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Sample records for bovine liver slices

  1. Bovine liver slices: A multifunctional in vitro model to study the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijk, Jeroen C W; Bovee, Toine F H; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Groot, Maria J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Nielen, Michel W F

    2012-09-01

    Biotransformation of inactive prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can lead to the formation of potent androgens and subsequent androgenic responses in target tissues. In the present study, precision-cut bovine liver slices were used to study the effects of DHEA on the metabolite, transcript and androgenic activity level. Bovine liver slices were exposed for 6h to various concentrations of DHEA. Changes in androgenic activity of the DHEA containing cell culture media were measured using a yeast androgen bioassay and metabolites were identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS), while gene expression in the DHEA-treated liver slices was examined using bovine microarrays and compared with the profile as obtained with 17ß-testosterone (17ß-T). An increase in androgenic activity was observed in the bioassay upon testing of samples from incubations of DHEA with liver slices and the formation of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), 5-androstene-3ß,17ß-diol, 17ß-T, 7α-hydroxy-DHEA, 7-keto-DHEA and 17α-T could be confirmed by UPLC-TOFMS analysis. Exposure of liver slices to DHEA and the strong androgen 17ß-T resulted in the identification of significantly up- and down-regulated genes and revealed similar gene expression profiles for both compounds. The results indicate that DHEA itself is biologically not very active, but is rapidly converted by the liver slices into the more androgen active compounds 4-AD and 17ß-T. Moreover, the present data highlight the multi-functionality of bovine liver slices as an in vitro bioactivation model, allowing the assessment of androgen activity or gene expression as effect-based endpoints for prohormone exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Liver Effects of Clinical Drugs Differentiated in Human Liver Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E. M. Vickers

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drugs with clinical adverse effects are compared in an ex vivo 3-dimensional multi-cellular human liver slice model. Functional markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, glutathione GSH and ATP levels, were affected by acetaminophen (APAP, 1 mM, diclofenac (DCF, 1 mM and etomoxir (ETM, 100 μM. Drugs targeting mitochondria more than GSH were dantrolene (DTL, 10 μM and cyclosporin A (CSA, 10 μM, while GSH was affected more than ATP by methimazole (MMI, 500 μM, terbinafine (TBF, 100 μM, and carbamazepine (CBZ 100 μM. Oxidative stress genes were affected by TBF (18%, CBZ, APAP, and ETM (12%–11%, and mitochondrial genes were altered by CBZ, APAP, MMI, and ETM (8%–6%. Apoptosis genes were affected by DCF (14%, while apoptosis plus necrosis were altered by APAP and ETM (15%. Activation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial energy, heat shock, ER stress, apoptosis, necrosis, DNA damage, immune and inflammation genes ranked CSA (75%, ETM (66%, DCF, TBF, MMI (61%–60%, APAP, CBZ (57%–56%, and DTL (48%. Gene changes in fatty acid metabolism, cholestasis, immune and inflammation were affected by DTL (51%, CBZ and ETM (44%–43%, APAP and DCF (40%–38%, MMI, TBF and CSA (37%–35%. This model advances multiple dosing in a human ex vivo model, plus functional markers and gene profile markers of drug induced human liver side-effects.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  4. HUMAN LIVER SLICES EXPRESS THE SAME LIDOCAINE BIOTRANSFORMATION RATE AS ISOLATED HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLINGA, P; MEIJER, DKF; SLOOFF, MJH; GROOTHUIS, GMM; Merema, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    In order to investigate whether liver slices are a valuable tool for the assessment of drug metabolism in human liver, we compared the phase I metabolism of lidocaine in human liver slices and hepatocytes prepared from three human livers. Lidocaine is mainly metabolised to monoethylglycinexylidide

  5. Prevalidation of liver slices as a model for the early onset of liver fibrosis to test anti-fibrotic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Inge; Groothuis, Genoveva; Olinga, Peter

    Liver fibrosis is the progressive accumulation of connective tissue that affects the normal function of the liver and will eventually lead to liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study is to prevalidate precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) as an in vitro model to investigate the early onset of liver

  6. Dynamic compressive response of bovine liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Farhana; Chen, Weinong W; Weerasooriya, Tusit

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to experimentally determine the strain rate effects on the compressive stress-strain behavior of bovine liver tissues. Fresh liver tissues were used to make specimens for mechanical loading. Experiments at quasi-static strain rates were conducted at 0.01 and 0.1 s(-1). Intermediate-rate experiments were performed at 1, 10, and 100 s(-1). High strain rate (1000, 2000, and 3000 s(-1)) experiments were conducted using a Kolsky bar modified for soft material characterization. A hollow transmission bar with semi-conductor strain gages was used to sense the weak forces from the soft specimens. Quartz-crystal force transducers were used to monitor valid testing conditions on the tissue specimens. The experiment results show that the compressive stress-strain response of the liver tissue is non-linear and highly rate-sensitive, especially when the strain rate is in the Kolsky bar range. The tissue stiffens significantly with increasing strain rate. The responses from liver tissues along and perpendicular to the liver surface were consistent, indicating isotropic behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Precision-cut hamster liver slices as an ex vivo model to study amoebic liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Santiago-Mauricio, María Guadalupe; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Balderas-Rentería, Isaías; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2010-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis, the second cause of global morbidity and mortality due to parasitic diseases in humans. In approximately 1% of the cases, amoebas penetrate the intestinal mucosa and spread to other organs, producing extra-intestinal lesions, among which amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common. To study ALA, in vivo and in vitro models are used. However, animal models may pose ethical issues, and are time-consuming and costly; and cell cultures represent isolated cellular lineages. The present study reports the infection of precision-cut hamster liver slices with Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. The infection time-course, including tissue damage, parallels findings previously reported in the animal model. At the same time amoebic virulence factors were detected in the infected slices. This new model to study ALA is simple and reproducible, and employs less than 1/3 of the hamsters required for in vivo analyses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolism and covalent binding of [14C]toluene by human and rat liver microsomal fractions and liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D E; Moore, T J; Michener, S R; Powis, G

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro metabolism of [14C]toluene by liver microsomes and liver slices from male Fischer F344 rats and human subjects has been compared. Rat liver microsomes produced only benzyl alcohol from toluene. Liver microsomes from human subjects metabolized toluene to benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoic acid. Liver microsomes from one human donor also produced p-cresol and o-cresol. The overall rate of toluene metabolism by human liver microsomes was 9-fold greater than by rat liver microsomes. Human liver microsomal metabolism of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde required NADPH and was inhibited by carbon monoxide and high pH (pH 10). but was not inhibited by ADP-ribose or sodium azide. These results suggest that cytochrome P-450, rather than alcohol dehydrogenase, was responsible for the metabolism of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Human and rat liver slices metabolized toluene to hippuric acid and benzoic acid. The overall rate of toluene metabolism by human liver slices was 1.3-fold greater than by rat liver slices. Cresols and cresol conjugates were not detected in human or rat liver slice incubations. Covalent binding of [14C]toluene to human liver microsomes and slices was 21-fold and 4-fold greater than to the comparable rat liver preparations. Covalent binding did not occur in the absence of NADPH, was significantly decreased by coincubation with cysteine, glutathione, or superoxide dismutase, and was unaffected by coincubation with lysine. Protease and ribonuclease digestion decreased the amount of toluene covalently bound to human liver microsomes by 78% and 27% respectively. Acid washing of human liver microsomes had no effect on covalent binding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Slices

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James

    2011-01-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies. © 2011 ACM.

