial imaging in living mice. Conclusion In conclusion, each technique enabled serial imaging of living mammary tissue and visualization of growth and development, quickly and with minimal tissue preparation. The use of the higher resolution reflectance confocal and green fluorescent protein imaging techniques and lower resolution ultrasound were complementary.

  8. Expression and function of leptin and its receptor in mouse mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Leptin is an autocrine and paracrine factor which affects the development of duct, formation of gland alveolus, expression of milk protein gene and onset involution of mammary gland. In order to know the function and mechanism of leptin in mammary gland, the protein expression and localization of leptin and its long form receptor (OB-Rb) were detected by a confocal laser scanning microscope. To study the impacts of leptin on mammary gland and leptin signal transduction pathway in pregnancy-, lactation- and involution-stage mammary gland, explants were cultured and Western blotting was used. The results showed that in the whole development cycle of mammary gland, the expression of leptin and OB-Rb was in positive correlation. In virgin the leptin expression was the highest and then decreased in pregnancy. In lactation the expression of leptin was low and upgraded in involution, and recovered to the original level about virgin on involution 13 d. The localization of leptin and OB-Rb revealed that leptin induced the expression of OB-Rb specifically and controlled the development and physiological function of the mammary gland by binding to OB-Rb. In pregnancy stage, leptin stimulated proliferation and differentiation of ductal epithelial cells by JAK-MAPK signal pathway. In lactation, leptin induced gene expression of β-casein by JAK-STAT5 signal pathway, and in involution leptin induced mammary epithelial cell apoptosis and mammary gland restitution by JAK-STAT3 signal pathway.

  9. Tenascin is a Stromal Marker for Epithelial Malignancy in the Mammary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Eleanor J.; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Adams Pearson, Carolyn; Inaguma, Yutaka; Taya, Koji; Kawarada, Yoshifumi; Sakakura, Teruyo

    1987-07-01

    Tenascin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is not present in the normal mature rat mammary gland. The distribution of tenascin was examined by immunohistochemistry in mammary tumors from carcinogen-treated and untreated rats, in virus-induced mammary tumors from mice, and in a variety of mammary gland lesions from humans. Tenascin was detectable in the stroma of the malignant but not of the benign tumors from all species. An inhibition ELISA, testing homogenates of rat tumors, confirmed that tenascin was present in malignant but not in benign tumors. Thus, tenascin was consistently found to be a stromal marker for epithelial malignancy in the mammary gland. It is concluded that tenascin may be involved in the interactions between the epithelial and mesenchyme-derived (stromal) components of the mammary gland, which are known to influence epithelial carcinogenesis in this organ.

  10. Proteinases of the mammary gland: developmental regulation in vivo and vectorial secretion in culture

    OpenAIRE

    Talhouk, Rabih S.; CHIN, JENNIE R.; UNEMORI, ELAINE N.; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J.

    1991-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of mammary epithelial cell function both in vivo and in culture. Substantial remodeling of ECM accompanies the structural changes in the mammary gland during gestation, lactation and involution. However, little is known about the nature of the enzymes and the processes involved. We have characterized and studied the regulation of cell-associated and secreted mammary gland proteinases active at neutral pH that may be involved in degradat...

  11. Impact of diethylhexyl phthalate on gene expression and development of mammary glands of pregnant mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Liu, Jing-Cai; Zhao, Yong; Lai, Fang-Nong; Yang, Fan; Ge, Wei; Dou, Cheng-Li; Shen, Wei; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Chen, Hong

    2015-10-01

    The widely used diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a known endocrine disruptor that causes persistent alterations in the structure and function of female reproductive system, including ovaries, uterus and oviducts. To explore the molecular mechanism of the effect of DEHP on the development of mammary glands, we investigated the cell cycle, growth, proliferation and gene expression of mammary gland cells of pregnant mice exposed to DEHP. It was demonstrated, for the first time, that the mammary gland cells of pregnant mice treated with DEHP for 0.5-3.5 days post-coitum had increased proliferation, growth rate and number of cells in the G2/S phase. The expression of cell proliferation-related genes was significantly altered after short time and low-dose DEHP treatment of mammary gland cells in vivo and in vitro. These findings showed adverse effects of DEHP on mammary gland cells in pregnant mice. PMID:26170149

  12. Postnatal and postpartal morphology of the mammary gland in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militzer, K; Schwalenstöcker, H

    1996-08-01

    The object of this work was to compare the postnatal and postpartal morphology of the mammary gland of nu/nu with that of nu/(+)-mice. All studies were carried out on groups of female (athymic) nude mice with NMRI genetic background, their nu/(+)-siblings and dams. The various age groups (3, 21, 40, 55, 70 and 120 days) each consisted of 6 nu/nu- and 6 heterozygous nu/(+)-mice respectively. The morphological examination of the mammary gland tissue were made on histological sections and whole mounts. Body weights, total areas of the mammary glands and the number of the terminal end buds were compared. The mammary gland of the athymic nude mouse exhibited no essential morphological differences from the normal developing mammary gland of the hairy euthymic nu/(+)-animal. The area of the mammary gland increased with increasing body weight. Both collectives of mice differed only in their rate of mammary gland development. As a result, the terminal end buds appeared numerously as growth points of mammary gland in nu/(+)-animals as early as the 21st day of life. The athymic nude mice showed a maximum only on the 40th day of life and a lower degree of density and differentiation of specific mammary gland structures (lateral buds, lobulo-alveolar glandular endings) until the 70th day of life. The mammary gland of 120-day-old animals and dams of both animal groups reached the same state of maturity. Thus it is not the rate of development of the dam, but other, yet unidentified factors, which determine, if successful breeding of nude mice with homozygous parents is possible.

  13. Expression and significance of CHIP in canine mammary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanan; Yang, Xu; Jin, Yipeng; Pei, Shimin; Zhang, Di; Ma, Wen; Huang, Jian; Qiu, Hengbin; Zhang, Xinke; Jiang, Qiuyue; Sun, Weidong; Zhang, Hong; Lin, Degui

    2015-11-01

    CHIP (Carboxy terminus of Hsc70 Interacting Protein) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that can induce ubiquitination and degradation of several oncogenic proteins. The expression of CHIP is frequently lower in human breast cancer than in normal breast tissue. However, the expression and role of CHIP in the canine mammary gland tumor (CMGT) remain unclear. We investigated the potential correlation between CHIP expression and mammary gland tumor prognosis in female dogs. CHIP expression was measured in 54 dogs by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. CHIP protein expression was significantly correlated with the histopathological diagnosis, outcome of disease and tumor classification. The transcriptional level of CHIP was significantly higher in normal tissues (P=0.001) and benign tumors (P=0.009) than it in malignant tumors. CHIP protein expression was significantly correlated with the transcriptional level of CHIP (P=0.0102). The log-rank test survival curves indicated that patients with low expression of CHIP had shorter overall periods of survival than those with higher CHIP protein expression (P=0.050). Our data suggest that CHIP may play an important role in the formation and development of CMGTs and serve as a valuable prognostic marker and potential target for genetic therapy.

  14. ACUPUNCTURE FOR TRERTING 120 CASES OF HYPERPLASIA OF MAMMARY GLANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wei-guo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture therapy for 120 cases of hyperplasia of mammary glands. Methods: These patients were classified into liver-qi-stagnation type (n=53), phlegm-coagulation type (n=30) and Thoroughfare-Conception vessel maladjustment type (n=37). Acupoints used were Qimen (期门 LR 14), Wuyi (屋翳 ST 15), Weishu (胃俞 BL 21), etc.. Acupuncture treatment was conducted once daily and 30 treatments constituted one therapeutic course. Results: After 3 courses of treatment, of the 53, 30 and 37 cases of the liver-qi-stagnation, phlegm-coagulation and Thoroughfare-Conception vessel maladjustment types, 43 (81.1%), 24 (80.0%) and 29 (78.4%) were cured, 7 (13.2%), 5 (16.7%) and 5 (13.5%) markedly improved, 3 (5.7%), 1 (3.3%) and 2 (5.4%) improved respectively, and 1 (2.7%) of Thoroughfare-Conception vessel maladjustment type failed. A two-years' follow-up showed that 3 of the cured 92 cases had a relapse, and after 2 more courses of treatment, they were cured again. Conclusion: Acupuncture therapy is effective for the treatment of hyperplasia of mammary glands.

  15. β-Hydroxybutyrate Facilitates Fatty Acids Synthesis Mediated by Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein1 in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In dairy cows, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA is utilized as precursors of de novo synthesized fatty acids in mammary gland. Ketotic cows are characterized by excessive negative energy balance (NEB, which can further increase the blood BHBA concentration. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein1 (SREBP1 and cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector α (Cidea play crucial roles in lipid synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that BHBA could stimulate SREBP1/Cidea pathway to increase milk fat synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Methods: Bovine mammary epithelial cells were treated with different concentrations of BHBA and transfected with adenovirus to silence SREBP1 expression. The effects of BHBA on the lipid synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells were investigated. Results: The results showed that BHBA could significantly increase the expression of SREBP1, fatty acid synthase (FAS, acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACC-α, Cidea and diacylglycerol transferase-1 (DGAT-1, as well as the triglycerides (TG content in bovine mammary epithelial cells. BHBA treatment also increased the transfer of mature SREBP1 to nucleus compared with control group. However, SREBP1 silencing could significantly down-regulate the overexpression of FAS, ACC-α, Cidea and DGAT-1, as well as TG content induced by BHBA. Conclusion: The present data indicate that BHBA can significantly increase TG secretion mediated by SREBP1 in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

  16. Effects of putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine and beta-phenylethylamine on cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusi, Eleonora; Baldi, Antonella; Cheli, Federica;

    2008-01-01

    A bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1) and three-dimensional collagen primary bovine organoids were used to evaluate the effects of cadaverine, putrescine, spermine, spermicline and beta-phenylethylamine on mammary epithelial cells. Each biogenic amine was diluted in several concentratio...

  17. The cell wall component lipoteichoic acid of Staphylococcus aureus induces chemokine gene expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIKU, Yoshio; NAGASAWA, Yuya; TANABE, Fuyuko; SUGAWARA, Kazue; WATANABE, Atsushi; HATA, Eiji; OZAWA, Tomomi; NAKAJIMA, Kei-ichi; ARAI, Toshiro; HAYASHI, Tomohito

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a major cause of bovine mastitis, but its pathogenic mechanism remains poorly understood. To evaluate the role of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in the immune or inflammatory response of SA mastitis, we investigated the gene expression profile in bovine mammary epithelial cells stimulated with LTA alone or with formalin-killed SA (FKSA) using cap analysis of gene expression. Seven common differentially expressed genes related to immune or inflammatory mediators were up-regulated under both LTA and FKSA stimulations. Three of these genes encode chemokines (IL-8, CXCL6 and CCL2) functioning as chemoattractant molecules for neutrophils and macrophages. These results suggest that the initial inflammatory response of SA infection in mammary gland may be related with LTA induced chemokine genes. PMID:27211287

  18. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight.

  19. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight. PMID:27550962

  20. Matrix metalloproteinases and their expression in mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    URIAJOSEA; ZENAWERB

    1998-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zine-dependent endopeptidases that play a key role in both normal and pathological processes involving tissue remodeling events.The expression of these proteolytic enzymes is highly regulated by a balance between extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and its degradation,and is controlled by growth factors,cytokines,hormones,as well as interactions with the ECM macromolecules.Furthermore,the activity of the MMPs is regulated by their natural endogenous inhibitors,which are members of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) family.In the normal mammary gland,MMPs are expressed during ductal development,lobulo-alveolar development in pregnancy and involution after lactation.Under pathological conditions,such as tumorigenesis,the dysregulated expression of MMPs play a role in tumor initiation,progression and malignant conversion as well as facilitating invasion and metastasis of malignant cells through degradation of the ECM and basement membranes.

  1. Multiphoton intravital microscopy setup to visualize the mouse mammary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Javier; Herrera Torres, Ana M.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Baratti, Mariana O.; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, light microscopy-based techniques have been extended to live mammalian models leading to the development of a new imaging approach called intravital microscopy (IVM). Although IVM has been introduced at the beginning of the last century, its major advancements have occurred in the last twenty years with the development of non-linear microscopy that has enabled performing deep tissue imaging. IVM has been utilized to address many biological questions in basic research and is now a fundamental tool that provide information on tissues such as morphology, cellular architecture, and metabolic status. IVM has become an indispensable tool in numerous areas. This study presents and describes the practical aspects of IVM necessary to visualize epithelial cells of live mouse mammary gland with multiphoton techniques.

  2. The mammary glands of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia): morphological characteristics and microscopic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques

    2014-08-01

    The mammaries from carcasses of two female Amazonian manatees were examined. Trichechus inunguis possesses two axillary mammaries beneath the pectoral fins, one on each side of the body. Each papilla mammae has a small hole on its apex--the ostium papillare. The mammaries are covered by a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The epithelium of the mammary ducts became thinner more deeply in the tissue and varied from stratified to simple cuboidal. There was no evidence of glandular activity or secretion into the ducts of the mammary glands.

  3. The mammary glands of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia): morphological characteristics and microscopic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques

    2014-08-01

    The mammaries from carcasses of two female Amazonian manatees were examined. Trichechus inunguis possesses two axillary mammaries beneath the pectoral fins, one on each side of the body. Each papilla mammae has a small hole on its apex--the ostium papillare. The mammaries are covered by a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The epithelium of the mammary ducts became thinner more deeply in the tissue and varied from stratified to simple cuboidal. There was no evidence of glandular activity or secretion into the ducts of the mammary glands. PMID:24920139

  4. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh

    2013-10-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Relationships between piglet growth rate and mammary gland size of the sow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Sørensen, Martin Tang

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study whether piglet growth rate is related to mammary gland size. It involved three primiparous sows and four multiparous sows that were fed ad libitum during the lactation period. The piglets received no creep feed. The weight and teat order of the piglets were......, intermediate in the middle and lowest in the rear glands. Average daily gain of the piglets was of the same magnitude regardless of gland position in the primiparous sows. In the multiparous sows, the piglets suckling the front teats had the highest gain while those suckling the middle teats had intermediate...... gain and those suckling the rear teats had the lowest gain. Average daily gain of the piglets in the lactation period was positively correlated to the amount of mammary tissue (0.35), mammary DNA (0.41) and mammary RNA (0.31), while correlations to mammary RNA concentration (0.28) and RNA/DNA ratio (0...

  6. Development of mammary glands of fat sheep submitted to restricted feeding during late pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2008-01-01

    Mammary gland development in sheep occurs mainly during puberty and pregnancy. We have investigated the effects of a late gestation feed restriction on mammary gland development in sheep. Five control ewes were slaughtered d -38 from parturition, whereas 10 ewes were fed ad libitum and another 10...... ewes were fed restrictedly (50% of energy and protein requirements) the last 38 days of pregnancy. Half the ewes in each feeding treatment group were slaughtered d -6 from parturition. Both mammary glands were collected at slaughter. From the remaining five sheep in each feeding group, blood...... maintaining fetal and mammary gland development, and this was likely explained by a high initial level of body fat in the experimental ewes, The colostrum yield was impaired by feed restrction, but our results show that in multiparous sheep, adequate post-partum nutrition can support lactational performance...

  7. Combination of Acupuncture with Medication for Treatment of Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands in 46 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guo-hua; ZOU Lai-yong; LIU Jian-guo; DUAN Shu-min

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hyperplasia of mammary glands is a common disease of the breast in women.The following is a clinical report on treatment of the disease by combination of acupuncture with medication in 46 cases from February 2007 to October 2008.

  8. Effect of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inactivation on mouse mammary gland development and oncogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dembowy, J; Adissu, H A; Liu, J. C.; Zacksenhaus, E; Woodgett, J R

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway have critical functions in mammary gland development and tumor formation, yet the contribution of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3α and GSK-3β) to mammopoiesis and oncogenesis is unclear. Here, we report that WAP-Cre-mediated deletion of GSK-3 in the mammary epithelium results in activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and induces mammary intraepithelial neoplasia that progresses to squamous transdifferentiation and development of adenosqu...

  9. Physical, laboratory, and microbiological parameters of mammary gland secretions in postpartum does

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Filgueira Alcindo; Gabriel Isola Braga; Luis Claudio Nogueira Mendes; Márcia Marinho; Francisco Leydson Formiga Feitosa

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is a multifactorial disease whose prevalence is affected by the type of pathogenic agent involved, the constitution of the animal, and environmental conditions. This study evaluated the physical and laboratory characteristics of colostrum from dairy goats in the postpartum period, and the physical characteristics of the mammary glands in the same period. Of the 71 mammary glands evaluated, 12 were positive for bacterial isolates and the most frequent pathogenic agents were coagulase-...

  10. Histological and Morphometric Comparison of Lactating Mammary Glands in Pigs Depending on Their Location

    OpenAIRE

    Svätoslav Hluchý; Róbert Toman; Mária Adamkovičová; Michal Cabaj

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we described a morphometric comparison of lactating mammary glands of pigs, depending on their location. As experimental animals were used five pig breeds White Meat at the age of 24 months. Anatomical dissection and sampling of the mammary glands of thoracic, abdomen and pubic udders for histological processing and subsequent quantitative morphometric evaluation were taken after killing the animals. It was found that glandular parenchyma, stroma connective tissue and adipose ti...

  11. Redirection of Human Cancer Cells upon the Interaction with the Regenerating Mouse Mammary Gland Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. Rosenfield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is often described as a result of accumulated mutations that lead to growth advantage and clonal expansion of mutated cells. There is evidence in the literature that cancer cells are influenced by the microenvironment. Our previous studies demonstrated that the mouse mammary gland is capable of redirecting mouse cells of non-mammary origins as well as Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV-neu transformed cells toward normal mammary epithelial cell fate during gland regeneration. Interestingly, the malignant phenotype of MMTV-neu transformed cells was suppressed during serial transplantation experiments. Here, we discuss our studies that demonstrated the potential of the regenerating mouse mammary gland to redirect cancer cells of different species into a functional tumor-free mammary epithelial cell progeny. Immunochemistry for human specific CD133, mitochondria, cytokeratins as well as milk proteins and FISH for human specific probe identified human epithelial cell progeny in ducts, lobules, and secretory acini. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH for human centromeric DNA and FACS analysis of propidium iodine staining excluded the possibility of mouse-human cell fusion. To our knowledge this is the first evidence that human cancer cells of embryonic or somatic origins respond to developmental signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in vivo.

  12. Transcript profiling of Elf5+/- mammary glands during pregnancy identifies novel targets of Elf5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee L Rogers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elf5, an epithelial specific Ets transcription factor, plays a crucial role in the pregnancy-associated development of the mouse mammary gland. Elf5(-/- embryos do not survive, however the Elf5(+/- mammary gland displays a severe pregnancy-associated developmental defect. While it is known that Elf5 is crucial for correct mammary development and lactation, the molecular mechanisms employed by Elf5 to exert its effects on the mammary gland are largely unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transcript profiling was used to investigate the transcriptional changes that occur as a result of Elf5 haploinsufficiency in the Elf5(+/- mouse model. We show that the development of the mouse Elf5(+/- mammary gland is delayed at a transcriptional and morphological level, due to the delayed increase in Elf5 protein in these glands. We also identify a number of potential Elf5 target genes, including Mucin 4, whose expression, is directly regulated by the binding of Elf5 to an Ets binding site within its promoter. CONCLUSION: We identify novel transcriptional targets of Elf5 and show that Muc4 is a direct target of Elf5, further elucidating the mechanisms through which Elf5 regulates proliferation and differentiation in the mammary gland.

  13. Characterisation of microRNA expression in post-natal mouse mammary gland development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagavriilidou Konstantina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differential expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs during mammary gland development might provide insights into their role in regulating the homeostasis of the mammary epithelium. Our aim was to analyse these regulatory functions by deriving a comprehensive tissue-specific combined miRNA and mRNA expression profile of post-natal mouse mammary gland development. We measured the expression of 318 individual murine miRNAs by bead-based flow-cytometric profiling of whole mouse mammary glands throughout a 16-point developmental time course, including juvenile, puberty, mature virgin, gestation, lactation, and involution stages. In parallel whole-genome mRNA expression data were obtained. Results One third (n = 102 of all murine miRNAs analysed were detected during mammary gland development. MicroRNAs were represented in seven temporally co-expressed clusters, which were enriched for both miRNAs belonging to the same family and breast cancer-associated miRNAs. Global miRNA and mRNA expression was significantly reduced during lactation and the early stages of involution after weaning. For most detected miRNA families we did not observe systematic changes in the expression of predicted targets. For miRNA families whose targets did show changes, we observed inverse patterns of miRNA and target expression. The data sets are made publicly available and the combined expression profiles represent an important community resource for mammary gland biology research. Conclusion MicroRNAs were expressed in likely co-regulated clusters during mammary gland development. Breast cancer-associated miRNAs were significantly enriched in these clusters. The mechanism and functional consequences of this miRNA co-regulation provide new avenues for research into mammary gland biology and generate candidates for functional validation.

  14. Identification of stable and oestrus cycle-independent housekeeping genes in the rat mammary gland and other tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Henning; Ekstrøm, Claus T; Vienberg, Sara Gry;

    2011-01-01

    The function and development of the rat mammary gland is dependent on the oestrus cycle. Normalization of gene expression in mammary gland samples assessed by quantitative RT-PCR therefore requires housekeeping genes (HKGs) which are stably expressed during the oestrus cycle. mRNA expression of 10...... HKGs was measured in the rat mammary gland at different phases of the oestrus cycle. In addition, mRNA expression of the HKGs was measured in a panel of other rat tissues comprising laser microdissected mammary gland alveolar lobules and interlobular connective tissue and macrodissected mammary gland......, liver, skeletal muscle, colon and ovary samples. Expression and ranking of HKGs varied between tissues and oestrus cycle phases and several HKGs were necessary for normalization between samples. In the mammary gland samples, three HKGs (Sdha, Tbp, and Atp5b) were identified as the optimal combination...

  15. TGF-β1 promotes bovine mammary fibroblast proliferation through the ERK 1/2 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yuping; Li, Yingying; Xia, Xiaojing; Zhao, Shuang; Che, Yanyi; Sun, Yingying; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-07-01

    The abnormal proliferation of bovine mammary fibroblasts (BMFBs) impairs mammary gland development and lactation. Severe manifestations develop into breast fibrosis, leading to the culling of cows and causing serious losses to the dairy industry. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is an important modulator of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation; however, limited information is available on BMFBs. In this study, a convenient and stable culture method for BMFBs was established. Treatment with 5 ng/mL of TGF-β1 significantly promoted the proliferation of BMFBs and accelerated the cell cycle. TGF-β1 stimulation for up to 12 h significantly increased the relative ERK1/2 mRNA expression and enhanced the protein expression of p-ERK1/2 and cyclin D1. Conversely, the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 blocked these TGF-β1 effects. Further exploration using a mouse model showed that TGF-β1 significantly increased the proportion of fibroblasts and accelerating the cell transition from the G1 to G2/M phases. In addition, TGF-β1 enhanced the expression of fibrosis markers, α-SMA and I Collagen, which could be blocked efficiently by the PD98059 in mouse mammary gland. Finally, immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that TGF-β1 promoted fibroblast proliferation in healthy dairy cows after normal long-term dietary corn straw roughage supplementation. It is suggested that the diet may promote mammary fibroblast proliferation by raising the level of TGF-β1. Our study provides new insights into how nutrition causes undesirable changes in mammary gland structure.

  16. Growth and development of the mammary glands of livestock: a veritable barnyard of opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Ashley R; Daniels, Kristy M; Ellis, Steven E; Hovey, Russell C

    2012-07-01

    The mammary glands of all mammals are rich and diverse in their histomorphogenesis, developmental biology, genomics and metabolism. Domesticated livestock comprise a unique population for the analysis of mammary gland and lactation biology, where much of what has been learned about these topics originates from studies of these species. However, with the strong trend toward using rodents as flexible and attractive models for normal mammary biology and cancer, there is a growing void of new information related to biology of the mammary glands in these relevant and informative domestic livestock. In turn, this trend threatens to reduce opportunities to either capitalize on an abundance of pre-existing data or to apply this information to studies of lactation and cancer. Herein we review the unique and discerning features of mammary gland development in several domestic livestock species including cows, sheep and pigs and provide an overview of the factors regulating it. At the same time we discuss some of the key considerations for studying these species, their limitations, and the associated opportunities. From such an analysis it quickly becomes clear that much remains to be learned about the mammary glands of domestic livestock, particularly given their many similarities to the human breast, the unique biological mechanisms they employ, and the phenotypic variation they afford.

  17. Tubulopapillary carcinoma of the mammary gland in a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus: histopathological and immunophenotypical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Gamba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A maned female wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus showed nodules in the inguinal and left abdominal cranial mammary glands. The mammary gland was surgically excised, and microscopic analysis revealed epithelial cell proliferation in a tubular and papillary pattern; delicate fibrovascular stalks presenting numerous layers of moderately pleomorfic epithelial cells were observed. This histologic appearance was compatible with a diagnosis of mammary tubulopapillary carcinoma. The immunohistochemical profile revealed nuclear positivity for estrogen (70% and progesterone (at least 90% of the neoplastic cells. The myoepithelium-associated with neoplastic cells lacked integrity, as evidenced by failed smooth muscle alpha actin reactivity in microinvasive areas. A low proliferation index was observed (3.4%. To the authors' knowledge, the present case represents the first finding of female tubulopapillary carcinoma in a mammary gland in this species.

  18. Unique expression pattern of the three insulin receptor family members in the rat mammary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Henning; Klopfleisch, Robert; Vienberg, Sara Gry;

    2011-01-01

    Supra-pharmacological doses of the insulin analog X10 (AspB10) increased the incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats in chronic toxicity studies, most likely via receptor-mediated mechanisms. However, little is known about the expression of the insulin receptor family in the rat...... mammary gland. Using laser micro-dissection, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of IR (insulin receptor), IGF-1R (IGF-1 receptor), IRR (insulin receptor-related receptor), ERα (estrogen receptor alpha), ERβ (estrogen receptor beta) and PR (progesteron receptor...... of IGF-1R and PR in the mammary gland varied during the estrous cycle. These findings are important for the understanding of carcinogenic effects of insulin analogs in the rat mammary gland, and relevant for development of refined short-term models for preclinical safety assessment of insulin analogs....

  19. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie;

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...... of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females...... and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels...

  20. Prolactin Suppression of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Initiation of Mammary Gland Involution in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieanrakwong, Duangjai; Laoharatchatathanin, Titaree; Terashima, Ryota; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Kurusu, Shiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Kawaminami, Mitsumori

    2016-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that mammary gland involution after lactation is initiated by accumulation of milk in alveoli after weaning. Here, we report that involution is also dependent on mammary GnRH expression that is suppressed by PRL during lactation. Reduction of plasma prolactin (PRL) by the withdrawal of suckling stimuli increased GnRH and annexin A5 (ANXA5) expression in the mammary tissues after lactation with augmentation of epithelial apoptosis. Intramammary injection of a GnRH antagonist suppressed ANXA5 expression and apoptosis of epithelial cells after forcible weaning at midlactation, whereas local administration of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) caused apoptosis of epithelial cells with ANXA5 augmentation in lactating rats. The latter treatment also decreased mammary weight, milk production, and casein accumulation. Mammary mast cells were strongly immunopositive for GnRH and the number increased in the mammary tissues after weaning. GnRHa was shown to be a chemoattractant for mast cells by mammary local administration of GnRHa and Boyden chamber assay. PRL suppressed the mammary expression of both ANXA5 and GnRH mRNA. It also decreased mast cell numbers in the gland after lactation. These results are the first to demonstrate that GnRH, synthesized locally in the mammary tissues, is required for mammary involution after lactation. GnRH is also suggested to introduce mast cells into the regressing mammary gland and would be in favor of tissue remodeling. The suppression of these processes by PRL is a novel physiological function of PRL. PMID:27175971

  1. Loss of Panx1 Impairs Mammary Gland Development at Lactation: Implications for Breast Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael K. G.; Plante, Isabelle; Penuela, Silvia; Laird, Dale W.

    2016-01-01

    Pannexin1 (Panx1) subunits oligomerize to form large-pore channels between the intracellular and extracellular milieu that have been shown to regulate proliferation, differentiation and cell death mechanisms. These key cellular responses are ultimately necessary for normal tissue development and function but the role of Panx1 in development, differentiation and function in many tissues remains unexplored, including that of the breast. Panx1 was identified to be expressed in the mammary gland through western blot and immunofluorescent analysis and is dynamically upregulated during pregnancy and lactation. In order to evaluate the role of Panx1 in the context of mammary gland development and function, Panx1-/- mice were evaluated in comparison to wild-type mice in the mammary glands of virgin, lactating and involuting mice. Our results revealed that Panx1 ablation did not affect virgin or involuting mammary glands following histological and whole mount analysis. Panx1 was necessary for timely alveolar development during early lactation based on a decreased number of alveolar lumen following histological analysis and reduced proliferation following Ki67 immunofluorescent labelling. Importantly, the loss of Panx1 in lactating mammary glands did not overtly affect epithelial or secretory differentiation of the mammary gland suggesting that Panx1 is not critical in normal mammary gland function. In addition, PANX1 mRNA expression was correlated with negative clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer using in silico arrays. Together, our results suggest that Panx1 is necessary for timely alveolar development following the transition from pregnancy to lactation, which may have implications extending to patients with breast cancer. PMID:27099931

  2. The relationship between basal and luminal cytokeratins with histopathologic characteristics of canine mammary gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivani, D; Mortazavi, P

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasia occurs mostly in mammary glands in female dogs and mammary gland cancer is one of the causes of death in these animals cytokeratins are one of the most important of tumor markers for identification of tumor prognosis. In this study, 120 canine malignant tumor samples of mammary glands were studied. From each sample, a section was taken for hematoxylin-eosin staining and two sections for immunohistochemical staining of markers CK5/6 and CK7. Histopathology slides was evaluated by light microscope. The results show that the presence of markers CK7 and CK5/6 had no significant relationship with tumor grade and type (pmammary gland tumors. PMID:27487499

  3. Epithelial cell differentiation regulated by MicroRNA-200a in mammary glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nagaoka

    Full Text Available Mammary gland epithelial cells undergo periodic cycles of proliferation, differentiation, and involution. Many studies have reported that miRNAs, which are small, non-coding RNAs, influence a variety of biological processes during posttranscriptional regulation. Here, we found that one miRNA, miR-200a, was relatively highly expressed in epithelial cell-rich organs such as mammary glands, lung, and kidney in mice. In mammary glands, miR-200a expression increased during mid-pregnancy through lactation; its expression was stimulated by lactogenic hormone treatment of mammary epithelial cells. Lactogenic hormone also induced the expression of milk protein ß-casein mRNA (a marker of cell differentiation and E-cadherin mRNA (a marker of epithelial cells. However, knockdown of miR-200a prevented increases in ß-casein and E-cadherin mRNA expression. Protein analysis revealed that E-cadherin signal was decreased and ZEB1 (a marker of EMT was increased following miR-200a knockdown. Finally, in a three-dimensional culture system modeling lumen-containing mammary ducts, miR-200a knockdown decreased the cavity formation rate and suppressed claudin-3 and par-6b expression, indicating reduced epithelial cell polarity. These observations suggest that miR-200a is important for maintaining the epithelial cell phenotype, which contributes to lactogenic hormone induction of cellular differentiation in mammary glands.

  4. Histological and Morphometric Study of Regressive Changes in the Mammary Glands of Pigs during Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svätoslav Hluchý

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the histological and morphometric description of regressive changes in the mammary glands of swine after lactation. Samples of mammary glands of thoracic, abdominal and pubic udders were taken soon after they were killed. Samples were processed by histological and histochemical methods and evaluated by subjective and quantitative morphometrical methods. It was found that post-lactation increases the relative volume of connective stroma up to 75.10 ± 14.76 % of collagen in the tissue falls to 74.13 ± 14.87 % and the loose connective tissue, which was part of glandular parenchyma lobules accounts for only 0.97 ± 2.13%. Adipose tissue is 18.93 ± 14.93% of the udders volume.. Relative of glandular parenchyma fell to 5.97 ± 4.95% and mainly consists of a interlobular and lobar ducts and atrophic alveoli. Epithelium is generally in the mammary glands 4.22 ± 3.56% and lumen 1.75 ±1.81%. 1 cm3 of tissue in the mammary glands located 190745.52 tubuloalveolar structures. Alveoli reach an average size of 36.80 ± 11.57 μm. It was found relative volume of the walls (epithelium and cavities (lumen of each alveolus, the amount of epithelial cells and the nucleocytoplasmic ratio. The individual building components mammary glands were calculated correlation relations.

  5. Epigenetic Modifications Unlock the Milk Protein Gene Loci during Mouse Mammary Gland Development and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnkels, Monique; Freeman-Zadrowski, Courtneay; Hernandez, Joseph; Potluri, Vani; Wang, Liguo; Li, Wei; Lemay, Danielle G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Unlike other tissues, development and differentiation of the mammary gland occur mostly after birth. The roles of systemic hormones and local growth factors important for this development and functional differentiation are well-studied. In other tissues, it has been shown that chromatin organization plays a key role in transcriptional regulation and underlies epigenetic regulation during development and differentiation. However, the role of chromatin organization in mammary gland development and differentiation is less well-defined. Here, we have studied the changes in chromatin organization at the milk protein gene loci (casein, whey acidic protein, and others) in the mouse mammary gland before and after functional differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings Distal regulatory elements within the casein gene cluster and whey acidic protein gene region have an open chromatin organization after pubertal development, while proximal promoters only gain open-chromatin marks during pregnancy in conjunction with the major induction of their expression. In contrast, other milk protein genes, such as alpha-lactalbumin, already have an open chromatin organization in the mature virgin gland. Changes in chromatin organization in the casein gene cluster region that are present after puberty persisted after lactation has ceased, while the changes which occurred during pregnancy at the gene promoters were not maintained. In general, mammary gland expressed genes and their regulatory elements exhibit developmental stage- and tissue-specific chromatin organization. Conclusions/Significance A progressive gain of epigenetic marks indicative of open/active chromatin on genes marking functional differentiation accompanies the development of the mammary gland. These results support a model in which a chromatin organization is established during pubertal development that is then poised to respond to the systemic hormonal signals of pregnancy and lactation to achieve the

  6. A comparative study between mixed-type tumours from human salivary and canine mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparative pathology, canine mammary tumours have special interest because of their similarities with human breast cancer. Mixed tumours are uncommon lesions in the human breast, but they are found most frequently in the mammary gland of the female dogs and in the human salivary glands. The aim of the study was to compare clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours, in order to evaluate the latter as an experimental model for salivary gland tumours. Ten examples of each mixed tumour type (human pleomorphic adenoma and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas and canine mixed tumour and metaplastic carcinoma) were evaluated. First, clinical and morphologic aspects of benign and malignant variants were compared between the species. Then, streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of cytokeratins, vimentin, p63 protein, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. After standardization, similar age and site distributions were observed in human and canine tumours. Histological similarities were identified in the comparison of the benign lesions as well. Metaplastic carcinomas also resembled general aspects of carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas in morphological evaluation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining further presented similar antigenic expression between lesions. There are many similar features between human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours. This observation is of great relevance for those interested in the study and management of salivary gland tumours, since canine lesions may constitute useful comparative models for their investigations

  7. Expression and function of heregulin-α and its receptors in the mouse mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Heregulin-α (HRGα) is a cytokine secreted by the mammary mesenchyme, adjacent to lobuloalveolar structures. To understand the role of HRGα and its receptors in mammary glands, and the underlying mechanisms, we performed this study to determine the expression and localization of HRGα and its receptors ErbB2 and ErbB3. We also determined the role of HRGα in the development of mammary glands, β-casein expression and secretion, Rab3A protein expression and the phosphorylation of HRGα signaling molecules using confocal laser scanning microscopy, tissue culture, capillary electrophoresis, Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We found that a peak was on pregnancy day 15. Changes of ErbB2 and ErbB3 expression were positively and linearly correlated with HRGα, indicating that HRGα positively regulates ErbB2 and ErbB3 expression. During pregnancy, HRGα enhanced the phosphorylation of STAT5, p42/p44, p38, PKC and Rab3A protein expression, stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of the ductal epithelial cells of mammary glands, and increased and maintained the expression and secretion of β-casein. During lactation, HRGα enhanced the phosphorylation of STAT5 and p38, inhibited the phosphorylation of PKC and Rab3A protein expression, maintained the morphology of the mammary glands and increased the secretion of lactoprotein to reduce the expression of β-casein in mammary epithelial cells. During involution, HRGα induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 and Rab3A protein expression, and inhibited the phosphorylation of PKC to stimulate the degeneration of mammary epithelial cells. It also inhibited the secretion of β-casein, resulting in increased levels of β-casein in mammary epithelial cells.

  8. Role of miRNA in Mammary Gland Development and Lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qing-zhang; Wang Chun-mei; Gao Xue-jun

    2014-01-01

    miRNA can regulate development and milk yield of the mammary gland through epigenetic mechanism. miRNA can directly and indirectly modulate the activity of the epigenetic machinery, target genes through post-inhibition of translation initiation, mediate miRNA decay, target genes and inhibit the positive regulation, regulate tone modification, and regulate DNA methylation of target genes. Here we reviewed the role of miRNAs in mammary gland development and lactation. Researching miRNA in mammary gland development and lactation process, and understanding the response of the epigenetic mechanisms to external stimuli will be an important necessity to devise new technologies for maximizing their activity and milk production in the dairy cow.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Mouse Mammary Gland Morphology Using Automated Digital Image Processing and TEB Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Silvia; Gérard, Céline; Gallez, Anne; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Noël, Agnès; Péqueux, Christel

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of rodent mammary gland morphology is largely used to study the molecular mechanisms driving breast development and to analyze the impact of various endocrine disruptors with putative pathological implications. In this work, we propose a methodology relying on fully automated digital image analysis methods including image processing and quantification of the whole ductal tree and of the terminal end buds as well. It allows to accurately and objectively measure both growth parameters and fine morphological glandular structures. Mammary gland elongation was characterized by 2 parameters: the length and the epithelial area of the ductal tree. Ductal tree fine structures were characterized by: 1) branch end-point density, 2) branching density, and 3) branch length distribution. The proposed methodology was compared with quantification methods classically used in the literature. This procedure can be transposed to several software and thus largely used by scientists studying rodent mammary gland morphology. PMID:26910307

  10. Mammary gland leptin in relation to lactogenesis in the periparturient dairy goat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Tauson, Anne-Helene;

    2008-01-01

    The role of leptin in development of mammary gland secretory function was studied during the periparturient period in dairy goats. Changes in mammary leptin and leptin receptor (short cytoplasmic form) expression were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and related to changes in milk and plasma leptin......, but interestingly, leptin increased markedly post-partum to reach a peak 2 days after parturition (P=0.01). Plasma leptin concentrations were higher pre-partum than post-partum (Pmammary gland were at no time significantly...... different from zero. Plasma leptin does thus not appear to be involved in regulation of milk leptin. Both leptin and the short cytoplasmic form of its receptor were expressed in the mammary gland. The highest leptin receptor expression was observed pre-partum and decreased post-partum. Expression of leptin...

  11. Estrogenic effect of soy isoflavones on mammary gland morphogenesis and gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anni R.; Almstrup, Kristian; Nielsen, John E.;

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and soy isoflavones' exposure on morphogenesis and global gene expression in the murine mammary gland. Three exposure regimens were applied: isoflavones added to the diet throughout either the lactational period (via the dams) or the postweaning...... period and E2 administered orally during the lactational period. Whole mounts of mammary glands were evaluated both in juvenile and adult animals with respect to branching morphogenesis and terminal end bud (TEB) formation. At postnatal day (PND) 28, we observed a significant increase in branching...... and larger TEBs and ducts. The results suggest an estrogenic response of physiological doses of isoflavones on mammary gland development at both the morphological and molecular level, which resembled that induced by puberty....

  12. Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Kruijt, L.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from different plant oils on gene expression in the mammary gland of grazing dairy cows. Milk composition and gene expression in the mammary gland tissue were evaluated in grazing dairy cows suppl

  13. Endocrine hormones and local signals during the development of the mouse mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisken, Cathrin; Ataca, Dalya

    2015-01-01

    Most of mammary gland development occurs postnatally under the control of female reproductive hormones, which in turn interact with other endocrine factors. While hormones impinge on many tissues and trigger very complex biological responses, tissue recombination experiments with hormone receptor-deficient mammary epithelia revealed eminent roles for estrogens, progesterone, and prolactin receptor (PrlR) signaling that are intrinsic to the mammary epithelium. A subset of the luminal mammary epithelial cells expresses the estrogen receptor α (ERα), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the PrlR and act as sensor cells. These cells convert the detected systemic signals into local signals that are developmental stage-dependent and may be direct, juxtacrine, or paracrine. This setup ensures that the original input is amplified and that the biological responses of multiple cell types can be coordinated. Some key mediators of hormone action have been identified such as Wnt, EGFR, IGFR, and RANK signaling. Multiple signaling pathways such as FGF, Hedgehog, and Notch signaling participate in driving different aspects of mammary gland development locally but how they link to the hormonal control remains to be elucidated. An increasing number of endocrine factors are appearing to have a role in mammary gland development, the adipose tissue is increasingly recognized to play a role in endocrine regulation, and a complex role of the immune system with multiple different cell types is being revealed. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. Signalling pathways implicated in early mammary gland morphogenesis and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Howard

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Specification of mammary epithelial cell fate occurs during embryogenesis as cells aggregate to form the mammary anlage. Within the embryonic mammary bud, a population of epithelial cells exists that will subsequently proliferate to form a ductal tree filling the stromal compartment, and which can produce milk upon terminal differentiation after birth. Subsequently, these structures can be remodelled and returned to a basal state after weaning before regenerating in future pregnancies. The plasticity of the mammary epithelial cell, and its responsiveness to hormone receptors, facilitates this amazing biological feat, but aberrant signalling may also result in unintended consequences in the form of frequent malignancies. Reflecting this intimate connection, a considerable number of signalling pathways have been implicated in both mammary gland morphogenesis and carcinogenesis.

  15. Histopathological and in vivo evidence of regucalcin as a protective molecule in mammary gland carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Ricardo; Vaz, Cátia V.; Maia, Cláudio J. [CICS-UBI, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Gomes, Madalena [IPATIMUP, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Gama, Adelina [Department of Veterinary Sciences, Animal and Veterinary Science Research Center (CECAV), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD) (Portugal); Alves, Gilberto; Santos, Cecília R. [CICS-UBI, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Schmitt, Fernando [IPATIMUP, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Medical Faculty, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Pathology, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Socorro, Sílvia, E-mail: ssocorro@fcsaude.ubi.pt [CICS-UBI, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Regucalcin (RGN) is a calcium-binding protein, which has been shown to be underexpressed in cancer cases. This study aimed to determine the association of RGN expression with clinicopathological parameters of human breast cancer. In addition, the role of RGN in malignancy of mammary gland using transgenic rats overexpressing the protein (Tg-RGN) was investigated. Wild-type (Wt) and Tg-RGN rats were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA). Carcinogen-induced tumors were histologically classified and the Ki67 proliferation index was estimated. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that RGN immunoreactivity was negatively correlated with the histological grade of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma suggesting that progression of breast cancer is associated with loss of RGN. Tg-RGN rats displayed lower incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary gland tumors, as well as lower incidence of invasive forms. Moreover, higher proliferation was observed in non-invasive tumors of Wt animals comparatively with Tg-RGN. Overexpression of RGN was associated with diminished expression of cell-cycle inhibitors and increased expression of apoptosis inducers. Augmented activity of apoptosis effector caspase-3 was found in the mammary gland of Tg-RGN. RGN overexpression protected from carcinogen-induced mammary gland tumor development and was linked with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. These findings indicated the protective role of RGN in the carcinogenesis of mammary gland. - Highlights: • RGN immunoreactivity was negatively correlated with breast cancer differentiation. • Transgenic overexpression of RGN diminished incidence of carcinogen-induced tumors. • Transgenic overexpression of RGN restricted proliferation and fostered apoptosis. • RGN has a protective role in the carcinogenesis of mammary gland.

  16. Cidea is an essential transcriptional coactivator regulating mammary gland secretion of milk lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshan; Lv, Na; Zhang, Shasha; Shui, Guanghou; Qian, Hui; Zhang, Jingfeng; Chen, Yuanying; Ye, Jing; Xie, Yuansheng; Shen, Yuemao; Wenk, Markus R; Li, Peng

    2012-01-15

    Adequate lipid secretion by mammary glands during lactation is essential for the survival of mammalian offspring. However, the mechanism governing this process is poorly understood. Here we show that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lactating mammary glands and its deficiency leads to premature pup death as a result of severely reduced milk lipids. Furthermore, the expression of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), an essential factor for milk lipid secretion, is markedly lower in Cidea-deficient mammary glands. Conversely, ectopic Cidea expression induces the expression of XOR and enhances lipid secretion in vivo. Unexpectedly, as Cidea has heretofore been thought of as a cytoplasmic protein, we detected it in the nucleus and found it to physically interact with transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in mammary epithelial cells. We also observed that Cidea induces XOR expression by promoting the association of C/EBPβ onto, and the dissociation of HDAC1 from, the promoter of the Xdh gene encoding XOR. Finally, we found that Fsp27, another CIDE family protein, is detected in the nucleus and interacts with C/EBPβ to regulate expression of a subset of C/EBPβ downstream genes in adipocytes. Thus, Cidea acts as a previously unknown transcriptional coactivator of C/EBPβ in mammary glands to control lipid secretion and pup survival.

  17. Estrogen receptor coregulators and pioneer factors: The orchestrators of mammary gland cell fate and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramanandam eManavathi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The 17-beta estradiol (E2, a steroid hormone, which play critical role in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, is essential for reproduction and mammary gland development. E2 actions are mediated by two classical nuclear hormone receptors, estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ERs. The activity of ERs depends on the coordinate activity of ligand binding, posttranslational modification, and importantly their interaction with their partner proteins called ‘coregulators’. Because majority of breast cancers are ERalpha positive and coregulators are proved to be crucial for ER transcriptional activity, an increased interest in the field has led to the identification of a large number of coregulators. In the last decade, gene knockout studies using mouse models provided impetus to our further understanding of the role of these coregulators in mammary gland development. Several coregulators appear to be critical for terminal end bud formation, ductal branching and alveologenesis during mammary gland development. The emerging studies support that, in addition to these coregulators, the other ER partner proteins ‘pioneering factors’ also seems to contribute significantly to E2 signaling and mammary cell fate. This review discusses emerging themes in coregulator- and pioneering factor-mediated action on ER functions, particularly their role in mammary gland cell fate and development.

  18. Prolactin-like activity of anti-prolactin receptor antibodies on casein and DNA synthesis in the mammary gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Djiane, J; HOUDEBINE, L.M.; Kelly, P A

    1981-01-01

    Prolactin receptors were partially purified from rabbit mammary gland membranes by using an affinity chromatography technique. Antibodies against this prolactin receptor preparation were obtained in guinea pig and sheep. Both antisera were able to inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled ovine prolactin to rabbit mammary gland membranes. When added to culture media of rabbit mammary explants, the anti-prolactin receptor antiserum inhibited the capacity of prolactin to initiate casein synthesis and...

  19. [Biological implant in single-stage reconstruction of mammary gland for cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikiriakhodzhaev, A D; Ermoshchenkova, M V

    2015-01-01

    Brief literature review about features of biological implants application for mammary gland reconstruction is presented in the article. Possible complications after such materials use, first experience of acellular dermal matrix administration for single-stage mammary gland reconstruction in 6 patients with breast cancer are also described. We offered surgical techniques, complications and methods of its treatment. We presented advantages of biological implant use which are consisted in decrease of surgical damage and duration of surgery, opportunity for enlargement of pocket for implant, decrease of pain syndrome. PMID:25909549

  20. Segregated responses of mammary gland development and vaginal opening to prepubertal genistein exposure in Bscl2(-/-) female mice with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E; Chen, Weiqin; Dudley, Elizabeth A; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2015-07-01

    Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2-deficient (Bscl2(-/-)) mice recapitulate human BSCL2 disease with lipodystrophy. Bscl2-encoded seipin is detected in adipocytes and epithelium of mammary gland. Postnatal mammary gland growth spurt and vaginal opening signify pubertal onset in female mice. Bscl2(-/-) females have longer and dilated mammary gland ducts at 5-week old and delayed vaginal opening. Prepubertal exposure to 500ppm genistein diet increases mammary gland area and accelerates vaginal opening in both control and Bscl2(-/-) females. However, genistein treatment increases ductal length in control but not Bscl2(-/-) females. Neither prepubertal genistein treatment nor Bscl2-deficiency affects phospho-estrogen receptor α or progesterone receptor expression patterns in 5-week old mammary gland. Interestingly, Bscl2-deficiency specifically reduces estrogen receptor β expression in mammary gland ductal epithelium. In summary, Bscl2(-/-) females have accelerated postnatal mammary ductal development but delayed vaginal opening; they display segregated responses in mammary gland development and vaginal opening to prepubertal genistein treatment.

  1. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on mammary gland development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrup, K; Boberg, J; Isling, L K; Christiansen, S; Hass, U

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in food contact materials, toys, and other products. Several studies have indicated that effects observed at doses near human exposure levels may not be observed at higher doses. Many studies have shown effects on mammary glands at low doses of BPA, however, because of small number of animals or few doses investigated these data have not been used by EFSA as point of departure for the newly assessed tolerable daily intake (TDI). We performed a study with perinatal exposure to BPA (0, 0.025, 0.25, 5, and 50 mg/kg bw/day) in rats (n = 22 mated/group). One of the aims was to perform a study robust enough to contribute to the risk assessment of BPA and to elucidate possible biphasic dose-response relationships. We investigated mammary gland effects in the offspring at 22, 100, and 400 days of age. Male offspring showed increased mammary outgrowth on pup day (PD) 22 at 0.025 mg/kg BPA, indicating an increased mammary development at this low dose only. Increased prevalence of intraductal hyperplasia was observed in BPA females exposed to 0.25 mg/kg at PD 400, but not at PD 100, and not at higher or lower doses. The present findings support data from the published literature showing that perinatal exposure to BPA can induce increased mammary growth and proliferative lesions in rodents. Our results indicate that low-dose exposure to BPA can affect mammary gland development in male and female rats, although higher doses show a different pattern of effects. The observed intraductal hyperplasia in female rats could be associated with an increased risk for developing hyperplastic lesions, which are parallels to early signs of breast neoplasia in women. Collectively, current knowledge on effects of BPA on mammary gland at low doses indicates that highly exposed humans may not be sufficiently protected. PMID:27088260

  2. Accelerated apoptosis in the Timp-3–deficient mammary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Fata, Jimmie E.; Leco, Kevin J.; Voura, Evelyn B.; Hoi-Ying E Yu; Waterhouse, Paul; Murphy, Gillian; Moorehead, Roger A.; Khokha, Rama

    2001-01-01

    The proapoptotic proteinase inhibitor TIMP-3 is the only molecule of this family thought to influence cell death. We examined epithelial apoptosis in TIMP-3–deficient mice during mammary gland involution. Lactation was not affected by the absence of TIMP-3, but glandular function, as measured by gland-to-body weight ratio and production of β-casein, was suppressed earlier during post-lactational involution than in controls. Histological examination revealed accelerated lumen collapse, alveola...

