WorldWideScience

Sample records for bovine liver slices

  1. Aspects of the regulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Factors involved in regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation were examined using liver slices. Fatty acid oxidation was measured as the conversion of l-(/sup 14/C) palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C) acid-soluble metabolites. Extended (5 to 7 d) fasting of Holstein cows had relatively little effect on palmitate oxidation to acid-soluble metabolites by liver slices, although oxidation to CO/sup 2/ was decreased. Feeding a restricted roughage, high concentrate ration to lactating cows resulted in inhibition of palmitate oxidation. Insulin, glucose, and acetate inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. The authors suggest the regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation may be less dependent on hormonally induced alterations in enzyme activity as observed in rat liver and more dependent upon action of rumen fermentation products or their metabolites on enzyme systems involved in fatty acid oxidation.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  3. Liver Effects of Clinical Drugs Differentiated in Human Liver Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E. M. Vickers

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drugs with clinical adverse effects are compared in an ex vivo 3-dimensional multi-cellular human liver slice model. Functional markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, glutathione GSH and ATP levels, were affected by acetaminophen (APAP, 1 mM, diclofenac (DCF, 1 mM and etomoxir (ETM, 100 μM. Drugs targeting mitochondria more than GSH were dantrolene (DTL, 10 μM and cyclosporin A (CSA, 10 μM, while GSH was affected more than ATP by methimazole (MMI, 500 μM, terbinafine (TBF, 100 μM, and carbamazepine (CBZ 100 μM. Oxidative stress genes were affected by TBF (18%, CBZ, APAP, and ETM (12%–11%, and mitochondrial genes were altered by CBZ, APAP, MMI, and ETM (8%–6%. Apoptosis genes were affected by DCF (14%, while apoptosis plus necrosis were altered by APAP and ETM (15%. Activation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial energy, heat shock, ER stress, apoptosis, necrosis, DNA damage, immune and inflammation genes ranked CSA (75%, ETM (66%, DCF, TBF, MMI (61%–60%, APAP, CBZ (57%–56%, and DTL (48%. Gene changes in fatty acid metabolism, cholestasis, immune and inflammation were affected by DTL (51%, CBZ and ETM (44%–43%, APAP and DCF (40%–38%, MMI, TBF and CSA (37%–35%. This model advances multiple dosing in a human ex vivo model, plus functional markers and gene profile markers of drug induced human liver side-effects.

  4. Repair pathways evident in human liver organ slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vickers, Alison E. M.; Fisher, Robyn; Olinga, Peter; Dial, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The extension of human liver slice culture viability for several days broadens the potential of this ex vivo model for characterizing pathways of organ injury and repair, and allows for the multiple dosing of compounds. Extended viability is demonstrated by continued synthesis of GSH and ATP, and ma

  5. Evaluation of methylmercury biotransformation using rat liver slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutake, A. [Biochemistry Section, National Inst. for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto (Japan); Hirayama, K. [Kumamoto University College of Medical Science, Kuhonji (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    To examine the demethylation reaction of methylmercury (MeHg) in rat liver, slices prepared from MeHg-treated rats were incubated in L-15 medium under 95% O{sub 2}/5% CO{sub 2} atmosphere. During the incubation, the amount of inorganic Hg in the slices markedly increased in a time-dependent manner, although the concentration of total Hg remained unchanged. Since the C-Hg bond in MeHg was demonstrated to be cleaved by the action of some reactive oxygen species, the effects on MeHg demethylation of several reagents that could modify reactive oxygen production were examined in the present system. Methylviologen was found to be an effective enhancer of the demethylation reaction with only a minor effect on lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, ferrous ion added to the medium showed no effect on demethylation in the presence or absence of methylviologen, although lipid peroxide levels were increased significantly by ferrous ion. Similarly, deferoxamine mesylate, which effectively suppressed the increase in lipid peroxide levels, also had no effect on demethylation. Furthermore, hydroxy radical scavengers, such as mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide, had no effect on inorganic Hg production. Rotenone, an inhibitor of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport system, increased levels of both inorganic Hg and lipid peroxide. However, other inhibitors, such as antimycin A, myxothiazole and NaCN, significantly suppressed the demethylation reaction. Cell fractionation of the MeHg-treated rat liver revealed that the ratio of inorganic Hg to total Hg was highest in the mitochondrial fraction. Furthermore, superoxide anion could degrade MeHg in an organic solvent but not in water. These results suggested that the demethylation of MeHg by the liver slice would proceed with the aid of superoxide anion produced in the electron transfer system at the hydrophobic mitochondrial inner membrane. Furthermore, the involvement of hydroxy radicals, which have been demonstrated to be

  6. Precision-cut hamster liver slices as an ex vivo model to study amoebic liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Santiago-Mauricio, María Guadalupe; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Balderas-Rentería, Isaías; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2010-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis, the second cause of global morbidity and mortality due to parasitic diseases in humans. In approximately 1% of the cases, amoebas penetrate the intestinal mucosa and spread to other organs, producing extra-intestinal lesions, among which amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common. To study ALA, in vivo and in vitro models are used. However, animal models may pose ethical issues, and are time-consuming and costly; and cell cultures represent isolated cellular lineages. The present study reports the infection of precision-cut hamster liver slices with Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. The infection time-course, including tissue damage, parallels findings previously reported in the animal model. At the same time amoebic virulence factors were detected in the infected slices. This new model to study ALA is simple and reproducible, and employs less than 1/3 of the hamsters required for in vivo analyses.

  7. Comparison of five incubation systems for rat liver slices using functional and viability parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olinga, P; Groen, K; Hof, IH; DeKanter, R; Leeman, WR; Rutten, AAJJL; VanTwillert, K; Groothuis, GMM; Koster, H

    1997-01-01

    Precision-cut liver slices are presently used for various research objects, e.g. to study metabolism, transport, and toxicity of xenobiotics. Various incubation systems are presently employed, but a systematic comparison between these incubation systems with respect to preservation of slice function

  8. Establishment and characterization of feeder-cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines is described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-day bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO feeder layers and wer...

  9. Human precision-cut liver slices as a model to test antifibrotic drugs in the early onset of liver fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Inge M; Mutsaers, Henricus A M; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Hadi, Mackenzie; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; de Jong, Koert P; Groothuis, Geny M M; Olinga, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the progressive accumulation of connective tissue ultimately resulting in loss of organ function. Currently, no effective antifibrotics are available due to a lack of reliable human models. Here we investigated the fibrotic process in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) and stu

  10. Cryopreservation of precision-cut rat liver slices using a computer-controlled freezer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, W.J.M.; Leeman, W.R.; Groten, J.P.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2000-01-01

    Precision-cut liver slices are frequently used to study hepatic toxicity and metabolism of xenobiotics in vitro. Successful cryopreservation techniques will enhance an efficient and economic use of scarcely available (human) liver tissue. For primary hepatocytes, slow freezing has been accepted as t

  11. Exposure of precision-cut rat liver slices to ethanol accelerates fibrogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaffert, Courtney S.; Duryee, Michael J.; Bennett, Robert G.; DeVeney, Amy L.; Tuma, Dean J.; Olinga, Peter; Easterling, Karen C.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Klassen, Lynell W.

    2010-01-01

    Schaffert CS, Duryee MJ, Bennett RG, DeVeney AL, Tuma DJ, Olinga P, Easterling KC, Thiele GM, Klassen LW. Exposure of precision-cut rat liver slices to ethanol accelerates fibrogenesis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299: G661-G668, 2010. First published July 1, 2010; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.002

  12. Slices

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James

    2011-01-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies. © 2011 ACM.

  13. Anti-hepatitis C virus potency of a new autophagy inhibitor using human liver slices model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvie; Lagaye; Sonia; Brun; Jesintha; Gaston; Hong; Shen; Ruzena; Stranska; Claire; Camus; Clarisse; Dubray; Géraldine; Rousseau; Pierre-Philippe; Massault; Jer?me; Courcambeck; Firas; Bassisi; Philippe; Halfon; Stanislas; Pol

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the antiviral potency of a new antihepatitis C virus(HCV) antiviral agent targeting the cellular autophagy machinery. METHODS: Non-infected liver slices, obtained from human liver resection and cut in 350 μm-thick slices(2.7 × 106 cells per slice) were infected with cell culture-grown HCV Con1b/C3 supernatant(multiplicity of infection = 0.1) cultivated for up to ten days. HCV infected slices were treated at day 4 post-infection with GNS-396 for 6 d at different concentrations. HCV replication was evaluated by strand-specific real-time quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction. The infectivity titers of supernatants were evaluated by foci formation upon inoculation into naive Huh-7.5.1 cells. The cytotoxic effect of the drugs was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assays. RESULTS: The antiviral efficacy of a new antiviral drug, GNS-396, an autophagy inhibitor, on HCV infection of adult human liver slices was evidenced in a dosedependent manner. At day 6 post-treatment, GNS-396 EC50 was 158 nmol/L without cytotoxic effect(compared to hydroxychloroquine EC50 = 1.17 μmol/L).CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that our ex vivo model is efficient for evaluation the potency of autophagy inhibitors, in particular a new quinoline derivative GNS-396 as antiviral could inhibit HCV infection in a dosedependent manner without cytotoxic effect.

  14. A comparative study of precision cut liver slices, hepatocytes, and liver microsomes from the Wistar rat using metronidazole as a model substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, U. G.; Cornett, Claus; Tjornelund, J.;

    1996-01-01

    have been investigated. 3. An incubation system where liver slices are incubated in 12-well culture plates was evaluated with respect to metabolism of metronidazole. Optimal viability was observed for a time period of up to 24 h. The Michaelis-Menten parameters for the metabolism of metronidazole......, whereas the intrinsic clearance with respect to formation of the glucuronic acid conjugate was lower in slices compared with hepatocytes. 4. The metabolism of metronidazole in liver slices, in hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture, in hepatocytes incubated in suspension, and in liver microsomes...... higher in microsomes than in the other liver preparations. The metabolic rates in hepatocytes in primary culture and in suspension with respect to the oxidative metabolites were higher than in liver slices. The metabolic turnover observed in liver slices was predicted to correlate with in vivo data...

  15. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  16. Proteomic profiling in incubation medium of mouse, rat and human precision-cut liver slices for biomarker detection regarding acute drug-induced liver injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swelm, Rachel P. L.; Hadi, Mackenzie; Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Russel, Frans G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is one of the leading causes of drug withdrawal from the market. In this study, we investigated the applicability of protein profiling of the incubation medium of human, mouse and rat precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) exposed to liver injury-inducing drugs for biomarker ide

  17. In vivo simulated in vitro model of Jasminum sambac (Linn.) using mammalian liver slice technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalaiselvi M; Narmadha R; Ragavendran P; Arul Raj; Sophia D; Ravi Kumar G; Gomathi D; Uma C; Kalaivani K

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant status of Jasminum sambac (J. sambac) using mammalian liver slice technique in in vivo simulated in vitro model. Methods: Antioxidant activity of J. sambac was studied against H2O2 induced free radicals in goat liver. Results: Administration of H2O2 showed significant decline in the levels of antioxidant enzymes in liver homogenate. Pretreatment with J. sambac had significant protection in those levels within normal range. Also the plant normalized the lipid peroxidation which evidently showed that the methanolic extract of J. sambac had a potent antilipid peroxidative effect. Conclusions:The present study suggests that J. sambac has a potent antioxidant effect and it can be used to treat various diseases caused by free radicals.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme Bovine Liver Abscess Isolate B35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Stewart, George C

    2014-05-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and the less virulent organism F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme are recognized. We present here a draft genome sequence of the bovine liver abscess isolate F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme strain B35, which affords a genomic perspective of virulence and bovine adaptation.

  19. Studies on the transverse localization of lysophospholipase II in bovine liver microsomes by immunological techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, H.; Bosch, H. van den

    1979-01-01

    1. 1. Lysophospholipase activity solubilized from bovine liver microsomes could be precipitated for more than 80% by antibodies evoked in rabbits against the purified bovine liver lysophospholipase II. 2. 2. After solubilization of the microsomes in 1.5% sodium deoxycholate, an immunoprecipitate co

  20. An in vitro method of alcoholic liver injury using precision-cut liver slices from rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klassen, Lynell W.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Duryee, Michael J.; Schaffert, Courtney S.; DeVeney, Amy L.; Hunter, Carlos D.; Olinga, Peter; Tuma, Dean J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse results in liver injury, but investigations into the mechanism(s) for this injury have been hampered by the lack of appropriate in vitro culture models in which to conduct in depth and specific studies. In order to overcome these shortcomings, we have developed the use of precision-cut

  1. Effect of human liver source on the functionality of isolated hepatocytes and liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olinga, Peter; Hof, I.H; de Jong, Kurt; Slooff, M.JH; Meijer, D.K F; Groothuis, Geny; Merema, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    In vitro experiments using human liver tissue to study drug metabolism and transport are usually performed and interpreted without real consideration of the differences in procurement of the tissue, if it is obtained from different sources. Therefore, in this study the functionality of isolated hepa

  2. Feasibility of computed tomography based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in bovine liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandeya, G. D.; Klaessens, J. H. G. M.; Greuter, M. J. W.; Schmidt, B.; Flohr, T.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Oudkerk, M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in the bovine liver. Four freshly exercised cylindrical blocks of bovine tissue were heated using a continuous laser of Nd:YAG (wavelength: 1064 nm, active length: 30 mm, power: 10-30 W). All ti

  3. Intercellular communication and cell proliferation in precision-cut rat liver slices : effect of medium composition and DDT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I A; Tajima, O; Groten, J P; Wolterbeek, A P

    2000-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and cell proliferation were studied in control and 1,1'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2, 2,2,-trichloroethane (DDT) treated precision-cut liver slices of rat by evaluating connexin 32 (Cx32) expression and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. In addit

  4. Intercellular communication and cell proliferation in precision-cut rat liver slices : effect of medium composition and DDT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, I.A.M.; Tajima, O.; Groten, J.P.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and cell proliferation were studied in control and 1,1'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2,-trichloroethane (DDT) treated precision-cut liver slices of rat by evaluating connexin 32 (Cx32) expression and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. In additi

  5. Effect of cold and warm ischaemia on drug metabolism in isolated hepatocytes and slices from human and monkey liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olinga, Peter; Hof, I.H; de Jager, M.H; de Jong, Kurt; Slooff, M.JH; Meijer, D.K F; Groothuis, Geny; Merema, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    1. The influence of short-term cold storage in University of Wisconsin organ preservation solution (UW) on the ability to metabolize lidocaine, testosterone and 7-ethoxycoumarin in isolated human and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) hepatocytes and liver slices has been investigated. 2. The h

  6. Immobilization and characterization of bovine liver catalase on eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖZLEM ALPTEKİN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine liver catalase immobilized on eggshell particles was characterized and the reusability of the immobilized catalase was investigated in a batch type reactor. For immobilized catalase onto ground eggshell (ICATG, the optimum initial amount of catalase was 85 mg g-1 of eggshells, the optimum pH was 6.0 (75 mM citrate buffer and the temperature was 30 °C. The Vmax and Km values of ICATG were determined as 29.1±1.2 U/mg of protein and 41.9±2.7 mM, respectively. The reusability of ICATG was tested and the remaining activity of ICATG was found to be 73 % of the initial activity after 80 cycles of batch operation. The amount of catalase bound onto the carrier was estimated by using the results of induced coupled plasma measurements. The catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km of free catalase and ICATG were found to be 1.4´106 and 2.8´103 dm3 s-1 mol-1, respectively. Catalase immobilization onto eggshell is economic and has good reusability. Hence, it can be concluded that eggshell is an efficient carrier for immobilizing catalase.

  7. Precision-cut liver slices as a model for the early onset of liver fibrosis to test antifibrotic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, Inge M. [Division of Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology and Targeting, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Oosterhuis, Dorenda [Division of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Groothuis, Geny M.M. [Division of Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology and Targeting, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Olinga, Peter, E-mail: p.olinga@rug.nl [Division of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15

    Induction of fibrosis during prolonged culture of precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) was reported. In this study, the use of rat PCLS was investigated to further characterize the mechanism of early onset of fibrosis in this model and the effects of antifibrotic compounds. Rat PCLS were incubated for 48 h, viability was assessed by ATP and gene expression of PDGF-B and TGF-β1 and the fibrosis markers Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1 and collagen1 protein expressions were determined. The effects of the antifibrotic drugs imatinib, sorafenib and sunitinib, PDGF-pathway inhibitors, and perindopril, valproic acid, rosmarinic acid, tetrandrine and pirfenidone, TGFβ-pathway inhibitors, were determined. After 48 h of incubation, viability of the PCLS was maintained and gene expression of PDGF-B was increased while TGF-β1 was not changed. Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1 gene expressions were significantly elevated in PCLS after 48 h, which was further increased by PDGF-BB and TGF-β1. The increased gene expression of fibrosis markers was inhibited by all three PDGF-inhibitors, while TGFβ-inhibitors showed marginal effects. The protein expression of collagen 1 was inhibited by imatinib, perindopril, tetrandrine and pirfenidone. In conclusion, the increased gene expression of PDGF-B and the down-regulation of fibrosis markers by PDGF-pathway inhibitors, together with the absence of elevated TGF-β1 gene expression and the limited effect of the TGFβ-pathway inhibitors, indicated the predominance of the PDGF pathway in the early onset of fibrosis in PCLS. PCLS appear a useful model for research of the early onset of fibrosis and for testing of antifibrotic drugs acting on the PDGF pathway. - Highlights: • During culture, fibrosis markers increased in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). • Gene expression of PDGF-β was increased, while TGFβ was not changed in rat PCLS. • PDGF-pathway inhibitors down-regulated this increase of fibrosis markers. • TGFβ-pathway inhibitors had only

  8. Induction of virulence factors, apoptosis, and cytokines in precision-cut hamster liver slices infected with Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Santiago-Mauricio, María Guadalupe; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2012-12-01

    Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) are mainly used to evaluate hepatotoxicity and metabolism of chemicals, as well as to study mechanisms of liver damage and repair. However, recently they have been used as a system to study amoebic infections. The aim of this study was to validate this model as an alternative for experimental amoebic liver absess (ALA) in animals. To do this, the PCLS was analyzed for the expression of amoebapore and cysteine proteinases 1 and 5, three of the most studied virulence factors of Entamoeba histolytica, as well as the induction of apoptosis and cytokines production in response to the ex vivo infection. PCHLS were prepared with the Brendel-Vitron tissue slicer and then, infected with 200,000 trophozoites of E. histolytica. Samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h and compared to control non-infected slices. Morphological studies were performed in order to verify the infection; while apoptosis was studied by TUNEL and PAS techniques. The expression of cysteine proteinases (1 and 5), and amoebapore, was analyzed by real-time PCR. By using ELISA assays, the production of cytokines was also studied. PCHLS were found to be a reproducible infection system, and E. histolytica caused the expression of cysteine proteinases and amoebapore in infected slices. At the same time, trophozoites induce release of cytokines and apoptotic death of the hepatocytes close to them. PCHLS represent a new and suitable alternative model to study the pathogenesis of hepatic amoebiasis.

  9. Analysis of the ligand binding properties of recombinant bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolf, B; Oudenampsen-Krüger, E; Börchers, T

    1995-01-01

    The coding part of the cDNA for bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and used for the construction of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system. The recombinant protein made up to 25% of the soluble E. coli proteins and could be isolated...

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in bovine liver using RNA-seq technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Błaszczyk, Paweł; Dziuba, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Background RNA-seq is a useful next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology that has been widely used to understand mammalian transcriptome architecture and function. In this study, a breed-specific RNA-seq experiment was utilized to detect putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in liver...... tissue of young bulls of the Polish Red, Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Hereford breeds, and to understand the genomic variation in the three cattle breeds that may reflect differences in production traits. Results The RNA-seq experiment on bovine liver produced 107,114,4072 raw paired-end reads.......21% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. This study identified 5,641,401 SNPs and insertion and deletion (indel) positions expressed in the bovine liver with an average of 313,411 SNPs and indel per young bull. Following the removal...

  11. Human precision-cut liver tumor slices as a tumor patient-individual predictive test system for oncolytic measles vaccine viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Martina; Armeanu, Sorin; Smirnow, Irina; Kupka, Susan; Wagner, Silvia; Wehrmann, Manfred; Rots, Marianne G.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Weiss, Thomas S.; Koenigsrainer, Alfred; Gregor, Michael; Bitzer, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M.

    2009-01-01

    Availability of an individualized preselection of oncolytic viruses to be used for virotherapy of tumor patients would be of great help. Using primary liver tumor resection specimens we evaluated the precision-cut liver slice (PCLS) technology as a novel in vitro test system for characterization of

  12. Oxidative stress and bovine liver diseases: Role of glutathione peroxidase and glucose6‐phosphate dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud Rushdi; OKADA, Keiji; Yasuda, Jun

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the different types of free radicals, antioxidants and the effect of oxidative stress on the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glucose6‐phosphate dehydrogenase in bovine liver diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that the formation of reactive oxygen species is a common occurrence associated with most if not all disease processes. The overall importance of reactive oxygen species to the progression and severity of various disease state...

  13. The impact of PPARalpha activation on whole genome gene expression in human precision cut liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.W.H.; Betzel, B; Stoopen, G.; Berends, F.J.; Janssen, I.M.C.; Peijnenburg, A.A.; Kersten, S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies in mice have shown that PPARalpha is an important regulator of lipid metabolism in liver and key transcription factor involved in the adaptive response to fasting. However, much less is known about the role of PPARalpha in human liver. METHODS: Here we set out to study the functi

  14. Investigation on the optical scan condition for imaging of multi-slice spiral CT liver perfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Rong-jie; WANG Jin-e; JIANG Hui-jie; HAO Xue-jia; DONG Xu-peng; HUANG Ya-hua; WEI Lai

    2013-01-01

    Background Multi-slice CT liver perfusion has been widely used in experimental studies of hemodynamic changes in liver lesions,and is usually performed as an adjunct to a conventional CT examination because of its high temporal and spatial resolution,simple protocol,good reproducibility,and ability to measure hemodynamic changes of liver tissues at the capillary level.Experimental rat models,especially those of induced liver cancer,are often used in studies of hemodynamic changes in liver cancer.Carcinogenesis in rats has a similar pathological progression and characteristics resembling those in human liver cancer; as a result,rat models are often used as ideal animal models in the study of human liver cancer.However,liver perfusion imaging in rats is difficult to perform,because rats' livers are so small that different concentrations,flow rates,and dose of contrast agents during the CT perfusion scanning can influence the quality of liver perfusion images in rats.The purpose of this study,therefore,was to investigate the optimal scan protocol for the imaging of hepatic perfusion using a deconvolution mathematical method in rats by comparing the results of rats in different injection conditions of the contrast agent,including concentration,rate and time.Methods Plain CT scan conditions in eighty 2-month-old male Wistar rats were 5.0 mm slice thickness,5.0 mm interval,1.0 pitch,120 kV tube voltage,60 mA tube current,512×512 matrix,and FOV 9.6 cm.Perfusion scanning was carried out with different concentrations of diatrizoate (19%,38%,57%,and 76%),different injection rates (0.3 and 0.5 mi/s),and different injection times (1,2-3,4-5,and 6 seconds).The above conditions were randomly matched and adjusted to determine the best perfusion scan protocol.Thrae-phase contrast-enhanced scanning was performed after CT perfusion.Histological examination of the liver tissues with hematoxylin and eosin stains was done after CT scanning.Results When the concentration of the

  15. Fast Evaluation of Oxidative DNA Damage by Liquid Chromatography-Electropray Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled With Precision-Cut Rat Liver Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To establish a fast and sensitive method for the detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in precision-cut rat liver slices by HPLC-MS/MS and to investigate isoniazid (INH) -induced oxidative DNA damage. Methods Precision-cut liver slices (300 μm) were prepared from male rats, and incubated with INH (0.018 mol/L) for 2 h after 1 h preincubation. DNA in the slices was extracted and digested into free nucleosides at 37℃. The samples were injected into HPLC-MS/MS after the proteins were removed. The level of oxidative DNA damage was estimated using the ratio of 8-OHdG to deoxyguanosine (dG). Results The limit of detection of 8-OHdG was 1 ng/mL (S/N=3) and the intra-assay relative standard variation was 3.38% when one transition 284.3/168.4 was used as a quantifier and another two transitions 284.3/140.2,306.1/190.2 as qualifiers. 8-OHdG and dG were well separated, as indicated by elution at 10.02 and 7.37 min, respectively. INH significantly increased the ratio of 8-OHdG to dG in rat liver slices (P<0.05). Conclusion 8-OHdG in precision-cut liver slices could be sensitively determined by HPLC-MS/MS. HPLC-MS/MS coupled with precision-cut tissue slices is a fast and reliable analytical technique to evaluate oxidative DNA damage of target tissues caused by procarcinogens and cytotoxins.

  16. Characterization of bovine phenol sulfotransferases: evidence of a major role for SULT1B1 in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choughule, Kanika V; Locuson, Charles W; Coughtrie, Michael W H

    2015-01-01

    1. Cattle are an important component of the human food chain. Drugs used either legally or illegally in cattle may therefore enter the food chain and it is thus important to understand pathways of drug metabolism in this species, including sulfation catalyzed by the sulfotransferases (SULTs). 2. In this study, we have analyzed the sulfation of 4-nitrophenol and other compounds in male and female bovine liver and characterized recombinant bovine SULT isoforms 1A1 and 1B1 expressed in Escherichia coli. 3. We found that, in contrast to most other mammalian species, the major phenol sulfotransferase SULT1A1 is not expressed in bovine liver. Rather SULT1B1 seems to be a major form in both male and female bovine liver. 4. We also identified kinetic differences between bovine and human SULT1A1 and, using the human SULT1A1 crystal structure, identified two amino acid positions in the active site of bovine SULT1A1 (Ile89Val and Phe247Val) that may be responsible for these differences.

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in bovine liver using RNA-seq technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Błaszczyk, Paweł; Dziuba, Piotr; Czarnik, Urszula; Fraser, Leyland; Sobiech, Przemysław; Pierzchała, Mariusz; Feng, Yaping; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Kumar, Dibyendu

    2017-01-01

    Background RNA-seq is a useful next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology that has been widely used to understand mammalian transcriptome architecture and function. In this study, a breed-specific RNA-seq experiment was utilized to detect putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in liver tissue of young bulls of the Polish Red, Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Hereford breeds, and to understand the genomic variation in the three cattle breeds that may reflect differences in production traits. Results The RNA-seq experiment on bovine liver produced 107,114,4072 raw paired-end reads, with an average of approximately 60 million paired-end reads per library. Breed-wise, a total of 345.06, 290.04 and 436.03 million paired-end reads were obtained from the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA) read alignments showed that 81.35%, 82.81% and 84.21% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. This study identified 5,641,401 SNPs and insertion and deletion (indel) positions expressed in the bovine liver with an average of 313,411 SNPs and indel per young bull. Following the removal of the indel mutations, a total of 195,3804, 152,7120 and 205,3184 raw SNPs expressed in bovine liver were identified for the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Breed-wise, three highly reliable breed-specific SNP-databases (SNP-dbs) with 31,562, 24,945 and 28,194 SNP records were constructed for the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Using a combination of stringent parameters of a minimum depth of ≥10 mapping reads that support the polymorphic nucleotide base and 100% SNP ratio, 4,368, 3,780 and 3,800 SNP records were detected in the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. The SNP detections using RNA-seq data were successfully validated by kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASPTM) SNP genotyping assay

  18. Reasoned opinion on the setting of new MRLs for tembotrione in kidney and liver of bovine and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Austria, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer Austria GmbH to set MRLs for the active substance tembotrione in bovine kidney, bovine liver and swine liver. In order to accommodate the intended use of tembotrione on maize in Austria and as a result of using maize products as livestock feed, the EMS proposed to set the MRLs of 0.05 mg/kg in bovine kidney, 0.1 mg/kg in bovine liver and 0.02 mg/kg in swine liver. The EMS drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. The calculated dietary burdens and the results of livestock feeding studies indicate that from the intake of maize silage and grain no residues above the LOQ are expected in milk, fat, muscle of bovine and swine. Residues above the LOQ are expected in bovine liver and kidney and, swine kidney and liver and MRLs for these commodities are therefore proposed. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes thatthe intended use of tembotrione on maize and the proposed MRLs for the commodities of animal origin will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern. Since the peer review according to Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011 is not yet finalised, the conclusions reported in this reasoned opinion should be taken as provisional and might need to be reconsidered in the light of the outcome of the peer review.

  19. Effects of milk diets containing beef tallow or coconut oil on the fatty acid metabolism of liver slices from preruminant calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulet, B; Gruffat-Mouty, D; Durand, D; Bauchart, D

    2000-09-01

    Coconut oil (CO) induces a triacylglycerol infiltration in the hepatocytes of preruminant calves when given as the sole source of fat in the milk diet over a long-term period. Metabolic pathways potentially involved in this hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation were studied by in vitro methods on liver slices from preruminant Holstein x Friesian male calves fed a conventional milk diet containing CO (n 5) or beef tallow (BT, n 5) for 19 d. Liver slices were incubated for 12 h in the presence of 0.8 mm-[14C]oleate or -[14C]laurate added to the medium. Fatty acid oxidation was determined by measuring the production of CO2 (total oxidation) and acid-soluble products (partial oxidation). Production of CO2 was 1. 7-3.6-fold lower (P 0.0490) and production of acid-soluble products tended to be lower (P = 0.0625) in liver slices of CO- than BT-fed calves. Fatty acid esterification as neutral lipids was 2.6- to 3. 1-fold higher (P = 0.0088) in liver slices prepared from calves fed the CO diet compared with calves fed the BT diet. By contrast with what occurs in the liver of rats fed CO, the increase in neutral lipid production did not stimulate VLDL secretion by the hepatocytes of calves fed with CO, leading to a triacylglycerol accumulation in the cytosol. It could be explained by the reduction of fatty acid oxidation favouring esterification in the form of triacylglycerols, in association with a limited availability of triacylglycerols and/or apolipoprotein B for VLDL packaging and subsequent secretion.

  20. Nutritional Quality and Physicochemical Characteristics of Defatted Bovine Liver Treated by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Organic Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Won; Kim, Hye-Min; Rahman, M. Shafiur; Kim, Ah-Na; Yang, Han-Sul

    2017-01-01

    Defatted bovine liver (DBL) is a potential source of protein and minerals. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and a traditional organic solvent method were used to remove lipid from bovine liver, and the quality characteristics of a control bovine liver (CBL), bovine liver defatted by SC-CO2 (DBLSC-CO2) at different pressures, and bovine liver defatted by organic solvent (DBL-OS) were compared. The DBLSC-CO2 samples had significantly higher (p<0.05) protein, amino acid, carbohydrate, and fiber contents than CBL and DBL-OS. There was a higher yield of lipid from CBL when using SC-CO2 than the organic solvent method. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that the CBL and DBLSC-CO2 had protein bands of a similar intensity and area, whereas DBL-OS appeared extremely poor bands or no bands due to the degradation of proteins, particularly in the 50 to 75 kDa and 20 to 25 kDa molecular weight ranges. In addition, DBLSC-CO2 was shown to have superior functional properties in terms of total soluble content, water and oil absorption, and foaming and emulsification properties. Therefore, SC-CO2 treatment offers a nutritionally and environmentally friendly approach for the removal of lipid from high protein food sources. In addition, SC-CO2 may be a better substitute of traditional organic solvent extraction for producing more stable and high quality foods with high-protein, fat-free, and low calorie contents. PMID:28316468

  1. Changes in the miRNA profile under the influence of anabolic steroids in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christiane; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Reiter, Martina; Tichopad, Ales; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2011-03-21

    miRNAs are regulatory RNA molecules. The analytical interest rose over the past 10 years especially in clinical diagnostics as miRNAs show specific expression patterns in several human diseases like diabetes or cancer. Therefore, it is expected that miRNA profiles might be used as biomarkers in early diagnosis. The idea of establishing biomarkers is also present in veterinary drug analysis, e.g. in the surveillance of illegal use of anabolics. Transcriptomics is a promising approach in the detection of anabolics misuse. However, miRNA expression patterns have shown their superiority over mRNA patterns in clinical diagnostics. Thus, the influence of anabolic steroids on miRNA expression in bovine liver should be investigated and an expression pattern should be validated, which might be used as a treatment biomarker. An animal experiment was conducted with 18 heifers equally allocated to a control and a treatment group, which was implanted with TBA plus E2. Liver samples were screened for miRNA expression using PCR arrays. Expression of 11 prominent miRNAs was validated via single assay qPCR. Herein, the following expression pattern could be found with an up-regulation of miR-29c and miR-103 and a down-regulation of miR-34a, miR-181c, miR-20a and miR-15a (panabolic treatment screening.

  2. Nonlinear acoustic properties of ex vivo bovine liver and the effects of temperature and denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E J; Coussios, C-C; Cleveland, R O

    2014-06-21

    Thermal ablation by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has a great potential for the non-invasive treatment of solid tumours. Due to the high pressure amplitudes involved, nonlinear acoustic effects must be understood and the relevant medium property is the parameter of nonlinearity B/A. Here, B/A was measured in ex vivo bovine liver, over a heating/cooling cycle replicating temperatures reached during HIFU ablation, adapting a finite amplitude insertion technique, which also allowed for measurement of sound-speed and attenuation. The method measures the nonlinear progression of a plane wave through liver and B/A was chosen so that numerical simulations matched the measured waveforms. To create plane-wave conditions, sinusoidal bursts were transmitted by a 100 mm diameter 1.125 MHz unfocused transducer and measured using a 15 mm diameter 2.25 MHz broadband transducer in the near field. Attenuation and sound-speed were calculated using a reflected pulse from the smaller transducer using the larger transducer as the reflecting interface. Results showed that attenuation initially decreased with heating then increased after denaturation, the sound-speed initially increased with temperature and then decreased, and B/A showed an increase with temperature but no significant post-heating change. The B/A data disagree with other reports that show a significant change and we suggest that any nonlinear enhancement in the received ultrasound signal post-treatment is likely due to acoustic cavitation rather than changes in tissue nonlinearity.

  3. In vitro metabolism of [14C]methoxychlor in rat, mouse, Japanese quail and rainbow trout in precision-cut liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, K; Maki, S; Sato, K; Kato, Y

    2004-08-01

    1. The in vitro metabolism of [14C]methoxychlor (MXC) has been studied using precision-cut liver slices from the Sprague-Dawley male rat, CD-1 male mouse, WE strain male Japanese quail and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The results demonstrated integrated phase I and II metabolism of MXC and species differences in the metabolic profiles were observed. 2. In rat liver slice preparations, MXC was rapidly metabolized to bis-OH-MXC by sequential O-demethylation followed by subsequent O-glucuronidation forming bis-OH-MXC glucuronide. No mono-OH-MXC glucuronide was detected. The doubly conjugated metabolite, bis-OH-MXC 4-O-sulphate 4'-O-glucuronide, was also detected as a rat-specific metabolite. 3. Formation of mono-OH-MXC and its glucuronide was the main metabolic pathway in the mouse and Japanese quail. In contrast to the rat, only minor amounts of bis-OH-MXC glucuronide were detected. A reductively dehalogenated metabolite, dechlorinated mono-OH-MXC glucuronide, was observed only in mouse preparations. 4. In rainbow trout, comparative amounts of both mono- and bis-OH-MXC glucuronide were formed as the major metabolites. Unconjugated forms of these metabolites were detected only as minor products. 5. The different metabolic profiles of MXC observed in the four animal species are possibly due to substrate specificity of contributing CYP450 monooxgenase enzyme(s) in different animal species.

  4. Iron, copper, zinc and bromine mapping in cirrhotic liver slices from patients with hemochromatosis studied by microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in continuous scanning mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterode, W. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ. Klinik fuer Innere Medizin IV, Klinische Abteilung fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: wolf.osterode@meduniwien.ac.at; Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY (Germany); Hoeftberger, R. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinisches Institut fuer Neurologie (Austria); Wrba, F. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinisches Institut fuer Klinische Pathologie (Austria)

    2007-07-15

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential metals in physiological cell metabolism. While Fe is easy to determine biochemically in histological slices, Cu and zinc (Zn) distribution is frequently critical in confirming the presence of an overload in disturbed Fe/Cu metabolism. To analyze Fe, Cu and Zn in a near histological resolution, energy dispersive microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence was applied. In normal liver tissue, after fixation and imbedding in paraffin, mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 152 {+-} 54, 20.1 {+-} 4.3 and 88.919.5 {mu}g/g sample weight, respectively. No substantial, characteristic differences in their distribution were found in the two-dimensional scans. In slices from patients with hemochromatosis mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 1102 {+-} 539, 35.9 {+-} 14.6 and 27.2 {+-} 6.7 {mu}g/g sample weight, respectively. Additionally, a significant decrease in phosphorus and sulphur concentrations existed. An increased Cu around cirrhotic regenerations nodules is mostly associated with a lymphocytic infiltration in this region. Analyzing concentrations of Fe in different regions of the samples show a clear negative dependency between Fe and Cu, Cu and Zn, but a positive one between Fe and Zn. Conclusion: With a focal beam size of 15 {mu}m in diameter a resolution of the elemental distribution was achieved which is widely comparable with stained histological slices (20x light microscope). The analysis of simultaneous determined elements reveals metabolic differences between Fe, Cu and Zn in liver tissue from patients with hemochromatosis.

  5. Iron, copper, zinc and bromine mapping in cirrhotic liver slices from patients with hemochromatosis studied by microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in continuous scanning mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterode, W.; Falkenberg, G.; Höftberger, R.; Wrba, F.

    2007-07-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential metals in physiological cell metabolism. While Fe is easy to determine biochemically in histological slices, Cu and zinc (Zn) distribution is frequently critical in confirming the presence of an overload in disturbed Fe/Cu metabolism. To analyze Fe, Cu and Zn in a near histological resolution, energy dispersive microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence was applied. In normal liver tissue, after fixation and imbedding in paraffin, mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 152 ± 54, 20.1 ± 4.3 and 88.919.5 μg/g sample weight, respectively. No substantial, characteristic differences in their distribution were found in the two-dimensional scans. In slices from patients with hemochromatosis mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 1102 ± 539, 35.9 ± 14.6 and 27.2 ± 6.7 μg/g sample weight, respectively. Additionally, a significant decrease in phosphorus and sulphur concentrations existed. An increased Cu around cirrhotic regenerations nodules is mostly associated with a lymphocytic infiltration in this region. Analyzing concentrations of Fe in different regions of the samples show a clear negative dependency between Fe and Cu, Cu and Zn, but a positive one between Fe and Zn. Conclusion: With a focal beam size of 15 μm in diameter a resolution of the elemental distribution was achieved which is widely comparable with stained histological slices (20× light microscope). The analysis of simultaneous determined elements reveals metabolic differences between Fe, Cu and Zn in liver tissue from patients with hemochromatosis.

  6. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION XRF MICROPROBE STUDY OF HUMAN BONE TUMOR SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described Using the bovine liver as the standard reference.the minimum detection limit(MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe.The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed.

  7. Gene expression analysis of precision-cut human liver slices indicate stable expression of hepatotoxicity related genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, Maria; Olinga, Peter; van Leeuwen, E. M.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J.; Schoonen, W. G.; Heisterkamp, S. H.; Groothuis, Genoveva

    2011-01-01

    In the process of drug development it is of high importance to test the safety of new drugs with predictive value for human toxicity. A promising approach of toxicity testing is based on changes in the gene expression profile of the liver. Toxicity screening based on animal liver cells cannot be dir

  8. Gene expression analysis of precision-cut human liver slices indicates stable expression of ADME-Tox related genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M. G. L.; Olinga, P.; van Leeuwen, E. M.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J.; Schoonen, W. G.; Heisterkamp, S. H.; Groothuis, G. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the process of drug development it is of high importance to test the safety of new drugs with predictive value for human toxicity. A promising approach of toxicity testing is based on shifts in gene expression profiling of the liver. Toxicity screening based on animal liver cells cannot be direct

  9. Neither bovine somatotropin nor growth hormone-releasing factor alters expression of thyroid hormone receptors in liver and mammary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuco, A V; Binelli, M; Tucker, H A

    2011-10-01

    Physiological effects of thyroid hormones are mediated primarily by binding of triiodothyronine to specific nuclear receptors. Organ-specific changes in production of triiodothyronine from its prohormone, thyroxine, have been hypothesized to target the action of thyroid hormones on the mammary gland and play a role in mediating or augmenting a galactopoietic response to bovine somatotropin (bST). Additionally, tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones may be altered by changes in the number or affinity of nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones. In the present study, effects of bST and bovine growth hormone-releasing factor (bGRF) on thyroid hormone receptors in liver and mammary gland were studied. Lactating Holstein cows received continuous infusions of bST or bGRF for 63 d or served as uninfused controls. Nuclei were isolated from harvested mammary and liver tissues and incubated with [(125)I]-triiodothyronine. Treatments did not alter the capacity or affinity of specific binding sites for triiodothyronine in liver or mammary nuclei. Evaluation of transcript abundance for thyroid hormone receptors showed that isoforms of thyroid hormone receptor or retinoid receptor (which may influence thyroid receptor action) expressed in the mammary gland were not altered by bST or bGRF treatment. Data do not support the hypothesis that administration of bST or bGRF alters sensitivity of mammary tissue by changing expression of thyroid hormone receptors.

  10. Determination of quinolones and fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and sulfonamides in bovine, swine and poultry liver using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Magda Targa; Barreto, Fabiano; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcelos; Jank, Louise; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Feijó, Tiago Correa; Schapoval, Elfrides Eva Scherman

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterials are widely used in veterinary medicine. Residues of these drugs can remain in food of animal origin, including bovine liver. This paper describes a fast and simple analytical method for the determination of quinolones and fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and sulfonamides in bovine liver samples. Deuterated enrofloxacin, sulfapyridine and demeclocycline were used as internal standards. The homogenised liver samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile. Steps of non-solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and concentration were used in the presented method. The final extracts were analysed by sensitive and selective detection of all components in a single run using LC-MS/MS. Acceptable recoveries between 66% and 110% were obtained. Good linearity (r(2)) above 0.96, considering three different days, for all drugs was achieved in concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 2.0 × the maximum residue limit (MRL). Intraday precision with coefficient of variation (CV%) (n = 6) lower than 14.7% and inter-day precision lower than 18.8% in agreement with European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC were obtained in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 MRL. Accuracy was between 86% and 110%. Limits of detection and quantitation, as well as decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ), were also evaluated.

  11. Moving-shot versus fixed electrode techniques for radiofrequency ablation: Comparison in an ex-vivo bovine liver tissue model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Eun Ju; Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and the Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To compare the ablation characteristics of the moving-shot technique (MST) and the fixed electrode technique (FET) for radiofrequency (RF) ablation in an ex-vivo bovine liver tissue model. We performed RF ablation using FET in 110 bovine liver blocks using 11 different ablation times ranging from 5 seconds to 5 minutes (10 blocks per each time duration). Ten bovine liver blocks at each ablation time of 1- or 2-minute, were ablated with MST, which treated conceptual ablation units by moving the electrode tip. We evaluated the ablation volume obtained with FET across ablation time lengths. The results of FET and MST performed with the same ablation time lengths, i.e., 1- and 2-minute ablation time were also compared. The ablation volume achieved with FET gradually increased with increasing ablation time; however, the pair-wise statistical comparison between 2 neighboring ablation time lengths was not significant after 30 seconds. MST with either 1- or 2-minute ablation time achieved larger ablation volumes (1.1 +/- 0.2 mL vs. 2.7 +/- 0.3 mL, p < 0.001; and 1.4 +/- 0.2 mL vs. 5.6 +/- 0.4 mL, p < 0.001, respectively), longer true RF times (46.7 +/- 4.6 seconds vs. 60 seconds, p < 0.001; and 64.8 +/- 4.6 seconds vs. 120 seconds, p < 0.001, respectively), fewer numbers of RF cut-offs (1.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 0, p < 0.001; and 5.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 0, p < 0.001, respectively), and greater energy deposition (2050.16 +/- 209.2 J vs. 2677.76 +/- 83.68 J, p < 0.001; and 2970.64 +/- 376.56 J vs. 5564.72 +/- 5439.2 J, p < 0.001, respectively), than FET. The MST can achieve a larger ablation volume by preventing RF cut-off, compared with the FET in an ex-vivo bovine liver model.