  10. Human precision-cut liver slices as a model to test antifibrotic drugs in the early onset of liver fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Inge M.; Mutsaers, Henricus A. M.; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Hadi, Mackenzie; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; de Jong, Koert P.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Olinga, Peter

    Liver fibrosis is the progressive accumulation of connective tissue ultimately resulting in loss of organ function. Currently, no effective antifibrotics are available due to a lack of reliable human models. Here we investigated the fibrotic process in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) and

  11. Exposure of precision-cut rat liver slices to ethanol accelerates fibrogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaffert, Courtney S.; Duryee, Michael J.; Bennett, Robert G.; DeVeney, Amy L.; Tuma, Dean J.; Olinga, Peter; Easterling, Karen C.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Klassen, Lynell W.

    Schaffert CS, Duryee MJ, Bennett RG, DeVeney AL, Tuma DJ, Olinga P, Easterling KC, Thiele GM, Klassen LW. Exposure of precision-cut rat liver slices to ethanol accelerates fibrogenesis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299: G661-G668, 2010. First published July 1, 2010; doi:

  12. Cryopreservation of precision-cut rat liver slices using a computer-controlled freezer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, W.J.M.; Leeman, W.R.; Groten, J.P.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2000-01-01

    Precision-cut liver slices are frequently used to study hepatic toxicity and metabolism of xenobiotics in vitro. Successful cryopreservation techniques will enhance an efficient and economic use of scarcely available (human) liver tissue. For primary hepatocytes, slow freezing has been accepted as

  13. Live cell imaging of cytosolic NADH/NAD+ratio in hepatocytes and liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, Ricard; McCarty, William J; Lahmann, Carolina; Luther, Jay; Chung, Raymond T; Yarmush, Martin L; Yellen, Gary

    2018-01-01

    Fatty liver disease (FLD), the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, may be caused by alcohol or the metabolic syndrome. Alcohol is oxidized in the cytosol of hepatocytes by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which generates NADH and increases cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio. The increased ratio may be important for development of FLD, but our ability to examine this question is hindered by methodological limitations. To address this, we used the genetically encoded fluorescent sensor Peredox to obtain dynamic, real-time measurements of cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in living hepatocytes. Peredox was expressed in dissociated rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells by transfection, and in mouse liver slices by tail-vein injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-encoded sensor. Under control conditions, hepatocytes and liver slices exhibit a relatively low (oxidized) cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio as reported by Peredox. The ratio responds rapidly and reversibly to substrates of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). Ethanol causes a robust dose-dependent increase in cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio, and this increase is mitigated by the presence of NAD + -generating substrates of LDH or SDH. In contrast to hepatocytes and slices, HepG2 cells exhibit a relatively high (reduced) ratio and show minimal responses to substrates of ADH and SDH. In slices, we show that comparable results are obtained with epifluorescence imaging and two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2p-FLIM). Live cell imaging with Peredox is a promising new approach to investigate cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in hepatocytes. Imaging in liver slices is particularly attractive because it allows preservation of liver microanatomy and metabolic zonation of hepatocytes. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe and validate a new approach for measuring free cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in hepatocytes and liver slices: live cell imaging with the fluorescent biosensor Peredox. This approach yields dynamic, real

  14. The effect of acute ethanol administration on phosphorylethanolamine uptake and metabolism in rat liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazzi, L; Arienti, G; Tirillini, B; Arienti, U G; Porcellati, G; Orlando, P

    1977-08-01

    Double-labelled phosphorylethanolamine with a [32P]//[14IA1 ratio of 1 was incubated in vitro with rat liver slices prepared from control and ethanol-intoxicated rats, and the radioactivity measured at given time intervals in liver ethanolamine, phosphorylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Evidence is presented that after 10 and 15 minutes phosphorylethanolamine enters the slices as an intact molecule, which is directly converted into lipid forms by the Kennedy's pathways. At longer times a hydrolysis of the ester occurs which lowers considerably the theoretical [32P]/[14C]ratio. Fatty liver slices produced by acute ethanol intoxication uptake from the medium more phosphorylethanolamine than controls, and hydrolyze less efficiently than controls the phosphoric ester to ethanolamine and inorganic phosphate.

  15. Cytotoxicity of retinoic acid, menadione and aflatoxin B1 in rat liver slices using netwell inserts as a culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, W.R.; Gevel, I.A. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Precision-cut rat liver slices were used to develop a new dynamic incubation system in which histomorphology and measurement of the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the conversion of MTT were applied to evaluate cytotoxicity. Liver slices, precision-cut using a Krumdieck tissue slicer,

  16. Precision-cut liver slices as a model for the early onset of liver fibrosis to test antifibrotic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Inge M.; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Olinga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Induction of fibrosis during prolonged culture of precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) was reported. In this study, the use of rat PCLS was investigated to further characterize the mechanism of early onset of fibrosis in this model and the effects of antifibrotic compounds. Rat PCLS were incubated for

  17. Analysis of bile acid-induced regulation of FXR target genes in human liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Diana; Elferink, Marieke G. L.; Stellaard, Frans; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    Information about the role of nuclear receptors has rapidly increased over the last decade. However, details about their role in human are lacking. Owing to species differences, a powerful human in vitro system is needed. This study uses for the first time precision-cut human liver slices in the

  18. Retrospective study on bovine whole carcass and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited information exists in literature on the major reasons for whole carcass and organ condemnations in Ghana. A retrospective study spanning January 2002 to December 2013 was conducted at the Kumasi Abattoir to determine the pattern of bovine whole carcass, liver condemnation, and to estimate the direct financial ...

  19. Vitamin C acts as a hepatoprotectant in carbofuran treated rat liver slices in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Jaiswal

    Full Text Available Carbamates, most commonly used pesticides in agricultural practices, have been reported to produce free radicals causing deleterious effects in animals. The present study was designed to assess the carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat liver slices in vitro and also to evaluate protective role of vitamin C by incubating them in Krebs-Ringer HEPES Buffer (KRHB containing incubation media (Williams medium E (WME supplemented with glucose and antibiotics with different concentrations of carbofuran. The results demonstrated that carbofuran caused significant increase in lipid peroxidation and inhibition in the activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD in concentration dependent manner. The data with incubation medium reflected that carbofuran at lowest concentration caused an increase in SOD activity followed by its inhibition at higher concentration. Carbofuran treatment caused inhibition in the activity of catalase in liver slices and WME incubation medium. Pre-incubation of liver slices and the WME media with vitamin C restored the values of biochemical indices tested. The results indicated that carbofuran might induce oxidative stress in hepatocytes. The pretreatment with vitamin C may offer hepatoprotection from toxicity of pesticide at low concentration only. Keywords: Carbofuran, Oxidative stress, Antioxidant, In vitro, Hepatotoxicity

  20. Viability, function and morphological integrity of precision-cut liver slices during prolonged incubation : Effects of culture medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Abza, Getahun B; Maessen, Hedy C; Merema, Marjolijn T; Kuper, Frieke; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2015-01-01

    Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) are an ex vivo model for metabolism and toxicity studies. However, data on the maintenance of the morphological integrity of the various cell types in the slices during prolonged incubation are lacking. Therefore, our aims were to characterize morphological and

  1. Viability, function and morphological integrity of precision-cut liver slices during prolonged incubation: Effects of culture medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starokozhko, V.; Abza, G.B.; Maessen, H.C.; Merema, M.T.; Kuper, F.; Groothuis, G.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) are an ex vivo model for metabolism and toxicity studies. However, data on the maintenance of the morphological integrity of the various cell types in the slices during prolonged incubation are lacking. Therefore, our aims were to characterize morphological and

  2. Patulin reduces glutathione level and enzyme activities in rat liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Erika; Diwald, Tabea T; Metzler, Manfred

    2005-04-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to identify glutathione (GSH) adducts of patulin in precision-cut rat liver slices, which were used as a model system to study the metabolism and biological effects of this mycotoxin. Patulin disappeared in the slices but none of the GSH adducts, previously demonstrated in the chemical reaction of patulin with GSH, could be detected by HPLC. After incubation with various concentrations of patulin, a concentration-dependent decline of the GSH level was observed in the slices. For example, only 25% of the GSH of controls was found with 200 microM patulin. The activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, assayed by the hydroxylation and conjugation of testosterone, were also reduced. On the other hand, incubation with patulin markedly increased lipid peroxidation in the slices. The effects of patulin on enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation may be a consequence of the GSH decline, which cannot be accounted for by a direct reaction of patulin with GSH due to the high concentration of GSH in hepatocytes. The decrease of GSH level and GST activity may be related to the putative mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of patulin.