  3. Transcriptomic signature of Bexarotene (Rexinoid LGD1069 on mammary gland from three transgenic mouse mammary cancer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissonnette Reid P

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rexinoid bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin is a highly selective retinoid × receptor (RXR agonist that inhibits the growth of pre-malignant and malignant breast cells. Bexarotene was shown to suppress the development of breast cancer in transgenic mice models without side effects. The chemopreventive effects of bexarotene are due to transcriptional modulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Our goal in the present study was to obtain a profile of the genes modulated by bexarotene on mammary gland from three transgenic mouse mammary cancer models in an effort to elucidate its molecular mechanism of action and for the identification of biomarkers of effectiveness. Methods Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE was employed to profile the transcriptome of p53-null, MMTV-ErbB2, and C3(1-SV40 mammary cells obtained from mice treated with bexarotene and their corresponding controls. Results This resulted in a dataset of approximately 360,000 transcript tags representing over 20,000 mRNAs from a total of 6 different SAGE libraries. Analysis of gene expression changes induced by bexarotene in mammary gland revealed that 89 genes were dysregulated among the three transgenic mouse mammary models. From these, 9 genes were common to the three models studied. Conclusion Analysis of the indicated core of transcripts and protein-protein interactions of this commonly modulated genes indicate two functional modules significantly affected by rexinoid bexarotene related to protein biosynthesis and bioenergetics signatures, in addition to the targeting of cancer-causing genes related with cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.

  4. Can widely used cell type markers predict the suitability of immortalized or primary mammary epithelial cell models?

    OpenAIRE

    Ontsouka, Edgar; Bertschi, Janique Sabina; Huang, Xiao; Lüthi, Michael; Müller, Stefan Jürg; Albrecht, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mammary cell cultures are convenient tools for in vitro studies of mammary gland biology. However, the heterogeneity of mammary cell types, e.g., glandular milk secretory epithelial or myoepithelial cells, often complicates the interpretation of cell-based data. The present study was undertaken to determine the relevance of bovine primary mammary epithelial cells isolated from American Holstein (bMECUS) or Swiss Holstein-Friesian (bMECCH) cows, and of primary bovine mammary alv...

  5. Can widely used cell type markers predict the suitability of immortalized or primary mammary epithelial cell models?

    OpenAIRE

    Ontsouka, Edgar Corneille; Bertschi, Janique Sabina; Huang, Xiao; Lüthi, Michael; Müller, Stefan; Albrecht, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Background Mammary cell cultures are convenient tools for in vitro studies of mammary gland biology. However, the heterogeneity of mammary cell types, e.g., glandular milk secretory epithelial or myoepithelial cells, often complicates the interpretation of cell-based data. The present study was undertaken to determine the relevance of bovine primary mammary epithelial cells isolated from American Holstein (bMECUS) or Swiss Holstein–Friesian (bMECCH) cows, and of primary bovine mammary alveola...

  6. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang;

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including....... An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  7. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on mammary gland development in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup; Boberg, Julie; Isling, Louise Krag;

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in food contact materials, toys, and other products. Several studies have indicated that effects observed at doses near human exposure levels may not be observed at higher doses. Many studies have shown effects on mammary glands at low doses of BPA, however, because...

  8. Imbalance between apoptosis and cell proliferation during early stages of mammary gland carcinogenesis in ACI rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutanzi, Kristy R.; Koturbash, Igor [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, T1K3M4 (Canada); Bronson, Roderick T. [Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Pogribny, Igor P., E-mail: igor.pogribny@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kovalchuk, Olga, E-mail: olga.kovalchuk@uleth.ca [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, T1K3M4 (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Estrogen and ionizing radiation are well-documented human breast carcinogens, yet the exact mechanisms of their deleterious effects on mammary gland remain to be discerned. Here we analyze the balance between cellular proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary glands of rats exposed to estrogen and X-ray radiation and the combined action of these carcinogenic agents. For the first time, we show that combined exposure to estrogen and radiation has a synergistic effect on cell proliferation in the mammary glands of ACI rats, as evidenced by a substantially greater magnitude of cell proliferation, especially after 12 and 18 weeks of treatment, when compared to mammary glands of rats exposed to estrogen or radiation alone. We also demonstrate that an imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, rather than enhanced cell proliferation or apoptosis suppression alone, may be a driving force for carcinogenesis. Our studies further suggest that compromised functional activity of p53 may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the proliferation/apoptosis imbalance. In sum, the results of our study indicate that evaluation of the extent of cell proliferation and apoptosis before the onset of preneoplastic lesions may be a potential biomarker of breast cancer risk after exposure to breast carcinogens.

  9. Exposure to ionizing radiation induced persistent gene expression changes in mouse mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datta Kamal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast tissue is among the most sensitive tissues to the carcinogenic actions of ionizing radiation and epidemiological studies have linked radiation exposure to breast cancer. Currently, molecular understanding of radiation carcinogenesis in mammary gland is hindered due to the scarcity of in vivo long-term follow up data. We undertook this study to delineate radiation-induced persistent alterations in gene expression in mouse mammary glands 2-month after radiation exposure. Methods Six to eight week old female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy of whole body γ radiation and mammary glands were surgically removed 2-month after radiation. RNA was isolated and microarray hybridization performed for gene expression analysis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used for biological interpretation of microarray data. Real time quantitative PCR was performed on selected genes to confirm the microarray data. Results Compared to untreated controls, the mRNA levels of a total of 737 genes were significantly (p Conclusions Exposure to a clinically relevant radiation dose led to long-term activation of mammary gland genes involved in proliferative and metabolic pathways, which are known to have roles in carcinogenesis. When considered along with downregulation of a number of tumor suppressor genes, our study has implications for breast cancer initiation and progression after therapeutic radiation exposure.

  10. New methods in mammary gland development and cancer: proteomics, epigenetics, symmetric division and metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; GLUKHOVA, Marina; Hynes, Nancy; Vivanco, Maria dM

    2012-01-01

    The European Network for Breast Development and Cancer (ENBDC) meeting on 'Methods in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer' has become an annual international rendezvous for scientists with interests in the normal and neoplastic breast. The fourth meeting in this series, held in April in Weggis, Switzerland, focused on proteomics, epigenetics, symmetric division, and metastasis.

  11. Estrogenic plant extracts reverse weight gain and fat accumulation without causing mammary gland or uterine proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise F Saunier

    Full Text Available Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα. One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  12. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids affect the mammary gland integrity and health in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Baal, van J.; Kruijt, L.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Information about the effects of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) supplementation on the health and integrity of the mammary gland in lactating dairy cows is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary UFA on the global expression pattern of

  13. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE DURING A CRITICAL PERIOD OF MAMMARY GLAND GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal exposure to 100 mg/kg atrazine (ATR) was previously shown to delay mammary gland (MG) development in the female offspring of Long Evans (LE) rats. To determine if the fetal MG was most sensitive to ATR effects during specific periods of development, timed-pregnant dams ...

  14. Epigenetic modifications unlock the milk protein gene loci during mouse mammary gland development and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike with other tissues, development and differentiation of the mammary gland occur mostly after birth. The roles of systemic hormones and local growth factors important for this development and functional differentiation are well-studied. In other tissues, it has been shown that chromatin organiz...

  15. Lineage Tracing in the Mammary Gland Using Cre/lox Technology and Fluorescent Reporter Alleles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Amerongen

    2015-01-01

    Lineage tracing using Cre/lox technology has become a well-established technique to study the contribution of different (stem) cell populations to organ development and function. When used in the mammary gland, it forms a valuable addition to the already existing experimental toolbox and an importan

  16. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF TCDD ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG EVANS RATS: A TWO GENERATIONAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have demonstrated variable effects on mammary gland development in rat offspring exposed to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1 ug/kg, gavage) on day 15 of gestation. We have characterized these effects in Long Evans rats, in both one and two-generational...

  17. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-08-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results. PMID:27483184

  18. A NOVEL EFFECT OF DIOXIN: EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY SEVERELY IMPAIRS MAMMARY GLAND DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel effect of dioxin: Exposure during pregnancy severely impairs mammary gland differentiation.Beth A. Vorderstrasse1, Suzanne E. Fenton2, Andrea A. Bohn3, Jennifer A. Cundiff1, and B. Paige Lawrence1,3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State Universi...

  19. Analysis of EGFR and HER-2 expressions in ductal carcinomas in situ in canine mammary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L.D. Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomolecular evidence has shown that ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS may develop into invasive carcinoma of the canine mammary gland, and mutations in proto-oncogenes HER2 and EGFR; two members of the family of epidermal growth factor receptors, may be involved in this process. The purpose of this study was the characterization of the immunohistochemical expression of the EGFR and HER2 proteins in the process of neoplastic transformation, supposedly present in ductal carcinomas in situ in canine mammary glands. Fifteen cases of DCIS were evaluated, with a higher expression of HER2 and EGFR being observed in low-grade carcinomas when compared with high-grade neoplasms, and with a high positive statistical correlation in the latter. Results suggest that aggressive tumors tend to lose the expression of EGFR and HER2 simultaneously. The loss of the expression of these markers may be related to the process of neoplastic progression in canine mammary tumors.

  20. Mammary Gland Evaluation in Juvenile Toxicity Studies: Temporal Developmental Patterns in the Male and Female Harlan Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgo, Adam J; Foley, Julie F; Puvanesarajah, Samantha; Borde, Aditi R; Midkiff, Bentley R; Reed, Casey E; Chappell, Vesna A; Alexander, Lydia B; Borde, Pretish R; Troester, Melissa A; Bouknight, Schantel A Hayes; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no reports describing mammary gland development in the Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rat, the current strain of choice for National Toxicology Program (NTP) testing. Our goals were to empower the NTP, contract labs, and other researchers in understanding and interpreting chemical effects in this rat strain. To delineate similarities/differences between the female and male mammary gland, data were compiled starting on embryonic day 15.5 through postnatal day 70. Mammary gland whole mounts, histology sections, and immunohistochemically stained tissues for estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors were evaluated in both sexes; qualitative and quantitative differences are highlighted using a comprehensive visual timeline. Research on endocrine disrupting chemicals in animal models has highlighted chemically induced mammary gland anomalies that may potentially impact human health. In order to investigate these effects within the HSD strain, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, diethylstilbestrol, or vehicle control was gavage dosed on gestation day 15 and 18 to demonstrate delayed, accelerated, and control mammary gland growth in offspring, respectively. We provide illustrations of normal and chemically altered mammary gland development in HSD male and female rats to help inform researchers unfamiliar with the tissue and may facilitate enhanced evaluation of both male and female mammary glands in juvenile toxicity studies. PMID:27613106

  1. The Expression of the IGF Family During Mouse Mammary Gland Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study was to determine the patterns and levels of IGF family members' expression during postnatal mammary gland development. The authors investigated the protein expression profile of the major components of the IGF axis in murine mammary glands. All the proteins examined, IGF- Ⅰ, IGF- Ⅱ, and IGF- Ⅰ receptor (IGF- Ⅰ R) were expressed at greatly different levels and displayed unique expression profiles. IGF- Ⅱ and IGF- Ⅰ R were always expressed at significantly higher levels than IGF- Ⅰ. IGF- Ⅰ was localized in adipocytes as well as the epithelial and stromal compartments, but just distinctly expressed where mammary cells aggregated to form ducts, in virgins. The IGF- Ⅱ was localized only on the basal layer epithelial cell membranes of ducts and alveoli, with a peak level on the initiation of lactation. The higher level of IGF- Ⅰ R compared with IGF- Ⅰ was also found in adipocytes as well as in the epithelial and stromal compartments, especially during pregnancy and late lactation. The IGF- Ⅰ R pathway was obviously significant for the development of the mammary parenchyma and stroma. Overall, the comparison of the expression profiles of these different proteins would strongly suggest that they were likely to have different functions throughout the mammary gland development, and it also highlighted the potential interactions and coregulation of the members of this axis. It seems that IGF- Ⅱ was the major local modulator rather than IGF- Ⅰ by an IGF- Ⅰ R-independent pathway, especially for initiation of lactation. This study has demonstrated the importance and complexity of the IGF axis during mammary gland development and provides a valuable resource for future research in this area.

  2. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  3. Histological analysis of low dose NMU effects in the rat mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenschein Carlos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to assess the histological changes in mammary glands of the female Wistar-Furth rat as a result of low dose exposure to N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU. Methods Groups of 30–40 virgin female rats of between 49–58 days old received a single injection of 10, 20, 30 or 50 mg NMU/kg body weight (BW. A group of 10 control rats received 0.9% NaCl solution only. The formation of palpable mammary gland tumors was assessed weekly and, upon sacrifice at 12, 22 and 25–30 weeks after treatment, we performed a comprehensive histological analysis of all mammary gland lesions and tumors. Results Alongside the predicted increase in tumor number and decrease in tumor latency with increasing NMU dose, we observed a number of microscopic lesions and other epithelial abnormalities in the mammary glands for all NMU doses. Two types of non-neoplastic histological changes were observed in rats exposed to 10 or 20 mg NMU/kg BW: namely, (i an increase in the number of acinar structures often accompanied by secretion into the lumen which is normally associated with pregnancy and lactation, and (ii an increase in the number of epithelial cells sloughed into the lumen of the epithelial ducts. Conclusion This study establishes a baseline for low-dose exposure and defines the histological features in the mammary gland resulting from NMU exposure. Furthermore, this system provides an ideal platform for evaluating the relative susceptibility of animals protected from, or predisposed to, developing cancer through environmental influences.

  4. Lgr5-expressing cells are sufficient and necessary for postnatal mammary gland organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Vicki; Brenot, Audrey; Lawson, Devon A; Linnemann, Jelena R; Van Kappel, Eline C; Wong, Karren C; de Sauvage, Frederic; Klein, Ophir D; Werb, Zena

    2013-01-31

    Mammary epithelial stem cells are vital to tissue expansion and remodeling during various phases of postnatal mammary development. Basal mammary epithelial cells are enriched in Wnt-responsive cells and can reconstitute cleared mammary fat pads upon transplantation into mice. Lgr5 is a Wnt-regulated target gene and was identified as a major stem cell marker in the small intestine, colon, stomach, and hair follicle, as well as in kidney nephrons. Here, we demonstrate the outstanding regenerative potential of a rare population of Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) mammary epithelial cells (MECs). We found that Lgr5(+) cells reside within the basal population, are superior to other basal cells in regenerating functional mammary glands (MGs), are exceptionally efficient in reconstituting MGs from single cells, and exhibit regenerative capacity in serial transplantations. Loss-of-function and depletion experiments of Lgr5(+) cells from transplanted MECs or from pubertal MGs revealed that these cells are not only sufficient but also necessary for postnatal mammary organogenesis. PMID:23352663

  5. Lgr5-Expressing Cells Are Sufficient and Necessary for Postnatal Mammary Gland Organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Plaks

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary epithelial stem cells are vital to tissue expansion and remodeling during various phases of postnatal mammary development. Basal mammary epithelial cells are enriched in Wnt-responsive cells and can reconstitute cleared mammary fat pads upon transplantation into mice. Lgr5 is a Wnt-regulated target gene and was identified as a major stem cell marker in the small intestine, colon, stomach, and hair follicle, as well as in kidney nephrons. Here, we demonstrate the outstanding regenerative potential of a rare population of Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5+ mammary epithelial cells (MECs. We found that Lgr5+ cells reside within the basal population, are superior to other basal cells in regenerating functional mammary glands (MGs, are exceptionally efficient in reconstituting MGs from single cells, and exhibit regenerative capacity in serial transplantations. Loss-of-function and depletion experiments of Lgr5+ cells from transplanted MECs or from pubertal MGs revealed that these cells are not only sufficient but also necessary for postnatal mammary organogenesis.

  6. Large lipid-rich mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid gland: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC of the salivary gland is a malignant tumor which bears morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features similar to those of mammary secretory carcinoma. The tumor is considered as a low-grade malignancy perhaps slightly more aggressive than acinic cell carcinoma. High-grade transformation with recurrences, regional nodal involvement, metastases, and cancer-related death has been reported in a few cases. We report an unusual case of large MASC of the parotid gland in a young patient without regional lymph node involvement. To the best of our knowledge till date such a large MASC of the salivary gland has not been reported in the English literature.

  7. Effect of the Ketone Body Beta-Hydroxybutyrate on the Innate Defense Capability of Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hillreiner

    Full Text Available Negative energy balance and ketosis are thought to cause impaired immune function and to increase the risk of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of elevated levels of the predominant ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate on the innate defense capability of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC challenged with the mastitis pathogen Escherichia coli (E. coli. Therefore, pbMEC of healthy dairy cows in mid- lactation were isolated from milk and challenged in culture with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli. pbMEC stimulated with E. coli for 6 h or 30 h showed an up-regulation of several innate immune genes, whereas co-stimulation of pbMEC with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli resulted in the down-regulation of CCL2, SAA3, LF and C3 gene expression compared to the challenge with solely the bacterial stimulus. These results indicated that increased BHBA concentrations may be partially responsible for the higher mastitis susceptibility of dairy cows in early lactation. Elevated levels of BHBA in blood and milk during negative energy balance and ketosis are likely to impair innate immune function in the bovine mammary gland by attenuating the expression of a broad range of innate immune genes.

  8. Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Lineages and Parenchymal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary development proceeds from an aggregation of cells in the ventral ectoderm to the establishment of an elaborate tree of alveoli, ducts, and cisternae. However, despite abundant data on endocrine regulation of ruminant mammary growth, we know comparatively little about cell lineages, express...

  9. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  10. Feeding a higher plane of nutrition and providing exogenous estrogen increases mammary gland development in Holstein heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; Akers, R M

    2016-09-01

    Feeding heifers a higher plane of nutrition postweaning but before puberty can negatively affect mammary gland development and future milk yield. However, enhanced nutrition preweaning may promote development and future production. Our objectives were to determine the effects of enhanced feeding preweaning and exogenous estrogen immediately postweaning on mammary gland development and the composition of the mammary parenchyma (PAR) and mammary fat pad (MFP). Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves (mammary gland mass than R calves. Providing estrogen to EH calves further increased mammary gland weight. Masses of PAR and MFP were markedly greater for EH calves than for R calves (e.g., 7.3-fold greater PAR tissue). Estrogen increased the mass of both PAR and MFP in EH calves. Feeding a higher plane of nutrition increased total protein, DNA, and fat in the MFP and total protein and DNA in the PAR. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry estimates of mammary fat mass were highly correlated with biochemical analyses of fat content. From histological study, we observed that the degree of expansion of epithelium into the adjacent stromal tissue and the complexity of ductal development were minimal in R, increased in EH, and increased by estrogen in both dietary treatments. Results provide compelling evidence that preweaning nutrition and estrogen administration immediately postweaning markedly increase mammary gland development in dairy calves. Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences are currently under study. PMID:27372586

  11. Interrogation of the rat mammary gland using intraductal impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extant technologies for the detection of breast cancer exploit changes in the morphology of the mammary ductal epithelial network and can involve ionizing radiation. Intraductal surveillance of mammary epithelium has the potential to allow for earlier detection based on changes in function of the epithelium. This study investigated the feasibility of using intraductal impedance spectroscopy (IIS) to assess changes in resistance in the mammary epithelium in a small group of female rats in resting, pregnant and ultimately lactating states. In resting rats, intraductal surveillance was able to detect only a single resistive capacitance (RC). In pregnant animals, a second RC became evident in the frequency range between 1 and 190 Hz. The real resistance of this low frequency RC increased when measurements were made after the animals had begun lactating. Equivalent circuit modeling revealed this increase to be a 1.7-fold change from pregnancy to lactation. A model of tight junction closure in the context of ductal expansion is proposed. These results suggest that physiologic measurements can be made in rodent mammary epithelium using this technique allowing for assessment of function in normal and disease states

  12. Physical, laboratory, and microbiological parameters of mammary gland secretions in postpartum does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Filgueira Alcindo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is a multifactorial disease whose prevalence is affected by the type of pathogenic agent involved, the constitution of the animal, and environmental conditions. This study evaluated the physical and laboratory characteristics of colostrum from dairy goats in the postpartum period, and the physical characteristics of the mammary glands in the same period. Of the 71 mammary glands evaluated, 12 were positive for bacterial isolates and the most frequent pathogenic agents were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (n = 11. Median somatic cell counts (SCC in animals positive for bacterial isolates were greater than in animals without bacterial isolates at parturition (696.0 vs. 256.0 x 103 mL –1 and 48 h postpartum (1,350 vs. 437.0 x 103 mL-1. In addition, 34 samples were positive for the California Mastitis Test (CMT; score >1+, indicating a positive relationship between this test and bacterial isolation. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were the most prevalent pathogenic agents, resulting in increase in SCC. Postpartum changes in mammary secretions were not good predictors of bacterial mastitis. Physical examination of mammary glands did not reveal significant changes for the diagnosis of mastitis in the postpartum period.

  13. Estetrol is a weak estrogen antagonizing estradiol-dependent mammary gland proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, C; Blacher, S; Communal, L; Courtin, A; Tskitishvili, E; Mestdagt, M; Munaut, C; Noel, A; Gompel, A; Péqueux, C; Foidart, J M

    2015-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced exclusively by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. Its physiological activity remains unknown. In contrast to ethinyl estradiol and estradiol (E2), E4 has a minimal impact on liver cell activity and could provide a better safety profile in contraception or hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to delineate if E4 exhibits an activity profile distinct from that of E2 on mammary gland. Compared with E2, E4 acted as a low-affinity estrogen in both human in vitro and murine in vivo models. E4 was 100 times less potent than E2 to stimulate the proliferation of human breast epithelial (HBE) cells and murine mammary gland in vitro and in vivo respectively. This effect was prevented by fulvestrant and tamoxifen, supporting the notion that ERα (ESR1) is the main mediator of the estrogenic effect of E4 on the breast. Interestingly, when E4 was administered along with E2, it significantly antagonized the strong stimulatory effect of E2 on HBE cell proliferation and on the growth of mammary ducts. This study characterizes for the first time the impact of E4 on mammary gland. Our results highlight that E4 is less potent than E2 and exhibits antagonistic properties toward the proliferative effect of E2 on breast epithelial cells. These data support E4 as a potential new estrogen for clinical use with a reduced impact on breast proliferation. PMID:25359896

  14. Raman spectra of normal and cancerous mouse mammary gland tissue using near infrared excitation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vaman; Serhatkulu, G. K.; Dai, H.; Shukla, N.; Weber, R.; Thakur, J. S.; Freeman, D. C.; Pandya, A. K.; Auner, G. W.; Naik, R.; Miller, R. F.; Cao, A.; Klein, M. D.; Rabah, R.

    2006-03-01

    Raman spectra of normal mammary gland tissues, malignant mammary gland tumors, and lymph nodes have been recorded using fresh tissue from mice. Tumors were induced in mice by subcutaneously injecting 4T1 BALB/c mammary tumor (a highly malignant) cell line. The Raman spectra were collected using the same tissues that were examined by histopathology for determining the cancerous/normal state of the tissue. Differences in various peak intensities, peak shifts and peak ratios were analyzed to determine the Raman spectral features that differentiate mammary gland tumors from non-tumorous tissue. Tissues that were confirmed by pathology as cancerous (tumors) show several distinctive features in the Raman spectra compared to the spectra of the normal tissues. For example, the cancerous tissues show Raman peaks at 621, 642, 1004, 1032, 1175 and 1208 cm-1 that are assignable to amino acids containing aromatic side-chains such as phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine. Further, the cancerous tissues show a greatly reduced level of phospholipids compared to the normal tissues. The Raman spectral regions that are sensitive to pathologic alteration in the tissue will be discussed.

  15. Amino acids and mammary gland development: nutritional implications for milk production and neonatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Reza; Wu, Zhenlong; Hou, Yongqing; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Milk is synthesized by mammary epithelial cells of lactating mammals. The synthetic capacity of the mammary gland depends largely on the number and efficiency of functional mammary epithelial cells. Structural development of the mammary gland occurs during fetal growth, prepubertal and post-pubertal periods, pregnancy, and lactation under the control of various hormones (particularly estrogen, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, progesterone, placental lactogen, and prolactin) in a species- and stage-dependent manner. Milk is essential for the growth, development, and health of neonates. Amino acids (AA), present in both free and peptide-bound forms, are the most abundant organic nutrients in the milk of farm animals. Uptake of AA from the arterial blood of the lactating dam is the ultimate source of proteins (primarily β-casein and α-lactalbumin) and bioactive nitrogenous metabolites in milk. Results of recent studies indicate extensive catabolism of branched-chain AA (leucine, isoleucine and valine) and arginine to synthesize glutamate, glutamine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, proline, and polyamines. The formation of polypeptides from AA is regulated not only by hormones (e.g., prolactin, insulin and glucocorticoids) and the rate of blood flow across the lactating mammary gland, but also by concentrations of AA, lipids, glucose, vitamins and minerals in the maternal plasma, as well as the activation of the mechanistic (mammalian) target rapamycin signaling by certain AA (e.g., arginine, branched-chain AA, and glutamine). Knowledge of AA utilization (including metabolism) by mammary epithelial cells will enhance our fundamental understanding of lactation biology and has important implications for improving the efficiency of livestock production worldwide. PMID:27042295

  16. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol a increases adult mammary gland progesterone response and cell number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyanan, Ayyakkannu; Laribi, Ouahiba; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Schrick, Christina; Gutierrez, Maria; Tanos, Tamara; Lefebvre, Gregory; Rougemont, Jacques; Yalcin-Ozuysal, Ozden; Brisken, Cathrin

    2011-11-01

    Bisphenol A [BPA, 2,2,-bis (hydroxyphenyl) propane] is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide. It is detected in body fluids of more than 90% of the human population. Originally synthesized as an estrogenic compound, it is currently utilized to manufacture food and beverage containers resulting in uptake with food and drinks. There is concern that exposure to low doses of BPA, defined as less than or equal to 5 mg/kg body weight /d, may have developmental effects on various hormone-responsive organs including the mammary gland. Here, we asked whether perinatal exposure to a range of low doses of BPA is sufficient to alter mammary gland hormone response later on in life, with a possible impact on breast cancer risk. To mimic human exposure, we added BPA to the drinking water of C57/Bl6 breeding pairs. Analysis of the mammary glands of their daughters at puberty showed that estrogen-dependent transcriptional events were perturbed and the number of terminal end buds, estrogen-induced proliferative structures, was altered in a dose-dependent fashion. Importantly, adult females showed an increase in mammary epithelial cell numbers comparable to that seen in females exposed to diethylbestrol, a compound exposure to which was previously linked to increased breast cancer risk. Molecularly, the mRNAs encoding Wnt-4 and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand, two key mediators of hormone function implicated in control of mammary stem cell proliferation and carcinogenesis, showed increased induction by progesterone in the mammary tissue of exposed mice. Thus, perinatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA alters long-term hormone response that may increase the propensity to develop breast cancer.

  17. Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshioka Takako

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A rare case of an apocrine tumor in the male perineal region is reported. A dermal cystic lesion developed in the region between the anus and scrotum of a 74-year-old Japanese male. The cystic lesion, measuring 3.5 × 5.0 cm in size, was lined by columnar or flattened epithelium with occasional apocrine features and supported by a basal myoepithelium lining. A mural nodule, measuring 1 × 1.5 cm in size, protruded into the cystic space and consisted of a solid proliferation of tubular glands with prominent apocrine secretion and basal myoepithelial cells. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the luminal cells were partially positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and human milk fat globulin 1, and the basal myoepithelial cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. Estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors were focally and weakly positive for luminal epithelium. Although no mammary-like glands were present in the dermis around the tumor, this unusual apocrine tumor has been suggested to be derived from male anogenital mammary-like glands and mimic a mammary-like gland adenoma in the male perineum.

  18. Redefining the expression and function of the inhibitor of differentiation 1 in mammary gland development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Nair

    Full Text Available The accumulation of poorly differentiated cells is a hallmark of breast neoplasia and progression. Thus an understanding of the factors controlling mammary differentiation is critical to a proper understanding of breast tumourigenesis. The Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1 protein has well documented roles in the control of mammary epithelial differentiation and proliferation in vitro and breast cancer progression in vivo. However, it has not been determined whether Id1 expression is sufficient for the inhibition of mammary epithelial differentiation or the promotion of neoplastic transformation in vivo. We now show that Id1 is not commonly expressed by the luminal mammary epithelia, as previously reported. Generation and analysis of a transgenic mouse model of Id1 overexpression in the mammary gland reveals that Id1 is insufficient for neoplastic progression in virgin animals or to prevent terminal differentiation of the luminal epithelia during pregnancy and lactation. Together, these data demonstrate that there is no luminal cell-autonomous role for Id1 in mammary epithelial cell fate determination, ductal morphogenesis and terminal differentiation.

  19. Analysis of mammary gland according to results of CMT (California Mastitis Test and bacteriological findings in secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varatanović Nazif

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Health control of the mammary gland was conducted comparing results of CMT (California Mastitis Test and bacteriological findings of milk samples during one year. A total of 3863 secretion samples of mammary glands were collected. There were 85.3% matches for CMT and bacteriological findings. The most frequently isolated causative agents were: staphylococci (52.4%, streptococcus bacteria (23.5%, mixed infections (13.1%, and enterobacteria (10.3%. Secretions disorder and inflammations of mammary gland are most common for the warm period of the year, and very rare for the winter period. With permanent use of these two methods it is possible to obtain satisfactory results in order to get better milk production and health condition of the mammary gland. .

  20. HORMONAL CONTROL OF OVARIAN FUNCTION FOLLOWING CHLOROTRIAZINE EXPOSURE: EFFECT ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION AND MAMMARY GLAND TUMOR DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonal Control of Ovarian Function Following Chlorotriazine Exposure: Effect on Reproductive Function and Mammary Gland Tumor Development. Ralph L. Cooper, Susan C. Laws, Michael G. Narotsky, Jerome M. Goldman, and Tammy E. StokerAbstractThe studies review...

  1. Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Mouse Mammary Gland Development and Differentiation Resulting from Cross-Foster and Restricted Gestational Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse consequences of developmental exposures to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been established, and include impaired development of the offspring mammary gland (MG). However, the relationship between the timing or route of exposure, and the phenotypic consequences in ...

  2. Association of cellular and molecular responses in the rat mammary gland to 17β-estradiol with susceptibility to mammary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are using ACI and BN rats, which differ markedly in their susceptibility to 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer, to identify genetic variants and environmental factors that determine mammary cancer susceptibility. The objective of this study was to characterize the cellular and molecular responses to E2 in the mammary glands of ACI and BN rats to identify qualitative and quantitative phenotypes that associate with and/or may confer differences in susceptibility to mammary cancer. Female ACI and BN rats were treated with E2 for 1, 3 or 12 weeks. Mammary gland morphology and histology were examined by whole mount and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Cell proliferation and epithelial density were evaluated by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was evaluated by quantitative western blotting and flow cytometry. Mammary gland differentiation was examined by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression was evaluated by microarray, qRT-PCR and quantitative western blotting assays. Extracellular matrix (ECM) associated collagen was evaluated by Picrosirius Red staining and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. The luminal epithelium of ACI rats exhibited a rapid and sustained proliferative response to E2. By contrast, the proliferative response exhibited by the mammary epithelium of BN rats was restrained and transitory. Moreover, the epithelium of BN rats appeared to undergo differentiation in response to E2, as evidenced by production of milk proteins as well as luminal ectasia and associated changes in the ECM. Marked differences in expression of genes that encode proteins with well-defined roles in mammary gland development (Pgr, Wnt4, Tnfsf11, Prlr, Stat5a, Areg, Gata3), differentiation and milk production (Lcn2, Spp1), regulation of extracellular environment (Mmp7, Mmp9), and cell-cell or cell-ECM interactions (Cd44, Cd24, Cd52) were observed. We propose that these cellular and molecular phenotypes are heritable and may underlie, at least in

  3. Analysis of mammary gland according to results of CMT (California Mastitis Test) and bacteriological findings in secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Varatanović Nazif; Katica Amela; Mutevelić Tarik; Mlaćo Nadžida; Hamzić Edin

    2009-01-01

    Health control of the mammary gland was conducted comparing results of CMT (California Mastitis Test) and bacteriological findings of milk samples during one year. A total of 3863 secretion samples of mammary glands were collected. There were 85.3% matches for CMT and bacteriological findings. The most frequently isolated causative agents were: staphylococci (52.4%), streptococcus bacteria (23.5%), mixed infections (13.1%), and enterobacteria (10.3%). Secretions disorder and inflammations of ...

  4. Short communication: Differential loss of bovine mammary epithelial barrier integrity in response to lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellnitz, Olga; Zbinden, Christina; Huang, Xiao; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2016-06-01

    In the mammary gland, the blood-milk barrier prevents an uncontrolled intermixture of blood and milk constituents and hence maintains the osmotic gradient to draw water into the mammary secretion. During mastitis, the permeability of the blood-milk barrier is increased, which is reflected by the transfer of blood constituents into milk and vice versa. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in the barrier function of mammary epithelial cells in vitro as induced by cell wall components of different pathogens. Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells from 3 different cows were grown separately on Transwell (Corning Inc., Corning, NY) inserts. The formation of tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells was shown by transmission electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence staining of the tight junction protein zona occludens-1. The integrity of the epithelial barrier was assayed by means of transepithelial electrical resistance, as well as by diffusion of the fluorophore Lucifer yellow across the cell layer. The release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was used as an indicator for cytotoxic effects. In response to a 24-h challenge with bacterial endotoxin, barrier integrity was reduced after 3 or 7h, respectively, in response to 0.5mg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli or 20mg/mL lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus. No paracellular leakage was observed in response to 0.2mg/mL LPS or 2mg/mL LTA. Although LPS and LTA affected barrier permeability, most likely by opening the tight junctions, only LPS caused cell damage, reflected by increased LDH concentrations in cell culture medium. These results prove a pathogen-specific loss of blood-milk barrier integrity during mastitis, which is characterized by tight junction opening by both LPS and LTA and by additional epithelial cell destruction through LPS. PMID:27060811

  5. Functional analyse of GLUT1 and GLUT12 in glucose uptake in goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Yu

    Full Text Available Glucose transport, mediated by glucose transporters, is necessary for mammary gland development and lactation. GLUT1 and GLUT12 could both be expressed in the pregnant and lactating mammary gland to participate in the glucose uptake process. In this study, the goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 genes were cloned from Saanen dairy goats and transfected into goat mammary gland epithelial cells to assess their biological functions and distributions. The results showed that both goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 had 12 predicted membrane-spanning helices. Goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 each influenced the mRNA expression of the other transporter and increased the glucose consumption and lactose yield in GLUT1- and GLUT12-transfected goat mammary gland epithelial cells, respectively. The overexpression of GLUT1 or GLUT12 also increased the expression of amino acid transporters SLC1A5, SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 and affected genes expressions in GMGE cells. Using immunofluorescence staining, GLUT1 was detected throughout the cytoplasm and localized to the Golgi apparatus around the nuclear membrane, whereas GLUT12 was mainly distributed in the perinuclear region and cytoplasm. This study contributes to the understanding of how GLUT1 and GLUT12 cooperate in the incorporation of nutrient uptake into mammary gland epithelial cells and the promotion of milk synthesis in the goat mammary gland during lactation.

  6. Potential Genes for Regulation of Milk Protein Synthesis in Dairy Goat Mammary Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dan; Zhang Na; Nan Xue-mei; Li Qing-zhang; Gao Xue-jun

    2016-01-01

    The lactating mammary gland is a prodigious protein-producing factory, but the milk protein synthesis mechanisms are not well understood. The major objective of this paper was to elucidate which genes and pathways were involved in the regulation of milk protein synthesis in the dairy goat mammary gland. Total 36 primiparous Guanzhong dairy goats were allotted in 12 groups according to their mammary development stages: days 90 and 150 of virgin, days 30, 90, and 150 of pregnancy, days 1, 10, 35, and 60 of lactation and days 3, 7, and 21 of involution (three animals per group). Mammary tissue RNA was isolated for quantitative real-time RT-PCR of four casein genes alpha-s1 casein (CSN1S1), alpha-s2 casein (CSN1S2), beta-casein (CSN2) and casein kappa (CSN3), four whey protein genes lactoglobulin (LGB), lactalbumin (LALBA), lactofarrin (LTF), and Whey acidic protein (WAP) and the genes which were potentially to regulate dairy goat milk protein synthesis at the level of transcription or translation [prolactin receptor (PRLR), AKT1, signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5), E74-Like Factor 5 (ELF5), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (EIF4E-BP1), S6kinase (S6K) and caveolin 1]. The results showed that all genes were up-regulated in lactation period. The expressions of PRLR, AKT1, STAT5, ELF5, and S6K were similar to mRNA expressions of milk proteins. Our results indicated that milk protein synthesis in dairy goat mammary gland was possibly regulated by these genes.

  7. Investigation of the relationship between mammary gland doses and image quality of screening mammography in Oita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the current status of screening mammography in Oita and then examined the relationship between mammary gland dose and image quality using a RMI 156 phantom. There was a marked difference of mammary gland dose by a factor of 4.25 among facilities. This difference in dose may be due to differences in the mammography detection system and ages of the women examined. For the film-screen detection system, the image quality increased with increasing dose, whereas this was not the case for the CR system. Our findings suggest that screening mammography should be done using a highly sensitive film-screen detection system and a grid after determining the most suitable tube voltage for each facility. (author)

  8. Preservation of Facial Nerve With Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Recurrent Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of Parotid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shufang; Ma, Hailong; He, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands harbors the recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion because of the translocation t (12; 15) (p13; q25) and resembles breast secretory carcinoma. This tumor composed of papillary, cystic, solid, and cribriform patterns. Immunohistochemically, the tumors are positive for mammaglobin, CK7, CK8, STAT5a, vimentin, and S100. In this report, the authors presented a patient of recurrent parotid gland mammary analogue secretory carcinoma in a 22-year-old woman. The patient received extended parotidectomy with partial adhesive masseter surgery. The facial nerve was preserved during the surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy was performed postoperation. The patient did not suffer local recurrence and facial paralysis in the 18 months follow-up period. PMID:27192652

  9. [Modern diagnosis-treatment approaches for inflammatory changes of mammary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilonenko, H A; Aks'onova, O H; Aks'onov, O A

    2013-11-01

    There were examined 567 women, in whom inflammatory changes of mammary glands (MG), not connected with a child borning, were revealed. There was established, that "nonlactational mastitis" of various structure: the cyst--in 36.5% of observations, periductal mastitis--in 32.1%, abscess--11.3%, purulent galactophoritis--12.9%, mastitis-like mammary gland cancer--7.2%. In the diagnosis of inflammatory changes of MG the ultrasonographic investigation is the main, which permit to determine the disease, to study the abscesses topography, to control miniinvasive diagnostic-treatment interventions, in cluding, for abscess and cyst. Purulent-inflammatory processes in MG while extralactational period demand individual differentiated treatment-diagnostic approach regarding khowledge of ultrasonographic (echographic) semiotics of pathological process. PMID:24501989

  10. Prognostic Role of a Soluble Fas in Patients with a Mammary Gland Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ozhereliev A.S.; Komov D.V.; Abbasova S.G.; Orinovsky M.B.; Kolyadina I.V.; Ovtchinnickova L.K.; Tuleuova A.A.; Grishkevich M.V.; Mamedov U.R.; Karabeckova Z.K.; Vorotnickov I.K.

    2010-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of the soluble Fas (sFas) levels in a blood serum of the healthy females (n=55) and patients with a mammary gland cancer (MGC) in a stage of T1N0M0 (n=76) and T2N0M0 (n=172), the connections of sFas with the basic clinicomorphologic factors and a disease prognosis are presented. The sFas is revealed with a similar rate in a blood serum and patients with a mammary gland cancer both in a stage of T1N0M0 (53.9%) and in a stage of T2N0M0 (59.3%), and in healthy ...

  11. Modulation of Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production by Growth Hormone Expression in GH Transgenic Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zekun; Lin, Jian; Ye, Lulu; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Mammary gland development during puberty and reconstruction during pregnancy and lactation is under the control of circulating endocrine hormones, such as growth hormone, which are released from the pituitary. In this study, we explored the influence of overexpression of growth hormone in the mammary gland on breast development and milk production in goats. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the number of highly expressed genes was greater in GH transgenic goats than non-transgenic goats. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the majority of the genes belonged to the MAPK signaling pathway and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression of genes related to breast development was further confirmed using qRT-PCR. Interestingly, both milk production and milk quality were increased. The results of these experiments imply that overexpression of growth hormone in the breast may stimulate breast development and enhances milk production by modulating alveolar cell proliferation or branching through the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27445863

  12. Modulation of Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production by Growth Hormone Expression in GH Transgenic Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zekun; Lin, Jian; Ye, Lulu; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Mammary gland development during puberty and reconstruction during pregnancy and lactation is under the control of circulating endocrine hormones, such as growth hormone, which are released from the pituitary. In this study, we explored the influence of overexpression of growth hormone in the mammary gland on breast development and milk production in goats. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the number of highly expressed genes was greater in GH transgenic goats than non-transgenic goats. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the majority of the genes belonged to the MAPK signaling pathway and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression of genes related to breast development was further confirmed using qRT-PCR. Interestingly, both milk production and milk quality were increased. The results of these experiments imply that overexpression of growth hormone in the breast may stimulate breast development and enhances milk production by modulating alveolar cell proliferation or branching through the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27445863

  13. [Modern diagnosis-treatment approaches for inflammatory changes of mammary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilonenko, H A; Aks'onova, O H; Aks'onov, O A

    2013-11-01

    There were examined 567 women, in whom inflammatory changes of mammary glands (MG), not connected with a child borning, were revealed. There was established, that "nonlactational mastitis" of various structure: the cyst--in 36.5% of observations, periductal mastitis--in 32.1%, abscess--11.3%, purulent galactophoritis--12.9%, mastitis-like mammary gland cancer--7.2%. In the diagnosis of inflammatory changes of MG the ultrasonographic investigation is the main, which permit to determine the disease, to study the abscesses topography, to control miniinvasive diagnostic-treatment interventions, in cluding, for abscess and cyst. Purulent-inflammatory processes in MG while extralactational period demand individual differentiated treatment-diagnostic approach regarding khowledge of ultrasonographic (echographic) semiotics of pathological process.

  14. TH与乳腺疼痛的相关临床研究%Clinical study on relationship between thyroid gland related hormone and hyperplasia of mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐虓; 刘志英; 孙祝生; 刘会岭

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between thyroid hormone levels and breast pain rating, mammary gland thickness, and gland hyperplasia degree. Methods: From January 2010 to June 2013, 130 patients with breast pain as the chief complaint to the hospital were randomly selected. Correlation between breast pain rating, mammary gland thickness, gland hyperplasia degree and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO), thyroglobulin antibody (TG), TSH receptor antibody (Anti-TSHR), mammary gland disorder, and thyroid disease were analyzed. Results: Degree of breast hyperplasia is unrelated with serum T3, T4, TPO, TG, Anti-TSHR level (P>0.05), and it is related with serum TSH levels (P=0.002, P0.05). There is no significant relationship between mammary gland hyperplasia degree and the gland structural disorder (P>0.05), while the correlation of mammary gland hyperplasia degree with presence of thyroid disease is significant. Patients with thyroid disease are apt to have severer mammary gland hyperplasia (P0.05),与血清TSH水平相关(P=0.002,P0.05).乳腺增生程度与乳腺腺体结构紊乱之间无明显关系(P>0.05),与是否有甲状腺疾患有关,有甲状腺疾患者乳腺增生程度较重(P<0.05).结论:血清TSH升高可引起乳腺增生,乳腺疼痛程度与甲状腺相关激素水平无关.中重度乳腺增生患者往往合并甲状腺疾患.

  15. Aquaporin 5 Expression in Mouse Mammary Gland Cells Is Not Driven by Promoter Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Arbeithuber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have revealed that aquaporins play a role in tumor progression and invasion. In breast carcinomas, high levels of aquaporin 5 (AQP5, a membrane protein involved in water transport, have been linked to increased cell proliferation and migration, thus facilitating tumor progression. Despite the potential role of AQP5 in mammary oncogenesis, the mechanisms controlling mammary AQP5 expression are poorly understood. In other tissues, AQP5 expression has been correlated with its promoter methylation, yet, very little is known about AQP5 promoter methylation in the mammary gland. In this work, we used the mouse mammary gland cell line EpH4, in which we controlled AQP5 expression via the steroid hormone dexamethasone (Dex to further investigate mechanisms regulating AQP5 expression. In this system, we observed a rapid drop of AQP5 mRNA levels with a delay of several hours in AQP5 protein, suggesting transcriptional control of AQP5 levels. Yet, AQP5 expression was independent of its promoter methylation, or to the presence of negative glucocorticoid receptor elements (nGREs in its imminent promoter region, but was rather influenced by the cell proliferative state or cell density. We conclude that AQP5 promoter methylation is not a universal mechanism for AQP5 regulation and varies on cell and tissue type.

  16. Tubulopapillary Carcinoma of Mammary Gland in a Cat: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmenza Janneth Benavides Melo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumors in felines rank third in frequency after skin tumors and lymphoma, equivalent to 12% of the total cases of neoplasia in felines and 17% in female cats; however, remission and histopathological diagnosis in small animal practice is considerably lower, unlike what happens with canines, where mammary and skin tumors are the main cases of remission and diagnosed neoplasia in laboratories. This paper reports the case of a nine-year-old female Siamese cat that was treated at a private clinic. The patient had a mass located in the abdominal mammary gland of about 2 cm in diameter, of a reddish color, firm consistency and serous secretion, with an estimated evolution time of one month, removed through partial mastectomy. The sample was fixed in buffered formalin at 10% and processed for histopathological analysis at the pathology laboratory of the University of Nariño, using routine hematoxylin and eosin. In addition, it underwent a Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS differential staining and an immunohistochemical marker estrogen receptor (ER, which tested negative. Thus, it was diagnosed with tubulopapillary carcinoma in mammary gland, this being the first reported case of this disease in the Department of Nariño.

  17. A tool for the quantitative spatial analysis of mammary gland epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2004-04-09

    In this paper we present a method for the spatial analysis of complex cellular systems based on a multiscale study of neighborhood relationships. A function to measure those relationships, M, is introduced. The refined Relative Neighborhood Graph is then presented as a method to establish vicinity relationships within layered cellular structures, and particularized to epithelial cell nuclei in the mammary gland. Finally, the method is illustrated with two examples that show interactions within one population of epithelial cells and between two different populations.

  18. Comprehensive RNA-Seq profiling to evaluate lactating sheep mammary gland transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Vega, Aroa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Klopp, Christophe; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Arranz, Juan-José

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq enables the generation of extensive transcriptome information providing the capability to characterize transcripts (including alternative isoforms and polymorphism), to quantify expression and to identify differential regulation in a single experiment. Our aim in this study was to take advantage of using RNA-Seq high-throughput technology to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profiling of the sheep lactating mammary gland. Eight ewes of two dairy sheep breeds with diffe...

  19. Milk ceruloplasmin and its expression by mammary gland and liver in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveza, P J; Mehrbod, F; Cotton, S J; Lomeli, N; Linder, M C; Fonda, E G; Wickler, S J

    2000-01-15

    Concentrations of ceruloplasmin and copper in milk and blood plasma, the nature of milk ceruloplasmin, and the effects of lactation and gestation on these parameters, as well as the expression of ceruloplasmin mRNA by the mammary gland, were examined in pigs. As seen previously in humans, ceruloplasmin and copper concentrations in sow milk were much higher a few days after birth than 1 month later, averaging 26.5 and 6.6 mg ceruloplasmin/L (by immunoassay) and 1.67 and 0.34 mg total Cu/L, on days 3 and 33 postpartum, respectively. Values for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity (measured with p-phenylene diamine) were 7.8 and 1.3 nmol/min/L, respectively. Daily milk ceruloplasmin production went from 61 to 22 mg/day and daily copper output from 38 to 12 mg/day. In contrast, there was little or no variation in serum ceruloplasmin concentration during lactation or gestation, although total plasma copper was high at the end of gestation. Milk ceruloplasmin was of the same apparent size as serum ceruloplasmin, as determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and ceruloplasmin mRNAs of liver and mammary gland were indistinguishable by Northern analysis and RT-PCR of the various exons. Expression of total RNA and ceruloplasmin mRNA, as detected in biopsies of mammary gland, increased markedly upon onset of lactation and then declined during the next month in conjunction with a drop in milk ceruloplasmin production. The results indicate that milk ceruloplasmin, while being the same protein as in plasma, is not derived from the plasma but is produced by the mammary gland.

  20. Milk ceruloplasmin and its expression by mammary gland and liver in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveza, P J; Mehrbod, F; Cotton, S J; Lomeli, N; Linder, M C; Fonda, E G; Wickler, S J

    2000-01-15

    Concentrations of ceruloplasmin and copper in milk and blood plasma, the nature of milk ceruloplasmin, and the effects of lactation and gestation on these parameters, as well as the expression of ceruloplasmin mRNA by the mammary gland, were examined in pigs. As seen previously in humans, ceruloplasmin and copper concentrations in sow milk were much higher a few days after birth than 1 month later, averaging 26.5 and 6.6 mg ceruloplasmin/L (by immunoassay) and 1.67 and 0.34 mg total Cu/L, on days 3 and 33 postpartum, respectively. Values for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity (measured with p-phenylene diamine) were 7.8 and 1.3 nmol/min/L, respectively. Daily milk ceruloplasmin production went from 61 to 22 mg/day and daily copper output from 38 to 12 mg/day. In contrast, there was little or no variation in serum ceruloplasmin concentration during lactation or gestation, although total plasma copper was high at the end of gestation. Milk ceruloplasmin was of the same apparent size as serum ceruloplasmin, as determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and ceruloplasmin mRNAs of liver and mammary gland were indistinguishable by Northern analysis and RT-PCR of the various exons. Expression of total RNA and ceruloplasmin mRNA, as detected in biopsies of mammary gland, increased markedly upon onset of lactation and then declined during the next month in conjunction with a drop in milk ceruloplasmin production. The results indicate that milk ceruloplasmin, while being the same protein as in plasma, is not derived from the plasma but is produced by the mammary gland. PMID:10620372

  1. Metastatic, papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the mammary gland in a black-footed ferret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Davidson, J.P.; Novilla, M.N.; Huang, J.C.M.

    1980-01-01

    A simple, papillary cystic adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland with metastases to the internal iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen was observed in a 12 to 13 year old female black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Histologically, the tumor was aggressive, and lymphatic invasion was found. Attempts at virus isolation were negative. Other findings were bilateral infarcts in the kidneys, apparently resulting in acute renal shutdown and death, multiple thrombi in the right atrium, aortic arteriosclerosis, and focal interstitial pneumonia.

  2. Zinc in Specialized Secretory Tissues: Roles in the Pancreas, Prostate, and Mammary Gland12

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, Shannon L.; McCormick, Nicholas H.; Velasquez, Vanessa; Lopez, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient required for over 300 different cellular processes, including DNA and protein synthesis, enzyme activity, and intracellular signaling. Cellular Zn homeostasis necessitates the compartmentalization of Zn into intracellular organelles, which is tightly regulated through the integration of Zn transporting mechanisms. The pancreas, prostate, and mammary gland are secretory tissues that have unusual Zn requirements and thus must tightly regulate Zn metabolis...