  12. Micellar high performance liquid chromatographic determination of flunixin meglumine in bulk, pharmaceutical dosage forms, bovine liver and kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathalla F. Belal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the analysis of flunixin meglumine (flunixin-M in bulk, pharmaceutical dosage forms, bovine liver and kidney. Analytical separation was performed in less than 4 min using a C18 column with UV detection at 284 nm. A micellar solution composed of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 8% n-butanol and 0.3% triethylamine in 0.02 M phosphoric acid buffered at pH 7.0 was used as the mobile phase. The method was fully validated in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were 0.02 and 0.06 μg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries obtained were in range of 95.58–106.94% for bovine liver and kidney. High extraction efficiency was obtained without matrix interference in the extraction process and in the subsequent chromatographic determination. The method showed good repeatability, linearity and sensitivity according to the evaluation of the validation parameters.

  13. Gene expression analysis of precision cut human liver slices indicate stable expression of ADME-Tox related genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M.; Olinga, P.; Van Leeuwen, E.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J.; Schoonen, W.; Heisterkamp, S.; Groothuis, G.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of drug development it is of high importance to test the safety of new drugs with predictive value for human toxicity. Currently, for toxicity studies toxicogenomic analysis of changes in gene expression profile of the liver is increasingly applied. Toxicity screening based on animal

  14. No-Touch Radiofrequency Ablation: A Comparison of Switching Bipolar and Switching Monopolar Ablation in Ex Vivo Bovine Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won; Lee, Sang Min; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility, efficiency, and safety of no-touch switching bipolar (SB) and switching monopolar (SM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using ex vivo bovine livers. Materials and Methods A pork loin cube was inserted as a tumor mimicker in the bovine liver block; RFA was performed using the no-touch technique in the SM (group A1; 10 minutes, n = 10, group A2; 15 minutes, n = 10) and SB (group B; 10 minutes, n = 10) modes. The groups were compared based on the creation of confluent necrosis with sufficient safety margins, the dimensions, and distance between the electrode and ablation zone margin (DEM). To evaluate safety, small bowel loops were placed above the liver surface and 30 additional ablations were performed in the same groups. Results Confluent necroses with sufficient safety margins were created in all specimens. SM RFA created significantly larger volumes of ablation compared to SB RFA (all p < 0.001). The DEM of group B was significantly lower than those of groups A1 and A2 (all p < 0.001). Although thermal injury to the small bowel was noted in 90%, 100%, and 30% of the cases in groups A1, A2, and B, respectively, full depth injury was noted only in 60% of group A2 cases. Conclusion The no-touch RFA technique is feasible in both the SB and SM modes; however, SB RFA appears to be more advantageous compared to SM RFA in the creation of an ablation zone while avoiding the unnecessary creation of an adjacent parenchymal ablation zone or adjacent small bowel injuries.

  15. Slice Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, R M

    2000-01-01

    Markov chain sampling methods that automatically adapt to characteristics of the distribution being sampled can be constructed by exploiting the principle that one can sample from a distribution by sampling uniformly from the region under the plot of its density function. A Markov chain that converges to this uniform distribution can be constructed by alternating uniform sampling in the vertical direction with uniform sampling from the horizontal `slice' defined by the current vertical position, or more generally, with some update that leaves the uniform distribution over this slice invariant. Variations on such `slice sampling' methods are easily implemented for univariate distributions, and can be used to sample from a multivariate distribution by updating each variable in turn. This approach is often easier to implement than Gibbs sampling, and more efficient than simple Metropolis updates, due to the ability of slice sampling to adaptively choose the magnitude of changes made. It is therefore attractive f...

  16. Architectural slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java.......Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given...

  17. Clenbuterol storage stability in the bovine urine and liver samples used for European official control in the azores islands (portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Isabel; Jesuino, Bruno; Barbosa, Jorge; Ferreira, Humberto; Ramos, Fernando; Matos, José; da Silveira, Maria Irene Noronha

    2009-02-11

    Clenbuterol is a well-known growth promoter, illegally used in farm animals, especially in cattle. Samples collected for the screening of beta(2)-agonist residues in Portuguese Azores Islands must travel through all the nine islands until they reach Azores Central Laboratory. If any suspicious sample is detected, it must be further transported to the National Reference Laboratory in Lisbon for confirmation. As a consequence of these circumstances, samples are submitted to different transport and storage times, as well as different temperature conditions and in some cases successive freezing and thawing cycles. As clenbuterol is the most detected beta(2)-agonist growth promoter in the Portuguese Residue Monitoring Plan, studies were conducted on the stability of this compound in incurred samples (bovine liver and urine) at +4, -20 and -60 degrees C over time. Samples kept at -20 degrees C were also analyzed over time after successive freezing and thawing cycles. The analyses of clenbuterol over time were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Clenbuterol in incurred urine and liver samples was significantly stable up to 20 weeks at -20 and -60 degrees C and after, at least, six consecutive freezings and thawings. At +4 degrees C, clenbuterol remained stable, at least until 12 weeks in urine and up to 20 weeks in liver.

  18. Socio-economic implications of bovine liver rejection in a major abattoir in south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola Adeshupo Ibironke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the common causes of liver rejection in an abattoir in Nigeria. It was estimated and compared mathematically the lead causes of rejection of bovine liver. Fascioliasis was the main cause of liver condemnation and its social and economic implications were studied. A total of Nigerian Naira 15,772,200 [US$134,000] was lost directly due to this disease condition in a three-year period and in a single abattoir. Finally, advice was proffered to minimize the problems associated with liver rejection in Nigeria and to improve public health and animal welfare.Este estudo avaliou as causas mais comuns de rejeição do fígado num matadouro na Nigéria. Foram estimadas e comparadas matematicamente as causa principais de rejeição de fígado de bovinos. A fasciolíase foi a causa principal da reprovação do fígado e foram estudadas as suas implicações sociais e económicas. Apurou-se ter sido perdido um total de 15,772,200 nairas nigerianas (US$ 134,000 directamente devido a esta doença, num período de três anos, num único matadouro. Finalmente, foram definidos e aconselhados procedimentos para minimizar os problemas associados à rejeição de fígado na Nigéria e para melhorar a saúde pública e o bem-estar dos animais.

  19. Comparative in vitro metabolism of methoxychlor in male and female rats: metabolism of demethylated methoxychlor metabolites by precision-cut rat liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, K; Maki, S; Sato, K; Kato, Y

    2005-07-01

    The in vitro metabolism of demethylated methoxychlor (MXC) metabolites, mono-OH-MXC (including (R)- and (S)-isomers) and bis-OH-MXC (mono- and bis-demethylated MXC, respectively), was conducted using precision-cut liver slices to understand the sex-dependent metabolism of MXC in rats. In the study with bis-OH-MXC, the substrate underwent extensive conjugation producing its glucuronide and glucuronide/sulphate diconjugate, and no significant sex differences were found. On the contrary, the metabolism of mono-OH-MXC appeared to exhibit the sex differences in the metabolic profiles. The bis-OH-MXC glucuronide and glucuronide/sulphate diconjugate were major metabolites in male rat, whereas the mono- and bis-OH-MXC glucuronides predominated in the female. The per cent distribution of the demethylated products (sum of bis-OH-MXC derivatives) was approximately 90% for the male (for both isomers) and 81 (R-) to 56% (S-) for the female. The metabolic profiles in (S)-mono-OH-MXC, which is the predominant enantiomer preferentially produced in MXC metabolism in rats, showed a similar pattern to that of MXC compared with the (R)-isomer. The results indicate that the sex differences in oxidative demethylation of the intermediate, (S)-mono-OH-MXC, could be one of the probable reasons for the sex-dependent metabolism of MXC in rats, and the stereo-structural preference of the contributing demethylase enzymes appear to be involved.

  20. Bovine liver sample preparation and micro-homogeneity study for Cu and Zn determination by solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Cassiana S. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26077, Sao Paulo, SP 05513-970 (Brazil); Silva, Cintia S. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26077, Sao Paulo, SP 05513-970 (Brazil); Nogueira, Ana R.A. [Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, CP 339, Sao Carlos, SP 13560-970 (Brazil); Oliveira, Pedro V. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26077, Sao Paulo, SP 05513-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: pvolivei@iq.usp.br

    2005-06-30

    This work describes a systematic study for the bovine liver sample preparation for Cu and Zn determination by solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The main parameters investigated were sample drying, grinding process, particle size, sample size, microsample homogeneity, and their relationship with the precision and accuracy of the method. A bovine liver sample was prepared using different drying procedures: (1) freeze drying, and (2) drying in a household microwave oven followed by drying in a stove at 60 deg. C until constant mass. Ball and cryogenic mills were used for grinding. Less sensitive wavelengths for Cu (216.5 nm) and Zn (307.6 nm), and Zeeman-based three-field background correction for Cu were used to diminish the sensitivities. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures adopted were 1000 deg. C and 2300 deg. C for Cu, and 700 deg. C and 1700 deg. C for Zn, respectively. For both elements, it was possible to calibrate the spectrometer with aqueous solutions. The use of 250 {mu}g of W + 200 {mu}g of Rh as permanent chemical modifier was imperative for Zn. Under these conditions, the characteristic mass and detection limit were 1.4 ng and 1.6 ng for Cu, and 2.8 ng and 1.3 ng for Zn, respectively. The results showed good agreement (95% confidence level) for homogeneity of the entire material (> 200 mg) when the sample was dried in microwave/stove and ground in a cryogenic mill. The microsample homogeneity study showed that Zn is more dependent on the sample pretreatment than Cu. The bovine liver sample prepared in microwave/stove and ground in a cryogenic mill presented results with the lowest relative standard deviation for Cu than Zn. Good accuracy and precision were observed for bovine liver masses higher than 40 {mu}g for Cu and 30 {mu}g for Zn. The concentrations of Cu and Zn in the prepared bovine liver sample were 223 mg kg{sup -} {sup 1} and 128 mg kg{sup -} {sup 1}, respectively. The relative standard deviations were lower

  1. Ribonucleases from rat and bovine liver : purification, specificity and structural characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, W; Kote-Jarai, Z; van Santen, Y; Hofsteenge, J; Beintema, JJ

    1998-01-01

    The presence of four members of the pyrimidine-specific ribonuclease superfamily was demonstrated in rat liver. Three of them (RL1, RL2 and RL3) were purified and showed ribonuclease activity at pH 7.5 with yeast RNA as substrate. RL1 is identical to rat pancreatic ribonuclease (ribonuclease 1). N-t

  2. Investigation on the interaction between isorhamnetin and bovine liver catalase by spectroscopic techniques under different pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yumin; Li, Daojin

    2016-08-01

    The binding of isorhamnetin to bovine liver catalase (BLC) was first investigated at 302, 310 and 318 K at pH 7.4 using spectroscopic methods including fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis absorption. Spectrophotometric observations are rationalized mainly in terms of a static quenching process. The binding constants and binding sites were evaluated by fluorescence quenching methods. Enzymatic activity of BLC in the absence and presence of isorhamnetin was measured using a UV/vis spectrophotometer. The result revealed that the binding of isorhamnetin to BLC led to a reduction in the activity of BLC. The positive entropy change and enthalpy change indicated that the interaction of isorhamnetin with BLC was mainly driven by hydrophobic forces. The distance r between the donor (BLC) and acceptor (isorhamnetin) was estimated to be 2.99 nm according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, and CD spectra showed no obvious change in the conformation of BLC upon the binding of isorhamnetin. In addition, the influence of pH on the binding of isorhamnetin to BLC was investigated and the binding ability of the drug to BLC deceased under other pH conditions (pH 9.0, 6.5, 5.0, 3.5, or 2.0) as compared with that at pH 7.4. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  4. Inhibitory effects of deferasirox on the structure and function of bovine liver catalase: a spectroscopic and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, M; Divsalar, A; Saboury, A A; Ghalandari, B; Harifi, A R

    2015-01-01

    Deferasirox (DFX), as an oral chelator, is used for treatment of transfusional iron overload. In this study, we have investigated the effects of DFX as an iron chelator, on the function and structure of bovine liver catalase (BLC) by different spectroscopic methods of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) at two temperatures of 25 and 37 °C. In vitro kinetic studies showed that DFX can inhibit the enzymatic activity in a competitive manner. KI value was calculated 39 nM according to the Lineweaver-Burk plot indicating a high rate of inhibition of the enzyme. Intrinsic fluorescence data showed that increasing the drug concentrations leads to a significant decrease in the intrinsic emission of the enzyme indicating a significant change in the three-dimensional environment around the chromophores of the enzyme structure. By analyzing the fluorescence quenching data, it was found that the BLC has two binding sites for DFX and the values of binding constant at 25 and 37 °C were calculated 1.7 × 10(7) and 3 × 10(7) M(-1), respectively. The static type of quenching mechanism is involved in the quenching of intrinsic emission of enzyme. The thermodynamic data suggest that hydrophobic interactions play a major role in the binding reaction. UV-vis spectroscopy results represented the changes in tryptophan (Trp) absorption and Soret band spectra, which indicated changes in Trp and heme group position caused by the drug binding. Also, CD data represented that high concentrations of DFX lead to a significant decreasing in the content of β-sheet and random coil accompanied an increasing in α-helical content of the protein. The molecular docking results indicate that docking may be an appropriate method for prediction and confirmation of experimental results and also useful for determining the binding mechanism of proteins and drugs. According to above results, it can be concluded that the DFX can chelate the Fe(III) on the enzyme active site leading

  5. Clinical study of compound embryonic bovine liver extract in treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease%复方牛胎肝提取物对非酒精性脂肪肝的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永红; 宁秀花; 王军伟

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analysis the clinical efficacy of compound embryonic bovine liver extract in treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NARV).Method 58 patients with NAFLD were divided into two groups: treatment group and control group.Control group was given intervention of life only,while treatment group was given the same treament plus compound embryonic bovine liver extract.The period of treatment of both groups were 3 months,hepatic function,blood lipid and serum fibrosis index were detected before and after the treatment.Results Hepatic function and blood lipid of both gzvups were improved.Treament group was improved more than control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Liver fibrosis index of treatment group improved after treatment,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).But liver fibrosis index of control group didn't improve after treaunent.Conclusions The clinical efficacy of compound embryonic bovine liver extract in tieatment of NAFLD is significant.%目的 观察复方牛胎肝提取物对非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)患者的疗效.方法 将我院2(135年12月-2007年12月的58例NAFLD患者随机分为两组,对照组单纯生活干预,治疗组在生活干预基础上加复方牛胎肝提取物治疗,疗程均为3个月,比较两组治疗前后的肝功能、血脂及肝纤维化指标的变化.结果 治疗后两组肝功能、血脂均有改善,治疗组优于对照组(P<0.05).对照组肝纤维指标治疗前后差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),治疗组肝纤维化指标治疗前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗组明显优于对照组(P<0.05).结论 复方牛胎肝提取物对NAFLD患者有明显疗效.

  6. Acute toxicity of CCl4 but not of paracetamol induces a transcriptomic signature of fibrosis in precision-cut liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vatakuti, Suresh; Schoonen, Willem G E J; Elferink, Maria; Groothuis, Geny M M; Olinga, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In rat in vivo, both paracetamol (APAP) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induce liver necrosis, but long-term treatment with CCl4, in contrast to paracetamol, causes liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to perform transcriptomic analysis to compare the early changes in mRNA expression profiles i

  7. Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…

  8. Effect of Whole-Body X-Irradiation of the Synthesis of Individual Fatty Acids in Liver Slices from Normal and Fasted Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, Lisbeth Grænge; Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    (1) Using (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate as precursors, rat-liver fatty acids were synthesized in vitro and assayed by paper chromatography. (2) Whole-body x-irradiation induced a change in the synthetic pattern of hepatic fatty acids towards a relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitic acid...

  9. Detection of xenobiotic-induced DNA damage by the comet assay applied to human and rat precision-cut liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plazar, Janja; Hrejac, Irena; Pirih, Primoz; Filipic, Metka; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2007-01-01

    The comet assay is a simple and sensitive method for measuring DNA damage at the level of individual cells and is extensively used in genotoxicity studies. It is commonly applied to cultured cells. The aim of this study was to apply the comet assay for use in fresh liver tissue, where metabolic acti

  10. Preliminary Study of Whole Liver Perfusion Imaging with 320 Slice Volume CT%320排容积CT全肝灌注成像模式的初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芃; 赵建农; 钟维佳

    2013-01-01

    目的 应用320排容积CT全肝灌注模式,探讨正常肝脏的CT灌注血流特征,为肝脏疾病的灌注成像提供理论依据.方法 75名经临床证实的健康自愿者,采用320排CT动态容积扫描模式行CT全肝灌注检查,将数据导入Abdomen perfusion软件对全肝进行灌注分析,分别测量肝脏各段的肝动脉灌注量(HAP)、门静脉灌注量(HPP)、动脉灌注分数(APF),分析肝脏各段间及左、右半肝血流灌注的差异.结果 肝脏Ⅰ~Ⅷ段HAP、HPP、APF差异均有统计学意义(HAP:F=2.773,P=0.008;HPP:F=4.659,P=0.000;APF:F =4.681,P=0.000).肝脏Ⅰ段HAP与除Ⅲ段之外的肝段差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),肝脏Ⅲ段HPP与肝脏其他各段差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),肝脏Ⅰ、Ⅲ段APF与V、Ⅵ、Ⅷ段差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).左半肝与右半肝HPP、APF差异有统计学意义(P =0.042,P=0.008).结论 应用320排CT全肝灌注模式可直观反映及准确地评价肝脏整体各段及左、右半肝血流灌注特征.全肝各段及左、右半肝的血流灌注情况不尽相同,可能与肝血管解剖特点有关,可以为肝脏疾病的灌注研究提供正常基准.%Objective To study the blood flow perfusion charateristics of normal liver using the pattern of whole liver perfusion with 320 Slice Volume CT. Methods 75 cases of clinically proven healthy volunteers received dynamic enhanced 320 slice Volume CT, and the data were transferred into abdomen perfusion software, and the hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP) , hepatic portal perfusion ( HPP) , arterial perfusion fraction ( APF) of the whole hepatic segments were calculated, and then perfusion parameters were analyzed. Results There were significantly different on HAP、HPP、APF among hepatic segments Ⅰ- Ⅷ (HAP:F = 2. 773,P =0. 008;HPP:F =4. 659,P = 0. 000;APF:F =4. 681 ,P =0. 000). HAP was significantly different between segment I and the other hepatic segments except segment HI (P < 0.05). HPP

  11. Analysis of Value of Dual-sliceSpiralCT in Diagnosis of Liver Abscess%分析双排螺旋CT对肝脓肿的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海军

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析在肝脓肿的诊断中双排螺旋CT的应用价值,为提高肝脓肿的诊断正确率提供借鉴依据。方法择取32例肝脓肿患者的临床资料实施回顾性分析,对其CT平扫、增强扫描表现进行分析和总结,并对比CT检查结果和病理检查结果。结果32例肝脓肿患者的CT检查结果和病理检查结果不存在明显的统计学差异(P>0.05)。肝脓肿患者中单发者、肝右叶者居多,脓肿直径为1.42~15.6cm。32例肝脓肿患者均存在低密度区,且均比周围正常肝实质组织密度要低得多。CT值达到8~28Hu。29例边缘模糊,其余边缘清晰明了。3例能够观察到程度不同的气液平面。20例患者中央有坏死液化区存在,病灶呈“环靶征”,其中4例单环征,11例双环征,5例三环征。此外,9例患者的病灶呈花瓣征,3例患者腔内无强化。不同类型肝脓肿的征象有所不同。结论在肝脓肿的诊断中应用双排螺旋CT,可以获得比较高的诊断正确率,为临床诊治肝脓肿提供一定的借鉴依据,临床应用价值值得认可。%Objective To analyze the application value of dual-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of liver abscess ,in order to provide a refer-ence for improving the correct accuracy the of dual-slice spiral CT in diagnosis of Liver abscess.MethodThe clinical data of 32 cases of liver abscess were retrospectively analyzed.TheirCT plain scan and enhanced scan findings were analyzed and summarized.The results of CT ex-amination and pathological examination were compared.Result There were no significant statistical differences in the results of CT examina-tion and pathological examination in 32 cases of liver abscess (P>0.05).In patients with liver abscess,single onset andlobi hepatis dexter were the most, and the diameter of the abscess is 1.42~ 15.6cm. 32 cases of liver abscess patients had low density areas, and were much lower than the normal liver parenchyma. CT

  12. Application of ion-exchange cartridge clean-up in food analysis III. Determination of benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethyl-penicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin and dicloxacillin in bovine liver and kidney by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y; Ikai, Y; Oka, H; Matsumoto, H; Kagami, T; Takeba, K

    2000-06-02

    A multiresidue analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of benzylpenicillin (PCG), phenoxymethylpenicillin (PCV), oxacillin (MPIPC), cloxacillin (MCIPC), nafcillin (NFPC) and dicloxacillin (MDIPC) in bovine liver and kidney. The method involves the use of an ion-exchange cartridge for sample clean-up followed by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The recoveries of PCG, PCV, MPIPC, MCIPC, NFPC and MDIPC from bovine liver spiked at levels of 0.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg were in the range of 73-91% and 83-96% with coefficients of variation of 1.4-4.2% and 3.4-8.7%, respectively. For bovine kidney spiked at levels of 0.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, the recoveries of these compounds were 79-92% and 82-92% with RSDs of 1.8-5.9% and 2.7-7.8%, respectively. The detection limits for the six penicillins were 0.02-0.05 mg/kg in bovine liver and kidney.

  13. Comparison of findings of spontaneous splenorenal shunt in color Doppler sonography with multislice CT scan (64 slices) in liver transplant candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Mohammadhadi, E-mail: Bagherimh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajati, Azadeh, E-mail: azadeh.hajati@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammadkazem, E-mail: hosseiniaslm@sums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ostad, Seyed Pouria, E-mail: Pouria.Ostad@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Background: Liver transplantation is the only definite treatment for end stage liver disease and it has high costs for the medical system so decreasing its complication and increasing its effectiveness is crucial. One of the factors that affect liver transplantation is the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Its diagnosis is mainly overlooked in pre-liver transplant patients. Main modality for its diagnosis is multislice CT scan however this is more expensive than sonography. Also, it exposes the patients to ionizing radiation. Considering the advantages of color Doppler ultrasound, studies to determine the sensitivity and specificity for detection of spontaneous splenorenal shunt is essential. Materials and methods: In our study 70 cirrhotic patients who were referred by liver transplant surgeons for evaluation of abdomen by CT and sonograhy were assessed for presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt, left adrenal varix and left renal vein diameter and velocity and sensitivity and specificity of both modalities were checked. Patients in whom left renal vein could not evaluated by sonography and patients with splenectomy and nutcracker syndrome were excluded. Results: In the point of 10 mm diameter of left renal vein in CT scan there was 78.6% sensitivity and 67.9% specificity for the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Left adrenal varix in CT had sensitivity of 71.4%, specificity of 100%, and positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 70% and varix below spleen in CT had sensitivity of 54.8%, specificity of 96.4%, and positive predictive value of 95.8% and negative predictive value of 58.7% for the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. In the point of 8 mm diameter of left renal vein in sonography there was 66.7% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity for the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. For the velocity of more than 35 cm/s of left renal vein in sonography there was 61.9% sensitivity and 82.1% specificity for

  14. Diagnostic value of 64-slice spiral CT on fatty liver combining with nodular diseases of the liver%64排螺旋CT在脂肪肝合并肝脏结节性疾病中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强; 李孟云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of 64-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) on fatty liver combining with nodular diseases of the liver. Methods From January 2013 to August 2014,78 patients suffered from fatty liver with nodular diseases of the liver who were visited our hospital for treatment were selected as research ob-jects.All patients were performed with conventional ultrasound and 64-slice spiral CT examination.The images were read by two senior radiological doctors,which were compared and analyzed by pathological outcomes by percutaneous liver puncture biopsy guided by surgery or ultrasound.The sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value,negative pre-dictive value and accuracy of conventional ultrasound and 64-slice spiral CT were compared. Results Among 78 pa-tients,there were 86 foci,of which 27 cases were in benign accounting for 34.62% (32 foci for 37.21%) and the rest 51 cases belonged to malignant lesions accounting for 65.38% (54 foci for 62.79%).The sensitivity,specificity,positive pre-dictive value,negative predictive value and accuracy of conventional ultrasound on fatty liver combining with nodular diseases of the liver was 76.5%,59.3%,78.0%,57.1%,70.5%,respectively,and the rates by 64-slice spiral CT was 92.2%, 92.6%,95.9%,86.2%,and 92.3% accordingly.The indexes examined by 64-slice spiral CT were much higher than those by conventional ultrasound (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Application of 64-slice spiral CT obtains a higher sensitiv-ity,specificity,and accuracy on treating fatty liver combining with nodular diseases of the liver,which is worthy of expan-sion in clinic.%目的:探讨64排螺旋CT在脂肪肝合并肝脏结节性疾病诊断中的价值。方法选取2013年1月~2014年8月因脂肪肝合并肝脏结节性疾病在本院就诊的78例患者为研究对象。所有病例均行常规超声和64排螺旋CT检查,由2名高年资影像科医生阅片,与外科手术或者超声引导下的经皮肝脏穿刺

  15. Confirmatory analysis of sulfonamide antibacterials in bovine liver and kidney: extraction with hot water and liquid chromatography coupled to a single- or triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogialli, Sara; Curini, Roberta; Di Corcia, Antonio; Nazzari, Manuela; Sergi, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    A simple, specific, and rapid confirmatory method for determining 12 sulfonamide (SAs) antibacterials in bovine liver and kidney is presented. This method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion technique with hot water as extractant followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) with an electrospray ion source. The method was tailored for use with both single-quadrupole MS (I) and triple-quadrupole MS (II) instruments. After acidification and filtration of the aqueous extract, a 250-microL aliquot was injected into instrument I while only 25 microL was analyzed by instrument II. With instrument I MS data acquisition was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, selecting at least three ions for each target compound. With instrument II the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with three fragmentation reactions for each compound was chosen. With the exception of sulfaquinoxaline (SQX), recovery of the analytes at the 50 ppb level in both liver and kidney was 72-96% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging between 3 and 11%. The very poor recovery of SQX was due to its rapid enzymatic oxidation when in contact with the two tissues. With instrument I, limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) were 5-14 ppb of SAs. Even lower LOQs (1-8 ppb) were estimated by using instrument II, even though the extract volume analyzed was ten times lower than that with instrument I. With both matrices and using instrument I, severe ion signal suppression was experienced for the early-eluted SAs when trying to fractionate analytes by using a short chromatographic run time. This effect was traced to polar endogenous co-extractives eluted in the first part of the chromatographic run that interfered with gas-phase ion formation for SAs. Adopting more selective chromatographic conditions minimized this effect.

  16. Radiofrequency tissue ablation with cooled-tip electrodes:an experimental study in a bovine liver model on variables influencing lesion size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyun Young [Eulgy Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Chong Soo [Chonbuk National Univ. Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of various factors on the extent of thermal coagulation necrosis after radiofrequency (RF) tissue ablation using a cooled-tip electrode in bovine liver. RF ablation was induced by a monopolar 500 KHz-RF generator (CC-1; Radionics, Burlington, Mass., U.S.A.) and an 18-G cooled-tip with single or clustered electrodes. The ablation protocol involved a combination of varying current, ablation time, power output, gradual or abrupt increase of this out-put, and pulsed radiofrequency techniques. The maximum diameter of all thermal lesions which showed a color change was measured perpendicular to the electrode axis by two observers who reached their decisions by consensus. Twenty representative lesions were pathologically examined. With increasing current lesion diameter also increased, but above 1500 mA no further increase was induced. Extending the ablation time to 9 minutes for a single electrode and 15 minutes for a clustered electrode increased lesion diameter until a steady state was reached. Higher power levels caused larger lesions, but above 100 W no increase was observed. Ample exposure time coupled with a stepwise increase in power level induced a lesion larger than that resulting from an abrupt increase. Continuous pulsed RF with a high current led to increased coagulation necrosis diameter. These experimental findings may be useful thermotherapy. The data suggest that all involved factors significantly affect lesion size:if the factors are better understood, cancer thermotherapy can be better controlled.

  17. A visual thalamocortical slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Jason N; Fenstermaker, Vivian; Watson, Brendon O; Yuste, Rafael

    2006-02-01

    We describe a thalamocortical slice preparation in which connectivity between the mouse lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) is preserved. Through DiI injections in fixed brains we traced and created a three-dimensional model of the mouse visual pathways. From this computer model we designed a slice preparation that contains a projection from LGN to V1. We prepared brain slices with these predicted coordinates and demonstrated anatomical LGN-V1 connectivity in these slices after LGN tracer injections. We also revealed functional LGN-V1 connectivity by stimulating LGN electrically and detecting responses in layer 4 of V1 using calcium imaging, field potential recordings and whole-cell recordings. We also identified layer-4 neurons that receive direct thalamocortical input. Finally, we compared cortical activity after LGN stimulation with spontaneous cortical activity and found significant overlap of the spatiotemporal dynamics generated by both types of events.

  18. Slice hyperholomorphic Schur analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel; Sabadini, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book defines and examines the counterpart of Schur functions and Schur analysis in the slice hyperholomorphic setting. It is organized into three parts: the first introduces readers to classical Schur analysis, while the second offers background material on quaternions, slice hyperholomorphic functions, and quaternionic functional analysis. The third part represents the core of the book and explores quaternionic Schur analysis and its various applications. The book includes previously unpublished results and provides the basis for new directions of research.

  19. A HYBRID DYNAMIC PROGRAM SLICING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tong; Wu Fangjun

    2005-01-01

    This letter proposes a hybrid method for computing dynamic program slicing. The key element is to construct a Coverage-Testing-based Dynamic Dependence Graph (CTDDG),which makes use of both dynamic and static information to get execution status. The approach overcomes the limitations of previous dynamic slicing methods, which have to redo slicing if slice criterion changes.

  20. Microwave ablation at 10.0 GHz achieves comparable ablation zones to 1.9 GHz in ex vivo bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyen, Hung; Gao, Fuqiang; Hagness, Susan C; Behdad, Nader

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using high-frequency microwaves for tissue ablation by comparing the performance of a 10 GHz microwave ablation system with that of a 1.9 GHz system. Two sets of floating sleeve dipole antennas operating at these frequencies were designed and fabricated for use in ex vivo experiments with bovine livers. Combined electromagnetic and transient thermal simulations were conducted to analyze the performance of these antennas. Subsequently, a total of 16 ablation experiments (eight at 1.9 GHz and eight at 10.0 GHz) were conducted at a power level of 42 W for either 5 or 10 min. In all cases, the 1.9 and 10 GHz experiments resulted in comparable ablation zone dimensions. Temperature monitoring probes revealed faster heating rates in the immediate vicinity of the 10.0 GHz antenna compared to the 1.9 GHz antenna, along with a slightly delayed onset of heating farther from the 10 GHz antenna, suggesting that heat conduction plays a greater role at higher microwave frequencies in achieving a comparably sized ablation zone. The results obtained from these experiments agree very well with the combined electromagnetic/thermal simulation results. These simulations and experiments show that using lower frequency microwaves does not offer any significant advantages, in terms of the achievable ablation zones, over using higher frequency microwaves. Indeed, it is demonstrated that high-frequency microwave antennas may be used to create reasonably large ablation zones. Higher frequencies offer the advantage of smaller antenna size, which is expected to lead to less invasive interstitial devices and may possibly lead to the development of more compact multielement arrays with heating properties not available from single-element antennas.

  1. Profile analysis of hepatic porcine and murine brain tissue slices obtained with a vibratome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G; Cristiani, I; Magliaro, C; Ahluwalia, A

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing soft tissue slices using a vibratome. In particular, the effect of two sectioning parameters (i.e., step size and sectioning speed) on resultant slice thickness was investigated for fresh porcine liver as well as for paraformaldehyde-fixed (PFA-fixed) and fresh murine brain. A simple framework for embedding, sectioning and imaging the slices was established to derive their thickness, which was evaluated through a purposely developed graphical user interface. Sectioning speed and step size had little effect on the thickness of fresh liver slices. Conversely, the thickness of PFA-fixed murine brain slices was found to be dependent on the step size, but not on the sectioning speed. In view of these results, fresh brain tissue was sliced varying the step size only, which was found to have a significant effect on resultant slice thickness. Although precision-cut slices (i.e., with regular thickness) were obtained for all the tissues, slice accuracy (defined as the match between the nominal step size chosen and the actual slice thickness obtained) was found to increase with tissue stiffness from fresh liver to PFA-fixed brain. This quantitative investigation can be very helpful for establishing the most suitable slicing setup for a given tissue.

  2. MSCT血管成像对肝移植受体术前血管结构的评价%The evalution of the vascular structure of preoperative liver transplantation recipients using 64-slice spiral CT angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妙玲; 刘雯雁; 袁会军; 强永乾; 孙兴旺; 赵婷婷

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of 64-slice spiral CT angiography for vascular structures of preoperative liver transplantation recipients. Methods Tri-phase enhanced CT scan were performed in 32 cases, All cases were post-processing with maximum intensity projection(MIP) , volume rendering(VR) ,and all reformation images with axial images were analyzed. Results In all 32 cases, 1 case with absence of celiac artery, 3 cases with stenosis of celiac artery caused by plaque, 12 cases with dilated splenic artery, 2 cases with splenic artery aneurysm, 7 cases with variation of hepatic artery. 3 cases with extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis, 2 cases with intrahepatic portal vein thrombosis, 1 case with thrombosis in superior mesenteric vein, 1 case with muti-ple thrombosis in portal vein and superior mesenteric vein. In all 32 cases, 25 cases with good images of hepatic vein, 14 cases with standard hepatic vein, 11 cases with common drainage of the middle and the left hepatic vein into the inferior vena cava, and 1 case with inferior hepatic vein respectively,? Cases with poor images. In all 32 cases,30 cases with normal inferior vena cava, 1 case with embolism in inferior vena cava and 1 case with embolism near the right atrium. In all 32 cases, 24 cases received liver transplantation successfully, the other 8 cases had the contraindications of liver transplantation and gave up operation,of 8 cases, 3 cases with total diameter of cancer nodules were more than 8 cm,l case with mutiple thrombosis, 4 cases with extrohepatic metastasis(including 1 case with total diameter of cancer nodules were more than 8 cm) , 1 case with Michels MD had narrowing hepatic artery and the diameter was less than 3 mm separately. Conclusion 64-slice spiral CT tri-phase angiography could overall evaluate structural changes of the hepatic vessels and choose the cases suitable for surgery,it has an important value for surgery program.%目的 探讨64排螺旋CT血管成像对肝

  3. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  4. Silhouette-Slice Theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-20

    with standard expressions of spherical trigonometry is sinr)0 = cos0 sini//0 (4.37) which is consistent with the results obtained previously with...theorems for discrete transforms. However, sampling questions inlroduce difficult obstacles in the develop- ment of a discrete theory. First, sampling...additional obstacle to discrete represen- tations of the CT. An example of qualitative predication of the shape of silhouettes with the Silhouette-Slice

  5. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  6. Evaluation of fibrosis in precision-cut tissue slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, I. M.; Pham, B. T.; Groothuis, G. M. M.; Olinga, P.

    2013-01-01

    1. In this review, the use of precision-cut tissue slices (PCTS) of the liver, kidney, lung and intestine in fibrosis research are evaluated and future possibilities are discussed. 2. In vivo models or techniques that are applicabless to be investigated in PCTS are discussed. 3. It is concluded that

  7. The Analysis of Blood Flow Dynamics About 64-slice Spiral CT Perfusion Imaging for Primary Liver Cancer%原发性肝癌患者64层螺旋CT灌注成像血流动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨原发性肝癌患者64层螺旋CT灌注成像血流动力学的表现。方法收集2012年8月~2013年7月来我院就诊的确诊为原发性肝癌的患者46例并将其作为观察组,选取2012年8月~2013年7月来我院进行健康体检的健康对象46例并将其作为对照组,血液流动力学表现采用64层螺旋CT灌注成像观察,检测并比较两组患者肝动脉灌注量、肝门静脉灌注量、总肝灌注量、肝动脉灌注指数。结果观察组肝动脉灌注量、肝动脉灌注指数高于对照组,肝门静脉灌注量、总肝灌注量低于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论原发性肝癌患者采用64层螺旋CT灌注成像诊断血液流动力学表现较为显著,具有较高的诊断价值。%Objective To Einvestigate the blood flow dynamics about 64-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging for primary liver cancer. Methods 46 patients with primary liver cancer diagnosed in our hospital were collected from August 2012 to July 2013 and taken as the observation group, 46 cases of health object for physical examination in our hospital were selected at the same time as the control group, observed the blood lfow dynamics performance used by 64-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging, the two groups were measured and compared about hepatic arterial perfusion, hepatic portal vein perfusion, total liver perfusion, hepatic perfusion index. Results Hepatic arterial perfusion, hepatic perfusion index of observation group were higher, the hepatic portal vein perfusion, total hepatic perfusion were lower than the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions Primary liver cancer patients use 64-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of blood lfow dynamics performance is more signiifcant, with high diagnostic value.

  8. Experimental Study of Histotripsy in Ex Vivo Bovine Liver Tissue Exposed to Pulsed High Intensity Focused Ultrasound%脉冲高强度聚焦超声辐照离体组织所致组织摧毁术的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾慧坚; 钟明松; 李发琪; 王彬; 李雅芬; 王琦; 王智彪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the feasibility and mechanism of histotripsy in ex vivo bovine liver tissues exposed to pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU). Methods The bovine liver tissues were exposed to pHI-FU with 500 W acoustic power, 4 Hz pulse recurrence frequency (PRF), 1%-4% duty cycles for 60, 30, 20 and 15 s, irradiation depth was 20 mm. During these exposures, the temperatures in the focal region of pHIFU were measured by a thermocouple, and cavitation signals were detected with a passive cavitation detection (PCD) system. After the irradiations, the livers were sliced to obverse the damages. The specimens were hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained. Results The visible damages in livers exposed to pHIFU with 1% - 3% duty cycles were holes. After HE staining, floe structure could be seen at the borders of erosions (holes) , the cells' structures were destroyed, the cytoplasms were homogeneous and the nucleuses were disappeared. Coagulation necrosis could be seen in the liver after 4% duty cycle pHIFU exposure. During the irradiations of pHIFU with duty cycles of 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%, the peak temperatures in the focal region were (41. 19±1. 42) ℃, (45.73 ± 1.92) ℃ , (53.07 ± 2.09) ℃ and (64. 13 ± 2. 56) ℃ respectively. Broadband noise could be seen in the frequency spectrums of cavitation signals. Conclusions Histotripsy can be induced in ex vivo bovine liver tissue exposed to pHIFU with high acoustic power and small duty cycles, cavitation involves.%目的 研究高声功率,低占空比的脉冲高强度聚焦超声(pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound,pHIFU)辐照离体牛肝组织所致组织摧毁术的可行性及机制.方法 使用500 W声功率、4 Hz脉冲重复频率、1%~4%占空比的pHIFU以20 mm深度辐照离体牛肝组织60、30、20 s和15 s.辐照中,使用热电偶和被动空化检测(passive cavitation detection,PCD)系统分别对焦域处的温度和空化信号进行检测.辐照结束后,切开牛肝,观察

  9. RESULTS OF SLICE MEASUREMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph, J

    2011-01-01

    The linear accelerator ELBE delivers high-brightness electron bunches to multiple user stations, including two IR-FEL oscillators [1], [2]. In the framework of an upgrade program the current thermionic injector is being replaced by a SRF-photoinjector [3], [4]. The SRF injector promises higher beam quality, especially required for future experiments with high power laser radiation. During the commissioning phase, the SRF-injector was running in parallel to the thermionic gun. After installation of a injection beamline (dogleg), beam from the SRF-injector can now be injected into the ELBE linac. Detailed characterization of the electron beam quality delivered by the new electron injector includes vertical slice emittance measurements in addition to measurements of projected emittance values. This report gives an overview of the status of the project and summarizes first measurement results as well as results of simulations performed with measurement settings.

  10. 牛肝辅酶Ⅱ依赖性视黄醇脱氢酶cDNA的克隆及组织表达%cDNA Cloning and Tissue Distribution of Bovine Liver NADP(H)-dependent Retinol Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂玲; 黄东阳; 刘戈飞; 杜晶

    2003-01-01

    NADP(H)-dependent retinol dehydrogenase/reductase (NRDR) was an important retinoic acid synthase, which was first purified from rabbit liver in 1997. In order to study the function of the NRDR gene,the full-length cDNA of bovine NRDR was cloned. According to the conserved sequences of human, mouse and rabbit NRDR cDNA, a pair of primers was designed to amplify a 294 bp DNA fragment of bovine liver NRDR, and then the full-length of NRDR cDNA (AF487454) was cloned by using 3′-RACE and 5′-RACE. All the cloned NRDR proteins consist of 260 amino acid residues and showed high identity among them. The tri-peptide of human, mouse and rabbit NRDR C-end was -SRL and that of bovine NRDR C-end was -SHL, but both were considered to be peroxisomal target signal 1 (PTS1). RT-PCR demonstrated that NRDR gene was expressed in liver, heart, lung, kidney, stomach and intestine, and was not found in pancreas, muscle, artery and skin. The full-length bovine NRDR cDNA has been successfully cloned and the sequence was analyzed. It provided a reliable foundation to investigate the biological function of this protein.

  11. A novel formal approach to program slicing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Program slicing is a well-known program analysis technique that extracts the elements of a program related to a particular computation. The current slicing methods, however, are singular (mainly based on a program or system dependence graph), and lack good reusability and flexibility. In this paper, we present a novel formal method for program slicing, modular monadic program slicing, which abstracts the computation of program slicing as a slice monad transformer, and applies it to semantic descriptions of the program analyzed in a modular way, forming the corresponding monadic slicing algorithms. The modular abstraction mechanism allows our slicing method to possess excellent modularity and language-flexibility properties. We also give the related axioms of our slice monad transformer, the proof of the correctness and the implementation of monadic slicing algorithms. We reveal the relations of our algorithms and graph-reachable slicing algorithms.

  12. A Model for Slicing JAVA Programs Hierarchically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi-Xin Li; Xiao-Cong Fan; Jun Pang; Jian-Jun Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Program slicing can be effectively used to debug, test, analyze, understand and maintain objectoriented software. In this paper, a new slicing model is proposed to slice Java programs based on their inherent hierarchical feature. The main idea of hierarchical slicing is to slice programs in a stepwise way, from package level, to class level, method level, and finally up to statement level. The stepwise slicing algorithm and the related graph reachability algorithms are presented, the architecture of the Java program Analyzing Tool (JATO) based on hierarchical slicing model is provided, the applications and a small case study are also discussed.

  13. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  14. Distributed Slicing in Dynamic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Antonio; Jimenez, Ernesto; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Raynal, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Peer to peer (P2P) systems are moving from application specific architectures to a generic service oriented design philosophy. This raises interesting problems in connection with providing useful P2P middleware services capable of dealing with resource assignment and management in a large-scale, heterogeneous and unreliable environment. The slicing service, has been proposed to allow for an automatic partitioning of P2P networks into groups (slices) that represent a controllable amount of some resource and that are also relatively homogeneous with respect to that resource. In this paper we propose two gossip-based algorithms to solve the distributed slicing problem. The first algorithm speeds up an existing algorithm sorting a set of uniform random numbers. The second algorithm statistically approximates the rank of nodes in the ordering. The scalability, efficiency and resilience to dynamics of both algorithms rely on their gossip-based models. These algorithms are proved viable theoretically and experimenta...