  3. Influence of some aliphatic alcohols on the metabolism of rat liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsander, O A

    1967-10-01

    The influence of some aliphatic alcohols on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, acid formation and lactate and pyruvate concentrations of rat liver slices was studied. At the concentrations used, none of the alcohols was found to influence oxygen uptake. Of the alcohols that are not oxidized by liver alcohol dehydrogenase, methanol increased carbon dioxide production, propan-2-ol decreased it and 2-methylpropan-2-ol was without influence. All the alcohols that are oxidized by the enzyme strongly decreased carbon dioxide production. The alcohols that are not oxidized had no marked effect on the lactate/pyruvate concentration ratio, whereas the other alcohols strongly increased the ratio. A highly significant correlation was found between the effects of the alcohol on pyruvate concentration and carbon dioxide production. It is assumed that the shift in the redox potential inhibits the function of the tricarboxylic acid cycle of the liver.

  4. A comparative study of precision cut liver slices, hepatocytes, and liver microsomes from the Wistar rat using metronidazole as a model substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, U. G.; Cornett, Claus; Tjornelund, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Metronidazole is metabolized by rat liver in vitro models to form a hydroxy metabolite, an acetic acid metabolite, a glucuronic acid conjugate, and a sulphate conjugate. 2. Four different in vitro systems for investigation of drug metabolism based on liver preparations from the male Wistar rat...... have been investigated. 3. An incubation system where liver slices are incubated in 12-well culture plates was evaluated with respect to metabolism of metronidazole. Optimal viability was observed for a time period of up to 24 h. The Michaelis-Menten parameters for the metabolism of metronidazole......, whereas the intrinsic clearance with respect to formation of the glucuronic acid conjugate was lower in slices compared with hepatocytes. 4. The metabolism of metronidazole in liver slices, in hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture, in hepatocytes incubated in suspension, and in liver microsomes...

  5. Studies on the transverse localization of lysophospholipase II in bovine liver microsomes by immunological techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, H.; Bosch, H. van den

    1979-01-01

    1. 1. Lysophospholipase activity solubilized from bovine liver microsomes could be precipitated for more than 80% by antibodies evoked in rabbits against the purified bovine liver lysophospholipase II. 2. 2. After solubilization of the microsomes in 1.5% sodium deoxycholate, an immunoprecipitate

  6. Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein from bovine liver contains highly unsaturated phosphatidylcholine species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijtenbeek, T. B.; Westerman, J.; Heerma, W.; Wirtz, K. W.

    1996-01-01

    The phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) from bovine liver contains one molecule of non-covalently bound PC. In order to gain more insight into the physiological function of PC-TP, PC was extracted from bovine liver PC-TP and its molecular species composition identified by fast atom

  7. Maintenance of high quality rat precision cut liver slices during culture to study hepatotoxic responses: Acetaminophen as a model compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitzny, Anne; Knebel, Jan; Schaudien, Dirk; Braun, Armin; Steinberg, Pablo; Dasenbrock, Clemens; Hansen, Tanja

    2017-08-01

    Precision cut liver slices (PCLiS) represent a promising tool in reflecting hepatotoxic responses. However, the culture of PCLiS varies considerably between laboratories, which can affect the performance of the liver slices and thus the experimental outcome. In this study, we describe an easily accessible culture method, which ensures optimal slice viability and functionality, in order to set the basis for reproducible and comparable PCLiS studies. The quality of the incubated rat PCLiS was assessed during a 24h culture period using ten readouts, which covered viability (lactate dehydrogenase-, aspartate transaminase- and glutamate dehydrogenase-leakage, ATP content) and functionality parameters (urea, albumin production) as well as histomorphology and other descriptive characteristics (protein content, wet weight, slice thickness). The present culture method resulted in high quality liver slices for 24h. Finally, PCLiS were exposed to increasing concentrations of acetaminophen to assess the suitability of the model for the detection of hepatotoxic responses. Six out of ten readouts revealed a toxic effect and showed an excellent mutual correlation. ATP, albumin and histomorphology measurements were identified as the most sensitive readouts. In conclusion, our results indicate that rat PCLiS are a valuable liver model for hepatotoxicity studies, particularly if they are cultured under optimal standardized conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. An in vitro method of alcoholic liver injury using precision-cut liver slices from rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klassen, Lynell W.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Duryee, Michael J.; Schaffert, Courtney S.; DeVeney, Amy L.; Hunter, Carlos D.; Olinga, Peter; Tuma, Dean J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse results in liver injury, but investigations into the mechanism(s) for this injury have been hampered by the lack of appropriate in vitro culture models in which to conduct in depth and specific studies. In order to overcome these shortcomings, we have developed the use of precision-cut

  9. Intercellular communication and cell proliferation in precision-cut rat liver slices : effect of medium composition and DDT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I A; Tajima, O; Groten, J P; Wolterbeek, A P

    2000-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and cell proliferation were studied in control and 1,1'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2, 2,2,-trichloroethane (DDT) treated precision-cut liver slices of rat by evaluating connexin 32 (Cx32) expression and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. In

  10. On-line HPLC Analysis System for Metabolism and Inhibition Studies in Precision-Cut Liver Slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Midwoud, Paul M.; Janssen, Joost; Merema, M.T.; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for on-line monitoring of drug metabolism in continuously perifused, precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) in a microfluidic system has been developed using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). In this approach, PCLS are incubated in a microfluidic device

  11. Analysis of gene expression changes to elucidate the mechanism of chilling injury in precision-cut liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, Na; Fahy, Gregory M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Blomsma, Sylvia

    The exact mechanism of chilling injury (by a decrease of temperature to sub-physiological values), especially in the intact organ, is yet unknown. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), which closely resemble the organ from which they are derived, are an ideal in vitro model to study the mechanism of

  12. Assessment of some critical factors in the freezing technique for the cryopreservation of precision-cut rat liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, W.J.M.; Graaf, de I.A.M.; Schoen, E.D.; Koster, H.J.; Sandt, van de J.J.M.; Groten, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A number of studies on the cryopreservation of precision-cut liver slices using various techniques have been reported. However, the identification of important factors that determine cell viability following cryopreservation is difficult because of large differences between the various methods

  13. Current Understanding of Acute Bovine Liver Disease in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Elizabeth; Edwards, Jacqueline; Deseo, Myrna; Rawlin, Grant; Rochfort, Simone

    2016-12-26

    Acute bovine liver disease (ABLD) is a hepatotoxicity principally of cattle which occurs in southern regions of Australia. Severely affected animals undergo rapid clinical progression with mortalities often occurring prior to the recognition of clinical signs. Less severely affected animals develop photosensitization and a proportion can develop liver failure. The characteristic histopathological lesion in acute fatal cases is severe, with acute necrosis of periportal hepatocytes with hemorrhage into the necrotic areas. Currently there are a small number of toxins that are known to cause periportal necrosis in cattle, although none of these have so far been linked to ABLD. Furthermore, ABLD has frequently been associated with the presence of rough dog's tail grass (Cynosurus echinatus) and Drechslera spp. fungi in the pasture system, but it is currently unknown if these are etiological factors. Much of the knowledge about ABLD is contained within case reports, with very little experimental research investigating the specific cause(s). This review provides an overview of the current and most recently published knowledge of ABLD. It also draws on wider research and unpublished reports to suggest possible fungi and mycotoxins that may give rise to ABLD.