  3. Comprehensive RNA-Seq profiling to evaluate lactating sheep mammary gland transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Vega, Aroa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Klopp, Christophe; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Arranz, Juan-José

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq enables the generation of extensive transcriptome information providing the capability to characterize transcripts (including alternative isoforms and polymorphism), to quantify expression and to identify differential regulation in a single experiment. Our aim in this study was to take advantage of using RNA-Seq high-throughput technology to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profiling of the sheep lactating mammary gland. Eight ewes of two dairy sheep breeds with differences in mi...

  4. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-01-01

    Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gro...

  5. Deciphering Transcriptome and Complex Alternative Splicing Transcripts in Mammary Gland Tissues from Cows Naturally Infected with Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Yang, Chun Hong; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Yan; Li, Rong Ling; Wang, Chang Fa; Zhong, Ji Feng; Huang, Jin Ming

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to the complexity of the mammalian proteome and plays an important role in diseases, including infectious diseases. The differential AS patterns of these transcript sequences between the healthy (HS3A) and mastitic (HS8A) cows naturally infected by Staphylococcus aureus were compared to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying mastitis resistance and susceptibility. In this study, using the Illumina paired-end RNA sequencing method, 1352 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with higher than twofold changes were found in the HS3A and HS8A mammary gland tissues. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that the cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction pathway is the most significantly enriched pathway. Approximately 16k annotated unigenes were respectively identified in two libraries, based on the bovine Bos taurus UMD3.1 sequence assembly and search. A total of 52.62% and 51.24% annotated unigenes were alternatively spliced in term of exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5′ splicing and alternative 3ʹ splicing. Additionally, 1,317 AS unigenes were HS3A-specific, whereas 1,093 AS unigenes were HS8A-specific. Some immune-related genes, such as ITGB6, MYD88, ADA, ACKR1, and TNFRSF1B, and their potential relationships with mastitis were highlighted. From Chromosome 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 17, and 20, 3.66% (HS3A) and 5.4% (HS8A) novel transcripts, which harbor known quantitative trait locus associated with clinical mastitis, were identified. Many DEGs in the healthy and mastitic mammary glands are involved in immune, defense, and inflammation responses. These DEGs, which exhibit diverse and specific splicing patterns and events, can endow dairy cattle with the potential complex genetic resistance against mastitis. PMID:27459697

  6. Deciphering Transcriptome and Complex Alternative Splicing Transcripts in Mammary Gland Tissues from Cows Naturally Infected with Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu Ge; Ju, Zhi Hua; Hou, Ming Hai; Jiang, Qiang; Yang, Chun Hong; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Yan; Li, Rong Ling; Wang, Chang Fa; Zhong, Ji Feng; Huang, Jin Ming

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to the complexity of the mammalian proteome and plays an important role in diseases, including infectious diseases. The differential AS patterns of these transcript sequences between the healthy (HS3A) and mastitic (HS8A) cows naturally infected by Staphylococcus aureus were compared to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying mastitis resistance and susceptibility. In this study, using the Illumina paired-end RNA sequencing method, 1352 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with higher than twofold changes were found in the HS3A and HS8A mammary gland tissues. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway is the most significantly enriched pathway. Approximately 16k annotated unigenes were respectively identified in two libraries, based on the bovine Bos taurus UMD3.1 sequence assembly and search. A total of 52.62% and 51.24% annotated unigenes were alternatively spliced in term of exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5' splicing and alternative 3' splicing. Additionally, 1,317 AS unigenes were HS3A-specific, whereas 1,093 AS unigenes were HS8A-specific. Some immune-related genes, such as ITGB6, MYD88, ADA, ACKR1, and TNFRSF1B, and their potential relationships with mastitis were highlighted. From Chromosome 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 17, and 20, 3.66% (HS3A) and 5.4% (HS8A) novel transcripts, which harbor known quantitative trait locus associated with clinical mastitis, were identified. Many DEGs in the healthy and mastitic mammary glands are involved in immune, defense, and inflammation responses. These DEGs, which exhibit diverse and specific splicing patterns and events, can endow dairy cattle with the potential complex genetic resistance against mastitis. PMID:27459697

  7. Two distinct phases of apoptosis in mammary gland involution: proteinase-independent and -dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Leif R; Romer, John; Thomasset, Nicole; Solberg, Helene; Pyke, Charles; Bissell, Mina J; Dano, Keld; Werb, Zena

    1996-01-01

    Postlactational involution of the mammary gland is characterized by two distinct physiological events: apoptosis of the secretory, epithelial cells undergoing programmed cell death, and proteolytic degradation of the mammary gland basement membrane. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of apoptotic cells in relation to those of proteinases during involution of the BALB/c mouse mammary gland. Apoptosis was almost absent during lactation but became evident at day 2 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was still high. Apoptotic cells were then seen at least up to day 8 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was being extinguished. Expression of sulfated glycoprotein-2 (SGP-2), interleukin-1{beta} converting enzyme (ICE) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 was upregulated at day 2, when apoptotic cells were seen initially. Expression of the matrix metalloproteinases gelatinase A and stromelysin-1 and the serine proteinase urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which was low during lactation, was strongly upregulated in parallel starting at day 4 after weaning, coinciding with start of the collapse of the lobulo-alveolar structures and the intensive tissue remodeling in involution. The major sites of mRNA synthesis for these proteinases were fibroblast-like cells in the periductal stroma and stromal cells surrounding the collapsed alveoli, suggesting that the degradative phase of involution is due to a specialized mesenchymal-epithelial interaction. To elucidate the functional role of these proteinases during involution, at the onset of weaning we treated mice systemically with the glucocorticoid hydrocortisone, which is known to inhibit mammary gland involution. Although the initial wave of apoptotic cells appeared in the lumina of the gland, the dramatic regression and tissue remodeling usually evident by day 5 was substantially inhibited by systemic treatment with hydrocortisone. mRNA and protein for gelatinase A, stromelysin

  8. Generation of TALE nickase-mediated gene-targeted cows expressing human serum albumin in mammary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Cui, Chenchen; Wu, Yongyan; Lan, Hui; Chen, Qi; Liu, Xu; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Targeting exogenous genes at milk protein loci via gene-targeting technology is an ideal strategy for producing large quantities of pharmaceutical proteins. Transcription- activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs) are an efficient genome-editing tool. However, the off-target effects may lead to unintended gene mutations. In this study, we constructed TALENs and TALE nickases directed against exon 2 of the bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) locus. The nickases can induce a site-specific DNA single-strand break, without inducing double-strand break and nonhomologous end joining mediated gene mutation, and lower cell apoptosis rate than TALENs. After co-transfecting the bovine fetal fibroblasts with human serum albumin (HSA) gene-targeting vector and TALE nickase expression vectors, approximately 4.8% (40/835) of the cell clones contained HSA at BLG locus. Unexpectedly, one homozygous gene-targeted cell clone (1/835, 0.1%) was obtained by targeting both alleles of BLG in a single round of transfection. The recombinant protein mimicking the endogenous BLG was highly expressed and correctly folded in the mammary glands of the targeted cows, and the expression level of HSA was significantly increased in the homozygous targeted cows. Results suggested that the combination of TALE nickase-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer is a feasible and safe approach in producing gene-targeted livestock. PMID:26853907

  9. Generation of TALE nickase-mediated gene-targeted cows expressing human serum albumin in mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Cui, Chenchen; Wu, Yongyan; Lan, Hui; Chen, Qi; Liu, Xu; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-02-08

    Targeting exogenous genes at milk protein loci via gene-targeting technology is an ideal strategy for producing large quantities of pharmaceutical proteins. Transcription-activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs) are an efficient genome-editing tool. However, the off-target effects may lead to unintended gene mutations. In this study, we constructed TALENs and TALE nickases directed against exon 2 of the bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) locus. The nickases can induce a site-specific DNA single-strand break, without inducing double-strand break and nonhomologous end joining mediated gene mutation, and lower cell apoptosis rate than TALENs. After co-transfecting the bovine fetal fibroblasts with human serum albumin (HSA) gene-targeting vector and TALE nickase expression vectors, approximately 4.8% (40/835) of the cell clones contained HSA at BLG locus. Unexpectedly, one homozygous gene-targeted cell clone (1/835, 0.1%) was obtained by targeting both alleles of BLG in a single round of transfection. The recombinant protein mimicking the endogenous BLG was highly expressed and correctly folded in the mammary glands of the targeted cows, and the expression level of HSA was significantly increased in the homozygous targeted cows. Results suggested that the combination of TALE nickase-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer is a feasible and safe approach in producing gene-targeted livestock.

  10. Mast cells and eosinophils in rat mammary gland tumours induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissová Viktória

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution and number of mast cells and eosinophils in rat mammary gland tumours induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea. The highest density of mast cells was found in cystic papillary adenocarcinomas of grade II. Eosinophils were detected only in the cystic papillary adenocarcinoma of grades I and II, in non-invasive cribriform adenocarcinoma and comedo-type carcinoma. Mast cell populations were observed perivascularly in the tumour stroma, in the host tumour interface, as well as in necrotic areas of neoplasms. Mast cells were observed to be intact according to their morphological changes, collectively referred to as degranulation. The obtained results indicate that mast cells and eosinophils play an important role in tumour micro-environment formation. The increased density of these cells in experimentally-induced rat mammary gland tumours suggests a poor prognosis in these cancers. Our results also confirmed that rat mammary gland tumours are good models for the study of breast cancers.

  11. Gene expression and epigenetic profiles of mammary gland tissue: insight into the differential predisposition of four rat strains to mammary gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzhna, Lidia; Kutanzi, Kristy; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2015-02-01

    Rats are excellent experimental models for studying breast cancer, but rat strains differ in susceptibility. Among the four strains used in this study, Fischer rats are less susceptible to spontaneous breast cancer, yet they are highly prone to extremely severe metastatic and drug-resistant tumors, in those case where they actually develop the disease. In contrast, Sprague Dawley rats are the most susceptible to spontaneous breast cancer among the strains. ACI rats are highly prone to estrogen-induced cancer. Long-Evans rats are commonly used in mammary gland carcinogenesis studies. The molecular mechanisms of differential breast cancer susceptibility among rat strains are not well understood. Here, gene expression analysis was conducted in the mammary gland tissue of four rat strains--August × Copenhagen Irish (ACI), Long Evans, Fischer-344 and Sprague Dawley--to evaluate possible explanations for the differing breast cancer predispositions. According to the DAVID functional annotation analysis, there were at least eleven, five, and one significantly different pathways, respectively, in Fischer-344, Long-Evans and Sprague Dawley rats, in comparison to ACI rats. Two strains, Fischer-344 and Long-Evans, displayed differential expression in the complement and coagulation cascades, chemokine signaling, PPAR signaling, renin-angiotensin system, ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion and glutathione metabolism pathways. The only pathway that was significantly different between the Sprague Dawley and the ACI rats was the ribosome pathway. Our data indicate that general cancer susceptibility and predisposition to the development of aggressive and metastatic cancer are independent genetic conditions. Moreover, we have identified several important differences in the basal epigenetic profile of four rat strains with varying degrees of susceptibility to spontaneous and induced mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:25813725

  12. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gross studies revealed that the camel's udder consists of four quarters. The udder and teat showed light brown to solid black tinge in colour. The tips of teats sloped to a point both in immature and mature animals, however, the conformation of teats turned rounded at the tips in lactating camels. Each teat possessed two teat canals. The dimensions of teat and streak canal varied markedly among four different groups. Number of Furestenberg's rosettes ranged from 11.6 to 13.6. Microscopic studies revealed that streak canal was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium that was partially extremely thin in some parts. Cutaneous layer of teat was devoid of hair follicles except at the base of teat. Follicles were associated with sebaceous glands. Sweat glands were less coiled and showed a wide acinous element forming the part of excretory duct. Glomus organs occurred in the stratum profundum of the corium as well as in the subcutis of the skin of mammary gland. They also revealed great variation in structure and size. Epithelial lining of the alveoli varied from flattened to columnar according to physiological state. Number and size of alveoli per lobule decreased and the parenchyma was replaced by loose connective tissue during non-lactating phase. These results suggested that age and lactation considerably influenced gross and microscopic anatomy of mammary gland in camels.

  13. Influence of prevastein (R), an isoflavone-rich soy product, on mammary gland development and Tumorigenesis in Tg.NK (MMTV/c-neu) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anni R.; Mortensen, Alicja; Breinholt, Vibeke;

    2005-01-01

    We investigated spontaneous mammary tumor development and mammary gland morphogenesis in female Tg.NK mice postnatally exposed to dietary soy isoflavones (0, 11, 39, and 130 mg aglycones/kg diet) added to a Western-style diet. Instead of preventing mammary tumorigenesis, the highest dose...... to controls (P mammary gland and mammary tumor development....... of isoflavones was associated with a small but significant increase in the number and size of tumors as compared to mice administered a Western-style control diet (P mammary tree...

  14. Pten regulates development and lactation in the mammary glands of dairy cows.

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    Zhuoran Wang

    Full Text Available Pten is a tumor suppressor gene regulating many cellular processes, including growth, adhesion, and apoptosis. In the aim of investigating the role of Pten during mammary gland development and lactation of dairy cows, we analyzed Pten expression levels in the mammary glands of dairy cows by using western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays. Dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs were used to study the function of Pten in vitro. We determined concentrations of β-casein, triglyceride, and lactose in the culture medium following Pten overexpression and siRNA inhibition. To determine whether Pten affected DCMEC viability and proliferation, cells were analyzed by CASY-TT and flow cytometry. Genes involved in lactation-related signaling pathways were detected. Pten expression was also assessed by adding prolactin and glucose to cell cultures. When Pten was overexpressed, proliferation of DCMECs and concentrations for β-casein, triglyceride, and lactose were significantly decreased. Overexpression of Pten down-regulated expression of MAPK, CYCLIN D1, AKT, MTOR, S6K1, STAT5, SREBP1, PPARγ, PRLR, and GLUT1, but up-regulated 4EBP1 in DCMECs. The Pten siRNA inhibition experiments revealed results that opposed those from the gene overexpression experiments. Introduction of prolactin (PRL increased secretion of β-casein, triglyceride, and lactose, but decreased Pten expression levels. Introduction of glucose also increased β-casein and triglyceride concentrations, but did not significantly alter Pten expression levels. The Pten mRNA and protein expression levels were decreased 0.3- and 0.4-fold in mammary glands of lactating cows producing high quality milk (milk protein >3.0%, milk fat >3.5%, compared with those cows producing low quality milk (milk protein <3.0%, milk fat <3.5%. In conclusion, Pten functions as an inhibitor during mammary gland development and lactation in dairy cows. It can down

  15. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission. PMID:26979730

  16. Differential Mammary Gland Development in FVB and C57Bl/6 Mice: Implications for Breast Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanne M. Anderson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research suggests a linkage between pubertal mammary gland development and environmental factors such as diet as modifiers of long term breast cancer risk. Much of this research is dependent upon mouse models, which may vary between studies. However, effects may be strain dependent and further modified by diet, which has not been previously examined. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine whether mammary gland development differs between FVB and C57Bl/6 strains on diets containing either n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fats. Developmental measures related to onset of puberty and mammary gland development differed between strains. Mice fed the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA diet were shown to have lower numbers of terminal end buds, a marker of mammary gland development. This study helps to further clarify differences in development and dietary response between FVB and C57Bl/6 mice in order to more appropriately relate mammary gland research to human populations.

  17. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  18. Automated segmentation of mammary gland regions in non-contrast torso CT images based on probabilistic atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Kan, M.; Hara, T.; Fujita, H.; Sugisaki, K.; Yokoyama, R.; Lee, G.; Hoshi, H.

    2007-03-01

    The identification of mammary gland regions is a necessary processing step during the anatomical structure recognition of human body and can be expected to provide the useful information for breast tumor diagnosis. This paper proposes a fully-automated scheme for segmenting the mammary gland regions in non-contrast torso CT images. This scheme calculates the probability for each voxel belonging to the mammary gland or other regions (for example pectoralis major muscles) in CT images and decides the mammary gland regions automatically. The probability is estimated from the location of the mammary gland and pectoralis major muscles in CT images. The location (named as a probabilistic atlas) is investigated from the pre-segmentation results in a number of different CT scans and the CT number distribution is approximated using a Gaussian function. We applied this scheme to 66 patient cases (female, age: 40-80) and evaluated the accuracy by using the coincidence rate between the segmented result and gold standard that is generated manually by a radiologist for each CT case. The mean value of the coincidence rate was 0.82 with the standard deviation of 0.09 for 66 CT cases.

  19. Functional Interactions between 17β-Estradiol and Progesterone Regulate Autophagy during Acini Formation by Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in 3D Cultures

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    Katarzyna Zielniok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary gland epithelium forms a network of ducts and alveolar units under control of ovarian hormones: 17-beta-estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4. Mammary epithelial cells (MECs cultured on reconstituted basement membrane (rBM form three-dimensional (3D acini composed of polarized monolayers surrounding a lumen. Using the 3D culture of BME-UV1 bovine MECs we previously demonstrated that autophagy was induced in the centrally located cells of developing spheroids, and sex steroids increased this process. In the present study we showed that E2 and P4 enhanced the expression of ATG3, ATG5, and BECN1 genes during acini formation, and this effect was accelerated in the presence of both hormones together. The stimulatory action of E2 and P4 was also reflected by increased levels of Atg5, Atg3, and LC3-II proteins. Additionally, the activity of kinases involved in autophagy regulation, Akt, ERK, AMPK, and mTOR, was examined. E2 + P4 slightly increased the level of phosphorylated AMPK but diminished phosphorylated Akt and mTOR on day 9 of 3D culture. Thus, the synergistic actions of E2 and P4 accelerate the development of bovine mammary acini, which may be connected with stimulation of ATGs expression, as well as regulation of signaling pathways (PI3K/Akt/mTOR; AMPK/mTOR involved in autophagy induction.

  20. ABC- and SLC-Transporters in Murine and Bovine Mammary Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Oskarsson, Agneta; Knight, Christopher H.;

    2016-01-01

    Some chemicals are ligands to efflux transporters which may result in high concentrations in milk. Limited knowledge is available on the influence of maternal exposure to chemicals on the expression and function of transporters in the lactating mammary gland. We determined gene expression of ABC ...... of nutrients and/or secretion of contaminants in milk with potential adverse effects on breastfed infants and dairy consumers....

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF MAMMARY GLAND TISSUE USING JOINT ESTIMATORS OF MINKOWSKI FUNCTIONALS

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    Torsten Mattfeldt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical approach to estimate the Minkowski functionals, i.e., area fraction, specifc boundary length and specifc Euler number in 2D, and their asymptotic covariance matrix proposed by Spodarev and Schmidt (2005 and Pantle et al. (2006a;b is applied to real image data. These two-dimensional images show mammary gland tissue and should be classifed automatically as tumor-free or mammary cancer, respectively. The estimation procedure is illustrated step-by-step and the calculations are described in detail. To reduce dependencies from chosen parameters, a least-squares approach is considered as recommended by Klenk et al. (2006. Emphasis is placed on the detailed description of the estimation procedure and the application of the theory to real image data.

  2. Extracellular matrix control of mammary gland morphogenesis and tumorigenesis: insights from imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghajar, Cyrus M; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-10-23

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), once thought to solely provide physical support to a tissue, is a key component of a cell's microenvironment responsible for directing cell fate and maintaining tissue specificity. It stands to reason, then, that changes in the ECM itself or in how signals from the ECM are presented to or interpreted by cells can disrupt tissue organization; the latter is a necessary step for malignant progression. In this review, we elaborate on this concept using the mammary gland as an example. We describe how the ECM directs mammary gland formation and function, and discuss how a cell's inability to interpret these signals - whether as a result of genetic insults or physicochemical alterations in the ECM - disorganizes the gland and promotes malignancy. By restoring context and forcing cells to properly interpret these native signals, aberrant behavior can be quelled and organization re-established. Traditional imaging approaches have been a key complement to the standard biochemical, molecular, and cell biology approaches used in these studies. Utilizing imaging modalities with enhanced spatial resolution in live tissues may uncover additional means by which the ECM regulates tissue structure, on different length scales, through its pericellular organization (short-scale) and by biasing morphogenic and morphostatic gradients (long-scale).

  3. A novel cell culture model for studying differentiation and apoptosis in the mouse mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the derivation and characterization of a novel, conditionally immortal mammary epithelial cell line named KIM-2. These cells were derived from mid-pregnant mammary glands of a mouse harbouring one to two copies of a transgene comprised of the ovine β-lactoglobulin milk protein gene promoter, driving expression of a temperature-sensitive variant of simian virus-40 (SV40) large T antigen (T-Ag). KIM-2 cells have a characteristic luminal epithelial cell morphology and a stable, nontransformed phenotype at the semipermissive temperature of 37°C. In contrast, at the permissive temperature of 33°C the cells have an elongated spindle-like morphology and become transformed after prolonged culture. Differentiation of KIM-2 cells at 37°C, in response to lactogenic hormones, results in the formation of polarized dome-like structures with tight junctions. This is accompanied by expression of the milk protein genes that encode β-casein and whey acidic protein (WAP), and activation of the prolactin signalling molecule, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5. Fully differentiated KIM-2 cultures at 37°C become dependent on lactogenic hormones for survival and undergo extensive apoptosis upon hormone withdrawal, as indicated by nuclear morphology and flow cytometric analysis. KIM-2 cells can be genetically modified by stable transfection and clonal lines isolated that retain the characteristics of untransfected cells. KIM-2 cells are a valuable addition, therefore, to currently available lines of mammary epithelial cells. Their capacity for extensive differentiation in the absence of exogenously added basement membrane, and ability to undergo apoptosis in response to physiological signals will provide an invaluable model system for the study of signal transduction pathways and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control differentiation and involution in the mammary gland

  4. Modulation of mammary gland development in prepubertal male rats exposed to genistein and methoxychlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Li; Sar, Madhabananda; Bartolucci, Erika J; McIntyre, Barry S; Sriperumbudur, Rajagopal

    2002-04-01

    The estrogenic isoflavone genistein is a common dietary component that has been shown to affect reproductive development in experimental animals at high doses. The objective of the present study was to examine interactions of genistein and the hormonally active pesticide methoxychlor on mammary gland development in juvenile rats. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a soy- and alfalfa-free diet containing different combinations of genistein (300 and 800 ppm) and methoxychlor (800 ppm). Rats were fed these diets starting on gestation day (GD)1 and continuing through pregnancy and lactation until postnatal day (PND) 22, when the pups were killed. Inguinal mammary glands from both female and male pups were processed as whole-mount preparations for morphometric analysis. The total glandular area and the numbers of branch points, lateral buds, and terminal end buds in the male rats were found to be significantly greater in the groups exposed to methoxychlor than those exposed to genistein only. These effects were not observed in the female rats. In the male rats, methoxychlor had the most prominent effect on elongating the glandular ducts, while genistein enhanced the ductile branching. The 2 compounds in combination promoted the development of alveolar-lobular structure, an effect not observed with either compound alone. Immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen revealed a high percentage of immunopositive cells in the mammary epithelia of the males exposed to methoxychlor and genistein (800 ppm) compared to the controls. While no significant changes in serum levels of mammotrophic hormones were detected, increased immunostaining for insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, and progesterone receptor in the genistein + methoxychlor group suggested that local factors involved in regulating mammary growth may have played a role in propagating the endocrine effects of these two compounds. These results indicated that the mammary

  5. Sebaceous gland carcinoma and mammary gland carcinoma in an African hedgehog (Ateletrix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Alonso Reyes; Bernal, Adriana Mendez; Lezama, José Ramírez; Guadalupe, Manzano Pech Linaloe; Antonio, Galicia Avalos Marco

    2014-09-01

    A sebaceous carcinoma was diagnosed, together with a mammary carcinoma, in an adult African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The first neoplasm was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck and extended towards the axillary area of the chest. The second was located in the subcutaneous left caudal abdominal region. The purpose of this paper is to report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of these neoplasms. Although there is little information about diseases affecting this species, it is known that neoplastic disorders are fairly common in African hedgehogs. The mammary carcinoma is considered to be the most common neoplasm in these animals; however, the presentation of sebaceous carcinoma is rare. In hedgehogs, the simultaneous presence of two neoplasms is common, which is why special attention should be paid to the presentation of other tumors during the early detection of a neoplastic process as this will greatly facilitate the optimal treatment and improve the long-term prognosis of affected animals. PMID:25314843

  6. Overexpression of miR-30b in the developing mouse mammary gland causes a lactation defect and delays involution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Le Guillou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA are negative regulators of gene expression, capable of exerting pronounced influences upon the translation and stability of mRNA. They are potential regulators of normal mammary gland development and of the maintenance of mammary epithelial progenitor cells. This study was undertaken to determine the role of miR-30b on the establishment of a functional mouse mammary gland. miR-30b is a member of the miR-30 family, composed of 6 miRNA that are highly conserved in vertebrates. It has been suggested to play a role in the differentiation of several cell types. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of miR-30b was found to be regulated during mammary gland development. Transgenic mice overexpressing miR-30b in mammary epithelial cells were used to investigate its role. During lactation, mammary histological analysis of the transgenic mice showed a reduction in the size of alveolar lumen, a defect of the lipid droplets and a growth defect of pups fed by transgenic females. Moreover some mammary epithelial differentiated structures persisted during involution, suggesting a delay in the process. The genes whose expression was affected by the overexpression of miR-30b were characterized by microarray analysis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggests that miR-30b is important for the biology of the mammary gland and demonstrates that the deregulation of only one miRNA could affect lactation and involution.

  7. B-mode and Doppler sonography of the mammary glands in dairy goats for mastitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V J C; Simplício, K; Sanchez, D; Coutinho, L; Teixeira, P; Barros, F; Almeida, V; Rodrigues, L; Bartlewski, P; Oliveira, M; Feliciano, M; Vicente, W

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B-mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey-scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats.

  8. B-mode and Doppler sonography of the mammary glands in dairy goats for mastitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V J C; Simplício, K; Sanchez, D; Coutinho, L; Teixeira, P; Barros, F; Almeida, V; Rodrigues, L; Bartlewski, P; Oliveira, M; Feliciano, M; Vicente, W

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B-mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey-scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats. PMID:25601226

  9. Construction of Antibacterial Peptide CecropinB Eukaryotic Recombinant Vector and Its Expression in Dairy Goat Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xuejun; TONG Huili; YIN Deyun; ZHANG Li

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the expression of antibacterial peptide CecropinB eDNA in dairy goat mammary gland epithelial cells, the CecropinB gene was eloned and was inserted into a eukaryotic vector pECFP-Cl to construct the recombinant plasmid pECFP-B by genetic engineering technique. Recombinant plasmid pECFP-B was transfected into dairy goat mammary gland epithelial to detect the bactericidal activity of CeeropinB. The expression of CecropinB was also detected. The result of RT-PCR demonstrated CecropinB gene was expressed in transfeeted cells. CecropinB recombinant plasmid DNA was injected into udders and CecropinB was expressed in mammary gland, exhibiting bactericidal activity to Staphylococcus aureus in vivo experiments.

  10. A Novel Nectin-mediated Cell Adhesion Apparatus That Is Implicated in Prolactin Receptor Signaling for Mammary Gland Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Midori; Mizutani, Kiyohito; Maruoka, Masahiro; Mandai, Kenji; Sakakibara, Shotaro; Ueda, Yuki; Komori, Takahide; Shimono, Yohei; Takai, Yoshimi

    2016-03-11

    Mammary gland development is induced by the actions of various hormones to form a structure consisting of collecting ducts and milk-secreting alveoli, which comprise two types of epithelial cells known as luminal and basal cells. These cells adhere to each other by cell adhesion apparatuses whose roles in hormone-dependent mammary gland development remain largely unknown. Here we identified a novel cell adhesion apparatus at the boundary between the luminal and basal cells in addition to desmosomes. This apparatus was formed by the trans-interaction between the cell adhesion molecules nectin-4 and nectin-1, which were expressed in the luminal and basal cells, respectively. Nectin-4 of this apparatus further cis-interacted with the prolactin receptor in the luminal cells to enhance the prolactin-induced prolactin receptor signaling for alveolar development with lactogenic differentiation. Thus, a novel nectin-mediated cell adhesion apparatus regulates the prolactin receptor signaling for mammary gland development. PMID:26757815

  11. A Novel Nectin-mediated Cell Adhesion Apparatus That Is Implicated in Prolactin Receptor Signaling for Mammary Gland Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Midori; Mizutani, Kiyohito; Maruoka, Masahiro; Mandai, Kenji; Sakakibara, Shotaro; Ueda, Yuki; Komori, Takahide; Shimono, Yohei; Takai, Yoshimi

    2016-03-11

    Mammary gland development is induced by the actions of various hormones to form a structure consisting of collecting ducts and milk-secreting alveoli, which comprise two types of epithelial cells known as luminal and basal cells. These cells adhere to each other by cell adhesion apparatuses whose roles in hormone-dependent mammary gland development remain largely unknown. Here we identified a novel cell adhesion apparatus at the boundary between the luminal and basal cells in addition to desmosomes. This apparatus was formed by the trans-interaction between the cell adhesion molecules nectin-4 and nectin-1, which were expressed in the luminal and basal cells, respectively. Nectin-4 of this apparatus further cis-interacted with the prolactin receptor in the luminal cells to enhance the prolactin-induced prolactin receptor signaling for alveolar development with lactogenic differentiation. Thus, a novel nectin-mediated cell adhesion apparatus regulates the prolactin receptor signaling for mammary gland development.

  12. Exposure to ionizing radiation induced persistent gene expression changes in mouse mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast tissue is among the most sensitive tissues to the carcinogenic actions of ionizing radiation and epidemiological studies have linked radiation exposure to breast cancer. Currently, molecular understanding of radiation carcinogenesis in mammary gland is hindered due to the scarcity of in vivo long-term follow up data. We undertook this study to delineate radiation-induced persistent alterations in gene expression in mouse mammary glands 2-month after radiation exposure. Six to eight week old female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy of whole body γ radiation and mammary glands were surgically removed 2-month after radiation. RNA was isolated and microarray hybridization performed for gene expression analysis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used for biological interpretation of microarray data. Real time quantitative PCR was performed on selected genes to confirm the microarray data. Compared to untreated controls, the mRNA levels of a total of 737 genes were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed above 2-fold of control. More genes (493 genes; 67%) were upregulated than the number of downregulated genes (244 genes; 33%). Functional analysis of the upregulated genes mapped to cell proliferation and cancer related canonical pathways such as ‘ERK/MAPK signaling’, ‘CDK5 signaling’, and ‘14-3-3-mediated signaling’. We also observed upregulation of breast cancer related canonical pathways such as ‘breast cancer regulation by Stathmin1’, and ‘HER-2 signaling in breast cancer’ in IPA. Interestingly, the downregulated genes mapped to fewer canonical pathways involved in cell proliferation. We also observed that a number of genes with tumor suppressor function (GPRC5A, ELF1, NAB2, Sema4D, ACPP, MAP2, RUNX1) persistently remained downregulated in response to radiation exposure. Results from qRT-PCR on five selected differentially expressed genes confirmed microarray data. The PCR data on PPP4c, ELF1, MAPK12, PLCG1, and E2F6 showed similar trend in

  13. Low-dose BPA exposure alters the mesenchymal and epithelial transcriptomes of the mouse fetal mammary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perinaaz R Wadia

    Full Text Available Exposure of rodent fetuses to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA causes subtle morphological changes in the prenatal mammary gland and results in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions during adulthood. To examine whether the BPA-induced morphological alterations of the fetal mouse mammary glands are a associated with changes in mRNA expression reflecting estrogenic actions and/or b dependent on the estrogen receptor α (ERα, we compared the transcriptomal effects of BPA and the steroidal estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2 on fetal mammary tissues of wild type and ERα knock-out mice. Mammary glands from fetuses of dams exposed to vehicle, 250 ng BPA/kg BW/d or 10 ng EE2/kg BW/d from embryonic day (E 8 were harvested at E19. Transcriptomal analyses on the ductal epithelium and periductal stroma revealed altered expression of genes involved in the focal adhesion and adipogenesis pathways in the BPA-exposed stroma while genes regulating the apoptosis pathway changed their expression in the BPA-exposed epithelium. These changes in gene expression correlated with previously reported histological changes in matrix organization, adipogenesis, and lumen formation resulting in enhanced maturation of the fat-pad and delayed lumen formation in the epithelium of BPA-exposed fetal mammary glands. Overall similarities in the transcriptomal effects of BPA and EE2 were more pronounced in the epithelium, than in the stroma. In addition, the effects of BPA and EE2 on the expression of various genes involved in mammary stromal-epithelial interactions were suppressed in the absence of ERα. These observations support a model whereby BPA and EE2 act directly on the stroma, which expresses ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in fetal mammary glands, and that the stroma, in turn, affects gene expression in the epithelium, where ERα and ERβ are below the level of detection at this stage of development.

  14. Low-Dose BPA Exposure Alters the Mesenchymal and Epithelial Transcriptomes of the Mouse Fetal Mammary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Perinaaz R.; Cabaton, Nicolas J.; Borrero, Michael D.; Rubin, Beverly S.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Shioda, Toshi; Soto, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of rodent fetuses to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) causes subtle morphological changes in the prenatal mammary gland and results in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions during adulthood. To examine whether the BPA-induced morphological alterations of the fetal mouse mammary glands are a) associated with changes in mRNA expression reflecting estrogenic actions and/or b) dependent on the estrogen receptor α (ERα), we compared the transcriptomal effects of BPA and the steroidal estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) on fetal mammary tissues of wild type and ERα knock-out mice. Mammary glands from fetuses of dams exposed to vehicle, 250 ng BPA/kg BW/d or 10 ng EE2/kg BW/d from embryonic day (E) 8 were harvested at E19. Transcriptomal analyses on the ductal epithelium and periductal stroma revealed altered expression of genes involved in the focal adhesion and adipogenesis pathways in the BPA-exposed stroma while genes regulating the apoptosis pathway changed their expression in the BPA-exposed epithelium. These changes in gene expression correlated with previously reported histological changes in matrix organization, adipogenesis, and lumen formation resulting in enhanced maturation of the fat-pad and delayed lumen formation in the epithelium of BPA-exposed fetal mammary glands. Overall similarities in the transcriptomal effects of BPA and EE2 were more pronounced in the epithelium, than in the stroma. In addition, the effects of BPA and EE2 on the expression of various genes involved in mammary stromal-epithelial interactions were suppressed in the absence of ERα. These observations support a model whereby BPA and EE2 act directly on the stroma, which expresses ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in fetal mammary glands, and that the stroma, in turn, affects gene expression in the epithelium, where ERα and ERβ are below the level of detection at this stage of development. PMID:23704952

  15. Akt1 is essential for postnatal mammary gland development, function, and the expression of Btn1a1.

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    Jessica LaRocca

    Full Text Available Akt1, a serine-threonine protein kinase member of the PKB/Akt gene family, plays critical roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, and has previously been implicated in lactation and breast cancer development. In this study, we utilized Akt1+/+ and Akt1-/- C57/Bl6 female mice to assess the role that Akt1 plays in normal mammary gland postnatal development and function. We examined postnatal morphology at multiple time points, and analyzed gene and protein expression changes that persist into adulthood. Akt1 deficiency resulted in several mammary gland developmental defects, including ductal outgrowth and defective terminal end bud formation. Adult Akt1-/- mammary gland composition remained altered, exhibiting fewer alveolar buds coupled with increased epithelial cell apoptosis. Microarray analysis revealed that Akt1 deficiency altered expression of genes involved in numerous biological processes in the mammary gland, including organismal development, cell death, and tissue morphology. Of particular importance, a significant decrease in expression of Btn1a1, a gene involved in milk lipid secretion, was observed in Akt1-/- mammary glands. Additionally, pseudopregnant Akt1-/- females failed to induce Btn1a1 expression in response to hormonal stimulation compared to their wild-type counterparts. Retroviral-mediated shRNA knockdown of Akt1 and Btn1a1 in MCF-7 human breast epithelial further illustrated the importance of Akt1 in mammary epithelial cell proliferation, as well as in the regulation of Btn1a1 and subsequent expression of ß-casein, a gene that encodes for milk protein. Overall these findings provide mechanistic insight into the role of Akt1 in mammary morphogenesis and function.

  16. Pleiotropic effects of polymorphism of the gene diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 (DGAT1) in the mammary gland tissue of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Blum, Y.; Bannink, A.; Causeur, D.; Houee-Bigot, M.; Lagarrigue, S.; Smits, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Microarray analysis was used to identify genes whose expression in the mammary gland of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows was affected by the nonconservative Ala to Lys amino acid substitution at position 232 in exon VIII of the diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 (DGAT1) gene. Mammary gland biopsies of 9 hom

  17. Human breast cancer cells are redirected to mammary epithelial cells upon interaction with the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment in-vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Bussard

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. At present, the etiology of breast cancer is unknown; however the possibility of a distinct cell of origin, i.e. a cancer stem cell, is a heavily investigated area of research. Influencing signals from the tissue niche are known to affect stem cells. Literature has shown that cancer cells lose their tumorigenic potential and display 'normal' behavior when placed into 'normal' ontogenic environments. Therefore, it may be the case that the tissue microenvironment is able to generate signals to redirect cancer cell fate. Previously, we showed that pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells could be redirected by the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment to contribute epithelial progeny for 'normal' gland development in-vivo. Here, we show that that human metastatic, non-metastatic, and metastasis-suppressed breast cancer cells proliferate and contribute to normal mammary gland development in-vivo without tumor formation. Immunochemistry for human-specific mitochondria, keratin 8 and 14, as well as human-specific milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, impregnated transplant hosts confirmed the presence of human cell progeny. Features consistent with normal mammary gland development as seen in intact hosts (duct, lumen formation, development of secretory acini were recapitulated in both primary and secondary outgrowths from chimeric implants. These results suggest the dominance of the tissue microenvironment over cancer cell fate. This work demonstrates that cultured human breast cancer cells (metastatic and non-metastatic respond developmentally to signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in-vivo.

  18. Comparative transcriptome profiling of dairy goat microRNAs from dry period and peak lactation mammary gland tissues.

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    Zhuanjian Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that serve as important post-transcriptional gene expression regulators by targeting messenger RNAs for post-transcriptional endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play important roles in many biological processes. Extensive high-throughput sequencing studies of miRNAs have been performed in several animal models. However, little is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in goat (Capra hircus, which is one of the most important agricultural animals and the oldest domesticated species raised worldwide. Goats have long been used for their milk, meat, hair (including cashmere, and skins throughout much of the world. RESULTS: In this study, two small RNA libraries were constructed based on dry period and peak lactation dairy goat mammary gland tissues and sequenced using the Illumina-Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 346 conserved and 95 novel miRNAs were identified in the dairy goat. miRNAs expression was confirmed by qRT-PCR in nine tissues and in the mammary gland during different stages of lactation. In addition, several candidate miRNAs that may be involved in mammary gland development and lactation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages of the mammary gland. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the first miRNAs profile related to the biology of the mammary gland in the dairy goat. The characterization of these miRNAs could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lactation physiology and mammary gland development in the dairy goat.

  19. Construction of a recombinant human insulin expression vector for mammary gland-specific expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) mammary epithelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ramakant; Singh, Karn Pratap; Kumari, Archana; Rameshbabu, K; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Shyam; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was construction of mammary gland specific expression vector for high level of human insulin (hINS) expression in transgenic buffalo for therapeutic use. We have constructed mammary gland specific vector containing human insulin gene and there expression efficiency was checked into in vitro cultured buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BuMECs). Human pro-insulin coding region was isolated from human genomic DNA by intron skipping PCR primer and furin cleavage site was inserted between B-C and C-A chain of human insulin by overlap extension PCR. A mammary gland-specific buffalo beta-lactoglobulin promoter was isolated from buffalo DNA and used for human insulin expression in BuMEC cells. The construct was transfected into BuMECs by lipofection method and positive transgene cell clones were obtained by G418 selection after 3 weeks. Expression of hINS in transfected cells were confirmed by RT-PCR, Immunocytochemistry, Western Blotting and ELISA. The pAcISUBC insulin-expressing clones secreted insulin at varying levels between 0.18 - 1.43 ng/ml/24 h/2.0 × 10(6) cells. PMID:24969480

  20. Insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in mammary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-mediated proliferation and survival are essential for normal development in the mammary gland during puberty and pregnancy. IGFs interact with IGF-binding proteins and regulate their function. The present review focuses on the role of IGFs and IGF-binding proteins in the mammary gland and describes how modulation of their actions occurs by association with hormones, other growth factors and the extracellular matrix. The review will also highlight the involvement of the IGF axis in breast cancer

  1. Development of Foreign Mammary Epithelial Morphology in the Stroma of Immunodeficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gat Rauner; Amos Leviav; Eliezer Mavor; Itamar Barash

    2013-01-01

    Systemic growth and branching stimuli, and appropriate interactions with the host stroma are essential for the development of foreign epithelia in the mammary gland of immunodeficient mice. These factors were manipulated to promote and investigate the generation of representative bovine epithelial morphology in the transplanted mouse mammary stroma. The bovine mammary epithelium is unique in its commitment to rapid proliferation and high rate of differentiation. Its morphological organization...

  2. Preparation of High-quality Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained Sections from Rodent Mammary Gland Whole Mounts for Histopathologic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Deirdre K; Foley, Julie F; Hayes-Bouknight, Schantel A; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2016-10-01

    Identifying environmental exposures that cause adverse mammary gland outcomes in rodents is a first step in disease prevention in humans and domestic pets. "Whole mounts" are an easy and inexpensive tissue preparation method that can elucidate typical or abnormal mammary gland morphology in rodent studies. Here, we propose procedures to facilitate the use of whole mounts for histological identification of grossly noted tissue alterations. We noted lesions in mammary whole mounts from 14-month-old CD-1 mice that were not found in the contralateral gland hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained section. Whole mounts were removed from the slide and carefully processed to produce high-quality histological sections that mirrored the quality of the original H&E-stained section in order to properly diagnose the unidentified gross abnormalities. Incorporation of this method into testing protocols that focus on human relevant chemical and endocrine disruptors exposure will increase the chances of identifying lesions in the gland and reduce the risk of false negative findings. This method can be especially invaluable when lesions are not always palpable during the course of the study or visible at necropsy, or when a single cross section of the mammary gland is otherwise used for detecting lesions.

  3. Preparation of High-quality Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained Sections from Rodent Mammary Gland Whole Mounts for Histopathologic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Deirdre K; Foley, Julie F; Hayes-Bouknight, Schantel A; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2016-10-01

    Identifying environmental exposures that cause adverse mammary gland outcomes in rodents is a first step in disease prevention in humans and domestic pets. "Whole mounts" are an easy and inexpensive tissue preparation method that can elucidate typical or abnormal mammary gland morphology in rodent studies. Here, we propose procedures to facilitate the use of whole mounts for histological identification of grossly noted tissue alterations. We noted lesions in mammary whole mounts from 14-month-old CD-1 mice that were not found in the contralateral gland hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained section. Whole mounts were removed from the slide and carefully processed to produce high-quality histological sections that mirrored the quality of the original H&E-stained section in order to properly diagnose the unidentified gross abnormalities. Incorporation of this method into testing protocols that focus on human relevant chemical and endocrine disruptors exposure will increase the chances of identifying lesions in the gland and reduce the risk of false negative findings. This method can be especially invaluable when lesions are not always palpable during the course of the study or visible at necropsy, or when a single cross section of the mammary gland is otherwise used for detecting lesions. PMID:27474221

  4. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamartiniere Coral A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2–20 to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days. Results Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days, becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals. Conclusion These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland.

  5. Regulatory role for amino acids in mammary gland growth and milk synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Woo; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    The health and growth of mammalian neonates critically depend on the yield and composition of their mothers' milk. However, impaired lactogenesis occurs in both women in response to stress and hormonal imbalance and in primiparous sows which exhibit low voluntary feed intake and underdevelopment of mammary tissues. Because of ethical concerns over lactation research with women and children, swine is often used as an animal model to study mammary gland development and the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Available evidence from work with lactating sows shows that amino acids are not only building blocks for protein but are also key regulators of metabolic pathways critical to milk production. Particularly, arginine is the common substrate for the generation of nitric oxide (NO; a major vasodilator and angiogenic factor) and polyamines (key regulators of protein synthesis). Thus, modulation of the arginine-NO pathway may provide a new strategy to enhance the growth (including vascular growth) of mammary tissue and its uptake of nutrients, therefore improving lactation performance in mammals. In support of this proposition, supplementing 0.83% L: -arginine (as 1% L: -arginine-HCl) or 50 mg/day diethylenetriamine-NO adduct (NO donor) to diets of lactating primiparous sows increased milk production and the growth of suckling piglets. Future studies with animal models (e.g., pigs, sheep, cows, and rats) are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms at molecular, cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels. PMID:18683019

  6. Methionine protects against hyperthermia-induced cell injury in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhao-Yu; Mu, Tian; Yang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methionine on cell proliferation, antioxidant activity, apoptosis, the expression levels of related genes (HSF-1, HSP70, Bax and Bcl-2) and the expression levels of protein (HSP70) in mammary epithelial cells, after heat treatment. Methionine (60 mg/L) increased the viability and attenuated morphological damage in hyperthermia-treated bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Additionally, methionine significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase leakage, malondialdehyde formation, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase activity. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymatic activity was increased significantly in the presence of methionine. Bovine mammary epithelial cells also exhibited a certain amount of HSP70 reserve after methionine pretreatment for 24 h, and the expression level of the HSP70 gene and protein further increased with incubation at 42 °C for 30 min. Compared to the control, the expression of HSF-1 mRNA increased, and there was a significantly reduced expression of Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA and a reduced activity of caspase-3 against heat stress. Methionine also increased survival and decreased early apoptosis of hyperthermia-treated BMECs. Thus, methionine has cytoprotective effects on hyperthermia-induced damage in BMECs.

  7. Comprehensive RNA-Seq profiling to evaluate lactating sheep mammary gland transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Vega, Aroa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Klopp, Christophe; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Arranz, Juan-José

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq enables the generation of extensive transcriptome information providing the capability to characterize transcripts (including alternative isoforms and polymorphism), to quantify expression and to identify differential regulation in a single experiment. Our aim in this study was to take advantage of using RNA-Seq high-throughput technology to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profiling of the sheep lactating mammary gland. Eight ewes of two dairy sheep breeds with differences in milk production traits were used in this experiment (four Churra and four Assaf ewes). Milk samples from these animals were collected on days 10, 50, 120 and 150 after lambing to cover the various physiological stages of the mammary gland across the complete lactation. RNA samples were extracted from milk somatic cells. The RNA-Seq dataset was generated using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. The information reported here will be useful to understand the biology of lactation in sheep, providing also an opportunity to characterize their different patterns on milk production aptitude. PMID:27377755

  8. Unraveling the microenvironmental influences on the normal mammary gland and induction and progression of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Britta; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-06-26

    The normal mammary gland and invasive breast cancer are both complex 'organs' composed of multiple cell types as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) in three-dimensional (3D) space. Conventionally, both normal and malignant breast cells are studied in vitro as two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of epithelial cells, which results in the loss of structure and tissue function. Many laboratories are now investigating regulation of signaling function in normal mammary gland using 3D cultures. However, it is important also to assay malignant breast cells ex vivo in a physiologically relevant environment to more closely mimic tumor architecture, signal transduction regulation and tumor behavior in vivo. Here we present the potential of these 3D models for drug testing, target validation and guidance of patient selection for clinical trials. We argue also that in order to get full insight into the biology of the normal and malignant breast, and to create in vivo-like models for therapeutic approaches in humans, we need to continue to create more complex heterotypic models to approach the full context the cells encounter in the human body.

  9. Comparison of virulence of ovine respiratory mycoplasmas in the mouse mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, B M; Herceg, M; Davies, D H

    1984-08-01

    The virulence of isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and M. arginini from pneumonic and unaffected ovine lungs was compared in a mouse mammary gland model. The isolates varied in their ability to induce a neutrophilic response in the mammary gland. A moderate to severe form of mastitis was induced by 3 M. ovipneumoniae isolates recovered from pneumonic lungs, while the remaining M. ovipneumoniae isolates from pneumonic lungs and those from unaffected lungs induced a very mild histopathological response. The severity of the mastitis could not be increased by the simultaneous inoculation of a mixture of 5 mycoplasma isolates. Mycoplasma arginini isolates induced only a very mild histopathological response despite having been isolated from pneumonic lungs. The finding that the 3 most virulent M. ovipneumoniae isolates were initially recovered from pneumonic ovine lungs suggested that these virulent isolates may contribute to ovine pneumonia. However, the isolation of M. ovipneumoniae from pneumonic ovine lungs does not necessarily imply that these organisms are the causal agents, since M. ovipneumoniae isolates may vary in virulence.

  10. Comprehensive RNA-Seq profiling to evaluate lactating sheep mammary gland transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Vega, Aroa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Klopp, Christophe; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Arranz, Juan-José

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq enables the generation of extensive transcriptome information providing the capability to characterize transcripts (including alternative isoforms and polymorphism), to quantify expression and to identify differential regulation in a single experiment. Our aim in this study was to take advantage of using RNA-Seq high-throughput technology to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profiling of the sheep lactating mammary gland. Eight ewes of two dairy sheep breeds with differences in milk production traits were used in this experiment (four Churra and four Assaf ewes). Milk samples from these animals were collected on days 10, 50, 120 and 150 after lambing to cover the various physiological stages of the mammary gland across the complete lactation. RNA samples were extracted from milk somatic cells. The RNA-Seq dataset was generated using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. The information reported here will be useful to understand the biology of lactation in sheep, providing also an opportunity to characterize their different patterns on milk production aptitude. PMID:27377755

  11. Morphometric and pathological studies on mammary gland of slaughtered nili-ravi buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study morphometric, quantitative and histopathological effects associated with mastitis were recorded in mammary glands of naturally infected buffaloes. The milk samples of 200 buffaloes were subjected to California Mastitis Test to detect mastitis at Faisalabad abattoir. Mastitis was significantly higher in buffaloes having cylindrical and round teats, bowl and round udder shape (P<0.0004). Teat diameter was significantly higher while teat and streak canal length was significantly lower in mastitic buffaloes. The total milk leukocytes and neutrophil (P<0.0001) was significantly higher, while lymphocytes and macrophages population was significantly (P<0.0001) lower in mastitic buffaloes. Alveolar diameter (short and long), number of alveoli and alveolar cell population were significantly (P<0.0001) decreased in mastitic buffaloes. Tissue sections from infected animals indicated marked leukocyte infiltration, atrophy of alveoli, cellular exudates, connective tissues proliferation and abscesses formation. Histochemically, tissue sections from infected udder showed low alkaline phosphatase activity and density of protein staining. The results revealed that some udder traits play significant role to prevent mastitis and mammary function is severely decreased due to altered cellular activity in infected glands. (author)

  12. Comprehensive RNA-Seq profiling to evaluate lactating sheep mammary gland transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Vega, Aroa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Klopp, Christophe; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Arranz, Juan-José

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq enables the generation of extensive transcriptome information providing the capability to characterize transcripts (including alternative isoforms and polymorphism), to quantify expression and to identify differential regulation in a single experiment. Our aim in this study was to take advantage of using RNA-Seq high-throughput technology to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profiling of the sheep lactating mammary gland. Eight ewes of two dairy sheep breeds with differences in milk production traits were used in this experiment (four Churra and four Assaf ewes). Milk samples from these animals were collected on days 10, 50, 120 and 150 after lambing to cover the various physiological stages of the mammary gland across the complete lactation. RNA samples were extracted from milk somatic cells. The RNA-Seq dataset was generated using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. The information reported here will be useful to understand the biology of lactation in sheep, providing also an opportunity to characterize their different patterns on milk production aptitude.