  15. [Determination of five avermectins in bovine liver by on-line solid-phase extraction with hydrophobic monolithic column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yaoqin; Ai, Lianfeng; Wang, Xuesheng; Wang, Manman; Xu, Houjun; Hao, Yulan

    2015-06-01

    A method based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) with hydrophobic monolithic column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of five avermectins in bovine liver. A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was used as the sorbent. The parameters influenced on on-line SPE and separation process such as the loading mobile phase, the eluting flow rate and the solvent for the separation were investigated in detail. Blank samples, spiked samples, matrix effect and recovery experiments were investigated to evaluate the extraction efficiency and potential interfering compounds originating from the matrix. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed a linear range of 1-100 µg/L and the quantification limit of 5 µg/kg for each analyte. The presented method gave recoveries of 77.4%-98.4%. The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were 4.46%-8.03% and 4.79%-8.68%, respectively. Moreover, no significant changes were found in the extraction performance after more than 400 usages on one monolithic column, and even on the monoliths with various batches. The feasibility of the developed poly (butyl methacrylate-coethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column based on the on-line SPE method for the determination of avermectins was further demonstrated by the analysis of real samples.

  16. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of nine corticosteroid residues in bovine liver samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusi, Guglielmo, E-mail: guglielmo.dusi@izsler.it [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell' Emilia Romagna, ' B. Ubertini' , Via Bianchi 9, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Gasparini, Mara; Curatolo, Michele; Assini, Walter; Bozzoni, Eros; Tognoli, Nadia; Ferretti, Enrica [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell' Emilia Romagna, ' B. Ubertini' , Via Bianchi 9, 25124 Brescia (Italy)

    2011-08-26

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) confirmatory method for the simultaneous determination of nine corticosteroids in liver, including the four MRL compounds listed in Council Regulation 37/2010, was developed. After an enzymatic deconjugation and a solvent extraction of the liver tissue, the resulting solution was cleaned up through an SPE Oasis HLB cartridge. The analytes were then detected by liquid chromatography-negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, using deuterium-labelled internal standards. The procedure was validated as a quantitative confirmatory method according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. The results showed that the method was suitable for statutory residue testing regarding the following performance characteristics: instrumental linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility), recovery, decision limit (CC{alpha}), detection capability (CC{beta}) and ruggedness. All the corticosteroids can be detected at a concentration around 1 {mu}g kg{sup -1}; the recoveries were above 62% for all the analytes. Repeatability and reproducibility (within-laboratory reproducibility) for all the analytes were below 7.65% and 15.5%, respectively.

  17. Correlation study of multi-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging in liver cirrhosis and portal morphology%肝硬化多层螺旋CT灌注成像及与门静脉形态学的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖平; 娄明武; 谭理连; 李扬彬; 李泳; 高立; 林焕兴

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss correlation of hemodynamic changes and portal vein diameter with multi-slice spiral CT peffusion imaging in liver cirrhosis. Method 31 cases liver cirrhosis were enrolled in this study. The first porta hepatis were selected for target lay of CT perfusion scan. Liver perfusion parameters were obtained by color perfusion map method. Right to left diameter and occipitofrontal diame-ter of portal vein were measured. 30 cases of normal persons were used as control group. Result Hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP) in liver 0.05). Hepatic perfusion index (HPI) were (19.13±3.33)% and (20.61±8.56)%, which had no statistically significant difference with the other two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Multi-spiral CT perfnsion imaging is an effectively noninvasive method to evaluate the hemodynamic changes of liver cirrhosis. Occipitofrontal diameter of portal vein with liver cirrhosis can reflect the state of liver hemodynamics.%目的 利用多层CT灌注成像探讨肝硬化血流灌注变化及与门静脉径线的相关性.方法 肝硬化31例,选取第一肝门层面作为CT灌注扫描靶层面,采用彩色灌注图法获得各肝脏灌注参数并对门静脉径线进行均值测量;30例正常人作对照组.结果 正常组与肝硬化组肝脏灌注参数分别为:肝动脉灌注量(HAP)(24.80±5.84)、(19.49±7.30)ml/(min·100ml),门静脉灌注量(PVP)(104.91±21.70)、(79.17±23.05)ml/(min·100ml),总肝灌注量(TLP)(129.90±25.19)、(98.67±22.74)ml/(min·100ml),2组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05).肝硬化患者的TLP与门静脉前后径呈负相关(r=-0.46,P<0.05).结论 多层螺旋CT灌注成像是评价肝硬化血流灌注变化的一种有效的非创伤性的检查方法.肝硬化时门静脉前后径的变化反映其肝脏血流灌注状况.

  18. Three dimensional reconstruction of the liver and the abdominal blood vessels based on the 64-slice spiral CT data%64排螺旋CT扫描数据的肝脏及腹腔血管三维重建的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新勇; 方驰华; 焦培峰; 全显跃; 唐海亮; 鲍苏苏; 钟世镇

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨利用64排螺旋CT扫描数据进行肝脏及其内部管道和腹腔血管的计算机辅助三维重建的准确性及临床意义.方法 利用64排螺旋CT薄层扫描正常人肝脏二维图像数据集,采用自主研发的医学图像处理系统对二维图像数据进行肝脏及其肝内管道、腹腔血管系统三维可视化重建,并对重建肝脏模型的体积与肝脏实际体积以及重建门静脉与64排螺旋CT后处理工作站采用容积再现法重建的门静脉进行对比研究.结果 肝动脉、门静脉和肝静脉系统三维效果逼真,立体感强,可任意角度旋转、观察;能够显示肝内各主要管道系统的空间位置关系,并准确地反映肝脏实际体积及肝内管道系统的真实情况.通过调节肝脏的透明度可同时显示肝脏和肝内动静脉、门静脉分支和腹腔动脉系统.计算机重建后的门静脉与螺旋CT后处理工作站容积再现法重建的门静脉完全一致.结论 计算机辅助的三维肝脏及其管道和腹腔血管系统能准确反映人体的真实结构,为肝脏的虚拟手术设计提供了可靠和真实的虚拟器官和血管系统.%Objective To explore the accuracy and practical significance of the 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the liver and the abdominal blood vessels based on the data of 64-slice spiral computerized tomography (64S-SCT). Methods The 2D images of the liver and the abdominal blood vessels were collected after TLC-scanning with 64S-SCT. The 3D images of the liver, hepatic internal duct system and the abdominal blood vessels were reconstructed by the medical image processing system. The volume of the 3D reconstructed liver was compared with that of the actual liver measured by the 64S-SCT, and the portal vein of the reconstructed liver model was compared with that reconstructed by the Mxview workstation based on the 64S-SCT data. Results The 3D models of the liver, hepatic internal duct system and abdominal blood

  19. 64-slice spiral CTA in evaluation on the changes of hepatic vessels and the portosystemic collateral circulation in liver cirrhosis%64排螺旋CT血管造影评价肝硬化血管改变及侧支循环

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妙玲; 赵婷婷; 袁会军; 孙兴旺; 强永乾

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of hepatic vessels and the portosystemic collateral circulation in patients with liver cirrhosis with 64-slices spiral CTA. Methods Tri-phase enhanced CT scan of whole hepatic region were performed in 168 patients with liver cirrhosis (liver cirrhosis group) and 120 patients without liver cirrhosis (control group). All images were post processed with MIP and VR, and were compared between the two groups. Results The difference between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0. 01) in showing hepatic artery, portal vein and hepatic vein of different grades, except in showing 1 st grade of portal vein and hepatic vein (P=0. 51, 0. 08). In liver cirrhosis group, dilated trunk of hepatic artery and portal vein were observed in 85 patients, narrowing and tortuosity of vessels were observed in 98 patients, carcinoma thrombus formation and spongy degeneration in portal vein were detected in 9 and 8 patients, respectively, while continuous enhancement of hepatic artery and portal vein were noticed in 55 and 57 patients, respectively. In the control group, dilated trunk of hepatic artery and portal vein were observed in 3 patients, narrowing and tortuosity of vessels were observed in 2 patients, continuous enhancement of hepatic artery and portal vein were noticed in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Totally 258 portosystemic collateral circulations were found in liver cirrhosis group, including 196 esophagogastric varices (196/258, 75. 97%), whereas only 2 retroperitoneal shunts were found in control group. Conclusion 64- slices spiral CT tri-phase angiography is a safe, convenient and reliable method to display the changes of hepatic vessels and the form of portosystemic collateral circulation, especially esophagogastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis.%目的 探讨MSCTA评价肝硬化肝脏血管的异常改变及侧支循环形成的价值.方法 对168例肝硬化患者(肝硬化组)及120例无肝硬化的患者(

  20. Slice stretching effects for maximal slicing of a Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, B.

    2005-01-01

    Slice stretching effects such as slice sucking and slice wrapping arise when foliating the extended Schwarzschild spacetime with maximal slices. For arbitrary spatial coordinates these effects are quantified here in the context of boundary conditions where the lapse arises as a linear combination of odd and even lapse. Favourable boundary conditions are then derived which make the overall slice stretching occur late in numerical simulations. Allowing the lapse to become negative, this require...

  1. Viscous fingering of miscible slices

    CERN Document Server

    De Wit, A; Martin, M; Wit, Anne De; Bertho, Yann; Martin, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Viscous fingering of a miscible high viscosity slice of fluid displaced by a lower viscosity fluid is studied in porous media by direct numerical simulations of Darcy's law coupled to the evolution equation for the concentration of a solute controlling the viscosity of miscible solutions. In contrast with fingering between two semi-infinite regions, fingering of finite slices is a transient phenomenon due to the decrease in time of the viscosity ratio across the interface induced by fingering and dispersion processes. We show that fingering contributes transiently to the broadening of the peak in time by increasing its variance. A quantitative analysis of the asymptotic contribution of fingering to this variance is conducted as a function of the four relevant parameters of the problem i.e. the log-mobility ratio R, the length of the slice l, the Peclet number Pe and the ratio between transverse and axial dispersion coefficients $\\epsilon$. Relevance of the results is discussed in relation with transport of vi...

  2. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Comments on the proposed rule were required to......

  3. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  4. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  5. Segmentation of liver and liver tumor for the Liver-Workbench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiayin; Ding, Feng; Xiong, Wei; Huang, Weimin; Tian, Qi; Wang, Zhimin; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K.; Leow, Wee Kheng

    2011-03-01

    Robust and efficient segmentation tools are important for the quantification of 3D liver and liver tumor volumes which can greatly help clinicians in clinical decision-making and treatment planning. A two-module image analysis procedure which integrates two novel semi-automatic algorithms has been developed to segment 3D liver and liver tumors from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images. The first module is to segment the liver volume using a flippingfree mesh deformation model. In each iteration, before mesh deformation, the algorithm detects and avoids possible flippings which will cause the self-intersection of the mesh and then the undesired segmentation results. After flipping avoidance, Laplacian mesh deformation is performed with various constraints in geometry and shape smoothness. In the second module, the segmented liver volume is used as the ROI and liver tumors are segmented by using support vector machines (SVMs)-based voxel classification and propagational learning. First a SVM classifier was trained to extract tumor region from one single 2D slice in the intermediate part of a tumor by voxel classification. Then the extracted tumor contour, after some morphological operations, was projected to its neighboring slices for automated sampling, learning and further voxel classification in neighboring slices. This propagation procedure continued till all tumorcontaining slices were processed. The performance of the whole procedure was tested using 20 MDCT data sets and the results were promising: Nineteen liver volumes were successfully segmented out, with the mean relative absolute volume difference (RAVD), volume overlap error (VOE) and average symmetric surface distance (ASSD) to reference segmentation of 7.1%, 12.3% and 2.5 mm, respectively. For live tumors segmentation, the median RAVD, VOE and ASSD were 7.3%, 18.4%, 1.7 mm, respectively.

  6. The value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography portography in assessing severity of liver cirrhosis and predicting episode risks of hepatic encephalopathy%多层螺旋CT门静脉造影评估肝硬化病变程度及预测肝性脑病发病风险的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文娜; 王剑; 冯义朝; 戴光荣; 宁涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography portography (MSCTP) in assessing severity of liver cirrhosis and predicting episode risks of hepatic encephalopathy (HE).Methods Eighty-six patients with liver cirrhosis who were hospitalized in the Department of Gastroenterology at the Affiliated Hospital of Yan'an University were included in the study.All patients underwent 64-slice MSCTP to grade the portal vein anatomy.The West Haven criteria were used for semi-quantitative assessment of each patient's mental state.The Child-Pugh grading system was used to assess the extent of cirrhosis.Comparison of measurement data between multiple groups was made by one-way ANOVA analysis,and comparison of such between two groups was made by the Mann-Whitney U test,Ranked data were compared with the rank-sum test,and count data were compared by the Chi-Square test.Correlation analysis was performed with Spearman's correlation test.Results Comparison of the HE grade Ⅲ group and the HE grade Ⅰ group showed significant differences between the two in the diameters of left gastric vein,the splenic vein,the intrahepatic left portal vein and the intrahepatic right portal vein (P < 0.05).Comparison of the Child-Pugh grade C group and the Child-Pugh grade A group showed significant differences between the two in diameters of the left gastric vein,the splenic vein,the intrahepatic left portal vein and the intrahepatic right portal vein (P < 0.05).The diameters of the main portal vein were not significantly different between the ChildPugh grades and HE classifications (P > 0.05).The results of MSCTP did show significant differences between different HE classifications in patients with liver cirrhosis and the rate of formation of portal vein thrombosis and fistulas of the hepatic artery-portal vein (P < 0.05),.but no significant differences with the esophageal and gastric varices,varicose veins around the esophagus,and periumbilical varicose

  7. PROGRAM SLICING BASED ON INTERESTING INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fangjun; Yi Tong

    2004-01-01

    With the scale of programs becoming increasingly bigger, and the complexity degree higher, how to select program fragments for slicing has become an important research topic. A new type of criterion called interesting index is proposed for selecting parts of procedures or procedure fragments to do program slicing. This new criterion considers not only the subjective aspects in users, namely users' emphasis on the time efficiency, storage capacity or readability,but also the objective aspect in large procedures. It also represents the benefit of the users, while displaying the many-faceted roles that program slicing plays. In this way users can proceed with program slicing to large systems or unfinished systems.

  8. 3D liver models in tissue engineering and toxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starokozhko, Viktoriia

    2016-01-01

    In her thesis, Viktoriia Starokozhko developed new and improved existing liver models for the use in tissue engineering and toxicology. One of the models she described and used are liver slices (PCLS), a mini-organ model for the liver. PCLS are used already for many years in various fields of pharma

  9. Antigenotoxic effect of Xanthohumol in rat liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plazar, Janja; Filipic, Metka; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant, Humulus lupulus L., is suggested to have cancer chemo-preventive activities. Its mechanisms of protection have been proposed to be inhibition of metabolic activation, induction of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant activity. Our

  10. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Ding

    Full Text Available Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique.

  11. The clinical application of 320-slice computed tomography(CT)hepatic artery images in patients with liver transplantation%320排CT检查技术对肝移植术后肝动脉并发症的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王劲; 杨扬; 陈规划; 邝思驰; 罗琳; 张建生; 谢斯栋; 刘凌云; 姜在波; 张亚琴; 胡冰; 单鸿

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of 320-slice CT hepatic artery images in patients with liver transplantation.Methods A total of 58 patients underwent CT scanning by 320-slice scanner after liver transplantation.They were divided into 2 groups according to the concentration of contrast media as follows:Group A(27 cases,350 mgI/ml iopromide),Group B(31 cases,370 mgI/ml iopromide).Contrast medium was infused at 6 ml/s,with a total dose of 50 ml.Images were generated by dynamic volume scanning and were processed by 4D digital subtraction angiography(DSA)imaging software.The timedensity curve(TDC)of the hepatic artery was delineated.The time to peak,peal(contrast enhancement were recorded.The physiological parameters such as body weight and height were annlyzed.Results(1)There were no differences in clinical parameters such as age,sex,height,weight,or BMI between groups.The time to peak of hepatic artery of group A and B was(19.71±3.11)Sand(20.06±3.67)s,and had no significant difference.The maximum peak enhancement of hepatic artery in groups B was higher than that group A(P<0.05).(2)4D DSA revealed hepatic artery pseudo-aneurysm(n=2),and hepatic artery mild stenosis(n=13),moderate stenosis(n=5),severe stenosis(n=9)and occlusion(n=1),segmental moderate and severe stenosis(n=4),and compensatory circulation with hepatic artery severe stenosis and occlusion(n=6).hepatoportal artefiovenous fistulas(HPAVF,n=12),donor-recipient hepmic artery mismatch(n=3).Hepatic arterial branch are decreased and opened in 15 cases and 8 cases.Conclusion 320-slice CT hepatic artery images is safe,noninvasive,and accurate technique to evaluate hepatic arterial complications after liver transplantation.%目的 探讨320排CT中采用高浓度低剂量对比剂对移植肝动脉并发症的临床诊断价值.方法 58例肝移植术后患者,分A、B两组,对比剂分别为碘350g/L(27例)和370g/L(31例);均采用320排CT扫描机,对比剂流速均为6 ml/s,总剂量50 ml

  12. Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

  13. Kit comercial de ELISA® para a detecção de coproantígenos e exame coproparasitológico em bovinos com fígados condenados por fasciolose Commercial ELISA® kit for detection of coproantigen and coproparasitological method in bovine livers with fascioliasis convicted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia das Chagas Bernardo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente estudo comparar um kit comercial de ELISA para a detecção de coproantígenos e um exame coproparasitológico de sedimentação utilizando-se como padrão ouro o diagnóstico da inspeção de fígados bovinos ao abate. Além disso, avaliou-se a correlação entre a intensidade parasitária mensurada pela contagem de ovos nas fezes e a de parasitos ao abate. Foram coletadas as fezes e avaliados macroscopicamente os fígados de 81 bovinos, dos quais 45 tiveram os fígados condenados por fasciolose hepática ao abate, nos quais se realizou a contagem dos parasitos. Duas frações de cada amostra de fezes coletadas foram separadas e uma delas foi armazenada em congelador para posterior realização do ELISA e a outra processada segundo uma técnica de sedimentação fecal para diagnóstico de ovos de Fasciola hepatica. O coeficiente de correlação de Spearman e o qui-quadrado de McNemar foram utilizados, adotando-se o nível de significância de 5%. Em oito fígados bovinos condenados por apresentarem lesões características de fasciolose, não foram encontrados exemplares do parasito. O exame coproparasitológico e o ELISA para detecção de coproantígenos, respectivamente, apresentaram sensibilidade de 51,11% e 75,55%, especificidade de 100% e 91,66%, valor preditivivo positivo de 100% e 91,89%, valor preditivo negativo de 62% e 75% e kappa de 0,48 e 0,65. Os resultados obtidos pelo kit ELISA comercial não diferiram (P=0,06 dos obtidos ao abate, mas o exame coproparasitológico diferiu (PThe aim of this study was to compare a commercial ELISA kit for detection on coproantigen examination and fecal sedimentation using as gold standard inspection diagnosis of bovine livers at slaughter. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the measured intensity of infection by counting eggs in the feces and the parasites in bovine livers. Feces were collected and evaluated macroscopically of 81 cattle livers, 45 of

  14. Protein oxidation in processed cheese slices treated with pulsed light technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M; Ganan, M; Guerra, C; Hierro, E

    2014-09-15

    The effect of pulsed light technology on protein oxidation was studied in sliced processed cheese by measuring the protein-bound carbonyls with a spectrophotometric DNPH assay. Bovine serum albumin was also tested as a protein standard. Fluences of 0.7, 2.1, 4.2, 8.4 and 11.9 J/cm(2) were applied to vacuum-packaged cheese slices and to an aqueous solution of the protein. Treatments up to 4.2 J/cm(2) did not promote protein oxidation immediately after flashing either in cheese or in the standard. Samples treated with 8.4 and 11.9 J/cm(2) showed significantly higher carbonyl amounts than non-treated ones. Protein oxidation increased along cheese storage at 4°C, and differences among treatments remained. Further studies on the sensory properties will be needed to clarify the impact of pulsed light on processed cheese quality.

  15. Precision-cut organ slices as a tool to study toxicity and metabolism of xenobiotics with special reference to non-hepatic tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kanter, R; Monshouwer, M; Meijer, DKF; Groothuis, GMM

    2002-01-01

    Metabolism of xenobiotics is often seen as an exclusive function of the liver, but some current findings support the notion that the lungs, kidneys and intestine may contribute considerably. After the establishment of the use of liver slices as a useful in vitro model to study metabolism and toxicit

  16. How Slice Stretching arises when Maximally Slicing the Schwarzschild Spacetime with Vanishing Shift

    CERN Document Server

    Reimann, B

    2004-01-01

    When foliating the extended Schwarzschild spacetime with maximal slices while using zero shift, slice stretching effects such as slice sucking and slice wrapping arise. These effects are due to the differential infall of Eulerian observers and can be quantified for arbitrary spatial coordinates in the context of even boundary conditions. As examples logarithmic and isotropic grid coordinates are discussed. For boundary conditions where the lapse arises as a linear combination of odd and even lapse, two integrals are introduced which characterize the overall slice stretching. Favorable boundary conditions are then derived which make slice stretching occur late in numerical simulations. Allowing the lapse to become negative, this requirement leads to lapse functions which approach at late times the odd lapse corresponding to the static Schwarzschild metric. Demanding in addition that a numerically favorable lapse remains non-negative, as result the average of odd and even lapse is obtained. At late times the la...

  17. The ATLAS Trigger Muon "Vertical Slice"

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; Biglietti, M; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Conventi, F; Del Prete, T; Di Mattia, A; Falciano, S; Gorini, S; Kanaya, N; Kohno, T; Krasznahorkay, A; Lagouri, T; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Marzano, F; Nagano, K; Nisati, A; Panikashvili, N; Pasqualucci, E; Primavera, M; Scannicchio, D A; Spagnolo, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Tokushuku, K; Usai, G; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Yamazaki, Y; 10th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors : Frontier Detectors For Frontier Physics

    2007-01-01

    The muon trigger system is a fundamental component of the ATLAS detector at the LHC collider. In this paper we describe the ATLAS multi-level trigger selecting events with muons: the Muon Trigger Slice.

  18. Image reconstruction for brain CT slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建明; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    Different modalities in biomedical images, like CT, MRI and PET scanners, provide detailed cross-sectional views of human anatomy. This paper introduces three-dimensional brain reconstruction based on CT slices. It contains filtering, fuzzy segmentation, matching method of contours, cell array structure and image animation. Experimental results have shown its validity. The innovation is matching method of contours and fuzzy segmentation algorithm of CT slices.

  19. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  20. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  1. Organotypic slice culture of embryonic brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Ray A M; Englund, Chris; Hevner, Robert F

    2007-12-01

    INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes how to dissect, assemble, and cultivate mouse embryonic (E) brain tissue from age E11.5 to E18.5 (days) for organotypic slice culture. These preparations can be used for a variety of assays and studies including coculture of different brain regions, cell migration assays, axon guidance assays, and DNA electroporation experiments. During electroporation, an electric current is applied to the surface of a specific target area of the brain slice in order to open holes in the plasma membrane and introduce a plasmid of coding DNA. The floating slice-on-membrane construct helps to preserve the structural integrity of the brain slices, while maintaining easy experimental access and optimal viability. Experiments can be monitored in living slices (e.g., with confocal imaging), and further studies can be completed using slices that have been fixed and cryosectioned at the end of the experiment. Any region of embryonic brain or spinal tissue can be used in this protocol.

  2. Slicing Strategy for Selective Laser Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xin; LIU Ji-quan; FAN Shu-qian

    2014-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is one of the most popular additive manufacturing (AM) technologies for metal parts. Slicing result, especially for the different dimensional slicing geometry and its topology, plays an important role because of the thermodynamic behavior of metal powders. To get correct geometry and reliable topology, a slicing strategy for SLM is proposed. The unavoidable numerical error caused by sampling and geometric transformation is suppressed firstly, according to shifting the z-coordinate of a vertex with a small value such the shifted vertex is on a slicing plane. The result of vertex-shifting makes it possible to identify different geometric features such as skin surfaces, overhang surfaces, extreme edges and volumetric solid. Second, from geometric primitives a hierarchy of axis-aligned bounding boxes (AABBs) is constructed and used to speed up intersection of slicing planes against sets of triangles. All intersecting segments are given different signs to depict their geometric or topological information. Based the different signs, the different dimensional geometry that is eventually represented by simple and anticlockwise oriented polygons, are identified. Finally, the polygons are classified and nested in a multi-tree data structure set to produce correct topological relations. The result of digital and physical experiments shows the proposed slicing strategy is feasible and robust.

  3. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worley Kim C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries.

  4. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby Boomers Get Tested Core Programs HE Webinar Disney 2014 5 Ways to Love Your Liver Liver ... Drive Away Liver Disease Liver Lowdown Aug 2013 Disney Marathon In The Field Healthy Foods Diet Recommendations ...

  5. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  6. Reliability and validity of nonverbal thin slices in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nora A; Hall, Judith A; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Ruben, Mollie A; Frauendorfer, Denise; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Roter, Debra L; Nguyen, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Four studies investigated the reliability and validity of thin slices of nonverbal behavior from social interactions including (a) how well individual slices of a given behavior predict other slices in the same interaction; (b) how well a slice of a given behavior represents the entirety of that behavior within an interaction; (c) how long a slice is necessary to sufficiently represent the entirety of a behavior within an interaction; (d) which slices best capture the entirety of behavior, across different behaviors; and (e) which behaviors (of six measured behaviors) are best captured by slices. Notable findings included strong reliability and validity for thin slices of gaze and nods, and that a 1.5-min slice from the start of an interaction may adequately represent some behaviors. Results provide useful information to researchers making decisions about slice measurement of behavior.

  7. Thin layer drying of tomato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Nath, Amit; Deka, Bidyut Chandra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-08-01

    The hot air convective drying characteristics of blanched tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) slices have been investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at four different temperatures (50, 60, 65 and 70 °C). The effect of drying temperatures on the drying behavior of the tomato slices was evaluated. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective diffusivity values varied from 0.5453 × 10(-9) to 2.3871 × 10(-9) m(2)/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 61.004 kJ/mol. In order to select a suitable form of the drying curve, six different thin layer drying models (Henderson-Pabis, Page, Diamante et al., Wang and Singh, Logarithmic and Newton models) were fitted to the experimental data. The goodness of fit tests indicated that the Logarithmic model gave the best fit to experimental results, which was closely followed by the Henderson-Pabis model. The influence of varied drying temperatures on quality attributes of the tomato slices viz. Hunter color parameters, ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and sugar/acid ratio of dried slices was also studied. Slices dried at 50 and 60 °C had high amount of total sugars, lycopene, sugar/acid ratio, Hunter L- and a-values. Drying of slices at 50 °C revealed optimum retention of ascorbic acid, sugar/acid ratio and red hue, whereas, drying at higher temperature (65 and 70 °C) resulted in a considerable decrease in nutrients and colour quality of the slices.

  8. Effects of extracts from Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba mixture on testosterone production in vitro in adult rat testes slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul F. Moundipa; Silvère Ngouela; Pierre Kamtchouing; Etienne Tsamo; Félicité M. Tchouanguep; Serge Carreau

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To find an in vitro system for the measurement of the androgenic effects of different extracts of Hibiscus macranthus (Malvaceae) and Basella alba (Basellaceae). Methods: The production of testosterone from testes slices incubated in two media, either Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 0.5 % Bovine serum albumin (BSA) or Dubecco's Modified Eagle's medium-F12 Ham nutrient mixture (DME/Ham F12), under a mixture of 5 % CO2 in 95 % air was determined either in the presence or absence of cofactors and Hibiscus macranthus plus Basella alba (HMBA)extracts. Results: The testosterone production was increased in testes slices incubated in DME/Ham F12 medium in response to the cofactors (49 %) and aqueous extracts (34 %-60 % according to dilutions). Under the same atmospheric conditions, there was no positive response of the testes slices to either cofactor or HMBA extract stimulation in Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 0.5 % BSA. In further investigations related to the effect of HMBA, the DME/Ham F12 medium was used. The results obtained from the in vitro test showed that the activity was present mainly in methylene chloride and methanol, since these extracts induced an increase in testosterone production by testes slices. Conclusion: The testes slice system is suitable to be used for further in vitro investigations of the isolation of androgenic bioactive components of plants.

  9. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  10. Staining protocol for organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolla, Nadine; Galimberti, Ivan; DePaola, Vincenzo; Caroni, Pico

    2006-01-01

    This protocol details a method to immunostain organotypic slice cultures from mouse hippocampus. The cultures are based on the interface method, which does not require special equipment, is easy to execute and yields slice cultures that can be imaged repeatedly, from the time of isolation at postnatal day 6-9 up to 6 months in vitro. The preserved tissue architecture facilitates the analysis of defined hippocampal synapses, cells and entire projections. Time-lapse imaging is based on transgenes expressed in the mice or on constructs introduced through transfection or viral vectors; it can reveal processes that develop over periods ranging from seconds to months. Subsequent to imaging, the slices can be processed for immunocytochemistry to collect further information about the imaged structures. This protocol can be completed in 3 d.

  11. Dynamic Slicing of Object-Oriented Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Program slice has many applications such as program debugging,testing, maintena n ce, and complexity measurement. A static slice consists of all statements in pro gram P that may effect the value of variable v at some point p, and a dynamic s lice consists only of statements that influence the value of variable occurrence for specific program inputs. In this paper, we concern the problem of dynamic s licing of object-oriented programs which, to our knowledge, has not been addres s ed in the literatures. To solve this problem, we present the dynamic object-ori e nted dependence graph (DODG)which is an arc-classified digraph to explicitly re p resent various dynamic dependence between statement instances for a particular e xecution of an object-oriented program. Based on the DODG, we present a two-ph as e backward algorithm for computing a dynamic slice of an object-oriented program.

  12. Interactive Slice of the CMS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Davis, Siona Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This slice shows a colorful cross-section of the CMS detector with all parts of the detector labelled. Viewers are invited to click on buttons associated with five types of particles to see what happens when each type interacts with the sections of the detector. The five types of particles users can select to send through the slice are muons, electrons, neutral hadrons, charged hadrons and photons. Supplementary information on each type of particles is given. Useful for inclusion into general talks on CMS etc. *Animated CMS "slice" for Powerpoint (Mac & PC) Original version - 2004 Updated version - July 2010 *Six slides required - first is a set of buttons; others are for each particle type (muon, electron, charged/neutral hadron, photon) Recommend putting slide 1 anywhere in your presentation and the rest at the end

  13. Ultrashort pulse laser slicing of semiconductor crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunho; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Sakakura, Masaaki; Miura, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Meanwhile, by the convention wire-saw technique, it is difficult to slice off a thin wafer from bulk SiC crystal without the reserving space for cutting. In this study, we have achieved exfoliation of 4H-SiC single crystal by femtosecond laser induced slicing method. By using this, the exfoliated surface with the root-mean-square roughness of 3 μm and the cutting-loss thickness smaller than 30 μm was successfully demonstrated. We have also observed the nanostructure on the exfoliated surface in SiC crystal.

  14. Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur; Shen, H;

    1993-01-01

    Viral vectors derived from herpes simplex virus, type-1 (HSV), can transfer and express genes into fully differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. These vectors also transduce cells effectively in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Nanoliter quantities of a virus stock of HSVlac, an HSV vector...... or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions....

  15. Sautéed Fish Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: A fresh fish, cooking oil, scallion, ginger, egg white, salt, MSG, cooking wine, cornstarch. Directions: 1. Clean and scale the fish and take out the internal organs. 2. Fillet the fish. Slice the fish into thin pieces. Coat the fish

  16. Neuroprotection against diisopropylfluorophosphate in acute hippocampal slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchmin, P. A.; Pérez, Dinely; Cuadrado, Brenda L.; Carrasco, Marimée; Martins, Antonio H.; Eterović, Vesna A.

    2015-01-01

    Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and a surrogate of the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent sarin. The neurotoxicity of DFP was assessed as a reduction of population spike (PS) area elicited by synaptic stimulation in acute hippocampal slices. Two classical antidotes, atropine, and pralidoxime, and two novel antidotes, 4R-cembranotriene-diol (4R) and a caspase 9 inhibitor, were tested. Atropine, pralidoxime, and 4R significantly protected when applied 30 min after DFP. The caspase inhibitor was neuroprotective when applied 5–10 min before or after DFP, suggesting that early synaptic apoptosis is responsible for the loss of PSs. It is likely that apoptosis starts at the synapses and, if antidotes are not applied, descends to the cell bodies, causing death. The acute slice is a reliable tool for mechanistic studies, and the assessment of neurotoxicity and neuroprotection with PS areas is, in general, pharmacologically congruent with in vivo results and predicts the effect of drugs in vivo. 4R was first found to be neuroprotective in slices and later we demonstrated that 4R is neuroprotective in vivo. The mechanism of neurotoxicity of OPs is not well understood, and there is a need for novel antidotes that could be discovered using acute slices. PMID:26438150

  17. Detecting Psychopathy from Thin Slices of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that features of psychopathy can be reliably and validly detected by lay raters from "thin slices" (i.e., small samples) of behavior. Brief excerpts (5 s, 10 s, and 20 s) from interviews with 96 maximum-security inmates were presented in video or audio form or in both modalities combined. Forty raters used…

  18. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  19. Slice stretching effects for maximal slicing of a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Bernd

    2005-11-01

    Slice stretching effects such as slice sucking and slice wrapping arise when foliating the extended Schwarzschild spacetime with maximal slices. For arbitrary spatial coordinates these effects are quantified here in the context of boundary conditions where the lapse arises as a linear combination of odd and even lapse. Favourable boundary conditions are then derived which make the overall slice stretching occur late in numerical simulations. Allowing the lapse to become negative, this requirement leads to lapse functions which approach at late times the odd lapse corresponding to the static Schwarzschild metric. Demanding, however, that a numerically favourable lapse remains non-negative, as a result the average of odd and even lapse is obtained. At late times the lapse with zero gradient at the puncture arising for the puncture evolution is precisely of this form. Finally, analytic arguments are given on how slice stretching effects can be avoided. Here the excision technique and the working mechanism of the shift function are studied in detail.

  20. THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES

    OpenAIRE

    Darwin H. Pangaribuan1)

    2009-01-01

    Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. ‘Revolution’ during storage at 5C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treat...

  1. 不同浓度胎牛血清肝浸汤培养基培养阴道毛滴虫效果观察%Observation of Trichomonas vaginalis cultured in liver extract medium with different concentrations of fetal bovine serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴武

    2009-01-01

    Three strains of Trichomonas vaginalis were cultured for 48 hours in liver extract medium, the respective trophozoite density of T. vaginalis was 0. 7× 10~5/ml, 1. 5× 10~5/ml, and 2.0× 10~5/ml. Culturing in the medium with fetal bovine serum at final concentrations of 1% , 5% , and 10% resulted in trophozoite density of 6. 0× 10~5/ml, 640× 10~5/ ml, and 1 280. 0× 10~5/ml for the first strain, 16.0× 10~5/ml, 1 600. 0× 10~5/ml, and 2 400 × 10~5/ml for the second strain, and 65. 0× 10~5/ml, 840. 0×10~5/ml, and 520.0× 10~5/ml for the third strain. Results indicated that a liver extract medium with the appropriate concentration of fetal bovine serum provides a good culture medium.%3株阴道毛滴虫用肝浸汤培养48 h,虫体密度分别为0.7×10~5/ml、1.5×10~5/ml和2.0×10~5/ml;用含终浓度为1%、5%、10%的胎牛血清肝浸汤培养48 h,虫株Ⅰ的密度分别为6.0×10~5/ml、640.0×10~5/ml和1 280.0×10~5/ml,虫株Ⅱ分别为16.0×10~5/ml、1 600.0×10~5/ml和2 400.0×10~5/ml,虫株Ⅲ分别为65.0×10~5/ml、840.0×10~5/ml和520.0×10~5/ml.表明肝浸汤添加适量胎牛血清后培养效果良好.

  2. Influence of Thin Slice Reconstruction on CT Brain Perfusion Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, Edwin; Oosterbroek, Jaap; Horsch, Alexander D.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Velthuis, BK; Viergever, Max A.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although CT scanners generally allow dynamic acquisition of thin slices (1 mm), thick slice (>= 5 mm) reconstruction is commonly used for stroke imaging to reduce data, processing time, and noise level. Thin slice CT perfusion (CTP) reconstruction may suffer less from partial volume effec

  3. Sexing Bovine Embryos Using PCR Amplification of Bovine SRY Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾溢滔; 张美兰; 陈美珏; 周霞娣; 黄英; 任兆瑞; 黄淑帧; 胡明信; 吴学清; 高建明; 张斌; 徐慧如

    1994-01-01

    This study analyses the bovine SRY DNA sequence by direct sequencing procedure, followed by the designation of the PCR primers specific for bovine SRY. Using PCR amplification of bovine SRY gene, the embryo sex was determined. The results of the embryo sex identification were confirmed after the embryo transfer and pregnancies.

  4. Separable geodesic action slicing in stationary spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    A simple observation about the action for geodesics in a stationary spacetime with separable geodesic equations leads to a natural class of slicings of that spacetime whose orthogonal geodesic trajectories represent freely falling observers. The time coordinate function can then be taken to be the observer proper time, leading to a unit lapse function. This explains some of the properties of the original Painlev\\'e-Gullstrand coordinates on the Schwarzschild spacetime and their generalization to the Kerr-Newman family of spacetimes, reproducible also locally for the G\\"odel spacetime. For the static spherically symmetric case the slicing can be chosen to be intrinsically flat with spherically symmetric geodesic observers, leaving all the gravitational field information in the shift vector field.

  5. Regulation of Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum Limb Blastema Cell Proliferation by Nerves and BMP2 in Organotypic Slice Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lehrberg

    Full Text Available We have modified and optimized the technique of organotypic slice culture in order to study the mechanisms regulating growth and pattern formation in regenerating axolotl limb blastemas. Blastema cells maintain many of the behaviors that are characteristic of blastemas in vivo when cultured as slices in vitro, including rates of proliferation that are comparable to what has been reported in vivo. Because the blastema slices can be cultured in basal medium without fetal bovine serum, it was possible to test the response of blastema cells to signaling molecules present in serum, as well as those produced by nerves. We also were able to investigate the response of blastema cells to experimentally regulated changes in BMP signaling. Blastema cells responded to all of these signals by increasing the rate of proliferation and the level of expression of the blastema marker gene, Prrx-1. The organotypic slice culture model provides the opportunity to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal co-regulation of pathways in order to induce and enhance a regenerative response.

  6. Regulation of Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) Limb Blastema Cell Proliferation by Nerves and BMP2 in Organotypic Slice Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrberg, Jeffrey; Gardiner, David M

    2015-01-01

    We have modified and optimized the technique of organotypic slice culture in order to study the mechanisms regulating growth and pattern formation in regenerating axolotl limb blastemas. Blastema cells maintain many of the behaviors that are characteristic of blastemas in vivo when cultured as slices in vitro, including rates of proliferation that are comparable to what has been reported in vivo. Because the blastema slices can be cultured in basal medium without fetal bovine serum, it was possible to test the response of blastema cells to signaling molecules present in serum, as well as those produced by nerves. We also were able to investigate the response of blastema cells to experimentally regulated changes in BMP signaling. Blastema cells responded to all of these signals by increasing the rate of proliferation and the level of expression of the blastema marker gene, Prrx-1. The organotypic slice culture model provides the opportunity to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal co-regulation of pathways in order to induce and enhance a regenerative response.

  7. slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  8. Slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Document Server

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  9. Enzootic bovine leukosis and Bovine leukemia virus

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri; Alice Fernandes Alfieri; Luis Álvaro Leuzzi Junior

    2004-01-01

    All over de World the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a important viral infection in cattle herds. This revision points out topics relative to the etiological agent, clinical signals, diagnosis methods, control and prophylaxis of the infection.A Leucose Enzoótica Bovina é uma infecção viral amplamente disseminada em rebanhos bovinos de todo o mundo. Esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar tópicos relacionados ao agente etiológico, à doença clínica e aos métodos de diagnóstico, controle e profila...

  10. Prevalencia, decomisos de hígado y pérdidas económicas por Fasciola hepatica en mataderos bovinos de tres provincias de la región central de Cuba .Prevalence, liver confiscation and economic losses by Fasciola hepatica in bovine slaughterhouses of three provinces of the central region of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Barreto, Miguel A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe realizó un estudio retrospectivo basado en los registros existentes sobre los hallazgos de fasciolosis en los mataderos bovinos de tres provincias de la región central de Cuba (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara y Sancti Spíritus durante 5 años (2000-2004. Se sacrificaron 273 460 animales, de los cuales el 35,5% estaba parasitado por F. hepatica. Se decomisaron 49 173 hígados (18,0% delos animales sacrificados, siendo la provincia de Sancti Spíritus la de peores resultados. Las afectaciones por año fueron variables sobre todo en Cienfuegos y Villa Clara. Las pérdidas económicas fueron cuantiosas, calculándose, sólo por concepto de hígados decomisados en $ 436 656 (USD durante el período estudiado.SummaryA retrospective study was carried out based on the existent registrations of fasciolosis discoveries in the bovine slaughterhouses of three provinces of the central region of Cuba (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara and Sancti Spíritus during 5 years (2000-2004. 273 460 animals were sacrificed and the 35.5% of themwas infested with F. hepatica. 49 173 livers were confiscated (18.0% of the sacrificed animals, being the province of Sancti Spíritus the one with worse results. The affectations per year were variable mainly in Cienfuegos and Villa Clara. The economic losses were considerable, being calculated, only by concept of confiscated livers in $ 436 656 (USD during the studied period.

  11. Three-dimensions Volume Reconstruction of Grayscale Serial Slice Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jianming(吴建明); Shi Pengfei; Zhang Luoming

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on basic geometric and topological access methods, and computational operations implemented by various data objects. It covers such methods as inter-slices point matching, stream slices, sorting of octree blocks, cell operations and experimental results. At first, this paper discusses in detail the feature points matching of inter-slices. Then it introduces stream slices eigenfields and octree data structures theories. Next, it discusses cell operations and its data structure. Finally, it shows an experimental result. The innovations in the paper is the data structure of slices feature and cell feature, and the feature matching methods owns the properties both quickly and exactly.

  12. Application of Dynamic Slicing in Test Data Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUO Suwei; ZHAO Ruilian; LI Lijian

    2007-01-01

    The program slicing technique is employed to calculate the current values of the variables at some interest points in software test data generation. This paper introduces the concept of statement domination to represent the multiple nests, and presents a dynamic program slice algorithm based on forward analysis to generate dynamic slices. In the approach, more attention is given to the statement itself or its domination node, so computing program slices is more easy and accurate, especially for those programs with multiple nests. In addition, a case study is discussed to illustrate our algorithm. Experimental results show that the slicing technique can be used in software test data generation to enhance the effectiveness.

  13. CT quality assurance: computer assisted slice thickness determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, N J; Bushong, S C

    1980-01-01

    The precise slice geometry of a CT scanner is an important, albeit tedious to determine, characteristic. A series of computer programs have been developed to analyze the slice thickness insert of the AAPM phantom. Without operator assistance they generate the beam profiles and slice thicknesses at three points in the scan field. A representative analysis is done on an AS&E scanner with slice thickness settings of 2 to 10 mm. The resulting discrepent measured thicknesses, ranging from 3 to 8 mm, indicate the need to perform such slice thickness measurements as part of a regular quality assurance program.