  14. Feasibility of computed tomography based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in bovine liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandeya, G. D.; Klaessens, J. H. G. M.; Greuter, M. J. W.; Schmidt, B.; Flohr, T.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Oudkerk, M.

    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in the bovine liver. Four freshly exercised cylindrical blocks of bovine tissue were heated using a continuous laser of Nd:YAG (wavelength: 1064 nm, active length: 30 mm, power: 10-30 W). All

  15. Immobilization and characterization of bovine liver catalase on eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖZLEM ALPTEKİN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine liver catalase immobilized on eggshell particles was characterized and the reusability of the immobilized catalase was investigated in a batch type reactor. For immobilized catalase onto ground eggshell (ICATG, the optimum initial amount of catalase was 85 mg g-1 of eggshells, the optimum pH was 6.0 (75 mM citrate buffer and the temperature was 30 °C. The Vmax and Km values of ICATG were determined as 29.1±1.2 U/mg of protein and 41.9±2.7 mM, respectively. The reusability of ICATG was tested and the remaining activity of ICATG was found to be 73 % of the initial activity after 80 cycles of batch operation. The amount of catalase bound onto the carrier was estimated by using the results of induced coupled plasma measurements. The catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km of free catalase and ICATG were found to be 1.4´106 and 2.8´103 dm3 s-1 mol-1, respectively. Catalase immobilization onto eggshell is economic and has good reusability. Hence, it can be concluded that eggshell is an efficient carrier for immobilizing catalase.

  16. Kinetic studies of bovine liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, J P; Stone, S R; Fromm, H J

    1979-06-10

    Initial rate kinetic studies with bovine liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase were carried out in both directions of the reaction to determine the sequence of product release from the enzyme. Product inhibition by fructose-6-P was found to be S-linear, I-linear noncompetitive relative to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, whereas inorganic orthophosphate was determined to be linear competitive with respect to the substrate. The kinetics of the reverse reaction were studied by coupling the phosphatase reaction to the aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, and glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase reactions. The kinetic results were found to be in harmony with the Uni Bi ordered and random sequential mechanisms as well as a Uni Bi ping-pong mechanism. The nomenclature is that of Cleland (Cleland, W.W. (1963) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 67, 104-137). However, nonkinetic considerations, when taken together with the kinetic results, suggest that the steady state ordered Uni Bi mechanism is the most likely possibility. There is evidence that isomerization of the binary complex of enzyme and phosphate occurs in the kinetic mechanism. Although magnesium is required for the reverse reaction, there is no evidence to suggest that the enzyme discriminates between the magnesium-associated or divalent cation-free forms of the substrates.

  17. Single and mixture effects of aquatic micropollutants studied in precision-cut liver slices of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, Cristina; Eide, Marta; Hitchcock, Daniel J; Goksøyr, Anders; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren

    2016-08-01

    The low concentrations of most contaminants in the aquatic environment individually may not affect the normal function of the organisms on their own. However, when combined, complex mixtures may provoke unexpected effects even at low amounts. Selected aquatic micropollutants such as chlorpyrifos, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were tested singly and in mixtures at nM to μM concentrations using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Fish liver is a target organ for contaminants due to its crucial role in detoxification processes. In order to understand the effects on distinct key liver metabolic pathways, transcription levels of various genes were measured, including cyp1a1 and cyp3a, involved in the metabolism of organic compounds, including toxic ones, and the catabolism of bile acids and steroid hormones; cyp7a1, fabp and hmg-CoA, involved in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis; cyp24a1, involved in vitamin D metabolism; and vtg, a key gene in xenoestrogenic response. Only EE2 had significant effects on gene expression in cod liver slices when exposed singly at the concentrations tested. However, when exposed in combinations, effects not detected in single exposure conditions arose, suggesting complex interactions between studied pollutants that could not be predicted from the results of individual exposure scenarios. Thus, the present work highlights the importance of assessing mixtures when describing the toxic effects of micropollutants to fish liver metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Precision-cut fibrotic rat liver slices as a new model to test the effects of anti-fibrotic drugs in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Marja; Groothuis, Geny M M; Meijer, Dirk K F; Olinga, Peter

    2006-11-01

    Current cell culture models contributed significantly to the study of liver fibrosis and the testing of anti-fibrotic drugs but mimic the complex in vivo milieu poorly. Therefore, we evaluated fibrotic rat liver slices as a new, more physiologic in vitro model to test anti-fibrotic compounds. Precision-cut slices (8 mm diameter, 250 microm thickness) were prepared from fibrotic rat livers three weeks after bile-duct ligation and incubated for 0-48 h, during which viability and progression of the fibrotic process was evaluated. In addition, the effects of pentoxifylline, gleevec, and dexamethasone on mRNA expression of markers for fibrosis were determined. Fibrotic liver slices remained viable during 48 h of incubation, with increasing alphaSMA and pro-collagen 1a1 mRNA expression, and alphaSMA and collagen protein content after prolonged incubation. Addition of pentoxifylline, gleevec, or dexamethasone during incubation dose-dependently inhibited pro-collagen-1a1 and alphaSMA mRNA expression after 24h of incubation without influencing slice viability. Fibrotic liver slices are a promising tool to test anti-fibrotic drugs in vitro in a multicellular, fibrotic milieu, which cannot be achieved in vitro using other models. Importantly, this method may provide the opportunity to study anti-fibrotic compounds not only in animal but also in fibrotic human liver tissue.

  19. Precision-cut fibrotic rat liver slices as a new model to test the effects of anti-fibrotic drugs in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, Marja; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Meijer, Dirk K. F.; Olinga, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aims: Current cell culture models contributed significantly to the study of liver fibrosis and the testing of anti-fibrotic drugs but mimic the complex in vivo milieu poorly. Therefore, we evaluated fibrotic rat liver slices as a new, more physiologic in vitro model to test anti-fibrotic

  20. An in vivo and in vitro comparison of CYP induction in rat liver and intestine using slices and quantitative RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignoni, Marcella; de Kanter, Ruben; Grossi, Pietro; Mahnke, Axel; Saturno, Grazia; Monshouwer, Mario

    2004-12-30

    Xenobiotics, including drugs, can influence cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by upregulating the transcription of CYP genes. To minimize potential drug interactions, it is important to ascertain whether a compound will be an inducer of CYP enzymes early in the development of new therapeutic agents. In vivo and in vitro studies are reported that demonstrate the use of liver and intestinal slices as an in vitro model to predict potential CYP induction in vivo. Rat liver slices and intestinal slices were incubated, for 24 h and 6 h, respectively, with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF), phenobarbital (PB) or dexamethasone (DEX). In an in vivo study, rats were treated with the same compounds for 3 days. In vivo and in vitro CYP mRNA levels were measured by using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, CYP enzyme activities were determined in rat liver slices after 48 h incubation. In both rat liver and intestinal slices, betaNF significantly induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B1 mRNA levels. PB significantly induced CYP2B1. In liver slices a minor induction of CYP1A1 and CYP3A1 by PB was observed, whereas DEX significantly induced CYP3A1, CYP2B1 and CYP1A2 mRNA levels. The induction profiles (qualitative and quantitative) observed in vivo and in vitro are quite similar. All together, these data demonstrate that liver and intestinal slices are a useful and predictive tool to study CYP induction.