  13. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Arévalo, Mónica L; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 Candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), Acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm.

  14. Differential expression of serotonin, tryptophan hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase A in the mammary gland of the Myotis velifer bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Vela Hinojosa

    Full Text Available The mammary gland has long drawn the attention of the scientific community due to the limited knowledge of some fundamental aspects involved in the control of its function. Myotis velifer, a microchiropteran species, provides an interesting model to study some of the regulatory factors involved in the control of the mammary gland cycle. Having an asynchronous, monoestrous reproductive pattern, female M. velifer bats undergo drastic morphological changes of the breast during the reproductive cycle. Current research on non-chiropteran mammals indicates that serotonin (5-HT plays a major role in the intraluminal volume homeostasis of the mammary gland during lactation; however, an analysis of both the expression and localization of the main components of the serotonergic system in the bat mammary gland is lacking. Thus, the objectives of the present study were: to describe the gross and histological anatomy of the mammary gland of M. velifer to establish the lactation period for this species; to analyze the distribution and expression of the main serotonergic components in the mammary tissues of these bats under the physiological conditions of lactation, involution and the resting phase; and to provide information on the involvement of 5-HT in the regulation of the physiological function of this organ. To assess the expression and localization of serotonergic components, multiple immunofluorescence, Western blot and HPLC methods were used. 5-HT and the enzyme that catalyzes its synthesis (TPH were located in both myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cells, while the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of this neurohormone (MAO A was found in luminal epithelial cells as well as in secreted products. We also found an increased expression of serotonergic components during lactation, indicating that elements of the serotonergic system may play an important role in lactation in this species of bat in a way similar to that of other mammal species.

  15. Expression of Autoactivated Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Glands of Transgenic Mice Leads to a Reactive Stroma During Early Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomasset, N.; Lochter, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Lund, L.R.; Williams, D.R.; Behrendtsen, O.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-04-24

    Extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-degrading matrix metalloproteinases play a key role in interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme during mammary gland development and disease. In patients with breast cancer, the mammary mesenchyme undergoes a stromal reaction, the etiology of which is unknown. We previously showed that targeting of an autoactivating mutant of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 to mammary epithelia of transgenic mice resulted in reduced mammary function during pregnancy and development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Here we examine the cascade of alterations before breast tumor formation in the mammary gland stroma once the expression of the stromelysin-1 transgene commences. Beginning in postpubertal virgin animals, low levels of transgene expression in mammary epithelia led to increased expression of endogenous stromelysin-1 in stromal fibroblasts and up-regulation of other matrix metalloproteinases, without basement membrane disruption. These changes were accompanied by the progressive development of a compensatory reactive stroma, characterized by increased collagen content and vascularization in glands from virgin mice. This remodeling of the gland affected epithelial-mesenchymal communication as indicated by inappropriate expression of tenascin-C starting by day 6 of pregnancy. This, together with increased transgene expression, led to basement membrane disruption starting by day 15 of pregnancy. We propose that the highly reactive stroma provides a prelude to breast epithelial tumors observed in these animals. Epithelial development depends on an exquisite series of inductive and instructive interactions between the differentiating epithelium and the mesenchymal (stromal) compartment. The epithelium, which consists of luminal and myoepithelial cells, is separated from the stroma by a basement membrane (BM), which plays a central role in mammary gland homeostasis and gene expression. In vivo, stromal

  16. Old and new stories: revelations from functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during the lactation cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bionaz

    Full Text Available The cow mammary transcriptome was explored at -30, -15, 1, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 300 d relative to parturition. A total of 6,382 differentially expressed genes (DEG at a false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 were found throughout lactation. The greatest number of DEG (>3,500 DEG was observed at 60 and 120 d vs. -30 d with the largest change between consecutive time points observed at -15 vs. 1 d and 120 vs. 240 d. Functional analysis of microarray data was performed using the Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA. The DIA analysis of KEGG pathways uncovered as the most impacted and induced 'Galactose metabolism', 'Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchor biosynthesis', and 'PPAR signaling'; whereas, 'Antigen processing and presentation' was among the most inhibited. The integrated interpretation of the results suggested an overall increase in metabolism during lactation, particularly synthesis of carbohydrates and lipid. A marked degree of utilization of amino acids as energy source, an increase of protein export, and a decrease of the protein synthesis machinery as well cell cycle also were suggested by the DIA analysis. The DIA analysis of Gene Ontology and other databases uncovered an induction of Golgi apparatus and angiogenesis, and the inhibition of both immune cell activity/migration and chromosome modifications during lactation. All of the highly-impacted and activated functions during lactation were evidently activated at the onset of lactation and inhibited when milk production declined. The overall analysis indicated that the bovine mammary gland relies heavily on a coordinated transcriptional regulation to begin and end lactation. The functional analysis using DIA underscored the importance of genes associated with lactose synthesis, lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, Golgi, transport, cell cycle/death, epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and immune function during lactation.

  17. c-Myc affects mRNA translation, cell proliferation and progenitor cell function in the mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trumpp Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oncoprotein c-Myc has been intensely studied in breast cancer and mouse mammary tumor models, but relatively little is known about the normal physiological role of c-Myc in the mammary gland. Here we investigated functions of c-Myc during mouse mammary gland development using a conditional knockout approach. Results Generation of c-mycfl/fl mice carrying the mammary gland-specific WAPiCre transgene resulted in c-Myc loss in alveolar epithelial cells starting in mid-pregnancy. Three major phenotypes were observed in glands of mutant mice. First, c-Myc-deficient alveolar cells had a slower proliferative response at the start of pregnancy, causing a delay but not a block of alveolar development. Second, while milk composition was comparable between wild type and mutant animals, milk production was reduced in mutant glands, leading to slower pup weight-gain. Electron microscopy and polysome fractionation revealed a general decrease in translational efficiency. Furthermore, analysis of mRNA distribution along the polysome gradient demonstrated that this effect was specific for mRNAs whose protein products are involved in milk synthesis. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed decreased levels of ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal protein-encoding mRNAs in mutant glands. Third, using the mammary transplantation technique to functionally identify alveolar progenitor cells, we observed that the mutant epithelium has a reduced ability to repopulate the gland when transplanted into NOD/SCID recipients. Conclusion We have demonstrated that c-Myc plays multiple roles in the mouse mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. c-Myc loss delayed, but did not block proliferation and differentiation in pregnancy. During lactation, lower levels of ribosomal RNAs and proteins were present and translation was generally decreased in mutant glands. Finally, the transplantation studies suggest a role

  18. Automatic quantification of mammary glands on non-contrast x-ray CT by using a novel segmentation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Kano, Takuya; Cai, Yunliang; Li, Shuo; Zhou, Xinxin; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a brand new automatic segmentation method for quantifying volume and density of mammary gland regions on non-contrast CT images. The proposed method uses two processing steps: (1) breast region localization, and (2) breast region decomposition to accomplish a robust mammary gland segmentation task on CT images. The first step detects two minimum bounding boxes of left and right breast regions, respectively, based on a machine-learning approach that adapts to a large variance of the breast appearances on different age levels. The second step divides the whole breast region in each side into mammary gland, fat tissue, and other regions by using spectral clustering technique that focuses on intra-region similarities of each patient and aims to overcome the image variance caused by different scan-parameters. The whole approach is designed as a simple structure with very minimum number of parameters to gain a superior robustness and computational efficiency for real clinical setting. We applied this approach to a dataset of 300 CT scans, which are sampled with the equal number from 30 to 50 years-old-women. Comparing to human annotations, the proposed approach can measure volume and quantify distributions of the CT numbers of mammary gland regions successfully. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach achieves results consistent with manual annotations. Through our proposed framework, an efficient and effective low cost clinical screening scheme may be easily implemented to predict breast cancer risk, especially on those already acquired scans.

  19. Computational identification and characterization of novel microRNA in the mammary gland of dairy goat (Capra hircus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BO QU; YOUWEN QIU; ZHEN ZHEN; FENG ZHAO; CHUNMEI WANG; YINGJUN CUI; QIZHANG LI; LI ZHANG

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) influence the development of the mammary gland by posttranscriptionally affecting their target genes. The objective of this research was to identify novel miRNAs in the mammary gland ofdairy goats with a bioinformatics approach that was based on expressed sequence tag (EST) and genome survey sequence (GSS) analyses. We applied all known major mammals, miRNAs to search against the goat EST and GSS databases for the first time to identify new miRNAs. We, then, validated these newly predicted miRNAs with stem–loop reverse transcription followed by a SYBR Green polymerase chain reaction assay. Finally, 29 mature miRNAs were identified and verified, and of these, 14 were grouped into 13 families based on seed sequence identity and 85 potential target genes of newly verified miR-NAs were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode the proteins participating in regulation of metabolism, signal transduction, growth and development. The predicting accuracy of the new miRNAs was 70.37%, which confirmed that the methods used in this study were efficient and reliable. Detailed analyses of the sequence characteristics of the novel miR-NAs of the goat mammary gland were performed. In conclusion, these results provide a reference for further identification of miRNAs in animals without a complete genome and thus improve the understanding of miRNAs in the caprine mammary gland.

  20. A Mouse Mammary Gland Involution mRNA Signature Identifies Biological Pathways Potentially Associated with Breast Cancer Metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Stein; N. Salomonis; D.S.A. Nuyten; M.J. van de Vijver; B.A. Gusterson

    2009-01-01

    Mouse mammary gland involution resembles a wound healing response with suppressed inflammation. Wound healing and inflammation are also associated with tumour development, and a 'wound-healing' gene expression signature can predict metastasis formation and survival. Recent studies have shown that an

  1. [Modern algorithms of diagnosis of benign tumors of the mammary gland: the role of molecular-genetic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinina, V G; Chetverikov, S G; Zavoloka, A V; Moroziuk, O N

    2014-01-01

    Experience of treatment in 2010-2012 yrs of the patients, suffering mammarial gland tumors, in The Center of Reconstructive and Restoration Medicine (The University Clinic) of The Odessa National Medical University was analyzed. There were examined 143 women with morphologically confirmed mammarial gland cancer (MGT), 56--benign mammary gland tumors and 50 healthy women. Molecular-genetic investigation was performed in the patients-women: there were determined the gene C634G polymorphism of VEGF and of the gene G308A of TNF--a with subsequent estimation of correlation of the mutations quantity and the mammarial gland diseases rate. Algorithm of differential diagnosis of benign tumors must include estimation of polymorphism of the VEGF gene C634G. While revealing of the heterozygous or homozygous bearers of mutation with the gene C634G polymorphism of VEGF the risk of the MGC occurrence is enhancing, what may serve as additional criterion for expedience for conduction of operative treatment in such patients.

  2. Methods in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer: the second ENDBC meeting - intravital imaging, genomics, modeling and metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Stingl, John; Matthew J Smalley; Glukhova, Marina A.; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The second meeting of the European Network for Breast Development and Cancer (ENBDC) on 'Methods in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer' was held in April 2010 in Weggis, Switzerland. The focus was on genomics and bioinformatics, extracellular matrix and stroma-epithelial cell interactions, intravital imaging, the search for metastasis founder cells and mouse models of breast cancer.

  3. Mammary gland development and response to prenatal atrazine exposure in the Sprague Dawley and Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary gland (MG) tumor development in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats is increased by longterm dietary exposure to the chlorotriazine herbicide atrazine (ATR). ATR is proposed to cause these changes in the adult SD rat by altering hormonally-regulated estrous cyclicity. In Long-Evans...

  4. Establishment of La-tPA/G-CSF dual transgenic mice and expression in their mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢一凡; 田靫; 邓继先; 程萱; 黄培堂

    1999-01-01

    Expression vectors of human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSG) and long acting tissue plasminogen activator (La-tPA) in mammary gland were constructed using promoters of mouse whey acid protein gene (WAP) and sheep β-lactoglobulin gene (BLG) with sizes of 2.6 and 5 kb respectively. Two kinds of transgenic mice of G-CSF and La-tPA were produced with microinjection. The expression of G-CSF and La-tPA was achieved in mammary glands of transgenic mice, respectively. In order to establish dual transgenic mice of La-tPA/G-CSF, transgenic mice carrying G-CSF and La-tPA gene characterized with specific expression in mammary gland were mated. La-tPA/G-CSF dual transgenic mice were screened out from the hybrid offspring by Once-PCR. The co-expression of La-tPA and G-CSF in mammary gland of the dual transgenic mice was confirmed by the milk assayed and Northern blot analysis. Some parameters about the dual transgenic mice indicated that there were fewer litters than that of normal mice. The ratio of du

  5. Soy protein isolate and estradiol differ in their effects on the mammary gland of weanling male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoflavones are phytochemical components of soy diets that bind weakly to estrogen receptors (ERs). To study potential estrogen-like actions of soy in the mammary gland, we fed weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats a casein diet from PND21 to PND33, the same diet substituting soy protein isol...

  6. Computational identification and characterization of novel microRNA in the mammary gland of dairy goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Qiu, Youwen; Zhen, Zhen; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Chunmei; Cui, Yingjun; Li, Qizhang; Zhang, Li

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) influence the development of the mammary gland by posttranscriptionally affecting their target genes. The objective of this research was to identify novel miRNAs in the mammary gland of dairy goats with a bioinformatics approach that was based on expressed sequence tag (EST) and genome survey sequence (GSS) analyses. We applied all known major mammals, miRNAs to search against the goat EST and GSS databases for the first time to identify new miRNAs. We, then, validated these newly predicted miRNAs with stem-loop reverse transcription followed by a SYBR Green polymerase chain reaction assay. Finally, 29 mature miRNAs were identified and verified, and of these, 14 were grouped into 13 families based on seed sequence identity and 85 potential target genes of newly verified miRNAs were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode the proteins participating in regulation of metabolism, signal transduction, growth and development. The predicting accuracy of the new miRNAs was 70.37%, which confirmed that the methods used in this study were efficient and reliable. Detailed analyses of the sequence characteristics of the novel miRNAs of the goat mammary gland were performed. In conclusion, these results provide a reference for further identification of miRNAs in animals without a complete genome and thus improve the understanding of miRNAs in the caprine mammary gland. PMID:27659334

  7. EXPOSURE PARAMETERS NECESSARY FOR DELAYED PUBERTY AND MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG-EVANS RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO TO ATRAZINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure Parameters Necessary For Delayed Puberty And Mammary Gland Development In Long-Evans Rats Exposed In Utero To AtrazineJennifer L. Rayner1, 2, Carmen Wood2, and Suzanne E. Fenton21 Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Heal...

  8. Paternal selenium deficiency but not supplementation during preconception alters mammary gland development and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Luiza N; Fontelles, Camile C; Rosim, Mariana P; Pires, Vanessa C; Cozzolino, Silvia M F; Castro, Inar A; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Barbisan, Luis F; Ong, Thomas P

    2016-10-15

    Breast cancer is a global public health problem and accumulating evidence indicates early-life exposures as relevant factors in the disease risk determination. Recent studies have shown that paternal nutrition can influence offspring health including breast cancer risk. Selenium is a micronutrient with essential role in central aspects of embryogenesis, male fertility and cancer and that has been extensively studied as a chemopreventive agent in several breast cancer experimental models. Thus, we designed an animal study to evaluate whether paternal selenium deficiency or supplementation during preconception could affect the female offspring mammary gland development and breast cancer susceptibility. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN93-G diet containing 0.15 ppm (control diet), 0.05 ppm (deficient diet) or 1 ppm (supplemented diet) of selenium for 9 weeks and mated with control female rats. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in their female offspring. Paternal selenium deficiency increased the number of terminal end buds, epithelial elongation and cell proliferation in the mammary gland of the female rat offspring and these effects were associated with higher susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary tumors (increased incidence and higher grade tumors). On the other hand, paternal selenium supplementation did not influence any of these parameters. These results highlight the importance of father's nutrition including selenium status as a relevant factor affecting daughter's breast cancer risk and paternal preconception as a potential developmental stage to start disease preventive strategies. PMID:27270969

  9. Estimation of mammary gland composition using CdTe series detector developed for photon-counting mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihori, Akiko; Okamoto, Chizuru; Yamakawa, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okada, Masahiro; Nakajima, Ai; Kato, Misa; Kodera, Yoshie

    2016-03-01

    Energy resolved photon-counting mammography is a new technology, which counts the number of photons that passes through an object, and presents it as a pixel value in an image of the object. Silicon semiconductor detectors are currently used in commercial mammography. However, the disadvantage of silicon is the low absorption efficiency for high X-ray energies. A cadmium telluride (CdTe) series detector has a high absorption efficiency over a wide energy range. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate the composition of the mammary gland using a CdTe series detector as a photon-counting detector. The fact that the detection rate of breast cancer in mammography is affected by mammary gland composition is now widely accepted. Assessment of composition of the mammary gland has important implications. An important advantage of our proposed technique is its ability to discriminate photons using three energy bins. We designed the CdTe series detector system using the MATLAB simulation software. The phantom contains nine regions with the ratio of glandular tissue and adipose varying in increments of 10%. The attenuation coefficient for each bin's energy was calculated from the number of input and output photons possessed by each. The evaluation results obtained by plotting the attenuation coefficient μ in a three-dimensional (3D) scatter plot show that the plots had a regular composition order congruent with that of the mammary gland. Consequently, we believe that our proposed method can be used to estimate the composition of the mammary gland.

  10. Identification of novel and differentially expressed MicroRNAs of dairy goat mammary gland tissues using solexa sequencing and bioinformatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Ji

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in various biological processes. Although most microRNAs expression profiles studies have been performed in humans or rodents, relatively limited knowledge also exists in other mammalian species. The identification of the full repertoire of microRNAs expressed in the lactating mammary gland of Capra hircus would significantly increase our understanding of the physiology of lactating mammary glands. In this study, two libraries were constructed using the lactating mammary gland tissues of Laoshan dairy goats (Capra hircus during peak and late lactation. Solexa high-throughput sequencing technique and bioinformatics were used to determine the abundance and differential expression of the microRNAs between peak and late lactation. As a result, 19,044,002 and 7,385,833 clean reads were obtained, respectively, and 1,113 conserved known microRNAs and 31 potential novel microRNA candidates were identified. A total of 697 conserved microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed with a P-value<0.01, 272 microRNAs were up-regulated and 425 microRNAs were down-regulated during peak lactation. The results were validated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. 762,557 annotated mRNA transcripts were predicted as putative target gene candidates. The GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis suggested that differentially expressed microRNAs were involved in mammary gland physiology, including signal transduction, and cell-cell and cell-extracellular communications. This study provided the first global of the microRNA in Capra hircus and expanded the repertoire of microRNAs. Our results have great significance and value for the elucidation of complex regulatory networks between microRNAs and mRNAs and for the study of mammary gland physiology and lactation.

  11. Quantification of epithelial cell differentiation in mammary glands and carcinomas from DMBA- and MNU-exposed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    Full Text Available Rat mammary carcinogenesis models have been used extensively to study breast cancer initiation, progression, prevention, and intervention. Nevertheless, quantitative molecular data on epithelial cell differentiation in mammary glands of untreated and carcinogen-exposed rats is limited. Here, we describe the characterization of rat mammary epithelial cells (RMECs by multicolor flow cytometry using antibodies against cell surface proteins CD24, CD29, CD31, CD45, CD49f, CD61, Peanut Lectin, and Thy-1, intracellular proteins CK14, CK19, and FAK, along with phalloidin and Hoechst staining. We identified the luminal and basal/myoepithelial populations and actively dividing RMECs. In inbred rats susceptible to mammary carcinoma development, we quantified the changes in differentiation of the RMEC populations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after exposure to mammary carcinogens DMBA and MNU. DMBA exposure did not alter the percentage of basal or luminal cells, but upregulated CD49f (Integrin α6 expression and increased cell cycle activity. MNU exposure resulted in a temporary disruption of the luminal/basal ratio and no CD49f upregulation. When comparing DMBA- or MNU-induced mammary carcinomas, the RMEC differentiation profiles are indistinguishable. The carcinomas compared with mammary glands from untreated rats, showed upregulation of CD29 (Integrin β1 and CD49f expression, increased FAK (focal adhesion kinase activation especially in the CD29hi population, and decreased CD61 (Integrin β3 expression. This study provides quantitative insight into the protein expression phenotypes underlying RMEC differentiation. The results highlight distinct RMEC differentiation etiologies of DMBA and MNU exposure, while the resulting carcinomas have similar RMEC differentiation profiles. The methodology and data will enhance rat mammary carcinogenesis models in the study of the role of epithelial cell differentiation in breast cancer.

  12. Biological activities of binding site specific monoclonal antibodies to prolactin receptors of rabbit mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological activity of three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the rabbit mammary prolactin (PRL) receptor (M110, A82, and A917) were investigated using explants of rabbit mammary gland. The three mAbs which were all able to inhibit the binding of 125I-ovine prolactin to its receptor had different biological activities. Two mAbs (M110 and A82) were able to prevent the stimulating effect of PRL on casein synthesis when the molar ratio between the mAb and PRL was 100. One mAb (A917) was able to mimic the action of PRL on both casein and DNA ([3H]thymidine incorporation) synthesis, whereas the other two mAbs were without any stimulatory effect. For this stimulatory effect to be observed, bivalency of the antibody was essential, since monovalent fragments, which were able to inhibit PRL binding, had no agonistic activity. The ability of the mAbs to induce a down-regulation of receptors was also studied. These studies suggest that the binding domain of the receptor might be relatively complex, since only a part of this domain recognized by the antibody with PRL-like activity was able to induce hormonal action. Alternatively, only those antibodies able to microaggregate the receptors may possess PRL-like activity

  13. Immunohistochemical evidence of rapid extracellular matrix remodeling after iron-particle irradiation of mouse mammary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, E. J.; Gillette, E. L.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chaterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    High-LET radiation has unique physical and biological properties compared to sparsely ionizing radiation. Recent studies demonstrate that sparsely ionizing radiation rapidly alters the pattern of extracellular matrix expression in several tissues, but little is known about the effect of heavy-ion radiation. This study investigates densely ionizing radiation-induced changes in extracellular matrix localization in the mammary glands of adult female BALB/c mice after whole-body irradiation with 0.8 Gy 600 MeV iron particles. The basement membrane and interstitial extracellular matrix proteins of the mammary gland stroma were mapped with respect to time postirradiation using immunofluorescence. Collagen III was induced in the adipose stroma within 1 day, continued to increase through day 9 and was resolved by day 14. Immunoreactive tenascin was induced in the epithelium by day 1, was evident at the epithelial-stromal interface by day 5-9 and persisted as a condensed layer beneath the basement membrane through day 14. These findings parallel similar changes induced by gamma irradiation but demonstrate different onset and chronicity. In contrast, the integrity of epithelial basement membrane, which was unaffected by sparsely ionizing radiation, was disrupted by iron-particle irradiation. Laminin immunoreactivity was mildly irregular at 1 h postirradiation and showed discontinuities and thickening from days 1 to 9. Continuity was restored by day 14. Thus high-LET radiation, like sparsely ionizing radiation, induces rapid-remodeling of the stromal extracellular matrix but also appears to alter the integrity of the epithelial basement membrane, which is an important regulator of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

  14. Immunohistochemical evidence of rapid extracellular matrix remodeling after iron-particle irradiation of mouse mammary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, E.J.; Gillette, E.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Barcellos-Hoff, M.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    High-LET radiation has unique physical and biological properties compared to sparsely ionizing radiation. Recent studies demonstrate that sparsely ionizing radiation rapidly alters the pattern of extracellular matrix expression in several tissues, but little is known about the effect of heavy-ion radiation. This study investigates densely ionizing radiation-induced changes in extracellular matrix localization in the mammary glands of adult female BALB/c mice after whole-body irradiation with 0.8 Gy 600 MeV iron particles. The basement membrane and interstitial extracellular matrix proteins of the mammary gland stroma were mapped with respect to time postirradiation using immunofluorescence. Collagen III was induced in the adipose stroma within 1 day, continued to increase through day 9 and was resolved by day 14. Immunoreactive tenascin was induced in the epithelium by day 1, was evident at the epithelial-stromal interface by day 5-9 and persisted as a condensed layer beneath the basement membrane through day 14. These findings parallel similar changes induced by {gamma} irradiation but demonstrate different onset and chronicity. In contrast, the integrity of epithelial basement membrane, which was unaffected by sparsely ionizing radiation, was disrupted by iron-particle irradiation. Laminin inummoreactivity was mildly irregular at 1 h postirradiation and showed discontinuities and thickening from days 1 to 9. Continuity was restored by day 14. Thus high-LET radiation, like sparsely ionizing radiation, induces rapid remodeling of the stromal extracellular matrix but also appears to alter the integrity of the epithelial basement membrane, which is an important regulator of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  15. A new technique for repeated biopsies of the mammary gland in dairy cows allotted to Latin-square design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciano S; Martineau, Eric; De Marchi, Francilaine E; Palin, Marie-France; Dos Santos, Geraldo T; Petit, Hélène V

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a technique for carrying out repeated biopsies of the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows that provides enough material to monitor enzyme activities and gene expression in mammary secretory tissue. A total of 16 Holstein cows were subjected to 4 mammary biopsies each at 3-week intervals for a total of 64 biopsies. A 0.75-cm incision was made through the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the mammary gland and a trocar and cannula were inserted using a circular motion. The trocar was withdrawn and a syringe was plugged into the base of the cannula to create a vacuum for sampling mammary tissue. To reduce bleeding, hand pressure was put on the surgery site after biopsy and skin closure and ice was applied for at least 2 h after the biopsy using a cow bra. The entire procedure took an average of 25 min. Two attempts were usually enough to obtain 800 mg of tissue. Visual examination of milk samples 10 d after the biopsy indicated no trace of blood, except in samples from 2 cows. All wounds healed without infection and subcutaneous hematomas resorbed within 7 d. There was no incidence of mastitis throughout the lactation. This technique provides a new tool for biopsy of the mammary gland repeated at short intervals with the main effect being a decrease in milk production. Although secondary complications leading to illness or death are always a risk with any procedure, this biopsy technique was carried out without complications to the health of animals and with no incidence of mastitis during the lactation.

  16. A new technique for repeated biopsies of the mammary gland in dairy cows allotted to Latin-square design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciano S; Martineau, Eric; De Marchi, Francilaine E; Palin, Marie-France; Dos Santos, Geraldo T; Petit, Hélène V

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a technique for carrying out repeated biopsies of the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows that provides enough material to monitor enzyme activities and gene expression in mammary secretory tissue. A total of 16 Holstein cows were subjected to 4 mammary biopsies each at 3-week intervals for a total of 64 biopsies. A 0.75-cm incision was made through the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the mammary gland and a trocar and cannula were inserted using a circular motion. The trocar was withdrawn and a syringe was plugged into the base of the cannula to create a vacuum for sampling mammary tissue. To reduce bleeding, hand pressure was put on the surgery site after biopsy and skin closure and ice was applied for at least 2 h after the biopsy using a cow bra. The entire procedure took an average of 25 min. Two attempts were usually enough to obtain 800 mg of tissue. Visual examination of milk samples 10 d after the biopsy indicated no trace of blood, except in samples from 2 cows. All wounds healed without infection and subcutaneous hematomas resorbed within 7 d. There was no incidence of mastitis throughout the lactation. This technique provides a new tool for biopsy of the mammary gland repeated at short intervals with the main effect being a decrease in milk production. Although secondary complications leading to illness or death are always a risk with any procedure, this biopsy technique was carried out without complications to the health of animals and with no incidence of mastitis during the lactation. PMID:27408336

  17. 奶牛乳腺上皮细胞的原代培养%Primary Culture of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟; 王凤龙; 王申元

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the feasibility of the primary culture of bovine mammary epithelial cells in biochemical incubator. [Method] In vitro, bovine mammary epithelial cells were isolated and cultured by the tissue explant method in order to investigate the optimal culture conditions. The morphology observation and identification of the cultured cells were performed by inverted microscope observation, Giemsa staining and cytokeratin immunohistochemistry. [Result] Observed with inverted microscope, most of the bovine mammary epithelial cells were polygonal and displayed typical slabstone-like appearance. As it can be seen from cell staining results, the cell body was big and the nucleus was stained dark blue and was round or oval in shape, with clearly visible nucleoli, generally 2-4 nucleoli. The tissue-specific expression of cytokeratin 14 and cytokeratin 18 genes in mammary epithelial cells was identified by cytokeratin immunohistochemistry. [Conclusion] Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells were successfully cultured in biochemical incubator.

  18. Miz1 deficiency in the mammary gland causes a lactation defect by attenuated Stat5 expression and phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sanz-Moreno

    Full Text Available Miz1 is a zinc finger transcription factor with an N-terminal POZ domain. Complexes with Myc, Bcl-6 or Gfi-1 repress expression of genes like Cdkn2b (p15(Ink4 or Cdkn1a (p21(Cip1. The role of Miz1 in normal mammary gland development has not been addressed so far. Conditional knockout of the Miz1 POZ domain in luminal cells during pregnancy caused a lactation defect with a transient reduction of glandular tissue, reduced proliferation and attenuated differentiation. This was recapitulated in vitro using mouse mammary gland derived HC11 cells. Further analysis revealed decreased Stat5 activity in Miz1ΔPOZ mammary glands and an attenuated expression of Stat5 targets. Gene expression of the Prolactin receptor (PrlR and ErbB4, both critical for Stat5 phosphorylation (pStat5 or pStat5 nuclear translocation, was decreased in Miz1ΔPOZ females. Microarray, ChIP-Seq and gene set enrichment analysis revealed a down-regulation of Miz1 target genes being involved in vesicular transport processes. Our data suggest that deranged intracellular transport and localization of PrlR and ErbB4 disrupt the Stat5 signalling pathway in mutant glands and cause the observed lactation phenotype.

  19. Detection of mutations within exons 4 to 8 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in canine mammary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M.B. Souza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen female canines with mammary tumors and 6 normal females were used to study mutations in exons 4 to 8 of the p53 gene. DNA samples from the tumors, respective adjacent normal mammary tissue and mammary glands from healthy animals were sequenced and analyzed for the presence of mutations. Mutations were found in 71.8% of the samples and the most frequent were missense mutations. The most attacked exons in the mammary tumor were 5, 7 and 8, with 23.4, 31.6 and 23.4% mutations, respectively. Canine mammary tumors are related to mutations in gene p53 and mutations mostly occur in the region of the protein that is linked to the DNA in the cell nucleus, which can change the functionality of the cell and propitiate tumor growth. Despite being macroscopically normal, the mammary tissue adjacent to the tumors has mutations that can lead to recurrence if not removed together with the tumor.

  20. Perfluorooctanoic acid effects on ovaries mediate its inhibition of peripubertal mammary gland development in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated compound and an agonist of peroxisomes proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), causes stunted mouse mammary gland development in various developmental stages. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly...

  1. Intramammary Immunization of Pregnant Mice with Staphylococcal Protein A Reduces the Post-Challenge Mammary Gland Bacterial Load but Not Pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jully Gogoi-Tiwari

    Full Text Available Protein A, encoded by the spa gene, is one of the major immune evading MSCRAMM of S. aureus, demonstrated to be prevalent in a significant percentage of clinical bovine mastitis isolates in Australia. Given its' reported significance in biofilm formation and the superior performance of S. aureus biofilm versus planktonic vaccine in the mouse mastitis model, it was of interest to determine the immunogenicity and protective potential of Protein A as a potential vaccine candidate against bovine mastitis using the mouse mastitis model. Pregnant Balb/c mice were immunised with Protein A emulsified in an alum-based adjuvant by subcutaneous (s/c or intramammary (i/mam routes. While humoral immune response of mice post-immunization were determined using indirect ELISA, cell-mediated immune response was assessed by estimation of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ produced by protein A-stimulated splenocyte supernatants. Protective potential of Protein A against experimental mastitis was determined by challenge of immunized versus sham-vaccinated mice by i/mam route, based upon manifestation of clinical symptoms, total bacterial load and histopathological damage to mammary glands. Significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of IgG1 isotype were produced in mice immunized by the s/c route. In contrast, significantly higher levels of the antibody isotype IgG2a were produced in mice immunized by the i/mam route (p<0.05. There was significant reduction (p<0.05 in bacterial loads of the mammary glands of mice immunized by Protein A regardless of the route of immunization, with medium level of clinical symptoms observed up to day 3 post-challenge. However, Protein A vaccine failed to protect immunized mice post-challenge with biofilm producing encapsulated S. aureus via i/mam route, regardless of the route of immunization, as measured by the level of mammary tissue damage. It was concluded that, Protein A in its' native state was apparently not a suitable candidate for inclusion

  2. Development of a RNA extraction method from milk for gene expression study in the mammary gland of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Maria Consuelo; Daga, Cinzia; Bodano, Sara; Paludo, Marta; Luridiana, Sebastiano; Pazzola, Michele; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Carcangiu, Vincenzo

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a reliable method for the RNA extraction from milk of Sarda sheep breed and to highlight if the extracted RNA can be used for expression study on mammary genes involved in milk fat synthesis using RT-qPCR. The main result is that a sample of 150 ml of milk provides an optimal amount of RNA (73.5 μg/ml). The highest RNA concentration has been found in the samples analysed within 4 h after collection. The RNA extracted was positively correlated to the number of somatic cells (P Ct value, for SREBPF1 gene of 26.8 ± 0.15. This research demonstrated that the high-quality of the RNA obtained is suited to use for studies of mammary genes expression in sheep, avoiding any damage caused by mammary gland biopsy.

  3. Rac1 Controls Both the Secretory Function of the Mammary Gland and Its Remodeling for Successive Gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Li, Weiping; Mironov, Aleksander; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-09-12

    An important feature of the mammary gland is its ability to undergo repeated morphological changes during each reproductive cycle with profound tissue expansion in pregnancy and regression in involution. However, the mechanisms that determine the tissue's cyclic regenerative capacity remain elusive. We have now discovered that Cre-Lox ablation of Rac1 in mammary epithelia causes gross enlargement of the epithelial tree and defective alveolar regeneration in a second pregnancy. Architectural defects arise because loss of Rac1 disrupts clearance in involution following the first lactation. We show that Rac1 is crucial for mammary alveolar epithelia to switch from secretion to a phagocytic mode and rapidly remove dying neighbors. Moreover, Rac1 restricts the extrusion of dying cells into the lumen, thus promoting their eradication by live phagocytic neighbors while within the epithelium. Without Rac1, residual milk and cell corpses flood the ductal network, causing gross dilation, chronic inflammation, and defective future regeneration. PMID:27623383

  4. The role of maintenance proteins in the preservation of epithelial cell identity during mammary gland remodeling and breast cancer initiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danila Coradini; Saro Oriana

    2014-01-01

    During normal postnatal mammary gland development and adult remodeling related to the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and lactation, ovarian hormones and peptide growth factors contribute to the delineation of a definite epithelial cellidentity. This identity is maintained during cellreplication in a heritable but DNA-independent manner. The preservation of cellidentity is fundamental, especialy when cels must undergo changes in response to intrinsic and extrinsic signals. The maintenance proteins, which are required for cellidentity preservation, act epigenetically by regulating gene expression through DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. Among the maintenance proteins, the Trithorax (TrxG) and Polycomb (PcG) group proteins are the best characterized. In this review, we summarize the structures and activities of the TrxG and PcG complexes and describe their pivotal roles in nuclear estrogen receptor activity. In addition, we provide evidence that perturbations in these epigenetic regulators are involved in disrupting epithelial cellidentity, mammary gland remodeling, and breast cancer initiation.

  5. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON THE ACUPOINT INTRADERMAL EMBEDDING OF RINGHEADED THUMBTACK—NEEDLE THERAPY FOR HYPERPLASIA OF MAMMARY GLANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper,the author used acupoint intradermal embedding of ringheaded thumbtack-needle therapy combined with herbal herbal medicine therapy to treat 110 cases of hyperplasia of mammary glands.and compared its therapeutic effect with that of herbal therapy alone.The observed indexes of the treatment were pain reliefdegree,the size of hyperplasic glands and the time of occureeence of marked effect.Follwing 3 courses of treatment,the results showed the therapeutic effect of the ringheaded thumbtack-needle plus herbal medicine therapy was superior to that of herbal medicaine therapy alone in the above-mentioned 3 indexes(P<0.01).

  6. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON THE ACUPOINT INTRADERMAL EMBEDDING OF RINGHEADED THUMBTACK-NEEDLE THERAPY FOR HYPERPLASIA OF MAMMARY GLANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Liying

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper, the author used acupoint intradermal embedding of ringheaded thumbtack-needle therapy combined with herbal medicine therapy to treat 110 cases of hyperplasia of mammary glands, and compared its therapeutic effect with that of herbal therapy alone. The observed indexes of the treatment were pain relief degree, the size of hyperplasic glands and the time of occurrence of marked effect. Following 3 courses of treatment,the results showed the therapeutic effect of the ringheaded thumbtack-needle needle plus herbal medicine therapy was superior to that of herbal medicine therapy alone in the above-mentioned 3 indexes (P < 0.01 ).

  7. A functional connection between pRB and transforming growth factor beta in growth inhibition and mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah M; Bergsied, Jacqueline; Isaac, Christian E; Coschi, Courtney H; Martens, Alison L; Hojilla, Carlo V; Chakrabarti, Subrata; Dimattia, Gabriel E; Khoka, Rama; Wang, Jean Y J; Dick, Frederick A

    2009-08-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a crucial mediator of breast development, and loss of TGF-beta-induced growth arrest is a hallmark of breast cancer. TGF-beta has been shown to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity, which leads to the accumulation of hypophosphorylated pRB. However, unlike other components of TGF-beta cytostatic signaling, pRB is thought to be dispensable for mammary development. Using gene-targeted mice carrying subtle missense changes in pRB (Rb1(DeltaL) and Rb1(NF)), we have discovered that pRB plays a critical role in mammary gland development. In particular, Rb1 mutant female mice have hyperplastic mammary epithelium and defects in nursing due to insensitivity to TGF-beta growth inhibition. In contrast with previous studies that highlighted the inhibition of cyclin/CDK activity by TGF-beta signaling, our experiments revealed that active transcriptional repression of E2F target genes by pRB downstream of CDKs is also a key component of TGF-beta cytostatic signaling. Taken together, our work demonstrates a unique functional connection between pRB and TGF-beta in growth control and mammary gland development.

  8. Effect of Chinese Medical Herbs-Huiru Yizeng Yihao on Hyperprolactinemia and Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiong; Chen, Yong-Gang; Ma, Li; Li, Zhi-hui; Li, Ju-yi; Liu, Xin-guo; Zou, Ji-li; Wu, Jin-hu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the pharmacodynamism and mechanism of Chinese medicinal formula-Huiru Yizeng Yihao (NO.1 HRYZ) on the model rats of hyperpro-lactinemia and the model rats of hyperplasia of mammary gland (HMG), and studied the internal connection between hyperprolactinemia and HMG.. The hyperprolactinemia rat models were established by injecting metoclopramide dihydrochloride in the back of rats. The model rat of HMG was prepared by injecting estradiol in the thigh muscle of the rats an...

  9. Involvement of Different networks in mammary gland involution after the pregnancy/lactation cycle: Implications in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragozá, Rosa; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Lluch, Ana; Ribas, Gloria; Viña, Juan R

    2015-04-01

    Early pregnancy is associated with a reduction in a woman's lifetime risk for breast cancer. However, different studies have demonstrated an increase in breast cancer risk in the years immediately following pregnancy. Early and long-term risk is even higher if the mother age is above 35 years at the time of first parity. The proinflammatory microenvironment within the mammary gland after pregnancy renders an "ideal niche" for oncogenic events. Signaling pathways involved in programmed cell death and tissue remodeling during involution are also activated in breast cancer. Herein, the major signaling pathways involved in mammary gland involution, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), and retinoid acid receptors (RARs)/retinoid X receptors (RXRs), are reviewed as part of the complex network of signaling pathways that crosstalk in a contextual-dependent manner. These factors, also involved in breast cancer development, are important regulatory nodes for signaling amplification after weaning. Indeed, during involution, p65/p300 target genes such as MMP9, Capn1, and Capn2 are upregulated. Elevated expression and activities of these proteases in breast cancer have been extensively documented. The role of these proteases during mammary gland involution is further discussed. MMPs, calpains, and cathepsins exert their effect by modification of the extracellular matrix and intracellular proteins. Calpains, activated in the mammary gland during involution, cleave several proteins located in cell membrane, lysosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei favoring cell death. Besides, during this period, Capn1 is most probably involved in the modulation of preadipocyte differentiation through chromatin remodeling. Calpains can be implicated in cell anchoring loss, providing a proper microenvironment for tumor growth. A better understanding of the role of any of these proteases in tumorigenesis may

  10. Identification of reliable reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of the developing mouse mammary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Moosdijk, Anoeska Agatha Alida; van Amerongen, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Cell growth and differentiation are often driven by subtle changes in gene expression. Many challenges still exist in detecting these changes, particularly in the context of a complex, developing tissue. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) allows relatively high-throughput evaluation of multiple genes and developmental time points. Proper quantification of gene expression levels by qRT-PCR requires normalization to one or more reference genes. Traditionally, these genes have been selected based on their presumed “housekeeping” function, with the implicit assumption that they are stably expressed over the entire experimental set. However, this is rarely tested empirically. Here we describe the identification of novel reference genes for the mouse mammary gland based on their stable expression in published microarray datasets. We compared eight novel candidate reference genes (Arpc3, Clock, Ctbp1, Phf7, Prdx1, Sugp2, Taf11 and Usp7) to eight traditional ones (18S, Actb, Gapdh, Hmbs, Hprt, Rpl13a, Sdha and Tbp) and analysed all genes for stable expression in the mouse mammary gland from pre-puberty to adulthood using four different algorithms (GeNorm, DeltaCt, BestKeeper and NormFinder). Prdx1, Phf7 and Ctbp1 were validated as novel and reliable, tissue-specific reference genes that outperform traditional reference genes in qRT-PCR studies of postnatal mammary gland development. PMID:27752147

  11. Effects of phenylalanine and threonine oligopeptides on milk protein synthesis in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M M; Wu, Y M; Liu, H Y; Liu, J X

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of phenylalanine (Phe) and threonine (Thr) oligopeptides on αs1 casein gene expression and milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Primary mammary epithelial cells were obtained from Holstein dairy cows and incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-F12 medium (DMEM/F12) containing lactogenic hormones (prolactin and glucocorticoids). Free Phe (117 μg/ml) was substituted partly with peptide-bound Phe (phenylalanylphenylalanine, phenylalanyl threonine, threonyl-phenylalanyl-phenylalanine) in the experimental media. After incubation with experimental medium, cells were collected for gene expression analysis and medium was collected for milk protein or amino acid determination. The results showed that peptide-bound Phe at 10% (11.7 μg/ml) significantly enhanced αs1 casein gene expression and milk protein synthesis as compared with equivalent amount of free Phe. When 10% Phe was replaced by phenylalanylphenylalanine, the disappearance of most essential amino acids increased significantly, and gene expression of peptide transporter 2 and some amino acid transporters was significantly enhanced. These results indicate that the Phe and Thr oligopeptides are important for milk protein synthesis, and peptide-bound amino acids could be utilised more efficiently in milk protein synthesis than the equivalent amount of free amino acids.

  12. Effects of the plant extract silymarin on prolactin concentrations, mammary gland development, and oxidative stress in gestating gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Lapointe, J; Palin, M-F

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of supplementing the diet of gestating gilts twice daily with 4 g of the plant extract silymarin on circulating hormonal concentrations, oxidative status, mammary development, and mammary gene expression at the end of gestation were determined. Gilts were fed conventional diets during gestation and on d 90 they were assigned as controls (CTL; n = 16) or treated (TRT; n = 17) animals. Treatment consisted of providing 4 g of silymarin twice daily until d 110, at which time all gilts were slaughtered to collect mammary tissue for compositional analyses and measures of gene expression and oxidative status, and liver and corpora lutea for measures of oxidative stress variables. Blood samples for hormonal assays and evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers were obtained on d 89, 94, and 109 of gestation. Silymarin increased (P = 0.05) circulating concentrations of prolactin over all samples in the repeated in time analysis. In separate analyses for each sampling time, prolactin concentrations in TRT gilts tended (P 0.10) of treatment on progesterone, estradiol, leptin, or 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentrations. Percent fat in mammary parenchyma was greater (P ≤ 0.05), percent protein was lesser (P ≤ 0.05), and concentrations of both RNA (P ≤ 0.01) and DNA (P prolactin concentrations and protect against oxidative stress, yet the increase in prolactin was not enough to have beneficial effects on mammary gland development in late gestation.

  13. Morphological and neuroanatomical study of the mammary gland in the immature and mature European beaver (Castor fiber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Radowiecka, Amelia; Giżejewski, Zygmunt; Klimczuk, Magdalena; Dudek, Agnieszka; Zalecki, Michal; Jurczak, Andrzej; Kaleczyc, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated general morphology and immunohistochemical properties of nerve fibres supplying the mammary gland (MG) in the European beaver. The microscopic analysis of the beaver mammary gland revealed the presence of morphological structures which are characteristic for mammals. There were no distinct differences in the morphological features of the mammary gland between the juvenile and non-pregnant mature beaver. The nerve fibres were visualized using antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) and biologically active substances including β-hydroxylase tyrosine (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). The study has revealed that the MG in the juvenile and mature beaver is richly supplied with PGP-immunoreactive (PGP-IR) nerve fibres. The most abundant innervation was observed in the nipple and less numerous nerve terminals supplied the glandular tissue. Double-labelling immunohistochemistry disclosed that the majority of PGP-IR nerve fibres associated with blood vessels and smooth muscle cells in both the nipple and glandular tissue were also DßH-IR. However, these nerve terminals were less numerous in the glandular tissue than in the nipple. Most of the DßH-IR axons associated with arteries and smooth muscle cells in the entire gland also stained for NPY. Small number of DßH/NPY-IR fibres supplied veins. CGRP-IR fibres were more abundant than those expressing SP. No distinct differences in the distribution and immunohistochemical characteristic of nerve fibres were observed between the juvenile and adult animals. The distribution and immunohistochemical properties of nerve fibres supplying the gland in the beaver remind those previously described in other mammalian species. PMID:27497494

  14. Mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in salivary gland carcinomas other than mammary analogue secretory carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kalyani R; Solomon, Isaac H; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2013-11-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that has morphologic features similar to secretory carcinoma of the breast and that also harbors the same ETV6 translocation. Diffuse mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity are used to differentiate MASC from its morphologic mimics, especially acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. However, the combination of mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity has not been well studied in other types of salivary gland carcinomas that may have focal areas reminiscent of MASC. Here we evaluated mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in 15 cases each of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and also in 2 cases of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified, and 1 mucinous adenocarcinoma. Cases with significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100 (moderate or strong immunoreactivity in >25% of tumor cells) were further analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the ETV6 (12p13) break-apart probe. Nine cases (60%) of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and two (13.3%) of adenoid cystic carcinoma met the criteria for significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100. All were negative for the ETV6 translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Although mammaglobin and S-100 positivity was seen in the majority of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas and a minority of adenoid cystic carcinomas, none were positive for the ETV6 translocation characteristic of MASC. This indicates a need for caution in the use of immunohistochemistry for diagnosing MASC, especially in the absence of cytogenetic confirmation.

  15. Lgr5-Expressing Cells Are Sufficient and Necessary for Postnatal Mammary Gland Organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vicki Plaks; Audrey Brenot; Devon A. Lawson; Linnemann, Jelena R.; Eline C. Van Kappel; Karren C. Wong; Frederic de Sauvage; Ophir D. Klein; Zena Werb

    2013-01-01

    Mammary epithelial stem cells are vital to tissue expansion and remodeling during various phases of postnatal mammary development. Basal mammary epithelial cells are enriched in Wnt-responsive cells and can reconstitute cleared mammary fat pads upon transplantation into mice. Lgr5 is a Wnt-regulated target gene and was identified as a major stem cell marker in the small intestine, colon, stomach, and hair follicle, as well as in kidney nephrons. Here, we demonstrate the outstanding regenerati...

  16. Variability of intraductal papillomas of the mammary gland: Clinical, roentgenologic and morphologic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiodiagnostical method of choice is the galactographic technique. However, a specific X-ray image of the papilloma does not exist. The galactographic technique has to be adapted to the surgical and histologic one. Only by combining these three techniques good results can be achieved. It is not possible to draw conclusions from the colour of the pathologic discharge about the type and character of the pathologic process. Contrary to the findings documented in the literature, we were able to diagnose with our technique not only small tumours, but also tumours situated in the periphery of the lactiferous duct. Because of our investigations it is no longer possible to maintain and keep the strict division of the proliferative changes occurring at the lactiferous duct walls. In this study, the most significant morphologic results are described in detail. In all patients with pathologic discharge of the mammary gland, the so-called papillo-carcinoma was found only in one case. As clinical consequence it has therefore to be demanded that in all women with the symptom of pathologic mamillary discharge first of all the origin of this discharge has to be localised by means of galactography. Only the individual morphologic picture of a proliferative change of the lactiferous duct provides some prognostic value. The prerequisites for such an individual assessment are differentiated roentgenologic, surgical and histological techniques. (orig./MG)

  17. The Infrared Radiation Temperature Characteristic of Acupoints of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To ascertain pathological information on hyperplasia of mammary glands (HMG of patients via the infrared radiation temperature of acupoints. Method. Patients with HMG and healthy controls were tested using an infrared thermal imager. Results. In controls, no significant difference in temperature was observed between points with the same name (P>0.05. The temperature of all tested points was found to be higher in the group with HMG than in that of the healthy controls, except for the left and right Zusanli (ST36. The temperature of the right Rugen (ST18, Guanyuan (CV4, Qihai (CV6, and Hegu (LI4 reached a statistically significant heightened level (P=0.046~P<0.001. The temperature of the Zusanli (ST36 and Hegu (LI4 present on the right side was significantly higher than that of the left (P=0.001 and P=0.004, resp., while the temperature of the left Youmen (KI21 was significantly higher than that of the right (P=0.008. Conclusion. The temperature of the bilateral acupoints in healthy controls was symmetrical, and the raised temperatures observed of the Rugen (ST18, Guanyuan (CV4, Qihai (CV6, and Hegu (LI4 acupoints of HMG patients and the imbalance of the temperature of the bilateral acupoints Zusanli (ST36, Youmen (KI21, and Hegu (LI4 carried special pathological information about HMG disease.