  14. A Review of Variable Slicing in Fused Deposition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiyapara, Hitesh Hirjibhai; Pande, Sarang

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a literature survey in the field of fused deposition of plastic wires especially in the field of slicing and deposition using extrusion of thermoplastic wires. Various researchers working in the field of computation of deposition path have used their algorithms for variable slicing. In the study, a flowchart has also been proposed for the slicing and deposition process. The algorithm already been developed by previous researcher will be used to be implemented on the fused deposition modelling machine. To demonstrate the capabilities of the fused deposition modeling machine a case study has been taken. It uses a manipulated G-code to be fed to the fused deposition modeling machine. Two types of slicing strategies, namely uniform slicing and variable slicing have been evaluated. In the uniform slicing, the slice thickness has been used for deposition is varying from 0.1 to 0.4 mm. In the variable slicing, thickness has been varied from 0.1 in the polar region to 0.4 in the equatorial region Time required and the number of slices required to deposit a hemisphere of 20 mm diameter have been compared with that using the variable slicing.

  15. Liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shennen A; Glorioso, Jaime M; Nyberg, Scott L

    2014-04-01

    The liver is unique in its ability to regenerate in response to injury. A number of evolutionary safeguards have allowed the liver to continue to perform its complex functions despite significant injury. Increased understanding of the regenerative process has significant benefit in the treatment of liver failure. Furthermore, understanding of liver regeneration may shed light on the development of cancer within the cirrhotic liver. This review provides an overview of the models of study currently used in liver regeneration, the molecular basis of liver regeneration, and the role of liver progenitor cells in regeneration of the liver. Specific focus is placed on clinical applications of current knowledge in liver regeneration, including small-for-size liver transplant. Furthermore, cutting-edge topics in liver regeneration, including in vivo animal models for xenogeneic human hepatocyte expansion and the use of decellularized liver matrices as a 3-dimensional scaffold for liver repopulation, are proposed. Unfortunately, despite 50 years of intense study, many gaps remain in the scientific understanding of liver regeneration.

  16. Bovine milk glycome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, N; DePeters, E J; Freeman, S; German, J B; Grimm, R; Lebrilla, C B

    2008-10-01

    Bovine milk oligosaccharides have several potentially important biological activities including the prevention of pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelial and as nutrients for beneficial bacteria. It has been suggested that milk oligosaccharides are an important source of complex carbohydrates as supplements for the food and the pharmaceutical industries. However, only a small number of structures of bovine milk oligosaccharides (bMO) are known. There have been no systematic studies on bMO. High-performance mass spectrometry and separation methods are used to evaluate bMO, and nearly 40 oligosaccharides are present in bovine milk. Bovine milk oligosaccharides are composed of shorter oligomeric chains than are those in human milk. They are significantly more anionic with nearly 70%, measured abundances, being sialylated. Additionally, bMO are built not only on the lactose core (as are nearly all human milk oligosaccharides), but also on lactose amines. Sialic acid residues include both N-acetyl and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, although the former is significantly more abundant.

  17. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  18. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The sy

  19. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is caused by a novel contagion, known to as a prion. Prions are proteins capable of converting a normal cellular protein into a prion, thereby propagating an infection. BSE is the first known prion zoonotic. As such it has attracted broad scientific and, to a r...

  20. BOVINE CATTLE FED WITH ANDROPOGON AND BRACHIARIA GRASS: HISTOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS OF LIVER AND LYMPH NODES BOVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM CAPIM BRACHIARIA E ANDROPOGON: ALTERAÇÕES HISTOLÓGICAS DO FÍGADO E LINFONODOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Gonçalves de Araújo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous papers report hepatic alterations in ruminants fed with Brachiaria spp. The aim of this study was to verify whether the ingestion of Andropogon gayanus or Brachiaria (B. brizantha and B. decumbens produces microscopic alterations in the liver of cattle. By histological examination was characterized the hepatic injury, and determined the amount and localization of foamy macrophages in the liver and mesenteric and scapular lymphonodes. Those changes were correlated with live weight gains of the animals. Forty bulls divided into two groups of twenty were grazing, from weaning to slaughter, in Brachiaria spp or A. gayanus pastures. In the slaughterhouse, fragments of liver and mesenteric and scapular lymphonodes were collected. Results showed, in both groups, macro and microvacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, mainly in the periacinar region. The animals fed on Brachiaria spp pastures revealed larger quantity of foamy macrophages in the hepatic parenchyma and mesenteric lymphonodes. There was a negative correlation between the number of foamy macrophages in the liver and in mesenteric lymphonodes with the live weight gain, regardless of the type of ingested grass. In the lymph nodes, the highest macrophage concentrations were in the cortical zone, followed by the paracortical zone. The mesenteric lymphonodes showed a higher amount of foam cells than the liver.

    KEY WORDS: Colangiohepatitis, foamy cells, saponins, sporidesmin, tropical grasses.

    Diversos trabalhos relatam a presença de alterações hepáticas em ruminantes alimentados com Brachiaria spp, em casos espontâneos e/ou induzidos de fotossensibilização hepatógena. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o tipo de capim ingerido provoca alteração microscópica no fígado de bovinos. Foi caracterizada a lesão hepática, quantificados e localizados os macrófagos espumosos no fígado e linfonodos e as alterações correlacionadas com o peso dos

  1. Discovery and genomic characterization of a novel ovine partetravirus and a new genotype of bovine partetravirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available Partetravirus is a recently described group of animal parvoviruses which include the human partetravirus, bovine partetravirus and porcine partetravirus (previously known as human parvovirus 4, bovine hokovirus and porcine hokovirus respectively. In this report, we describe the discovery and genomic characterization of partetraviruses in bovine and ovine samples from China. These partetraviruses were detected by PCR in 1.8% of bovine liver samples, 66.7% of ovine liver samples and 71.4% of ovine spleen samples. One of the bovine partetraviruses detected in the present samples is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported bovine partetraviruses and likely represents a novel genotype. The ovine partetravirus is a novel partetravirus and phylogenetically most related to the bovine partetraviruses. The genome organization is conserved amongst these viruses, including the presence of a putative transmembrane protein encoded by an overlapping reading frame in ORF2. Results from the present study provide further support to the classification of partetraviruses as a separate genus in Parvovirinae.

  2. Mechanical characteristics of native tendon slices for tissue engineering scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ting-Wu; Chen, Qingshan; Sun, Yu-Long; Steinmann, Scott P; Amadio, Peter C; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanical behavior of tendon slices with different thicknesses. Tendon slices of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μm thickness were mechanically tested. The 300 μm slices were further tested for strength and modulus after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing under different applied strain levels (0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12%). The tendon slice structure, morphology, and viability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) seeded onto the slices were also examined with histology, scanning electron microscopy, and vital cell labeling, respectively. Tendon slices 300 μm or more in thickness had similar ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus to the intact tendon bundle. A strain of 5% or less did not cause any structural damage, nor did it change the mechanical properties of a 300 μm-thick tendon slice after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing. BMSCs were viable between and on the tendon slices after 2 weeks in tissue culture. This study demonstrated that, if tendon slices are used as a scaffold for tendon tissue engineering, slices 300 μm or more in thickness would be preferable from a mechanical strength point of view. If mechanical stimulation is performed for seeded-cell preparations, 5% strain or less would be appropriate.

  3. Mechanical characteristics of native tendon slices for tissue engineering scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ting-Wu; Chen, Qingshan; Sun, Yu-Long; Steinmann, Scott P.; Amadio, Peter C.; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanical behavior of tendon slices with different thicknesses. Tendon slices of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μm thickness were mechanically tested. The 300 μm slices were further tested for strength and modulus after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing under different applied strain levels (0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12%). The tendon slice structure, morphology, and viability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) seeded onto the slices were also examined with histology, scanning electron microscopy, and vital cell labeling, respectively. Tendon slices 300 μm or more in thickness had similar ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus to the intact tendon bundle. A strain of 5% or less did not cause any structural damage, nor did it change the mechanical properties of a 300 μm-thick tendon slice after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing. BMSCs were viable between and on the tendon slices after 2 weeks in tissue culture. This study demonstrated that, if tendon slices are used as a scaffold for tendon tissue engineering, slices 300 μm or more in thickness would be preferable from a mechanical strength point of view. If mechanical stimulation is performed for seeded-cell preparations, 5% strain or less would be appropriate. PMID:22323314

  4. Influence of Thin Slice Reconstruction on CT Brain Perfusion Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bennink

    Full Text Available Although CT scanners generally allow dynamic acquisition of thin slices (1 mm, thick slice (≥5 mm reconstruction is commonly used for stroke imaging to reduce data, processing time, and noise level. Thin slice CT perfusion (CTP reconstruction may suffer less from partial volume effects, and thus yield more accurate quantitative results with increased resolution. Before thin slice protocols are to be introduced clinically, it needs to be ensured that this does not affect overall CTP constancy. We studied the influence of thin slice reconstruction on average perfusion values by comparing it with standard thick slice reconstruction.From 50 patient studies, absolute and relative hemisphere averaged estimates of cerebral blood volume (CBV, cerebral blood flow (CBF, mean transit time (MTT, and permeability-surface area product (PS were analyzed using 0.8, 2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mm slice reconstructions. Specifically, the influence of Gaussian and bilateral filtering, the arterial input function (AIF, and motion correction on the perfusion values was investigated.Bilateral filtering gave noise levels comparable to isotropic Gaussian filtering, with less partial volume effects. Absolute CBF, CBV and PS were 22%, 14% and 46% lower with 0.8 mm than with 4.8 mm slices. If the AIF and motion correction were based on thin slices prior to reconstruction of thicker slices, these differences reduced to 3%, 4% and 3%. The effect of slice thickness on relative values was very small.This study shows that thin slice reconstruction for CTP with unaltered acquisition protocol gives relative perfusion values without clinically relevant bias. It does however affect absolute perfusion values, of which CBF and CBV are most sensitive. Partial volume effects in large arteries and veins lead to overestimation of these values. The effects of reconstruction slice thickness should be taken into account when absolute perfusion values are used for clinical decision making.

  5. TEST COVERAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON PROGRAM SLICING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhenqiang; Xu Baowen; Guanjie

    2003-01-01

    Coverage analysis is a structural testing technique that helps to eliminate gaps in atest suite and determines when to stop testing. To compute test coverage, this letter proposes anew concept coverage about variables, based on program slicing. By adding powers accordingto their importance, the users can focus on the important variables to obtain higher test coverage.The letter presents methods to compute basic coverage based on program structure graphs. Inmost cases, the coverage obtained in the letter is bigger than that obtained by a traditionalmeasure, because the coverage about a variable takes only the related codes into account.

  6. Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stay still. Liver disease has many causes. Infection Parasites and viruses can infect the liver, causing inflammation ... beyond. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/ ...

  7. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  8. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis ...

  9. Stark effect on a geometry defined by a cake' slice

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Castillo-Mussot, M; Vazquez, G J; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge-Alejandro; Mendoza, Carlos I.; Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo del; Vazquez, Gerardo J.

    2005-01-01

    By using a variational calculation, we study the effect of an external applied electric field on the ground state of electrons confined in a quantum box with a geometry defined by a slice of a cake. This geometry is a first approximation for a tip of a cantilever of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). By modeling the tip with the slice, we calculate the electronic ground state energy as function of the slice's diameter, its angular aperture, its thickness and the intensity of the external electric field applied along the slice. For the applied field pointing to the wider part of the slice, a confining electronic effect in the opposite side is clearly observed. This effect is sharper as the angular slice's aperture is smaller and there is more radial space to manifest itself.

  10. Dependence Analysis Based on Dynamic Slicing for Debugging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic program slicing is an effective technique for narrowingthe errors to t h e relevant parts of a program when debugging. Given a slicing criterion, the dyn amic slice contains only those statements that actually affect the variables in the slicing criterion. This paper proposes a dynamic slicing method based on sta tic dependence analysis. It uses the program dependence graph and other static i nformation to reduce the information needed to be traced during program executio n. Thus, the efficiency is dramatically improved while the precision is not depr e ssed. The slicing criterion is modified to fit for debugging. It consists of fil e-name and the line number at which the statement is.

  11. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti Díaz, Ismael Alejandro; Vargas, Roberto; Apolo, Ada; Moraña, José Antonio; Pedrana, Graciela; Cardozo, Elena; Almeida, Edgardo

    2003-01-01

    A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  12. An improved method for determining CT image slice thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, N J; Bushong, S C

    1981-01-01

    One of the important characteristics of a computed tomography scanner is the image slice thickness. Most phantoms designed to measure this parameter do so with a ramp or tilted wire. Such a phantom must be precisely aligned to avoid possible significant inaccuracy. We present here a procedure for measuring the image slice thickness using a phantom containing two crossed ramps. The procedure produced consistent and accurate measurements of slice thickness without having to carry out a time consuming alignment procedure.

  13. Selenium in bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, S M; Kuzan, F B; Senger, P L

    1981-05-01

    This study investigated the association of selenium with ejaculated bovine spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive selenium-75 was released after 30 min of incubation in 2 X 10(-3) dithiothreitol. Of the selenium-75 released by dithiothreitol, 85% was associated with spermatozoal protein. Protein containing selenium-75 was found predominantly in a single band after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight was approximately 21,500 daltons.

  14. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelos, JA

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The...

  15. [Design and accuracy analysis of upper slicing system of MSCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongjian

    2013-05-01

    The upper slicing system is the main components of the optical system in MSCT. This paper focuses on the design of upper slicing system and its accuracy analysis to improve the accuracy of imaging. The error of slice thickness and ray center by bearings, screw and control system were analyzed and tested. In fact, the accumulated error measured is less than 1 microm, absolute error measured is less than 10 microm. Improving the accuracy of the upper slicing system contributes to the appropriate treatment methods and success rate of treatment.

  16. THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin H. Pangaribuan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. ‘Revolution’ during storage at 5C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were plus 10 g and minus ethylene absorbent (KMnO4; Purafil; 5C for 12 d. In the experiment of ethylene concentrations, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were exogenous ethylene concentrations of 0 (control, 0.1, 1 or 10 L L–1 respectively (5C for 6 h. In both experiments, the treatments were replicated 5 fold. Results showed that ethylene absorbent resulted in reduced ethylene accumulation, and CO2 accumulation in enclosed containers, and firmer slices. Ethylene applied 2 days after slicing stimulated the rate of ethylene production, CO2 production, and produced softer slices during storage. Changes in soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity development were independent of ethylene effects. These experiments showed that ethylene produced by slicing or introduced exogenously had an undesirable effect of accelerating softening of tomato slices.

  17. Thin slices of child personality: Perceptual, situational, and behavioral contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Kushner, Shauna C; Rule, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether thin-slice ratings of child personality serve as a resource-efficient and theoretically valid measurement of child personality traits. We extended theoretical work on the observability, perceptual accuracy, and situational consistency of childhood personality traits by examining intersource and interjudge agreement, cross-situational consistency, and convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of thin-slice ratings. Forty-five unacquainted independent coders rated 326 children's (ages 8-12) personality in 1 of 15 thin-slice behavioral scenarios (i.e., 3 raters per slice, for over 14,000 independent thin-slice ratings). Mothers, fathers, and children rated children's personality, psychopathology, and competence. We found robust evidence for correlations between thin-slice and mother/father ratings of child personality, within- and across-task consistency of thin-slice ratings, and convergent and divergent validity with psychopathology and competence. Surprisingly, thin-slice ratings were more consistent across situations in this child sample than previously found for adults. Taken together, these results suggest that thin slices are a valid and reliable measure to assess child personality, offering a useful method of measurement beyond questionnaires, helping to address novel questions of personality perception and consistency in childhood.

  18. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  19. Sixty-four-slice computed tomography in surgical strategy of portal vein cavernous transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Man Zhang; Cong-Lun Pu; Ying-Cun Li; Chun-Bao Guo

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of 64-slice computed tomography (CT) in portal vein cavernous transformation to determine surgical strategy.METHODS:The site of lesions and extent of collateral circulation in 12 pediatric cases of cavernous transformation of the portal vein with surgical treatment were analyzed.RESULTS:Eleven of 12 children had esophageal vari-ces and were treated with lower esophageal and gastric devascularization and splenectomy,and the other case was only treated with splenectomy.There were eight cases with spontaneous spleen/stomach-renal shunt,four with Retzius vein opening,which was reserved during surgery.Three cases of lesions involving the intrahepatic portal vein (PV) were treated with livingdonor liver transplantation.One patient died from PV thrombosis after liver transplantation,and the rest had no significant complications.CONCLUSION:The PV,its branches and collateral circulation were clearly seen by 64-slice spiral CT angi-ography,which helped with preoperative surgical planning.

  20. Reality, No Matter How You Slice It

    CERN Document Server

    Wharton, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In order to reject the notion that information is always about something, the "It from Bit" idea relies on the nonexistence of a realistic framework that might underly quantum theory. This essay develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time). By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed "all-at-once" (as in classical statistical mechanics). The "It from Bit" argument against a spacetime-based reality must then somehow defend the importance of dynamical laws, even as it denies a reality on which such fundamental laws could operate.

  1. Originator usage control with business process slicing

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Ziyi

    2012-01-01

    Originator Control allows information providers to define the information re-dissemination condition. Combined with usage control policy, fine-grained 'downstream usage control' can be achieved, which specifies what attributes the downstream consumers should have and how data is used. This paper discusses originator usage control, paying particular attention to enterprise-level dynamic business federations. Rather than 'pre-defining' the information re-dissemination paths, our business process slicing method 'capture' the asset derivation pattern, allowing to maintain originators' policies during the full lifecycle of assets in a collaborative context. First, we propose Service Call Graph (SCG), based on extending the System Dependency Graph, to describe dependencies among partners. When SCG (and corresponding 'service call tuple' list) is built for a business process, it is analyzed to group partners into sub-contexts, according to their dependency relations. Originator usage control can be achieved focusing...

  2. The Diagnosis Value of Perfusion Parameters of Multi-slice Spiral CT on the Liver Blood Flow of Hepatocellular Carcinoma%多层螺旋CT灌注参数对肝癌血流变化的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金平

    2011-01-01

    肝脏CT灌注成像是一种新兴功能成像技术,通过同层动态扫描获得多种灌注参数,对肝动脉和门静脉血流变化进行定量分析,进而反映肝癌形成过程中的血流动力学改变.目前,CT灌注成像技术在原发性肝癌中的研究较多,但对肝癌灌注参数的分析较零散.因此,笔者对多层螺旋CT灌注成像技术在原发性肝癌血流动力学变化方面的研究作一综述.%CT perfusion imaging of liver is an emerging imaging technology, a variety of perfusion parameters can be obtained through the dynamic scans of same level to make quantitative analysis on the blood flow changes of the hepatic artery and portal vein, further to reflect the hemodynamics in the development of liver cancer. Currently, more CT perfusion imaging studies are on primary hepatic carcinoma, but the analysis of perfusion parameters is fragmented. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to make a review on the CT perfusion techniques in the studies of hemodynamic changes in primary hepatic carcinoma.

  3. Metabolism of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) atropisomers in tissue slices from phenobarbital or dexamethasone-induced rats is sex-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Dammanahalli, Karigowda J; Duffel, Michael; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-11-01

    1. Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as PCB 136 enantioselectively sensitize the ryanodine receptor (RyR). In light of recent evidence that PCBs cause developmental neurotoxicity via RyR-dependent mechanisms, this suggests that enantioselective PCB metabolism may influence the developmental neurotoxicity of chiral PCBs. However, enantioselective disposition of PCBs has not been fully characterized. 2. The effect of sex and cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme induction on the enantioselective metabolism of PCB 136 was studied using liver tissue slices prepared from naïve control (CTL), phenobarbital (PB; CYP2B inducer) or dexamethasone (DEX; CYP3A inducer) pretreated adult Sprague-Dawley rats. PCB 136 metabolism was also examined in hippocampal slices derived from untreated rat pups. 3. In liver tissue slices, hydroxylated PCB (OH-PCB) profiles depended on sex and inducer pretreatment, and OH-PCB levels followed the rank orders male > female and PB > DEX > CTL. In contrast, the enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 136 and its metabolites was independent of sex and inducer pretreatment. Only small amounts of PCB 136 partitioned into hippocampal tissue slices and no OH-PCB metabolites were detected. 4. Our results suggest that enantioselective metabolism, sex and induction status of P450 enzymes in the liver may modulate the neurotoxic outcomes of developmental exposure to chiral PCBs.

  4. What Is Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What Is Liver Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  5. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain...... brain slice culturing for 16 days....

  6. Eigenvalues of collective emission in multi-slice slab configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedberg, Richard [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Manassah, Jamal T. [HMS Consultants, Inc., PO Box 592, New York, NY 10028 (United States)], E-mail: jmanassah@gmail.com

    2008-06-02

    We compute the eigenmodes of collective emission from multi-slice slab configurations, using the transfer matrix formalism. We elucidate within this formalism the phenomena of 'Invisible Gaps' in multiple-slice configuration and of 'Precocious Superradiance' in periodic structures previously observed in numerical solutions of Maxwell-Bloch equations.

  7. A survey of program slicing for software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    This research concerns program slicing which is used as a tool for program maintainence of software systems. Program slicing decreases the level of effort required to understand and maintain complex software systems. It was first designed as a debugging aid, but it has since been generalized into various tools and extended to include program comprehension, module cohesion estimation, requirements verification, dead code elimination, and maintainence of several software systems, including reverse engineering, parallelization, portability, and reuse component generation. This paper seeks to address and define terminology, theoretical concepts, program representation, different program graphs, developments in static slicing, dynamic slicing, and semantics and mathematical models. Applications for conventional slicing are presented, along with a prognosis of future work in this field.

  8. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies.

  9. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  10. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A

    2015-03-01

    As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The discoveries of Mor bovoculi and reports of IBK associated with Mycoplasma spp without concurrent Mor bovis or Mor bovoculi have raised new questions into the roles that other organisms may play in IBK pathogenesis.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  12. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Volume 203, 1953: Enzyme secretion and the incorporation of P32 into phospholipides of pancreas slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokin, M R; Hokin, L E

    1989-06-01

    1. When enzyme secretion was stimulated by carbamylcholine or acetylcholine (with eserine) in slices of pigeon pancreas, the incorporation of P32 into the phospholipide fraction of the stimulated slices was, after 2 hours, 4.8 to 8.7 (average, 7.0) times greater than the incorporation of P32 into the phospholipides of control slices. Neither respiration nor the incorporation of P32 into acid-soluble phosphate esters was increased. 2. Pilocarpine, which on a weight for weight basis was much less effective than carbamylcholine or acetylcholine in stimulating enzyme secretion in pancreas slices, was also much less effective in stimulating the uptake of P32 into phospholipides. 3. The stimulatory effects of carbamylcholine on both enzyme secretion and the incorporation of P32 into phospholipides were abolished by atropine. 4. The specific activity of the phospholipides from slices incubated anaerobically was less than 5 per cent of that observed aerobically. Anaerobically, carbamylcholine did not stimulate the incorporation of P32 into phospholipides to any significant extent. The specific activity of the acid-soluble phosphate esters after anaerobic incubation was 34 per cent of that found aerobically. 5. Cholinergic drugs had little or no effect on the incorporation of P32 into the phospholipides of the following tissue slices: pigeon and guinea pig liver, guinea pig heart ventricle, pigeon gizzard (smooth muscle), and guinea pig kidney cortex. A relatively slight stimulation of P32 uptake into phospholipides was observed in slices of pigeon brain (65 per cent) and guinea pig brain cortex (40 per cent). 6. Stimulation of amylase synthesis in slices of pigeon pancreas by the addition of a mixture of amino acids had no effect on the incorporation of P32 into phospholipides.

  13. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Disease & NASH Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis) Hepatitis ...

  14. Ocorrência de resíduos de dietilestilbestrol e zeranol em fígado de bovinos abatidos no Brasil Occurence of diethylstilbestrol and zeranol residues in liver of bovines slaughtered in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Chaves CARDOSO

    1999-12-01

    hundred and sixteen samples of liver were searched for DES and 385 for zeranol presence by radioimmunoassay (RIA. DES was detected in no samples (p > 0,05 on the other hand zeranol was detected in two (p < 0,05. Zeranol presence was confirmed by gas cromatography-mass spectrometry (p < 0,05. Average recoveries obtained for DES were 62,6% ± 5,7 in the extractive phase (³H-DES and 83,8% ± 16,8 in the extractive phase plus RIA (DES. As to zeranol, average recoveries were 63,0% ± 5,8 in the extractive phase (³H-zeranol and 94,8% ± 13,8 in the extractive phase plus RIA (zeranol. Therefore, it is concluded that Brazilian cattle meat is in accordance with current legislation in regard to DES; it is not, however, in regard to zeranol for it was found in 0,52% of samples.

  15. Integration of Morphology and Graph-based Techniques for Fully Automatic Liver Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Burkhardt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Here a fully 3D algorithm for automatic liver segmentation from CT volumetric datasets is presented. The algorithm starts by smoothing the original volume using anisotropic diffusion. The coarse liver region is obtained from the threshold process that is based on a priori knowledge. Then, several morphological operations is performed such as operating the liver to detach the unwanted region connected to the liver and finding the largest component using the connected component labeling (CCL algorithm. At this stage, both 3D and 2D CCL is done subsequently. However, in 2D CCL, the adjacent slices are also affected from current slice changes. Finally, the boundary of the liver is refined using graph-cuts solver. Our algorithm does not require any user interaction or training datasets to be used. The algorithm has been evaluated on 10 CT scans of the liver and the results are encouraging to poor quality of images.

  16. The bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: A receptor with low affinity for benzodiazepines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parola, A.L.; Laird, H.E. II (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The density of bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) in four tissues was highest in adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex PBR cofractionated with a mitochondrial membrane marker enzyme and could be solubilized with intact ligand binding properties using digitonin. The membrane bound and soluble mitochondrial receptors were pharmacologically characterized and showed the rank order of potency to inhibit ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding was PK 11195 > protoporphyrin IX > benzodiazepines. ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to bovine adrenal mitochondria was unaffected by diethylpyrocarbonate, a histidine residue modifying reagent that decreased binding to rat liver mitochondria by 70%. ({sup 3}H)PK 14105 photolabeled the bovine PBR and the Mr was estimated under nondenaturing and denaturing conditions. These results demonstrate the bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is pharmacologically and biochemically distinct from the rat receptor, but the receptor component photolabeled by an isoquinoline ligand has a similar molecular weight.

  17. Maternal nutrition during the first 50 days of gestation alters bovine fetal hepatic metabolic transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that maternal nutrition during the first 50 d of gestation would alter the metabolic transcriptome of the bovine fetal liver. Fourteen beef heifers were estrus synchronized and assigned to 2 treatments at breeding (CON, 100% of requirements to gain 0.45kg/d; RES, 60% of CON). Heifers...

  18. Studies on the hepatic hemodynamics of the patients with fatty liver by hepatic blood flow mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shuichi; Okajima, Tugio; Yamazaki, Yasurou (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-12-01

    To investigate intrahepatic hemodynamics of the patients with fatty liver, the time to reach maximal enhancement (PT) of every 3 x 3 pixel was depicted by a gray scale throughout an area of maximal horizontal slice of CT of the liver to obtain blood flow mapping of the liver, and compared with those of normal, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Mottles of deep gray, light gray or black pixels were distributed throughout the liver slice of fatty liver. Although the mean PT of a ROI of fatty liver was longer than normal and shorter than that of cirrhosis and the same as that of chronic hepatitis, the map of fatty liver was different from that of chronic hepatitis. When the distribution of PT was expressed by their histogram, it was known that PT of fatty liver had a wider range than that of chronic hepatitis. The range was the same as that of cirrhosis. In one case of fatty liver, the deep gray pixels was increased when fatty infiltration of the liver was improved. It was concluded that the intrahepatic blood flow of fatty liver was impaired in a way not similar to chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, which could be clearly seen by hepatic blood flow mapping, and which seemed to be reversible with the improvement of fatty liver. (author).

  19. Prevalence of bovine Cysticercosis of Slaughtered Cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Garedaghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir showed that 15(3% were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 460 male cattle, examined, 14 (3% had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 1 (2.5% of the 40 female animals investigated were infected. Conclusion: The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local sarabi cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle.

  20. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  1. A Hierarchical Slicing Tool Model%一个分层切片工具模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭毅; 朱平; 李必信; 郑国梁

    2001-01-01

    Most of the traditional methods of slicing are based on dependence graph. But constructing dependence graph for object oriented programs directly is very complicated. The design and implementation of a hierarchical slicing tool model are described. By constructing the package level dependence graph, class level dependence graph, method level dependence graph and statement level dependence graph, package level slice, class level slice, method level slice and program slice are obtained step by step.

  2. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ultraviolet light, or causes that are not known. Liver spots are very common after age 40. They occur ...

  3. Attack diagnosis on binary executables using dynamic program slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Zheng, Yudi; Zhang, Ruoyu

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the level of the practically used programs is often complex and of such a large scale so that it is not as easy to analyze and debug them as one might expect. And it is quite difficult to diagnose attacks and find vulnerabilities in such large-scale programs. Thus, dynamic program slicing becomes a popular and effective method for program comprehension and debugging since it can reduce the analysis scope greatly and drop useless data that do not influence the final result. Besides, most of existing dynamic slicing tools perform dynamic slicing in the source code level, but the source code is not easy to obtain in practice. We believe that we do need some kinds of systems to help the users understand binary programs. In this paper, we present an approach of diagnosing attacks using dynamic backward program slicing based on binary executables, and provide a dynamic binary slicing tool named DBS to analyze binary executables precisely and efficiently. It computes the set of instructions that may have affected or been affected by slicing criterion set in certain location of the binary execution stream. This tool also can organize the slicing results by function call graphs and control flow graphs clearly and hierarchically.

  4. Spacetime Slices and Surfaces of Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Giblin, J T; Jr, John T. Giblin; Hwang, Andrew D.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a $(1+1)$-dimensional slice $\\hat{g}$ of a spherically symmetric black hole spacetime can be equivariantly embedded in $(2+1)$-dimensional Minkowski space. The embedding depends on a real parameter that corresponds physically to the surface gravity $\\kappa$ of the black hole horizon. Under conditions that turn out to be closely related, a real surface that possesses rotational symmetry can be equivariantly embedded in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The embedding does not obviously depend on a parameter. However, the Gaussian curvature is given by a simple formula: If the metric is written $g = \\phi(r)^{-1} dr^2 + \\phi(r) d\\theta^2$, then $\\K_g=-{1/2}\\phi''(r)$. This note shows that metrics $g$ and $\\hat{g}$ occur in dual pairs, and that the embeddings described above are orthogonal facets of a single phenomenon. In particular, the metrics and their respective embeddings differ by a Wick rotation that preserves the ambient symmetry. Consequently, the embedding of $g$ depends on a real...

  5. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices

    OpenAIRE

    Workneh, T. S.; Zinash, A.; Woldetsadik, K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. ...

  6. Automatic Registration and Error Detection of Multiple Slices Using Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Frimmel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. When analysing the 3D structure of tissue, serial sectioning and staining of the resulting slices is sometimes the preferred option. This leads to severe registration problems. In this paper, a method for automatic registration and error detection of slices using landmark needles has been developed. A cost function takes some parameters from the current state of the problem to be solved as input and gives a quality of the current solution as output. The cost function used in this paper, is based on a model of the slices and the landmark needles. The method has been used to register slices of prostates in order to create 3D computer models. Manual registration of the same prostates has been undertaken and compared with the results from the algorithm. Methods. Prostates from sixteen men who underwent radical prostatectomy were formalin fixed with landmark needles, sliced and the slices were computer reconstructed. The cost function takes rotation and translation for each prostate slice, as well as slope and offset for each landmark needle as input. The current quality of fit of the model, using the input parameters given, is returned. The function takes the built‐in instability of the model into account. The method uses a standard algorithm to optimize the prostate slice positions. To verify the result, s standard method in statistics was used. Results. The methods were evaluated for 16 prostates. When testing blindly, a physician could not determine whether the registration shown to him were created by the automated method described in this paper, or manually by an expert, except in one out of 16 cases. Visual inspection and analysis of the outlier confirmed that the input data had been deformed. The automatic detection of erroneous slices marked a few slices, including the outlier, as suspicious. Conclusions. The model based registration performs better than traditional simple slice‐wise registration. In the case of prostate

  7. Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the...

  8. Intervet symposium: bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, T; Dubey, J P; Adrianarivo, A; Frankena, K; Romero, J J; Pérez, E; Heuer, C; Nicholson, C; Russell, D; Weston, J

    2004-10-28

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The symposium was organised by Juan Muñoz-Bielsa,Wicher Holland, Enzo Foccoliand Theo Schetters (chairman). The focus was on the present state of knowledge of the biology, epidemiology(presented by J.P. Dubey) and immunology of Neospora infection (presented by A. Adrianarivo),with special emphasis on the prospects of vaccination of cattle against Neospora-induced abortion (presentations of K. Frankena (Costa Rican trial) and C. Heuer (New Zealand trial)).

  9. Rat liver contains a limited number of binding sites for hepatic lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.C. Schoonderwoerd (Kees); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); H. Jansen (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe binding of hepatic lipase to rat liver was studied in an ex vivo perfusion model. The livers were perfused with media containing partially purified rat hepatic lipase or bovine milk lipoprotein lipase. The activity of the enzymes was determined in the pe

  10. Efeito de níveis crescentes de levedura de álcool em rações contendo fígado bovino sobre a performance de larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Effect of crescent levels of yeast of alcohol used in rations containing bovine liver on larvae of (Rhamdia quelen performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamari Piaia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de levedura sobre o desempenho inicial de larvas de Rhamdia quelen durante as trêss primeiras semanas de vida. Um total de 3000 larvas foram distribuídas em quinze grupos, em um sistema de criação com reutilização de água, termoregulada. Utilizou-se cinco tratamentos com níveis crescentes de levedura (T1 - 50%, T2 - 60%, T3 - 70%, T4 - 80% e T5 - 90% em substituição ao fígado bovino fresco. Os níveis de proteína bruta (PB e energia digestível variaram de 41,36 a 26,56% de PB e 3197 a 2789kcal ED/kg. A granulometria dos alimentos testados foi de 100 a 200mi, 200 a 400mi e 400 a 600mi para as três semanas experimentais, respectivamente. O alimento foi fornecido a vontade entre 8 e 20 horas. Dentro dos limites de proteína estudados houve efeito positivo de níveis mais elevados de PB sobre os comprimentos total e padrão e peso individual. Porém houve um efeito negativo sobre a sobrevivência das larvas de jundiá Rhamdia quelen.The present study was developed with the purpose of evaluating the effects of different protein levels in initial performance of Rhamdia quelen larvae during the first three weeks of life. The sample contained 3000 larvae distributed in fifteen groups, maintained in controlled conditions of culture and utilizing termoregulatory water re-use system. Five crescent levels of yeast (T1 50%, T2 60%, T3 70%, T4 80% and T5 90% were used in rations in substituition of bovine liver. Levels of crude protein and digestible energy varied 41,36% to 26,56% CP and from 3197 to 2789 kcal ED/kg. The granulometry of tested food was of 100 a 200mu, 200 a 400mu and 400 a 600mu for three experimental weeks respectively. Food distribution provided at ease between 8 Am and 8 Pm. Within the net protein used in this research, there was found a positive effect for the highest protein levels for total, standard lenght and individual weight

  11. Study of Energy Consumption of Potato Slices During Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafezi Negar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the new methods of food drying using infrared heating under vacuum is to increase the drying rate and maintain the quality of dried product. In this study, potato slices were dried using vacuum-infrared drying. Experiments were performed with the infrared lamp power levels 100, 150 and 200 W, absolute pressure levels 20, 80, 140 and 760 mmHg, and with three thicknesses of slices 1, 2 and 3 mm, in three repetitions. The results showed that the infrared lamp power, absolute pressure and slice thickness have important effects on the drying of potato. With increasing the radiation power, reducing the absolute pressure (acts of vacuum in the dryer chamber and also reducing the thickness of potato slices, drying time and the amount of energy consumed is reduced. In relation to thermal utilization efficiency, results indicated that with increasing the infrared radiation power and decreasing the absolute pressure, thermal efficiency increased.

  12. Microfluidics and multielectrode array-compatible organotypic slice culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Sabolek, Helen; Levine, John B; Staley, Kevin J; Yarmush, Martin L

    2009-03-30

    Organotypic brain slice cultures are used for a variety of molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging studies. However, the existing culture methods are difficult or expensive to apply in studies requiring long-term recordings with multielectrode arrays (MEAs). In this work, a novel method to maintain organotypic cultures of rodent hippocampus for several weeks on standard MEAs in an unmodified tissue culture incubator is described. Polydimethylsiloxane (Sylgard) mini-wells were used to stabilize organotypic cultures on glass and MEA surfaces. Hippocampus slices were successfully maintained within PDMS mini-wells for multiple weeks, with preserved pyramidal layer organization, connectivity, and activity. MEAs were used to record the development of spontaneous activity in an organotypic cultures for 4 weeks. This method is compatible with integration of microchannels into the culture substrate. Microchannels were incorporated into the mini-wells and applied to the guidance of axons originating within the slice, paving the way for studies of axonal sprouting using organotypic slices.

  13. Water Hammer Model of Shock Absorber Throttle Slice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi-jie; GU Liang; LEI Sheng-guang; GUAN Ji-fu

    2008-01-01

    In allusion to easy invalidation of damping valve in vehicle shock absorber caused by the impact from the road surface, the importance of the study of damping valve water hammer pressure is presented. The physical model of damping valve with the circle throttle slice is established. The time for the throttle slice deformation is studied by using the finite software, and the laws that how the structure parameters affect the deformation time are obtained. Combining the theory of water hammer, the water hammer initial and boundary condition of the damping valve is deduced, and the water hammer model of throttle slice is established. The analysis of simulation results indicates that the water hammer pressure amplitude and the amount of water hammer oscillation period can be reduced and the dependability of the valve can be enhanced by modifying the structure parameters and aperture width between slice and valve body.

  14. Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy The sometimes deadly conditions cost $75 billion in ... a major impact on Americans and the U.S. economy, a new report finds. "The impact of skin ...

  15. Prevalence of liver condemnation due to bovine fasciolosis in Southern Espírito Santo: temporal distribution and economic losses Prevalência de condenação de fígados bovinos por fasciolose no Sul do Espírito Santo: distribuição temporal e perdas econômicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia das Chagas Bernardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the economic losses and temporal distribution of the prevalence of liver condemnation due to bovine fasciolosis. The abattoir in Atílio Vivácqua, in the South of the State of Espírito Santo, which is under state inspection by the veterinary service of the Livestock and Forest Protection Institute of Espírito Santo, was used as the data source. The prevalence of liver condemnation due to fasciolosis over the period 2006-2009 was calculated. The χ2 test, simple linear regression analysis and χ2 for trend were used, with a significance level of p O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as perdas econômicas e a distribuição temporal da prevalência de condenação de fígados bovinos devido a fasciolose. O matadouro frigorífico de Atílio Vivácqua, no sul do Estado do Espírito Santo, com inspeção estadual, realizada por médico veterinário vinculado ao Instituto de Defesa Agropecuária e Florestal do Espírito Santo, foi utilizado como fonte de dados. A prevalência de condenação de fígados por fasciolose no período de 2006-2009 foi calculada. O teste do χ2, a análise de regressão linear simples e o χ2 para tendência foram utilizados, considerando-se o nível de significância p < 0,05. No período analisado foram abatidos 110.956 bovinos, observando-se prevalências de condenação de fígados por Fasciola hepatica, de 15,24% em 2006, 23,93% em 2007, 28,57% em 2008 e de 28,24% em 2009. A tendência histórica da condenação de fígados é crescente, indicando que este parasitismo estabeleceu-se no rebanho como um problema na região com prevalência similar a de regiões tradicionalmente endêmicas. As condenações ocorreram o ano todo com maior prevalência nos meses de abril e maio e com diferenças significativas entre os períodos seco e chuvoso. As perdas econômicas devido a condenação de fígados podem ser consideradas altas.

  16. A dynamic model to calculate cadmium concentrations in bovine tissues from basic soil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waegeneers, Nadia, E-mail: nadia.waegeneers@var.fgov.be; Ruttens, Ann; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2011-06-15

    A chain model was developed to calculate the flow of cadmium from soil, drinking water and feed towards bovine tissues. The data used for model development were tissue Cd concentrations of 57 bovines and Cd concentrations in soil, feed and drinking water, sampled at the farms were the bovines were reared. Validation of the model occurred with a second set of measured tissue Cd concentrations of 93 bovines of which age and farm location were known. The exposure part of the chain model consists of two parts: (1) a soil-plant transfer model, deriving cadmium concentrations in feed from basic soil characteristics (pH and organic matter content) and soil Cd concentrations, and (2) bovine intake calculations, based on typical feed and water consumption patterns for cattle and Cd concentrations in feed and drinking water. The output of the exposure model is an animal-specific average daily Cd intake, which is then taken forward to a kinetic uptake model in which time-dependent Cd concentrations in bovine tissues are calculated. The chain model was able to account for 65%, 42% and 32% of the variation in observed kidney, liver and meat Cd concentrations in the validation study. - Research highlights: {yields} Cadmium transfer from soil, drinking water and feed to bovine tissues was modeled. {yields} The model was based on 57 bovines and corresponding feed and soil Cd concentrations. {yields} The model was validated with an independent data set of 93 bovines. {yields} The model explained 65% of variation in kidney Cd in the validation study.

  17. Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    integral membrane protein belonging to the glutamate-gated ion channel family, whereas a triple blast insult caused a significant reduction in the...24 I.U. per mg), 5-units/ml penicillin , and 5-mg/l streptomycin. The prepared slice cultures were supplied with fresh HSM 24 h later (culture day 1... penicillin , and 5-mg/L streptomycin. Just prior to submerging the blast plate, a control plate of slices was flooded with warmed SFM to provide tissue

  18. Dynamic Frequency Allocation in SLICE Considering both BER and Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed in this paper is a dynamic resource-aware routing and frequency slots allocation scheme with consideration of both BER requirement and distance adaptive modulation (RA-BERR-DA for spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks (SLICE.Numerical simulations are conducted to analysis network performance such as blocking rate and the number of used frequency slots. The results demonstrate that this scheme is able to decrease traffic blocking and improve resource utilization in dynamic spectrum assignment.

  19. Liver metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... no symptoms. When symptoms occur, they may include: Decreased appetite Confusion Fever , sweating Jaundice (yellowing of the skin ... can include: Blockage of the flow of bile Decreased appetite Fever Liver failure (usually only in the late ...

  20. Enlarged Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A blood sample is tested to determine liver enzyme levels. This can give clues about the health ... prescription medications. Limit contact with chemicals. Use aerosol cleaners, insecticides and other toxic chemicals only in well- ...

  1. Combined infrared-vacuum drying of pumpkin slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaboos, Seyyed Hossein Hosseini; Ardabili, Seyed Mahdi Seyedain; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Asadi, Gholamhassan; Aalami, Mehran

    2016-05-01

    Infrared-vacuum dehydration characteristics of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) were evaluated in a combined dryer system. The effects of drying parameters, infrared radiation power (204-272 W), system pressure (5-15 kPa), slice thickness (5 and 7 mm) and time (0-220 min) on the drying kinetics and characteristics of pumpkin slices were investigated. The vacuum pressure, lamp power and slice had significant effect on the drying kinetics and various qualities of the dried pumpkin. Moisture ratios were fitted to 10 different mathematical equations using nonlinear regression analysis. The quadratic equation satisfactorily described the drying behavior of pumpkin slices with the highest r value and the lowest SE values. The effective moisture diffusivity increased with power and ranged between 0.71 and 2.86 × 10(-9) m(2)/s. With increasing in infrared radiation power from 204 to 272 W, β-carotene content of dried pumpkins decreased from 30.04 to 24.55 mg/100 g. The rise in infrared power has a negative effect on the color changes (ΔE). The optimum condition was determined as power, 238W, pressure, 5 kPa and slice thickness, 5mm. These conditions resulted into dried pumpkin slices with maximum B-carotene retention.