  1. Feasibility of computed tomography based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in bovine liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandeya, G.D. [University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, UMC Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, PO Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Siemens AG, H IM CT PLM-E PA, Forchheim (Germany); Klaessens, J.H.G.M. [UMC Utrecht, Department of Medical Technology and Clinical Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); Greuter, M.J.W.; Oudkerk, M. [University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, UMC Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, PO Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Schmidt, B.; Flohr, T. [Siemens AG, H IM CT PLM-E PA, Forchheim (Germany); Hillegersberg, R. van [UMC Utrecht, Department of Surgical Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in the bovine liver. Four freshly exercised cylindrical blocks of bovine tissue were heated using a continuous laser of Nd:YAG (wavelength: 1064 nm, active length: 30 mm, power: 10-30 W). All tissues were imaged at least once before and 7 times during laser heating using CT and temperatures were simultaneously measured with 5 calibrated thermal sensors. The dependency of the average CT numbers as a function of temperature was analysed with regression analysis and a CT thermal sensitivity was derived. During laser heating, the growing hypodense area was observed around the laser source and that area showed an increase as a function of time. The formation of hypodense area was caused by declining in CT numbers at increasing temperatures. The regression analysis showed an inverse linear dependency between temperature and average CT number with -0.65 {+-} 0.048 HU/ C (R{sup 2} = 0.75) for the range of 18-85 C in bovine liver. The non-invasive CT based thermometry during interstitial laser heating is feasible in the bovine liver. CT based thermometry could be further developed and may be of potential use during clinical LITT of the liver. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of the ligand binding properties of recombinant bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolf, B; Oudenampsen-Krüger, E; Börchers, T

    1995-01-01

    The coding part of the cDNA for bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and used for the construction of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system. The recombinant protein made up to 25% of the soluble E. coli proteins and could be isolated...

  3. Precision-cut liver slices of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): an in vitro system for studying the effects of environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, M; Karlsen, O A; Kryvi, H; Olsvik, P A; Goksøyr, A

    2014-08-01

    The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is an economically important species commonly consumed by humans. The widespread distribution of cod in the North Atlantic Ocean makes it vulnerable to effluents from human activities, such as coastal industries and offshore petroleum exploration. It has been demonstrated that many effluents have adverse effects on cod reproduction and health, e.g. by disrupting endocrine signaling pathways. The liver, expressing important components of the biotransformation and the endocrine system, is one of the main target organs. Thus, reliable and reproducible in vitro systems of the liver are important for studying effects of environmental contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) as an alternative in vitro system for toxicological studies of the Atlantic cod liver. Slices of 8 mm in diameter and 250 μm thickness were prepared and cultivated from immature cod. Several analyses to measure the liver slice viability were performed: enzyme assays, histology, and morphometric analysis, all confirming cell viability for up to 72 h in culture. The liver slices were also exposed to two well-known model environmental contaminants, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), representing established agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER), respectively. The results showed increased transcription of the target genes cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (VTG), both well-established biomarkers for exposure of fish to the selected compounds. In conclusion, PCLS is a promising in vitro system for toxicological studies of cod liver cells. The liver slices are viable in culture for several days and respond to environmental contaminants in a dose- and time-specific manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Bactericidal Effect of 2780 and 940 nm Laser Irradiation on Enterococcus faecalis in Bovine Root Dentin Slices of Different Thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutknecht, Norbert; Al-Karadaghi, Tamara Sardar; Al-Maliky, Mohammed Abbood; Conrads, Georg; Franzen, Rene

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of the dual wavelength (2780 nm Er,Cr:YSGG and 940 nm diode) laser in elimination of Enterococcus faecalis in comparison with a 2780 nm Er,Cr:YSGG laser alone. Various laser wavelengths have been introduced as an adjunct in root canal treatment because of laser's bactericidal effect. Seventy- five slices of dentin with thicknesses of 300, 500, and 1000 μm (n = 25 each) obtained from caries-free bovine teeth were inoculated with 1 μL of E. faecalis suspension [1.67 × 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)] and divided randomly into three groups: (A) samples indirectly irradiated with power settings of 1.06 W, 50 Hz, and 50 μs for Er,Cr:YSGG laser; (B) samples indirectly irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the same power settings as group A and simultaneously with a 940 nm diode laser of 0.51 W in pulsed mode; and five samples from each thickness that were chosen as an unirradiated control group (Co). After irradiation, the CFU of E. faecalis were counted and the bacterial reduction was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric and post-hoc Dunnett tests. There were statistical differences between groups A and B compared with the control group over all the three dentin slice thicknesses (p faecalis on 500 μm dentin slices. There were significantly more viable bacteria in group A than in group B in 300 and 1000 μm dentin slices (p faecalis than Er,Cr:YSGG laser, reaching a depth of 1000 μm of dentin.

  5. Liver histopathology in bovine Fascioliasis | Okoye | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It could be concluded that the histopathological changes in the livers of cattle infected with Fasciola gigantica reflected tissue damage, which can amount to significant economic losses in animals and great health problems in man. Serious care and attention are required of both the veterinary workers and the public health ...

  6. Novel use of an iodo-myristyl-CoA analog identifies a semialdehyde dehydrogenase in bovine liver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I Deichaite; L Berthiaume; S M Peseckis; W F Patton; M D Resh

    1993-01-01

    ...) was used to tag proteins which bind myristoyl-CoA. A prominent 57 kDa band was identified, which was isolated from bovine liver by a high salt extraction followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation...

  7. Slurry nebulization ICP-OES for the determination of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in bovine liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntebogeng S. Mokgalaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that involves analysis of bovine liver by slurry nebulization and ICP-OES has been developed. This method permits rapid and accurate determination of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in bovine liver. Aliquots of freeze-dried and powdered bovine liver sample were dispersed in 2.0 M HNO3 and sonicated to homogenize the resulting slurries. Bovine liver samples were also microwave digested or subjected to aqueous extraction for comparison of analytical results. Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in aqueous slurries, the digests, and aqueous extracts were determined by the ICP-OES using external calibration curves. A student’s t-test showed that the results obtained using the slurry method were in good agreement at 95 % confidence level (CL with those of microwave digestion or aqueous extraction techniques, except for Fe. To check the accuracy and precision of the slurry method, a bovine liver CRM was analyzed and good agreement was achieved with the certified values at 95 % CL. The results demonstrate inefficiency of aqueous extraction technique for complete removal of Fe in bovine liver sample.