  18. microRNAs and the mammary gland: a new understanding of gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gigli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been identified in cells as well as in exosomes in biological fluids such as milk. In mammary gland, most of the miRNAs studied have functions related to immunity and show alterations in their pattern of expression during lactation. In mastitis, the inflammatory response caused by Streptococcus uberis alters the expression of miRNAs that may regulate the innate immune system. These small RNAs are stable at room temperature and are resistant to repeated freeze/thaw cycles, acidic conditions and degradation by RNAse, making them resistant to industrial procedures. These properties mean that miRNAs could have multiple applications in veterinary medicine and biotechnology. Indeed, lactoglobulin-free milk has been produced in transgenic cows expressing specific miRNAs. Although plant and animal miRNAs have undergone independent evolutionary adaptation recent studies have demonstrated a cross-kingdom passage in which rice miRNA was isolated from human serum. This finding raises questions about the possible effect that miRNAs present in foods consumed by humans could have on human gene regulation. Further studies are needed before applying miRNA biotechnology to the milk industry. New discoveries and a greater knowledge of gene expression will lead to a better understanding of the role of miRNAs in physiology, nutrition and evolution.

  19. 300 CASES OF HYPERPLASIA OF MAMMARY GLANDS TREATED WITH RED-HOT NEEDLE PLUS FILIFORM NEEDLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志红; 吴英; 付波; 贺普仁

    2003-01-01

    Clinical observations on 300 cases of hyperplasia of mammary glands (group A) treated by red-hot needle plus filiform needle are reported in the present study. "Ashi" points were used as the main acupoints. For comparison, other 300 cases (group B) were treated with routine acupuncture method, and Rugen (ST 18) was used as the main acupoint. In addition, other auxiliary acupoints were supplemented in the light of the concrete syndromes in these two groups. The treatment was given once daily, with 10 sessions being a therapeutic course. Of the 300 cases in group A, 240 were clinically cured, amounting to 80%; 58 were effective, amounting to 19.3%; 2 were failed, with a total effective rate of 99.3%. Of the 300 cases in group B, 113 were clinically cured, 165 effective, 22 were failed, with a total effective rate of 92.7%. The therapeutic effect of group A is significantly superior to that of group B (P<0.05).

  20. Lysostaphin expression in mammary glands confers protection against staphylococcal infection in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D E; Plaut, K; Bramley, A J; Williamson, C M; Lax, A J; Moore, K; Wells, K D; Wall, R J

    2001-01-01

    Infection of the mammary gland, in addition to causing animal distress, is a major economic burden of the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is the major contagious mastitis pathogen, accounting for approximately 15-30% of infections, and has proved difficult to control using standard management practices. As a first step toward enhancing mastitis resistance of dairy animals, we report the generation of transgenic mice that secrete a potent anti-staphylococcal protein into milk. The protein, lysostaphin, is a peptidoglycan hydrolase normally produced by Staphylococcus simulans. When the native form is secreted by transfected eukaryotic cells it becomes glycosylated and inactive. However, removal of two glycosylation motifs through engineering asparagine to glutamine codon substitutions enables secretion of Gln(125,232)-lysostaphin, a bioactive variant. Three lines of transgenic mice, in which the 5'-flanking region of the ovine beta-lactoglobulin gene directed the secretion of Gln(125,232)-lysostaphin into milk, exhibit substantial resistance to an intramammary challenge of 104 colony-forming units (c.f.u.) of S. aureus, with the highest expressing line being completely resistant. Milk protein content and profiles of transgenic and nontransgenic mice are similar. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of genetic engineering to combat the most prevalent disease of dairy cattle.

  1. Automatic segementation of histological structures in normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Deschamps, Thomas; Idica, Adam; Malladi, Ravikanth; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we present a scheme for real time segmentation of histological structures in microscopic images of normal and neoplastic mammary gland sections. Paraffin embedded or frozen tissue blocks are sliced, and sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The sections are then imaged using conventional bright field microscopy. The background of the images is corrected by arithmetic manipulation using a "phantom." Then we use the fast marching method with a speed function that depends on the brightness gradient of the image to obtain a preliminary approximation to the boundaries of the structures of interest within a region of interest (ROI) of the entire section manually selected by the user. We use the result of the fast marching method as the initial condition for the level set motion equation. We run this last method for a few steps and obtain the final result of the segmentation. These results can be connected from section to section to build a three-dimensional reconstruction of the entire tissue block that we are studying.

  2. Immunoglobulin Transporting Receptors Are Potential Targets for the Immunity Enhancement and Generation of Mammary Gland Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuemei; Hu, Jianjun; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    The functions of immunoglobulin transporting receptors (Ig transporting receptors) in immune system encompass from passive immunity to adaptive immunity by transporting immunoglobulins (Igs) and prolonging their half-life as well as enhancing immunosurveillance. Prior to the weaning, Ig transportations from mother to offspring confer the immediate passive immunity for neonates. After the weaning, FcRn and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor on infant intestinal epithelial cells retrieve Ig in intestinal lamina propria into the gut lumen for preventing pathogen invasion. This is not only improving the pathological consequences of infection but also helping the neonates for developing their own immune response; besides it would be the guidance for designing novel vaccines. Moreover, the investigations on Ig transporting receptors over-expressed transgenic animals have been carried out to improve Ig concentrations in serum and milk; thus, it would be a sustainable method to produce antibody-enriched milk-derived colostrum replacer for neonates. In order to generate mammary gland bioreactor, a series of methods have been developed for enhanced regulation of Ig transporting receptors expression and Ig transportation. PMID:27375616

  3. Ferutinin dose-dependent effects on uterus and mammary gland in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Marzia; Cavani, Francesco; Manni, Paola; Carnevale, Gianluca; Bertoni, Laura; Zavatti, Manuela; Palumbo, Carla

    2014-08-01

    The present paper completes our recent study on the effects of phytoestrogen ferutinin in preventing osteoporosis and demonstrating the superior osteoprotective effect of a 2 mg/kg/day dose in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, compared to both estrogens and lower (0.5, 1 mg/kg/day) ferutinin doses. Morphological and morphometrical analyses were performed on the effects of different doses of ferutinin administrated for one month on uterus and on mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley OVX rats, evaluated in comparison with the results for estradiol benzoate. To verify whether ferutinin provides protection against uterine and breast cancer, estimations were made of both the amount of cell proliferation (by Ki-67), and the occurrence of apoptosis (by TUNEL), two processes that in unbalanced ratio form the basis for cancer onset. The results suggest that the effects of ferutinin are dose dependent and that a 2 mg/kg/day dose might offer a better protective action against the onset of both breast and uterine carcinoma compared to ferutinin in lower doses or estradiol benzoate, increasing cellular apoptosis in glandular epithelia. PMID:24510547

  4. Electric impedance imaging of the mammary gland in the case of mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, M.; Karpov, A.

    2010-04-01

    The electric impedance mammography technique has been applied for several years. The aim of the research in hand is to reveal the peculiarities of the electric impedance imaging in various stages of the inflammatory process in the mammary gland. We have conducted an examination of twenty six patients: five of them in the stage of arterial hyperemia, eight in the stage of infiltration, three of them in the stage of abscess and ten in the stage of cicatrization. The examination was carried out on the "MEIK" (version 5.6) potencial electric impedance computer mammograph. The weighted reciprocal projection method was used to reconstruct the 3-D electric conductivity distribution of the examined organ. Any inflammatory process is phasic and always attended by the complex vascular alterations with exudation of liquid components of plasma, blood cells outwandering and stromal cells proliferation. Pathophysiological and histopathological peculiarities of each stage of the inflammatory process are well reflected in the electric impedance images. This fact enabled the authors of the research to define the electric impedance imaging as the histofunctional scanning.

  5. In-vitro depth-dependent hyperthermia of human mammary gland adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrew W; Zhang, Yu; Mast, David; Pauletti, Giovanni M; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Jiaming; Ewing, Rodney C; Shi, Donglu

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle mediated photothermal ablation of cancerous tissue shows promising results and applicability as a highly efficacious treatment method. As a majority of the photothermal work has been conducted with minimal attenuation of the laser before reaching the nanoparticles within surface seeded tumors in-vivo or through buffered media in-vitro, it is important to understand the effects of greater laser attenuation on photothermal efficacy mediated by changes in the scattering and absorption of the laser. Photothermal efficacy using a near infrared (NIR) 785nm laser irradiating polystyrene (PS) stabilized magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (PS-Fe3O4) is examined on MDA-MB-231 human mammary gland adenocarcinoma in-vitro. Agarose gel columns of various heights were created to simulate soft tissue and subsequently used for NIR laser attenuation. Polystyrene was found to significantly improve magnetite nanoparticle stability in serum containing media and modified Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and was able to induce significant hyperthermic ablation at mass concentrations which also did not elicit significant innate toxicity. Furthermore it was found that the polystyrene coating significantly reduced innate toxicity over 48h compared to uncoated magnetite. Agar gel layers provided similar optical attenuation in the NIR region to skin and prostate. PMID:27612683

  6. Immunoglobulin Transporting Receptors Are Potential Targets for the Immunity Enhancement and Generation of Mammary Gland Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuemei; Hu, Jianjun; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    The functions of immunoglobulin transporting receptors (Ig transporting receptors) in immune system encompass from passive immunity to adaptive immunity by transporting immunoglobulins (Igs) and prolonging their half-life as well as enhancing immunosurveillance. Prior to the weaning, Ig transportations from mother to offspring confer the immediate passive immunity for neonates. After the weaning, FcRn and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor on infant intestinal epithelial cells retrieve Ig in intestinal lamina propria into the gut lumen for preventing pathogen invasion. This is not only improving the pathological consequences of infection but also helping the neonates for developing their own immune response; besides it would be the guidance for designing novel vaccines. Moreover, the investigations on Ig transporting receptors over-expressed transgenic animals have been carried out to improve Ig concentrations in serum and milk; thus, it would be a sustainable method to produce antibody-enriched milk-derived colostrum replacer for neonates. In order to generate mammary gland bioreactor, a series of methods have been developed for enhanced regulation of Ig transporting receptors expression and Ig transportation. PMID:27375616

  7. Automatic segmentation of histological structures in normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Deschamps, Thomas; Idica, Adam K.; Malladi, Ravi; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos

    2003-01-18

    In this paper we present a scheme for real time segmentation of histological structures in microscopic images of normal and neoplastic mammary gland sections. Paraffin embedded or frozen tissue blocks are sliced, and sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The sections are then imaged using conventional bright field microscopy. The background of the images is corrected by arithmetic manipulation using a ''phantom.'' Then we use the fast marching method with a speed function that depends on the brightness gradient of the image to obtain a preliminary approximation to the boundaries of the structures of interest within a region of interest (ROI) of the entire section manually selected by the user. We use the result of the fast marching method as the initial condition for the level set motion equation. We run this last method for a few steps and obtain the final result of the segmentation. These results can be connected from section to section to build a three-dimensional reconstruction of the entire tissue block that we are studying.

  8. An isotope dilution model for partitioning phenylalanine and tyrosine uptake by the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, L A; France, J; Reynolds, C K; Mills, J A N; Hanigan, M D; Ellis, J L; Bannink, A; Bequette, B J; Dijkstra, J

    2014-10-21

    An isotope dilution model for partitioning phenylalanine and tyrosine uptake by the mammary gland of the lactating dairy cow is constructed and solved in the steady state. The model contains four intracellular and four extracellular pools and conservation of mass principles are applied to generate the fundamental equations describing the behaviour of the system. The experimental measurements required for model solution are milk secretion and plasma flow rate across the gland in combination with phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations and plateau isotopic enrichments in arterial and venous plasma and free and protein bound milk during a constant infusion of [1-(13)C]phenylalanine and [2,3,5,6-(2)H]tyrosine tracer. If assumptions are made, model solution enables determination of steady state flows for phenylalanine and tyrosine inflow to the gland, outflow from it and bypass, and flows representing the synthesis and degradation of constitutive protein and phenylalanine hydroxylation. The model is effective in providing information about the fates of phenylalanine and tyrosine in the mammary gland and could be used as part of a more complex system describing amino acid metabolism in the whole ruminant.

  9. Mammary gland-specific ablation of focal adhesion kinase reduces the incidence of p53-mediated mammary tumour formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, van M.H.; Nimwegen, van M.J.; Tijdens, R.B.; Lalai, R.A.; Kuiper, R.; Klarenbeek, S.; Schouten, P.C.; Vries, de A.; Jonkers, J.M.M..; Water, van de B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) occurs in numerous human cancers including colon-, cervix- and breast cancer. Although several studies have implicated FAK in mammary tumour formation induced by ectopic oncogene expression, evidence supporting a role for FAK in spontaneo

  10. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of salivary gland with high-grade histology arising in hard palate, report of a case and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Wenyi; Lindley, Sarah W; Lindley, Peter H; Krempl, Gregory A; Seethala, Raja R; Fung, Kar-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland analog secretary carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland is typically a tumor of low histologic grade and behaves as a low-grade malignancy with relatively benign course. This tumor shares histologic features, immunohistochemical profile, and a highly specific genetic translocation, ETV6-NTRK3, with secretory carcinoma of breast. Histologically, it is often mistaken as acinic cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, and other primary salivary gland tumors. Here we repo...

  11. High resolution 3D MRI of mouse mammary glands with intra-ductal injection of contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Roman, Brian B; Jansen, Sanaz A; Macleod, Kay; Conzen, Suzanne D; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study mouse mammary gland ductal architecture based on intra-ductal injection of contrast agents. Female FVB/N mice age 12-20 weeks (n=12), were used in this study. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25μL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple. Approximately 20-25μL of a Gadodiamide/Trypan blue/saline solution was injected slowly over one minute into the nipple and duct. To prevent washout of contrast media from ducts due to perfusion, and maximize the conspicuity of ducts on MRI, mice were sacrificed one minute after injection. High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired on a 9.4T Bruker scanner after sacrifice to eliminate motion artifacts and reduce contrast media leakage from ducts. Trypan blue staining was well distributed throughout the ductal tree. MRI showed the mammary gland ductal structure clearly. In spoiled gradient echo T1-weighted images, the signal-to-noise ratio of regions identified as enhancing mammary ducts following contrast injection was significantly higher than that of muscle (pcontrast media (pcontrast agents to measure metabolism or target receptors in normal ducts and ducts with in situ cancers.

  12. Predicting extraction and uptake of arterial energy metabolites by the mammary glands of lactating cows when blood flow is perturbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, J P; Madsen, T G; Cieslar, S R L

    2016-01-01

    Previous work shows that mammary uptake of milk precursors from blood can be affected by the rate of blood flow (F) to the glands. The purpose of the current work was to test the ability of compartmental and cylindrical capillary models to account for the variation in mammary extraction and net uptake of plasma metabolites produced by perturbation of mammary F. The data for model fitting were obtained from a previous experiment in which mammary arteriovenous differences of acetate + β-hydroxybutyrate (2C), glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) were measured in 4 cows before, during, and after intraarterial infusion of inhibitors of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase, which are 2 major systems of F control in the mammary glands. The 4 models tested were (1) constant extraction within each cow, (2) clearance from an extracellular compartment is a linear function of F with an intercept, (3) total capillary volume in a cylindrical representation is a linear function of F with an intercept, and (4) uptake from an extracellular compartment obeys Henri-Michaelis-Menten kinetics, where maximum velocity (Vmax) is a linear function of F with an intercept. According to prediction errors, model 4 fitted 2C extraction data best, accounting for 82% of the observed variation. The estimated Km (Henri-Michaelis-Menten constant) for venous 2C was 0.4 mM. For glucose clearance, a variant of model 2 with a positive effect of 2C uptake on clearance was identified as best, producing a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.31. For TAG, model 2 with a positive effect of arterial TAG concentration on TAG clearance was best, with an R(2) of 0.22. For LCFA, model 2 with a positive effect of arterial LCFA on LCFA clearance was best, with an R(2) of 0.29. Models 2 and 3 fitted the extraction data with the same R(2)-values and prediction errors, so both compartmental and cylindrical approaches to describing the vascular bed were equally capable

  13. A study of L-leucine, L-phenylalanine and L-alanine transport in the perfused rat mammary gland: possible involvement of LAT1 and LAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shennan, D B; Calvert, D T; Travers, M T; Kudo, Y; Boyd, C A R

    2002-08-19

    The transport of L-leucine, L-phenylalanine and L-alanine by the perfused lactating rat mammary gland has been examined using a rapid, paired-tracer dilution technique. The clearances of all three amino acids by the mammary gland consisted of a rising phase followed by a rapid fall-off, respectively, reflecting influx and efflux of the radiotracers. The peak clearance of L-leucine was inhibited by BCH (65%) and D-leucine (58%) but not by L-proline. The inhibition of L-leucine clearance by BCH and D-leucine was not additive. L-leucine inhibited the peak clearance of radiolabelled L-leucine by 78%. BCH also inhibited the peak clearance of L-phenylalanine (66%) and L-alanine (33%) by the perfused mammary gland. Lactating rat mammary tissue was found to express both LAT1 and LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that system L is situated in the basolateral aspect of the lactating rat mammary epithelium and thus probably plays a central role in neutral amino acid uptake from blood. The finding that L-alanine uptake by the gland was inhibited by BCH suggests that LAT2 may make a significant contribution to neutral amino acid uptake by the mammary epithelium. PMID:12101005

  14. The nuclear factor YY1 participates in repression of the beta-casein gene promoter in mammary epithelial cells and is counteracted by mammary gland factor during lactogenic hormone induction.

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, V S; Groner, B.

    1994-01-01

    Expression of the beta-casein milk protein gene in the mammary epithelial cell line HC11 is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level. A 338-bp segment of promoter sequence 5' of the transcription start site is sufficient to confer inducibility by the lactogenic hormones insulin, glucocorticoid hormone, and prolactin. Positively and negatively acting promoter elements and specific DNA binding proteins have been identified. The binding of the mammary gland factor MGF to a site between -...

  15. 针灸治疗乳腺增生的研究进展%Review on treating mammary glands with acupuncture and moxibustion treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盈盈; 周志奇

    2013-01-01

    本文对针灸治疗乳腺增生病的研究进展进行了回顾,主要从针法、灸法、其它疗法等方面进行分析,综述了针灸并用治疗乳腺增生病近况以及研究进展,说明了针灸治疗乳腺增生病具有很好的发展前景。%In this paper, acupuncture and moxibustion research progress of mammary glands were reviewed, mainly analyzed from the acupuncture, moxibustion, other therapies and other aspects. synthesis and use of acupuncture treatment of mammary glands on recent developments and research, explains acupuncture have mammary glands good prospects for development. The author summarizes the current situation and research progress of acupuncture and moxibustion treatment in mammary glands and explains that acupuncture and moxibustion treatment in mammary glands has good development prospects.

  16. Identification of macrophage extracellular trap-like structures in mammary gland adipose tissue: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunish eMohanan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PAD4-mediated hypercitrullination of histone H4 arginine 3 (H4R3 has been previously found to promote the formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NET in inflamed tissues and the resulting histone H4 citrulline 3 (H4Cit3 modification is thought to play a key role in extracellular trap (ET formation by promoting chromatin decondensation. In addition to neutrophils, macrophages have also recently been found to generate functional extracellular traps (METs. However, a role for PADs in ET formation in macrophages has not been previously described. Transcripts for PAD2 and PAD4 are found in mature macrophages and these cells can be induced to citrullinate proteins, thus raising the possibility that PADs may play a direct role in ET formation in macrophages via histone hypercitrullination. In breast and visceral white adipose tissue from obese patients, infiltrating macrophages are often seen to surround dead adipocytes forming characteristic crown-like structures (CLS and the presence of these lesions is associated with increased levels of inflammatory mediators. In light of these observations, we have initiated studies to test whether PADs are expressed in CLS macrophages and whether these macrophages might form METs. Our preliminary findings show that PAD2 (and to a lesser extent, PAD4 is expressed in both in the macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 and in CLS lesions. Additionally, we provide evidence that macrophage-derived extracellular histones are seen around presumptive macrophages within CLS lesions and that these histones contain the H4Cit3 modification. These initial findings support our hypothesis that obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation promotes the formation of METs within CLS lesions via PAD-mediated histone hypercitrullination. Subsequent studies are underway to further validate these findings and to investigate the role in PAD-mediated MET formation in CLS function in the mammary gland.

  17. The effects of milking frequency on insulin-like growth factor I signaling within the mammary gland of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murney, R; Stelwagen, K; Wheeler, T T; Margerison, J K; Singh, K

    2015-08-01

    In dairy cows, short-term changes in milking frequency (MF) in early lactation have been shown to produce both an immediate and a long-term effect on milk yield. The effect of MF on milk yield is controlled locally within mammary glands and could be a function of changes in either number or activity of secretory mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling is one candidate factor that could mediate these effects, as it can be controlled locally within mammary glands. Both MEC number and activity can be affected by IGF-I signaling by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathways. To investigate the relationship between MF and IGF-I signaling, udder halves of 17 dairy cows were milked either 4 times a day (4×) or once a day (1×) for 14 d in early lactation. On d 14, between 3 and 5 h following milking, mammary biopsies were obtained from 10 cows from both udder halves, and changes in the expression of genes associated with IGF-I signaling and the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways were measured. The mRNA abundance of IGF type I receptor, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and IGFBP-5 were lower following 4× milking relative to 1× milking. However, the mRNA abundance of IGF-I was not affected by MF. Both IGFBP3 and IGFBP5 are thought to inhibit IGF-I; therefore, decreases in their mRNA abundance may serve to stimulate the IGF-I signal in the 4×-milked mammary gland. The activation of PI3K/Akt pathway was lower in response to 4× milking relative to 1×, and the activation of the ERK1/2 was unaffected by MF, suggesting that they do not mediate the effects of MF. PMID:26074231

  18. Isoform-specific function of calpains in cell adhesion disruption: studies in postlactational mammary gland and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Lucía; Ferrer-Vicens, Iván; García, Concha; Oltra, Sara S; Zaragozá, Rosa; Viña, Juan R; García-Trevijano, Elena R

    2016-09-15

    Cleavage of adhesion proteins is the first step for physiological clearance of undesired cells during postlactational regression of the mammary gland, but also for cell migration in pathological states such as breast cancer. The intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent proteases, calpains (CAPNs), are known to cleave adhesion proteins. The isoform-specific function of CAPN1 and CAPN2 was explored and compared in two models of cell adhesion disruption: mice mammary gland during weaning-induced involution and breast cancer cell lines according to tumor subtype classification. In both models, E-cadherin, β-catenin, p-120, and talin-1 were cleaved as assessed by western blot analysis. Both CAPNs were able to cleave adhesion proteins from lactating mammary gland in vitro Nevertheless, CAPN2 was the only isoform found to co-localize with E-cadherin in cell junctions at the peak of lactation. CAPN2/E-cadherin in vivo interaction, analyzed by proximity ligation assay, was dramatically increased during involution. Calpain inhibitor administration prevented the cytosolic accumulation of truncated E-cadherin cleaved by CAPN2. Conversely, in breast cancer cells, CAPN2 was restricted to the nuclear compartment. The isoform-specific expression of CAPNs and CAPN activity was dependent on the breast cancer subtype. However, CAPN1 and CAPN2 knockdown cells showed that cleavage of adhesion proteins and cell migration was mediated by CAPN1, independently of the breast cancer cell line used. Data presented here suggest that the subcellular distribution of CAPN1 and CAPN2 is a major issue in target-substrate recognition; therefore, it determines the isoform-specific role of CAPNs during disruption of cell adhesion in either a physiological or a pathological context. PMID:27402795

  19. Predisposition of cows to mastitis in non-infected mammary glands: effects of dietary-induced negative energy balance during mid-lactation on immune-related genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E;

    2011-01-01

    to induce NEB and cows fed ad libitum to maintain PEB in order to identify genes involved in immune response and cellular metabolism that may predispose cows to an intramammary infection in non-infected mammary gland. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation...... requirements, and cows fed PEB cows were fed the same diet ad libitum. At 5 days after feed restriction, one rear mammary gland from all cows was biopsied for RNA extraction and transcript profiling using microarray and quantitative PCR. Energy balance (NEB vs. PEB) resulted in 278 differentially expressed...... indicate that DEG due to NEB in mid-lactation were associated with numerous biological functions but we did not identify genes that could, a priori, be associated with risk of intramammary infection in non-infected mammary glands. Further studies with early postpartal cows are required...

  20. 影响母猪乳腺发育的因素研究%Study on the Factors of Influencing Mammary Gland Development in Sow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万明

    2015-01-01

    There are three phases of rapid development for mammary gland in sow, from 90 days old to puberty, during the last third of gestation, throughout lactation respectively. Nutrition, endocrine status and management of sows during those periods all affect mammary gland develop-ment. This paper summarized the effects of nutrition,hormonal status and management schemes on the sow′s mammary gland development.%母猪乳腺有3个快速生长期:90日龄到初情期,妊娠后1/3期,泌乳期。后备及成年母猪的营养、内分泌状况和管理水平均会影响乳腺生长。本文就影响母猪乳腺发育的激素、营养、管理等因素进行了综述。

  1. Tudor-SN Regulates Milk Synthesis and Proliferation of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxia Ao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (Tudor-SN is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein, related to multiple and diverse cell type- and species-specific cellular processes. Studies have shown that Tudor-SN is mainly expressed in secretory cells, however knowledge of its role is limited. In our previous work, we found that the protein level of Tudor-SN was upregulated in the nucleus of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC. In this study, we assessed the role of Tudor-SN in milk synthesis and cell proliferation of BMEC. We exploited gene overexpression and silencing methods, and found that Tudor-SN positively regulates milk synthesis and proliferation via Stat5a activation. Both amino acids (methionine and estrogen triggered NFκB1 to bind to the gene promoters of Tudor-SN and Stat5a, and this enhanced the protein level and nuclear localization of Tudor-SN and p-Stat5a. Taken together, these results suggest the key role of Tudor-SN in the transcriptional regulation of milk synthesis and proliferation of BMEC under the stimulation of amino acids and hormones.

  2. Purification and characterization of glycoprotein processing enzyme α-glucosidase II from bovine mammary tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    α-Glucosidase II removes the two inner (α1-3) linked glucose residues of glycoprotein precursor Glc3Man9(GlcNAc)2.α-Glucosidase II has been purified to homogeneity from bovine mammary tissue. Briefly, purification involved solubilization of glucosidase II with Triton X-100 from microsomes followed by 20-60% (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, Con-A Sepharose 4B, hydroxylapatite and DEAE-Sephacel column chromatography. The purified glucosidase II showed single band on 10% non-denaturing PAGE and enzyme activity band on visualization with fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl (MUF) α-D-glucopyranoside. The purified enzyme exhibited broad pH optima (6.0-7.5). The enzyme hydrolyzed MUFα-D-glucoside (K/sub m/ = 13 μM) but was inactive against the corresponding D-glucoside and the α-D-mannoside. Cleavage of MUF α-glucoside was enhanced by mannose and starch and was inhibited by maltose, turanose and glucose. The enzyme released glucose residues from [3H]Glc2Man9(GlcNAc)2 but did not release glucose from [3H]Glc3Man9(GlcNAc)2. Reductive SDS-PAGE revealed two closely associated major bands showing mol. wt. of 66 and 64 ksSa. These bands also showed PAS-positive staining. Gel filtration revealed a molecular size of 290 kDa for purified enzyme

  3. Expression and immunohistochemical localization of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in the mammary glands of the Egyptian water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Kassab, Mohamed; Abd-Elmaksoud, Ahmed; Elnasharty, Mohamed; El-Kirdasy, Ahmed

    2010-07-01

    Although a marginal placental transfer of maternal immunoglobulin (Ig) has been demonstrated in buffalo, the colostrum still provides the main source of immune components and nutrients to neonate buffalo calves. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) transports maternal Ig across the gut wall and is involved in the transport of IgG in the mammary gland. In this study we used RT-PCR to examine the gene expression of FcRn in the mammary gland during several physiological states of the Egyptian water buffalo. The buffalo FcRn showed a high sequence homology to that of other mammalian species and especially the cow. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive immunolabelling of FcRn in the epithelial cells of the acini and ducts of the examined mammary gland tissue. Remarkable differences in both the cellular localization and in the intensity of FcRn immunopositivity were observed depending on the functional state of the mammary gland tissues. In late pregnancy, the FcRn immunolabelling was homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. In recently parturient animals, positive FcRn immunolabelling was mainly located at the luminal surface and apical cytoplasm of the mammary gland epithelium, while in dry and lactating animals, the FcRn immunolabelling was in the apical cytoplasm of the cells. The strongest FcRn immunolabelling was observed in late pregnancy and in recently parturient animals. In conclusion, the present data support the notion that FcRn might be involved in the transfer of maternal immunoglobulins and in the local defense mechanism of the mammary gland. PMID:19481783

  4. NMR-metabolomics profiling of mammary gland secretory tissue and milk serum in two goat breeds with different levels of tolerance to seasonal weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Mariana; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Castro, Noemí; Arguëllo, Anastasio; Capote, Juan; Matzapetakis, Manolis; de Almeida, André Martinho

    2016-06-21

    Goats are of special importance in the Mediterranean and tropical regions for producing a variety of dairy products. The scarcity of pastures during the dry season leads to seasonal weight loss (SWL), which affects milk production. In this work, we studied the effect of feed-restriction on two dairy goat breeds, with different tolerance levels to SWL: the Majorera breed (tolerant) and the Palmera breed (susceptible). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to compare the metabolome of an aqueous fraction of the mammary gland and milk serum from both breeds. Goats in mid-lactation were divided by breed, and each in two feed-regime groups: the control group and the restricted-fed group (to achieve 15-20% reduction of body weight at the end of the experiment). Milk and mammary gland samples were collected at the end of the experimental period (23rd day). (1)H NMR spectra were collected from the aqueous extract of the mammary gland biopsies and the milk serum. Profiling analysis has led to the identification of 46 metabolites in the aqueous extract of the mammary gland. Lactose, glutamate, glycine and lactate were found to be the most abundant. Analysis of milk serum allowed the identification of 50 metabolites, the most abundant being lactose, citrate and creatine. Significant differences were observed, in mammary gland biopsies and milk serum, between control and restricted-fed groups in both breeds, albeit with no differences between the breeds. Variations seem to be related to metabolism adaptation to the low-energy diet and are indicative of breed-specific microflora. Milk serum showed more metabolites varying between control and restricted groups, than the mammary gland. The Majorera breed also showed more variations than the Palmera breed in milk samples, which could be an indication of a prompt adaptation to SWL by the Majorera breed. PMID:27001028

  5. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION AND Х-RAY MAMMOGRAPHY OF THE MEN WITH MASS PATHOLOGY IN THE MAMMARY GLAND PROJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Akimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the scientific materials of domestic and foreign authors as well as on own observations, the results of the ultrasonic and mammographic research of the man’s mass pathology in the mammary gland projection being found in the process of differential diagnosis between malignant and benign tumors with similar clinical picture are presented in the article. Methodologically there has been carried out the analysis of the distinctive and rare signs of the benign process and malignant transformation of the man’s mass pathology in the mammary gland projection. In order to compare X-Ray and ultrasonic characteristics of the mass pathology in the patients’ mammary gland projection similar visual effects in the process of the prebiopsy clinical diagnosis forming has been studied in pairs. Mammography pictures and visualization in B-regime have been studied critically: shape correctness, localization, irregularity and obscurity of contours, presence of pathological inclusions, data of the colour and spectral Doppler sonography and 3D-regime scanning. According to the results of visual examinaion objective indications for needle biopsy of the man’s mass pathology in the mammary gland projection have been presented to the reader. The calculation of operation characteristics of different research methods of the mammary gland and combination of these methods has been done. The regularity of the information increase with an increase of the methods applied has been revealed. Based on the catamnesis examples of 317 men, the analysis of the necessity to make a combined examination variants of the mammary gland as the only definite opportunity to get a clinical diagnosis has been done.

  6. CCL28 Controls Immunoglobulin (Ig)A Plasma Cell Accumulation in the Lactating Mammary Gland and IgA Antibody Transfer to the Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Eric; Butcher, Eugene C.

    2004-01-01

    The accumulation of immunoglobulin (Ig)A antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in the lactating mammary gland leads to secretion of antibodies into milk and their passive transfer to the suckling newborn. This transfer of IgA from mother to infant provides transient immune protection against a variety of gastrointestinal pathogens. Here we show that the mucosal epithelial chemokine CCL28 is up-regulated in the mammary gland during lactation and that IgA ASCs from this tissue express CCR10 and migra...

  7. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  8. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induces Mast Cell Recruitment during Mouse Mammary Gland Stromal Remodeling12

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Joshua S.; McGee, Sibel Oflazoglu; Ip, Margot M.; Kuhlmann, Dietrich; Masso-Welch, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a dietary chemopreventive agent that induces apoptosis in the mammary adipose vascular endothelium and decreases mammary brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT). To determine onset and extent of stromal remodeling, we fed CD2F1/Cr mice diets supplemented with 1 or 2 g/100 g mixed CLA isomers for 1–7 wk. BAT loss, collagen deposition, and leukocyte recruitment occurred in the mouse mammary fat pad, coincident with an increase in parenchymal-a...

  9. Prenatal exposure to BPA alters the epigenome of the rat mammary gland and increases the propensity to neoplastic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dhimolea

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments, with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50. BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene

  10. Prenatal Exposure to BPA Alters the Epigenome of the Rat Mammary Gland and Increases the Propensity to Neoplastic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimolea, Eugen; Wadia, Perinaaz R.; Murray, Tessa J.; Settles, Matthew L.; Treitman, Jo D.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Shioda, Toshi; Soto, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens) may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND) 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA) was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments), with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50). BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene expression patterns

  11. Chemopreventive potential of fungal taxol against 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokul Raj, Kathamuthu; Chidambaram, Ranganathan; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Pandi, Mohan

    2015-11-15

    Breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer and foremost global public health problem. The present study was designed to appraise the chemopreventive potential of fungal taxol against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats. After 90 days of tumor induction, fungal and authentic taxol were given intraperitoneally once in a week for four weeks. Infrared thermal imaging analysis, serum biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidase (LPO), creatinine, enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants, liver markers tests such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins was analysed. In addition, histopathological observation (breast, kidney and liver), immunohistochemical analysis (p53 and Her2/neu) and western blotting experiments (bcl-2, bax and caspase-9) were performed both in control and experimental animals. In thermal imaging, decreased temperature was observed in rat treated with fungal and authentic taxol when compared to tumor induced rats. The significant decrease in LPO, creatinine, ALT, AST, TC, TG, lipoproteins and increase in enzymic, non-enzymic antioxidants were exemplified in serum of treated groups. Further histopathology, immunohistochemical and western blot analysis (bax, cas-9 and bcl-2) of apoptotic markers in breast tissues clearly showed the anti-carcinogenic property of fungal taxol. Our findings implement that fungal taxol is a potential chemo preventive agent against DMBA induced mammary gland carcinogenesis.

  12. 正确认识乳腺增生疾病%A Correct Understanding of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈煌军; 邹吉辉

    2014-01-01

    乳腺增生是中青女性最常见的一种非炎症,非肿瘤性病变,占所有乳房疾病的75%,其发病率正在逐年升高,现已威胁到广大女性朋友的身心健康,如何正确认识乳腺增生性疾病显得尤为重要,文章就乳腺增生性疾病的病因,乳腺增生与乳腺癌的关系,如何鉴别?如何提高乳腺癌早期发现率及乳腺癌的预防做详细的阐述。%Hyperplasia of mammary glands is one of the most common in women than inflammation, non cancerous lesions, accounted for 75% of al breast disease, its incidence is rising year by year, is now threatening the physical and mental health of the female friends, how to correctly understand breast hyperplastic disease is particularly important, articles for breast hyperplastic disease causes, the relationship between mammary gland hyperplasia and breast cancer, how to identify? How to improve the rate of early detection of breast cancer and breast cancer prevention for detailed in this paper.

  13. An effect of mammary gland infection caused by Streptococcus uberis on composition and physicochemical changes of cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecka-Kiełb, E; Vasil, M; Zachwieja, A; Zawadzki, W; Elečko, J; Zigo, F; Illek, J; Farkašová, Z

    2016-01-01

    An effect of mammary gland infection caused by Streptococcus uberis on the changes in cows' milk composition and its physicochemical properties was examined. The study was conducted in the herd of Slovak Pied breed cattle (with a share of HF blood), in 2nd and 3rd lactation, after 4th month of milking. Milk samples were collected from a quarter milking. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis, basic milk composition, total bacteria count, somatic cell count and physicochemical properties were examined. Also analyses of protein fractions share and fatty acids profile were conducted. An effect of bacterial infection of the mammary gland bring an increase (Psubclinical mastitis caused by S. uberis. Significant (P<0.05) reduction in the share of C13:0 acid, and an increased level of C18:0, C18:1n7t and CLA were observed in milk contaminated with S. uberis compared to healthy cows' milk. It should be concluded that S. uberis causes the increase in total bacteria count, SCC and the decrease in κ-casein level, which significantly affects deterioration of technological quality of cows' milk. PMID:27096787

  14. Effect of mammogenic hormones on the expression of FGF7, FGF10 and their receptor in mouse mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yingdun; LI QingZhang

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of estrogen, progesterone and prolactin stimulating the development of mammary gland, the Kunming mice were used as experimental animals in this study. Through the ex-periment in vitro, the effect of mammogenic hormones were systematically investigated on expression of FGF7 and FGF10 and their receptor in different periods. The results are as follows: in mammary glands of mice, 17 beta-estradiol increased the expression of FGF7; progesterone did not affect the expression of FGF7; prolactin up-regulated the expression of FGF7 significantly in pregnancy and lac-tation. 17 beta-estradiol increased the expression of FGF10; progesterone and prolactin reduced the expression of FGF10 significantly in virgin; prolactin significantly increased the expression of FGF10 in pregnancy. When 17 beta-estradiol in the body was in relatively high proportion, it would lower the ex-pression of KGFR; while 17 beta-estradiol in the body was in relatively low proportion, it would increase the expression of KGFR. Low concentration of progesterone increased the expression of KGFR and high progesterone did not affect the expression of KGFR. Prolactin increased the expression of KGFR significantly in pregnancy and lactation.

  15. Lef1 is required for the transition of Wnt signaling from mesenchymal to epithelial cells in the mouse embryonic mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boras-Granic, Kata; Chang, Hong; Grosschedl, Rudolf; Hamel, Paul A

    2006-07-01

    Inductive reciprocal signaling between mesenchymal and adjacent epithelia gives rise to skin appendages such as hair follicles and mammary glands. Lef1-mediated canonical Wnt signaling is required for morphogenesis of these skin appendages during embryogenesis. In order to define the role of canonical Wnt signaling during early embryonic mammary gland development, we determined the temporal and spatial changes in Wnt signaling during embryogenesis in wild-type and Lef1-deficient embryos harboring a Tcf/Lef1-betagal reporter (TOPGAL) transgene. In contrast to previous studies using TOPGAL mice from a distinct founder, we observe that Wnt signaling acts initially on mesenchymal cells associated with the sequential appearance of mammary placodes. As placode development progresses between 12.5 and 15.5 dpc, Wnt signaling progressively accumulates in the mammary epithelial compartment. By 18.5 dpc, betagal activity is confined to mesenchymal and epithelial cells near the nipple region. In Lef1-deficient embryos, the transition of Wnt signaling from mesenchyme to the mammary epithelia is blocked for placodes #1, 4 and 5 despite the expression of Tcf1 in epithelial cells. These placodes ultimately disappear by 15.5 dpc, while placodes 2 and 3 typically did not form in the absence of Lef1. Progressive loss of placodes 1, 4, and 5 is accompanied by increased apoptosis in mesenchymal cells adjacent to the mammary epithelial placodes. While factors important for embryonic mammary gland development, such as FGF7, are expressed normally in Lef1-deficient animals, one mediator of the Hedgehog (Hh)-signaling pathway is aberrantly expressed. Specifically, Shh, Ihh, and Gli2 are expressed in mammary epithelial cells at levels in Lef1-deficient animals similar to wild-type littermates. However, the signal for Ptc-1 is strongly reduced in mesenchymal cells surrounding the mammary placode in Lef1 mutants relative to wild-type embryos. The loss of Ptc-1, both a receptor for and

  16. Estrogen-triggered delays in mammary gland gene expression during the estrous cycle: evidence for a novel timing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Gary B; Van Horn, Katharine; Hrabeta-Robinson, Eva; Compton, Jennifer

    2006-08-01

    During the estrous cycle and beginning in estrus, the mammary gland undergoes pregnancy-like development that depends on transcriptional regulation by the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR) and Pax-2 as well as the action of the growth factors Wnt-4 and RANKL. In this report, we first describe the decay and delayed expression of ERalpha, PR, and Pax-2 proteins as well as depression of Wnt-4 and RANKL mRNA coincident with the strong estrogen surge in proestrus. In time-course studies using ovari-ectomized mice, a single estrogen injection replicated these delays and caused an 18 h delay in Wnt-4 expression. Molecular time-delay systems are at the core of cellular cycles, most notably the circadian clock, and depend on proteasome degradation of transcriptional regulators that exhibit dedicated timing functions. The cytoplasmic dynamics of these regulators govern delay duration through negative transcription/translation feedback loops. A proteasome inhibitor, PS-341, blocked estrogen-stimulated ERalpha, PR, and Pax-2 decay and proteasome chymotryptic activity, assayed using a fluorogenic substrate, was elevated in proestrus correlating with the depletion of the transcription factors. The 18-h delay in Wnt-4 induction corresponded to the turnover time of Pax-2 protein in the cytoplasm and was eliminated in Pax-2 knockout mammary tissue, demonstrating that Pax-2 has a unique timing function. The patterns of estrogen-triggered ERalpha, PR, and Pax-2 turnover were consistent with a negative transcriptional feedback. Retarding the expression of ERalpha, PR, and Pax-2 may optimize preparations for pregnancy by coordinating expression of critical receptors and transcription factors with rising estrogen and progesterone levels in estrus. The estrogen surge in proestrus has no defined mammotropic function. This study provides the first evidence that it is a synchronizing signal triggering proteasome-dependent turnover of mammary gland ERalpha, PR, and Pax-2. We

  17. Cloning of 5’ regulatory element of bovine β-lactoglobulin gene and its utilization in generation of mammary bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国庆; 戴蕴平; 朱宝利; 陈永福; 齐顺章

    1996-01-01

    To obtain a regulatory element for generating mammary bioreactors. a DNA fragment derived from bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene was cloned, which consisted of a 650-bp 5’ flanking sequence, exon Ⅰ, intron Ⅰ and exon Ⅱ. A 661-bp region of the cloned fragment, consisting of the 650-bp 5’ flanking sequence and a non-coding sequence of 11 bp downstream of the transcription initiation site, was used as a regulatory element to combine with human growth hormone (hGH) gene to generate a bovine BLG/hGH fusion construct, which was then introduced into cultured primary mammary epithelial cells of goat for transient expression of hGH gene. It was demonstrated that the hGH gene was able to express following hormone induction and the expressed product was able to be secreted into the medium. The bovine BLG/hGH fusion construct was also used to generate transgenic mice by microinjection. Subsequently, five transgenic mice were generated. The hGH in milk by one transgenic female mouse was 420μg/mL, while the cont

  18. In utero exposure to butyl benzyl phthalate induces modifications in the morphology and the gene expression profile of the mammary gland: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Irma H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental estrogens are exogenous estrogen-mimicking compounds that can interfere with endogenous endocrine systems. Several of these endocrine disruptors have been shown to alter normal development and influence tumorigenesis in experimental models. N-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, a widely used plasticizer, is a well-known endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of prenatal exposure to BBP on the morphology, proliferative index, and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages. Methods In utero exposure was performed by gavage of pregnant Sprague Dawley CD rats with 120mg or 500mg BBP/kg/day from day 10 post-conception to delivery. Female litters were euthanized at 21, 35, 50 and 100 days. The morphology and proliferative index of the mammary gland were studied from whole mount preparations and BrdU incorporation, respectively. Gene expression profile was assessed by microarrays. Several genes found differentially expressed and related to different functional categories were further validated by real time RT-PCR. Results Prenatal exposure of BBP induced delayed vaginal opening and changes in the post-natal mammary gland long after the end of the treatment, mainly by 35 days of age. Exposure to the high dose resulted in modifications in architecture and proliferative index of the mammary gland, mostly affecting the undifferentiated terminal end buds. Moreover, the expression profiles of this gland in the exposed rats were modified in a dose-dependent fashion. Analysis of functional categories showed that modified genes were related to immune function, cell signaling, proliferation and differentiation, or metabolism. Conclusions Our data suggest that in utero exposure to BBP induced a delayed pubertal onset and modified morphology of the mammary gland. These alterations were accompanied by modifications in gene expression previously associated with an increased susceptibility

  19. Does protein intake alter the precursors for synthesis of lactose and non-essential amino acids by the mammary glands of lactating mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims were to: 1) develop a [U-13C]glucose tracer approach to establish the pathways of and substrates used for milk lactose and casein synthesis in the mouse mammary gland and 2) determine the influence of protein intake on this partition and use for milk synthesis. In Study 1, we determined th...

  20. NORMAL MAMMARY GLAND MORPHOLOGY IN PUBERTAL FEMALE MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO GENISTEIN AT LEVELS COMPARABLE TO HUMAN DIETARY EXPOSURE. (R827402)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of in utero and lactational exposure to genistein (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day) on mammary gland morphology in female B6D2F1 mice at levels comparable to or greater than human exposures. The effect of diethylstilbest...

  1. 乳腺疾病常用影像学检查技术比较%Comparison of Common Imaging Technologies of Mammary Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周学武

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了乳腺疾病常用的几项影像学检查技术的工作原理、损伤情况和优缺点.%This paper introduces the work principle, advantages and disadvantages of several eommon imaging technologies of mammary gland disease.

  2. Arginine Supplementation Recovered the IFN-γ-Mediated Decrease in Milk Protein and Fat Synthesis by Inhibiting the GCN2/eIF2α Pathway, Which Induces Autophagy in Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaojing; Che, Yanyi; Gao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Shuang; Ao, Changjin; Yang, Hongjian; Liu, Juxiong; Liu, Guowen; Han, Wenyu; Wang, Yuping; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-05-31

    During the lactation cycle of the bovine mammary gland, autophagy is induced in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) as a cellular homeostasis and survival mechanism. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor that has been shown to induce autophagy in multiple cell lines in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether IFN-γ can induce autophagy and whether autophagy affects milk synthesis in BMECs. To understand whether IFN-γ affects milk synthesis, we isolated and purified primary BMECs and investigated the effect of IFN-γ on milk synthesis in primary BMECs in vitro. The results showed that IFN-γ significantly inhibits milk synthesis and that autophagy was clearly induced in primary BMECs in vitro within 24 h. Interestingly, autophagy was observed following IFN-γ treatment, and the inhibition of autophagy can improve milk protein and milk fat synthesis. Conversely, upregulation of autophagy decreased milk synthesis. Furthermore, mechanistic analysis confirmed that IFN-γ mediated autophagy by depleting arginine and inhibiting the general control nonderepressible-2 kinase (GCN2)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) signaling pathway in BMECs. Then, it was found that arginine supplementation could attenuate IFN-γ-induced autophagy and recover milk synthesis to some extent. These findings may not only provide a novel measure for preventing the IFN-γ-induced decrease in milk quality but also a useful therapeutic approach for IFN-γ-associated breast diseases in other animals and humans.

  3. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1 TAg mice offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardman W Elaine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female offspring. Methods Female SV 129 mice were divided into two groups and placed on diets containing either 10% w/w corn oil (which is 50% n-6 PUFA, control diet or 10% w/w canola oil (which is 20% n-6 PUFA, 10% n-3 PUFA, test diet. After two weeks on the diets the females were bred with homozygous C3(1 TAg transgenic mice. Mother mice consumed the assigned diet throughout gestation and nursing of the offspring. After weaning, all female offspring were maintained on the control diet. Results Compared to offspring of mothers fed the corn oil diet (CO/CO group, offspring of mothers fed the canola oil diet (CA/CO group had significantly fewer mammary glands with tumors throughout the experiment. At 130 days of age, the CA/CO group had significantly fewer tumors per mouse (multiplicity; the tumor incidence (fraction of mice with any tumor and the total tumor weight (per mouse that developed tumor was less than one half that of the CO/CO group. At 170 days of age, the total tumor weight per mouse was significantly less in the CA/CO group and if a tumor developed the rate of tumor growth rate was half that of CO/CO group. These results indicate that maternal consumption of canola oil was associated with delayed appearance of mammary gland tumors and slowed growth of the tumors that developed. Conclusions Substituting canola oil for corn oil is an easy dietary change for people to make; such a change to the maternal diet may decrease risk for breast cancer in the daughter.

  4. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) TAg mice offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA) has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA) from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female offspring. Female SV 129 mice were divided into two groups and placed on diets containing either 10% w/w corn oil (which is 50% n-6 PUFA, control diet) or 10% w/w canola oil (which is 20% n-6 PUFA, 10% n-3 PUFA, test diet). After two weeks on the diets the females were bred with homozygous C3(1) TAg transgenic mice. Mother mice consumed the assigned diet throughout gestation and nursing of the offspring. After weaning, all female offspring were maintained on the control diet. Compared to offspring of mothers fed the corn oil diet (CO/CO group), offspring of mothers fed the canola oil diet (CA/CO group) had significantly fewer mammary glands with tumors throughout the experiment. At 130 days of age, the CA/CO group had significantly fewer tumors per mouse (multiplicity); the tumor incidence (fraction of mice with any tumor) and the total tumor weight (per mouse that developed tumor) was less than one half that of the CO/CO group. At 170 days of age, the total tumor weight per mouse was significantly less in the CA/CO group and if a tumor developed the rate of tumor growth rate was half that of CO/CO group. These results indicate that maternal consumption of canola oil was associated with delayed appearance of mammary gland tumors and slowed growth of the tumors that developed. Substituting canola oil for corn oil is an easy dietary change for people to make; such a change to the maternal diet may decrease risk for breast cancer in the daughter

  5. Connexins, E-cadherin, Claudin-7 and β-catenin transiently form junctional nexuses during the post-natal mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianati, Elham; Poiraud, Jérémy; Weber-Ouellette, Anne; Plante, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Gap junctions are intercellular channels made of connexins (Cxs) that allow direct communication between adjacent cells. Modulation of Cxs has been associated with abnormal development and function of the mammary gland and breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying their expression during normal mammary gland are not yet known. Cxs interact with components of tight and adherens junctions. Thus, we hypothesized that the expression levels of Cxs vary during mammary gland development and are regulated through stage-dependent interactions with members of the tight and adherens junctions. Our specific objectives were to: 1) determine the expression of Cxs and tight and adherens junction proteins throughout development and 2) characterize Cxs interactions with components of tight and adherens junctions. Murine mammary glands were sampled at various developmental stages (pre-pubescent to post-weaning). RT-qPCR and western-blot analyses demonstrated differential expression patterns for all gap (Cx43, Cx32, Cx26, Cx30), tight (Claudin-1, -3, -4, -7) and adherens (β-catenin, E- and P-cadherins) junctions throughout development. Interestingly, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated interactions between these different types of junctions. Cx30 interacted with Cx26 just at the late pregnancy stage. While Cx43 showed a persistent interaction with β-catenin from virginity to post-weaning, its interactions with E-cadherin and Claudin-7 were transient. Cx32 interacted with Cx26, E-cadherin and β-catenin during lactation. Immunofluorescence results confirmed the existence of a junctional nexus that remodeled during mammary gland development. Together, our results confirm that the expression levels of Cxs vary concomitantly and that Cxs form junctional nexuses with tight and adherens junctions, suggesting the existence of common regulatory pathways.