  2. Generalized Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang-Ren; Jiang, Dazong; Yang, Kevin; Yang, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The cone-beam reconstruction theory has been proposed by Kirillov in 1961, Tuy in 1983, Feldkamp in 1984, Smith in 1985, Pierre Grangeat in 1990. The Fourier slice theorem is proposed by Bracewell 1956, which leads to the Fourier image reconstruction method for parallel-beam geometry. The Fourier slice theorem is extended to fan-beam geometry by Zhao in 1993 and 1995. By combining the above mentioned cone-beam image reconstruction theory and the above mentioned Fourier slice theory of fan-beam geometry, the Fourier slice theorem in cone-beam geometry is proposed by Zhao 1995 in short conference publication. This article offers the details of the derivation and implementation of this Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam geometry. Especially the problem of the reconstruction from Fourier domain has been overcome, which is that the value of in the origin of Fourier space is 0/0. The 0/0 type of limit is proper handled. As examples, the implementation results for the single circle and two perpendicular circle source orbits are shown. In the cone-beam reconstruction if a interpolation process is considered, the number of the calculations for the generalized Fourier slice theorem algorithm is O(N^4), which is close to the filtered back-projection method, here N is the image size of 1-dimension. However the interpolation process can be avoid, in that case the number of the calculations is O(N5).

  3. Liver function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008308 Study on transplantation of induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via a series of the treatment of chronic liver injury. SUN Yan(孙艳), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, 1st Hosp, Jilin Univ, Changchun 130021. Chin J Dig 2008;28(3):171-174.Objective To investigate the efficacy of transplantation of induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)via a series of treatment of chronic liver injury.Methods MSCs were isolated and expanded by density

  4. Application of a medical image processing system in liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Hua Fang; Xiao-Feng Li; Zhou Li; Ying-Fang Fan; Chao-Min Lu; Yan-Peng Huang; Feng-Ping Peng

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, imaging is used not only to show the form of images, but also to make three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and visual simulations based on original data to guide clinical surgery. This study aimed to assess the use of a medical image-processing system in liver transplantation surgery. METHODS: The data of abdominal 64-slice spiral CT scan were collected from 200 healthy volunteers and 37 liver cancer patients in terms of hepatic arterial phase, portal phase, and hepatic venous phase. A 3D model of abdominal blood vessels including the abdominal aorta system, portal vein system, and inferior vena cava system was reconstructed by an abdominal image processing system to identify vascular variations. Then, a 3D model of the liver was reconstructed in terms of hepatic segmentation and liver volume was calculated. The FreeForm modeling system with a PHANTOM force feedback device was used to simulate the real liver transplantation environment, in which the total process of liver transplantation was completed. RESULTS: The reconstructed model of the abdominal blood vessels and the liver was clearly demonstrated to be three-dimensionally consistent with the anatomy of the liver, in which the variations of abdominal blood vessels were identiifed and liver segmentation was performed digitally. In the model, liver transplantation was simulated subsequently, and different modus operandi were selected successfully. CONCLUSION: The digitized medical image processing system may be valuable for liver transplantation.

  5. Molecular Cloning of the Bovine Liver ADPRT cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-13

    Sambrook. J. (1982) Molecular Cloning - A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, N. Y. Martinez, H (1988) Sequence Analysis Programs. Publ...Sambrook, J. (1982) Molecular Cloning - A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, N. Y. 1)..Messing, J. (1983) Methods in Enzymol. 101. 20-78. 1-Actin-S

  6. Interactive Volumetry Of Liver Ablation Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Brandmaier, Philipp; Seider, Daniel; Gawlitza, Matthias; Strocka, Steffen; Voglreiter, Philip; Dokter, Mark; Hofmann, Michael; Kainz, Bernhard; Hann, Alexander; Chen, Xiaojun; Alhonnoro, Tuomas; Pollari, Mika; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Moche, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive technique that destroys cancer cells by heat. The heat results from focusing energy in the radiofrequency spectrum through a needle. Amongst others, this can enable the treatment of patients who are not eligible for an open surgery. However, the possibility of recurrent liver cancer due to incomplete ablation of the tumor makes post-interventional monitoring via regular follow-up scans mandatory. These scans have to be carefully inspected for any conspicuousness. Within this study, the RF ablation zones from twelve post-interventional CT acquisitions have been segmented semi-automatically to support the visual inspection. An interactive, graph-based contouring approach, which prefers spherically shaped regions, has been applied. For the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the algorithm's results, manual slice-by-slice segmentations produced by clinical experts have been used as the gold standard (which have also been compared among each o...

  7. An automatic method for fast and accurate liver segmentation in CT images using a shape detection level set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Ho; Seo, Joon Beom; Won, Hyung Jin; Shin, Yong Moon; Shin, Yeong Gil

    2007-03-01

    Automatic liver segmentation is still a challenging task due to the ambiguity of liver boundary and the complex context of nearby organs. In this paper, we propose a faster and more accurate way of liver segmentation in CT images with an enhanced level set method. The speed image for level-set propagation is smoothly generated by increasing number of iterations in anisotropic diffusion filtering. This prevents the level-set propagation from stopping in front of local minima, which prevails in liver CT images due to irregular intensity distributions of the interior liver region. The curvature term of shape modeling level-set method captures well the shape variations of the liver along the slice. Finally, rolling ball algorithm is applied for including enhanced vessels near the liver boundary. Our approach are tested and compared to manual segmentation results of eight CT scans with 5mm slice distance using the average distance and volume error. The average distance error between corresponding liver boundaries is 1.58 mm and the average volume error is 2.2%. The average processing time for the segmentation of each slice is 5.2 seconds, which is much faster than the conventional ones. Accurate and fast result of our method will expedite the next stage of liver volume quantification for liver transplantations.

  8. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  9. Stage scoring of liver fibrosis using Mueller matrix microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jialing; He, Honghui; Wang, Ye; Ma, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Liver fibrosis is a common pathological process of varied chronic liver diseases including alcoholic hepatitis, virus hepatitis, and so on. Accurate evaluation of liver fibrosis is necessary for effective therapy and a five-stage grading system was developed. Currently, experienced pathologists use stained liver biopsies to assess the degree of liver fibrosis. But it is difficult to obtain highly reproducible results because of huge discrepancy among different observers. Polarization imaging technique has the potential of scoring liver fibrosis since it is capable of probing the structural and optical properties of samples. Considering that the Mueller matrix measurement can provide comprehensive microstructural information of the tissues, in this paper, we apply the Mueller matrix microscope to human liver fibrosis slices in different fibrosis stages. We extract the valid regions and adopt the Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) and Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters for quantitative analysis. We also use the Monte Carlo simulation to analyze the relationship between the microscopic Mueller matrix parameters and the characteristic structural changes during the fibrosis process. The experimental and Monte Carlo simulated results show good consistency. We get a positive correlation between the parameters and the stage of liver fibrosis. The results presented in this paper indicate that the Mueller matrix microscope can provide additional information for the detections and fibrosis scorings of liver tissues and has great potential in liver fibrosis diagnosis.

  10. Rapid and quantitative discrimination of tumour cells on tissue slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Liao, Shu-Hsien; Wei, Wen-Chun; Hsiao, Pei-Yi; Yang, Hong-Chang; Horng, Herng-Er

    2016-06-01

    After a needle biopsy, immunohistochemistry is generally used to stain tissue slices for clinically confirming tumours. Currently, tissue slices are immersed in a bioprobe-linked fluorescent reagent for several minutes, washed to remove the unbound reagent, and then observed using a fluorescence microscope. However, the observation must be performed by experienced pathologists, and producing a qualitative analysis is time consuming. Therefore, this study proposes a novel scanning superconducting quantum interference device biosusceptometry (SSB) method for avoiding these drawbacks. First, stain reagents were synthesised for the dual modalities of fluorescent and magnetic imaging by combining iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles and the currently used fluorescent reagent. The reagent for the proposed approach was stained using the same procedure as that for the current fluorescent reagent, and tissue slices were rapidly imaged using the developed SSB for obtaining coregistered optical and magnetic images. Analysing the total intensity of magnetic spots in SSB images enables quantitatively determining the tumour cells of tissue slices. To confirm the magnetic imaging results, a traditional observation methodology entailing the use of a fluorescence microscope was also performed as the gold standard. This study determined high consistency between the fluorescent and magnetic spots in different regions of the tissue slices, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach, which will benefit future clinical pathology.

  11. Short pulse generation by laser slicing at NSLSII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.; Blednykh, A.; Guo, W.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Tchoubar, O.; Wang, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.

    2011-03-28

    We discuss an upgrade R&D project for NSLSII to generate sub-pico-second short x-ray pulses using laser slicing. We discuss its basic parameters and present a specific example for a viable design and its performance. Since the installation of the laser slicing system into the storage ring will break the symmetry of the lattice, we demonstrate it is possible to recover the dynamical aperture to the original design goal of the ring. There is a rapid growth of ultrafast user community interested in science using sub-pico-second x-ray pulses. In BNL's Short Pulse Workshop, the discussion from users shows clearly the need for a sub-pico-second pulse source using laser slicing method. In the proposal submitted following this workshop, NSLS team proposed both hard x-ray and soft x-ray beamlines using laser slicing pulses. Hence there is clearly a need to consider the R&D efforts of laser slicing short pulse generation at NSLSII to meet these goals.

  12. Drying kinetics and colour change of lemon slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Hosain; Khoshtaghaza, Mohammad H.; Minaei, Saeid

    2014-03-01

    The effect of microwave-convective heating on drying characteristics and colour change of lemon slices was investigated. The drying experiments were carried out at 180, 360, 540 and 720Wand at 22°C, with air velocity of 1ms-1. The values of effective moisture diffusivity were found to be in the range between 1.87 10-8 and 3.95 10-8 m2 s-1, and the activation energy was estimated to be 10.91 Wg-1. The drying data were fitted with ten mathematical models available in the literature. The model describing drying kinetics of lemon slices in the best way was found. The colour change of the dried lemon slices was analysed and considered as a quality index affecting the drying quality of the product. The values of lightness/darkness, yellowness/blueness and hue angle increased, while the value of redness/greenness decreased with increasing microwave power.

  13. Feature extraction from slice data for reverse engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yingjie; LU Shangning

    2007-01-01

    A new approach to feature extraction for slice data points is presented. The reconstruction of objects is performed as follows. First, all contours in each slice are extracted by contour tracing algorithms. Then the data points on the contours are analyzed, and the curve segments of the contours are divided into three categories: straight lines, conic curves and B-spline curves. The curve fitting methods are applied for each curve segment to remove the unwanted points with pre-determined tolerance. Finally, the features, which consist of the object and connection relations among them, are founded by matching the corresponding contours in adjacent slices, and 3D models are reconstructed based on the features. The proposed approach has been implemented in OpenGL, and the feasibility of the proposed method has been verified by several cases.

  14. On Synergy of Metal, Slicing, and Symbolic Execution

    CERN Document Server

    Slabý, Jiří; Trtík, Marek

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel technique for finding real errors in programs. The technique is based on a synergy of three well-known methods: metacompilation, slicing, and symbolic execution. More precisely, we instrument a given program with a code that tracks runs of state machines representing various kinds of errors. Next we slice the program to reduce its size without affecting runs of state machines. And then we symbolically execute the sliced program. Depending on the kind of symbolic execution, the technique can be applied as a stand-alone bug finding technique, or to weed out some false positives from an output of another bug-finding tool. We provide several examples demonstrating the practical applicability of our technique.

  15. Automatic Circuit Extractor for HDL Description Using Program Slicing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tun Li; Yang Guo; Si-Kun Li

    2004-01-01

    Design extraction and reduction have been extensively used in modern VLSI design process. The extracted and reduced design can be efficiently processed by various applications, such as formal verification,simulation, automatic test pattern generation (ATPG), etc. This paper presents a new circuit extraction method using program slicing technique, and develops an elegant theoretical basis based on program slicing for circuit extraction from Verilog description. The technique can obtain a chaining slice for given signals of interest. Compared with related researches, the main advantages of the method include that it is fine grain; it has no hardware description language (HDL) coding style limitation; it is precise and is capable of dealing with various Verilog constructions. The technique has been integrated with a commercial simulation environment and incorporated into a design process. The results of practical designs show the significant benefits of the approach.

  16. Unstable periodic orbits in human epileptic hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen-Ning Yu; Min-Chi Hsiao; Dong Song; Liu, Charles Y; Heck, Christi N; Millett, David; Berger, Theodore W

    2014-01-01

    Inter-ictal activity is studied in hippocampal slices resected from patients with epilepsy using local field potential recording. Inter-ictal activity in the dentate gyrus (DG) is induced by high-potassium (8 mM), low-magnesium (0.25 mM) aCSF with additional 100 μM 4-aminopyridine(4-AP). The dynamics of the inter-ictal activity is investigated by developing the first return map with inter-pulse intervals. Unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) are detected in the hippocampal slice at the DG area according to both the topological recurrence method and the periodic orbit transform method. Surrogate analysis suggests the presence of UPOs in hippocampal slices from patients with epilepsy. This finding also suggests that inter-ictal activity is a chaotic system and will allow us to apply chaos control techniques to manipulate inter-ictal activity.

  17. Autoregressive trispectrum and its slices analysis of magnetorheological damping device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丙三; 黄宜坚

    2008-01-01

    A combined magnetorheological damper combined with rubber spring and magnetorheological damper is addressed.This type of damping device has inherited the merits of rubber spring and the magnetorheological damper.The test damping device is made up of combined magnetorheological damper,amplitude controller,signal collecting device,computer software for dynamic analysis,etc.When a zeromean and non-Gaussian white noise interfere with the device,a time series autoregressive(AR) model is conducted by using the sampled experimental data.Trispectrum and its slices analysis are emerging as a new powerful technique in signal processing,which is put forward for investigating the dynamic characteristics of the magnetorheological vibrant device.The present of trispectrum and its slices analysis change with the variation of controllable working magnetic field of the damper correspondingly.It is indicated that AR trispectrum and its slices analysis methods are feasible and effective for investigation of magnetorheological vibrant device.

  18. GEAR CRACK EARLY DIAGNOSIS USING BISPECTRUM DIAGONAL SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A study of bispectral analysis in gearbox condition monitoring is presented.The theory of bispectrum and quadratic phase coupling (QPC) is first introduced, and then equations for computing bispectrum slices are obtained.To meet the needs of online monitoring, a simplified method of computing bispectrum diagonal slice is adopted.Industrial gearbox vibration signals measured from normal and tooth cracked conditions are analyzed using the above method.Experiments results indicate that bispectrum can effectively suppress the additive Gaussian noise and chracterize the QPC phenomenon.It is also shown that the 1-D bispectrum diagonal slice can capture the non-Gaussian and nonlinear feature of gearbox vibration when crack occurred, hence, this method can be employed to gearbox real time monitoring and early diagnosis.

  19. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby Boomers Get Tested Core Programs HE Webinar Disney 2014 5 Ways to Love Your Liver Liver ... Drive Away Liver Disease Liver Lowdown Aug 2013 Disney Marathon In The Field Healthy Foods Diet Recommendations ...

  20. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby Boomers Get Tested Core Programs HE Webinar Disney 2014 5 Ways to Love Your Liver Liver ... Drive Away Liver Disease Liver Lowdown Aug 2013 Disney Marathon In The Field Healthy Foods Diet Recommendations ...

  1. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  2. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Liver Transplant: Nutrition for Veterans and the Public Nutrition Liver ... apply to transplant and liver disease patients. Pre-Transplant Protein Malnutrition -- Many patients with end stage liver ...

  3. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  4. Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008447 Identification of gene expression patterns in a rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ZHANG Xuequn(张雪群), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, 1st Hosp, Med Coll, Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou 310003. Chin J Dig 2008;28(5):323-327. Objective To compare and analyze gene expression patterns in a rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly given either general diet (control group) or a high-fat diet (model group) for 4 weeks.

  5. Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008310 Expression of αVβ3 integrin and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 in progressive liver fibrosis: experiment with rats. SONG Zhengji(宋正已), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Natl Med J China 2008;88(16):1121-1125.Objective To investigate the expression ofαVβ3 integrin and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1(CD31)in progressive liver fibrosis of rats.Methods Sixty-four SD rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups:TAA group,undergoing peritoneal injection of

  6. Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008075 Effect of Jiangzhi granules on expression of leptin receptor mRNA, P-JAK2 and P-STAT3 in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. MA Zansong(马赞颂), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Instit Spleen and Stomach Dis, Longhua Hosp. Shanghai TCM Univ, Shanghai 200032.World Chin J Digestol 2007;15(32):3360-3366. Objective To study the effect of Jiangzhi granules on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats, and on the expression of

  7. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  8. Slice Energy and Conformal Frames in Theories of Gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Cotsakis, S

    2004-01-01

    We examine and compare the behaviour of the scalar field slice energy in different classes of theories of gravity, in particular higher-order and scalar-tensor theories. We find a universal formula for the energy and compare the resulting conservation laws with those known in general relativity. This leads to a comparison between the inflaton, the dilaton and other forms of scalar fields present in these generalized theories. It also shows that all such conformally-related, generalized theories of gravitation allow for the energy on a slice to be invariably defined and its fundamental properties be insensitive to conformal transformations.

  9. Novel culturing platform for brain slices and neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel culturing system for brain slices and neuronal cells, which can control the concentration of nutrients and the waste removal from the culture by adjusting the fluid flow within the device. The entire system can be placed in an incubator. The system has been...... tested successfully with brain slices and PC12 cells. The culture substrate can be modified using metal electrodes and/or nanostructures for conducting electrical measurements while culturing and for better mimicking the in vivo conditions....

  10. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  11. Trimethyltin (TMT) neurotoxicity in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Gramsbergen, J B; Fonnum, F;

    1998-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of trimethyltin (TMT) on the hippocampus have been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, we examined whether the toxicity of TMT to hippocampal neurons could be reproduced in organotypic brain slice cultures in order to test the potential of this model for neurotoxico......The neurotoxic effects of trimethyltin (TMT) on the hippocampus have been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, we examined whether the toxicity of TMT to hippocampal neurons could be reproduced in organotypic brain slice cultures in order to test the potential of this model...

  12. TALEN-mediated modification of the bovine genome for large-scale production of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddassi, Shaida; Eyestone, Will; Bishop, Colin E

    2014-01-01

    As an initial step towards creating genetically modified cattle as a biopharming source of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA), we report modification of the bovine albumin (bA) locus by transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-stimulated homology-directed repair (HDR). Pedigreed bovine fibroblasts were co-transfected with TALENs and an 11.5-kb human serum albumin (HSA) minigene donor construct, designed to simultaneously disrupt and replace bovine serum albumin (BSA) expression with controlled rHSA expression in both the liver and the milk. Targeted integration of the HSA minigene was confirmed in transfected fibroblasts at a frequency of approximately 11% and transgenic bovine embryos were produced from targeted fibroblasts using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The research delineated here lays the foundation for the future generation of transgenic rHSA cattle with the potential to provide a large-scale, reliable, and quality-controlled source of rHSA.

  13. Plasma cholesterol-lowering and transient liver dysfunction in mice lacking squalene synthase in the liver[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Shuichi; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Tazoe, Fumiko; Takahashi, Manabu; Kitamine, Tetsuya; Yamamuro, Daisuke; Sakai, Kent; Sekiya, Motohiro; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Honda, Akira; Ishibashi, Shun

    2015-01-01

    Squalene synthase (SS) catalyzes the biosynthesis of squalene, the first specific intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. To test the feasibility of lowering plasma cholesterol by inhibiting hepatic SS, we generated mice in which SS is specifically knocked out in the liver (L-SSKO) using Cre-loxP technology. Hepatic SS activity of L-SSKO mice was reduced by >90%. In addition, cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver slices was almost eliminated. Although the hepatic squalene contents were markedly reduced in L-SSKO mice, the hepatic contents of cholesterol and its precursors distal to squalene were indistinguishable from those of control mice, indicating the presence of sufficient centripetal flow of cholesterol and/or its precursors from the extrahepatic tissues. L-SSKO mice showed a transient liver dysfunction with moderate hepatomegaly presumably secondary to increased farnesol production. In a fed state, the plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly reduced in L-SSKO mice, primarily owing to reduced hepatic VLDL secretion. In a fasted state, the hypolipidemic effect was lost. mRNA expression of liver X receptor α target genes was reduced, while that of sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 target genes was increased. In conclusion, liver-specific ablation of SS inhibits hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis and induces hypolipidemia without increasing significant mortality. PMID:25755092

  14. Correlation between Abdominal Fat Amount and Fatty Liver, using Liver to Kidney Echo Ratio on Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yanhg Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Lee, Jong Mee; Choi, Jae Woong; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    It has been generally recognized that fatty liver can often be seen in the obese population. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between fatty liver and abdominal fat volume. A total of 105 patients who visited our obesity clinic in the recent three years underwent fat CT scans and abdominal US. Attenuation difference between liver and spleen on CT was considered as a reference standard for the diagnosis of fatty liver. On US, the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma was measured in three different regions of interest (ROI) close to the adjacent right kidney in the same slice, avoiding vessels, bile duct, and calcification. Similar measurements were performed in the right renal cortex. The mean values were calculated automatically on the histogram of the ROI using the PACS program. The hepatorenal echogenicity ratio (HER; mean hepatic echogenicity/ mean renal echogenicity) was then calculated. Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan at the L4/5 level and was calculated automatically using a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified according to total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used Pearson's bivariate correlation method for assessment of the correlation between HER and TF, VF, and SF, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between HER and abdominal fat (TF, VF, and SF). HER showed significant correlation with VF and TF (r = 0.491 and 0.402, respectively; p = 0.000). The correlation between HER and SF (r = 0.255, p = 0.009) was less significant than for VF or TF. Fat measurement (HER) by hepatic ultrasound correlated well with the amount of abdominal fat. In particular, the VF was found to show a stronger association with fatty liver than SF.

  15. Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970345 An experimental and clinical study on α1-adrenergic receptor of liver plasma membranes in cir-rhosis with portal hypertension. ZHANG Youcheng(张有成), et al. Dept Surg, People’s Hosp, Beijing MedUniv, Beijing, 100044 Chin J Dig 1996; 16(6): 332-335.

  16. Imaging skeletal anatomy of injured cervical spine specimens: comparison of single-slice vs multi-slice helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenauer, S.; Alamo, L.; Herold, T.; Funke, M.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E. [Department of Radiology, Georg August-University Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Our objective was to compare a single-slice CT (SS-CT) scanner with a multi-slice CT (MS-CT) scanner in the depiction of osseous anatomic structures and fractures of the upper cervical spine. Two cervical spine specimens with artificial trauma were scanned with a SS-CT scanner (HighSpeed, CT/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various collimations (1, 3, 5 mm) and pitch factors (1, 1.5, 2, 3) and a four-slice helical CT scanner (LightSpeed, QX/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various table speeds ranging from 3.75 to 15 mm/rotation for a pitch of 0.75 and from 7.5 to 30 mm/rotation for a pitch of 1.5. Images were reconstructed with an interval of 1 mm. Sagittal and coronal multiplanar reconstructions of the primary and reconstructed data set were performed. For MS-CT a tube current resulting in equivalent image noise as with SS-CT was used. All images were judged by two observers using a 4-point scale. The best image quality for SS-CT was achieved with the smallest slice thickness (1 mm) and a pitch smaller than 2 resulting in a table speed of up to 2 mm per gantry rotation (4 points). A reduction of the slice thickness rather than of the table speed proved to be beneficial at MS-CT. Therefore, the optimal scan protocol in MS-CT included a slice thickness of 1.25 mm with a table speed of 7.5 mm/360 using a pitch of 1.5 (4 points), resulting in a faster scan time than when a pitch of 0.75 (4 points) was used. This study indicates that MS-CT could provide equivalent image quality at approximately four times the volume coverage speed of SS-CT. (orig.)

  17. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general p

  18. A catalogue of novel bovine long noncoding RNA across 18 tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambros T Koufariotis

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA have been implicated in diverse biological roles including gene regulation and genomic imprinting. Identifying lncRNA in bovine across many differing tissue would contribute to the current repertoire of bovine lncRNA, and help further improve our understanding of the evolutionary importance and constraints of these transcripts. Additionally, it could aid in identifying sites in the genome outside of protein coding genes where mutations could contribute to variation in complex traits. This is particularly important in bovine as genomic predictions are increasingly used in genetic improvement for milk and meat production. Our aim was to identify and annotate novel long non coding RNA transcripts in the bovine genome captured from RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq data across 18 tissues, sampled in triplicate from a single cow. To address the main challenge in identifying lncRNA, namely distinguishing lncRNA transcripts from unannotated genes and protein coding genes, a lncRNA identification pipeline with a number of filtering steps was developed. A total of 9,778 transcripts passed the filtering pipeline. The bovine lncRNA catalogue includes MALAT1 and HOTAIR, both of which have been well described in human and mouse genomes. We attempted to validate the lncRNA in libraries from three additional cows. 726 (87.47% liver and 1,668 (55.27% blood class 3 lncRNA were validated with stranded liver and blood libraries respectively. Additionally, this study identified a large number of novel unknown transcripts in the bovine genome with high protein coding potential, illustrating a clear need for better annotations of protein coding genes.

  19. Cellular responses to stress: comparison of a family of 71--73-kilodalton proteins rapidly synthesized in rat tissue slices and canavanine-treated cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, L E; White, F P

    1981-08-01

    Cultured rat embryo cells exposed to the L-arginine analogue L-canavanine rapidly accumulated a major 71 kilodalton polypeptide and several minor ones (110, 95, 88, and 78 kilodaltons). Canavanine-treated cultures contained elevated levels of translatable mRNA encoding P71, and the stimulated synthesis of this protein was blocked by actinomycin D, suggesting that P71 is inducible. Rat embryo cells maintained under routine culture conditions synthesized only trace amounts of P71; however, they accumulated an abundant 73 kilodalton protein that was closely related to P71. No kinetic evidence of a precursor-product relationship between P73 and P71 was found. The peptide map of P71 from cultured cells was identical to the map of proteins with the same electrophoretic mobility isolated from incubated slices of rat telencephalon. Previous studies (White, '80a, b, c) have shown that the latter proteins are rapidly synthesized by cells associated with cerebral microvessels in incubated brain slices, but are not detectable in vivo. Herein we present evidence that the synthesis of P71 is not unique to brain slices. Incubated slices of heart, lung, thymus, kidney, spleen, and liver all accumulated an abundant 71 kilodalton size class. The peptide maps of P71 obtained from brain, heart, lung and thymus tissue were similar. The stimulated synthesis of P71 in brain, heart, and lung slices was inhibited strongly by the addition of actinomycin D at the start of incubation. The 71-73 kilodalton proteins of canavanine-treated rat embryo cells and incubated slices from seven different organs were compared in detail on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Eight charge variants were detected in extracts of lung, spleen, and thymus tissue, four in liver and heart, three in kidney, and two different pairs of variants in extracts of brain tissue and cultured cells. The possible significance of the rapid synthesis of a similar small set of proteins in tissue slices and cultured cells in

  20. Computed tomography of the abdomen in Saanen goats: II. liver, spleen, abomasum, and intestine

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the results of computed tomography (CT) of the liver, spleen, abomasum, small intestine and large intestine in 30 healthy Saanen goats. CT examination and anatomical slice preparation postmortem were performed as described in the first communication. After subjective evaluation of the CT images, various variables including the length/size, volume and density of the liver, spleen and gallbladder, the wall thickness of the abomasum, small intestine and large intestine and t...

  1. Three-dimensional electrode array for brain slice culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Rodriguez, Patricia

    Multielektroder arrays (MEA) er rækker af elektroder mest i mikrometer størrelse, som er blevet brugt i stor omfang til at stimulere og måle elektrisk aktivitet fra neuronale netværker. Brug af disse for at analysere hjerne slices (hjerneskiver) kan give indsigt i interaktioner mellem neuroner...

  2. The Slice Algorithm For Irreducible Decomposition of Monomial Ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    2009-01-01

    Irreducible decomposition of monomial ideals has an increasing number of applications from biology to pure math. This paper presents the Slice Algorithm for computing irreducible decompositions, Alexander duals and socles of monomial ideals. The paper includes experiments showing good performance...... in practice....

  3. Spontaneous calcium waves in granule cells in cerebellar slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apuschkin, Mia; Ougaard, Maria; Rekling, Jens C

    2013-01-01

    and establishment of synaptic transmission. Here, we used calcium imaging in slice cultures of the postnatal cerebellum, and observe spontaneous propagating calcium waves in NeuN-positive granule-like cells. Wave formation was blocked by TTX and the AMPA antagonist NBQX, but persisted after NMDA receptor blockade...

  4. Slicing Recognition of Aircraft Integral Panel Generalized Pocket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fangfang; Du Baorui; Ren Wenjie; Zheng Guolei; Chu Hongzhen

    2008-01-01

    To automatically obtain a machining area in numerical control (NC) programming, a data model of generalized pocket is estab-lished by analyzing aireraft integral panel characteristics, and a feature recognition approach is proposed. First, by reference to the prao- tieal slice-machining process of an aircraft integral panel, both the part and the blank are sliced in the Z-axis direction; hence a feature profile is created acceding to the slicing planes and the contours are formed by the intersection of the slicing planes with the part and its blanK. Second, the auxiliary features of the generalized pocket are also determined based on the face type and the position, to correct the profile of the pocket. Finally, the generalized pocket feature relationship tree is constructed by matching the vertical relationships among the features. Machining feature information produced by using this method can be directly used to calculate the cutter path. The validity and practicability of the method is verified by NC programming for aircraft panels.

  5. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC until reaching moisture contents of simila...

  6. Stochastic neural network model for spontaneous bursting in hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, B; Dasgupta, C

    2002-11-01

    A biologically plausible, stochastic, neural network model that exhibits spontaneous transitions between a low-activity (normal) state and a high-activity (epileptic) state is studied by computer simulation. Brief excursions of the network to the high-activity state lead to spontaneous population bursting similar to the behavior observed in hippocampal slices bathed in a high-potassium medium. Although the variability of interburst intervals in this model is due to stochasticity, first return maps of successive interburst intervals show trajectories that resemble the behavior expected near unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) of systems exhibiting deterministic chaos. Simulations of the effects of the application of chaos control, periodic pacing, and anticontrol to the network model yield results that are qualitatively similar to those obtained in experiments on hippocampal slices. Estimation of the statistical significance of UPOs through surrogate data analysis also leads to results that resemble those of similar analysis of data obtained from slice experiments and human epileptic activity. These results suggest that spontaneous population bursting in hippocampal slices may be a manifestation of stochastic bistable dynamics, rather than of deterministic chaos. Our results also question the reliability of some of the recently proposed, UPO-based, statistical methods for detecting determinism and chaos in experimental time-series data.

  7. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  8. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during their lifetime; The bovines from which the... from animals that are not known to have been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during... community is that the agent is an abnormal form of a normal protein known as cellular prion protein. The...

  9. Preparation of isolated bovine adipocytes: validation of use for studies characterizing insulin sensitivity and binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilatos, R; Etherton, T D; Wangsness, P J

    1983-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop techniques to isolate bovine adipocytes, to compare their rates of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity with adipocytes in adipose tissue, and to determine if isolated bovine adipocytes specifically bind insulin. Cell size and diameter distributions were the same for adipocytes fixed with OsO4 after isolation with collagenase and adipocytes liberated from OsO4-fixed adipose tissue slices. On a per cell basis, lipogenic rates were greater for isolated adipocytes compared with intact adipose tissue. Similar differences were found for glucose oxidation. In short term incubations, glucose oxidation and lipid synthesis were not stimulated by insulin (0-100 ng/ml) in either isolated adipocytes or tissue. Specific binding of [125I]iodoinsulin at 30 C was low (0.8%) in the first group of six beef cattle sampled, but increased with increasing cell concentration. Insulin degradation after 90 min was less than 5%. The specificity of [125I]iodoinsulin binding was studied in a second group of six animals. There was no specific binding of insulin in this group. In summary, bovine adipocytes can be isolated which are metabolically active and provide a valid system for studying hormone binding and action. In the present study, glucose metabolism in bovine adipocytes was not stimulated by insulin in vitro. This insensitivity to insulin was associated with a negligible capacity for insulin binding. These findings suggest that the lack of insulin sensitivity in bovine adipose tissue may be due to an inability to specifically bind insulin. This may be related to the unique metabolism of ruminant adipose tissue, which is less dependent upon glucose for fatty acid synthesis than is adipose tissue from nonruminant species.

  10. Fan beam image reconstruction with generalized Fourier slice theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    For parallel beam geometry the Fourier reconstruction works via the Fourier slice theorem (or central slice theorem, projection slice theorem). For fan beam situation, Fourier slice can be extended to a generalized Fourier slice theorem (GFST) for fan-beam image reconstruction. We have briefly introduced this method in a conference. This paper reintroduces the GFST method for fan beam geometry in details. The GFST method can be described as following: the Fourier plane is filled by adding up the contributions from all fanbeam projections individually; thereby the values in the Fourier plane are directly calculated for Cartesian coordinates such avoiding the interpolation from polar to Cartesian coordinates in the Fourier domain; inverse fast Fourier transform is applied to the image in Fourier plane and leads to a reconstructed image in spacial domain. The reconstructed image is compared between the result of the GFST method and the result from the filtered backprojection (FBP) method. The major differences of the GFST and the FBP methods are: (1) The interpolation process are at different data sets. The interpolation of the GFST method is at projection data. The interpolation of the FBP method is at filtered projection data. (2) The filtering process are done in different places. The filtering process of the GFST is at Fourier domain. The filtering process of the FBP method is the ramp filter which is done at projections. The resolution of ramp filter is variable with different location but the filter in the Fourier domain lead to resolution invariable with location. One advantage of the GFST method over the FBP method is in short scan situation, an exact solution can be obtained with the GFST method, but it can not be obtained with the FBP method. The calculation of both the GFST and the FBP methods are at O(N^3), where N is the number of pixel in one dimension.

  11. Application of an indirect immunofluorescent staining method for detection of Salmonella enteritidis in paraffin slices and antigen location in infected duck tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yan; An-Chun Cheng; Ming-Shu Wang; Shu-Xuan Deng; Zhen-Hua Zhang; Nian-Chun Yin; Ping Cao; Sheng-Yan Cao

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To detect Salmonella enteritidis (S.enteritidis)in paraffin slices and antigen location in infected duck tissues.METHODS:The rabbits were immunized with purified bacillus to obtain S.enteritidis-specific antibody,which were then extracted by the caprylic-ammonium sulphate method,purified through High-Q columns.An indirect immuno-fluorescent staining method (IFA) was established to detect the S.enteritidis antigen in paraffin slices.Detected S.enteritidis in each organ tissue of ducklings experimentally infected with S.enteritidis.RESULTS:The gland of Garder,heart,kidney,spleen,liver,brain,ileum,jejunum,bursa of Fabricius from S.enteritidis experimentally infected ducklings were positive or strongly positive,and the S.enteritidis antigen mainly distributed in the infected cell cytoplasm.CONCLUSION:IFA is an intuitioni/st,sensitive and specific method in detecting S.enteritidis antigen in paraffin wax slices,and it is a good method in diagnosis and antigen location of S.enteritidis.We also conclude that the gland of Garder,heart,kidney,spleen,liver,ileum,jejunum are target organs in S.enteritidis infections of duck,and S.enteritidis is an intracellular parasitic bacterium.

  12. Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930137 Effects of selective and non-selectiveβ-adrenoreceptor blockers on portal hemody-namics in patients with liver cirrhosis.HUANGTianwei(黄天卫),et al.1st Affili Hosp,DalianMed Coll.Chin J Digest 1992;12(3):145-147.Effects of selective(atenolol)and non-selec-tive(propranolol)β-adrenoreceptor blockerson portal hemodynamics in patients with livercirrhosis were measured by pulsed Doppler du-

  13. Effect of simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration on quality characteristics of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of various processing parameters on carrot slices exposed to infrared (IR) radiation heating for achieving simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD). The investigated parameters were product surface temperature, slice thickness and processing ti...

  14. Liver in systemic disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Potential causes of abnormal liver function tests include viral hepatitis, alcohol intake, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, hereditary diseases, hepatobiliary malignancies or infection, gallstones and drug-induced liver injury. Moreover, the liver may be involved in systemic diseases that mainly affect other organs. Therefore, in patients without etiology of liver injury by screening serology and diagnostic imaging, but who have systemic diseases, the abnormal liver function test results might be caused by the systemic disease. In most of these patients, the systemic disease should be treated primarily. However, some patients with systemic disease and severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure require intensive treatments of the liver.

  15. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  16. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography in the detection of lung and liver cysts in cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Echinococcosis is the major cause of lung and liver cysts in ruminants. This study compared usefulness of radiography and ultrasonography (USG in the detection of lung and/or liver cysts in sick bovine animals. The study also worked out cooccurrence of lung and liver cysts, and whether these cysts were primary cause of sickness or not. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 sick bovine (37 buffaloes and 8 cattle suffering from lung and liver cysts. A complete history of illness and clinical examination was carried out. Lateral radiographs of chest and reticular region were taken. In radiographically positive or suspected cases of cysts, USG of the lung and liver region was done. Depending on the location of cyst and clinical manifestations of the animal, the cysts were categorized as primary or secondary causes of sickness. Results: Using either imaging technique, it was observed that 46.7% of the animals had both lung and liver cysts, whereas 33.3% had only lung and 20% had only liver cyst. Cysts were identified as primary cause of sickness in 31.1% animals only. For diagnosing lung cysts, radiography (71.1% and USG (62.2% had similar diagnostic utility. However, for detecting liver cysts, USG was the only imaging tool. Conclusion: The lung and liver cysts, depending on their number and size may be a primary cause of sickness in bovine. Radiography and USG are recommended, in combination, as screening tools to rule out echinococcosis.

  17. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1998-01-01

    The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) warrants continued investigation of the mechanisms by which Moraxella bovis survives on and colonizes the corneal surface. Virulent strains of M bovis produce hemolysin and exhibit different plasmid profiles than nonvirulent strains. Interactions among host, environment, vector, season, and concurrent infection influence the prevalence of IBK. Mycoplasma sp. or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus may enhance or hasten the disease process. The manifestations of IBK may range from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness. Treatment of IBK is dictated by economic considerations, intended animal use, and feasibility of administration. Antibiotic therapy is aimed at achieving drug concentrations in tears to meet or exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged periods. At present, IBK is not a preventable disease. Affected animals must be separated from the herd and vector control vigorously instituted. Carrier animals must be identified and removed from the herd. Vaccination trials have been unsuccessful because of pili antigen cross-reactivity, variable strains, and uncontrolled environmental factors. Recent investigations have determined that M bovis may utilize host iron sources via iron-repressible outer membrane proteins and siderophores for growth. Elucidation of normal defense mechanisms of the bovine eye may lead to new strategies to enhance the immune response against M bovis.

  18. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT.

  19. Influence of dopamine as noradrenaline precursor on the secretory function of the bovine corpus luteum in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotwica, J.; Skarzynski, D.; Bogacki, M.; Miszkiel, G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Dopamine is assumed to affect the ovary function after its conversion into noradrenaline (NA). 2. To study this bovine luteal slices from 11-14 days of the oestrous cycle were preincubated for 24 h to recover beta-receptors and next they were incubated for 1, 2 or 4 h with (a) different doses of dopamine; (b) dopamine together with a beta-antagonist (propranolol) or with a dopamine receptor blocker (droperidol); (c) dopamine with a dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor. 3. Dopamine stimulate...

  20. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...

  1. Effect of Blanching on Structural Quality of Dried Potato Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté; Quartaert; Meerdink; van't Riet K

    1998-02-16

    Mechanical properties of potato slices were monitored during blanching, as indicators of structural changes. As expected, blanching resulted in weakening of potato structure. Gelatinization, which occurred during the first 2 min, did not promote an immediate weakening of the potato tissue. More than 80% of the changes in mechanical properties occurred during the first 30 min of blanching. Potato slices blanched for 2 and 30 min as well as unblanched ones were dried in a convective air drier at 48 degrees C. Bulk and true density, porosity, and shrinkage were monitored with time. Blanched potatoes resulted in a significantly more compact, less porous product with lower effective water diffusivity than unblanched potatoes. The results indicated that changes that occurred during the first 2 min of blanching had a much greater influence on structural quality of dried potatoes than changes that occurred from 2 to 30 min of blanching.

  2. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl;

    2005-01-01

    at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...... were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a(*). Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical...... relationship with correlation coefficients greater than 90%. A first-order rate equation was used to model the kinetics of color change. In all case the Arrhenius activation energy decreases alongside with decreasing chip moisture content. Blanching reduced acrylamide formation in potato chips in similar to64...

  3. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  4. Ethanol induces MAP2 changes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    1998-01-01

    loss of CA3 pyramidal cells and moderate loss of dentate granule cells, as seen in vivo. The results indicate that brain slice cultures combined with immunostaining for cytoskeleton and neuronal markers can be used for studies of ethanol and organic solvent neurotoxicity.......Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific protein (NeuN) immunostains were used to demonstrate neurotoxic effects in mature hippocampal slice cultures exposed to ethanol (50, 100, 200 mM) for 4 weeks. At the low dose the density of MAP2 immunostaining in the dentate molecular...... layer was 118% of the control cultures, with no detectable changes in CA1 and CA3. At 100 mM no changes were detected, while 200 mM ethanol significantly reduced the MAP2 density in both dentate (19%) and hippocampal dendritic fields (CA3, 52%; CA1, 55%). At this dose NeuN staining showed considerable...

  5. Liver Disease and IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Liver Disease and IBD Go Back Liver Disease and IBD Email Print + Share Several complications ... be necessary to make the definitive diagnosis. FATTY LIVER DISEASE (HEPATCI STEATOSIS) This is the most common ...

  6. Pyogenic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  7. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  8. Slicepedia: Content-agnostic slicing resource production for adaptive hypermedia

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED he production of resources supporting the needs of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs) is labor-intensive. As a result, content production is focused upon meeting the needs of resources with higher demand, which limits the extent to which numerous and diverse content requirements of AHSs can be met. Open Corpus Slicing attempts to convert the wealth of information available on the web, into customisable information objects. This approach could provide the basis of an open corpus s...

  9. Slice Energy in Higher Order Gravity Theories and Conformal Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cotsakis, S

    2004-01-01

    We show that there is a generic transport of energy between the scalar field generated by the conformal transformation of higher order gravity theories and the matter component. We give precise relations of this exchange and show that, unless we are in a stationary spacetime, slice energy is not generically conserved. These results translate into statements about the relative behaviour of ordinary matter, dark matter and dark energy in the context of higher order gravity.

  10. Whole brain CT perfusion on a 320-slice CT scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Jai Shiva Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography perfusion (CTP has been criticized for limited brain coverage. This may result in inadequate coverage of the lesion, inadequate arterial input function, or omission of the lesion within the target perfusion volume. The availability of 320-slice CT scanners offers whole brain coverage. This minimizes the chances of misregistration of lesions regardless of location, and makes the selection of the arterial input function easy. We present different clinical scenarios in which whole brain CTP is especially useful.

  11. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Porto, Isabel M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FOP/UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia; Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Rieirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia; Costa, Fanny N. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10{sup -1}0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  12. Direct Slicing Based on Material Performance and Process Parameters for Selective Laser Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Direct slicing from CAD models to generate sectional contours of thepart to be sintered for Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) may overcome inherent disadvantages of using a Stereo Lithography ( STL ) format. In this paper, a direct slicing procedure is proposed for Selective Laser Sintering based on material performance and process parameters. Slicing thickness depends on the 3 D geometric model,material performance and process parameters. The relationship among material performance, process parameters and the largest slicing thickness is established using analysis of a sintering temperature field. A dynamic linked library is developed to realize direct slicing from a CAD model.