  8. The effect of antifibrotic drugs in rat precision-cut fibrotic liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Inge M; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Groothuis, Geny M M; Olinga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Two important signaling pathways in liver fibrosis are the PDGF-and TGF beta pathway and compounds inhibiting these pathways are currently developed as antifibrotic drugs. Testing antifibrotic drugs requires large numbers of animal experiments with high discomfort. Therefore, a method to study these

  9. Analysis of gene expression changes to elucidate the mechanism of chilling injury in precision-cut liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Na; Blomsma, Sylvia A; Fahy, Gregory M; Groothuis, Geny M M; de Graaf, Inge A M

    2013-03-01

    The exact mechanism of chilling injury (by a decrease of temperature to sub-physiological values), especially in the intact organ, is yet unknown. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), which closely resemble the organ from which they are derived, are an ideal in vitro model to study the mechanism of chilling injury in the intact organ. In the present study we were able to separate chilling injury from other damaging events such as cryoprotectant toxicity and ice-crystal injury and performed micro-array analysis of regulated genes. Pathway analysis revealed that different stress responses, lipid/fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism were affected by chilling. This indicates that the cell-membrane might be the primary site and sensor for chilling, which may initiate and amplify downstream intracellular signaling events. Most importantly, we were able to identify gene expression responses from stellate cells and Kupffer cells suggesting the involvement of all liver cell types in the injury. In conclusion, a broad spectrum of previously unknown gene expression changes induced by chilling was identified in the tissue. This is the first report of a systematic investigation on the mechanism of chilling injury in integrated tissue by micro-array analysis under conditions in which other sources of injury are minimal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  11. Model steatogenic compounds (amiodarone, valproic acid, and tetracycline alter lipid metabolism by different mechanisms in mouse liver slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szalowska

    Full Text Available Although drug induced steatosis represents a mild type of hepatotoxicity it can progress into more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Current models used for safety assessment in drug development and chemical risk assessment do not accurately predict steatosis in humans. Therefore, new models need to be developed to screen compounds for steatogenic properties. We have studied the usefulness of mouse precision-cut liver slices (PCLS as an alternative to animal testing to gain more insight into the mechanisms involved in the steatogenesis. To this end, PCLS were incubated 24 h with the model steatogenic compounds: amiodarone (AMI, valproic acid (VA, and tetracycline (TET. Transcriptome analysis using DNA microarrays was used to identify genes and processes affected by these compounds. AMI and VA upregulated lipid metabolism, whereas processes associated with extracellular matrix remodelling and inflammation were downregulated. TET downregulated mitochondrial functions, lipid metabolism, and fibrosis. Furthermore, on the basis of the transcriptomics data it was hypothesized that all three compounds affect peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor (PPAR signaling. Application of PPAR reporter assays classified AMI and VA as PPARγ and triple PPARα/(β/δ/γ agonist, respectively, whereas TET had no effect on any of the PPARs. Some of the differentially expressed genes were considered as potential candidate biomarkers to identify PPAR agonists (i.e. AMI and VA or compounds impairing mitochondrial functions (i.e. TET. Finally, comparison of our findings with publicly available transcriptomics data showed that a number of processes altered in the mouse PCLS was also affected in mouse livers and human primary hepatocytes exposed to known PPAR agonists. Thus mouse PCLS are a valuable model to identify early mechanisms of action of compounds altering lipid metabolism.

  12. CL-46, a Novel Collectin Highly Expressed in Bovine Tthymus and Liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Soren; Holm, Dorte; Moeller, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    residues in the N-terminal segment, a potential N-glycosylation site in the collagen region, and an extended hydrophilic loop close to the binding site of the carbohydrate recognition domain. It is expressed in the thymus, liver, mammary gland, and tissues of the digestive system. Recombinant CL-46...... on the bovine chromosome 28 at position q1.8 together with the gene encoding conglutinin and CL-43. Several potential thymus-related cis-regulatory elements were identified in the 5'-upstream sequence, indicating that the expression in thymus may be modulated by signals involved in T cell development...

  13. An in vivo and in vitro comparison of CYP gene induction in mice using liver slices and quantitative RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignoni, Marcella; de Kanter, Ruben; Grossi, Pietro; Saturno, Grazia; Barbaria, Elena; Monshouwer, Mario

    2006-02-01

    The scope of this study was to compare in vitro and in vivo cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene induction in mice, using liver slices as an in vitro model. We have chosen to study mice to be able to better interpret CYP induction during long-term safety studies in this species. Mouse liver slices were incubated with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF), phenobarbital (PB) or dexamethasone (DEX) for 24 h. In addition, in an in vivo study, mice were treated with the same compounds for three days. The mRNA expression of cyp1a1, cyp1a2, cyp2b10 and cyp3a11, which are important for drug metabolism and inducible by xenobiotics, were investigated in vivo and in vitro by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both in mouse liver slices and in vivo, betaNF was found to be a potent inducer of cyp1a1 and to a lesser extent of cyp1a2. All three compounds induced cyp2b10 mRNA levels, while the cyp3a11 mRNA level was induced only by DEX. Overall, these data demonstrated a good predictive in vitro-in vivo correlation of CYP induction.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in bovine liver using RNA-seq technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekhar Pareek

    Full Text Available RNA-seq is a useful next-generation sequencing (NGS technology that has been widely used to understand mammalian transcriptome architecture and function. In this study, a breed-specific RNA-seq experiment was utilized to detect putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in liver tissue of young bulls of the Polish Red, Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF and Hereford breeds, and to understand the genomic variation in the three cattle breeds that may reflect differences in production traits.The RNA-seq experiment on bovine liver produced 107,114,4072 raw paired-end reads, with an average of approximately 60 million paired-end reads per library. Breed-wise, a total of 345.06, 290.04 and 436.03 million paired-end reads were obtained from the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA read alignments showed that 81.35%, 82.81% and 84.21% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. This study identified 5,641,401 SNPs and insertion and deletion (indel positions expressed in the bovine liver with an average of 313,411 SNPs and indel per young bull. Following the removal of the indel mutations, a total of 195,3804, 152,7120 and 205,3184 raw SNPs expressed in bovine liver were identified for the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Breed-wise, three highly reliable breed-specific SNP-databases (SNP-dbs with 31,562, 24,945 and 28,194 SNP records were constructed for the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Using a combination of stringent parameters of a minimum depth of ≥10 mapping reads that support the polymorphic nucleotide base and 100% SNP ratio, 4,368, 3,780 and 3,800 SNP records were detected in the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. The SNP detections using RNA-seq data were successfully validated by kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASPTM SNP genotyping assay. The

  15. Microwave ablation: Results with double 915 MHz antennae in ex vivo bovine Livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Wenyuan [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Department of Ultrasound, Beijing TongRen Hospital Affiliated To Capital Medical University, 1 Dongjiaominxiang, Beijing 100730 (China); Liang Ping, E-mail: liangping301@hotmail.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhu Qiang [Department of Ultrasound, Beijing TongRen Hospital Affiliated To Capital Medical University, 1 Dongjiaominxiang, Beijing 100730 (China); Yu Xiaoling; Shao Qiujie; Lu Tong; Wang Yang; Dong Baowei [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the settings for the optimal microwave ablation geometry with the simultaneous application of double 915 MHz antennae in ex vivo bovine livers, so as to provide the technical basis for treating large liver tumor in one ablation session. Materials and methods: MWAs were performed on ex vivo bovine livers by simultaneously application of double 915 MHz internally cooled-shaft antennae. Four power settings (50, 60, 70 and 80 W) were used during MWAs, while application time was fixed at 10 min. Three inter-antenna distances (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 cm) were used. Diameters and shapes of the coagulation zones were observed on gross specimens. Results: (1) The coagulation shape was related to the inter-antenna distance, which was most spherical at an inter-antenna distance of 2.0 cm. A recess of the coagulation zone was observed at an inter-antenna distances of 2.5 and 3.0 cm. (2) The long-axis and short-axis coagulation diameter enlarged with increasing power output. However, there were no significant differences in the coagulation diameters between 70 and 80 W (P > 0.05). More desirable coagulation geometry could be obtained by simultaneous application of double antennae at 70 W for 10 min with an inter-antenna distance of 2.0 cm, the long-axis and short-axis coagulation diameter were 6.95 {+-} 0.32 cm and 5.30 {+-} 0.22 cm, respectively. Conclusion: Simultaneous application of double 915 MHz antennae can generate large coagulation zones with desirable shape which may be advantageous for treating large liver tumor in one ablation session.