  6. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the nipple of the rat mammary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P;

    1994-01-01

    Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin (SOM). The study revealed an extensive innervation of the mammary nipples, in which CGRP-immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibres were abundantly present in the epidermis, dermal connective tissue and intralobular connective tissue of the mammary....... The location of SP-IR appeared to be comparable to CGRP-IR, but in fewer fibres. Dense NPY-IR networks of nerve fibres were closely associated with the fascicles of smooth musculature in the core of the nipple base. In contrast, VIP-IR fibres were only sparsely present, and SOM-IR was not detected...

  7. Effect of the ratios of unsaturated fatty acids on the expressions of genes related to fat and protein in the bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, R; Yan, S M; Qi, L Z; Zhao, Y L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the different ratios of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) (oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid) on the cell viability and triacylglycerol (TAG) content, as well as the mRNA expression of the genes related to lipid and protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Primary cells were isolated from the mammary glands of Holstein dairy cows and were passaged twice. Afterward, the cells were randomly allocated to six treatments, five UFA-treated groups, and one control group. For all of the treatments, the the fetal bovine serum in the culture solution was replaced with fatty acid-free BSA (1 g/L), and the cells were treated with different ratios of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids (0.75:4:1, 1.5:10:1, 2:13.3:1, 3:20:1, and 4:26.7:1) for 48 h, which were group 1 to group 5. The control culture solution contained only fatty acid-free BSA without UFAs (0 μM). The results indicated that the cell viability was not affected by adding different ratios of UFAs, but the accumulation of TAG was significantly influenced by supplementing with different ratios of UFAs. Adding different ratios of UFAs suppressed the expression of ACACA and FASN but had the opposite effect on the abundances of FABP3 and CD36 mRNA. The expression levels of PPARG, SPEBF1, CSN1S1, and CSN3 mRNA in the BMECs were affected significantly after adding different ratios of UFAs. Our results suggested that groups 1, 2, and 3 (0.75:4:1, 1.5:10:1, and 2:13.3:1) had stronger auxo-action on fat synthesis in the BMECs, where group 3 (2:13.3:1) was the best, followed by group 4 (3:20:1). However, group 5 (4:26.7:1) was the worst. Genes related to protein synthesis in the BMECs were better promoted in groups 2 and 3, and group 3 had the strongest auxo-action, whereas the present study only partly examined the regulation of protein synthesis at the transcriptional level; more studies on translation level are needed in the future

  8. The Effect of Storage Temperature and Time on the Concentrations of Bovine Serum Amyloid A and Its Mammary Associated Isoform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Tóthová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage under various conditions on the concentrations of major bovine acute phase protein—serum amyloid A, and its mammary isoform. Blood samples were taken from seven clinically healthy calves, and milk samples from six clinically healthy dairy cows. The harvested blood serum and the milk samples were fractioned into aliquots. One aliquot was analyzed on the day of collection without storage. The second aliquots were stored at 4°C for 1 day, the remaining aliquots were kept frozen at −18°C for 2, 7, 14, and 21 days, and then analyzed. Blood serum was analyzed for serum amyloid A (SAA. The concentrations of mammary isoform of SAA (M-SAA were measured in milk samples. Over time, the concentrations of SAA in serum showed a tendency of significant decrease during storage at −18°C (P<0.01. Similarly, the values of M-SAA decreased significantly in samples maintained at freezer temperatures (P<0.001. In the refrigerated samples, we found non-significantly lower values of SAA, as well as M-SAA. Presented results indicate that the storage temperature and duration may markedly affect the concentrations of bovine SAA and M-SAA.

  9. [MODERN METHODS OF PROGNOSTICATION OF THE RECURRENCES OCCURRENCE AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT OF THE MAMMARY GLAND BENIGN TUMORS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, O Yu; Romak, R P

    2015-05-01

    Modern schemes of the recurrences predicting after surgical treatment of benign tumors of mammary gland (BTMG) were estimated. In accordance to data of retrospective investigation obtained, the recurrences occurrence rate through a five-year period of observation have constituted 2.3%. While doing prospective observation, the recurrences after treatment have occurred in 12 (24.0%) patients, suffering phylloid histologic form of tumor. The BTMG recurrences were noted predominantly in women--carriers of mutant alleles with polymorphism rs8190924 of gene GSR and AA rs3763511--of gene DKK4. Nethertheless, there are no data, which confirm the recurrence occurrence risk to be considered genetically determinated, the possibilities ratio for this kind of polymorphism have costituted 12.0 (trustworthy interval 95% 0.8 - 14.9).

  10. Prophylactic irradiation of the male mammary gland - prevention of gynaecomastia as caused by endocrine treatment of carcinomas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period between 1975 and 1980 bilateral irradiation of the mammary glands was carried out in a total of 72 bearers of carcinomas of the prostate that had previously been confirmed on a histological basis. In no less than 35 (90%) out of the 39 patients where radiotherapy was started prior to the beginning of endocrine treatment the follow-up checks revealed a prevention or suppression of gynaecomastia as a result of radiation. The effectiveness of this treatment is described in the literature as being in the order 81% and its beneficial influences are confirmed by the data of our study. If gynaecomastia has already become established, radiotherapy holds out little promise of success and a relief of the associated discomfort is the best to be expected here. (orig./MG)

  11. A Geometrically-Constrained Mathematical Model of Mammary Gland Ductal Elongation Reveals Novel Cellular Dynamics within the Terminal End Bud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Paine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is often used to model biological systems. In mammary gland development, mathematical modeling has been limited to acinar and branching morphogenesis and breast cancer, without reference to normal duct formation. We present a model of ductal elongation that exploits the geometrically-constrained shape of the terminal end bud (TEB, the growing tip of the duct, and incorporates morphometrics, region-specific proliferation and apoptosis rates. Iterative model refinement and behavior analysis, compared with biological data, indicated that the traditional metric of nipple to the ductal front distance, or percent fat pad filled to evaluate ductal elongation rate can be misleading, as it disregards branching events that can reduce its magnitude. Further, model driven investigations of the fates of specific TEB cell types confirmed migration of cap cells into the body cell layer, but showed their subsequent preferential elimination by apoptosis, thus minimizing their contribution to the luminal lineage and the mature duct.

  12. Relationship between 129I and 127I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, A. E.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Wallner, A.; Arazi, A.; Steier, P.

    2013-01-01

    129I/127I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the 129I/127I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that 129I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the 129I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total 129I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

  13. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

  14. Influence of Mammary Gland Pathology and Organ Index on Mice with Mammary Gland Hyperplasia of Sanxiangruzengxiao Capsule%三香乳增消胶囊对乳腺增生小鼠乳腺病理及脏器指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓双; 武苗; 杨瑞

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe mammary gland pathology and uterus, ovary index on mice with mammary gland hyperplasia of Sanxiangruzengxiao capsule.Methods: Intraperitoneal injection of estradiol benzoate to establish mammary hyperplasia model of mouse, intragastrie administration for 30d, investigated on the mammary gland pathology and uterus, ovary index of Sanxiangruzengxiao capsule.Results:Sanxiangruzengxiao capsule can reduce the degree of breast hyperplasia, lower uterine, ovarian index.Conclusion: Sanxiangruzengxiao capsule has a therapeutic effect on mice with mammary gland hyperplasia.%目的:观察三香乳增消胶囊对乳腺增生模型小鼠乳腺病理及子宫、卵巢指数的影响.方法:采用腹腔注射苯甲酸雌二醇建立小鼠乳腺增生模型,灌胃给药30天,考察三香乳增消胶囊对乳腺组织病理形态学及子宫、卵巢指数的影响.结果:三香乳增消胶囊能降低镜下乳腺增生程度,降低子宫、卵巢指数.结论:三香乳增消胶囊对乳腺增生模型小鼠具有治疗作用.

  15. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6–NTRK3 fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Tuttle, R Michael; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    ETV6–NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47–72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6–NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated

  16. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Michael Tuttle, R; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47-72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated with long

  17. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Michael Tuttle, R; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47-72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated with long

  18. The pathogenicity of some ovine or caprine mycoplasmas in the lactating mammary gland of sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G E

    1985-07-01

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, M. arginini and M. conjunctivae were each inoculated into the lactating mammary gland of goats and sheep. M. ovipneumoniae was mastitogenic in both species, causing persistent colonization, raised lacteal cell numbers, decreased milk output and separation of milk into 3 layers throughout the periods of observation in virtually all animals. Its effects in sheep were variable, however, and appeared to depend less on the strain and titre of inoculum than on individual variation in response. M. arginini and M. conjunctivae were not mastitogenic for goats, but one of each pair of sheep injected with these agents showed organism persistence at high titres and lacteal neutrophilia over 9 days of observation. Effects on milk production were obscured by the apparent poor ability of the ovine udder to regain previous yield after a fall in output, but milk consistency and appearance were only temporarily or mildly affected in these animals. A. laidlawii, injected into sheep only, produced transient effects but with poor recovery of milk production after elimination of the organism. Goats were superior to sheep in consistency of reaction and milk output, and equally if not more susceptible to intra-mammary challenge with M. ovipneumoniae. The goat was therefore concluded to be the better experimental animal in a potentially useful method for screening strains of M. ovipneumoniae for virulence.

  19. Selenium Deficiency Facilitates Inflammation Following S. aureus Infection by Regulating TLR2-Related Pathways in the Mouse Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zecai; Li, Ying; Shen, Peng; Hu, Xiaoyu; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient affecting various aspects of health. Se deficiency has been associated with inflammation and immune responses. Mastitis poses a serious problem for humans and animals in the postpartum period. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common infectious bacterial pathogen associated with mastitis. The present study sought to determine the effects and underlying mechanism of dietary Se on S. aureus-induced inflammation using a model of mouse mastitis. ELISA and Western blotting were performed to detect protein levels. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to detect messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. The histopathological changes indicated that Se deficiency resulted in increased inflammatory lesions in S. aureus mastitis, whereas Se deficiency did not induce inflammatory lesions in the mammary gland. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was increased in Se-deficient mice with S. aureus mastitis. Analysis of cytokine mRNA and protein showed that Se deficiency leads to increased TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production in S. aureus mastitis. In addition, Se deficiency enhanced the mRNA and protein expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which were originally upregulated by S. aureus in the mammary gland tissues and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293)-mTLR2 cells. When Se-deficient mice were infected with S. aureus, the phosphorylation of IκB, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 was greatly increased. The results indicate that Se deficiency could intensify the inflammatory reaction in S. aureus mastitis. This work contributes to the exploration of new methods of preventing or treating of S. aureus mastitis and other infectious diseases.

  20. Selenium Deficiency Facilitates Inflammation Following S. aureus Infection by Regulating TLR2-Related Pathways in the Mouse Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zecai; Li, Ying; Shen, Peng; Hu, Xiaoyu; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient affecting various aspects of health. Se deficiency has been associated with inflammation and immune responses. Mastitis poses a serious problem for humans and animals in the postpartum period. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common infectious bacterial pathogen associated with mastitis. The present study sought to determine the effects and underlying mechanism of dietary Se on S. aureus-induced inflammation using a model of mouse mastitis. ELISA and Western blotting were performed to detect protein levels. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to detect messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. The histopathological changes indicated that Se deficiency resulted in increased inflammatory lesions in S. aureus mastitis, whereas Se deficiency did not induce inflammatory lesions in the mammary gland. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was increased in Se-deficient mice with S. aureus mastitis. Analysis of cytokine mRNA and protein showed that Se deficiency leads to increased TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production in S. aureus mastitis. In addition, Se deficiency enhanced the mRNA and protein expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which were originally upregulated by S. aureus in the mammary gland tissues and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293)-mTLR2 cells. When Se-deficient mice were infected with S. aureus, the phosphorylation of IκB, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 was greatly increased. The results indicate that Se deficiency could intensify the inflammatory reaction in S. aureus mastitis. This work contributes to the exploration of new methods of preventing or treating of S. aureus mastitis and other infectious diseases. PMID:26743867

  1. Secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase isoform 2 and lactation: specific localization of plasmalemmal and secretory pathway Ca2+ pump isoforms in the mammary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faddy, Helen M.; Smart, Chanel E.; Xu, Ren; Lee, Genee Y.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Feng, Mingye; Rao, Rajini; Brown, Melissa A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2008-04-09

    The supply of calcium to the developing neonate via milk is an important physiological process. Until recently the mechanism for the enrichment of milk with calcium was thought to be almost entirely mediated via the secretory pathway. However, recent studies suggest that a specific isoform of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase, PMCA2, is the primary mechanism for calcium transport into milk, highlighting a major role for apical calcium transport. We compared the expression of the recently identified secretory calcium ATPase, SPCA2, and SPCA1, in the mouse mammary gland during different stages of development. SPCA2 levels increased over 35 fold during lactation, while SPCA1 increased only a modest two fold. The potential importance of SPCA2 in lactation was also highlighted by its localization to luminal secretory cells of the mammary gland during lactation, while SPCA1 was expressed throughout the cells of the mammary gland. We also observed major differences in the localization of PMCA2 and PMCA1 during lactation. Using the SCp2 mouse mammary epithelial cell 3D culture model, differences in the sub-cellular distribution of PMCA2 and PMCA1 were clear. These studies highlight the likely specific roles of PMCA2 and SPCA2 in lactation, and link the recently characterized SPCA2 calcium pump to the supply of calcium into milk and the regulation of Golgi resident enzymes important in lactation. They also indicate that calcium transport into milk is a complex interplay between apical and secretory pathways.

  2. A milk protein gene promoter directs the expression of human tissue plasminogen activator cDNA to the mammary gland in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittius, C.W.; Hennighausen, L.; Lee, E.; Westphal, H.; Nicols, E.; Vitale, J.; Gordon, K. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Whey acidic protein (WAP) is a major whey protein in mouse milk. Its gene is expressed in the lactating mammary gland and is inducible by steroid and peptide hormones. A series of transgenic mice containing a hybrid gene in which human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) cDNA is under the control of the murine WAP gene promoter had previously been generated. In this study, 21 tissues from lactating and virgin transgenic female mice containing the WAP-tPA hybrid gene were screened for the distribution of murine WAP and human tPA transcripts. Like the endogenous WAP RNA, WAP-tPA RNA was expressed predominantly in mammary gland tissue and appeared to be inducible by lactation. Whereas WAP transcripts were not detected in 22 tissues of virgin mice, low levels of WAP-tPA RNA, which were not modulated during lactation, were found in tongue, kidney, and sublingual gland. These studies demonstrate that the WAP gene promoter can target the expression of a transgene to the mammary gland and that this expression is inducible during lactation.

  3. A milk protein gene promoter directs the expression of human tissue plasminogen activator cDNA to the mammary gland in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whey acidic protein (WAP) is a major whey protein in mouse milk. Its gene is expressed in the lactating mammary gland and is inducible by steroid and peptide hormones. A series of transgenic mice containing a hybrid gene in which human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) cDNA is under the control of the murine WAP gene promoter had previously been generated. In this study, 21 tissues from lactating and virgin transgenic female mice containing the WAP-tPA hybrid gene were screened for the distribution of murine WAP and human tPA transcripts. Like the endogenous WAP RNA, WAP-tPA RNA was expressed predominantly in mammary gland tissue and appeared to be inducible by lactation. Whereas WAP transcripts were not detected in 22 tissues of virgin mice, low levels of WAP-tPA RNA, which were not modulated during lactation, were found in tongue, kidney, and sublingual gland. These studies demonstrate that the WAP gene promoter can target the expression of a transgene to the mammary gland and that this expression is inducible during lactation

  4. [Somatotype of women of the Stavropol region with mammary gland pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butova, O A; Eremin, V A; Seĭfulina, G V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the somatotypic characteristics of women living in Stavropol region, both healthy persons and patients with mammary cancer. 105 women of second period of mature age and of eldery age were examined. For somatotype assessment the scheme of V.P. Chtetzov et al. (1979) was used. Age peculiarities of morphological typing were demonstrated that revealed the dominance of athletic type in mature age and mesoplastic type in the elderly one. The analysis of anthropometric parameters of women with oncological pathology in the indicated periods of ontogenesis has demonstrated a predominance of a mesomorphic vector in shaping their somatotype. The marker signs possessing the greatest informative value in mammary cancer patients of a second period of mature age were the low values of thickness of brachial and breast adipose folds. These signs are suggested as criteria for the formation of groups of risk. PMID:16080349

  5. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy; Diagnostik und Therapie des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann (eds.) [Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen BZG, Goettingen(Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  6. Mammary gland selective excision of c-jun identifies its role in mRNA splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyar, Sanjay; Jiao, Xuanmao; Addya, Sankar; Ertel, Adam; Rose, Vanessa; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Zhou, Jie; Lisanti, Michael P; Nasim, Talat; Fortina, Paolo; Pestell, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The c-jun gene regulates cellular proliferation and apoptosis via direct regulation of cellular gene expression. Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA increases the diversity of protein functions and alternate splicing events occur in tumors. Here, by targeting the excision of the endogenous c-jun gene within the mouse mammary epithelium, we have identified its selective role as an inhibitor of RNA splicing. Microarray-based assessment of gene expression, on laser capture micro-dissected c-jun−/− ...

  7. IGF-binding proteins mediate TGF-beta 1-induced apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial BME-UV1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, Małgorzata; Motyl, Tomasz

    2004-10-01

    TGF-beta 1 is an antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor for mammary epithelial cells (MEC) acting in an auto/paracrine manner and thus considered an important local regulator of mammary tissue involution. However, the apoptogenic signaling pathway induced by this cytokine in bovine MEC remains obscure. The present study was focused on identification of molecules involved in apoptogenic signaling of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in the model of bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1). Laser scanning cytometry (LSC), Western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) were used for analysis of expression and activity of TGF-beta 1-related signaling molecules. The earliest response occurring within 1-2 h after TGF-beta 1 administration was an induction and activation of R-Smads (Smad2 and Smad3) and Co-Smad (Smad4). An evident formation of Smad-DNA complexes began from 2nd hour after MEC exposure to TGF-beta 1. Similarly to Smads, proteins of AP1 complex: phosphorylated c-Jun and JunD appeared to be early reactive molecules; however, an increase in their expression was detected only in cytosolic fraction. In the next step, an increase of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and IGFBP-4 expression was observed from 6th hour followed by a decrease in the activity of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), which occurred after 24 h of MEC exposure to TGF-beta 1. The decrease in PKB/Akt activity coincided in time with the decline of phosphorylated Bad expression (inactive form). Present study supported additional evidence that stimulation of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was associated with complete abrogation of TGF-beta 1-induced activation of Bad and Bax and in the consequence protection against apoptosis. In conclusion, apoptotic effect of TGF-beta 1 in bovine MEC is mediated by IGFBPs and occurs through IGF-I sequestration, resulting in inhibition of PKB/Akt-dependent survival pathway. PMID:15556067

  8. Spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cells exhibit a distinct gene expression pattern from the breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qianqian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous immortalisation of cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs is an extremely rare event, and the molecular mechanism behind spontaneous immortalisation of MECs is unclear. Here, we report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME65Cs and the changes in gene expression associated with BME65Cs cells. Results BME65Cs cells maintain the general characteristics of normal mammary epithelial cells in morphology, karyotype and immunohistochemistry, and are accompanied by the activation of endogenous bTERT (bovine Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase and stabilisation of the telomere. Currently, BME65Cs cells have been passed for more than 220 generations, and these cells exhibit non-malignant transformation. The expression of multiple genes was investigated in BME65Cs cells, senescent BMECs (bovine MECs cells, early passage BMECs cells and MCF-7 cells (a human breast cancer cell line. In comparison with early passage BMECs cells, the expression of senescence-relevant apoptosis-related gene were significantly changed in BME65Cs cells. P16INK4a was downregulated, p53 was low expressed and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was reversed. Moreover, a slight upregulation of the oncogene c-Myc, along with an undetectable level of breast tumor-related gene Bag-1 and TRPS-1, was observed in BME65Cs cells while these genes are all highly expressed in MCF-7. In addition, DNMT1 is upregulated in BME65Cs. These results suggest that the inhibition of both senescence and mitochondrial apoptosis signalling pathways contribute to the immortality of BME65Cs cells. The expression of p53 and p16INK4a in BME65Cs was altered in the pattern of down-regulation but not "loss", suggesting that this spontaneous immortalization is possibly initiated by other mechanism rather than gene mutation of p53 or p16INK4a. Conclusions Spontaneously immortalised BME65Cs cells maintain many characteristics of normal BMEC cells and

  9. Immunoregulation of bovine macrophages by factors in the salivary glands of Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brake Danett K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative strategies are required to control the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, due to evolving resistance to commercially available acaricides. This invasive ectoparasite is a vector of economically important diseases of cattle such as bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. An understanding of the biological intricacies underlying vector-host-pathogen interactions is required to innovate sustainable tick management strategies that can ultimately mitigate the impact of animal and zoonotic tick-borne diseases. Tick saliva contains molecules evolved to impair host innate and adaptive immune responses, which facilitates blood feeding and pathogen transmission. Antigen presenting cells are central to the development of robust T cell responses including Th1 and Th2 determination. In this study we examined changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response of bovine macrophages exposed to salivary gland extracts (SGE obtained from 2-3 day fed, pathogen-free adult R. microplus. Methods Peripheral blood-derived macrophages were treated for 1 hr with 1, 5, or 10 μg/mL of SGE followed by 1, 6, 24 hr of 1 μg/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Real-time PCR and cytokine ELISA were used to measure changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response. Results Changes were observed in co-stimulatory molecule expression of bovine macrophages in response to R. microplus SGE exposure. After 6 hrs, CD86, but not CD80, was preferentially up-regulated on bovine macrophages when treated with 1 μg/ml SGE and then LPS, but not SGE alone. At 24 hrs CD80, CD86, and CD69 expression was increased with LPS, but was inhibited by the addition of SGE. SGE also inhibited LPS induced upregulation of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-12 cytokines, but did not alter IL-4 or CD40 mRNA expression. Conclusions Molecules from the salivary glands of adult R. microplus showed bimodal concentration-, and time-dependent effects on

  10. MicroRNA regulation of bovine monocyte inflammatory and metabolic networks in an in vivo infection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation-driven disease of the bovine mammary gland that costs the global dairy industry several billion dollars per annum. Because disease susceptibility is a multi-factorial complex phenotype, a multi-omic integrative biology approach is required to dissect the multilayer...

  11. Determination of the functional size of oxytocin receptors in plasma membranes from mammary gland and uterine myometrium of the rat by radiation inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloff, M.S.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

    1988-05-01

    Gel filtration of detergent-solubilized oxytocin (OT) receptors in plasma membrane fractions from both regressed mammary gland and labor myometrium of the rat, showed that specific (/sup 3/H)OT binding was associated with a heterogeneously sized population of macromolecules. As radiation inactivation is the only method available to measure the apparent molecular weights of membrane proteins in situ, we used this approach to define the functional sizes of OT receptors. The results indicate that both mammary and myometrial receptors are uniform in size and of similar molecular mass. Mammary and myometrial receptors were estimated to be 57.5 +/- 3.8 (SD) and 58.8 +/- 1.6 kilodaltons, respectively. Knowledge of the functional size of OT receptors will be useful in studies involving the purification and characterization of the receptor and associated membrane components.

  12. Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure In Utero Leads to Immunoregulatory Cytokine Dysregulation in the Mouse Mammary Gland: A Potential Mechanism Programming Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Catha; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Goetz, Laura G; Jorgenson, Elisa; Ilagan, Ysabel; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a ubiquitous estrogen-like endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). BPA exposure in utero has been linked to breast cancer and abnormal mammary gland development in mice. The recent rise in incidence of human breast cancer and decreased age of first detection suggests a possible environmental etiology. We hypothesized that developmental programming of carcinogenesis may involve an aberrant immune response. Both innate and adaptive immunity play a role in tumor suppression through cytolytic CD8, NK, and Th1 T-cells. We hypothesized that BPA exposure in utero would lead to dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immunity in the mammary gland. CD1 mice were exposed to BPA in utero during gestation (days 9-21) via osmotic minipump. At 6 weeks, the female offspring were ovariectomized and estradiol was given at 8 weeks. RNA and protein were extracted from the posterior mammary glands, and the mRNA and protein levels were measured by PCR array, qRT-PCR, and western blot. In mouse mammary tissue, BPA exposure in utero significantly decreased the expression of members of the chemokine CXC family (Cxcl2, Cxcl4, Cxcl14, and Ccl20), interleukin 1 (Il1) gene family (Il1β and Il1rn), interleukin 2 gene family (Il7 receptor), and interferon gene family (interferon regulatory factor 9 (Irf9), as well as immune response gene 1 (Irg1). Additionally, BPA exposure in utero decreased Esr1 receptor gene expression and increased Esr2 receptor gene expression. In utero exposure of BPA resulted in significant changes to inflammatory modulators within mammary tissue. We suggest that dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, leads to a microenvironment that may promote disordered cell growth through inhibition of the immune response that targets cancer cells. PMID:26911702

  13. Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure In Utero Leads to Immunoregulatory Cytokine Dysregulation in the Mouse Mammary Gland: A Potential Mechanism Programming Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Catha; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Goetz, Laura G; Jorgenson, Elisa; Ilagan, Ysabel; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a ubiquitous estrogen-like endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). BPA exposure in utero has been linked to breast cancer and abnormal mammary gland development in mice. The recent rise in incidence of human breast cancer and decreased age of first detection suggests a possible environmental etiology. We hypothesized that developmental programming of carcinogenesis may involve an aberrant immune response. Both innate and adaptive immunity play a role in tumor suppression through cytolytic CD8, NK, and Th1 T-cells. We hypothesized that BPA exposure in utero would lead to dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immunity in the mammary gland. CD1 mice were exposed to BPA in utero during gestation (days 9-21) via osmotic minipump. At 6 weeks, the female offspring were ovariectomized and estradiol was given at 8 weeks. RNA and protein were extracted from the posterior mammary glands, and the mRNA and protein levels were measured by PCR array, qRT-PCR, and western blot. In mouse mammary tissue, BPA exposure in utero significantly decreased the expression of members of the chemokine CXC family (Cxcl2, Cxcl4, Cxcl14, and Ccl20), interleukin 1 (Il1) gene family (Il1β and Il1rn), interleukin 2 gene family (Il7 receptor), and interferon gene family (interferon regulatory factor 9 (Irf9), as well as immune response gene 1 (Irg1). Additionally, BPA exposure in utero decreased Esr1 receptor gene expression and increased Esr2 receptor gene expression. In utero exposure of BPA resulted in significant changes to inflammatory modulators within mammary tissue. We suggest that dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, leads to a microenvironment that may promote disordered cell growth through inhibition of the immune response that targets cancer cells.

  14. 研究蒙药治疗乳腺增生的疗效%Study the Mongolian Medicine in Treatment Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands Effective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晶

    2016-01-01

    随着时代的进步,社会的不断发展,人们的就业和生活压力也在不断的增加,女性在这种情况下的精神状态较差,与精神情绪密切相关的乳腺增生的发病率也逐年增多,乳腺增生已经成为了20~40岁的妇女较为常见的内分泌系统疾病。乳腺增生在育龄妇女中的发病率已经达到50%。研究有效治疗乳腺增生的药物显得尤为重要。虽然乳腺增生为良性疾病,但国内外还未研发出能有效的治疗乳腺增生的安全性药物,我国治疗乳腺增生优先选择中药。其中,蒙药的治疗效果良好。蒙药的治疗率可达98%,患者经过内服和外用敷药的方法使用蒙药之后,治疗时间缩短,疾病症状和疼痛感降低,治疗效果显著,且药物对患者身体无任何副作用。%With the improvement of the age, the continuous development of society, people's employment and life pressure is in constant increase, women’s mental state is bad and closely related to the mental mood also increased year by year, the incidence of mammary gland hyperplasia of mammary gland hyperplasia has been between 20 to 40 years old women more common endocrine system diseases. According to related statistics, the incidence of mammary gland hyperplasia in women of childbearing age has reached 50%. In this case study effective drugs to treat hyperplasia of mammary glands is particularly important. Although the hyperplasia of mammary glands for benign disease, but has not yet developed at home and abroad can effectively the safety of the treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia drugs, treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia choice Chinese traditional medicine in our country. Among them, the treatment effect is good. the mongolian treatment is 98%, patients with internal and external use, chitin method USES the Mongolian, hyperplasia of mammary glands of the treatment of patients with time was signiifcantly shortened, disease symptoms and pain

  15. In Utero Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol (DES) or Bisphenol-A (BPA) Increases EZH2 Expression in the Mammary Gland: An Epigenetic Mechanism Linking Endocrine Disruptors to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Leo F.; Bromer, Jason G.; Zhou, Yuping; Aldad, Tamir S.

    2011-01-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and bisphenol-A (BPA) are estrogen-like endocrine-disrupting chemicals that induce persistent epigenetic changes in the developing uterus. However, DES exposure in utero is also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in adult women. Similarly, fetal exposure to BPA induces neoplastic changes in mammary tissue of mice. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations would precede the increased risk of breast neoplasia after in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) is a histone methyltransferase that has been linked to breast cancer risk and epigenetic regulation of tumorigenesis. We examined the effect of BPA and DES on EZH2 expression and function in MCF-7 cells and in mammary glands of mice exposed in utero. DES and BPA treatment approximated human exposure. EZH2 functional activity was assessed by measuring histone H3 trimethylation. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with DES or BPA led to a 3- and 2-fold increase in EZH2 mRNA expression, respectively (p2-fold increase in EZH2 expression in adult mammary tissue compared with controls (p<0.05). EZH2 protein was elevated in mammary tissue of mice exposed to DES or BPA. Histone H3 trimethylation was increased in MCF-7 cells treated with BPA or DES. Similarly, mice exposed to BPA or DES in utero showed increased mammary histone H3 trimethylation. Developmental programming of EZH2 is a novel mechanism by which in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors leads to epigenetic regulation of the mammary gland. PMID:21761357

  16. The Color Doppler Ultrasound Study on Disease of Mammary Gland%乳腺病的彩色多普勒超声研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金红

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察和探讨彩色多普勒超声在乳腺病诊断中的应用价值。方法按年龄将所有患者分成三组,并分析三组患者之间出现不同乳腺病的概率。结果不同年龄层的女性患乳腺疾病的种类不同,其中20~29岁的女性患乳腺纤维腺瘤的发病率较高,而30~39岁的女性乳腺增生症的发病率明显高于其他年龄层。结论彩色多普勒超声诊断乳腺病患者价值明显,并且其在鉴别良恶性肿瘤方面有其显著的优势,所以值得在临床上推广应用。%Objective Observe and approach the value of color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of disease of mammary gland. Methods Al patients were divided into three groups by age, and analyze the probability of dif erent disease of mammary gland among the patients in three groups. Results Female of dif erent ages suf ered from dif erent disease of mammary gland, and 20 to 29-year-old women suf ered from the higher incidence of breast fibroadenoma, while the incidence of cyclomastopathy of 30 to 39-year-old women was higher than that of other age groups. Conclusion Color Doppler ultrasound diagnose patients with disease of mammary gland, which has obvious value, and it has significant advantages in terms of dif erential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors, which is worth popularizing in clinic.

  17. 'The charmingest place': non-coding RNA, lineage tracing, tumor heterogeneity, metastasis and metabolism - new methods in mammary gland development and cancer: the fifth ENBDC Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Robert B.; Stingl, John; Vivanco, Maria; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The European Network for Breast Development and Cancer (ENBDC) Workshop on ‘Methods in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer’ has grown into the essential, international technical discussion forum for scientists with interests in the normal and neoplastic breast. The fifth ENBDC meeting was held in Weggis, Switzerland in April, 2013, and focussed on emerging, state-of-the-art techniques for the study of non-coding RNA, lineage tracing, tumor heterogeneity, metastasis and metabolism.

  18. 奶牛乳腺上皮细胞系的培养与鉴定%Culture and Identification of the Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹康; 贡笑笑; 左晓昕; 陈银银; 占今舜; 赵国琦

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在培养功能性奶牛乳腺上皮细胞系,为奶牛泌乳调控和奶牛乳房炎发病机制研究提供功能性的细胞模型。采用组织块细胞培养法来分离纯化并鉴定奶牛乳腺上皮细胞;采用有限稀释法单克隆奶牛乳腺上皮细胞;采用噻唑蓝( MTT)法来分析奶牛乳腺上皮细胞的生长曲线是否为正常的“S”形;观察细胞角蛋白18免疫荧光来证明所培养的细胞为上皮型;选择培养至10和20代的奶牛乳腺上皮细胞进行染色体核型分析。结果表明:1)利用组织块细胞分离法能够成功获得奶牛乳腺上皮细胞并传至20代。2)培养5~6 d成纤维细胞迅速增殖且周围分裂出少量的上皮细胞。培养8d奶牛乳腺上皮细胞迅速增殖,形成岛屿状集落,呈单层“鹅卵石”和“铺路石”形态生长。3)奶牛乳腺上皮细胞角蛋白18鉴定为阳性。4)培养至10和20代的奶牛乳腺上皮细胞染色体数为60条,具有正常的细胞二倍体核型。综上所述,采用组织块培养细胞能够获得具有稳定性、功能性的奶牛乳腺上皮细胞,但不是永生化细胞。%To establish a functional model of bovine mammary epithelial cell line for the study of lactation reg-ulation, pathogenesis of mastitis, this research applied tissue culture to isolate and culture bovine mammary epi-thelial cells; the limiting dilution method to purify bovine mammary epithelial cells; methyl thiazolyl tetrazoli-um ( MTT) method was used to identify whether the growth curve of bovine mammary epithelial cells was‘S’ type or not;cytokeratin 18 immunofluorescence was observed to prove that the cells were epithelial type;kary-otype analysis was carried out on bovine mammary epithelial cells in passages 10 and 20. The results showed as follows:1) bovine mammary epithelial cells could be successfully cultured and passaged 20 generations by tis-sue culture method. 2) At 5 to 6 days of cultivation, the

  19. 宋爱莉从痰瘀互结论乳腺增生病%SONG Ai-li Treating Mammary Glands from Phlegm and Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关兴

    2011-01-01

    痰瘀既是致病因素,又是病理产物,文章总结宋爱莉教授治疗乳腺增生病的经验,提出乳腺增生病以痰瘀互结为主要病机,兼有肝郁气滞、脾虚湿盛、冲任失调为基础的病变特点,痰瘀互结亦为乳腺癌癌前病变的主要病机,从而使乳腺增生病的辨证分型规范化.%Phlegm and blood stasis are pathological products, as well as pathogenic factors, this paper summarizes professor SONG Ai-li's experience of treatment of mammary glands, proposes the main pathogenesis of mammary glands is phlegm, and its characteristics include by qi stagnation, spleen dampness, Chong and Ren meridians disorders at the same time, and it is the primary pathogenesis of breast precancerous lesions, thus to regulate the syndrome type of mammary glands.

  20. 从调摄冲任浅析乳腺增生病的治疗%Regulating Chong and Ren in Treatment of Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓萌; 宋爱莉

    2013-01-01

    通过辨证分析乳腺增生病与冲任的生理关系,冲任失调及冲任与肝、肾的关系,探讨冲任失调是乳腺增生病的主要病因病机,结合中国历代医家在治疗上以调摄冲任为主要大法的经验以期指导临床论治,中医药治疗乳腺增生病有巨大的优势,应大力推广.%Through dialectical analysis of hyperplasia of mammary gland and Chong and Ren physiological relationship and Chong and Ren disorders and the relationship with liver and kidney, Chong and Ren disorder is the main pathogenesis and etiology of hyperplasia of mammary glands, combining the Chinese treatment with regulating Chong and Ren as the main treatment in order to guide the clinical treatment. Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of hyperplasia of mammary glands has a huge advantage, and is worthy of popularizing energetically.

  1. 全数字化乳腺摄影穿刺定位术在乳腺可疑钙化灶诊治中的应用%Fully digital mammary gland photography puncture positioning technique application in the diagnosis and treatment of mammary gland suspicious calcifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗泱; 代静

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective:to analyze fully digital mammary gland photography (FFDM) puncture positioning technique in the diagnosis significance of diagnosis and treatment of mammary gland suspicious calcified lesions. Methods:from October 2013 to October 2013 for 20 cases of patients with suspicious calcifications symptoms, to fully digital mammary gland photography puncture for the treatment of positioning, and metal thread do mark. Results:all patients, 17 cases of benign and malignant in 3 cases, improved surgical treatment for patients with malignant. Conclusion:fully digital mammary gland photography puncture for the treatment of positioning accuracy high, solved the difficult problem of mammary gland suspicious calcified lesions accurate positioning, put an end to the situation of misdiagnosis and the lesions appear.%目的:分析全数字化乳腺摄影( FFDM)穿刺定位术在乳腺可疑钙化病灶诊治中的诊断意义。方法选取我院2013年10月至2014年10月收取的20例有可疑钙化灶症状的患者,进行全数字化乳腺摄影穿刺定位术治疗,并用金属导丝做上记号。结果全部患者当中,有17例良性,3例恶性,对于恶性患者进行改良治疗手术。结论全数字化乳腺摄影穿刺定位术治疗的准确率高,解决了乳腺可疑钙化病灶精确定位的难题,杜绝了病灶出现漏诊的情况。

  2. Immune competence of the mammary gland as affected by somatic cell and pathogenic bacteria in ewes with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Ciliberti, M; Sevi, A

    2012-07-01

    Immune competence of the ewe mammary gland was investigated by monitoring the leukocyte differential count, cytokine pattern, and endogenous proteolytic enzymes in milk samples with different somatic cell counts (SCC) and pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, the leukocyte differential count and T-lymphocyte populations were evaluated in ewe blood. A total of 1,500 individual milk samples were randomly selected from the pool of the samples collected during sampling and grouped into 5 classes of 300 samples each, on the basis of SCC. Classes were 2,000,000 cells/mL. Microbiological analyses of ewe milk were conducted to detect mastitis-related pathogens. Sheep whose udders were without clinical abnormalities, and whose milk was apparently normal but with at least 10(3)cfu/mL of the same pathogen were considered to have subclinical mastitis and therefore defined as infected. Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL) and macrophages increased with SCC, whereas lymphocytes decreased. Milk samples with SCC >1,000,000 cells/mL showed differences in leukocyte populations between uninfected and infected ewes, with higher percentages of PMNL and macrophages and lower percentages of lymphocytes in infected animals. Nonviable PMNL levels were the highest in ewe milk samples with SCC 500,000 cells/mL, nonviable PMNL were higher in uninfected ewes than in infected ones. In infected animals giving milk with SCC >1,000,000 cells/mL, a higher CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio was observed, suggesting that the presence of pathogens induced an activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-12 were higher in infected than uninfected ewes, irrespective of SCC. Plasmin activity increased along with SCC and was always higher in infected than uninfected animals; cathepsin D increased starting from 1,001,000 cells/mL in milk samples from noninfected ewes and starting from 301,000 cells/mL in milk samples from infected animals. The associations between somatic

  3. Relationship between {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, A.E., E-mail: negri@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wallner, A. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Steier, P. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that {sup 129}I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the {sup 129}I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total {sup 129}I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

  4. Application of mammary areola layered incision in resection of mammary gland benign masses%乳晕分层切口在乳腺良性肿块切除术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 刘泽宇; 宁平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨乳晕分层切口在乳腺良性肿块切除术中的临床应用价值.方法 对2009年1月~2010年8月在成都市妇女儿童中心医院乳腺科住院的126例乳腺良性肿块住院患者进行乳晕分层切口切除肿块,对切除肿块后所留的残腔采用不缝合技术,通过3个月~3年随访,评价对乳腺良性肿块的治疗效果.结果 126例乳腺良性肿块患者均成功切除(100%),单个病灶长径为0.5~6cm,病灶数量为1~12个,平均手术时间37min(5~162min).乳房切口疤痕微细,保持乳房外形,硬块感率21.40%,硬块感时间平均30天(20~40天),患者满意98.8%.患者术后无严重并发症.结论 在乳腺良性肿块切除中应用乳晕分层切口及残腔无缝合技术操作简单、美观、安全可行、无严重并发症,具有临床推广应用价值.%Objective To explore the clinical application value of mammary areola layered incision's application in resection of mammary gland benign masses. Methods 126 patients with mammary gland benign masses were treated with mammary areola layered incision to resect masses. Non-suture technique was taken to suture residual cavities caused by resection of masses. And through three months to three years of follow-up visit, the therapeutic efficacy to mammary gland benign masses would be evaluated. Results 126 mammary gland patients were successfully resected. The major diameter of each single nidus is from 0. 5 centimeter to 6 centimeters, the number of niduses was one to twelve, and the surgery time was 37 minutes (from 5 to 162 minutes). The scar of breast incision was small and not easy to be seen, which kept the good shape of breast. The rate of hard lump sense was 21. 4%, the average time of hard lump sense was 30 days (from 20 to 30 days) , and the degree of satisfaction of patients was 98. 8%. After surgery, no serious complication would happen to patients. Conclusion In the resection of mammary gland benign masses, it is

  5. Differences in the Rate of in Situ Mammary Gland Development and Other Developmental Endpoints in Three Strains of Female Rat Commonly Used in Mammary Carcinogenesis Studies: Implications for Timing of Carcinogen Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko, Jason P; Kissling, Grace E; Chappell, Vesna A; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2016-10-01

    The potential of chemicals to alter susceptibility to mammary tumor formation is often assessed using a carcinogen-induced study design in various rat strains. The rate of mammary gland (MG) development must be considered so that the timing of carcinogen administration is impactful. In this study, in situ MG development was assessed in females of the Harlan Sprague-Dawley (Hsd:SD), Charles River Sprague-Dawley (Crl:SD), and Charles River Long-Evans (Crl:LE) rat strains at postnatal days 25, 33, and 45. Development was evaluated by physical assessment of growth parameters, developmental scoring, and quantitative morphometric analysis. Although body weight (BW) was consistently lower and day of vaginal opening (VO) occurred latest in female Hsd:SD rats, they exhibited accelerated pre- and peripubertal MG development compared to other strains. Glands of Crl:SD and Crl:LE rats exhibited significantly more terminal end buds (TEBs) and TEB/mm than Hsd:SD rats around the time of VO. These data suggest a considerable difference in the rate of MG development across commonly used strains, which is independent of BW and timing of VO. In mammary tumor induction studies employing these strains, administration of the carcinogen should be timed appropriately, based on strain, to specifically target the peak of TEB occurrence. PMID:27613105

  6. Effects of Chinese Propolis in Protecting Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells against Mastitis Pathogens-Induced Cell Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-Lu; Shen, Xiao-Ge; Sun, Li-Ping; Wu, Li-Ming; Wei, Jiang-Qin; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; Hu, Fu-Liang; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese propolis (CP), an important hive product, can alleviate inflammatory responses. However, little is known regarding the potential of propolis treatment for mastitis control. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of CP on bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), we used a range of pathogens to induce cellular inflammatory damage. Cell viability was determined and expressions of inflammatory/antioxidant genes were measured. Using a cell-based reporter assay system, we evaluated CP and its primary constituents on the NF-κB and Nrf2-ARE transcription activation. MAC-T cells treated with bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), heat-inactivated Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus exhibited significant decreases in cell viability while TNF-α and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) did not. Pretreatment with CP prevented losses in cell viability associated with the addition of killed bacteria or bacterial endotoxins. There were also corresponding decreases in expressions of proinflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. Compared with the mastitis challenged cells, enhanced expressions of antioxidant genes HO-1, Txnrd-1, and GCLM were observed in CP-treated cells. CP and its polyphenolic active components (primarily caffeic acid phenethyl ester and quercetin) had strong inhibitive effects against NF-κB activation and increased the transcriptional activity of Nrf2-ARE. These findings suggest that propolis may be valuable in the control of bovine mastitis. PMID:27433029

  7. Inhibition of local blood flow control systems in the mammary glands of lactating cows affects uptakes of energy metabolites from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, T G; Cieslar, S R L; Trout, D R; Nielsen, M O; Cant, J P

    2015-05-01

    To test the effect of mammary blood flow on net uptakes of milk precursors by the mammary glands, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) were infused into the mammary circulation of 4 lactating cows. Inhibitors were infused in a 4×4 Latin square design, where treatments were infusion for 1 h of saline, NOS inhibitor (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride), COX inhibitor (indomethacin), or both NOS + COX inhibitors into one external iliac artery. Para-aminohippuric acid was also infused to allow for estimation of iliac plasma flow (IPF), of which approximately 80% flows to the mammary glands. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after inhibitor infusion from the contralateral external iliac artery and ipsilateral mammary vein. Inhibition of COX and NOS each produced a decrease in IPF, although the NOS effect was smaller and IPF continued to be depressed throughout the recovery period. The combination of COX and NOS inhibition produced a 50% depression in IPF and there was no carryover into the recovery period. Treatments that depressed IPF also increased arterial concentrations of acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and glucose. Similarly, arteriovenous differences of acetate, BHBA, and glucose were all increased during IPF depression. To correct for a potential effect of arterial concentration, arteriovenous differences were normalized to arterial concentration, producing an extraction percentage. Inhibition of COX increased glucose extraction and tended to increase acetate and BHBA extraction. Dual inhibition only increased BHBA extraction and had no effect on mammary extraction of other metabolites. These extractions did not increase because clearances of glucose and TAG decreased as IPF decreased, and clearances of acetate and BHBA tended to decrease. Net uptake of TAG was depressed by dual NOS/COX inhibition, whereas uptakes of acetate, BHBA, and glucose were not affected by any of the treatments. To separate

  8. Nutritional regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in the bovine mammary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in milk is believed to be beneficial in terms of human health, thereby increasing the nutritional quality of milk. The proportion of UFA in milk is mainly dependent on the proportion of UFA in the diet, the degree of biohydrogenation of UFA

  9. Homology analyses of the protein sequences of fatty acid synthases from chicken liver, rat mammary gland, and yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homology analyses of the protein sequences of chicken liver and rat mammary gland fatty acid synthases were carried out. The amino acid sequences of the chicken and rat enzymes are 67% identical. If conservative substitutions are allowed, 78% of the amino acids are matched. A region of low homologies exists between the functional domains, in particular around amino acid residues 1059-1264 of the chicken enzyme. Homologies between the active sites of chicken and rat and of chicken and yeast enzymes have been analyzed by an alignment method. A high degree of homology exists between the active sites of the chicken and rat enzymes. However, the chicken and yeast enzymes show a lower degree of homology. The DADPH-binding dinucleotide folds of the β-ketoacyl reductase and the enoyl reductase sites were identified by comparison with a known consensus sequence for the DADP- and FAD-binding dinucleotide folds. The active sites of all of the enzymes are primarily in hydrophobic regions of the protein. This study suggests that the genes for the functional domains of fatty acid synthase were originally separated, and these genes were connected to each other by using different connecting nucleotide sequences in different species. An alternative explanation for the differences in rat and chicken is a common ancestry and mutations in the joining regions during evolution

  10. Modeling invasive lobular breast carcinoma by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic genome editing of the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, Stefano; Kas, Sjors M; Nethe, Micha; Yücel, Hatice; Del Bravo, Jessica; Pritchard, Colin; Bin Ali, Rahmen; van Gerwen, Bas; Siteur, Bjørn; Drenth, Anne Paulien; Schut, Eva; van de Ven, Marieke; Boelens, Mirjam C; Klarenbeek, Sjoerd; Huijbers, Ivo J; van Miltenburg, Martine H; Jonkers, Jos

    2016-06-15

    Large-scale sequencing studies are rapidly identifying putative oncogenic mutations in human tumors. However, discrimination between passenger and driver events in tumorigenesis remains challenging and requires in vivo validation studies in reliable animal models of human cancer. In this study, we describe a novel strategy for in vivo validation of candidate tumor suppressors implicated in invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILC), which is hallmarked by loss of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. We describe an approach to model ILC by intraductal injection of lentiviral vectors encoding Cre recombinase, the CRISPR/Cas9 system, or both in female mice carrying conditional alleles of the Cdh1 gene, encoding for E-cadherin. Using this approach, we were able to target ILC-initiating cells and induce specific gene disruption of Pten by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic gene editing. Whereas intraductal injection of Cas9-encoding lentiviruses induced Cas9-specific immune responses and development of tumors that did not resemble ILC, lentiviral delivery of a Pten targeting single-guide RNA (sgRNA) in mice with mammary gland-specific loss of E-cadherin and expression of Cas9 efficiently induced ILC development. This versatile platform can be used for rapid in vivo testing of putative tumor suppressor genes implicated in ILC, providing new opportunities for modeling invasive lobular breast carcinoma in mice. PMID:27340177

  11. Preparation and Amplification of Colony of Goat Transgenic Fetal Fibroblast and Mammary Gland Epithelial Cell with Human Lactoferrin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-ling; LIU Feng-jun; ZHANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore technical system of making single transgenic positive cells become colony cells by amplification culture. [Method] Fetal fibroblasts and mammary gland epithelial cells of single goat fetus of pBLM-C1 which specifically expressed human lactoferrin were cloned. Single cell colony of single transfection cell was prepared with 3 concentrations of 0%, 50% and 100% conditioned culture media. Transfection cell and non-transfection cell were carried out amplification culture by con-culture, neo gene was as screened gene, genome DNA of transfection cell was detected by PCR method. Chromosome karyotype analysis of single colony cell was tested. [Result] Compared with non-conditioned culture medium, 100% conditioned culture medium could greatly increase survived rate of single colony cells (FF: 53.33% vs. 10.00%; MGE: 33.33% vs. 6.67%). Compared with control, con-culture of transfection cell and non-transfection cell could greatly increase rate of transfection cell single colony after amplification culture (FF: 53.33% vs. 10.00%;MGE: 33.33% vs. 6.67%), confluence time of amplification culture was significantly decreased (20-30 d). The result of PCR showed that the colony cell obtained by above method contained hLF target gene. The result of karyotype analysis showed that most cloned cell chromosomes were normal. [Conclusion] The study provides a reliable method for separating transgenic cell, inserting and diagnosing ideal vector, and can save expense and time for transgenic animal production.

  12. Homology analyses of the protein sequences of fatty acid synthases from chicken liver, rat mammary gland, and yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soo-Ik (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Hammes, G.G. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Homology analyses of the protein sequences of chicken liver and rat mammary gland fatty acid synthases were carried out. The amino acid sequences of the chicken and rat enzymes are 67% identical. If conservative substitutions are allowed, 78% of the amino acids are matched. A region of low homologies exists between the functional domains, in particular around amino acid residues 1059-1264 of the chicken enzyme. Homologies between the active sites of chicken and rat and of chicken and yeast enzymes have been analyzed by an alignment method. A high degree of homology exists between the active sites of the chicken and rat enzymes. However, the chicken and yeast enzymes show a lower degree of homology. The DADPH-binding dinucleotide folds of the {beta}-ketoacyl reductase and the enoyl reductase sites were identified by comparison with a known consensus sequence for the DADP- and FAD-binding dinucleotide folds. The active sites of all of the enzymes are primarily in hydrophobic regions of the protein. This study suggests that the genes for the functional domains of fatty acid synthase were originally separated, and these genes were connected to each other by using different connecting nucleotide sequences in different species. An alternative explanation for the differences in rat and chicken is a common ancestry and mutations in the joining regions during evolution.