  13. A new iterative method for liver segmentation from perfusion CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draoua, Ahmed; Albouy-Kissi, Adélaïde; Vacavant, Antoine; Sauvage, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Liver cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, and the majority of patients with liver cancer will die within one year as a result of the cancer. Liver segmentation in the abdominal area is critical for diagnosis of tumor and for surgical procedures. Moreover, it is a challenging task as liver tissue has to be separated from adjacent organs and substantially the heart. In this paper we present a novel liver segmentation iterative method based on Fuzzy C-means (FCM) coupled with a fast marching segmentation and mutual information. A prerequisite for this method is the determination of slice correspondences between ground truth that is, a few images segmented by an expert, and images that contain liver and heart at the same time.

  14. Amebic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  15. Liver regeneration in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Lagomarsino

    2012-01-01

    Steatosis is the accumulation of fat in hepatocytes, which may be the result of liver regeneration or pathological processes such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Despite its importance, in both cases the exact mechanism that prevails in fatty liver regeneration is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that patients with fatty liver express dispar regeneration, possibly due to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species generated by inflammatory processes caused by ...

  16. The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

  17. Getting a New Liver: Facts about Liver Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2002 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Liver Facts About Liver Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, ... views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ 1 Getting a New Liver Facts About Liver Transplants A liver transplant is ...

  18. Perfusion computed tomography evaluation of angiogenesis in liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Feng [Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Department of Clinical Pain, Beijing (China); Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Department of Radiology, Nanchong City, Sichuan Province (China); Du, Yong; Xu, Xiao Xue; Li, Yang [Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Department of Radiology, Nanchong City, Sichuan Province (China); Ni, Jia Xiang [Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Department of Clinical Pain, Beijing (China); Zhou, Xiang Ping [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province (China); Li, Jin Dong [Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Department of General Surgery, Nanchong City, Sichuan Province (China); Zhang, Qing [Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Department of Ultrasound, Nanchong City, Sichuan Province (China)

    2010-06-15

    To investigate the value of computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging for assessment of angiogenesis in liver cancer. Twenty-one patients with histologically proven liver cancer underwent CT perfusion examination. We compared the following perfusion parameters in the tumour area versus the non-tumour area: total blood flow (TBF), hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP), hepatic portal perfusion (HPP) and hepatic arterial perfusion index (HAPI). Slices of postoperative specimen were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and anti-CD34 immunohistochemistry. The slices were evaluated with emphasis on the CD34-positive neovasculature in the tumour parenchyma. Tumour microvascular density (MVD) was calculated according to the Weidner method. Pearson correlation was used to detect correlations between tumour MVD and tumour perfusion parameters. TBF and HPP in the tumour area were lower than in the non-tumour area (P < 0.05). HAP and HAPI in the tumour area were higher than those of the non-tumour area (P < 0.05). TBF and HAP in the tumour area correlated with MVD in the tumour (P < 0.05), with correlation coefficients of 0.849 and 0.829, respectively. CT perfusion imaging can quantitatively assess the blood supply and its distribution in liver cancer. TBF or HAP may be a useful parameter in assessing angiogenesis of liver cancer. (orig.)

  19. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik L; Andersen, Jens H

    2017-04-01

    After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulphates. The effectiveness of solvolysis on androgenic steroid sulphates was tested with selected aliphatic steroid sulphates (boldenone sulphate, nortestosteron sulphate and testosterone sulphate), and the method was validated for analysis of androgenic steroids in bovine urine using free steroids, steroid sulphates and steroid glucuronides as standards. Glucuronidase and sulphuric acid in ethyl acetate were used for deconjugation and the extract was purified by solid-phase extraction. The final extract was evaporated to dryness, re-dissolved and analysed by LC-MS/MS.

  20. Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930537 Preliminary report on portal hyperten-tion in liver cirrhosis treated by transjugular in-trahepatic portosystemic stent shunt(analysis of8 cases).XU Ke(徐克),et al.Dept Radiol,lst Hosp,China Med Univ,Shenyang,110001.Chin J Radiol 1993;25(5):294—297.Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stentshunt(TIPPS)was performed in 8 cases of livercirrhosis with portal hypertention.Moderate orsevere hemorrhage from gastroesophageal variceshad happened in all patients for 2~5 times beforTIPSS.The average pressure of portal veindropped from 3.80±0.50kPa to 2.58±0.26kPa.The diameter of the shunt established be-tween portal and hepatic veins was 10~12mm.Gastrointestinal bleeding and ascites were effec-

  1. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  2. SU-E-J-240: Development of a Novel 4D MRI Sequence for Real-Time Liver Tumor Tracking During Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, L; Burmeister, J [Department of Oncology, Wayne State Univ School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Ye, Y [Department of Radiology, Wayne State Univ School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a Novel 4D MRI Technique that is feasible for realtime liver tumor tracking during radiotherapy. Methods: A volunteer underwent an abdominal 2D fast EPI coronal scan on a 3.0T MRI scanner (Siemens Inc., Germany). An optimal set of parameters was determined based on image quality and scan time. A total of 23 slices were scanned to cover the whole liver in the test scan. For each scan position, the 2D images were retrospectively sorted into multiple phases based on breathing signal extracted from the images. Consequently the 2D slices with same phase numbers were stacked to form one 3D image. Multiple phases of 3D images formed the 4D MRI sequence representing one breathing cycle. Results: The optimal set of scan parameters were: TR= 57ms, TE= 19ms, FOV read= 320mm and flip angle= 30°, which resulted in a total scan time of 14s for 200 frames (FMs) per slice and image resolution of (2.5mm,2.5mm,5.0mm) in three directions. Ten phases of 3D images were generated, each of which had 23 slices. Based on our test scan, only 100FMs were necessary for the phase sorting process which may lower the scan time to 7s/100FMs/slice. For example, only 5 slices/35s are necessary for a 4D MRI scan to cover liver tumor size ≤ 2cm leading to the possibility of tumor trajectory tracking every 35s during treatment. Conclusion: The novel 4D MRI technique we developed can reconstruct a 4D liver MRI sequence representing one breathing cycle (7s/ slice) without an external monitor. This technique can potentially be used for real-time liver tumor tracking during radiotherapy.

  3. Transcriptional profiling of the bovine hepatic response to experimentally induced E. coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Buitenhuis, Bart; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian liver works to keep the body in a state of homeostasis and plays an important role in systemic acute phase response to infections. In this study we investigated the bovine hepatic acute phase response at the gene transcription level in dairy cows with experimentally E. coli......-induced mastitis. At time = 0, each of 16 periparturient dairy cows received 20-40 CFU of live E. coli in one front quarter of the udder. A time series of liver biopsies was collected at -144, 12, 24 and 192 hours relative to time of inoculation. Changes in transcription levels in response to E. coli inoculation...... to cellular stress invoked by reactive metabolites, and 3) metabolism and turnover of proteins. The results showed that the liver went through a period of perturbations to its normal homeostatic condition during the first 24 hours following the E. coli-induced intra-mammary inflammation. In previous studies...

  4. Imaging infrared spectroscopy for fixation-free liver tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, James V.; Chen, Zhaomin; Li, Ran; Butke, Ryan; Miller, Barrie; Hitchcock, Charles L.; Allen, Heather C.; Povoski, Stephen P.; Martin, Edward W.

    2014-03-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy of human liver tissue slices has been used to identify and characterize a liver metastasis of breast origin (mucinous carcinoma) which was surgically removed from a consenting patient and frozen without formalin fixation or dehydration procedures, so that lipids and water remain in the tissues. Previously, a set of IR metrics was determined for tumors in fixation-free liver tissues facilitating a k-means cluster analysis differentiating tumor from nontumor. Different and more in depth aspects of these results are examined in this work including three metric color imaging, differencing for lipid identification, and a new technique to simultaneously fit band lineshapes and their 2nd derivatives in order to better characterize protein changes.

  5. Altered regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in hippocampus following slice preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, S C; Pan, E; Nef, S; Parada, L F; McNamara, J O

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) play important roles in regulating survival, structure, and function of CNS neurons. One method of studying the functions of these molecules has utilized in vitro hippocampal slice preparations. An important caveat to using slices, however, is that slice preparation itself might alter the expression of BDNF, thereby confounding experimental results. To address this concern, BDNF immunoreactivity was examined in rodent slices using two different methods of slice preparation. Rapid and anatomically selective regulation of BDNF content followed slice preparation using both methodologies; however, different patterns of altered BDNF immunoreactivity were observed. First, in cultured slices, BDNF content decreased in the dentate molecular layer and increased in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer and the mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampus after 30 min. Furthermore, an initially "punctate" pattern of BDNF labeling observed in the mossy fiber pathway of control sections changed to homogenous labeling of the pathway in vitro. In contrast to these findings, slices prepared as for acute slice physiology exhibited no change in BDNF content in the molecular layer and mossy fiber pathway 30 min after slicing, but exhibited significant increases in the dentate granule and CA3 pyramidal cell layers. These findings demonstrate that BDNF protein content is altered following slice preparation, that different methods of slice preparation produce different patterns of BDNF regulation, and raise the possibility that BDNF release and TrkB activation may also be regulated. These consequences of hippocampal slice preparation may confound analyses of exogenous or endogenous BDNF on hippocampal neuronal structure or function.

  6. Bovine milk antibodies for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S

    2000-11-01

    The immunoglobulins of bovine colostrum provide the major antimicrobial protection against microbial infections and confer a passive immunity to the newborn calf until its own immune system matures. The concentration in colostrum of specific antibodies against pathogens can be raised by immunising cows with these pathogens or their antigens. Immune milk products are preparations made of such hyperimmune colostrum or antibodies enriched from it. These preparations can be used to give effective specific protection against different enteric diseases in calves and suckling pigs. Colostral immunoglobulin supplements designed for farm animals are commercially available in many countries. Also, some immune milk products containing specific antibodies against certain pathogens have been launched on the market. A number of clinical studies are currently in progress to evaluate the efficacy of immune milks in the prevention and treatment of various human infections, including those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bovine colostrum-based immune milk products have proven effective in prophylaxis against various infectious diseases in humans. Good results have been obtained with products targeted against rotavirus, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Streptococcus mutans, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori. Some successful attempts have been made to use immune milk in balancing gastrointestinal microbial flora. Immune milk products are promising examples of health-promoting functional foods, or nutraceuticals. This review summarises the recent progress in the development of these products and evaluates their potential as dietary supplements and in clinical nutrition.

  7. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G

    1993-01-01

    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity.

  8. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  9. Binding of phospholipids to the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein from bovine brain as studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paridon, P.A. van; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Wirtz, K.W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol transfer protein isolated from brain, liver, heart and platelets was found to be present in two subforms which could be distinguished on the basis of the isoelectric points. In this study we have demonstrated that the two subforms isolated from bovine brain are due to the pr

  10. Immune mediated liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capac...

  11. Appropriateness of Liver Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Poynard; Vlad Ratziu; Pierre Bedossa

    2000-01-01

    This review aims to discuss the appropriateness of liver biopsy in two frequent liver diseases, hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease. The medical literature, published between 1965 and 1999, was reviewed by using MEDLINE. Only 0.1% of the publications were devoted specifically to the appropriateness of liver biopsy. Not all studies observed a significant agreement among doctors on the decision to use liver biopsy. Therefore, there is a possibility that hepatologists have significant, heter...

  12. Differential Conditioning of Associative Synaptic Enhancement in Hippocampal Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Stephen R.; Brown, Thomas H.

    1986-04-01

    An electrophysiological stimulation paradigm similar to one that produces Pavlovian conditioning was applied to synaptic inputs to pyramidal neurons of hippocampal brain slices. Persistent synaptic enhancement was induced in one of two weak synaptic inputs by pairing high-frequency electrical stimulation of the weak input with stimulation of a third, stronger input to the same region. Forward (temporally overlapping) but not backward (temporally separate) pairings caused this enhancement. Thus hippocampal synapses in vitro can undergo the conditional and selective type of associative modification that could provide the substrate for some of the mnemonic functions in which the hippocampus is thought to participate.

  13. Rational-slice Knots via Strongly Negative-amphicheiral Knots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAWAUCHI AKIO

    2009-01-01

    We show that certain satellite knots of every strongly negative-amphicheiral rational knot are rational-slice knots. This proof also shows that the 0-surgery man-ifold of a certain strongly negative amphicheiral knot such as the figure-eight knot bounds a compact oriented smooth 4-manifold homotopy equivalent to the 2-sphere such that a second homology class of the 4-manifold is represented by a smoothly embedded 2-sphere if and only if the modulo two reduction of it is zero.

  14. Maximal slicings in spherical symmetry: local existence and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio; 10.1063/1.3658864

    2011-01-01

    We show that any spherically symmetric spacetime locally admits a maximal spacelike slicing and we give a procedure allowing its construction. The construction procedure that we have designed is based on purely geometrical arguments and, in practice, leads to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. We have explicitly built up maximal foliations in Minkowski and Friedmann spacetimes. Our approach admits further generalizations and efficient computational implementation. As by product, we suggest some applications of our work in the task of calibrating Numerical Relativity complex codes, usually written in Cartesian coordinates.

  15. Prognostic value of sarcopenia in liver surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, M; Lim, C; Salloum, C; Lazzati, A; Compagnon, P; Pascal, G; Azoulay, D

    2015-11-01

    Current knowledge indicates that malnutrition increases the rate of post-operative complications, particularly respiratory and infectious, after major surgery. Almost all liver surgery is performed in patients with cancer, a factor that increases the risk of malnutrition. The primary risk factors for post-operative complications are pre-operative hypo-albuminemia and a body mass index less than 20 kg/m(2). To improve the prediction of complications in these patients, some teams have suggested measurement of muscle thickness by computed tomography. Muscular mass can thus be quantified by measuring the total surface of the psoas muscle or the total surface of all muscles (i.e. external and internal oblique, transverse, psoas and paravertebral muscles) seen on an axial CT slice at L3. As well, data exist suggesting that sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of post-operative morbidity and poor long-term survival after resection for cancer. Nonetheless, the literature on the subject is limited, there are no standardized definitions for sarcopenia, and the need of special software to calculate the surfaces limits its usefulness. Lastly, there are little if any data concerning the nutritional or pharmacologic means to treat sarcopenia. This update, based on a literature review, deals with the value and the prognostic impact of sarcopenia in surgery for liver tumors. The current definition of sarcopenia, validated internationally, the methods of measurement, and the consequences of sarcopenia on the outcome of liver resections are detailed in this review.

  16. A novel carbon fiber bundle microelectrode and modified brain slice chamber for recording long-term multiunit activity from brain slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, T K; Gillette, M U

    1996-11-01

    The fabrication and characteristics of a novel multiunit recording electrode and modified brain slice chamber suitable for long-term recording from brain slices are described. The electrode consisted of an electrolyte-filled glass micropipette with a 20-50 microns thick wax-coated bundle of 5-micron diameter carbon fibers extending 2.5 cm from the tapered end and an AgCl-coated silver wire inserted into the open end and connected to a preamplifier. Both ends of the electrode were sealed with wax to prevent evaporation of the electrolyte. The brain slice was maintained over this extended period in an interface-type brain slice chamber modified to completely surround the slice with medium. Using this electrode, regular 24-h oscillations of spontaneous multiunit activity were recorded for 3 days from a single location in a 500 microns thick rat suprachiasmatic nucleus brain slice. Preliminary data suggest that this novel carbon fiber bundle electrode will be a favorable alternative to traditional metal electrodes for long-term recording of multiunit activity from brain slices.

  17. Absence of synaptic regulation by phosducin in retinal slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Long

    Full Text Available Phosducin is an abundant photoreceptor protein that binds G-protein βγ subunits and plays a role in modulating synaptic transmission at photoreceptor synapses under both dark-adapted and light-adapted conditions in vivo. To examine the role of phosducin at the rod-to-rod bipolar cell (RBC synapse, we used whole-cell voltage clamp recordings to measure the light-evoked currents from both wild-type (WT and phosducin knockout (Pd(-/- RBCs, in dark- and light-adapted retinal slices. Pd(-/- RBCs showed smaller dim flash responses and steeper intensity-response relationships than WT RBCs, consistent with the smaller rod responses being selectively filtered out by the non-linear threshold at the rod-to-rod bipolar synapse. In addition, Pd(-/- RBCs showed a marked delay in the onset of the light-evoked currents, similar to that of a WT response to an effectively dimmer flash. Comparison of the changes in flash sensitivity in the presence of steady adapting light revealed that Pd(-/- RBCs desensitized less than WT RBCs to the same intensity. These results are quantitatively consistent with the smaller single photon responses of Pd(-/- rods, owing to the known reduction in rod G-protein expression levels in this line. The absence of an additional synaptic phenotype in these experiments suggests that the function of phosducin at the photoreceptor synapse is abolished by the conditions of retinal slice recordings.

  18. Slices: A shape-proxy based on planar sections

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James

    2011-12-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies.

  19. Delivery of recombinant alphavirus into hippocampal slice tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2012-08-01

    The alphaviruses Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) have been used frequently as expression vectors in vitro and in vivo. Usually, these systems consist of replication-deficient vectors that require a helper vector for packaging of recombinant particles. Replication-proficient vectors have also been engineered. Alphaviral vectors can be used as nucleic-acid-based vectors (DNA and RNA) or infectious particles. High-titer viral production is achieved in alphaviruses facilitates studies in mammalian and nonmammalian cell lines, primary cells in culture, and in vivo. The strong preference for expression in neuronal cells has made alphaviruses particularly useful in neurobiological studies. Unfortunately, their strong cytotoxic effect on host cells, relatively short-term transient expression patterns, and the reasonably high cost of viral production remain drawbacks. However, novel mutant alphaviruses have shown reduced cytotoxicity and prolonged expression. This protocol describes gene delivery of recombinant alphavirus to hippocampal slice cultures. Organotypic slices are covered by a layer of glial cells that impedes the penetration of viral particles to the neurons. Thus, viral particles should be injected manually into the extracellular space of the tissue.

  20. Projection-slice theorem based 2D-3D registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bom, M. J.; Pluim, J. P. W.; Homan, R.; Timmer, J.; Bartels, L. W.

    2007-03-01

    In X-ray guided procedures, the surgeon or interventionalist is dependent on his or her knowledge of the patient's specific anatomy and the projection images acquired during the procedure by a rotational X-ray source. Unfortunately, these X-ray projections fail to give information on the patient's anatomy in the dimension along the projection axis. It would be very profitable to provide the surgeon or interventionalist with a 3D insight of the patient's anatomy that is directly linked to the X-ray images acquired during the procedure. In this paper we present a new robust 2D-3D registration method based on the Projection-Slice Theorem. This theorem gives us a relation between the pre-operative 3D data set and the interventional projection images. Registration is performed by minimizing a translation invariant similarity measure that is applied to the Fourier transforms of the images. The method was tested by performing multiple exhaustive searches on phantom data of the Circle of Willis and on a post-mortem human skull. Validation was performed visually by comparing the test projections to the ones that corresponded to the minimal value of the similarity measure. The Projection-Slice Theorem Based method was shown to be very effective and robust, and provides capture ranges up to 62 degrees. Experiments have shown that the method is capable of retrieving similar results when translations are applied to the projection images.

  1. Promoting consumption of fruit in elementary school cafeterias. The effects of slicing apples and oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Branscum, Adam; Nakayima, Peace Julie

    2009-10-01

    We examined how slicing apples and oranges affected elementary students' selection and consumption of fruit. Slicing increased the percentage of children selecting and consuming oranges, while a similar effect was not found for apples. The impact of slicing fruit was greatest among younger students. These findings suggest that school cafeterias can increase accessibility and consumption of foods through simple, inexpensive food preparation techniques, with the impact of such measures varying by foods and student characteristics.

  2. Unified Mathematical Framework for Slicing and Symmetry Reduction over Event Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyan Gao; Yingcai Ding; Wenbo Liu; Kaidi Zheng; Siyu Huang; Ning Zhou; Dakui Li

    2014-01-01

    Nonclassical slicing and symmetry reduction can act as efficient structural abstract methods for pruning state space when dealing with verification problems. In this paper, we mainly address theoretical and algorithmic aspects for nonclassical slicing and symmetry reduction over prime event structures. We propose sliced and symmetric quotient reduction models of event structures and present their corresponding algorithms. To construct the underlying foundation of the proposed methodologies, w...

  3. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation......, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans....

  4. Cavernous Transformation of the Portal Vein Might Increase the Risk of Liver Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bo Ai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV is not quite common in adults, and cases with CTPV and acute liver abscess are lacking. We report a patient with CTPV inducing extrahepatic and intrahepatic obstruction, finally leading to acute liver abscess due to bile duct infection. We aim to find out the possible relationship between CTPV and acute liver abscess. A 45-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital for recurrent upper abdominal pain and distension for one year, aggravated with fever for three years. A diagnosis of CTPV and liver abscess was made by 16-slice computed tomography. Effective antibiotics and drainage were used for this patients, and she was eventually cured. When treating patients with CTPV, extrahepatic and intrahepatic obstruction, one should be aware of the presence of acute liver abscess, and empirical antibiotics might be valuable.

  5. The clinical efficacy of 1 mm-slice CT of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kazuhiro; Noiri, Teruhisa [Kawanishi Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Doi, Katsumi; Koizuka, Izumi; Tanaka, Hisashi; Mishiro, Yasuo; Okumura, Shin-ichi; Kubo, Takeshi

    2000-02-01

    The efficacy of the preoperative 1 mm-slice CT for evaluating the condition of the ossicular chain and the facial canal was assessed. CT findings were compared with the operative findings of middle ears in 120 cases of chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma that underwent tympanoplasty. The reliability of 1 mm-slice CT in detecting any defect of the ossicular chain was much superior to those of 2 mm-slice CT previously reported, and the difference between them is essential for preoperative information. On the other hand, thinner slice than 1 mm may be unnecessary, especially in routine use. (author)

  6. A comparative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in prepackaged versus retail-sliced deli meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrikat, Sarah; Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hicks Quesenberry, Heather; Labarre, David; Schroeder, Carl M; Kause, Janell

    2010-04-01

    Deli meat was ranked as the highest-risk ready-to-eat food vehicle of Listeria monocytogenes within the 2003 U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment. The comparative risk of L. monocytogenes in retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was evaluated with a modified version of this model. Other research has found that retail-sliced deli meats have both higher prevalence and levels of L. monocytogenes than have product sliced and packaged at the manufacturer level. The updated risk assessment model considered slicing location as well as the use of growth inhibitors. The per annum comparative risk ratio for the number of deaths from retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was found to be 4.89, and the per-serving comparative risk ratio was 4.27. There was a significant interaction between the use of growth inhibitors and slicing location. Almost 70% of the estimated deaths occurred from retail-sliced product that did not possess a growth inhibitor. A sensitivity analysis, assessing the effect of the model's consumer storage time and shelf life assumptions, found that even if retail-sliced deli meats were stored for a quarter of the time prepackaged deli meats were stored, retail-sliced product is 1.7 times more likely to result in death from listeriosis. Sensitivity analysis also showed that the shelf life assumption had little effect on the comparative risk ratio.

  7. Asymptotics for Kernel Estimation of Slicing Average Third-Moment Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping Zhu; Li-xing Zhu

    2006-01-01

    To estimate central dimension-reduction space in multivariate nonparametric regression, Sliced Inverse Regression[7] (SIR), Sliced Average Variance Estimation[4] (SAVE) and Slicing Average Third-moment Estimation[14] (SAT) have been developed. Since slicing estimation has very different asymptotic behavior for SIR and SAVE, the relevant study has been made case by case, when the kernel estimators of SIR and SAVE share similar asymptotic properties. In this paper, we also investigate kernel estimation of SAT. We prove the asymptotic normality, and show that, compared with the existing results, the kernel smoothing for SIR, SAVE and SAT has very similar asymptotic behavior.

  8. Erythropoietin improves synaptic transmission during and following ischemia in rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Astrid; Maier, Rolf F; Hoffmann, Ulrike; Grips, Martin; Hoppenz, Marc; Aktas, Ayse G; Heinemann, Uwe; Obladen, Michael; Schuchmann, Sebastian

    2002-12-27

    Erythropoietin (EPO) prevents neuronal damage following ischemic, metabolic, and excitotoxic stress. In this study evoked extracellular field potentials (FP) were used to investigate the effect of EPO on synaptic transmission in hippocampal slice cultures. EPO treated cultured slices (40 units/ml for 48 h) showed significantly increased FP during and following oxygen and glucose deprivation compared with untreated control slices. The addition of the Jak2 inhibitor AG490 (50 microM for 48 h) blocked the EPO effect. These data suggest that EPO improves synaptic transmission during and following ischemia in hippocampal slice cultures.

  9. Optimized Protocol of Methanol Treatment for Immunofluorescent Staining in Fixed Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng; Cohen, Noam A.; Cohen, Akiva S.

    2017-01-01

    We optimized methanol treatment in paraformaldehyde-fixed slices for immunofluorescent staining of ependymal basal bodies in brain ventricles. As 100% methanol induced severe deformations to the slices (including rolling and folding over), we tried to decrease methanol concentration. We found that 33.3% to 75% methanol could result in ideal immunostaining of basal bodies without inducing obvious deformations. Instead of treating slices at −20°C (without proper cryoprotection measurements) as suggested in previous studies, we carried out methanol treatment at room temperature. Our modified protocol can not only raise immunostaining efficiency in tissue slices, it may also prevent potential freezing damages to the samples. PMID:26509907

  10. Gene expression profiling of liver from dairy cows treated intra-mammary with lipopolysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Li; Sørensen, Peter; Røntved, Christine;

    2008-01-01

    also seemed to participate in APR. CONCLUSIONS: Performing global gene expression analysis on liver tissue from IM LPS treated cows verified that the liver plays a major role in the APR of E. coli mastitis, and that the bovine hepatic APR follows the same pattern as other mammals when......-dependent expression profile and consisted of genes involved in different biological processes. Our findings suggest that APR in the liver is triggered by the activation of signaling pathways that are involved with common and hepatic-specific transcription factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These mediators...

  11. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  12. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  13. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  14. A Profile of Native Integration Sites Used by φC31 Integrase in the Bovine Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijuan Qu; Qingwen Ma; Zaiwei Zhou; Haiyan Ma; Ying Huang; Shuzhen Huang; Fanyi Zeng; Yitao Zeng

    2012-01-01

    The Streptomyces phage φC31 integrase can efficiently target attB-beadng transgenes to endogenous pseudo attP sites within mammalian genomes.To better understand the activity of φC31 integrase in the bovine genome,DNA sequences of 44 integration events were analyzed,and 32 pseudo attP sites were identified.The majority of these sites share a sequence motif that contains inverted repeats and has similarities to wild-type attP site.Genomic DNA flanking these sites typically contained repetitive sequence elements,such as short and long interspersed repetitive elements.These sequence features indicate that DNA sequence recognition plays an important role in guiding φC31-mediated site-specific integration.In addition,BF27 integration hotspot sites were identified in the bovine genome,which accounted for 13.6% of all isolated integration events and mapped to an intron of the deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) gene.Also we found that the pseudo attP sites in the bovine genome had other features in common with those in the human genome.This study represents the first time that the sequence features of pseudo attP sites in the bovine genome were analyzed.We conclude that this sitespecific integrase system has great potential for applied modifications of the bovine genome.

  15. Liver disease in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel M Lee; Carla W Brady

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy.

  16. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  17. Tests for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has come back after treatment Alpha-fetoprotein blood (AFP) test AFP is normally present at high levels in the ... liver disease, liver cancer, or other cancers. If AFP levels are very high in someone with a ...

  18. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  19. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  20. Antioxidants in liver health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sael; Casas-Grajales; Pablo; Muriel

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals(FR).However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leadsto deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases.

  1. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby Boomers Get Tested Core Programs HE Webinar Disney 2014 5 Ways to Love Your Liver Liver ... Drive Away Liver Disease Liver Lowdown Aug 2013 Disney Marathon In The Field Healthy Foods Diet Recommendations ...

  2. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  3. Percutaneous liver biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun; Newton, Eric; Kar, Premashish

    2010-01-01

    Percutaneous liver biopsy has been performed for more than 120 years, and remains an important diagnostic procedure for the management of hepatobiliary disorders. Modern biochemical, immunologic, and radiographic techniques have facilitated the diagnosis and management of liver diseases but have not made liver biopsy obsolete. This comprehensive review article will discuss the history of development of percutaneous liver biopsy, its indications, contraindications, complications and the various aspects of the biopsy procedure in detail.

  4. Spectral decomposition of black-hole perturbations on hyperboloidal slices

    CERN Document Server

    Ansorg, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a spectral decomposition of solutions to relativistic wave equations described on horizon penetrating hyperboloidal slices within a given Schwarzschild-black-hole background. The wave equa- tion in question is Laplace-transformed which leads to a spatial differential equation with a complex parameter. For initial data which are analytic with respect to a compactified spatial coordinate, this equation is treated with the help of the Mathematica-package in terms of a sophisticated Taylor series analysis. Thereby, all ingredients of the desired spectral decomposition arise explicitly to arbitrarily prescribed accuracy, including quasi normal modes, quasi normal mode amplitudes as well as the jump of the Laplace-transform along the branch cut. Finally, all contributions are put together to obtain via the inverse Laplace transformation the spectral de- composition in question. The paper explains extensively this procedure and includes detailed discussions of relevant aspects, such as the d...

  5. Strong optomechanical interactions in a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijssen, Rick; Verhagen, Ewold

    2015-11-01

    Coupling between mechanical and optical degrees of freedom is strongly enhanced by using subwavelength optical mode profiles. We realize an optomechanical system based on a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam, which combines such highly confined optical fields with a low-mass mechanical mode. Analyzing the transduction of motion and effects of radiation pressure we find the system exhibits a photon-phonon coupling rate g0 /2π ≈ 11.5 MHz, exceeding previously reported values by an order of magnitude. We show that the large optomechanical interaction enables detecting thermal motion with detection noise below that at the standard quantum limit, even in broad bandwidth devices, important for both sensor applications as well as measurement-based quantum control.

  6. Optical slicing of large scenes by synthetic aperture integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor; Saavedra, Genaro; Molina, Ainhoa; Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Javidi, Bahram

    2010-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) technology was created with the aim of providing the binocular observers of monitors, or matrix display devices, with auto-stereoscopic images of 3D scenes. However, along the last few years the inventiveness of researches has allowed to find many other interesting applications of integral imaging. Examples of this are the application of InI in object recognition, the mapping of 3D polarization distributions, or the elimination of occluding signals. One of the most interesting applications of integral imaging is the production of views focused at different depths of the 3D scene. This application is the natural result of the ability of InI to create focal stacks from a single input image. In this contribution we present new algorithm for this optical slicing application, and show that it is possible the 3D reconstruction with improved lateral resolution.

  7. Label-free dopamine imaging in live rat brain slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Bidyut; Banerjee, Arkarup; Das, Anand Kant; Nag, Suman; Kaushalya, Sanjeev Kumar; Tripathy, Umakanta; Shameem, Mohammad; Shukla, Shubha; Maiti, Sudipta

    2014-05-21

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission has been investigated extensively, yet direct optical probing of dopamine has not been possible in live cells. Here we image intracellular dopamine with sub-micrometer three-dimensional resolution by harnessing its intrinsic mid-ultraviolet (UV) autofluorescence. Two-photon excitation with visible light (540 nm) in conjunction with a non-epifluorescent detection scheme is used to circumvent the UV toxicity and the UV transmission problems. The method is established by imaging dopamine in a dopaminergic cell line and in control cells (glia), and is validated by mass spectrometry. We further show that individual dopamine vesicles/vesicular clusters can be imaged in cultured rat brain slices, thereby providing a direct visualization of the intracellular events preceding dopamine release induced by depolarization or amphetamine exposure. Our technique opens up a previously inaccessible mid-ultraviolet spectral regime (excitation ~270 nm, emission free imaging of native molecules in live tissue.

  8. Semiquantitative correction of posttraumatic enophthalmos with sliced cartilage grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, K; Hirose, T; Furuta, S; Hayashi, M; Watanabe, T

    1989-03-01

    A simple surgical technique for correcting posttraumatic enophthalmos is described. The steps are as follows: (1) a plaster mold is obtained of the patient's face, (2) wax is added to the enophthalmic eye of the plaster mold until it becomes symmetrical, (3) the quantity of wax is measured, and (4) the same amount of sliced costal cartilage is implanted beneath the periosteum of the extended orbital wall behind the vertical axis of the globe. Using this technique, we have successfully treated six patients with traumatic orbital floor defects without complication. This approach is useful for decreasing the orbital volume using a semiquantitative procedure to estimate the amount of graft material required. In this respect, costal cartilage demonstrates a marked advantage, with stability and cosmetic appearance verified over 12 months of follow-up.

  9. Persistent gliosis interferes with neurogenesis in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eGerlach

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus has become an intensively investigated research topic, as it is essential for proper hippocampal function and considered to bear therapeutic potential for the replacement of pathologically lost neurons. On the other hand, neurogenesis itself is frequently affected by CNS insults. To identify processes leading to the disturbance of neurogenesis, we made use of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC, which, for unknown reasons, lose their neurogenic potential during cultivation. In the present study, we show by BrdU/Prox1 double-immunostaining that the generation of new granule cells drops by 90% during the first week of cultivation. Monitoring neurogenesis dynamically in OHSC from POMC-eGFP mice, in which immature granule cells are endogenously labeled, revealed a gradual decay of the eGFP signal, reaching 10% of initial values within seven days of cultivation. Accordingly, RT-qPCR analysis showed the downregulation of the neurogenesis-related genes doublecortin and Hes5, a crucial target of the stem cell-maintaining Notch signaling pathway. In parallel, we demonstrate a strong and long-lasting activation of astrocytes and microglial cells, both, morphologically and on the level of gene expression. Enhancement of astroglial activation by treating OHSC with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF accelerated the loss of neurogenesis, whereas treatment with indomethacin or an antagonist of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor exhibited potent protective effects on the neurogenic outcome. Therefore, we conclude that OHSC rapidly lose their neurogenic capacity due to persistent inflammatory processes taking place after the slice preparation. As inflammation is also considered to affect neurogenesis in many CNS pathologies, OHSC appear as a useful tool to study this interplay and its molecular basis. Furthermore, we propose that modification of glial activation might bear the therapeutic potential of enabling

  10. Persistent Gliosis Interferes with Neurogenesis in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Johannes; Donkels, Catharina; Münzner, Gert; Haas, Carola A

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus has become an intensively investigated research topic, as it is essential for proper hippocampal function and considered to bear therapeutic potential for the replacement of pathologically lost neurons. On the other hand, neurogenesis itself is frequently affected by CNS insults. To identify processes leading to the disturbance of neurogenesis, we made use of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC), which, for unknown reasons, lose their neurogenic potential during cultivation. In the present study, we show by BrdU/Prox1 double-immunostaining that the generation of new granule cells drops by 90% during the first week of cultivation. Monitoring neurogenesis dynamically in OHSC from POMC-eGFP mice, in which immature granule cells are endogenously labeled, revealed a gradual decay of the eGFP signal, reaching 10% of initial values within 7 days of cultivation. Accordingly, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the downregulation of the neurogenesis-related genes doublecortin and Hes5, a crucial target of the stem cell-maintaining Notch signaling pathway. In parallel, we demonstrate a strong and long-lasting activation of astrocytes and microglial cells, both, morphologically and on the level of gene expression. Enhancement of astroglial activation by treating OHSC with ciliary neurotrophic factor accelerated the loss of neurogenesis, whereas treatment with indomethacin or an antagonist of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor exhibited potent protective effects on the neurogenic outcome. Therefore, we conclude that OHSC rapidly lose their neurogenic capacity due to persistent inflammatory processes taking place after the slice preparation. As inflammation is also considered to affect neurogenesis in many CNS pathologies, OHSC appear as a useful tool to study this interplay and its molecular basis. Furthermore, we propose that modification of glial activation might bear the therapeutic potential

  11. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented.

  12. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  13. Research Areas: Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and C, or by genetic mutations. Other liver diseases can be triggered by autoimmune reactions or drug toxicity. The rise in obesity in the United States has led to a rise in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Many liver diseases place individuals at higher risk ...

  14. LIVER AND BILIARY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    11.1 Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver2003230 The relevance of fatty liver and insulin resistance. LIU Jun(刘军), et al. Dept Endocrinol, Zhong-shan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032, Shanghai Med J 2003; 16(1): 14-17

  15. LIVER AND BILIARY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    9.1 Liver Function2007108 Blood pressure changes post liver transplantation in 206 recipients. LIU Hai(刘海),et al. 1st People′s Hosp, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200080. Chin J Cardiol 2006;34(10):902-904. Objective To study the blood pressure (BP)changes in the liver transplant recipients.

  16. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel Print A A A What's in ... Is The hepatic function panel, also known as liver function tests, is a group of seven tests ...

  17. LIVER AND BILIARY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    9.1 Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver2003335 The effects of weight reduction in reversing fatty liver changes in overweight and obese patients.ZHU Huijuan(朱惠娟), et al.Dept Endocrinol, PUMC Hosp,CAMS & PUMC, Beijing 100730. Chin J Intern Med 2003:42(2):98-102.Objective:To study the effects of weight loss on non-

  18. Imaging in liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Settimo Caruso; Roberto Miraglia; Luigi Maruzzelli; Salvatore Gruttadauria; Angelo Luca; Bruno Gridelli

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the role of noninvasive imaging tools such as ultrasonography, multidetector row computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of pediatric and adult liver recipients and potential liver donors, and in the detection of potential complications arising from liver transplantation.

  19. Performance Analysis of Generic vs.Sliced Tags in HepODBMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KurtStockinger

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of accessing tag data clustered in two different ways,namely event-wise clustering (generic tag)vs.attribute-wise clustering (sliced tag).The results show that especially "Prefetch-optimisation" results in an additional performance gain of sliced tags over generic tags when only a subset of all the tag attributes is accessed.

  20. Fluidic system for long-term in vitro culturing and monitoring of organotypic brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmand, Tanya; Troels-Smith, Ane R.; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brain slice preparations cultured in vitro have long been used as a simplified model for studying brain development, electrophysiology, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. In this paper an open fluidic system developed for improved long term culturing of organotypic brain slices is presented. ...

  1. SLIMMER: SLIce MRI motion estimation and reconstruction tool for studies of fetal anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kio; Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2011-03-01

    We describe a free software tool which combines a set of algorithms that provide a framework for building 3D volumetric images of regions of moving anatomy using multiple fast multi-slice MRI studies. It is specifically motivated by the clinical application of unsedated fetal brain imaging, which has emerged as an important area for image analysis. The tool reads multiple DICOM image stacks acquired in any angulation into a consistent patient coordinate frame and allows the user to select regions to be locally motion corrected. It combines algorithms for slice motion estimation, bias field inconsistency correction and 3D volume reconstruction from multiple scattered slice stacks. The tool is built onto the RView (http://rview.colin-studholme.net) medical image display software and allows the user to inspect slice stacks, and apply both stack and slice level motion estimation that incorporates temporal constraints based on slice timing and interleave information read from the DICOM data. Following motion estimation an algorithm for bias field inconsistency correction provides the user with the ability to remove artifacts arising from the motion of the local anatomy relative to the imaging coils. Full 3D visualization of the slice stacks and individual slice orientations is provided to assist in evaluating the quality of the motion correction and final image reconstruction. The tool has been evaluated on a range of clinical data acquired on GE, Siemens and Philips MRI scanners.

  2. Impairment-Aware Routing in Translucent Spectrum-Sliced Elastic Optical Path Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.; Kuipers, F.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) technology offers a more flexible bandwidth allocation in optical networks than wavelength division multiplexing. It allows different connections to be served via different modulation formats. However, as with any optical network, the optical signal may b

  3. The Utility of Thin Slice Ratings for Predicting Language Growth in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2016-01-01

    Literature on "Thin Slice" ratings indicates that a number of personality characteristics and behaviors can be accurately predicted by ratings of very short segments (utility of Thin Slice ratings of young children with autism spectrum disorder for predicting developmental skills and…

  4. The GABAA receptor agonist THIP is neuroprotective in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Noraberg, Jens; Zimmer, Jens

    2003-01-01

    interneurons, were examined in hippocampal slice cultures exposed to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). The NMDA-induced excitotoxicity was quantified by densitometric measurements of propidium iodide (PI) uptake. THIP (100-1000 microM) was neuroprotective in slice cultures co-exposed to NMDA (10 microM) for 48 h...

  5. On the local existence of maximal slicings in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    In this talk we show that any spherically symmetric spacetime admits locally a maximal spacelike slicing. The above condition is reduced to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. The solution may be accomplished analytical or numerically. We provide a general procedure to construct such maximal slicings.

  6. On the local existence of maximal slicings in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero-Carrion, Isabel; Ibanez, Jose MarIa; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio, E-mail: isabel.cordero@uv.e, E-mail: jose.m.ibanez@uv.e, E-mail: antonio.morales@uv.e [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    In this talk we show that any spherically symmetric spacetime admits locally a maximal spacelike slicing. The above condition is reduced to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. The solution may be accomplished analytical or numerically. We provide a general procedure to construct such maximal slicings.

  7. Ex-vivo evaluation of gene therapy vectors in human pancreatic (cancer) tissue slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael A van Geer; Koert FD Kuhlmann; Conny T Bakker; Fibo JW ten Kate; Ronald PJ Oude Elferink; Piter J Bosma

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To culture human pancreatic tissue obtained from small resection specimens as a pre-clinical model for examining virus-host interactions.METHODS: Human pancreatic tissue samples (malignant and normal) were obtained from surgical specimens and processed immediately to tissue slices.Tissue slices were cultured ex vivo for 1-6 d in an incubator using 95% O2. Slices were subsequently analyzed for viability and morphology. In addition the slices were incubated with different viral vectors expressing the repor ter genes GFP or DsRed.Expression of these reporter genes was measured at 72 h after infection.RESULTS: With the Krumdieck tissue slicer, uniform slices could be generated from pancreatic tissue but only upon embedding the tissue in 3% low melting agarose. Immunohistological examination showed the presence of all pancreatic cell types. Pancreatic normal and cancer tissue slices could be cultured for up to 6 d, while retaining viability and a moderate to good morphology. Reporter gene expression indicated that the slices could be infected and transduced efficiently by adenoviral vectors and by adeno associated viral vectors, whereas transduction with lentiviral vectors was limited. For the adenoviral vector, the transduction seemed limited to the peripheral layers of the explants.CONCLUSION: The presented sys tem al lows reproducible processing of minimal amounts of pancreatic tissue into slices uniform in size, suitable for pre-clinical evaluation of gene therapy vectors.

  8. Immune response to bovine viral diarrhea virus--looking at newly defined targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Christopher C L; Thakur, Neelu; Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Morarie-Kane, Susan E; Rajput, Mrigendra K

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has long been associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes and immune dysregulation, many which result in secondary bacterial infections. Current understanding of immune cell interactions that result in activation and tolerance are explored in light of BVDV infection including: depletion of lymphocytes, effects on neutrophils, natural killer cells, and the role of receptors and cytokines. In addition, we review some new information on the effect of BVDV on immune development in the fetal liver, the role of resident macrophages, and greater implications for persistent infection.

  9. Multi-slice computed tomography for diagnosis of combined thoracoabdominal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic value of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT for combined thoracoabdominal injury. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical data and MSCT images of 68 patients who sustained a combined thoracoabdominal injury associated with diaphragm rupture, and 18 patients without diaphragm rupture. All the patients were admitted and treated in the Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (a level I trauma center between July 2005 and February 2014. There were 71 males and 15 females with a mean age of 39.1 years (range 13e88 years. Among the 86 patients, 40 patients suffered a penetrating injury, 46 suffered a blunt injury as a result of road traffic accident in 21 cases, fall from a height in 16, and crushing injury in 9. The MSCT images were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. The results of CT diagnosis were compared with surgical findings and/or follow-up results. Results: Among the 86 cases, diaphragm discontinuity was found in 29 cases, segmental nonrecognition of the diaphragm in 14, diaphragmatic hernia in 21, collar sign in 14, dependent viscera sign in 18, elevated abdominal organs in 21, bowel wall thickening and/or hematoma in 6, and pneumoperitoneum in 8. CT diagnostic accuracy for diaphragm rupture was 88.4% in the right side and 90.7% in the left side. CT diagnostic accuracy for hemopneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, mediastinal hemorrhage, kidney and adrenal gland injuries was 100%, while for liver, spleen and pancreas injuries was 96.5%, 96.5%, 94.2% respectively. Conclusion: To reach an early diagnosis of combined thoracoabdominal injury, surgeons and radiologists should be familiar with all kinds of images which might show signs of diaphragm rupture, such as diaphragm discontinuity, segmental nonrecognition of the diaphragm, dangling diaphragm sign, diaphragm herniation, collar sign, dependent viscera sign, and elevated abdominal organs.