  16. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method to determine boldenone in bovine liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Rodrigo H M M; Salerno, Alessandro G; de Lima, Andreia C; Montalvo, Cynthia; Reche, Karine V G; Giannotti, Fabio M; Wanschel, Amarylis C B A

    2014-01-01

    Boldenone, an androgenic steroid, is forbidden for use in meat production in most countries worldwide. Residues of this drug in food present a potential risk to consumers. A sensitive LC/MS/MS method for analysis of 17β-boldenone using boldenone-d3 as an internal standard was developed. An enzymatic hydrolysis and extraction using ethyl acetate, methanol, and hexane were performed in the sample preparation. Parameters such as decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), precision, recovery, and ruggedness were evaluated according to the Brazilian Regulation 24/2009 (equivalent to European Union Decision 2002/657/EC) and International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 17025:2005. CCα and CCβ were determined to be 0.17 and 0.29 μg/kg, respectively. Average recoveries from bovine liver samples fortified with 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/kg were around 100%. A complete statistical analysis was performed on the results obtained, including an estimation of the method uncertainty. The method is considered robust after being subjected to day-to-day analytical variations and has been used as a standard method in Brazil to report boldenone levels in bovine liver.

  17. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  18. Effects of hypophysectomy and GH administration on bovine and human GH binding to rat liver membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, J L; Edén, S; Kostyo, J L

    1985-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the specific binding of highly purified bovine and human growth hormones (bGH and hGH) to purified liver plasma membranes of male rats at various times after hypophysectomy and after the acute intravenous administration of bGH. Liver membranes prepared from hypophysectomized male rats showed a two- to threefold increase in the specific binding of either [125I]iodo-bGH or [125I]iodo-hGH, when compared with membranes prepared from the livers of age-matched normal male rats. The increase in GH binding was apparent within 3 days after hypophysectomy and persisted for a number of weeks after the operation. The increase in GH binding produced by hypophysectomy appeared to be due to an increase in the number of binding sites present on the membranes. The intravenous injection of 200 micrograms of bGH into hypophysectomized male rats 5-60 min before they were killed markedly reduced the ability of liver membranes prepared from these animals to bind [125I]iodo-bGH specifically. This decrease in GH binding seen after the injection of bGH may have been due to the development of a slowly dissociating hormone-binding site complex, which thereby reduced the number of available binding sites. This conclusion is supported by the finding that bGH, which is bound in vitro to isolated liver membranes, dissociates slowly and incompletely in the presence of an excess of unlabeled hormone. Moreover, the degree to which the bound hormone can dissociate appears to depend on the length of time that association is allowed to occur.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Architectural slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  20. The influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the toxicity of cryoprotective agents in different liver cell types and on vitrification outcome in precision-cut liver and kidney slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, Na; Blomsma, Sylvia; de Jager, Marina; Fahy, Gregory M.; Groothuis, Genoveva; de Graaf, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Cryopreservation of precision-cut tissue slices would strongly improve their application possibilities in ADME-tox studies. Low toxic mixtures of cryoprotectant agents (CPAs) are needed for cryopreservation of cells, and tissues by vitrification. Many of these mixtures contain polyvinylpyrrolidone

  1. Polarized proton spin density images the tyrosyl radical locations in bovine liver catalase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Zimmer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A tyrosyl radical, as part of the amino acid chain of bovine liver catalase, supports dynamic proton spin polarization (DNP. Finding the position of the tyrosyl radical within the macromolecule relies on the accumulation of proton polarization close to it, which is readily observed by polarized neutron scattering. The nuclear scattering amplitude due to the polarization of protons less than 10 Å distant from the tyrosyl radical is ten times larger than the amplitude of magnetic neutron scattering from an unpaired polarized electron of the same radical. The direction of DNP was inverted every 5 s, and the initial evolution of the intensity of polarized neutron scattering after each inversion was used to identify those tyrosines which have assumed a radical state. Three radical sites, all of them close to the molecular centre and the haem, appear to be equally possible. Among these is tyr-369, the radical state of which had previously been proven by electron paramagnetic resonance.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in bovine liver using RNA-seq technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Błaszczyk, Paweł; Dziuba, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    , and Hereford breeds, respectively. The SNP detections using RNA-seq data were successfully validated by kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASPTM) SNP genotyping assay. The comprehensive QTL/CG analysis of 110 QTL/CG with RNA-seq data identified 20 monomorphic SNP hit loci (CARTPT, GAD1, GDF5, GHRH, GHRL, GRB10...... tissue of young bulls of the Polish Red, Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Hereford breeds, and to understand the genomic variation in the three cattle breeds that may reflect differences in production traits. Results The RNA-seq experiment on bovine liver produced 107,114,4072 raw paired-end reads......, with an average of approximately 60 million paired-end reads per library. Breed-wise, a total of 345.06, 290.04 and 436.03 million paired-end reads were obtained from the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA) read alignments showed that 81.35%, 82.81% and 84...

  3. Bovine liverslices: A multifunctional in vitro model to study the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, J.C.W.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Groot, M.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Biotransformation of inactive prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can lead to the formation of potent androgens and subsequent androgenic responses in target tissues. In the present study, precision-cut bovine liver slices were used to study the effects of DHEA on the metabolite,

  4. Evaluation of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 m-RNA induction in rat liver slices using the NanoString technology: a novel tool for drug discovery lead optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamanda, Jairam R; Kumari, Pramila; Murgolo, Nicholas; Benbow, Larry; Lin, Xinjie; Nomeir, Amin A

    2009-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction in rodents and humans is considered a liability for new chemical entities (NCEs) in drug discovery. In particular, CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 have been associated with the induction of liver tumors in oncogenicity studies during safety evaluation studies of potential drugs. In our laboratory, real time PCR (Taqman) has been used to quantify the induction of rat hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 in precision -cut rat liver slices. A novel technology that does not require m-RNA isolation or RT-PCR, (developed by NanoString Technologies) has been investigated to quantify CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 induction in rat liver slices. Seventeen commercially available compounds were evaluated using both Taqman and NanoString technologies. Precision-cut rat liver slices were incubated with individual compounds for 24 hr at 37 degrees C in a humidified CO(2) incubator and CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 m-RNA were quantified. The results from the NanoString technology were similar to those of the Taqman(R) with a high degree of correlation for both CYP isoforms (r(2)>0.85). Therefore, NanoString provides an additional new technology to evaluate the induction of CYP1A1 and 2B1/2, as well as potentially other enzymes or transporters in rat liver slices.

  5. Organ slices as an in vitro test system for drug metabolism in human liver, lung and kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olinga, Peter; de Jager, M.H; Meijer, D.K F; Groothuis, Geny; Merema, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    Metabolism of xenobiotics occurs mainly in the liver, but in addition, the lungs and kidneys may contribute considerably. The choice of the animal species during drug development as a predictive model for the human condition is often inadequate due to large interspecies differences. Therefore, a

  6. Detection and localisation of PrP(Sc in the liver of sheep infected with scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally J Everest

    Full Text Available Prions are largely contained within the nervous and lymphoid tissue of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE infected animals. However, following advances in diagnostic sensitivity, PrP(Sc, a marker for prion disease, can now be located in a wide range of viscera and body fluids including muscle, saliva, blood, urine and milk, raising concerns that exposure to these materials could contribute to the spread of disease in humans and animals. Previously we demonstrated low levels of infectivity in the liver of sheep experimentally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. In this study we show that PrP(Sc accumulated in the liver of 89% of sheep naturally infected with scrapie and 100% of sheep challenged with BSE, at both clinical and preclinical stages of the disease. PrP(Sc was demonstrated in the absence of obvious inflammatory foci and was restricted to isolated resident cells, most likely Kupffer cells.