  13. Unsolved Mysteries of the Human Mammary Gland: Defining and Redefining the Critical Questions from the Lactation Consultant's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Lisa Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite advances in knowledge about human lactation, clinicians face many problems when advising mothers who are experiencing breastfeeding difficulties that do not respond to normal management strategies. Primary insufficient milk production is now being acknowledged, but incidence rates have not been well studied. Many women have known histories of infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, hyperandrogenism or other hormonal imbalances, while others have no obvious risk factors. Some present with obviously abnormal breasts that are pubescent, tuberous/tubular or asymmetric in shape, raising the question of insufficient mammary gland tissue. Other women have breasts that appear within normal limits yet do not lactate normally. Endocrine disruptors may underlie some of these cases but their impact on human milk production has not been well explored. Similarly, any problem with prolactin such as a deficiency in serum prolactin or receptor number, receptor resistance, or poor bioavailability or bioactivity could underlie some cases of insufficient lactation, yet these possibilities are rarely investigated. A weak or suppressed milk ejection reflex, often assumed to be psychosomatic, could be related to thyroid dysfunction or caused by downstream post-receptor pathway problems. In the absence of sufficient data regarding these situations, desperate mothers may turn to non-evidence-based remedies, sometimes at considerable cost and unknown risk. Research targeted to these clinical dilemmas is critical in order to develop evidence-based strategies and increase breastfeeding duration and success rates. PMID:26084427

  14. Regulation and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor within the mammary glands during the transition from late gestation to lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKlompenberg, M K; Manjarín, R; Donovan, C E; Trott, J F; Hovey, R C

    2016-01-01

    The vascular network within the developing mammary gland (MG) grows in concert with the epithelium to prepare for lactation, although the mechanisms coordinating this vascular development are unresolved. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) mediates angiogenesis and vascular permeability in the MG during pregnancy and lactation, where its expression is upregulated by prolactin. Given our previous finding that late-gestational hyperprolactinemia induced by domperidone (DOM) increased subsequent milk yield from gilts, we sought to establish changes in vascular development during late gestation and lactation in the MGs of these pigs and determine whether DOM altered MG angiogenesis and the factors regulating it. Gilts received either no treatment (n = 6) or DOM (n = 6) during late gestation, then had their MG biopsied from late gestation through lactation to assess microvessel density, VEGF-A distribution and messenger RNA expression, and aquaporin (AQP) gene expression. Microvessel density in the MG was unchanged during gestation then increased between days 2 and 21 of lactation (P hyperprolactinemia increases milk yield, there was no evidence that it altered vascular development. PMID:26490114

  15. Establishment of a canine mammary gland tumor cell line and characterization of its miRNA expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunden, Yuji; Sugiyama, Akihiko; Azuma, Kazuo; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Canine mammary gland tumors (CMGTs), which are the most common neoplasms in sexually intact female dogs, have been suggested as a model for studying human breast cancer because of several similarities, including relative age of onset, risk factors, incidence, histological and molecular features, biological behavior, metastatic pattern, and responses to therapy. In the present study, we established a new cell line, the SNP cell line, from a CMGT. A tumor formed in each NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mouse at the site of subcutaneous SNP cell injection. SNP cells are characterized by proliferation in a tubulopapillary pattern and are vimentin positive. Moreover, we examined miRNA expression in the cultured cells and found that the expression values of miRNA-143 and miRNA-138a showed the greatest increase and decrease, respectively, of all miRNAs observed, indicating that these miRNAs might play a significant role in the malignancy of SNP cells. Overall, the results of this study indicate that SNP cells might serve as a model for future genetic analysis and clinical treatments of human breast tumors. PMID:26726024

  16. Determination of thyreostats in bovine urine and thyroid glands by HPLC-MSMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Federico Labella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyreostats are orally active substances used in medicine and veterinary work to regulate the production of T3 and T4 hormones by the thyroid gland. They can be illicitly administered to livestock for fattening purposes in order to improve body-weight gain due to an important retention water in edible tissues and in the gastroenteric tract. Their fraudulent utilisation is severely prohibited by the European Union, which requires a precise monitoring. In 2007, European Union of Reference Laboratories in the CRL Guidance paper proposed a recommended concentration of 10 ng mL-1 in urine, which has just been suggested to increase to 30 ng mL-1. In order to facilitate the detection of thyreostats in two bovine matrices, urine and thyroid glands, a method was developed without a previous derivatisation step, frequently used for HPLC analysis of Thiouracil. A salting-out assisted liquid–liquid extraction procedure for preparation was carried out to facilitate the movement of the thyreostats to the tert buthyl methyl ether phase. The HPLC-MS/MS analytical procedure of the method was validated according to the guidelines of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and has permitted to obtain satisfactory performance parameters and, decision limit and detection capability values for all the thyreostats lower than the recommended values hitherto mentioned.

  17. Unexpected severe consequences of Pikfyve deletion by aP2- or Aq-promoter-driven Cre expression for glucose homeostasis and mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Delvecchio, Khortnal; Rillema, James A; Shisheva, Assia

    2016-06-01

    Systemic deficiency of PIKfyve, the evolutionarily conserved phosphoinositide kinase synthesizing cellular PtdIns5P and PtdIns(3,5)P2 and implicated in insulin signaling, causes early embryonic death in mice. In contrast, mice with muscle-specific Pikfyve disruption have normal lifespan but exhibit early-age whole-body glucose intolerance and muscle insulin resistance, thus establishing the key role of muscle PIKfyve in glucose homeostasis. Fat and muscle tissues control postprandial glucose clearance through different mechanisms, raising questions as to whether adipose Pikfyve disruption will also trigger whole-body metabolic abnormalities, and if so, what the mechanism might be. To clarify these issues, here we have characterized two new mouse models with adipose tissue disruption of Pikfyve through Cre recombinase expression driven by adipose-specific aP2- or adiponectin (Aq) promoters. Whereas both mouse lines were ostensibly normal until adulthood, their glucose homeostasis and systemic insulin sensitivity were severely dysregulated. These abnormalities stemmed in part from accelerated fat-cell lipolysis and elevated serum FFA Intriguingly, aP2-Cre-PIKfyve(fl/fl) but not Aq-Cre-PIKfyve(fl/fl) females had severely impaired pregnancy-induced mammary gland differentiation and lactogenesis, consistent with aP2-Cre-mediated Pikfyve excision in nonadipogenic tissues underlying this defect. Intriguingly, whereas mammary glands from postpartum control and Aq-Cre-PIKfyve(fl/fl) mice or ex vivo mammary gland explants showed profound upregulation of PIKfyve protein levels subsequent to prolactin receptor activation, such increases were not apparent in aP2-Cre-PIKfyve(fl/fl) females. Collectively, our data identify for the first time that adipose tissue Pikfyve plays a key role in the mechanisms regulating glucose homeostasis and that the PIKfyve pathway is critical in mammary epithelial differentiation during pregnancy and lactogenesis downstream of prolactin receptor

  18. 乳腺1号方治疗肝郁气滞型乳腺增生病疗效观察%Observation on the Effects of Mammary Gland 1 Prescription on Mammary Gland Hyperplasia of Liver Qi Stagnation Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金利家; 邹萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effects of mammary gland 1 prescription on mammary gland hyperplasia of liver Qi stagnation type. Methods:Total 72 patients with mammary gland hyperplasia of liver Qi stagnation type were randomly divided into the treatment group and control group with 36 cases respectively. Mammary gland 1 prescription was given to the treatment group by internal and external treatment while Rukuaixiao tablets were given to the control group,both for 3 courses,30 days for a course to observe the clinical effect and the serum sex hormone changes before and after the treatment. Results:The total effective rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group with statistical significance(P<0.05). The serum levels of E2 and PRL reduced in the two groups and the treatment group had better effect than the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion:The clinical effects of mammary gland 1 prescription on mammary gland hyperplasia were remarkable by the internal and external treatment and not easy to relapse.%目的:观察乳腺1号方治疗肝郁气滞型乳腺增生病的临床效果.方法:将72例肝郁气滞型乳腺增生病患者采用随机数字表法分为治疗组、对照组各36例.治疗组给予自拟乳腺1号方内服外敷,对照组给予乳块消片口服.两组均30 d为1疗程,连服3疗程.观察两组临床疗效和治疗前后血清性激素水平.结果:治疗后治疗组总有效率显著高于对照组,两组之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组治疗后血清雌二醇(E2)、垂体催乳素(PRL)水平下降,治疗组明显优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:自拟乳腺1号方内服外敷治疗肝郁气滞型乳腺增生病的临床疗效显著,且不易复发.

  19. Germ line knockout of IGFBP-3 reveals influences of the gene on mammary gland neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Marie-José; Bazile, Miguel; Birman, Elena; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Florianova, Livia; Aleynikova, Olga; Powell, David R; Pollak, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is an important carrier protein for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the circulation. IGFBP-3 antagonizes the growth-promoting and anti-apoptotic activities of IGFs in experimental systems, but in certain contexts can increase IGF bioactivity, probably by increasing its half-life. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of IGFBP-3 in breast carcinogenesis and breast cancer metastasis. In the first part of the study, we exposed IGFBP-3 knockout and wild-type female mice to dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and followed them for appearance of primary tumors for up to 13 months. In the second part, mice of each genotype received an IV injection of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells and then lung nodules were counted. Our results show that IGFBP-3 knockout mice developed breast tumors significantly earlier than the wild-type (13.9 ± 1.1 versus 22.5 ± 3.3 weeks, respectively, P = 0.0144), suggesting tumor suppression activity of IGFBP-3. In tumors of IGFBP-3 knockout mice, levels of phospho-AKT(Ser473) were increased compared to wild-type mice. The lung metastasis assay showed significantly more and larger lung nodules in IGFBP-3 knockout mice than in wild-type mice. While we observed increased levels of IGFBP-5 protein in the IGFBP-3 knockout mice, our findings suggest that this was not sufficient to completely compensate for the absence of IGFBP-3. Even though knockout of IGFBP-3 is associated with only a subtle phenotype under control conditions, our results reveal that loss of this gene has measurable effects on breast carcinogenesis and breast cancer metastasis. PMID:25614235

  20. Proto-oncogene HER-2 in normal, dysplastic and tumorous feline mammary glands: an immunohistochemical and chromogenic in situ hybridization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín de las Mulas Juana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline mammary carcinoma has been proposed as a natural model of highly aggressive, hormone-independent human breast cancer. To further explore the utility of the model by adding new similarities between the two diseases, we have analyzed the oncogene HER-2 status at both the protein and the gene levels. Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 30 invasive carcinomas, 7 benign lesions and two normal mammary glands were analyzed. Tumour features with prognostic value were recorded. The expression of protein HER-2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the number of gene copies by means of DNA chromogenic in situ hybridization. Results Immunohistochemical HER-2 protein overexpression was found in 40% of feline mammary carcinomas, a percentage higher to that observed in human breast carcinoma. As in women, feline tumours with HER-2 protein overexpression had pathological features of high malignancy. However, amplification of HER-2 was detected in 16% of carcinomas with protein overexpression, a percentage much lower than that observed in their human counterpart. Conclusion Feline mammary carcinoma would be a suitable natural model of that subset of human breast carcinomas with HER-2 protein overexpression without gene amplification.

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery in Bovine Pituitary Gland Using RNA-Seq Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Smoczyński, Rafał; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Dziuba, Piotr; Błaszczyk, Paweł; Sikora, Marcin; Walendzik, Paulina; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Pierzchała, Mariusz; Horbańczuk, Jarosław; Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogluszka, Magdalena; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Czarnik, Urszula; Fraser, Leyland; Sobiech, Przemysław; Wąsowicz, Krzysztof; Gelfand, Brian; Feng, Yaping; Kumar, Dibyendu

    2016-01-01

    Examination of bovine pituitary gland transcriptome by strand-specific RNA-seq allows detection of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within potential candidate genes (CGs) or QTLs regions as well as to understand the genomics variations that contribute to economic trait. Here we report a breed-specific model to successfully perform the detection of SNPs in the pituitary gland of young growing bulls representing Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF), Polish Red, and Hereford breeds at three developmental ages viz., six months, nine months, and twelve months. A total of 18 bovine pituitary gland polyA transcriptome libraries were prepared and sequenced using the Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. Sequenced FastQ databases of all 18 young bulls were submitted to NCBI-SRA database with NCBI-SRA accession numbers SRS1296732. For the investigated young bulls, a total of 113,882,3098 raw paired-end reads with a length of 156 bases were obtained, resulting in an approximately 63 million paired-end reads per library. Breed-wise, a total of 515.38, 215.39, and 408.04 million paired-end reads were obtained for Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA) read alignments showed 93.04%, 94.39%, and 83.46% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Constructed breed-specific SNP-db of three cattle breeds yielded at 13,775,885 SNPs. On an average 765,326 breed-specific SNPs per young bull were identified. Using two stringent filtering parameters, i.e., a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy ≥ 90% and a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy = 100%, SNP-db records were trimmed to construct a highly reliable SNP-db. This resulted in a reduction of 95,7% and 96,4% cut-off mark of constructed raw SNP-db. Finally, SNP discoveries using RNA-Seq data were validated by KASP™ SNP genotyping assay. The comprehensive QTLs/CGs analysis of 76 QTLs

  2. Identification of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in milk fat globules and mammary cells - Implications for milk cholesterol secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mani, O; Körner, M; Ontsouka, C E;

    2011-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 play an important role in cellular cholesterol homeostasis, but their function in mammary gland (MG) tissue remains elusive. A bovine MG model that allows repeated MG sampling in identical animals at different functional stages was used...

  3. Characterization and regulation of the bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) gene plays an important role in the bovine mammary gland where substrates such as stearic and vaccenic acids are converted to oleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Up to 90% of the CLA in bovine milk is formed due to the action of this enzyme in the mammary gland. The areas of the bovine promoter of importance in regulating this key enzyme were examined and an area of 36 bp in length was identified as having a critical role in transcriptional activation and is designated the Scd transcriptional enhancer element (STE). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay detected three binding complexes on this area in Mac-T cell nuclear extracts. Treatment of cells with CLA caused a significant reduction in transcriptional activity, with this effect being mediated through the STE region. The bovine Scd gene promoter was up-regulated by insulin and down-regulated by oleic acid

  4. Embryonic development of the bovine pineal gland (Bos taurus) during prenatal life (30 to 135 days of gestation)

    OpenAIRE

    Regodón, S.; Roncero, V

    2005-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the pineal gland of 30 bovine embryos (Bos taurus) has been analysed from 30 until 135 days of gestation by means of optical microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques. For this study, the specimens were grouped into three stages in accordance with the most relevant histological characteristics: Stage 1 (30 to 64 days of prenatal development); Stage 2 (70 to 90 days) and Stage 3 (106 to 135 days). In the cow, it is from 30 days of gestatio...

  5. Clinical Observation on Treatment of Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland by Lirukang Granule(利乳康颗粒)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Li-qi; PEI Xiao-hua; XU Zhi-yin; WANG Chi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the efficacy and mechanism of Lirukang Granule (利乳康颗粒,LRKG) in treating hyperplasia of mammary gland (HMG). Methods: One hundred patients with HMG were randomly assigned to two groups, 50 in each group. The patients in the treated group were orally administered with LRKG thrice a day, one package each time, and those in the control group were for both groups was 4 months. The clinical efficacy, pain alleviating rate, as well as changes of local sign and symptom scores were given orally Rukuaixiao Tablet (乳块消, RKX) thrice a day, 4 tablets each time. The therapeutic course observed before and after treatment. The changes of serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH)and prolactin (PRL) in some randomly selected patients (24 patients in the treated group and 24 in the control group) before and after treatment were measured with radioimmunoassay. Results: The total clinical efficacy in the treated group was superior to that in the control group, significant difference was shown between the two groups (P < 0.01). The cure-effective rate and total effective rate in the treated group were 70.0%and 88.0% respectively, significantly higher than those in the control group (38.0% and 64.0%) respectively (P< 0.01), and the pain alleviating rate in the treated group was also significantly higher in the former than that in the latter (88.0% vs 64.0%, P < 0.05). Moreover, the treated group showed obvious superiority in improving the patients' symptom and sign scores (P < 0.01),and abnormalities of gonadal hormone as compared with the respective items in the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: LRKG has good efficacy in the treatment of HMG, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation on endocrine and immune function.

  6. The basic and additional immunohistochemical criteria in differential diagnostics of tumors and tumor-like processes of mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shponka I.S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological diagnostics of mammary gland neoplasm is complex due to polymorphism of tumors and tumor-like processes. The purpose of our research was to reveal the basic and additional immunohistochemical markers for differential diagnostics of some diseases. We have established that the basic markers for differential diagnostics of adenosis and invasive carcinomas were MSA, α-SMA, S100, collagen IV, р63, Кі-67 and р53, additional - 34βЕ12, СК7, СК8, СК5/6, E-cadgerin. The loss of expression of myoepithelial markers, positive reaction with Кі-67, р53, Her2/neu also matters. Mutually contrary patterns of 34βЕ12 and E-cadgerin expression allow to differentiate ductal or lobular primacy of process. СК7, СК8, 34βЕ12 play a key role in differential diagnostics of carcinosarcomas and sarcomas. myoepithelial markers and basal membrane also give the additional information. At differential diagnostics of carcinoma and malignant tumors of other nature СК7, СК8, E-cadgerin, Her2/neu, ER/PgR, myoepithelial markers were the most important, being typical only for epithelial tumors. At Paget disease the reliable diagnostic criteria are absence of S100 and expression of certain classes СК (more often luminal epithelium СК7, СК8, E-cadgerin, СЕА. Clone AE1/AE3 and revealing СК7 is valuable for diagnostics of micro-metastasises.

  7. Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Causes Long-Term Increase in Serum Estradiol and Activation of PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway in Mouse Mammary Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suman, Shubhankar [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Michael D. [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Fornace, Albert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Datta, Kamal, E-mail: kd257@georgetown.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Exposure to ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Radiation exposure during infancy, childhood, and adolescence confers the highest risk. Although radiation is a proven mammary carcinogen, it remains unclear where it acts in the complex multistage process of breast cancer development. In this study, we investigated the long-term pathophysiologic effects of ionizing radiation at a dose (2 Gy) relevant to fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Adolescent (6-8 weeks old; n = 10) female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy total body {gamma}-radiation, the mammary glands were surgically removed, and serum and urine samples were collected 2 and 12 months after exposure. Molecular pathways involving estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling were investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results: Serum estrogen and urinary levels of the oncogenic estrogen metabolite (16{alpha}OHE1) were significantly increased in irradiated animals. Immunostaining for the cellular proliferative marker Ki-67 and cyclin-D1 showed increased nuclear accumulation in sections of mammary glands from irradiated vs. control mice. Marked increase in p85{alpha}, a regulatory sub-unit of the PI3K was associated with increase in Akt, phospho-Akt, phospho-BAD, phospho-mTOR, and c-Myc in irradiated samples. Persistent increase in nuclear ER{alpha} in mammary tissues 2 and 12 months after radiation exposure was also observed. Conclusions: Taken together, our data not only support epidemiologic observations associating radiation and breast cancer but also, specify molecular events that could be involved in radiation-induced breast cancer.

  8. Identification of conserved microRNAs in peripheral blood from giant panda: expression of mammary gland-related microRNAs during late pregnancy and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C D; Long, K; Jin, L; Huang, S; Li, D H; Ma, X P; Wei, M; Gu, Y; Ma, J D; Zhang, H

    2015-11-13

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the world's most endangered mammals, and it has evolved several unusual biological and behavioral traits. During puberty, pregnancy, lactation, and involution, the mammary gland undergoes profound morphological and functional changes. A large number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to be involved in mammary gland development and lactation. In this study, we identified 202 conserved mature miRNAs, corresponding to 147 pre-miRNAs, in giant panda peripheral blood using a small RNA-sequencing approach. In addition, 27 miRNA families and 29 miRNA clusters were identified. We analyzed the arm selection preference of pre-miRNAs and found that: 1) most giant panda pre-miRNAs generated one-strand miRNAs, and the 5p-arm only miRNAs have a higher expression level than 3p-arm only miRNAs; 2) there were more 5p-arm dominant miRNAs than 3p-arm dominant miRNAs; and 3) 5p-arm dominant miRNAs have a larger fold change within miRNA pairs than 3p-arm dominant miRNAs. Expression of 12 lactation-related miRNAs was detected across late pregnancy and early lactation stages by qPCR, and seven miRNAs were identified as clustered in one significant model. Most of these clustered miRNAs exhibited inhibitory roles in proliferation and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells. Functional analysis highlighted important roles of the seven as signed miRNAs in mammary development and metabolic changes, including blood vessel morphogenesis, macromolecule biosynthesis, cell cycle regulation, and protein transport.

  9. Development of Foreign Mammary Epithelial Morphology in the Stroma of Immunodeficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gat Rauner

    Full Text Available Systemic growth and branching stimuli, and appropriate interactions with the host stroma are essential for the development of foreign epithelia in the mammary gland of immunodeficient mice. These factors were manipulated to promote and investigate the generation of representative bovine epithelial morphology in the transplanted mouse mammary stroma. The bovine mammary epithelium is unique in its commitment to rapid proliferation and high rate of differentiation. Its morphological organization within a fibrotic stroma resembles that of the human breast, and differs significantly from the rudimentary ductal network that penetrates a fatty stroma in mice. Transplantation of bovine mammary epithelial cells into the cleared mammary fat pad of NOD-SCID mice led to continuous growth of epithelial structures. Multilayered hollow spheres developed within fibrotic areas, but in contrast to mice, no epithelial organization was formed between adipocytes. The multilayered spheres shared characteristics with the heifer gland's epithelium, including lumen size, cell proliferation, cytokeratin orientation, estrogen/progesterone receptor expression and localization, and milk protein synthesis. However, they did not extend into the mouse fat pad via ductal morphology. Pre-transplantation of fibroblasts increased the number of spheres, but did not promote extension of bovine morphology. The bovine cells preserved their fate and rarely participated in chimeric mouse-bovine outgrowths. Nevertheless, a single case of terminal ductal lobuloalveolar unit (TDLU development was recorded in mice treated with estrogen and progesterone, implying the feasibility of this representative bovine morphology's development. In vitro extension of these studies revealed paracrine inhibition of bovine epithelial mammosphere development by adipocytes, which was also generalized to breast epithelial mammosphere formation. The rescue of mammosphere development by fibroblast growth factor

  10. 体检妇女乳腺增生症情况报告%Examination of women hyperplasia of mammary gland report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉英; 陈云霞; 岳淑梅; 赵华; 王中华

    2011-01-01

    目的:及时发现、合理防治乳腺增生的发生.方法:对927名年龄在19~72岁之间的不同职业的妇女进行健康体检,通过询问生育史、月经周期乳腺胀痛史,手法常规检查双侧乳腺、电脑红外乳腺检查.结果:发现乳腺增生与职业有关、与月经不调有关、与年龄有关.结论:乳腺触检是最直接和快捷的乳腺检查方法,要通过宣传和指导让妇女正确掌握乳腺自检方法,以免发生误诊.%Objective To Discover and rational control of Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands. Methods About 927 aged between 19 - 72 - year - old women of different occupational health examination, by questioning the growth history, the menstrual cycle of breast distending pain in the history of manipulation routine examination of bilateral breast, computer infrared mammary gland examination. Results Discovery of mammary gland hyperplasia associated with occupational, associated with the menstrual disorder, associated with age. Conclusions Breast touch of breast examination methods of inspection is the most direct and efficient, through publicity and guidance for women to correctly grasp the breast self - examination methods in order to avoid misdiagnosis

  11. 自拟消癖方治疗乳腺增生病疗效观察%Treating addiction self consumption efficacy of mammary glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小琳; 李改非

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the side with self consumption addiction treatment tamoxifen clinical efficacy of mammary glands. Methods; 118 cases of mammary glands selected patients were randomly divided into control and treatment group and control group were given tamoxifen, the treatment group were added on the basis of consumer addiction self service side. Results; In control group and treatment group, the total effective rate was 79.31% , 95% ; obvious efficiency of 60. 34% , respectively, 75% , side effects were; 15.52% , 5% , compared the two groups was significant difference. Conclusion; The self consumption addiction side with tamoxifen may be effective in treating hyperplasia of mammary glands, and significant clinical efficacy and side effects is low.%目的:探讨自拟消癖方配合他莫昔芬治疗乳腺增生病临床疗效.方法:将所选118例乳腺增生病患者随机分为汁照组和治疗组,对照组给予他莫昔芬,治疗组在对照组的基础上加服自拟消癖方.结果:对照组与治疗组临床总有效率分别为79.31%、95%;显效率分别为60.34%、75%,副作用率分别为:15.52%、5%,两组对比具有显著性差异.结论:自拟消癖方配合他莫昔芬可有效治疗乳腺增生病,且临床疗效显著,副作用低.

  12. Effect of Lirukang Oral Liquid(利乳康口服液) on Neurotransmitters and Estrogen in Rats with Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱丽旗; 裴晓华; 陈荣明; 许芝银

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Lirukang oral liquid (LRK, 利乳康口服液) on release of neurotransmitter in rats with hyperpiasia of mammary glands (HMG) and to explore its mechanism. Methods: Sixty rats were divided into six groups, the normal control group, the model control group, the large dosage (3.6g/kg) and the small dosage (1.8g/kg) LRK groups, the Ruzengning (乳增宁, RZN, 2.5g/kg) group and the tamoxifen (TAM, 5mg/kg) group, 10 in each group. Except those in the normal control group, all the animals were made into rat model of HMG by intraperitoneal injection of estradiol benzoate. Levels of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in hypothalamus and mammary gland in rats were detected by fluorescence luminosity assay, and level of prolactin (PRL) in serum was detected by radioimmunoassay.Results: In the model group, the level of DA reduced significantly (P<0.01), and 5-HT and PRL increased obviously ( P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the LRK groups of both dosages and the TAM group had their level of DA significantly increased (P < 0. 01 ), and level of 5-HT significantly decreased ( P<0.01). The serum PRL in both LRK groups was significantly decreased ( P<0.01). No obvious changes in DA, 5-HT and PRL were found in the RZN group. Conclusion: LRK and TAM have similar effects in regulating the release of neurotransmitter in hypothalamus and mammary gland and serum content of estrogen in the animal models of HMG.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Estradiol in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells during Staphylococcus aureus Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Estrada, Ivan; López-Meza, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2), the predominant sexual hormone in females, is associated with the modulation of the innate immune response (IIR), and changes in its levels at parturition are related to intramammary infections, such as mastitis. In bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs), E2 regulates differentiation and proliferation, but its immunomodulatory functions have not been explored. Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant pathogen causing mastitis, which can persist intracellularly in bMECs. The aim of this work was to analyze whether E2 modulates the IIR of bMECs during S. aureus internalization. bMECs treated with E2 (50 pg/mL, 24 h) reduced bacteria internalization (~50%). The host receptors α5β1 and TLR2 do not participate in this reduction. However, E2 activates ERα and modulates the IIR reducing the S. aureus induced-mRNA expression of TNF-α (~50%) and IL-1β (90%). E2 also decreased the secretion of these cytokines as well as IL-6 production; however, in infected bMECs, E2 induced the secretion of IL-1β. Furthermore, E2 upregulates the expression of the antimicrobial peptides DEFB1, BNBD5, and psoriasin S100A7 (~5-, 3-, and 6-fold, resp.). In addition, E2 induced the production of antimicrobial compounds in bMEC culture medium, which, together with the modulation of the IIR, could be related to the reduction of S. aureus internalization. PMID:27034592

  14. TREATMENT OF 80 CASES OF HYPERPLASIA OF MAMMARY GLANDS WITH CUPPING ALONG DU MERIDIAN IN COMBINATION WITH CATGUT EMBEDDING THERAPY ON THE ACUPOINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiu; HOU Mei-yun

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 CLINICAL DATA 1.1 General data All of 80 cases were outpatients, female, aged between 24 to 45 years old; the duration of disease was various from 3 months to 10 years. The problem was found bilaterally in 68 cases, and unilaterally in 12 cases. The clinical manifestations in the breast were distending pain, soft masses of different size with unclear border, no adhesion with surrounding tissue, movable, no change in the superficial skin, tenderness, no swelling in the axillary lymph node. Hyperplasia of mammary gland was indicated by molybdenum palladium roentgenograph of breast or infrared scanning or color ultrasound test.

  15. Milk fatty acid composition and mammary lipogenic genes expression in bovine cloned and control cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Laurence; Richard, Christophe; Gelin, Valerie; Leroux, Christine; Heyman, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of nuclear transfer technology on the physiology of lactation and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cattle (Holstein breed), the present study compares the milk yield and composition from bovine somatic cell cloned (n=5) and control animals (n=5) at 180 days in milk (DIM) maintained together under the same conditions. All cows were offered the same total mixed ration ad libitum. At 180 DIM, the cloned had a higher body weight (BW; P<0.01) compared with ...

  16. Identification of Putative Ortholog Gene Blocks Involved in Gestant and Lactating Mammary Gland Development: A Rodent Cross-Species Microarray Transcriptomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M.; Hernández-Stengele, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raúl; Salazar, Emmanuel; Sanchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio; Ramírez-Salcedo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland (MG) undergoes functional and metabolic changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, possibly by regulation of conserved genes. The objective was to elucidate orthologous genes, chromosome clusters and putative conserved transcriptional modules during MG development. We analyzed expression of 22,000 transcripts using murine microarrays and RNA samples of MG from virgin, pregnant, and lactating rats by cross-species hybridization. We identified 521 transcripts differentially expressed; upregulated in early (78%) and midpregnancy (89%) and early lactation (64%), but downregulated in mid-lactation (61%). Putative orthologous genes were identified. We mapped the altered genes to orthologous chromosomal locations in human and mouse. Eighteen sets of conserved genes associated with key cellular functions were revealed and conserved transcription factor binding site search entailed possible coregulation among all eight block sets of genes. This study demonstrates that the use of heterologous array hybridization for screening of orthologous gene expression from rat revealed sets of conserved genes arranged in chromosomal order implicated in signaling pathways and functional ontology. Results demonstrate the utilization power of comparative genomics and prove the feasibility of using rodent microarrays to identification of putative coexpressed orthologous genes involved in the control of human mammary gland development. PMID:24288657

  17. Stevioside plays an anti-inflammatory role by regulating the NF-κB and MAPK pathways in S. aureus-infected mouse mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiancheng; Guo, Mengyao; Song, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zecai; Jiang, Haichao; Wang, Wei; Fu, Yunhe; Cao, Yongguo; Zhu, Lianqin; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Mastitis is an inflammatory disease caused by microbial infection. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the primary bacteria responsible for mastitis. Stevioside is isolated from Stevia rebaudiana and is known to have therapeutic functions. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of stevioside in a mouse model of S. aureus-induced mastitis. In this study, the mouse mammary gland was infected with S. aureus to induce the mastitis model. The stevioside was administered intraperitoneally after the S. aureus infection was established. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, ELISA, Western blot, and q-PCR methods were used. The results show that stevioside significantly reduced the inflammatory cell infiltration and the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and the respective expression of their messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Further studies revealed that stevioside downregulated the TLR2, NF-κB, and (mitogen-activated protein kinase) MAPK signaling pathways in the S. aureus-infected mouse mammary gland. Our results demonstrate that stevioside reduced the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of proteins in the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways dose-dependently, but that their mRNA expression was not obviously changed. PMID:24858724

  18. Sophocarpine displays anti-inflammatory effect via inhibiting TLR4 and TLR4 downstream pathways on LPS-induced mastitis in the mammary gland of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dehai; Xu, Niannian; Zhang, Zhenbiao; Yang, Shijin; Qiu, Changwei; Li, Chengye; Deng, Ganzhen; Guo, Mengyao

    2016-06-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammation of the mammary gland. LPS, which is widely used to induce mastitis models for the study of this disease, triggers similar inflammation as Escherichia coli. Sophocarpine, isolated from Sophora alopecuroides L., exhibits multiple biological properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of action of sophocarpine on mastitis within an LPS-induced mouse model. ELISA and western blotting were performed to detect protein levels. The qPCR was performed to detect mRNA levels. The ELISA and qRT-PCR results showed that sophocarpine inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. However, sophocarpine suppressed TLR4 expression. Further study showed that sophocarpine could suppress the phosphorylation of IκBα, p65 and p38. These results confirm that sophocarpine played an anti-inflammatory role in LPS-induced mastitis by regulating TLR4 and the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in mammary gland tissues. Therefore, sophocarpine may be a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of mastitis. PMID:27039209

  19. Effect of mammogenic hormones on the expression of dFGF7, FGF10 and their receptor in mouse mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of estrogen, progesterone and prolactin stimulating the development of mammary gland, the Kunming mice were used as experimental animals in this study.Through the ex-periment in vitro, the effect of mammogenic hormones were systematically investigated on expression of FGF7 and FGF10 and their receptor in different periods.The results are as follows:in mammary glands of mice, 17 beta-estradiol increased the expression of FGF7;progesterone did not affect the expression of FGF7;prolactin up-regulated the expression of FGF7 significantly in pregnancy and lac-tation.17 beta-estradiol increased the expression of FGF10;progesterone and prolactin reduced the expression of FGF10 significantly in virgin;prolactin significantly increased the expression of FGF10 in pregnancy.When 17 beta-estradiol in the body was in relatively high proportion, it would lower the ex-pression of KGFR;while 17 beta-estradiol in the body was in relatively low proportion, it would increase the expression of KGFR.Low concentration of progesterone increased the expression of KGFR and high progesterone did not affect the expression of KGFR.Prolactin increased the expression of KGFR significantly in pregnancy and lactation.

  20. Characterization of microRNA profile in mammary tissue of dairy and beef breed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicik, Z; Gajewska, M; Majewska, A; Walkiewicz, D; Osińska, E; Motyl, T

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participate in the regulation of gene expression. Their role during mammary gland development is still largely unknown. In this study, we performed a microarray analysis to identify miRNAs associated with high mammogenic potential of the bovine mammary gland. We identified 54 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs between the mammary tissue of dairy (Holstein-Friesian, HF) and beef (Limousin, LM) postpubertal heifers. Fifty-two miRNAs had higher expression in the mammary tissue of LM heifers. The expression of the top candidate miRNAs (bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-29b, bta-miR-101, bta-miR-375, bta-miR-2285t, bta-miR-146b, bta-let7b, bta-miR-107, bta-miR-1434-3p) identified in the microarray experiment was additionally evaluated by qPCR. Enrichment analyses for targeted genes revealed that the major differences between miRNA expression in the mammary gland of HF versus LM were associated with the regulation of signalling pathways that are crucial for mammary gland development, such as TGF-beta, insulin, WNT and inflammatory pathways. Moreover, a number of genes potentially targeted by significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with the activity of mammary stem cells. These data indicate that the high developmental potential of the mammary gland in dairy cattle, leading to high milk productivity, depends also on a specific miRNA expression pattern. PMID:26060050

  1. Morinda citrifolia (Noni Juice Augments Mammary Gland Differentiation and Reduces Mammary Tumor Growth in Mice Expressing the Unactivated c-erbB2 Transgene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Clafshenkel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia (noni is reported to have many beneficial properties, including on immune, inflammatory, quality of life, and cancer endpoints, but little is known about its ability to prevent or treat breast cancer. To test its anticancer potential, the effects of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ on mammary carcinogenesis were examined in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity, and metastatic incidence were unaffected by TNJ treatment, which suggests that it would not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in women taking TNJ for its other benefits. However, noni may be useful to enhance treatment responses in women with existing HER2/neu breast cancer since TNJ resulted in significant reductions in tumor weight and volume and in longer tumor doubling times in mice. Remarkably, its ability to inhibit the growth of this aggressive form of cancer occurred with the mouse equivalent of a recommended dose for humans (<3 oz/day. A 30-day treatment with TNJ also induced significant changes in mammary secondary ductule branching and lobuloalveolar development, serum progesterone levels, and estrous cycling. Additional studies investigating TNJ-induced tumor growth suppression and modified reproductive responses are needed to characterize its potential as a CAM therapy for women with and without HER2+ breast cancer.

  2. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1994-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  3. Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MRK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Moustafa R K Ali,1 Ibrahim M Ibrahim,2,† Hala R Ali,2,3 Salah A Selim,2 Mostafa A El-Sayed1,4 1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Laser Dynamics Laboratory, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; 4School of Chemistry, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia †Ibrahim M Ibrahim passed away on August 23, 2015 Abstract: Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT is a cancer therapy in which gold nanorods are injected at the site of a tumor before near-infrared light is transiently applied to the tumor causing localized cell death. Previously, PPTT studies have been carried out on xenograft mice models. Herein, we report a study showing the feasibility of PPTT as applied to natural tumors in the mammary glands of dogs and cats, which more realistically represent their human equivalents at the molecular level. We optimized a regime of three low PPTT doses at 2-week intervals that ablated tumors mainly via apoptosis in 13 natural mammary gland tumors from seven animals. Histopathology, X-ray, blood profiles, and comprehensive examinations were used for both the diagnosis and the evaluation of tumor statuses before and after treatment. Histopathology results showed an obvious reduction in the cancer grade shortly after the first treatment and a complete regression after the third treatment. Blood tests showed no obvious change in liver and kidney functions. Similarly, X-ray diffraction showed no metastasis after 1 year of treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests the feasibility of applying the gold nanorods-PPTT on natural tumors in dogs and cats without any relapse or toxicity effects after 1 year of treatment. Keywords: gold nanorods, natural mammary tumors, plasmonic photothermal therapy, canine, feline

  4. Endogenous synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Fat-1 mice is associated with increased mammary gland and liver syndecan-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiguo Sun

    Full Text Available Long chain n-3 PUFA have been shown to have chemopreventive properties against breast cancer through various mechanisms. One pathway, studied in human breast cancer cell lines, involves upregulation of the proteoglycan, syndecan-1 (SDC-1 by n-3 PUFA-enriched LDL. Using Fat-1 mice that are able to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFA, we tested whether SDC-1 level in vivo is elevated in mammary glands due to endogenously synthesized rather than LDL-derived n-3 PUFA. Female Fat-1 and wild type (wt mice were fed an n-6 PUFA- enriched diet for 7 weeks. Fatty acid analysis of plasma lipoproteins showed that total n-6 PUFA reflected dietary intake similarly in both genotypes (VLDL, 36.2±2.2 and 40.9±3.9; LDL, 49.0±3.3 and 48.1±2.0; HDL, 54.6±1.2 and 58.2±1.3, mean ± SEM percent of total fatty acids for Fat-1 and wt animals respectively. Lipoprotein percent n-3 PUFA was also similar between groups. However, phospholipids and triglycerides extracted from mammary and liver tissues demonstrated significantly higher n-3 PUFA and a corresponding decrease in the ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA in Fat-1 compared to wt mice. This was accompanied by higher SDC-1 in mammary glands and livers of Fat-1 mice, thus demonstrating that endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFA may upregulate SDC-1 in the presence of high dietary n-6 PUFA.

  5. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Zas Sandra L; Bionaz Massimo; Morin Dawn E; Drackley James K; Moyes Kasey M; Everts Robin E; Lewin Harris A; Loor Juan J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decrease economic losses to dairy farmers. The main objective of this study was to determine the most affected gene networks and pathways in mammary tissue in response to an intramammary infection...

  6. Defensin γ-thionin from Capsicum chinense has immunomodulatory effects on bovine mammary epithelial cells during Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Murillo, Violeta; Medina-Estrada, Ivan; López-Meza, Joel E; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    β-Defensins are members of the antimicrobial peptide superfamily that are produced in various species from different kingdoms, including plants. Plant defensins exhibit primarily antifungal activities, unlike those from animals that exhibit a broad-spectrum antimicrobial action. Recently, immunomodulatory roles of mammal β-defensins have been observed to regulate inflammation and activate the immune system. Similar roles for plant β-defensins remain unknown. In addition, the regulation of the immune system by mammalian β-defensins has been studied in humans and mice models, particularly in immune cells, but few studies have investigated these peptides in epithelial cells, which are in intimate contact with pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the chemically synthesized β-defensin γ-thionin from Capsicum chinense on the innate immune response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) infected with Staphylococcus aureus, the primary pathogen responsible for bovine mastitis, which is capable of living within bMECs. Our results indicate that γ-thionin at 0.1 μg/ml was able to reduce the internalization of S. aureus into bMECs (∼50%), and it also modulates the innate immune response of these cells by inducing the mRNA expression (∼5-fold) and membrane abundance (∼3-fold) of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), as well as by inducing genes coding for the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β (∼14 and 8-fold, respectively) before and after the bacterial infection. γ-Thionin also induces the expression of the mRNA of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (∼12-fold). Interestingly, the reduction in bacterial internalization coincides with the production of other antimicrobial products by bMECs, such as NO before infection, and the secretion into the medium of the endogenous antimicrobial peptide DEFB1 after infection. The results from this work support the potential use of β-defensins from plants as immunomodulators of the mammalian

  7. Gene expression profiling of mammary gland development reveals putative roles for death receptors and immune mediators in post-lactational regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular processes that underlie apoptosis and tissue regression in mammary gland, we undertook a large-scale analysis of transcriptional changes during the mouse mammary pregnancy cycle, with emphasis on the transition from lactation to involution. Affymetrix microarrays, representing 8618 genes, were used to compare mammary tissue from 12 time points (one virgin, three gestation, three lactation and five involution stages). Six animals were used for each time point. Common patterns of gene expression across all time points were identified and related to biological function. The majority of significantly induced genes in involution were also differentially regulated at earlier stages in the pregnancy cycle. This included a marked increase in inflammatory mediators during involution and at parturition, which correlated with leukaemia inhibitory factor–Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of signalling-3) signalling. Before involution, expected increases in cell proliferation, biosynthesis and metabolism-related genes were observed. During involution, the first 24 hours after weaning was characterized by a transient increase in expression of components of the death receptor pathways of apoptosis, inflammatory cytokines and acute phase response genes. After 24 hours, regulators of intrinsic apoptosis were induced in conjunction with markers of phagocyte activity, matrix proteases, suppressors of neutrophils and soluble components of specific and innate immunity. We provide a resource of mouse mammary gene expression data for download or online analysis. Here we highlight the sequential induction of distinct apoptosis pathways in involution and the stimulation of immunomodulatory signals, which probably suppress the potentially damaging effects of a cellular inflammatory response while maintaining an appropriate antimicrobial and phagocytic environment

  8. Study on effect of Ru An tablets on hyperplasia of mammary glands and hormone level in rats%乳安片对大鼠乳腺增生及调节激素水平研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茂军; 冯玥; 申秀萍; 胡金芳

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究乳安片对大鼠乳腺增生及调节激素水平的研究.[方法]建立大鼠乳腺增生模型,灌胃给予乳安片(高、中、低3个剂量组)4周,测定乳头直径及长度,计算乳头体积;血清中雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P)、泌乳素(PRL)及睾酮(T)含量.取胸前第1、2对乳房乳腺、子宫卵巢称质量,计算脏器系数;取乳腺组织做组织病理学检查.[结果]乳安片高、中、低剂量组能够显著减小乳腺增生大鼠乳头直径、长度及乳腺体积,显著减轻乳腺质量、乳腺系数和子宫卵巢系数;明显降低乳腺增生大鼠血清E2、PRL和E2/P含量,增加血清中T和P含量;减少乳腺小叶数、小叶腺泡数、乳腺腺泡数目及腔内分泌物.[结论]乳安片能够通过调节乳腺增生大鼠的性激素水平,改善增生乳腺的形态学变化,对大鼠乳腺增生病具有显著的治疗作用.%[Objective] To study the effect of Ru An tablets on hyperplasia of mammary glands and hormone level in rats. [Methods] After hyperplasia of mammary glands was induced in rats, the rats were given Ru An tablets with lavage administration at high, middle, and low dose respectively for four weeks. The diameter and length of the nipple were measured and the size of the nipple was calculated. The contents of serum estradiol (E2), progesterone, prolactin (PRL) and testosterone were measured. The first and second pair of mammary glands were harvested, uterus and ovary were weighted to calculate the organ coefficients. The pthological examination of the mammary glands tissue was also conducted. [Results] All of the three doses of Ru An tablets could markedly decrease the diameter of nipple, length and size of the nipple of rats with proliferation of mammary glands, reduce markedly the weight of mammary glands and the coefficients of the mammary glands, and the coefficient of ovary and uterus, effectively decrease serum E2, PRL and E2/P level, increase the serum content of

  9. ROLES OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF-A) IN MEDIATION OF DIOXIN (TCDD)-INDUCED DELAYS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE MAMMARY GLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roles of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-a) in Mediation of Dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Delays in Development of the Mouse Mammary Gland.Suzanne E. Fenton, Barbara Abbott, Lamont Bryant, and Angela Buckalew. U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Tox...

  10. LPS注射后小鼠乳腺中β-防御素1mRNA表达的变化%Expression of β -defensin 1 mRNA in Mammary Gland of Mice after Being Injected with LPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟丽丽; 朱河水; 钟凯; 王月影

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the expression of β -defensin 1 (Defbl) gene in the mammary gland with inflammatory response of mice, this experiment took the fourth mammary gland tissue of mice as the tested material, induced the inflammation of mammary gland by injecting LPS, and determined the relative abundance of Defbl mRNA in the mammary gland of mice by using semi - quantitative RT - PCR method. The results indicated that: in comparison with CK, the expression of Defbl gene increased significantly ( P < 0.05 ) in every period after inducement with LPS, and it reached the peak at the 9th hour after inducement.%为了研究β-防御素1(β - defensin 1,Defb1)基因在小鼠乳腺发生炎症反应时的表达变化,本试验以小鼠第4对乳腺组织为研究对象,用LPS诱导小鼠乳腺组织发生炎症,半定量RT- PCR法研究了小鼠乳腺中Defb1 mRNA表达的相对丰度.试验结果表明,与对照组相比,LPS诱导后各时期Defb和1基因的表达量均显著增加(P<0.05),9h时达到最高峰.

  11. Proteomics and pathway analysis of N-glycosylated mammary gland proteins in response to Escherichia coli mastitis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Shen, Weijun; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhao, Huiling; Huang, Dongwei; Cheng, Guanglong

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the N-linked glycosylated protein profile of mammary tissue from healthy cows and cows with mastitis due to Escherichia coli, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of the host response to mastitis. N-glycopeptides were enriched with a lectin mixture and identified through high-accuracy mass spectrometry. A total of 551 N-glycosylation sites, corresponding to 294 proteins, were identified in the mammary tissues of healthy cows; these glycoproteins were categorised into three functional groups and clustered into 11 specific pathways. A total of 511 N-glycosylation sites, corresponding to 283 glycosylated proteins, were detected in the mammary tissues of cows with E. coli mastitis. There were differences in N-glycosylation sites in 98 proteins in the mammary tissues of healthy cows and cows with mastitis due to E. coli. Most proteins with altered glycosylation were those involved in responses to stress, cell adhesion and the immune response, and were assigned to five specific pathways based on their gene ontology annotation. The results from this study show that the glycosylated protein profile in the mammary tissues of healthy and mastitic cows are different, and altered glycoproteins are associated with several pathways, including the lysosome and O-glycan biosynthesis pathways.

  12. Experimental study of Sanxiangruzengxiao capsule on hyperplasia of mammary glands%三香乳增消胶囊治疗乳腺增生的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓双; 杨瑞; 武苗; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察三香乳增消胶囊对乳腺增生模型大鼠的治疗作用.方法 苯甲酸雌二醇和黄体酮肌注建立乳腺增生模型,给药30d后,测定第2对乳头高度及直径,观察乳腺组织结构,计算子宫、卵巢指数.结果 三香乳增消胶囊能抑制乳腺增生大鼠的乳头高度及直径,降低镜下乳腺增生程度,降低子宫、卵巢指数.结论 三香乳增消胶囊对乳腺增生模型大鼠具有明显的治疗作用.%Objective It is to observe the therapeutic action of Sanxiangruzengxiao capsule on model rats with hyperplasia of mammary glands. Methods The model of hyperplasia of mammary glands was established with intramuscular injection of estradiol benzoate and progesterone. After the administration for 30 d, the height and diameter of the second pair of nipple were determined, the structure of breast tissue was observed and the indexes of uterus and ovary were calculated. Results Sanxiangruzengxiao capsule could inhibit the height and diameter of nipple in rats with hyperplasia of mammary glands, lower the degree of hyperplasia of mammary glands under microscopy and lower the indexes of uterus and ovary. Conclusion Sanxiangruzengxiao capsule has obvious therapeutic effect on hyperplasia of mammary glands in rats.

  13. 三香乳增消胶囊对乳腺增生模型豚鼠的治疗作用%Therapeutical effect of Sanxiangruzengxiao Capsules on hyperplasia of mammary glands in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓双; 武苗; 杨瑞; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutical effect of Sanxiangruzengxiao Capsules on mammary glands in guinca pigs. Method The guinea pig model of mammary gland hyperplasia was established by intramuscular injection of estradiol benzoate and progesterone. The nipple height and diameter of mammary glands were determined,the breast tissue structure was observed and the uterus,and ovary index were calculated. Result Sanxiangruzengxiao Capsules can inhibit the nipple height and diameter of hyperplasia of mammary glands in guinea pigs, reduce the degree of microscopic hyperplasia, lower uterus, ovary index. Conclusion Sanxiangruzengxiao Capsules has obvious therapeutical effect on hyperplasia of mammary glands in guinea pigs.%目的 观察三香乳增消胶囊对乳腺增生模型豚鼠的治疗作用.方法 采用苯甲酸雌二醇和黄体酮肌注复制豚鼠乳腺增生模型,考察三香乳增消胶囊对豚鼠乳头高度和直径、乳腺病理形态学变化及子宫、卵巢指数的影响.结果 三香乳增消胶囊能减小乳腺增生豚鼠的乳头高度及直径,降低镜下乳腺增生程度,降低子宫、卵巢指数.结论 三香乳增消胶囊对乳腺增生模型豚鼠具有治疗作用.

  14. Identification of the bovine $\\alpha$1-acid glycoprotein in colostrum and milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Pocacqua, Vanessa; Provasi, Elena; Comunian, Claudio; Bertolini, Alessandra; Bronzo, Valerio; Moroni, Paolo; Sartorelli, Paola

    2005-01-01

    International audience $\\alpha$1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is an immunomodulatory protein expressed by hepatocytes in response to the systemic reaction that follows tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection or trauma. This paper presents the detection of bovine AGP (boAGP) in mammary secretions (colostrum and milk) and mammary gland tissue. Bovine AGP was detected by Western blotting in all the samples analysed, and could be quantified in colostrum at 162 (± 63.7) $\\mu$g/mL and 114.5 (...

  15. Innate immune response to a bovine mastitis pathogen profiled in milk and blood monocytes using a systems biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland which leads to reduced milk yield and increased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) resulting in an estimated annual cost to the dairy industry worldwide of ~ 2 billion euros. Mastitis has a complex etiology, with pathogenic, host and envi...