  10. Physical performance evaluation of a 256-slice CT-scanner for four-dimensional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Endo, Masahiro; Tsunoo, Takanori; Kandatsu, Susumu; Tanada, Shuji; Aradate, Hiroshi; Saito, Yasuo; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Satoh, Kazumasa; Matsushita, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Masahiro

    2004-06-01

    We have developed a prototype 256-slice CT-scanner for four-dimensional (4D) imaging that employs continuous rotations of a cone-beam. Since a cone-beam scan along a circular orbit does not collect a complete set of data to make an exact reconstruction of a volume [three-dimensional (3D) image], it might cause disadvantages or artifacts. To examine effects of the cone-beam data collection on image quality, we have evaluated physical performance of the prototype 256-slice CT-scanner with 0.5 mm slices and compared it to that of a 16-slice CT-scanner with 0.75 mm slices. As a result, we found that image noise, uniformity, and high contrast detectability were independent of z coordinate. A Feldkamp artifact was observed in distortion measurements. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of slice sensitivity profiles (SSP) increased with z coordinate though it seemed to be caused by other reasons than incompleteness of data. With regard to low contrast detectability, smaller objects were detected more clearly at the midplane (z = 0 mm) than at z = 40 mm, though circular-band like artifacts affected detection. The comparison between the 16-slice and the 256-slice scanners showed better performance for the 16-slice scanner regarding the SSP, low contrast detectability, and distortion. The inferiorities of the 256-slice scanner in other than distortion measurement (Feldkamp artifact) seemed to be partly caused by the prototype nature of the scanner and should be improved in the future scanner. The image noise, uniformity, and high contrast detectability were almost identical for both CTs. The 256-slice scanner was superior to the 16-slice scanner regarding the PSF, though it was caused by the smaller transverse beam width of the 256-slice scanner. In order to compare both scanners comprehensively in terms of exposure dose, noise, slice thickness, and transverse spatial resolution, K=Dsigma2ha3 was calculated, where D was exposure dose (CT dose index), sigma was magnitude of

  11. Modeling and Realization of a Bearingless Flux-Switching Slice Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gruber

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces a novel bearingless slice motor design: the bearingless flux-switching slice motor. In contrast to state-of-the-art bearingless slice motors, the rotor in this new design does not include any permanent rotor magnets. This offers advantages for disposable devices, such as those used in the medical industry, and extends the range of bearingless slice motors toward high-temperature applications. In this study, our focus is on the analytical modeling of the suspension force torque generation of a single coil and the bearingless motor. We assessed motor performance in relation to motor topology by applying performance factors. A prototype motor was optimized, designed, and manufactured. We also presented the state-of-the-art nonlinear feedback control scheme used. The motor was operated, and both static and dynamic measurements were taken on a test bench, thus successfully demonstrating the functionality and applicability of the novel bearingless slice motor concept.

  12. Measurement of slice thickness using partial volume effect in MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashida, Mitsuji; Yamazaki, Masaru [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Ogura, Akio; Inoue, Hiroshi; Hongou, Takaharu

    1998-08-01

    The NEMA standard and AAPM method have been approved for the determination of slice thickness in diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging. In these methods, the slice thickness is obtained as the full width at half maximum of the slice profile. However, these methods are affected by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and pixel size. In addition, the measurement procedure required for accurate evaluation is troublesome. Therefore, a new method of evaluation using the partial volume effect, called the PVE method, is proposed. With the PVE method, slice thickness can be evaluated without the slice profile. A comparison of accuracy and simplicity of measurement is made between the PVE method and the wedge method of the NEMA standard. Results showed the PVE method to be accurate and easier to use than the wedge method. (author)

  13. Assessment of hepatic functional reserve by cirrhosis grading and liver volume measurement using CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To explore a method for quantitative assessment of hepatic functional reserve by combining computed tomography (CT) volumetry with CT grading of liver cirrhosis before liver resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: CT images of 55 patients undergoing liver resection were studied prospectively. The degree of liver cirrhosis was referred as "CT grade" and the percentage of remnant liver volume (PRLV) [PRLV = predicted RLV/predicted total liver volume (PTLV) × 100%;PTLV (mL) = 121.75 + 16.49 × body mass (kg)] were calculated by adding slice by slice of CT liver images.The postoperative RLV, pathologic stages of liver fibrosis in non-tumor area and survival time in these cases were analyzed.RESULTS: There was a significant difference in survival time between the group with PRLV ≤ 50% and the group with PRLV > 50% (χ2= 4.988, P = 0.026), and between the group with CT grade 0/1 and the group with CT grade 2/3 (χ2= 5.429, P = 0.026). With combination of the both parameters, an oblique line was identified according to the distribution of 32 survivors versus 23 deceased subjects. The mortality rate above the line was 7.1% (1/14), and that below the line was 53.7% (22/41),indicating a significant difference between the two rates (χ2 = 9.281, P = 0.002, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: PRLV and CT grades are significantly correlated with hepatic functional reserve. The predicted line using these two parameters is useful in candidates undergoing liver resection for judging hepatic functional reserve.

  14. Estimation of Radiation Exposure of 128-Slice 4D-Perfusion CT for the Assessment of Tumor Vascularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelsen, Dominik; Horger, Marius; Buchgeister, Markus; Fenchel, Michael; Thomas, Christoph; Boehringer, Nadine; Schulze, Maximilian; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Claussen, Claus D.; Heuschmid, Martin [University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We aimed to estimate the effective dose of 4D-Perfusion-CT protocols of the lung, liver, and pelvis for the assessment of tumor vascularity. An Alderson-Rando phantom equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters was used to determine the effective dose values of 4D Perfusion-CT. Phantom measurements were performed on a 128-slice single source scanner in adaptive 4D-spiral-mode with bidirectional table movement and a total scan range of 69 mm over a time period of nearly 120 seconds (26 scans). Perfusion measurements were simulated for the lung, liver, and pelvis under the following conditions: lung (80 kV, 60 mAs), liver (80 kV/80 mAs and 80 kV/120 mAs), pelvis (100 kV/80 mAs and 100 kV/120 mAs). Depending on gender, the evaluated body region and scan protocol, an effective whole-body dose between 2.9-12.2 mSv, was determined. The radiation exposure administered to gender-specific organs like the female breast tissue (lung perfusion) or to the ovaries (pelvic perfusion) led to an increase in the female specific dose by 86% and 100% in perfusion scans of the lung and the pelvis, respectively. Due to a significant radiation dose of 4D-perfusion-CT protocols, the responsible use of this new promising technique is mandatory. Gender- and organ-specific differences should be considered for indication and planning of tumor perfusion scans

  15. Involvement of MEK/ERK pathway in cephaloridine-induced injury in rat renal cortical slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Yuka; Hiramatsu, Jun; Gemba, Munekazu

    2003-07-20

    We have previously reported that free radical-mediated injury induced by cephaloridine (CER) is enhanced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, in rat renal cortical slices. We have also shown that PKC activation in mitochondria is involved in CER-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. We investigated the role of a downstream PKC pathway, a MEK/ERK pathway, in free radical-induced injury in rat renal cortical slices exposed to CER. Immediately after preparing slices from rat renal cortex, the slices were incubated in the medium containing MEK inhibitors. ERK1/2 activation was determined by Western blot analysis for phosphorylated ERK (pERK) 1/2 protein in nucleus fraction prepared from the slices exposed to CER. Prominently, CER caused not only increases in lipid peroxidation as an index of free radical generation and in LDH leakage as that of cell injury in the slices, but also marked activation of ERK1/2 in nucleus fraction. PD98059 and U0126, MEK1/2 inhibitors, significantly attenuated CER-induced increases in lipid peroxidation and LDH leakage in the slices. PD98059 also suppressed ERK1/2 activation in nucleus fraction prepared from the slices treated with CER. Inhibition of other MAP kinase pathways, p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) had no effect on CER-induced increases in lipid peroxidation level and LDH leakage in the slices. The present results suggest that a MEK/ERK pathway down stream of a PKC pathway is probably involved in free radical-induced injury in rat renal cortical slices exposed to CER.

  16. [Ecological environment of cultivated Astragali radix and market specification of prepared slices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kunzi; Liu, Jing; Hong, Hao; Guo, Baolin; Cai, Shaoqing; Chen, Hubiao

    2010-05-01

    Astragali Radix is derived from roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and A. membranaceus. The exhaustion of wild Astragali Radix has made cultivated Astragali Radix possess the commercial market of Astragali Radix. So the ecological environment of cultivated Astragali Radix should be investigated through field survey. Through investigation, we found that A. membranaceus var. mongholicus are cultivated in Hengshan mountain of Shanxi province, Longnan of Gansu province, south of Inner Mongolia and Qinghai provinces. A. membranaceus var. mongholicus is almost planted on the plain, except in Shanxi province it grows on the sunny side of the mountain. What is more, soil type, elevation, annual temperature and annual rainfall of these locations are different. So the ecological environments of cultivated location of Astragali Radix are different from each other. A. membranaceus is wild in Heilongjiang and northeast of Inner Mongolia, but the resource is drying up. It is also planted in few places of the provinces of Shanxi, Shandong, Hebei, Gansu, but cultivated scope of A. membranaceus is smaller than A. membranaceus var. mongholicus.. So A. membranaceus var. mongholicus possesses large part of Astragali Radix market. In market, there exists no unified specification fro slices of Astragali Radix, and specification of prepared slices will influence the contents of chemical components. Through investigation, different kind of prepared slices can be collected and compared, this provides evidences for quality control of prepared slices. Through investigation, five different specifications of prepared slices were found in market. The distributions of some specification of prepared slices are specified, like transverseprepared slices prepared from A. membranaceus only found in Heilongjiang province. Transverse prepared slices possess half part of prepared slice market, and can be used to identify original plant of Astragali Radix. So transverse prepared slices

  17. Axonal and dendritic density field estimation from incomplete single-slice neuronal reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap evan Pelt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal information processing in cortical networks critically depends on the organization of synaptic connectivity. Synaptic connections can form when axons and dendrites come in close proximity of each other. The spatial innervation of neuronal arborizations can be described by their axonal and dendritic density fields. Recently we showed that potential locations of synapses between neurons can be estimated from their overlapping axonal and dendritic density fields. However, deriving density fields from single-slice neuronal reconstructions is hampered by incompleteness because of cut branches.Here, we describe a method for recovering the lost axonal and dendritic mass. This so-called completion method is based on an estimation of the mass inside the slice and an extrapolation to the space outside the slice, assuming axial symmetry in the mass distribution. We validated the method using a set of neurons generated with our NETMORPH simulator. The model-generated neurons were artificially sliced and subsequently recovered by the completion method. Depending on slice thickness and arbor extent, branches that have lost their outside parents (orphan branches may occur inside the slice. Not connected anymore to the contiguous structure of the sliced neuron, orphan branches result in an underestimation of neurite mass. For 300 m thick slices, however, the validation showed a full recovery of dendritic and an almost full recovery of axonal mass.The completion method was applied to three experimental data sets of reconstructed rat cortical L2/3 pyramidal neurons. The results showed that in 300 m thick slices intracortical axons lost about 50% and dendrites about 16% of their mass. The completion method can be applied to single-slice reconstructions as long as axial symmetry can be assumed in the mass distribution. This opens up the possibility of using incomplete neuronal reconstructions from open-access data bases to determine population mean

  18. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans.

  19. Assessments of Coronary Artery Visibility and Radiation Dose in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease on Cardiac 128-slice CT and on Cardiac 64-slice CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Huang, M; Zheng, J; Li, J; Liu, H; Liang, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the coronary artery visibility and radiation dose in infants with CHD on cardiac 128-slice CT and on cardiac 64-slice CT. The images of 200 patients were analyzed in this study, 100 patients were selected randomly from a group of 789 infants (coronary artery segments was graded on a four-point scale. The coronary arteries were considered to be detected or visible when grade was 2 or higher. The visibility of the coronary artery segments and the radiation dose was compared between the two groups. Except for the rate of LM (96 vs. 99%), the detection rates of the total, LAD, LCX, RCA, and the proximal segment of the RCA in the 256-slice CT group were significantly higher than those in the 64-slice CT group (51.7, 53.33, 33.67, 53.33, and 99 vs. 34.8, 34.33, 18, 30.67, and 75%, respectively). The counts of visibility score (4/3/2/1) for the LM and the proximal segment of the RCA were 62/22/12/4 and 56/20/17/7, respectively, in the 128-slice CT group and 17/42/30/1 and 9/30/38/25, respectively, in the 64-slice CT group. There were significant differences, especially for score 4 and 3, between the two groups. The radiation dose in the 128-slice CT group was significantly decreased than those in the 64-slice CT group (CTDIvol 1.88 ± 0.51 vs. 5.61 ± 0.63 mGy; SSDE 4.48 ± 1.15 vs. 13.97 ± 1.52 mGy; effective radiation dose 1.36 ± 0.44 vs. 4.06 ± 0.7 mSv). With reduced radiation dose, the visibility of the coronary artery in infants with CHD via prospective ECG-triggered mode on a 128-slice CT is superior to that of the 64-slice CT using retrospective ECG-gated spiral mode.

  20. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  1. A method for automatic liver segmentation from multi-phase contrast-enhanced CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rong; Luo, Ming; Wang, Shaofa; Wang, Luyao; Xie, Qingguo

    2014-03-01

    Liver segmentation is a basic and indispensable function in systems of computer aided liver surgery for volume calculation, operation designing and risk evaluation. Traditional manual segmentation is very time consuming because of the complicated contours of liver and the big amount of images. For increasing the efficiency of the clinical work, in this paper, a fully-automatic method was proposed to segment the liver from multi-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images. As an advanced region growing method, we applied various pre- and post-processing to get better segmentation from the different phases. Fifteen sets of clinical abdomens CT images of five patients were segmented by our algorithm, and the results were acceptable and evaluated by an experienced surgeon. The running-time is about 30 seconds for a single-phase data which includes more than 200 slices.

  2. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  3. Neurological disorder in cattle associated with bovine herpesvirus 4

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A nested PCR assay was used to diagnose bovine encephalitis through herpesviruses including bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Aujeszky's disease virus (SHV-1), and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) in 14 fragments of central nervous system (CNS) from cattle that died with neurological signs. In addition, as some samples of bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) have been isolated from neural tissue, it was also tested by nested PCR. The cases of encephalitis occurred in isolati...

  4. Precise spatial and temporal control of oxygen within in vitro brain slices via microfluidic gas channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Mauleon

    Full Text Available The acute brain slice preparation is an excellent model for studying the details of how neurons and neuronal tissue respond to a variety of different physiological conditions. But open slice chambers ideal for electrophysiological and imaging access have not allowed the precise spatiotemporal control of oxygen in a way that might realistically model stroke conditions. To address this problem, we have developed a microfluidic add-on to a commercially available perfusion chamber that diffuses oxygen throughout a thin membrane and directly to the brain slice. A microchannel enables rapid and efficient control of oxygen and can be modified to allow different regions of the slice to experience different oxygen conditions. Using this novel device, we show that we can obtain a stable and homogeneous oxygen environment throughout the brain slice and rapidly alter the oxygen tension in a hippocampal slice. We also show that we can impose different oxygen tensions on different regions of the slice preparation and measure two independent responses, which is not easily obtainable with current techniques.

  5. Adaptive SLICE method: an enhanced method to determine nonlinear dynamic respiratory system mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Guttmann, Josef; Möller, Knut

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce and evaluate the adaptive SLICE method (ASM) for continuous determination of intratidal nonlinear dynamic compliance and resistance. The tidal volume is subdivided into a series of volume intervals called slices. For each slice, one compliance and one resistance are calculated by applying a least-squares-fit method. The volume window (width) covered by each slice is determined based on the confidence interval of the parameter estimation. The method was compared to the original SLICE method and evaluated using simulation and animal data. The ASM was also challenged with separate analysis of dynamic compliance during inspiration. If the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the respiratory data decreased from +∞ to 10 dB, the relative errors of compliance increased from 0.1% to 22% for the ASM and from 0.2% to 227% for the SLICE method. Fewer differences were found in resistance. When the SNR was larger than 40 dB, the ASM delivered over 40 parameter estimates (42.2 ± 1.3). When analyzing the compliance during inspiration separately, the estimates calculated with the ASM were more stable. The adaptive determination of slice bounds results in consistent and reliable parameter values. Online analysis of nonlinear respiratory mechanics will profit from such an adaptive selection of interval size.

  6. Effects of ketamine, midazolam, thiopental, and propofol on brain ischemia injury in rat cerebral cortical slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-shengXUE; Bu-weiYU; Ze-jianWANG; Hong-zhuanCHEN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects of ketamine, midazolam, thiopental, and propofol on brain ischemia by the model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat cerebral cortical slices. METHODS: Cerebral cortical slices were incu-bated in 2 % 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution after OGD, the damages and effects of ketamine,midazolam, thiopental, and propofol were quantitativlye evaluated by ELISA reader of absorbance (A) at 490 nm,which indicated the red formazan extracted from slices, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) releases in the incubated supernate were also measured. RESULTS: Progressive prolongation of OGD resulted in decreases of TTC staining.The percentage of tissue injury had a positive correlation with LDH releases, r=0.9609, P<0.01. Two hours of reincubation aggravated the decrease of TTC staining compared with those slices stained immediately after OGD(P<0.01). These four anesthetics had no effects on the TTC staining of slices. Ketamine completely inhibited thedecrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury. High concentrations of midazolam (10 μmol/L) and thiopental (400μmol/L) partly attenuated this decrease. Propofol at high concentration (100 μmol/L) enhanced the decrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury (P<0.01). CONCLUSION; Ketamine, high concentration of midazolam and thiopental have neuroprotective effects against OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices, while high concentration of propofol augments OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices.

  7. Effect of Superheated Steam Treatment on Changes in Moisture Content and Colour Properties of Coconut Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mah Sook Yun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drying is one of the methods to preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of food. Coconut meat was sliced and dried using superheated steam oven at 140°C, 160°C and 180°C. Drying was carried out at different drying time (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. The effect of drying temperature and time on the moisture content and colour properties (L, a, b and BI of the coconut slices were studied. The temperature and time significantly (p < 0.05 affected the moisture loss and colour values of coconut slices during superheated steam drying. The moisture content decreased with increased drying temperature and time. The values of L decreased with drying temperature and time. The a and b value of coconut slice dried at 140°C decreased initially then increased with time. Coconut slices dried at 160°C had their a values increased up to 20 minutes then decreased and b values increased up to 20 minutes then fluctuated. The a and b values of coconut slices dried at 180°C showed fluctuation. BI values of coconut slices increased with increasing drying time and temperature.

  8. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ortíz-Estrada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf. We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar Kd. However, averages of 9.45 × 105 and 6.65 × 106 binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.

  9. IL-4 gene expression in adventitial layer (fibrous layer) of hepatic ovine and bovine hydatid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosti, Zahra; Tolouei, Sepideh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Jafari, Rasool; Jafaee, Fereshteh; Sharafi, Seyedeh Marayam; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with cosmopolitan distribution caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Fibrous layer is developed around the cyst as a host immune response reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of IL-4 gene expression in fibrous layer of bovine and ovine hepatic hydatid cysts using quantitative technique of Real-Time PCR. In this descriptive study the samples of hydatid cyst fibrous layer were taken from 6 bovine and 6 ovine hepatic hydatid cysts. Samples of normal liver tissue close to the cyst were also taken as controls. Total RNA from each sample was extracted and then converted to cDNA. Afterward, the rate of IL-4 gene expression for each sample was evaluated using real-time PCR technique. Data were analyzed by REST software (version 2.0.13, 2009). In sheep the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 1.98 times more than the rate of IL4 gene expression in control samples, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.561). In cattle the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 9.84 times more than that of control samples which was statistically significant (P layer of bovine hydatid cyst, it can be concluded that this interleukin may play an important role in host parasite relationship.

  10. Purification and characteristics of functional properties of soluble nucleoside triphosphatase (apyrase) from bovine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivuk, V F; Rusina, I M; Makarchikov, A F

    2008-09-01

    Soluble NTPase, differing in its properties from known proteins exhibiting NTPase activity, was purified from bovine brain to homogeneity. The enzyme has pH optimum at 7.5 and shows absolute dependence on bivalent cations and broad substrate specificity towards nucleoside-5 -tri- and -diphosphates, characteristics of apyrases. The NTPase follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the range of investigated substrate concentrations, the apparent K(m) values for UTP, ITP, GTP, CTP, CDP, and ATP being 86, 25, 41, 150, 500, and 260 microM, respectively. According to gel-filtration and SDS-PAGE data, the molecular mass of the enzyme is 60 kD. The NTPase is localized in the cytosol fraction and expressed in different bovine organs and tissues. Total NTPase activity of extracts of bovine organs and tissues decreases in the following order: liver > heart > skeletal muscle > lung > brain > spleen > kidney ~ small intestine. The enzyme activity can be regulated by acetyl-CoA, alpha-ketoglutarate, and fructose-1,6-diphosphate acting as activators in physiological concentrations, whereas propionate exhibits an inhibitory effect.

  11. Fiber optic biofluorometer for physiological research on muscle slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Mathias; Dendorfer, Andreas; Werner, Jan; Lambertz, Daniel; Klein, Karl-Friedrich

    2016-03-01

    A focus of research in cell physiology is the detection of Ca2+, NADH, FAD, ATPase activity or membrane potential, only to name a few, in muscle tissues. In this work, we report on a biofluorometer using ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), optical fibers and two photomultipliers (PMTs) using synchronized fluorescence detection with integrated background correction to detect free calcium, Ca2+, in cardiac muscle tissue placed in a horizontal tissue bath and a microscope setup. Fiber optic probes with imaging optics have been designed to transport excitation light from the biofluorometer's light output to a horizontal tissue bath and to collect emission light from a tissue sample of interest to two PMTs allowing either single excitation / single emission or ratiometric, dual excitation / single emission or single excitation / dual emission fluorescence detection of indicator dyes or natural fluorophores. The efficient transport of light from the excitation LEDs to the tissue sample, bleaching effects of the excitation light in both, polymer and fused silica-based fibers will be discussed. Furthermore, a new approach to maximize light collection of the emission light using high NA fibers and high NA coupling optics will be shown. Finally, first results on Ca2+ measurements in cardiac muscle slices in a traditional microscope setup and a horizontal tissue bath using fiber optic probes will be introduced and discussed.

  12. Prion pathogenesis is faithfully reproduced in cerebellar organotypic slice cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Falsig

    Full Text Available Prions cause neurodegeneration in vivo, yet prion-infected cultured cells do not show cytotoxicity. This has hampered mechanistic studies of prion-induced neurodegeneration. Here we report that prion-infected cultured organotypic cerebellar slices (COCS experienced progressive spongiform neurodegeneration closely reproducing prion disease, with three different prion strains giving rise to three distinct patterns of prion protein deposition. Neurodegeneration did not occur when PrP was genetically removed from neurons, and a comprehensive pharmacological screen indicated that neurodegeneration was abrogated by compounds known to antagonize prion replication. Prion infection of COCS and mice led to enhanced fodrin cleavage, suggesting the involvement of calpains or caspases in pathogenesis. Accordingly, neurotoxicity and fodrin cleavage were prevented by calpain inhibitors but not by caspase inhibitors, whereas prion replication proceeded unimpeded. Hence calpain inhibition can uncouple prion replication from its neurotoxic sequelae. These data validate COCS as a powerful model system that faithfully reproduces most morphological hallmarks of prion infections. The exquisite accessibility of COCS to pharmacological manipulations was instrumental in recognizing the role of calpains in neurotoxicity, and significantly extends the collection of tools necessary for rigorously dissecting prion pathogenesis.

  13. State-correlated DC slice imaging of formaldehyde photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suits, Arthur G.; Chambreau, Steven D.; Lahankar, Sridhar A.

    High-resolution slice imaging methods allow for detection of single product quantum states with sufficient velocity resolution to infer the full correlated product state distribution of the undetected fragment. This is a level of detail not available in previous studies of formaldehyde photodissociation, and in this application it reveals startling new aspects of unimolecular decomposition. The CO rotational distributions from near ultraviolet dissociation of formaldehyde are bimodal, and the imaging experiments allow us to decompose these into two dynamically distinct components: the conventional molecular dissociation over a high exit barrier, and a novel `roaming atom' reaction in which frustrated radical dissociation events lead to intramolecular H abstraction, bypassing the transition state entirely. In probing the dynamics of the conventional molecular dissociation over the barrier, we use the complete vH2-jCO correlation to model the exit channel dynamics in new detail. Furthermore, these state-correlated measurements provide insight into radical-radical reactions and the underlying dynamics and energy dependence of the roaming pathway.

  14. Vehicle tracking and classification in challenging scenarios via slice sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Marcos; Unzueta, Luis; Barandiaran, Javier; Cortés, Andoni; Otaegui, Oihana; Sánchez, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    This article introduces a 3D vehicle tracking system in a traffic surveillance environment devised for shadow tolling applications. It has been specially designed to operate in real time with high correct detection and classification rates. The system is capable of providing accurate and robust results in challenging road scenarios, with rain, traffic jams, casted shadows in sunny days at sunrise and sunset times, etc. A Bayesian inference method has been designed to generate estimates of multiple variable objects entering and exiting the scene. This framework allows easily mixing different nature information, gathering in a single step observation models, calibration, motion priors and interaction models. The inference of results is carried out with a novel optimization procedure that generates estimates of the maxima of the posterior distribution combining concepts from Gibbs and slice sampling. Experimental tests have shown excellent results for traffic-flow video surveillance applications that can be used to classify vehicles according to their length, width, and height. Therefore, this vision-based system can be seen as a good substitute to existing inductive loop detectors.

  15. Slicing-independent RISC activation requires the argonaute PAZ domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuo; Jin, Lan; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Feijie; Kay, Mark A

    2012-08-21

    Small RNAs regulate genetic networks through a ribonucleoprotein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which, in mammals, contains at its center one of four Argonaute proteins (Ago1-Ago4). A key regulatory event in the RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways is Ago loading, wherein double-stranded small-RNA duplexes are incorporated into RISC (pre-RISC) and then become single-stranded (mature RISC), a process that is not well understood. The Agos contain an evolutionarily conserved PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain whose primary function is to bind the 3' end of small RNAs. We created multiple PAZ-domain-disrupted mutant Ago proteins and studied their biochemical properties and biological functionality in cells. We found that the PAZ domain is dispensable for Ago loading of slicing-competent RISC. In contrast, in the absence of slicer activity or slicer-substrate duplex RNAs, PAZ-disrupted Agos bound duplex small interfering RNAs, but were unable to unwind or eject the passenger strand and form functional RISC complexes. We have discovered that the highly conserved PAZ domain plays an important role in RISC activation, providing new mechanistic insights into how miRNAs regulate genes, as well as new insights for future design of miRNA- and RNAi-based therapeutics.

  16. Process variables in the osmotic dehydration of sliced peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Pimentel Marconi Germer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the influence of temperature and concentration of the sucrose syrup on the pre-osmotic dehydration of peaches. Physical (colour and texture and chemical variables (soluble solid content; total sugar, reducing and non-reducing sugar contents; and titratable acidity were investigated, as well as the osmotic dehydration parameters (loss of weight and water; solids incorporation. An experimental central composite design was employed varying the temperature (from 30 to 50 ºC and concentration (from 45 to 65 ºBrix and maintaining the syrup to fruit ratio (4:1, process time (4 hours, and format (slices. The degree of acceptance was used in the sensory analysis evaluating the following characteristics: appearance, taste, texture, colour, and overall quality using a hedonic scale. The results were modelled using the Statistica program (v. 6.0 and the Response Surface Methodology. The mathematical models of the following dimensionless variations yielded significant (p < 0.05 and predictive results: soluble solids content, total and non-reducing sugar contents, titratable acidity, colour parameter L*, and water loss. The models of the attributes colour and appearance yielded significant (p < 0.10 but not predictive results. Temperature was the prevalent effect in the models. The process conditions in the range from 50 to 54.1 ºC and from 45 to 65 ºBrix led to greater water losses and better sensory performances.

  17. Strong optomechanical interactions in a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam

    CERN Document Server

    Leijssen, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Cavity optomechanical systems can be used for sensitive detection of mechanical motion and to control mechanical resonators, down to the quantum level. The strength with which optical and mechanical degrees of freedom interact is defined by the photon-phonon coupling rate $g_0$, which is especially large in nanoscale systems. Here, we demonstrate an optomechanical system based on a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam, that combines subwavelength optical confinement with a low-mass mechanical mode. Analyzing the transduction of motion and effects of radiation pressure we find a coupling rate $g_0$/2{\\pi} = 11.5 MHz, exceeding previously reported values by an order of magnitude. Using this interaction we detect the resonator's motion with a noise imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit, even though the system has optical and mechanical quality factors smaller than $10^3$. The broad bandwidth is useful for application in miniature sensors, and for measurement-based control of the resonator's motional s...

  18. Efficient Face Recognition in Video by Bit Planes Slicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa R. Inbathini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Video-based face recognition must be able to overcome the imaging interference such as pose and illumination. Approach: A model is designed to study for face recognition based on video sequence and also test image. In training stage, single frontal image is taken as a input to the recognition system. A new virtual image is generated using bit plane feature fusion to effectively reduce the sensitivity to illumination variances. A Self-PCA is performed to get each set of Eigen faces and to get projected image. In recognition stage, automatic face detection scheme is first applied to the video sequences. Frames are extracted from the video and virtual frame is created. Each bit plane of test face is extracted and then the feature fusion face is constructed, followed by the projection and reconstruction using each set of the corresponding Eigen faces. Results: This algorithm is compared with conventional PCA algorithm. The minimum error of reconstruction is calculated. If error is less than a threshold value, then it recognizes the face from the database. Conclusion: Bit plane slicing mechanism is applied in video based face recognition. Experimental results shows that its far more superior than conventional method under various pose and illumination condition.

  19. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  20. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public...

  1. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  2. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  3. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  4. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  5. [Liver and sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watelet, J

    2008-11-01

    The liver is a vital organ and plays a central role in energy exchange, protein synthesis as well as the elimination of waste products from the body. Acute and chronic injury may disturb a variety of liver functions to different degrees. Over the last three decades, the effects of physical activity and competitive sport on the liver have been described by various investigators. These include viral hepatitis and drug-induced liver disorders. Herein, we review acute and chronic liver diseases potentially caused by sport. Team physicians, trainers and others, responsible for the health of athletes, should be familiar with the risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of liver diseases that occur in sports.

  6. Slice-Based Formal Specification Measures -- Mapping Coupling and Cohesion Measures to Formal Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that existing slice-based measures can reasonably be mapped to the field of state-based specification languages. By making use of Z specifications this contribution renews the idea of slice-profiles and derives coupling and cohesion measures for them. The measures are then assessed by taking a critical look at their sensitiveness in respect to modifications on the specification source. The presented study shows that slice-based coupling and cohesion measures have the potential to be used as quality indicators for specifications as they reflect the changes in the structure of a specification as accustomed from their program-related pendants.

  7. Slice emittance measurement for photocathode RF gun with solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Huang, WenHui; Du, YingChao; Yan, LiXin; Tang, ChuanXiang

    2011-12-01

    The radiation of high-gain short-wavelength free-electron laser depends on the slice transverse emittance of the electron bunch. This essay introduces the method of slice emittance measurement, and shows the brief setup of this experiment using the solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity at Tsinghua University. The preliminary experimental results show that the slice rms emittance of the electron bunch generated by photocathode RF gun has considerable variations along the bunch and is typically less than 0.55 mm mrad for the laser rms radius of 0.4 mm.

  8. Slice emittance measurement for photocathode RF gun with solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The radiation of high-gain short-wavelength free-electron laser depends on the slice transverse emittance of the electron bunch. This essay introduces the method of slice emittance measurement, and shows the brief setup of this experiment using the solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity at Tsinghua University. The preliminary experimental results show that the slice rms emittance of the electron bunch generated by photocathode RF gun has considerable variations along the bunch and is typically less than 0.55 mm mrad for the laser rms radius of 0.4 mm.

  9. Coupling of organotypic brain slice cultures to silicon-based arrays of electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Henrik; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Thiébaud, P

    1999-01-01

    such hippocampal rat brain slice cultures on biocompatible silicon-based chips with arrays of electrodes with a histological organization comparable to that of conventional brain slice cultures grown by the roller drum technique and on semiporous membranes. Intracellular and extracellular recordings from neurons......Fetal or early postnatal brain tissue can be cultured in viable and healthy condition for several weeks with development and preservation of the basic cellular and connective organization as so-called organotypic brain slice cultures. Here we demonstrate and describe how it is possible to establish...

  10. Binding of mescaline with subcellular fractions upon incubation of brain cortex slices with [14C] mescaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R K; Antopol, W; Ghosh, J J

    1977-01-01

    Incubation of brain cortex slices in the presence of glucose resulted in the permeation of about 65% of [14C] mescaline into slices. Of this, about one-third radioactivity was bound with nuclei, mitochondria, microsomes, and ribosomes. Dialysis of subcellular fractions did not markedly reduce the amounts of radioactivity bound to the fractions. The permeation into slices and the binding of mescaline to subcellular fractions were fairly time-dependent, but were inhibited by the presence of potassium cyanide, or by the absence of glucose and by heating to 80 degrees C for 1 min.

  11. Control of enzymatic browning in apple slices by using ascorbic acid under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shimi, N M

    1993-01-01

    Control of phenol oxidase activity in apple slices by the use of ascorbic acid at different pH values, temperature and time of incubation was investigated. The enzyme was almost inactivated at 1% and 1.5% ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid solution (1%) caused a remarkable inhibition with the increasing acidity up to pH = 1. Heating treatments for apple slices dipped in 1% ascorbic acid caused a reduction of enzymatic browning, optimum temperature for inactivation of the enzyme was between 60-70 degrees C for 15 minutes. Increasing the time of dipping apple slices in 1% ascorbic acid solutions and at different pH values reduce phenolase activity.

  12. Software framework developed for the slice test of the ATLAS endcap muon trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Komatsu, S; Ishida, Y; Tanaka, K; Hasuko, K; Kano, H; Matsumoto, Y; Yakamura, Y; Sakamoto, H; Ikeno, M; Nakayoshi, K; Sasaki, O; Yasu, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Totsuka, M; Tsuji, S; Maeno, T; Ichimiya, R; Kurashige, H

    2002-01-01

    A sliced system test of the ATLAS end cap muon level 1 trigger system has been done in 2001 and 2002 separately. We have developed an own software framework for property and run controls for the slice test in 2001. The system is described in C++ throughout. The multi-PC control system is accomplished using the CORBA system. We have then restructured the software system on top of the ATLAS online software framework, and used this one for the slice test in 2002. In this report we discuss two systems in detail with emphasizing the module property configuration and run control. (8 refs).

  13. Excitatory and inhibitory pathways modulate kainate excitotoxicity in hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur; Rai, R;

    1993-01-01

    In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, kainate (KA) specifically induces cell loss in the CA3 region while N-methyl-D-aspartate induces cell loss in the CA1 region. The sensitivity of slice cultures to KA toxicity appears only after 2 weeks in vitro which parallels the appearance of mossy...... fibers. KA toxicity is potentiated by co-application with the GABA-A antagonist, picrotoxin. These data suggest that the excitotoxicity of KA in slice cultures is modulated by both excitatory and inhibitory synapses....

  14. Cartography of high-dimensional flows: A visual guide to sections and slices

    CERN Document Server

    Cvitanovic, Predrag; Carroll, Keith M; Robbins, Bryce; Siminos, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    Symmetry reduction by the method of slices quotients the continuous symmetries of chaotic flows by replacing the original state space by a set of charts, each covering a neighborhood of a dynamically important class of solutions, qualitatively captured by a `template'. Together these charts provide an atlas of the symmetry-reduced `slice' of state space, charting the regions of the manifold explored by the trajectories of interest. Within the slice, relative equilibria reduce to equilibria and relative periodic orbits reduce to periodic orbits. Visualizations of these solutions and their unstable manifolds reveal their interrelations and the role they play in organizing turbulence/chaos.

  15. Development of a fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) for reducing the cost of photovoltaic wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, F. (Crystal Systems, Inc., Salem, MA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This report examines a wafer slicing technique developed by Crystal Systems, Inc. that reduces the cost of photovoltaic wafers. This fixed, abrasive slicing technique (FAST) uses a multiwire bladepack and a diamond-plated wirepack; water is the coolant. FAST is in the prototype production stage and reduces expendable material costs while retaining the advantages of a multiwire slurry technique. The cost analysis revealed that costs can be decreased by making more cuts per bladepack and slicing more wafers per linear inch. Researchers studied the degradation of bladepacks and increased wirepack life. 21 refs.

  16. Constrained reverse diffusion for thick slice interpolation of 3D volumetric MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Aleš; Salvado, Olivier; Acosta, Oscar; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen

    2012-03-01

    Due to physical limitations inherent in magnetic resonance imaging scanners, three dimensional volumetric scans are often acquired with anisotropic voxel resolution. We investigate several interpolation approaches to reduce the anisotropy and present a novel approach - constrained reverse diffusion for thick slice interpolation. This technique was compared to common methods: linear and cubic B-Spline interpolation and a technique based on non-rigid registration of neighboring slices. The methods were evaluated on artificial MR phantoms and real MR scans of human brain. The constrained reverse diffusion approach delivered promising results and provides an alternative for thick slice interpolation, especially for higher anisotropy factors.

  17. 鲤鱼肉脯的生产工艺%Processing Technology of Fish Slice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华萍

    2011-01-01

    Study on the processing technique of dried carp fish slice. The optimum conditions were determined by orthogonal test and several crucial steps in the processing of dried carp fish slice, including fish skin remoral by hot water immersion, fishy odor elimination, curing,drying and frying were optimized. Key word: carp; dried fish slice;processing technique%以鲤鱼为原料,研制鱼肉脯的加工工艺。采用正交实验优化产品配方及对鲤鱼去皮、脱腥、干制、油炸等条件进行选择。

  18. Fatty liver in children

    OpenAIRE

    Rafeey, Mandana; Mortazavi, Fakhrossadat; Mogaddasi, Nafiseh; Robabeh, Ghergherehchi; Ghaffari, Shamsi; Hasani, Alka

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a referral center of pediatrics in the northwest of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study all subjects aged between six months to 15 years that were referred to the sonography unit, were investigated for fatty liver from March 2005 to August 2006. Patients with fatty liver change underwent detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. Results: From 150...

  19. A method for dynamic subtraction MR imaging of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setti Ernesto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtraction of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced 3D Magnetic Resonance (DCE-MR volumes can result in images that depict and accurately characterize a variety of liver lesions. However, the diagnostic utility of subtraction images depends on the extent of co-registration between non-enhanced and enhanced volumes. Movement of liver structures during acquisition must be corrected prior to subtraction. Currently available methods are computer intensive. We report a new method for the dynamic subtraction of MR liver images that does not require excessive computer time. Methods Nineteen consecutive patients (median age 45 years; range 37–67 were evaluated by VIBE T1-weighted sequences (TR 5.2 ms, TE 2.6 ms, flip angle 20°, slice thickness 1.5 mm acquired before and 45s after contrast injection. Acquisition parameters were optimized for best portal system enhancement. Pre and post-contrast liver volumes were realigned using our 3D registration method which combines: (a rigid 3D translation using maximization of normalized mutual information (NMI, and (b fast 2D non-rigid registration which employs a complex discrete wavelet transform algorithm to maximize pixel phase correlation and perform multiresolution analysis. Registration performance was assessed quantitatively by NMI. Results The new registration procedure was able to realign liver structures in all 19 patients. NMI increased by about 8% after rigid registration (native vs. rigid registration 0.073 ± 0.031 vs. 0.078 ± 0.031, n.s., paired t-test and by a further 23% (0.096 ± 0.035 vs. 0.078 ± 0.031, p t-test after non-rigid realignment. The overall average NMI increase was 31%. Conclusion This new method for realigning dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D MR volumes of liver leads to subtraction images that enhance diagnostic possibilities for liver lesions.

  20. High hydrostatic pressure influences the in vitro response to xenobiotics in Dicentrarchus labrax liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Mignolet, Eric; Debier, Cathy [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Calderon, Pedro Buc [Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73, B-1200 Woluwé-Saint-Lambert (Belgium); Thomé, Jean Pierre [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale et Ecotoxicologie, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 août 15, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Rees, Jean François, E-mail: jf.rees@uclouvain.be [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The methodology of precision-cut liver slices was applied to the European seabass. • Liver slices remained viable and functional in short-term co-exposure studies. • CYP1A induction was blocked in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • HSP70 induction was lower in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • Oxidative stress responses to tBHP were less pronounced at high pressure. - Abstract: Hydrostatic pressure (HP) increases by about 1 atmosphere (0.1 MPa) for each ten-meter depth increase in the water column. This thermodynamical parameter could well influence the response to and effects of xenobiotics in the deep-sea biota, but this possibility remains largely overlooked. To grasp the extent of HP adaptation in deep-sea fish, comparative studies with living cells of surface species exposed to chemicals at high HP are required. We initially conducted experiments with precision-cut liver slices of a deep-sea fish (Coryphaenoides rupestris), co-exposed for 15 h to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3-methylcholanthrene at HP levels representative of the surface (0.1 MPa) and deep-sea (5–15 MPa; i.e., 500–1500 m depth) environments. The transcript levels of a suite of stress-responsive genes, such as the AhR battery CYP1A, were subsequently measured (Lemaire et al., 2012; Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 10310–10316). Strikingly, the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA content was pressure-dependently reduced in C. rupestris. Here, the same co-exposure scenario was applied for 6 or 15 h to liver slices of a surface fish, Dicentrarchus labrax, a coastal species presumably not adapted to high HP. Precision-cut liver slices of D. labrax were also used in 1 h co-exposure studies with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as to investigate the pressure-dependence of the oxidative stress response (i.e., reactive oxygen production, glutathione and lipid peroxidation status). Liver cells remained

  1. Drying Characteristics and Product Quality of Lemon Slices Dried with Hot Air Circulation Oven and Hybrid Heatpump Dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hong Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, drying characteristics and product quality of Coulomb-force-assisted heatpump and oven dried lemon slices were studied. Lemon slices with 3 mm thickness each, were dried using oven and Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump dryer with and without auxiliary heater at different drying conditions. It was found that the drying rate of the lemon slices dried by all drying methods showed only falling rate states, which indicates the drying kinetics were controlled by internal moisture diffusion. Oven drying of lemon slices at 60°C showed the highest drying rate among all, followed by oven dried slices at 50°C, Coulomb-force-heater-assisted-heatpump (CF-HT-HP dried slices at 31°C, Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump (CF-HP dried slices at 22°C, oven dried slices at 40°C and heatpump dried slices at 22°C. The average effective moisture diffusivity value for the slices dried with these drying methods was found in the range of 16.2 to 63.8´10-4 mm2min-1. In terms of quality assessment, CF-HP dried lemon slices retained the highest amount of Vitamin C as compared to the lemon slices dried by other drying methods. However, it retained relatively lower amount of total phenolic content (TPC as compared to oven dried products. Among of all, CF-HP drying method produced dried lemon slices with the highest Vitamin C (6.74 mg AA / g dry weight whereas oven dried lemon slices at 50°C preserved most of the TPC in the dried slices, which recorded as 13.76 mg GA / g dry weight.