  16. The phytoestrogenic Cyclopia extract, SM6Met, increases median tumor free survival and reduces tumor mass and volume in chemically induced rat mammary gland carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Koch; Zierau, Oliver; Macejová, Dana; Goerl, Florian; Muders, Michael; Baretton, Gustavo B; Vollmer, Günter; Louw, Ann

    2016-10-01

    SM6Met, a phytoestrogenic extract of Cyclopia subternata indigenous to the Western Cape province of South Africa, displays estrogenic attributes with potential for breast cancer chemoprevention. In this study, we report that SM6Met, in the presence of estradiol, induces a significant cell cycle G0/G1 phase arrest similar to the selective estrogen receptor modulator, tamoxifen. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, in the N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea induced rat mammary gland carcinogenesis model, SM6Met increases tumor latency by 7days and median tumor free survival by 42 days, while decreasing palpable tumor frequency by 32%, tumor mass by 40%, and tumor volume by 53%. Therefore, the current study provides proof of concept that SM6Met has definite potential as a chemopreventative agent against the development and progression of breast cancer. PMID:27142456

  17. Comparison between ultrasonographic findings of benign and malignant canine mammary gland tumours using B-mode, colour Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Marta; Dominguez, Elisabet; Lucas, Xiomara; Novellas, Rosa; Gomes-Coelho, Kassia Valeria; Espada, Yvonne; Agut, Amalia

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the comparison between the ultrasonographic features of canine mammary tumours, assessed by B-Mode, colour Doppler, power Doppler, spectral Doppler, and histopathologic features, would help to differentiate if a tumour is benign or malignant. Ultrasonographic examinations of 104 tumours were performed. Volume, margins, presence of a capsule, echotexture and presence and distribution of the vascular flow of the tumours were evaluated. All the tumours were surgically removed, submitted for histopathologic examination and classified in two groups: Group I (benign tumours) and Group II (malignant tumours). Echotexture was the only parameter evaluated by B-Mode ultrasonography where significant differences were found (pmammary gland tumours may help, in a first examination of the tumour, to differentiate between benign and malignant tumours; however to reach a definitive diagnosis histological study is required. PMID:27473987

  18. Histone demethylase JMJD2B functions as a co-factor of estrogen receptor in breast cancer proliferation and mammary gland development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Kawazu

    Full Text Available Estrogen is a key regulator of normal function of female reproductive system and plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that JMJD2B (also known as KDM4B constitutes a key component of the estrogen signaling pathway. JMJD2B is expressed in a high proportion of human breast tumors, and that expression levels significantly correlate with estrogen receptor (ER positivity. In addition, 17-beta-estradiol (E2 induces JMJD2B expression in an ERα dependent manner. JMJD2B interacts with ERα and components of the SWI/SNF-B chromatin remodeling complex. JMJD2B is recruited to ERα target sites, demethylates H3K9me3 and facilitates transcription of ER responsive genes including MYB, MYC and CCND1. As a consequence, knockdown of JMJD2B severely impairs estrogen-induced cell proliferation and the tumor formation capacity of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, Jmjd2b-deletion in mammary epithelial cells exhibits delayed mammary gland development in female mice. Taken together, these findings suggest an essential role for JMJD2B in the estrogen signaling, and identify JMJD2B as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  19. HER-2 and EGFR mRNA Expression and Its Relationship with Versican in Malignant Matrix-Producing Tumors of the Canine Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Karine Araújo; Ferreira, Enio; Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Gamba, Conrado de Oliveira; Miranda, Fernanda Freitas; Alves, Mariana Rezende; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Versican expression promotes tumor growth by destabilizing focal cell contacts, thus impeding cell adhesion and facilitating cell migration. It not only presents or recruits molecules to the cell surface, but also modulates gene expression levels and coordinates complex signal pathways. Previously, we suggested that the interaction between versican and human epidermal growth factor receptors may be directly associated with tumor aggressiveness. Thus, the expression of EGFR and HER-2 in these neoplasms may contribute to a better understanding of the progression mechanisms in malignant mammary tumors. The purpose of this study was to correlate the gene and protein expressions of EGFR and HER2 by RNA In Situ Hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively, and their relationship with the versican expression in carcinomas in mixed tumors and carcinosarcomas of the canine mammary gland. The results revealed that EGFR mRNA expression showed a significant difference between in situ and invasive carcinomatous areas in low and high versican expression groups. Identical results were observed in HER-2 mRNA expression. In immunohistochemistry analysis, neoplasms with low versican expression showed greater EGFR immunostaining in the in situ areas than in invasive areas, even as the group presenting high versican expression displayed greater EGFR and HER-2 staining in in situ areas. Significant EGFR and HER-2 mRNA and protein expressions in in situ carcinomatous sites relative to invasive areas suggest that these molecules play a role during the early stages of tumor progression. PMID:27490467

  20. Selenium Deficiency Deteriorate the Inflammation of S. aureus Infection via Regulating NF-κB and PPAR-γ in Mammary Gland of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zecai; Li, Ying; Hu, Xiaoyu; Shen, Peng; Fu, Yunhe; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient contributing to a strong immune system for the prevention of infections and diseases in humans and animals. Dietary Se regulates the immune status and mediates anti-inflammatory action. Mastitis is an inflammation in the mammary gland typically induced through the major pathogen S. aureus. The aim of the present study was to determine the regulating effect of Se on S. aureus-induced inflammation using a mouse mastitis model. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect histopathological injury. ELISA was used to detect cytokine expression, while protein and mRNA levels were analyzed through Western blotting and qPCR analysis, respectively. The results showed that Se deficiency increased inflammatory lesions in individuals with S. aureus infection in the mammary gland. The NO levels showed a significant increase in Se-deficient mice with S. aureus mastitis. Se deficiency accelerated the production of pro-inflammatory factors and reduced IL-10 expression. Furthermore, the results of the present study showed that the regulating effect of Se on S. aureus-induced mastitis was associated with the NF-κB pathway. Indeed, Se deficiency suppressed PPAR-γ activity and promoted NF-κB pathway activation. Thus, Se supplementation could improve the effect on PPAR-γ and NF-κB. These results suggest that Se deficiency could aggravate the inflammatory injury resulting from S. aureus-induced mastitis. Moreover, the results of the present study contribute to the development of new prevention or treatment methods for S. aureus-induced mastitis and other infectious diseases. PMID:26554949

  1. Selenium Deficiency Deteriorate the Inflammation of S. aureus Infection via Regulating NF-κB and PPAR-γ in Mammary Gland of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zecai; Li, Ying; Hu, Xiaoyu; Shen, Peng; Fu, Yunhe; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient contributing to a strong immune system for the prevention of infections and diseases in humans and animals. Dietary Se regulates the immune status and mediates anti-inflammatory action. Mastitis is an inflammation in the mammary gland typically induced through the major pathogen S. aureus. The aim of the present study was to determine the regulating effect of Se on S. aureus-induced inflammation using a mouse mastitis model. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect histopathological injury. ELISA was used to detect cytokine expression, while protein and mRNA levels were analyzed through Western blotting and qPCR analysis, respectively. The results showed that Se deficiency increased inflammatory lesions in individuals with S. aureus infection in the mammary gland. The NO levels showed a significant increase in Se-deficient mice with S. aureus mastitis. Se deficiency accelerated the production of pro-inflammatory factors and reduced IL-10 expression. Furthermore, the results of the present study showed that the regulating effect of Se on S. aureus-induced mastitis was associated with the NF-κB pathway. Indeed, Se deficiency suppressed PPAR-γ activity and promoted NF-κB pathway activation. Thus, Se supplementation could improve the effect on PPAR-γ and NF-κB. These results suggest that Se deficiency could aggravate the inflammatory injury resulting from S. aureus-induced mastitis. Moreover, the results of the present study contribute to the development of new prevention or treatment methods for S. aureus-induced mastitis and other infectious diseases.

  2. Plasma transport and mammary uptake of trans fatty acids in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Bello Pérez, Einar

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, aspects of metabolism of lipids in dairy cows were studied, particularly 18:1 trans fatty acid (tFA) concentrations in plasma and lipoprotein fractions, and transportation of FA in epithelial mammary gland cell cultures. Two in vivo studies were conducted to elucidate which lipoprotein fractions were involved in bovine plasma transport of tFA by infusing oils that induced different plasma tFA profiles. Fatty acid profiles of plasma and lipoprotein fractions [high (HDL), l...

  3. Prolactin and the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio regulate the expression of SNAT2 amino acid transporter in the mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A; López-Barradas, Adriana M; Torres, Nimbe; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Granados, Omar; Ortíz, Victor; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-05-01

    The sodium coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2/SAT2/ATA2) is expressed in the mammary gland (MG) and plays an important role in the uptake of alanine and glutamine which are the most abundant amino acids transported into this tissue during lactation. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the amount and localization of SNAT2 before delivery and during lactation in rat MG, and to evaluate whether prolactin and the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio might influence SNAT2 expression in the MG, liver and adipose tissue during lactation. Our results showed that SNAT2 protein abundance in the MG increased during lactation and this increase was maintained along this period, while 24 h after weaning it tended to decrease. To study the effect of prolactin on SNAT2 expression, we incubated MG explants or T47D cells transfected with the SNAT2 promoter with prolactin, and we observed in both studies an increase in the SNAT2 expression or promoter activity. Consumption of a high-protein/low carbohydrate diet increased prolactin concentration, with a concomitant increase in SNAT2 expression not only in the MG during lactation, but also in the liver and adipose tissue. There was a correlation between SNAT2 expression and serum prolactin levels depending on the amount of dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio consumed. These findings suggest that prolactin actively supports lactation providing amino acids to the gland through SNAT2 for the synthesis of milk proteins.

  4. 机关4553例女性公务员乳腺普查分析%Analysis on general investigation of mammary gland among 4 553 female public servants in office

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常晓芬; 陈润钿

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To understand the prevalence of mammary gland diseases among the female public servants in Foshan city straight office and explore corresponding strategies of prevention and treatment Methods; Palpation by professional physicians, breast examination under infrared ray, color Doppler ultrasound and pathological biopsy were used for general investigation of mammary gland among the female public servants in Foshan city straight office. Results; 4 SS3 women received general investigation from January to December in 2008, 1 817 women (39.91% ) were found with hyperplasia of mammary gland, 155 women (3.41% ) were found with mammary gland fibroma, and 2 women (0.04% ) were found with breast cancer. Conclusion; The incidence of mammary gland diseases among the female public servants in Foshan city straight office is high, the propaganda of related knowledge of mammary gland diseases should be enhanced, physical examination should be carried out periodically in order to insure early prevention and early treatment%目的:了解佛山市直机关女性公务员乳腺发病情况并探讨相关防治策略。方法:利用专科医生触诊、红外线乳透检查、彩色B超、病理活检等对佛山市直机关女性公务员进行乳腺疾病的普查。结果:2008年1~12月共完成普查4 553例,发现乳腺增生病1 817例(39.91%),乳腺纤维瘤155例(3.41%),乳腺癌2例(0.04%)。结论:佛山市直机关女性公务员乳腺疾病发病率较高,应加强乳腺疾病相关知识的宣传,定期体检,做到早防、早治。

  5. Effect of Tongru Sanpi decoction on expression of Bc1-2, PCNA of tissue of mammary glands in rats with hyperplasia of breast glands%通乳散癖汤对乳腺增生病模型大鼠乳腺组织Bcl-2、PCNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝平; 路艳清

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of the present study was to detect correlation between gene expression of Bc1-2, PCNA and histology of hyperplasia of mammary glands and to explore the intervention therapy of Tongru Sanpitang on hyperplasia of mammary glands by studying the biological indicator of the cancer-changing tendency of hyperplasia of mammary gland. [Methods] Hyperplasia of mammary glands were induced in rats by intraperitonneal injection of Estradiol Benzoate and Progesterone. It was treated respectively by perfusion Tongru Sanpitang (high, middle and low doses) into stomach and in the control drug, Rupixiao was perfused into stomach. Expression of Bc1-2, PCNA in histological specimen of mammary glands in each group in rats was detected with IHC. [Result] Tongru Sanpi decoction could regulate the expression level of Bc1-2, PCNA of mammary glands in experimental rats. [Conclusions] Tongru Sanpi decoction can probably inhibit the hyperplasia of mammary glands by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis.%[目的]检测抗凋亡基因(Bcl-2)、增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)基因表达与乳腺增生病组织学的相关性,通过乳腺增生病癌变趋势的生物学指标研究探讨通乳散癖汤对乳腺增生病的干预治疗作用.[方法]采用苯甲酸雌二醇联合黄体酮腹腔注射诱导建立乳腺增生病大鼠模型,分别用通乳散癖汤高、中、低剂量和对照药乳癖消灌胃治疗.免疫组化检测各组大鼠乳腺组织标本中Bcl-2、PCNA的表达情况.[结果]通乳散癖汤能够调整实验大鼠乳腺组织Bcl-2、PCNA的表达水平.[结论]通乳散癖汤可能是通过抑制细胞增殖,诱导凋亡,从而实现抑制乳腺增生的作用.

  6. Autophagy mediated by arginine depletion activation of the nutrient sensor GCN2 contributes to interferon-γ-induced malignant transformation of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, X-j; Gao, Y-y; Zhang, J; Wang, L; Zhao, S; Che, Y-y; Ao, C-j; Yang, H-j; Wang, J-q; Lei, L-c

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy has been linked to the regulation of both the prevention and progression of cancer. IFN-γ has been shown to induce autophagy in multiple cell lines in vitro. However, whether IFN-γ can induce autophagy and whether autophagy promotes malignant transformation in healthy lactating bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) remain unclear. Here, we provide the first evidence of the correlation between IFN-γ treatment, autophagy and malignant transformation and of the mechanism underlying IFN-γ-induced autophagy and subsequent malignant transformation in primary BMECs. IFN-γ levels were significantly increased in cattle that received normal long-term dietary corn straw (CS) roughage supplementation. In addition, an increase in autophagy was clearly observed in the BMECs from the mammary tissue of cows expressing high levels of IFN-γ. In vitro, autophagy was clearly induced in primary BMECs by IFN-γ within 24 h. This induced autophagy could subsequently promote dramatic primary BMEC transformation. Furthermore, we found that IFN-γ promoted arginine depletion, activated the general control nonderepressible-2 kinase (GCN2) signalling pathway and resulted in an increase in autophagic flux and the amount of autophagy in BMECs. Overall, our findings are the first to demonstrate that arginine depletion and kinase GCN2 expression mediate IFN-γ-induced autophagy that may promote malignant progression and that immunometabolism, autophagy and cancer are strongly correlated. These results suggest new directions and paths for preventing and treating breast cancer in relation to diet. PMID:27551491

  7. The Application Value of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI in Diagnosis of Diseases of Mammary Gland%MRI动态增强血管成像在乳腺病变中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘寒湘; 李林兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the values of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in diagnosis of dis-eases of mammary gland and to elevate the correct diagnosis percentage .Method:60 eligible patients were enrolled and the dynamic contrast enhanced MRI data was analyzed .Result:As diagnosed by the pathologic results,37 of the 60 patients had malignant tumors of mammary gland , and 23 cases had benign lesions of mammary gland;51 cases were correctly diagnosed by dynamic contrast enhanced MRI , and the sensitivity and specificity were 86.84%and 81.82%respectively.The time-signal intensity curves of malignant tumors of mammary gland were mainly type III (70.27%), while those of benign lesions of mammary gland were mainly type Ⅰ(73.91%), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).The early enhancement rate and peak enhancement rate of malignant tumors of mammary gland were both higher than those of benign lesions of mammary gland , and the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05) .Conclusion:Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI can manifest the morphologic and hemodynamic characteristics of breast lump , has comparatively high sensitivity and specificity , and can provide important foundations for qualitative diagnosis and therapy of diseases of mammary gland .%目的:探讨MRI动态增强血管成像在乳腺良恶性病变诊断中价值,提高正确诊断率。方法:收集符合标准的患者60例,分析MRI动态增强资料。结果:60例患者病理结果显示乳腺恶性肿瘤37例、乳腺良性病变23例;MRI动态增强诊断正确51例,敏感性86.84%,特异性81.82%。乳腺恶性病变时间-信号强度曲线以Ⅲ型为主(70.27%),乳腺良性病变以Ⅰ型为主(73.91%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。乳腺恶性病变早期强化率和峰值强化率均高于乳腺良性病变,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:MRI 动态增强血管成像能显示乳腺肿块的

  8. Comparative 2D-DIGE Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells during Lactation Reveals Protein Signatures for Lactation Persistency and Milk Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Jena, Manoj K.; Varshney, Nishant; Kola, Srujana; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K.; Grover, Sunita; Dang, Ajay K.; Mukesh, Manishi; Prakash, B. S.; Mohanty, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC) reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling. PMID:25111801

  9. Chimeric phage lysins act synergistically with lysostaphin to kill mastitis causing staphylococcus aureus in murine mammary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococci cause bovine mastitis with Staphylococcus aureus being responsible for the majority of the mastitis-based losses to the dairy industry (up to $2 billion/annum). Treatment is primarily with antibiotics that are often ineffective and potentially contribute to resistance development. Bac...

  10. Assessment of the Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland Patient’s Psychologic Status and Nursing Measures%乳腺增生症患者的心理状态评估与护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐燕芳; 刘少见

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the hyperplasia of mammary gland patient’s psychologic status and best nursing method.Method:Useed the symptom comments meter (SCL-90) separately carries on 60 examples hyperplasia of mammary gland female patients and 60 examples mammary glands healthy woman then asks the volume investigation.Result:In the investigation discovers the patients group’SCL-90 the total grade,somatization,anxious,and the despondent three factors compare to the control group had the statistics significance(P<0.05).Conclusion:The hyperplasia of mammary gland cause of disease is diverse, psychological society factor is the important pathogenesis factor,so it is important to strengthen the psychology nursing and the health education.%目的:探讨乳腺增生症患者的心理状态及最佳护理方法。方法:采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)分别对60例乳腺增生症患者和60例乳腺健康妇女进行问卷调查。结果:在调查中发现观察组SCL-90总分和躯体化、焦虑、抑郁三个因子分与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:乳腺增生症的病因多样,其中心理社会因素是重要的致病因素,应加强心理护理和健康教育。

  11. Concentrations of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following subcutaneous administration of one or two doses of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin and its efficacy against intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jesus; Martínez-Cortés, Ismael; López-Ordaz, Reyes; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Sumano, Hector

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following administration of an experimental preparation once or twice during the dry period (45-day period immediately prior to calving during which cows are not milked) and to evaluate its efficacy for the treatment of cows with intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus at dry off (cessation of milking; first day of dry period), compared with that of an intramammary infusion of ceftiofur. ANIMALS 172 cows. PROCEDURES Milk samples were collected for microbiological culture 5 days before dry off and at calving and 15 and 30 days after calving. Cows with Staphylococcus IMIs were randomly assigned to receive an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once at dry off (n = 58) or at dry off and again 20 days later (56) or receive a long-acting intramammary preparation of ceftiofur (500 mg/mammary gland; 56) at dry off. Mammary gland secretions were collected from 5 cows in the tilmicosin-treated groups every 5 days after dry off until calving for determination of tilmicosin concentration. RESULTS Mean maximum concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions ranged from 14.4 to 20.9 μg/mL after the first dose and was 17.1 μg/mL after the second dose. The bacteriologic cure rate was 100% for all 3 treatments. Tilmicosin was detectable for 0 and 18 days after calving in the milk of cows treated with 1 and 2 doses of tilmicosin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once to dairy cows at dry off might be useful for the treatment of S aureus IMIs. PMID:27580103

  12. Mammary gland cancer in a colony of beagle dogs: Inheritance, and p53 ampersand erbB-2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One American woman in nine will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. This somber statistic translates into 182,000 new diagnoses and 46,000 deaths per year. Efforts to decrease breast cancer mortality have focused on early detection and improved treatment. Such efforts would be facilitated by the identification of individuals predisposed to the disease. A family history of the disease can increase a woman's risk for developing breast cancer by two- to six-fold. Inheritance of this disease is consistent with at least one susceptibility locus on chromosome 17 (17q12-21) with incomplete penetrance. However, other mechanisms of inherited susceptibility also contribute to the high incidence of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to characterize familial pattern of mammary cancer development in the dog colony. In addition, the expression of the p53 tumor supressor gene and c-erbB2 (p185erbB2) oncogene proteins, which are frequently altered in human breast cancer, were examined in dogs susceptible and resistant to mammary cancer

  13. Efeito da trimegestona sobre o tecido mamário de ratas castradas Effect of trimegestone on mammary gland of castrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Oliveira Marques

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da trimegestona sobre a proliferação celular do tecido mamário de ratas castradas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 45 ratas adultas e virgens, da linhagem Wistar, submetidas à castração. Após o 60º dia da castração, confirmado o hipoestrogenismo, os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos, conforme o tratamento proposto: controle (n=15 recebeu soro fisiológico 0,9%; estrogênio (n=15 recebeu 17 beta-estradiol; e combinado (n=15 recebeu 17 beta-estradiol associado à trimegestona, todos por 60 dias consecutivos. Após o término do tratamento, procedeu-se a exérese das mamas inguinais, destinadas a análise morfométrica pela coloração de hematoxilina e eosina (HE e imuno-histoquímica pela quantificação do anticorpo anti-PCNA no tecido mamário, seguido de eutanásia. Os parâmetros morfométricos avaliados foram: proliferação celular epitelial, atividade secretora e alteração do estroma mamário. Ocorreram nove óbitos durante o experimento. As variáveis foram submetidas à análise estatística adotando-se como significante pPURPOSE: To evaluate the efect of trimegestone on the histological changes of the mammary tissue of castrated rats. METHODS: Forty-five virgin female Wistar rats were used after oophorectomy. Sixty days after surgery, with hypoestrogenisms confirmed, the experimental rats were randomly assigned to three groups of 15 animals each, when then the specific treatment for each group was started. The control group (C and experimental groups 1 and 2 respectively received 0.9% saline solution, 17-beta-estradiol and 17-beta-estradiol in combination with trimegestone for 60 consecutive days. After the end of treatment , the inguinal mammary glands were removed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE for morphometry and examined by immunohistochemistry for the quantification of anti-PCNA antibody in the mammary tissue, followed by euthanasia. The morphometric parameters

  14. 腋部整形术治疗腋前副乳腺临床研究%Clinical research of vice-mammary gland located armpit's forepart treated by plastic operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学忠

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of plastic operation treated to vice- mammary gland located armpit ,s forepart. Methods Two hundred patients of vice- mammary gland separately were carried on the armpit plastic operation (study group)and the pure vice- mammary gland excision operation (control group),and compared the curative effects between two groups. Results Two groups is not obvi-ous difference in the surgery time,the hemorrhage quantity,the margin heal and so on (P > 0.05 ),In the out-ward appearance of armpit after the operation,plastic operation demonstrates the good effect. Two sets were in surgical operation time,the hemorrhage quantity and slice a people match to wait the aspect to all had no obvious difference more ( P > 0.05),but after operation the external appearance armpit plastic surgery dis-plays good result ( P 0.05),但术后外观腋部整形术显示出良好的效果(P<0.05).结论 腋部整形术治疗腋前副乳腺在切除病灶的同时兼具美容效果,设计合理,操作简单,值得推广.

  15. 针刺加火针疗法治疗乳腺增生病54例临床观察%Clenical Observation of 54 Cases of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia Treated with Acupuncture and Fire Needle Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of mammary gland hyperplasia. Methods 54 patients with hyperplasia of mammary glands of acupuncture with fire needle therapy, and do analysis. Result all patients were treated with acupuncture and fire needle therapy, 6 courses of acupuncture treatment and treatment of fire needle therapy effective rate was 92.6%. Condusion acupunc⁃ture with fire needle therapy is a kind of effective method to treat disease of mammary gland hyperplasia.%目的:观察乳腺增生病的治疗效果。方法对54例乳腺增生病患者施行针刺加火针疗法治疗,并做分析总结。结果所有患者均施行针刺加火针疗法治疗,经1~6个疗程的针刺治疗和火针疗法治疗,有效率92.6%。结论针刺加火针疗法治疗乳腺增生病是一种有效的方法。

  16. 点穴疗法结合拔罐治疗乳腺增生疗效观察%Efficacy Observation on Digital Acupoint Pressure Combined with Cupping Treating Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁定宇

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察点穴疗法结合拔罐治疗乳腺增生的临床疗效。方法:点穴疗法结合拔罐治疗89例门诊乳腺增生患者,分析其临床疗效。结果:临床治愈51例,占57%;好转31例,占35%;无效7例,占8%;总有效率为92%。结论:点穴疗法结合拔罐是治疗乳腺增生临床有效,值得推广应用。%Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of digital acupoint pressure combined with cupping treating hyperplasia of mammary glands. Methods:89 cases of outpatient with hyperplasia of mammary gland were treated with digital acupoint pressure combined with cupping, to analyze the clinical efficacy. Results:51 cases were clinical cured, accounting for 57%;31 cases were improved, accounting for 35%;7 cases were invalid, accounting for 8%;and the total efficiency was 92%. Conclusion:Digital acupoint pressure combined with cupping is clinically effective for hyper-plasia of mammary glands, which is worthy of popularization and application.

  17. 采用中医辨证分型治疗93例乳腺增生病的效果观察%Effect observation of TCM syndrome differentiation treatment for 93 cases of mammary gland hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱方勇; 杨成爱

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨采用中医辨证分型治疗乳腺增生病的临床效果。方法:收治乳腺增生患者93例,采用中医辨证分型治疗。结果:治愈36例,显效21例,好转27例,无效9例,总有效率90.32%。结论:采用中医辨证分型治疗乳腺增生病的临床效果显著。%Objective:To explore the effect of TCM syndrome differentiation treatment for mammary gland hyperplasia.Methods:93 patients with hyperplasia of mammary gland were selected,they were treated by TCM syndrome differentiation treatment. Results:36 cases were cured,21 cases were markedly effective,27 cases were improved,9 cases were ineffective,the total effective rate was 90.32%.Conclusion:The effect of TCM syndrome differentiation treatment for mammary gland hyperplasia was significant.

  18. The transcription factor ATF3 acts as an oncogene in mouse mammary tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overexpression of the bZip transcription factor, ATF3, in basal epithelial cells of transgenic mice under the control of the bovine cytokeratin-5 (CK5) promoter has previously been shown to induce epidermal hyperplasia, hair follicle anomalies and neoplastic lesions of the oral mucosa including squamous cell carcinomas. CK5 is known to be expressed in myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland, suggesting the possibility that transgenic BK5.ATF3 mice may exhibit mammary gland phenotypes. Mammary glands from nulliparous mice in our BK5.ATF3 colony, both non-transgenic and transgenic, were examined for anomalies by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Nulliparous and biparous female mice were observed for possible mammary tumor development, and suspicious masses were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Human breast tumor samples, as well as normal breast tissue, were similarly analyzed for ATF3 expression. Transgenic BK5.ATF3 mice expressed nuclear ATF3 in the basal layer of the mammary ductal epithelium, and often developed squamous metaplastic lesions in one or more mammary glands by 25 weeks of age. No progression to malignancy was seen in nulliparous BK5.ATF3 or non-transgenic mice held for 16 months. However, biparous BK5.ATF3 mice developed mammary carcinomas with squamous metaplasia between 6 months and one year of age, reaching an incidence of 67%. Cytokeratin expression in the tumors was profoundly disturbed, including expression of CK5 and CK8 (characteristic of basal and luminal cells, respectively) throughout the epithelial component of the tumors, CK6 (potentially a stem cell marker), CK10 (a marker of interfollicular epidermal differentiation), and mIRSa2 and mIRSa3.1 (markers of the inner root sheath of hair follicles). Immunohistochemical studies indicated that a subset of human breast tumors exhibit high levels of nuclear ATF3 expression. Overexpression of ATF3 in CK5-expressing cells of the murine mammary gland results in the

  19. Gene expression profiling in porcine mammary gland during lactation and identification of breed- and developmental-stage-specific genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A total of 28941 ESTs were sequenced from five 5(-directed non-normalized cDNA libraries, which were assembled into 2212 contigs and 5642 singlets using CAP3. These sequences were annotated and clustered into 6857 unique genes, 2072 of which having no functional annotations were considered as novel genes. These genes were further classified into Gene Ontology categories. By comparing the expression profiles, we identified some breed- and developmental-stage-specific gene groups. These genes may be relative to reproductive performance or play important roles in milk synthesis, secretion and mammary involution. The unknown EST sequences and expression profiles at different developmental stages and breeds are very important resources for further research.

  20. Mammary hypertrophy in an ovariohysterectomized cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukay, B P; Stevenson, D A

    1983-05-01

    A four year old ovariohysterectomized domestic short-haired cat under treatment for behavioral urine spraying and idiopathic alopecia developed mammary gland hypertrophy following treatment with megestrol acetate. Withdrawal of the progestin and treatment with androgen failed to cause regression of the hypertrophy. The affected mammary gland was surgically excised and recovery was uneventful.

  1. Mammary Hypertrophy in an Ovariohysterectomized Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Pukay, B.P.; Stevenson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    A four year old ovariohysterectomized domestic short-haired cat under treatment for behavioral urine spraying and idiopathic alopecia developed mammary gland hypertrophy following treatment with megestrol acetate. Withdrawal of the progestin and treatment with androgen failed to cause regression of the hypertrophy. The affected mammary gland was surgically excised and recovery was uneventful.

  2. Effects and mechanism of Rupian capsule on the hyperplasia of mammary gland in rats%乳癖安胶囊对实验性乳腺增生大鼠的作用及其机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海华; 江涛; 唐春萍; 曾昭智; 张锦红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect and mechanism of Rupian capsule on hyperplasia of mammary gland in rats. Methods The hyperplasia of mammary gland rat model was established by estradiol benzoate and progesterone(P). The diameter and height of breast and nipples were measured by vernier caliper. Levels of estradiol(E2) and P in serum were detected by radioimmunoassay. The number of lobules of mammary gland,acinus and the average diameter of acinar lumina were accounted by histopathology. The blood viscosity was detected by the cone and plate method. Results Rupian capsule inhibited the amplification of breast and nipple,as well as modulated E2 and P levels and E2/P ratio. Meantime, Rupian capsule also decreased the incidence of mastoplasia, histopathological changes, hyperplasia of mammary gland, and blood viscosity. Conclusion Rupian capsule shows therapeutic effects on hyperplasia of mammary gland in rats.%目的 观察乳癖安胶囊对乳腺增生的治疗作用,并探讨其作用机制.方法 采用苯甲酸雌二醇和黄体酮制备大鼠乳腺增生症模型,对大鼠乳房、乳头的直径和高度进行测量,放射免疫法测血清雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P)浓度;组织病理学方法测乳腺小叶数、腺泡数、腺泡腔平均直径,判定乳腺增生类型并计算乳腺增生率,锥板法测血液黏度观察乳癖安胶囊对乳腺增生的治疗作用.结果 乳癖安胶囊能抑制乳腺增生大鼠乳房、乳头增高、增大;调节血清E2和P浓度,改善E2/P比值;降低乳腺增生的发生率,改善病理组织变化,抑制乳腺增生程度;降低全血及血浆黏度.结论 乳癖安胶囊具有良好的抗实验性大鼠乳腺增生的作用.

  3. Clinical research on treatment of hyperplasia of mammary glands with Xiaohe Syrup%消核糖浆治疗乳腺增生症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐发良; 熊忠讯; 李伟; 陈红; 曹勇; 于峰; 曾俊杰; 朱宁生; 曾晓华

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察中药制剂消核糖浆治疗乳腺增生症的临床疗效.方法 将确诊为乳腺增生症的患者随机分为两组,分别接受消核糖浆和乳癖消片治疗;治疗2个疗程后对乳腺增生的情况进行复查和评估.结果 与乳癖消片对比,消核糖浆治疗女性乳腺增生,以及乳腺增生合并的微小囊肿和(或)纤维结节的总有效率比较分别为75.91%∶73.77%(P=0.041 1)、28.93%∶23.88%(P=0.000 36).结论 与目前常用于治疗乳腺增生症的乳癖消片相比,消核糖浆治疗乳腺增生症的疗效更好、仅有可接受的不良反应,并且对乳腺增生合并的微小囊肿和(或)纤维结节也有较好的疗效.%Objective To assess the clinical value of Xiaohe syrup,a Chinese drug preparation,for treating mammary gland hy perplasia. Methods The patients who finally diagnosed as mammary gland hyperplasia were randomly divided into two groups and treated with Xiaohe syrup and Rupixiao,respectively. After two courses of treatment,the state of mammary gland hyperplasia was rechecked and assessed. Results Compared with Rupixiao treatment,the total effective rate of Xiaohe syrup on female mammary gland hyperplasia,and minute galactoma and/or fibroadenoma were 75. 91% vs 73. 77% (P = 0. 041 1) , and 28. 93% vs 23. 88% (P = 0. 000 36) , respectively. Conclusion Compared to Rupixiao for treating mammary gland hyperplasia and related diseases,Xiao he syrup is more effective with acceptable side effects.

  4. 红外乳腺治疗仪治疗乳腺增生的疗效观察%CURATIVE EFFECT OBSERVATION OF INFRARED BREAST THERAPEUTIC APPARATUS ON MAMMARY GLANDS HYPERPLASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程珂

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察红外乳腺治疗仪治疗乳腺增生的疗效。方法选择我院诊治的60例乳腺增生病患者,随机均分为治疗组和对照组,对照组给予传统药物治疗,治疗组在对照组治疗的基础上给予红外乳腺治疗仪治疗,治疗疗程为30天。结果治疗组的总有效率明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。两组治疗后的症状评分都明显降低,同时治疗后治疗组的症状评分经过分析也都明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论红外乳腺治疗仪治疗乳腺增生能有效缓解临床症状,提高治疗疗效,有很好的应用效果。%Objective To observe the effect of infrared breast therapeutic apparatus on mammary glands hyperplasia.Methods From March 2011 to May 2011, 60 cases patients with mammary glands hyperplasia in our hospital were selected to treat, the control was given conventional drug treatment, in addition, the treatment group was treated infrared mammary gland therapeutic treatment for 30 days.Results The total effective rate was 93.3% in treatment group, total effective rate of control was 80.0%, total effective rate of treatment group was obviously higher than control (P<0.05). After treatment, symptom scores of the two groups were significantly lower, at the same time, the treatment group were significantly lower than the control (P<0.05).ConclusionInfrared mammary gland therapeutic in treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia can effectively relieve the clinical symptoms and improve curative effect, has a good application effect.

  5. Biosynthesis of marsupial milk oligosaccharides. II: Characterization of a beta 6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase in lactating mammary glands of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, T; Messer, M; Bubb, W A

    1992-09-15

    Tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) mammary glands contain a UDP-GlcNAc:Gal beta 1----3Gal beta 1----4Glc beta 1----6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GlcNAcT) whose activity has been characterized with respect to the effect of pH, apparent Km for acceptor, effects of bivalent metal ions, acceptor specificity and identity of products. The enzyme did not show an absolute requirement for any bivalent metal ion but its activity was increased markedly by Mg2+, Ca2+ and Ba2+ and, to a lesser extent, by Mn2+. When Gal beta 1----3Gal beta 1----4Glc was used as acceptor, the product was Gal beta 1----3[GlcNAc beta 1----6]Gal beta 1----4Glc. With Gal beta 1----3Gal beta 1----3Gal beta 1----4Glc as acceptor, the product was shown, by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and exo-beta-galactosidase digestion, to be a novel pentasaccharide with the structure Gal beta 1----3[GlcNAc beta 1----6]Gal beta 1----3Gal beta 1----4Glc, suggesting that the enzyme recognises the non-reducing end of the acceptor substrate, rather than the reducing end. PMID:1388055

  6. Inhibition of NF-κB, Bcl-2 and COX-2 Gene Expression by an Extract of Eruca sativa Seeds during Rat Mammary Gland Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Salah; Shaban, Nadia; Haggag, Amany; Awad, Doaa; Bassiouny, Ahmad; Talaat, Iman

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Eruca sativa seed extract (SE) on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) gene expression levels was investigated in rat mammary gland carcinogenesis induced by 7,12 dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA). DMBA increased NF-κB, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and lipid peroxidation (LP), while, decreased glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total antioxidant concentration (TAC) compared to the control group. After DMBA administration, SE treatment reduced NF-κB, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and LP. Hence, SE treatment reduced inflammation and cell proliferation, while increasing apoptosis, GST and SOD activities and TAC. Analysis revealed that SE has high concentrations of total flavonoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids and polyphenolic compounds such as gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic, 3,4-dicaffeoyl quinic, 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic, tannic, cinnamic acids, catechin and phloridzin. These findings indicate that SE may be considered a promising natural product from cruciferous vegetables against breast cancer, especially given its high antioxidant properties.

  7. Fasting modulates GH/IGF-I axis and its regulatory systems in the mammary gland of female mice: Influence of endogenous cortistatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Osaba, Alicia; Gahete, Manuel D; Cordoba-Chacon, José; de Lecea, Luis; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M

    2016-10-15

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are essential factors in mammary-gland (MG) development and are altered during fasting. However, no studies have investigated the alterations in the expression of GH/IGF-I and its regulatory systems (somatostatin/cortistatin and ghrelin) in MG during fasting. Therefore, this study was aimed at characterizing the regulation of GH/IGF-I/somatostatin/cortistatin/ghrelin-systems expression in MG of fasted female-mice (compared to fed-controls) and the influence of endogenous-cortistatin (using cortistatin-knockouts). Fasting decreased IGF-I while increased IGF-I/Insulin-receptors expression in MGs. Fasting provoked an increase in GH expression that might be associated to enhanced ghrelin-variants/ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase enzyme expression, while an upregulation of somatostatin-receptors was observed. However, cortistatin-knockouts mice showed a decrease in GH and somatostatin receptor-subtypes expression. Altogether, we demonstrate that GH/IGF-I, somatostatin/cortistatin and ghrelin systems expression is altered in MG during fasting, suggesting a relevant role in coordinating its response to metabolic stress, wherein endogenous cortistatin might be essential for an appropriate response. PMID:27291340

  8. Transcriptome profiling and network analysis of tissues from regions of the bovine teat and mammary gland during E. coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis remains one of the most prevalent and costly disease affecting the dairy industry worldwide. Escherichia coli intramammary infection elicits localized and systemic responses. Increase in milk somatic cell count, inflammatory cytokines, and acute phase proteins are well described but less is...

  9. Functional and gene network analyses of transcriptional signatures characterizing pre-weaned bovine mammary parenchyma or fat pad uncovered novel inter-tissue signaling networks during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Harris A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neonatal bovine mammary fat pad (MFP surrounding the mammary parenchyma (PAR is thought to exert proliferative effects on the PAR through secretion of local modulators of growth induced by systemic hormones. We used bioinformatics to characterize transcriptomics differences between PAR and MFP from ~65 d old Holstein heifers. Data were mined to uncover potential crosstalk through the analyses of signaling molecules preferentially expressed in one tissue relative to the other. Results Over 9,000 differentially expressed genes (DEG; False discovery rate ≤ 0.05 were found of which 1,478 had a ≥1.5-fold difference between PAR and MFP. Within the DEG highly-expressed in PAR vs. MFP (n = 736 we noted significant enrichment of functions related to cell cycle, structural organization, signaling, and DNA/RNA metabolism. Only actin cytoskeletal signaling was significant among canonical pathways. DEG more highly-expressed in MFP vs. PAR (n = 742 belong to lipid metabolism, signaling, cell movement, and immune-related functions. Canonical pathways associated with metabolism and signaling, particularly immune- and metabolism-related were significantly-enriched. Network analysis uncovered a central role of MYC, TP53, and CTNNB1 in controlling expression of DEG highly-expressed in PAR vs. MFP. Similar analysis suggested a central role for PPARG, KLF2, EGR2, and EPAS1 in regulating expression of more highly-expressed DEG in MFP vs. PAR. Gene network analyses revealed putative inter-tissue crosstalk between cytokines and growth factors preferentially expressed in one tissue (e.g., ANGPTL1, SPP1, IL1B in PAR vs. MFP; ADIPOQ, IL13, FGF2, LEP in MFP vs. PAR with DEG preferentially expressed in the other tissue, particularly transcription factors or pathways (e.g., MYC, TP53, and actin cytoskeletal signaling in PAR vs. MFP; PPARG and LXR/RXR Signaling in MFP vs. PAR. Conclusions Functional analyses underscored a reciprocal influence in

  10. Short communication: Removal of hair from the mammary gland: Recovery of bacteria from teat skin and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L K

    2016-02-01

    It has been assumed that the presence of udder hair can interfere with safe milking practices and reduce the wholesomeness of milk relative to bacterial content. This study determined the effect of removal by singeing udder hair on the microflora of teat skin (total bacteria, coliform, and esculin-positive and esculin-negative streptococci) and milk (total bacteria, coliform, psychrotrophic, and thermoduric counts) as opposed to not singeing udder hair, using different pre-and postmilking disinfection (predip, postdip, or both) combinations. The 4 different pre-and postmilking disinfection combinations were predip and postdip, postdip only, predip only, and no predip and no postdip. Differences in bacterial numbers recovered from teat skin and milk in singed and not singed glands were not significantly affected by treatment. Findings of this trial do not support the concept that udder hair removal results in improved milk quality as measured by bacterial content.

  11. Comparative Analysis of the miRNome of Bovine Milk Fat, Whey and Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi

    2016-01-01

    RNA activities in bovine mammary gland. Predicted target genes (1802) of 14 highly expressed miRNAs in milk fractions were enriched in fundamental cellular functions, infection, organ and tissue development. Furthermore, some miRNAs were highly enriched (FDR milk whey (3), cells (11) and mammary gland tissue (14) suggesting specific regulatory functions in the various fractions. In conclusion, we have obtained a comprehensive miRNA profile of the different milk fractions using high throughput sequencing. Our comparative analysis showed that miRNAs from milk fat accurately portrayed the miRNome of mammary gland tissue. Functional annotation of the top expressed miRNAs in milk confirmed their critical regulatory roles in mammary gland functions and potentially to milk recipients. PMID:27100870

  12. Classification and grading of canine malignant mammary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Tavasoly; Hannaneh Golshahi; Annahita Rezaie; Mohammad Farhadi

    2013-01-01

    Histological grading is a good parameter to stratify tumors according to their biological aggressiveness. The Elston and Ellis grading method in humans, invasive ductal breast carcinomas and other invasive tumors are routinely used. The aims of this study were classification of mammary gland tumors and also application of a human grading method in canine mammary carcinoma. The samples included 37 tumors of mammary glands. Mammary tumors were carcinomas (n = 32) and sarcomas (n = 5). The carci...

  13. Effects of Camellia seed on the development of the mammary gland and uterus in rat%山茶籽对未成熟大鼠乳腺和子宫发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海; 陈建海; 王金花; 黎飚

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of Camellia seed on the development of the mammary gland and uterus in rat, in order to provide experimental basis for estrogen deficiency diseases treated with Camellia seed. Methods: Healthy female SD rats aged from 21 to 26 days were randomly divided into four groups (n=20) according to different treatment, including normal control, diethylstilbestrol group, low dose Camellia seed group and high dose Camellia seed group. Twelve days later, the levels of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in serum were detected, and wet weight of the mammary gland and uterus, as well as the mass ratio of body vs mammary gland and index of uterus were measured. Subsequently, the morphology of the rat uterus was observed under optical microscope. Results: Application of diethylstilbestrol and high dose Camellia seed caused increases in mass ratios of body vs mammary gland, and index of the u-terus, as well as increases in E2 and P in blood serum, while the FSH in blood serum were decreased. Compared with those in the low dose Camellia seed group, high dose Camellia seed caused obvious increases in mass ratio of body vs mammary gland and index of the uterus. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of Camellia seed has an effect comparable to estrogen, therefore, to promote the development of the immatured mammary gland and uterus of rats, and secretion of estrogen and progestogen in a dose-dependent manner.%目的:通过观察山茶籽对未成熟雌性大鼠乳腺、子宫发育的影响,为山茶籽治疗雌激素缺乏性疾病提供实验依据.方法:21~26 d健康雌性SD大鼠,分成正常对照组、己烯雌酚组、山茶籽低剂量组和山茶籽高剂量组.测血清中雌二醇、孕酮、促卵泡激素含量,测量乳腺、子宫湿重、体乳腺质量比和子宫系数,子宫组织切片,光镜观察其形态结构.结果:己烯雌酚组和山茶籽高剂量组的体乳腺质量比和子宫系数增大,

  14. Mediation analysis to estimate direct and indirect milk losses associated with bacterial load in bovine subclinical mammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, J; Theron, L; Duprez, J-N; Reding, E; Moula, N; Detilleux, M; Bertozzi, C; Hanzen, C; Mainil, J

    2016-08-01

    Milk losses associated with mastitis can be attributed to either effects of pathogens per se (i.e. direct losses) or to effects of the immune response triggered by the presence of mammary pathogens (i.e. indirect losses). Test-day milk somatic cell counts (SCC) and number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) found in milk samples are putative measures of the level of immune response and of the bacterial load, respectively. Mediation models, in which one independent variable affects a second variable which, in turn, affects a third one, are conceivable models to estimate direct and indirect losses. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of a mediation model in which test-day SCC and milk were regressed toward bacterial CFU measured at three selected sampling dates, 1 week apart. We applied this method on cows free of clinical signs and with records on up to 3 test-days before and after the date of the first bacteriological samples. Most bacteriological cultures were negative (52.38%), others contained either staphylococci (23.08%), streptococci (9.16%), mixed bacteria (8.79%) or were contaminated (6.59%). Only losses mediated by an increase in SCC were significantly different from null. In cows with three consecutive bacteriological positive results, we estimated a decreased milk yield of 0.28 kg per day for each unit increase in log2-transformed CFU that elicited one unit increase in log2-transformed SCC. In cows with one or two bacteriological positive results, indirect milk loss was not significantly different from null although test-day milk decreased by 0.74 kg per day for each unit increase of log2-transformed SCC. These results highlight the importance of milk losses that are mediated by an increase in SCC during mammary infection and the feasibility of decomposing total milk loss into its direct and indirect components. PMID:26923826

  15. Single Intramammary Infusion of Recombinant Bovine Interleukin-8 at Dry-Off Induces the Prolonged Secretion of Leukocyte Elastase, Inflammatory Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides, and Interleukin-8 in Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Watanabe; Jiro Hirota; Shinya Shimizu; Shigeki Inumaru; Kazuhiro Kimura

    2012-01-01

    A single intramammary infusion of recombinant bovine interleukin-8 (IL-8) at 50  μ g/quarter/head, but not 10  μ g/quarter/head, induced clinical mastitis in three of four cows during the dry-off period, resulting in an elevated rectal temperature, redness and swelling of the mammary gland, extensive polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) infiltration, and milk clot formation from 1 to 28 days post infusion (PI). In the mammary secretions of the mastitic glands, high levels of IL-8 were sustained...

  16. 地塞米松对大鼠 Walker 256乳腺癌骨转移癌痛的作用%Effect of dexamethasone on rat bone metastasis pain induced by Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡; 李毅; 丁杰; 张海林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a rat model of bone metastasis pain induced by Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells and observe the effect of dexamethasone on bone cancer pain. Methods Ascitic tumour cells were made from Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells injected to tibia of rats.Then,the withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulus and withdrawal time in response to radiant thermal stimulus were tested before and after operation.Results The withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulus and withdrawal time in response to radiant thermal stimulus were significantly reduced in the tibia bone inoculated with Walker 256 cells.The pathology results showed the evidence of tibia bone structure was destructed by tumor.It is suggested that the model of bone metastasis pain induced by Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cell was successfully established.Dexamethasone (5 mg/kg ) elevated withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulus in rat model of bone metastasis pain induced by Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cell.Conclusion Dexamethasone could alleviate bone cancer pain.%目的:建立大鼠 Walker 256乳腺癌骨转移癌痛模型,观察地塞米松对骨转移癌疼痛痛阈的影响。方法制备 Walker 256乳腺癌细胞的大鼠腹腔积液瘤细胞,将其注射入大鼠胫骨,测量术前及术后机械刺痛阈和辐射热痛阈。结果接种 Walker 256乳腺癌大鼠术侧机械刺激痛觉和辐射热痛觉阈值显著降低,且病理学结果显示骨质受到肿瘤破坏,提示 Walker 256大鼠乳腺癌骨转移癌疼痛模型成功建立。地塞米松(5 mg/kg)能够显著提高骨转移癌疼痛模型刺痛痛阈。结论地塞米松能够缓解大鼠骨转移癌疼痛。

  17. Experimental study on Rukangling prescription in treatment of rats with proliferation of mammary gland%乳康灵方治疗乳腺增生大鼠的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃容贵; 李淑芳; 秦栓梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe the anti - proliferative effect of Rukangling prescription and the effect of Rukangling prescription on serum levels of sex hormones in rats with proliferation of mammary gland. Methods: Ethinylestradiol and progesterone were used to establish rat model of proliferation of mammary gland, the rats were treated with different doses of Rukangling prescription; after treatment, the diameter of mammary gland, the height of nipple, ovarian coefficient, uterine coefficient, and serum contents of sex hormones were detected. Results; Rukangling prescription can reduce the diameter of mammary gland, the height of nipple, ovarian coefficient, serum lev- els of estradiol and prolactin obviously, but it had no impact on serum progesterone level. Conclusion: Rukangling prescription can inhibit breast swelling induced by abnormal estrogen level and improve disorder of serum sex hormones, which has anti - proliferative effect.%目的:观察乳康灵抗乳腺增生作用及对乳腺增生大鼠血清性激素水平的影响.方法:应用苯甲酸雌二醇、黄体酮建立乳腺增生大鼠模型,不同剂量乳康灵方作用于乳腺增生大鼠,检测药物作用后乳房直径、乳头高度,卵巢、子宫脏器系数及血清性激素含量.结果:乳康灵方明显减小乳房直径和乳头高度,降低卵巢脏器系数,明显降低血清雌二醇、催乳素水平,但对孕酮水平无明显影响.结论:乳康灵方能抑制雌激素异常致乳房肿大,改善血清性激素水平紊乱,具有抗乳腺增生作用.

  18. Guide book mammary glands ultrasonography. A textbook according to the DEGUM and KBV guidelines. 3. upd. ed.; Kursbuch Mammasonografie. Ein Lehratlas nach den Richtlinien der DEGUM und der KBV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madjar, Helmut [Deutsche Klinik fuer Diagnostik, Wiesbaden (Germany). Fachbereich Gynaekologie DEGUM-Stufe III

    2012-07-01

    The text book on the ultrasonography of mammary glands is based on the concept of a three-step course system. The large amount of pathological indications is supposed to communicate knowledge that is required to find an adequate diagnosis based on ultrasonsographic imaging. The book includes the following chapters: Basics of ultrasonic mammography; diagnostic techniques; sono-anatomy of breast and axilla; standardized diagnosis; mastopathy; cysts and intracystic tumors; prostheses; abscesses; benign solid tumors; scars; carcinomas; lymph nodes; interventional sonography; preoperative staging; preventive diagnostics; aftercare, relapses; 3D-sonography, panorama-scan, real-time compound-scan; CARI technique; Doppler sonography; elastography; examination questions on ultrasonic mammography.

  19. Dependablity study on near-infrared parameters of blood oxygen and microvessel density of mammary gland phyma%乳腺肿块微血管密度与血氧近红外光参数的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Huang; Dengfeng Chen; Lu Yuan; Yian Liu; Hua Liu; Liu Zhang; Jun Kong; Hong Wang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To detect the reliability of near-infrared parameters of blood oxygen of mammary gland phyma from the microvessel density of tumor. Methods; 181 cases of mammary gland phyma who had accepted the examination of the near-infrared TBO-I dual-wave length mammary gland phyma detector were classified by near-infrared parameters of blood oxygen, and were performed the pathologic examination to ascertain whether the tumor was benign or malign