  2. Endovascular management in liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyu-Bo Sung

    2006-01-01

    @@ Liver transplantation was developed for the treatment of hepatic failure, and the first human liver transplantation was done in 1963. From the 1990 s,liver transplantation was generally accepted as a treatment modality for both end-stage liver disease and selected liver malignancies. Initially, liver transplantation was started with deceased donor whole-size liver transplantation (whole-size LT) as in other organ transplantation, but there is now a shortage of deceased liver donors has occurred. As a solution, deceased donor split liver transplantation (split LT) began in 1989 and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in the early 1990 s. Current liver transplantation techniques include whole-size LT, reduced-size liver transplantation (reduced-size LT), split LT and single or dual LDLT. Two donors give a part of their livers to one adult recipient simultaneously in dual LDLT.

  3. Transjugular liver biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble, Michel; Procopet, Bogdan; Miquel, Rosa; Hernandez-Gea, Virginia; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Liver biopsy is still the gold standard for evaluation of acute and chronic liver diseases, despite achievements regarding noninvasive diagnosis and staging in liver diseases. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) has proved a good option when ascites and/or significant coagulopathy precludes a percutaneous approach. Because diagnostic hemodynamic procedures can be performed during the same session, it is useful in many clinical settings, regardless of the absence of percuteaneous contraindications. TJLB is a safe technique able to provide good-quality specimens with a low rate of complications. This article presents an overview of TJLB that discusses the technique, applicability, indications, contraindications, complications, and diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and skimmed milk, and purified. The applicant intends to add bLF to foods for particular nutritional uses, i.e. infant and follow-on formulae, dietary food for special medical purposes, dairy products, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks, and chewing gums. According to the applicant, the high intake estimate for infants would be 1.1 g bLF per day. For adults, the applicant’s calculation estimates a mean and 97.5th percentile intake of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day, respectively, and a mean and 97.5th percentile daily intake of about 45 mg and 150 mg, respectively. The Panel notes that the safety of bLF as a novel food ingredient has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. That evaluation was to a significant extent based on safety data on bLF produced by Morinaga. The Panel also notes that the applicant intends maximum use levels of bLF in foods which are equivalent or lower than those intended by the applicant of the previous Opinion, and that the range of foods to which it is intended to add bLF is smaller. Consequently, the estimated intake levels described for the present application are comparable for infants and lower for all other population groups. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, bLF, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.

  5. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  6. Isolation of a human anti-haemophilic factor IX cDNA clone using a unique 52-base synthetic oligonucleotide probe deduced from the amino acid sequence of bovine factor IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaye, M; de la Salle, H; Schamber, F; Balland, A; Kohli, V; Findeli, A; Tolstoshev, P; Lecocq, J P

    1983-04-25

    A unique 52mer oligonucleotide deduced from the amino acid sequence of bovine Factor IX was synthesized and used as a probe to screen a human liver cDNA bank. The Factor IX clone isolated shows 5 differences in nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence as compared to a previously isolated clone. In addition, precisely one codon has been deleted.Images

  7. Molecular cloning and analysis of functional cDNA and genomic clones encoding bovine cellular retinoic acid-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubeita, H E; Sambrook, J F; McCormick, A M

    1987-08-01

    A recombinant cDNA clone, pCRABP-HS1, encoding cellular retinoic acid-binding protein was isolated from a bovine adrenal cDNA library. COS-7 cells transfected with pCRABP-HS1 produced a biologically active retinoic acid-binding protein molecule of the expected molecular mass (15.5 kDa). RNA blot hybridization analysis using pCRABP-HS1 as a probe revealed a single 1050-nucleotide mRNA species in bovine adrenal, uterus, and testis, tissues that contain the highest levels of retinoic acid-binding activity. No hybridization was detected in RNA extracted from ovary, spleen, kidney, or liver, which contain relatively low levels of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein activity. Analysis of genomic clones isolated from an EcoRI bovine genomic library demonstrated that the bovine cellular retinoic acid-binding protein gene is composed of four exons and three introns. Two putative promoter sequences were identified in the cloned 5' sequence of the gene.

  8. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in human liver microsomes, characterization of enzyme kinetics in the presence of bovine serum albumin (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) and in vitro - in vivo extrapolation of hepatic clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacharla, Raghava Choudary; Uthukam, Venkatesham; Manoharan, Arunkumar; Ponnamaneni, Ranjith Kumar; Padala, Nagasurya Prakash; Boggavarapu, Rajesh Kumar; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Ajjala, Devender Reddy; Nirogi, Ramakrishna

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fatty acids on CYP enzymes and the effect of BSA on intrinsic clearance of probe substrates. The inhibitory effect of thirteen fatty acids including saturated, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on CYP enzymes, kinetic parameters and intrinsic clearance values of nine CYP marker probe substrate reactions in the absence and presence of BSA (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) were characterized in human liver microsomes. The results demonstrate that most of the unsaturated fatty acids showed marked inhibition towards CYP2C8 mediated amodiaquine N-deethylation followed by inhibition of CYP2C9 and CYP2B6 mediated activities. The addition of 0.1% BSA in the incubation markedly improved the unbound intrinsic clearance values of probe substrates by reducing the Km values with little or no effect on maximal velocity. The addition of BSA (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) did not influence the unbound intrinsic clearance of marker reactions for CYP2A6, and CYP3A4 enzymes. The addition of 0.1% w/v BSA is sufficient to determine the intrinsic clearance of marker probe reactions by metabolite formation approach. The predicted hepatic clearance values for the substrates using the well-stirred model, in the presence of BSA (0.1% BSA), are comparable to the in vivo hepatic clearance values.

  9. Liver transplantation in polycystic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Paul S; Hillingsø, Jens; Kirkegaard, Preben

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a rare, hereditary, benign disorder. Hepatic failure is uncommon and symptoms are caused by mass effects leading to abdominal distension and pain. Liver transplantation (LTX) offers fully curative treatment, but there is still some controversy about...... whether it is a relevant modality considering the absence of liver failure, relative organ shortage, perioperative risks and lifelong immunosuppression. The purpose of this study was to review our experience of LTX for PLD and to compare the survival with the overall survival of patients who underwent LTX....../kidney transplantation. One patient had undergone kidney transplantation 10 years earlier. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 55 months. One patient who underwent combined transplantation died after 5.4 months because of multiorgan failure after re-LTX, and one patient, with well-functioning grafts, died of lymphoma after 7...

  10. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  11. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  12. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  13. Biocompatibility of silicon-based arrays of electrodes coupled to organotypic hippocampal brain slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Noraberg, J; Thiébaud, P

    2001-01-01

    ) rats were grown for 4-8 weeks on the perforated silicon chips with silicon nitride surfaces and 40 microm sized holes and compared with corresponding tissue slices grown on conventional semiporous membranes. In terms of preservation of the basic cellular and connective organization, as visualized...... around the upper recording part of the 47-microm-high platinum-tip electrodes. Slice cultures grown on a separate set of chips with platinum instead of silicon nitride surfaces also displayed normal MAP2 and GFAP immunostaining. The width of the GFAP-rich zone (glia limitans) at the bottom surface...... of the slice cultures was the same ( approximately 20 microm) in cultures grown on chips with silicon nitride and platinum surfaces and on conventional insert membranes. The slice cultures grown on chips maintained a normal, subfield differentiated susceptibility to the glutamate receptor agonist N...

  14. Preparation of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures for long-term live imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolla, Nadine; Galimberti, Ivan; DePaola, Vincenzo; Caroni, Pico

    2006-01-01

    This protocol details a method to establish organotypic slice cultures from mouse hippocampus, which can be maintained for several months. The cultures are based on the interface method, which does not require special equipment, is easy to execute and yields slice cultures that can be imaged repeatedly--from when they are isolated at postnatal day 6-9, and up to 6 months in vitro. The preserved tissue architecture facilitates the analysis of defined hippocampal synapses, cells and entire projections. Monitoring of defined cellular and molecular components in the slices can be achieved by preparing slices from transgenic mice or by introducing transgenes through transfection or viral vectors. This protocol can be completed in 3 h.

  15. Hemodynamic study of hepatocellular car-cinoma nodules by multi-slice spiral computed tomographic perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the 64-slice computed tomographic(CT) perfusion parameters of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) nodule so as to assess the diagnostic value of hemodynamic changes of HCC nodule by this perfusion

  16. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of the United States, in an Albers Equal-Area...

  17. Diagnostic Value of 16 Slices Spiral-CT for Portal Vein Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震; 胡道予; 肖明

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The diagnostic value of 16-slices spiral computed tomography (CT) for portal vein disorders was evaluated. Forty-one patients were scanned by the 16-slices spiral-CT. The celiac trunk,portal vein and their branches were reconstructed by volume rendering (VR), multiplanar volume reconstruction (MPVR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) technique, and the results were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). VR, MPVR and MIP could display celiac trunk, portal vein, inferior vena cava and their branches and extent of portal vein-vena cava shunt,portal vein emboli and the fistula of hepatic artery-portal vein. The results from 16-slices CT were better than DSA and identical with pathologic ones. The vessel three-dimension reconstruction technique of 16-slices spiral CT is valuable for evaluating the portal systemic disorders.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of 64 slice multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography in left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Lee

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Sixty-four slice multidetector CCTA is a very sensitive and fairly specific noninvasive diagnostic procedure for detecting coronary stenosis in patients with chest pain regardless of LV systolic function at presentation.

  19. Altered magnesium transport in slices of kidney cortex from chemically-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, B.

    1981-10-01

    The uptake of magnesium-28 was measured in slices of kidney cortex from rats with alloxan-diabetes and from rats with streptozotocin-diabetes of increasing durations. In both forms of chemically-induced diabetes, magnesium-28 uptake by kidney cortex slices was significantly increased over uptake measured in kidney cortex slices from control rats. Immediate institution of daily insulin therapy to the diabetic rats prevented the diabetes-induced elevated uptake of magnesium without controlling blood glucose levels. Late institution of daily insulin therapy was ineffective in restoring the magnesium uptake to control values. These alterations in magnesium uptake occurred prior to any evidence of nephropathy (via the classic indices of proteinuria and increased BUN levels). The implications of these findings, together with our earlier demonstrations of altered calcium transport by kidney cortex slices from chemically-induced diabetic rats, are discussed in terms of disordered divalent cation transport being at least part of the basic pathogenesis underlying diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Unified Mathematical Framework for Slicing and Symmetry Reduction over Event Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassical slicing and symmetry reduction can act as efficient structural abstract methods for pruning state space when dealing with verification problems. In this paper, we mainly address theoretical and algorithmic aspects for nonclassical slicing and symmetry reduction over prime event structures. We propose sliced and symmetric quotient reduction models of event structures and present their corresponding algorithms. To construct the underlying foundation of the proposed methodologies, we introduce strong and weak conflict concepts and a pair of mutually inverse operators and extend permutation group based symmetry notion of event structures. We have established a unified mathematical framework for slicing and symmetry reduction, and further investigated the translation, isomorphism, and equivalence relationship and other related basic facts from a theoretical point of view. The framework may provide useful guidance and theoretical exploration for overcoming verification challenges. This paper also demonstrates their practical applications by two cases.

  1. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  2. An Experimental Investigation on the Drying of Sliced Food Products in Centrifugal Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.H.Shi; Y.L.Hao; 等

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the fluidization and drying characteristics of sliced food products in a centrifugal fluidized bed dryer was carried out,The rotaing speed ranges from 300 rpm to 500 rpm.Sliced potato and radish were used as the testing materials.The results show that the sliced materials can be fluidized well in the centrifugal fluidized bed.The fluidized curve has a maximum value and the critical fluidized velocities vary with the type of the test material,its shape and dimension as well as operating parameters.The sliced food materials can be dried very well and fast in the centrifugal fluidized bed with a large productivity.The factors that influence the drying process were examined and discussed.The final shape and inner structure of the dried products were observed.The water recovery characteristics of the drried products were also investigated.

  3. Time Slice Analysis Method Based on OTCA Used in fMRI Weak Signal Function Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Sen-lin; LI Li; ZHANG Xin-li; ZHANG Tie-mei

    2007-01-01

    The original temporal clustering analysis (OTCA) is an effective technique for obtaining brain activation maps when the timing and location of the activation are completely unknown, but its deficiency of sensitivity is exposed in processing brain activation signal which is relatively weak. The time slice analysis method based on OTCA is proposed considering the weakness of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal of the rat model. By dividing the stimulation period into several time slices and analyzing each slice to detect the activated pixels respectively after the background removal, the sensitivity is significantly improved. The inhibitory response in the hypothalamus after glucose loading is detected successfully with this method in the experiment on rat. Combined with the OTCA method, the time slice analysis method based on OTCA is effective on detecting when, where and which type of response will happen after stimulation, even if the fMRI signal is weak.

  4. Ex Vivo Optogenetic Dissection of Fear Circuits in Brain Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Daniel; Asede, Douglas; Ehrlich, Ingrid

    2016-04-05

    Optogenetic approaches are now widely used to study the function of neural populations and circuits by combining targeted expression of light-activated proteins and subsequent manipulation of neural activity by light. Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are light-gated cation-channels and when fused to a fluorescent protein their expression allows for visualization and concurrent activation of specific cell types and their axonal projections in defined areas of the brain. Via stereotactic injection of viral vectors, ChR fusion proteins can be constitutively or conditionally expressed in specific cells of a defined brain region, and their axonal projections can subsequently be studied anatomically and functionally via ex vivo optogenetic activation in brain slices. This is of particular importance when aiming to understand synaptic properties of connections that could not be addressed with conventional electrical stimulation approaches, or in identifying novel afferent and efferent connectivity that was previously poorly understood. Here, a few examples illustrate how this technique can be applied to investigate these questions to elucidating fear-related circuits in the amygdala. The amygdala is a key region for acquisition and expression of fear, and storage of fear and emotional memories. Many lines of evidence suggest that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) participates in different aspects of fear acquisition and extinction, but its precise connectivity with the amygdala is just starting to be understood. First, it is shown how ex vivo optogenetic activation can be used to study aspects of synaptic communication between mPFC afferents and target cells in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Furthermore, it is illustrated how this ex vivo optogenetic approach can be applied to assess novel connectivity patterns using a group of GABAergic neurons in the amygdala, the paracapsular intercalated cell cluster (mpITC), as an example.

  5. Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Sewall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available General circulation models (GCMs are useful tools for investigating the characteristics and dynamics of past climates. Understanding of past climates contributes significantly to our overall understanding of Earth's climate system. One of the most time consuming, and often daunting, tasks facing the paleoclimate modeler, particularly those without a geological background, is the production of surface boundary conditions for past time periods. These boundary conditions consist of, at a minimum, continental configurations derived from plate tectonic modeling, topography, bathymetry, and a vegetation distribution. Typically, each researcher develops a unique set of boundary conditions for use in their simulations. Thus, unlike simulations of modern climate, basic assumptions in paleo surface boundary conditions can vary from researcher to researcher. This makes comparisons between results from multiple researchers difficult and, thus, hinders the integration of studies across the broader community. Unless special changes to surface conditions are warranted, researcher dependent boundary conditions are not the most efficient way to proceed in paleoclimate investigations. Here we present surface boundary conditions (land-sea distribution, paleotopography, paleobathymetry, and paleovegetation distribution for four Cretaceous time slices (120 Ma, 110 Ma, 90 Ma, and 70 Ma. These boundary conditions are modified from base datasets to be appropriate for incorporation into numerical studies of Earth's climate and are available in NetCDF format upon request from the lead author. The land-sea distribution, bathymetry, and topography are based on the 1°×1° (latitude x longitude paleo Digital Elevation Models (paleoDEMs of Christopher Scotese. Those paleoDEMs were adjusted using the paleogeographical reconstructions of Ronald Blakey (Northern Arizona University and published literature and were then modified for use in GCMs. The paleovegetation

  6. Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Sewall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available General circulation models (GCMs are useful tools for investigating the characteristics and dynamics of past climates. Understanding of past climates contributes significantly to our overall understanding of Earth's climate system. One of the most time consuming, and often daunting, tasks facing the paleoclimate modeler, particularly those without a geological background, is the production of surface boundary conditions for past time periods. These boundary conditions consist of, at a minimum, continental configurations derived from plate tectonic modeling, topography, bathymetry, and a vegetation distribution. Typically, each researcher develops a unique set of boundary conditions for use in their simulations. Thus, unlike simulations of modern climate, basic assumptions in paleo surface boundary conditions can vary from researcher to researcher. This makes comparisons between results from multiple researchers difficult and, thus, hinders the integration of studies across the broader community. Unless special changes to surface conditions are warranted, researcher dependent boundary conditions are not the most efficient way to proceed in paleoclimate investigations. Here we present surface boundary conditions (land-sea distribution, paleotopography, paleobathymetry, and paleovegetation distribution for four Cretaceous time slices (120 Ma, 110 Ma, 90 Ma, and 70 Ma. These boundary conditions are modified from base datasets to be appropriate for incorporation into numerical studies of Earth's climate and are available in NetCDF format upon request from the lead author. The land-sea distribution, bathymetry, and topography are based on the 1°×1° (latitude × longitude paleo Digital Elevation Models (paleoDEMs of Christopher Scotese. Those paleoDEMs were adjusted using the paleogeographical reconstructions of Ronald Blakey (Northern Arizona University and published literature and were then modified for use in GCMs. The paleovegetation

  7. Hemoglobinopathies: slicing the Gordian knot of Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve M; Cerami, Carla; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits--including hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and α-thalassemia--are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait). Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a "natural experiment" to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the "Gordian knot" of host and parasite

  8. Analysis and improvement of SNR using time slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanam, Srikrishna; Singh, Amarjot; Kumar, Devinder; Choubey, Akash; Bacchuwar, Ketan

    2011-06-01

    Noise is a very important factor which in most cases, plays an antagonistic role in the vast field of image processing. Thus noise needs to be studied in great depth in order to improve the quality of images. The quantity of signal in an image, corrupted by noise is generally described by the term Signal-to-Noise ratio. Capturing multiple photos at different focus settings is a powerful approach for improving SNR. The paper analyses a frame work for optimally balancing the tradeoff's between defocus and sensor noise by experimenting on synthetic as well as real video sequences. The method is first applied to synthetic image where the improvement in SNR is studied by the ability of Hough transform to extract the number of lines with respect to the variation in SNR. The paper further experiments on real time video sequences while the improvement in SNR is analyzed using different edge operators like Sobel, Canny, Prewitt, Roberts and Laplacian. The result obtained is further analyzed using different edge operators. The main aim is to detect the edges at different values of SNR which will be a prominent measure of the signal strength as well as clarity of an image. The paper also explains in depth the modeling of noise leading to better understanding of SNR. The results obtain from both synthetic image and real time video sequences elaborate the increase in SNR with the increment in the total number of time slices in a fixed budget leading to clear pictures. This technique can be very effectively applied to capture high quality images from long distances.

  9. Hemoglobinopathies: slicing the Gordian knot of Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Taylor

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits--including hemoglobin S (HbS, hemoglobin C (HbC, and α-thalassemia--are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait. Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a "natural experiment" to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the "Gordian knot" of host and

  10. Evaluation of T{sub 1ρ} as a potential MR biomarker for liver cirrhosis: Comparison of healthy control subjects and patients with liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.raucher@tum.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Eiber, Matthias; Ganter, Carl [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Martirosian, Petros [Section on Experimental Radiology, University Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Safi, Wajima; Umgelter, Andreas [2nd Medical Department, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Rummeny, Ernst J.; Holzapfel, Konstantin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare mean liver T{sub 1ρ} values in patients with liver cirrhosis and healthy control subjects in order to evaluate T{sub 1ρ} as a potential MR biomarker for liver cirrhosis. Materials and methods: Ten healthy control subjects (mean age 42.7 years; 6 female, 4 male) and 21 patients with clinically diagnosed liver cirrhosis (mean age 56.5 years; 5 female, 16 male) were examined at 1.5 T (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens). T{sub 1ρ}-weighted images were acquired using a 2D TurboFLASH sequence (TR/TE 3/1.31 ms, FA 8°, FoV 309 × 380 mm, resolution 2 × 2 × 6 mm, acquisition time 15 s, slice thickness 6 mm) with spin-lock preparation. T{sub 1ρ} maps were calculated from five breath-hold measurements, performed with different spin-lock times (4, 8, 16, 32 and 48 ms). Mean liver T{sub 1ρ} values of healthy control subjects and patients with liver cirrhosis were calculated and compared using Student t-test. In addition, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the utility of mean liver T{sub 1ρ} values for the prediction of liver cirrhosis. Results: Mean liver T{sub 1ρ} values in patients with liver cirrhosis (57.4 ± 7.4 ms) were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (47.8 ± 4.2 ms; p = 0.0007). According to the ROC analysis at a threshold value of 50.1 ms the sensitivity and specificity of mean liver T{sub 1ρ} in predicting liver cirrhosis were 90.5% and 90%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.90. Conclusion: Mean liver T{sub 1ρ} values in patients with liver cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects suggesting a potential role of liver T{sub 1ρ} as a MR biomarker for liver cirrhosis.

  11. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  12. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism in bovine Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  14. Characterization of the bovine ampkgamma1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkel, Bernhard; Kollers, Sonja; Fries, Ruedi; Sazanov, Alexei; Yoshida, Erin; Valle, Edith; Davoren, Jon; Hickey, Donal

    2005-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents the mammalian form of the core component of a kinase cascade that is conserved between fungi, plants, and animals. AMPK plays a major role in protecting mammalian cells from metabolic stress by switching off biosynthetic pathways that require ATP and switching on ATP-regenerating pathways. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of the gene for the noncatalytic bovine gamma1 subunit of AMPK. The bovine ampkgamma1 (PRKAG1) gene spans in excess of 14 kb and is located at BTA 5q21-q22. It consists of 12 exons ranging in size from 38 b to 166 b, interspersed with 11 introns that range between 97 b and 6753 b in length. The coding region of the bovine gene shares 93% and 90% nucleotide sequence similarity with its human and rat counterparts, and the bovine AMPKgamma1 protein is 98% and 95% identical to its human and rat homologs, respectively, in amino acid sequence. SNP discovery using a cattle DNA panel revealed a number of polymorphisms that may be useful for the evaluation of ampkgamma1 as a candidate gene for energy metabolism-related production traits.

  15. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  16. An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sparling, A M

    2000-01-01

    A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology.

  17. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  18. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-10-28

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection.

  19. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  20. Transmission of new bovine prion to mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, T.G.M.; Biacabe, A.G.; Bencsik, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6 mi

  1. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  2. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  3. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was dete

  4. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  5. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative conf

  6. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  7. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  8. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  9. Fluidized bed drying characteristics and modeling of ginger ( zingiber officinale) slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Nezaket

    2015-08-01

    In this study fluidized bed drying characteristics of ginger have been investigated. The effects of the fluidizing air temperature, velocity, humidity and bed height on the drying performance of ginger slices have been found. The experimental moisture loss data of ginger slices has been fitted to the eight thin layer drying models. Two-term model drying model has shown a better fit to the experimental data with R2 of 0.998 as compared to others.

  10. Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;

    : Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....

  11. Discovery of Hyperpolarized Molecular Imaging Biomarkers in a Novel Prostate Tissue Slice Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    compatible bioreactor optimized in year 1 to identify hyperpolarized metabolic biomarkers of prostate cancer presence and aggressiveness. To...accomplish this goal my group finished the engineering of a 5 mm bioreactor and acquired hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate data indicating that similar signal...to noise and quality data can be achieved with 4 to 5 prostate tissue slices in the 5 mm bioreactor as was acquired from 30-40 tissue slices in the

  12. Drying characteristics of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) slices in convective and freeze dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Gulsah; Dirim, Safiye Nur

    2017-01-01

    This study was intended to determine the drying and rehydration kinetics of convective and freeze dried pumpkin slices (0.5 × 3.5 × 0.5 cm). A pilot scale tray drier (at 80 ± 2 °C inlet temperature, 1 m s-1 air velocity) and freeze drier (13.33 kPa absolute pressure, condenser temperature of -48 ± 2 °C) were used for the drying experiments. Drying curves were fitted to six well-known thin layer drying models. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to evaluate the parameters of the selected models by using statistical software SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., USA). For the convective and freeze drying processes of pumpkin slices, the highest R2 values, and the lowest RMSE as well as χ2 values were obtained from Page model. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of the convective and freeze dried pumpkin slices were obtained from the Fick's diffusion model, and they were found to be 2.233 × 10-7 and 3.040 × 10-9 m2s-1, respectively. Specific moisture extraction rate, moisture extraction rate, and specific energy consumption values were almost twice in freeze drying process. Depending on the results, moisture contents and water activity values of pumpkin slices were in acceptable limits for safe storage of products. The rehydration behaviour of [at 18 ± 2 and 100 ± 2 °C for 1:25, 1:50, 1:75, 1:100, and 1:125 solid:liquid ratios (w:w)] dried pumpkin slices was determined by Peleg's model with the highest R2. The highest total soluble solid loss of pumpkin slices was observed for the rehydration experiment which performed at 1:25 solid: liquid ratio (w:w). Rehydration ratio of freeze dried slices was found 2-3 times higher than convective dried slices.

  13. Liver displacement during ventilation in Thiel embalmed human cadavers - a possible model for research and training in minimally invasive therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisma, Roos; Gueorguieva, Mariana; Immel, Erwin; Toomey, Rachel; McLeod, Graeme; Soames, Roger; Melzer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Respiration-related movement of organs is a complication in a range of diagnostic and interventional procedures. The development and validation of techniques to compensate for such movement requires appropriate models. Human cadavers embalmed with the Thiel method remain flexible and could provide a suitable model. In this study liver displacement during ventilation was assessed in eight Thiel embalmed cadavers, all of which showed thoracic and abdominal motion. Four cadavers displayed realistic lung behaviour, one showed some signs of pneumothorax after prolonged ventilation, one had limited filling of the lungs, and two displayed significant leakage of air into the thorax. A coronal slice containing the largest section through the liver was imaged with a real-time Fast Gradient Echo (FGR) MRI sequence: Craniocaudal displacement of the liver was then determined from a time-series of slices. The maximum liver displacement observed in the cadavers ranged from 7 to 35 mm. The ventilation applied was comparable to tidal breathing at rest and the results found for liver displacement are similar to values in the literature for respiratory motion of the liver under similar conditions. This indicates that Thiel embalmed cadavers have potential as a model for research and training in minimally invasive procedures.

  14. Bioartificial Liver Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent G Bain

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioartificial liver support has been increasingly the focus of both basic and clinical research in an attempt to replicate the multiplicity of normal liver function. The concept is attractive because, if it is effective, patients with acute liver failure may be supported until native liver regeneration occurs or, by optimizing their condition, until liver transplantation is possible. Current bioartificial liver support systems utilize primary porcine hepatocytes or transformed human hepatocytes, which are housed within a bioreactor, through which the patient's blood or plasma is pumped in an extracorporeal circuit. The optimal source for the hepatocytes is an area of debate; however, a genetically engineered cell line may provide optimal function. Novel three-dimensional matrices that anchor the hepatocytes are being designed to mimic architectural features of the normal liver. Large multicentre, randomized, controlled trials are ongoing following several pilot studies. Serious side effects such as hemodynamic instability and immune reactions have been infrequent. Much controversy, however, surrounds the issue of possible transmission of pig endogenous retrovirus to humans, and current trials are being carefully monitored. Bioartificial liver support is a promising technology, and the results of current and planned studies are awaited with great interest.

  15. Liver and Biliary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    9.1.Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver2005376 The role of ribosomal S6 kinase in thepathogenesis of rat hepatic fibrosis.YANG Miaofang(杨妙芳),et al.Dept Gastroenterol,Changzheng Hosp,2nd Milit Med Univ,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Dig 2005;25(2):98-100.

  16. Prolactin and liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.C. Bauer (Alexander)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractCirrhosis of the liver is associated with profound endocrinological disturbances. Until recently it was thought that these disturbances were caused mainly by ineffective elimination of hormones by the diseased liver. It is now known that the pathogenesis of disturbed hormonal function in

  17. LIVER AND BILIARGY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    8.1 Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver2004100 The clinical feature and prognosis of Aero-monas septicaemia in hepatic cirrhosis: a report of 50 cases. QU Fen (曲芬), et al. Clin Centre, 302nd Hosp PLA, Beijing 100039. Chin J Intern Med 2003; 42 (12): 840 - 846Objective: Aeromonas septicaemia complicating cirrhosis

  18. Hypoxia and fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shinjo, Satoko; Arai, Takatomo; Kanai, Mai; Goda, Nobuhito

    2014-11-07

    The liver is a central organ that metabolizes excessive nutrients for storage in the form of glycogen and lipids and supplies energy-producing substrates to the peripheral tissues to maintain their function, even under starved conditions. These processes require a considerable amount of oxygen, which causes a steep oxygen gradient throughout the hepatic lobules. Alcohol consumption and/or excessive food intake can alter the hepatic metabolic balance drastically, which can precipitate fatty liver disease, a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, ranging from simple steatosis, through steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, to liver cirrhosis. Altered hepatic metabolism and tissue remodeling in fatty liver disease further disrupt hepatic oxygen homeostasis, resulting in severe liver hypoxia. As master regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) modulate various cellular and organ functions, including erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, metabolic demand, and cell survival, by activating their target genes during fetal development and also in many disease conditions such as cancer, heart failure, and diabetes. In the past decade, it has become clear that HIFs serve as key factors in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver formation. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate lipid metabolism in the development and progression of fatty liver disease.

  19. Liver and Biliary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011220 Value of liver biopsy in diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. YANG Fang(杨方) ,et al. 2nd Ward, Shenyang 6th People’s Hosp,Shenyang 110006. Chin J Infect Dis 2011; 29(2):99-103. Objective To explore the value of liver biopsy in diagnosis of the severity of chronic hepatitis

  20. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, William; Lee, William M; Wendon, Julia;

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades acute liver failure (ALF) has been transformed from a rare and poorly understood condition with a near universally fatal outcome, to one with a well characterized phenotype and disease course. Complex critical care protocols are now applied and emergency liver...

  1. Multiple pyogenic liver abscess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mabrouk Bahloul; Anis Chaari; Nadia Bouaziz-Khlaf; Hatem Kallel; Leila Herguefi; Hedi Chelly; Chokri Ben Hamida; Mounir Bouaziz

    2006-01-01

    Multiple pyogenic liver abscesses have been rarely described. We report a fatal case of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses affecting a 38-year-old woman requiring surgical drainage. Evolution was marked by occurrence of a septic shock with multi-organ system failure. The patient died 48 h after surgery. Causes, therapeutics and outcome of the disease are discussed.

  2. The utility of Thin Slice ratings for predicting language growth in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M; Ingersoll, Brooke R

    2016-04-01

    Literature on "Thin Slice" ratings indicates that a number of personality characteristics and behaviors can be accurately predicted by ratings of very short segments (<5 min) of behavior. This study examined the utility of Thin Slice ratings of young children with autism spectrum disorder for predicting developmental skills and language gains over time. A total of 22 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder participated in a battery of developmental assessments and a video-taped therapist-child interaction at Time 1. They then participated in follow-up testing of language skills and a second therapist-child interaction 6 months later (Time 2). Groups of approximately 25 naïve undergraduate students provided impression ratings ("Thin Slice ratings") about each child's skills and behaviors during 2-min segments taken from the therapist-child interaction videos at each time point. Thin Slice ratings at Time 1 were highly correlated with child scores on several developmental assessments at Time 1. In addition, Thin Slice ratings at Time 1 predicted gain in parent-reported expressive vocabulary over the course of 6 months, over and above the predictive utility of Time 1 vocabulary size. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the concurrent and predictive validity of Thin Slice ratings in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  3. Using pancreas tissue slices for in situ studies of islet of Langerhans and acinar cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Anja; Cohrs, Christian M; Tsata, Vasiliki; Chouinard, Julie A; Selck, Claudia; Stertmann, Julia; Reichelt, Saskia; Rose, Tobias; Ehehalt, Florian; Weitz, Jürgen; Solimena, Michele; Slak Rupnik, Marjan; Speier, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Studies on the cellular function of the pancreas are typically performed in vitro on its isolated functional units, the endocrine islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acini. However, these approaches are hampered by preparation-induced changes of cell physiology and the lack of an intact surrounding. We present here a detailed protocol for the preparation of pancreas tissue slices. This procedure is less damaging to the tissue and faster than alternative approaches, and it enables the in situ study of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cell physiology in a conserved environment. Pancreas tissue slices facilitate the investigation of cellular mechanisms underlying the function, pathology and interaction of the endocrine and exocrine components of the pancreas. We provide examples for several experimental applications of pancreas tissue slices to study various aspects of pancreas cell biology. Furthermore, we describe the preparation of human and porcine pancreas tissue slices for the validation and translation of research findings obtained in the mouse model. Preparation of pancreas tissue slices according to the protocol described here takes less than 45 min from tissue preparation to receipt of the first slices.

  4. Fast whole-brain optical tomography capable of automated slice-collection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Deng, Lei; Long, Beng; Peng, Jie; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Acquiring brain-wide composite information of neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping is crucial to understand brain functions. However, current whole-brain imaging methods based on mechnical sectioning haven't achieved brain-wide acquisition of both neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping due to the lack of appropriate whole-brain immunostaining of embedded samples. Here, we present a novel strategy of acquiring brain-wide structural and molecular maps in the same brain, combining whole-brain imaging and subsequent immunostaining of automated-collected slices. We developed a whole-brain imaging system capable of automatically imaging and then collecting imaged tissue slices in order. The system contains three parts: structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput optical sectioning, vibratome for high-precision sectioning and slice-collection device for automated collecting of tissue slices. Through our system, we could acquire a whole-brain dataset of agarose-embedded mouse brain at lateral resolution of 0.33 µm with z-interval sampling of 100 µm in 9 h, and automatically collect the imaged slices in sequence. Subsequently, we performed immunohistochemistry of the collected slices in the routine way. We acquired mouse whole-brain imaging datasets of multiple specific types of neurons, proteins and gene expression profiles. We believe our method could accelerate systematic analysis of brain anatomical structure with specific proteins or genes expression information and understanding how the brain processes information and generates behavior.

  5. [Xenotransplantation of the liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M; Schlitt, H J

    1999-01-01

    The development of pigs transgenic for human regulators of complement activation resulted in the nearly total elimination of episodes of hyperacute rejection following discordant solid organ xenotransplantation. Following discordant heart or kidney transplantation, in subhuman primates, graft survival rates of up to several months can be observed. In contrast to these organs, the xenotransplantation of the liver is associated with the inherent problem of the immunological and metabolic compatibility of the large variety of xenoproteins generated. Based on a review of data mainly derived from experimental ex-vivo xenoliver perfusions in patients with hepatic coma, whole organ orthotopic or heterotopic liver xenotransplantation currently is not likely to become a relevant option for the treatment of patients with endstage liver failure. In contrast, clinical studies utilizing different forms of bioartificial liver assist devices are currently underway. Based on preliminary data published, this form of liver support therapy might enter the clinic in the near future.

  6. Liver cancer oncogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Andersen, Jesper B

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver cancers are among the most rapidly evolving malignant tumors worldwide. An underlying chronic inflammatory liver disease, which precedes liver cancer development for several decades and frequently creates a pro-oncogenic microenvironment, impairs progress in therapeutic approaches....... Molecular heterogeneity of liver cancer is potentiated by a crosstalk between epithelial tumor and stromal cells that complicate translational efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with a drugable intend. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced our understanding of cancer...... development. With regards to liver cancer, the unprecedented coverage of next-generation sequencing has created a detailed map of genetic alterations and identified key somatic changes such as CTNNB1 and TP53 as well as several previously unrecognized recurrent disease-causing alterations that could...

  7. Antioxidant supplements for liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2011-01-01

    Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal....

  8. Liver biopsy in liver patients with coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, P.; Gronbaek, H.; Clausen, M.R.;

    2008-01-01

    The risk of severe bleeding after liver biopsy is estimated to be 1:12,000 in patients with near normal coagulation (INR 60 billion /l). Beyond these limits, the risk is higher, but still uncertain. The Danish guidelines require INR > 1.5, platelet count

  9. Validating new software for semiautomated liver volumetry. Better than manual measurement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noschinski, L.E.; Maiwald, B.; Voigt, P.; Kahn, T.; Stumpp, P. [University Hospital Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Wiltberger, G. [University Hospital Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery

    2015-09-15

    This prospective study compared a manual program for liver volumetry with semiautomated software. The hypothesis was that the semiautomated software would be faster, more accurate and less dependent on the evaluator's experience. Ten patients undergoing hemihepatectomy were included in this IRB approved study after written informed consent. All patients underwent a preoperative abdominal 3-phase CT scan, which was used for whole liver volumetry and volume prediction for the liver part to be resected. Two different types of software were used: 1) manual method: borders of the liver had to be defined per slice by the user; 2) semiautomated software: automatic identification of liver volume with manual assistance for definition of Couinaud segments. Measurements were done by six observers with different experience levels. Water displacement volumetry immediately after partial liver resection served as the gold standard. The resected part was examined with a CT scan after displacement volumetry. Volumetry of the resected liver scan showed excellent correlation to water displacement volumetry (manual: ρ = 0.997; semiautomated software: ρ = 0.995). The difference between the predicted volume and the real volume was significantly smaller with the semiautomated software than with the manual method (33 % vs. 57 %, p = 0.002). The semiautomated software was almost four times faster for volumetry of the whole liver (manual: 6:59 ± 3:04min; semiautomated: 1:47 ± 1:11 min). Both methods for liver volumetry give an estimated liver volume close to the real one. The tested semiautomated software is faster, more accurate in predicting the volume of the resected liver part, gives more reproducible results and is less dependent on the user's experience.

  10. Assessment of global left ventricular functional parameters : analysis of every second short-axis magnetic resonance imaging slices is as accurate as analysis of consecutive slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Daniel D.; Willems, Tineke P.; van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Overbosch, Jelle; Goette, Marco J. W.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether accurate global left-ventricular (LV) functional parameters can be obtained by analyzing every second short-axis magnetic resonance imaging cine series instead of consecutive slices, in order to reduce post-processing time. Forty patients, were scanned

  11. Dynamic bowtie filter for cone-beam/multi-slice CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Liu

    Full Text Available A pre-patient attenuator ("bowtie filter" or "bowtie" is used to modulate an incoming x-ray beam as a function of the angle of the x-ray with respect to a patient to balance the photon flux on a detector array. While the current dynamic bowtie design is focused on fan-beam geometry, in this study we propose a methodology for dynamic bowtie design in multi-slice/cone-beam geometry. The proposed 3D dynamic bowtie is an extension of the 2D prior art. The 3D bowtie consists of a highly attenuating bowtie (HB filled in with heavy liquid and a weakly attenuating bowtie (WB immersed in the liquid of the HB. The HB targets a balanced flux distribution on a detector array when no object is in the field of view (FOV. The WB compensates for an object in the FOV, and hence is a scaled-down version of the object. The WB is rotated and translated in synchrony with the source rotation and patient translation so that the overall flux balance is maintained on the detector array. First, the mathematical models of different scanning modes are established for an elliptical water phantom. Then, a numerical simulation study is performed to compare the performance of the scanning modes in the cases of the water phantom and a patient cross-section without any bowtie and with a dynamic bowtie. The dynamic bowtie can equalize the numbers of detected photons in the case of the water phantom. In practical cases, the dynamic bowtie can effectively reduce the dynamic range of detected signals inside the FOV. Furthermore, the WB can be individualized using a 3D printing technique as the gold standard. We have extended the dynamic bowtie concept from 2D to 3D by using highly attenuating liquid and moving a scale-reduced negative copy of an object being scanned. Our methodology can be applied to reduce radiation dose and facilitate photon-counting detection.

  12. Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose-response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, C.; Thor, M.; Liu, M.; Moissenko, V.; Petersen, S. E.; Høyer, M.; Apte, A.; Deasy, J. O.

    2014-07-01

    When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose-response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to either 74 Gy (N = 159) or 78 Gy (N = 159) at 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ≥2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3 mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (≤18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (≤0.8 and ≤4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ≤1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose-response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice thickness

  13. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY LIVER TISSUE SLICES FROM PHENOBARBITAL-PRETREATED MICE IS CONGENER-SPECIFIC AND ATROPSELECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xianai; Duffel, Michael; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models are powerful tools to study the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); however, studies of the oxidation of chiral PCB congeners to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in mice have not been reported. Here we investigate the atropselective oxidation of chiral PCB 91 (2,2',3,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 95 (2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 132 (2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl), PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) and ...

  14. Cytokines and Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Tilg

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are pleiotropic peptides produced by virtually every nucleated cell in the body. In most tissues, including the liver, constitutive production of cytokines is absent or minimal. There is increasing evidence that several cytokines mediate hepatic inflammation, apoptosis and necrosis of liver cells, cholestasis and fibrosis. Interestingly, the same mediators also mediate the regeneration of liver tissue after injury. Among the various cytokines, the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a has emerged as a key factor in various aspects of liver disease, such as cachexia and/or cholestasis. Thus, antagonism of TNF-a and other injury-related cytokines in liver diseases merits evaluation as a treatment of these diseases. However, because the same cytokines are also necessary for the regeneration of the tissue after the liver has been injured, inhibition of these mediators might impair hepatic recovery. The near future will bring the exiting clinical challenge of testing new anticytokine strategies in various liver diseases.

  15. Proteoglycans in liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects. PMID:26755884

  16. Proteoglycans in liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-07

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects.

  17. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  18. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  19. Elastin in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kanta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of liver cirrhosis is the accumulation of large amounts of connective tissue with the prevailing content of type I collagen. Elastin is a minor connective tissue component in normal liver but it is actively synthesized by hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts in diseased liver. The accumulation of elastic fibers in later stages of liver fibrosis may contribute to the decreasing reversibility of the disease with advancing time. Elastin is formed by polymerization of tropoelastin monomers. It is an amorphous protein highly resistant to the action of proteases that forms the core of elastic fibers. Microfibrils surrounding the core are composed of fibrillins that bind a number of proteins involved in fiber formation. They include microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs, microfibrillar-associated proteins (MFAPs and fibulins. Lysyl oxidase (LOX and lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXLs are responsible for tropoelastin cross-linking and polymerization. TGF-β complexes attached to microfibrils release this cytokine and influence the behavior of the cells in the neighborhood. The role of TGF-β as the main profibrotic cytokine in the liver is well-known and the release of the cytokines of TGF-β superfamily from their storage in elastic fibers may affect the course of fibrosis. Elastic fibres are often studied in the tissues where they provide elasticity and resilience but their role is no longer viewed as purely mechanical. Tropoelastin, elastin polymer and elastin peptides resulting from partial elastin degradation influence fibroblastic and inflammatory cells as well as angiogenesis. A similar role may be performed by elastin in the liver. This article reviews the results of the research of liver elastic fibers on the backgound of the present knowledge of elastin biochemistry and physiology. The regulation of liver elastin synthesis and degradation may be important for the outcome of liver fibrosis.

  20. Imaging of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Ariff; Claire R Lloyd; Sameer Khan; Mohamed Shariff; Andrew V Thillainayagam; Devinder S Bansi; Shahid A Khan; Simon D Taylor-Robinson; Adrian KP Lim

    2009-01-01

    Improvements in imaging technology allow exploitation of the dual blood supply of the liver to aid in the identi-fication and characterisation of both malignant and benign liver lesions. Imaging techniques available include contrast enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This review discusses the application of several imaging techniques in the diagnosis and staging of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma and outlines certain characteristics of benign liver lesions. The advantages of each imaging technique are highlighted, while underscoring the potential pitfalls and limitations of each imaging modality.