  7. Micellar high performance liquid chromatographic determination of flunixin meglumine in bulk, pharmaceutical dosage forms, bovine liver and kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathalla F. Belal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the analysis of flunixin meglumine (flunixin-M in bulk, pharmaceutical dosage forms, bovine liver and kidney. Analytical separation was performed in less than 4 min using a C18 column with UV detection at 284 nm. A micellar solution composed of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 8% n-butanol and 0.3% triethylamine in 0.02 M phosphoric acid buffered at pH 7.0 was used as the mobile phase. The method was fully validated in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were 0.02 and 0.06 μg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries obtained were in range of 95.58–106.94% for bovine liver and kidney. High extraction efficiency was obtained without matrix interference in the extraction process and in the subsequent chromatographic determination. The method showed good repeatability, linearity and sensitivity according to the evaluation of the validation parameters.

  8. Alpha-1-acute phase globulin in the blood of tunicamycin-injected rats. Isolation of the non-glycosylated form, its inhibitory properties and synthesis in liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koj, A; Bereta, J; Dubin, A; Kurdowska, A; Chindemi, P; Regoeczi, E

    1986-01-01

    Plasma of rats injected with tunicamycin (2 micrograms/g body wt) shows on crossed immunoelectrophoresis the presence of an additional, slowly migrating component of alpha 1-acute-phase globulin (alpha 1-AP-globulin). The native and modified forms of alpha 1-AP-globulin were jointly isolated on the column of immobilized antibodies and then separated by chromatofocusing on polybuffer exchanger. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate demonstrated that tunicamycin-induced form of rat alpha 1-AP-globulin has Mr of 50,000 and is devoid of carbohydrates as inferred from the lack of staining with Schiff reagent. However, during incubation with papain in vitro it is only slightly less effective than mature glycosylated alpha 1-AP-globulin (Mr 68 000) in inhibiting hydrolysis of CBZ-Lys-ONp. Incubation of liver slices from control and tunicamycin-injected rats with 14C-leucine demonstrated that tunicamycin reduces synthesis and release to the medium of alpha 1-AP-globulin and some other plasma proteins, but the proportion of aglyco-alpha 1-AP-globulin is higher than in plasma.

  9. Simultaneous multi-slice echo planar diffusion weighted imaging of the liver and the pancreas: Optimization of signal-to-noise ratio and acquisition time and application to intravoxel incoherent motion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.boss@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Barth, Borna; Filli, Lukas; Kenkel, David; Wurnig, Moritz C. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Piccirelli, Marco [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Zurich (Switzerland); Reiner, Caecilia S. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To optimize and test a diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence with simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) excitation in the liver and pancreas regarding acquisition time (TA), number of slices, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), image quality (IQ), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantitation accuracy, and feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) analysis. Materials and methods: Ten healthy volunteers underwent DWI of the upper abdomen at 3T. A SMS DWI sequence with CAIPIRINHA unaliasing technique (acceleration factors 2/3, denoted AF2/3) was compared to standard DWI-EPI (AF1). Four schemes were evaluated: (i) reducing TA, (ii) keeping TA identical with increasing number of averages, (iii) increasing number of slices with identical TA (iv) increasing number of b-values for IVIM. Acquisition schemes i-iii were evaluated qualitatively (reader score) and quantitatively (ADC values, SNR). Results: In scheme (i) no differences in SNR were observed (p = 0.321 − 0.038) with reduced TA (AF2 increase in SNR/time 75.6%, AF3 increase SNR/time 102.4%). No SNR improvement was obtained in scheme (ii). Increased SNR/time could be invested in acquisition of more and thinner slices or higher number of b-values. Image quality scores were stable for AF2 but decreased for AF3. Only for AF3, liver ADC values were systematically lower. Conclusion: SMS-DWI of the liver and pancreas provides substantially higher SNR/time, which either may be used for shorter scan time, higher slice resolution or IVIM measurements.

  10. No-touch radiofrequency ablation: A comparison of switching bipolar and switching monopolar ablation in Ex Vivo bovine liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Won; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang Min; Hank, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, efficiency, and safety of no-touch switching bipolar (SB) and switching monopolar (SM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using ex vivo bovine livers. A pork loin cube was inserted as a tumor mimicker in the bovine liver block; RFA was performed using the no-touch technique in the SM (group A1; 10 minutes, n = 10, group A2; 15 minutes, n = 10) and SB (group B; 10 minutes, n = 10) modes. The groups were compared based on the creation of confluent necrosis with sufficient safety margins, the dimensions, and distance between the electrode and ablation zone margin (DEM). To evaluate safety, small bowel loops were placed above the liver surface and 30 additional ablations were performed in the same groups. Confluent necroses with sufficient safety margins were created in all specimens. SM RFA created significantly larger volumes of ablation compared to SB RFA (all p < 0.001). The DEM of group B was significantly lower than those of groups A1 and A2 (all p < 0.001). Although thermal injury to the small bowel was noted in 90%, 100%, and 30% of the cases in groups A1, A2, and B, respectively, full depth injury was noted only in 60% of group A2 cases. The no-touch RFA technique is feasible in both the SB and SM modes; however, SB RFA appears to be more advantageous compared to SM RFA in the creation of an ablation zone while avoiding the unnecessary creation of an adjacent parenchymal ablation zone or adjacent small bowel injuries.

  11. Comparison of rapid diagnostic tests to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disseminated infection in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Tajbakhsh, Samaneh; Mosavari, Nader

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status. ELISA was performed to determine the MAP antibody activity in the serum. Acid-fast staining was performed on rectal scraping samples, and PCR was performed on rectal scraping and liver samples. PCR-positive liver samples were used for mycobacterial culture. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that MAP can be detected and cultured from liver of slaughtered cattle and rapid diagnostic tests of Johne's disease have limited value in detecting cattle with MAP infection in liver. These findings show that the presence of MAP in liver tissue may occur in cows with negative results for rapid diagnostic tests and vice versa. Hence, liver might represent another possible risk of human exposure to MAP. Given concerns about a potential zoonotic role for MAP, these results show the necessity to find new methods for detecting cattle with MAP disseminated infection.

  12. GLUCURONIDATION OF LABETALOL AT THE 2 HYDROXY POSITIONS BY BOVINE LIVER-MICROSOMES - ISOLATION, PURIFICATION, AND STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION OF THE GLUCURONIDES OF LABETALOL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIEMEIJER, NR; GERDING, TK; DEZEEUW, RA

    1991-01-01

    Glucuronidation is known to be a major metabolic pathway for labetalol. As the drug contains a phenolic and an alcoholic hydroxy group, in principle two regio isomeric glucuronides can be formed. By incubating the substrate labetalol with bovine liver microsomes, in the presence of the co-substrate

  13. Clenbuterol storage stability in the bovine urine and liver samples used for European official control in the azores islands (portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Isabel; Jesuino, Bruno; Barbosa, Jorge; Ferreira, Humberto; Ramos, Fernando; Matos, José; da Silveira, Maria Irene Noronha

    2009-02-11

    Clenbuterol is a well-known growth promoter, illegally used in farm animals, especially in cattle. Samples collected for the screening of beta(2)-agonist residues in Portuguese Azores Islands must travel through all the nine islands until they reach Azores Central Laboratory. If any suspicious sample is detected, it must be further transported to the National Reference Laboratory in Lisbon for confirmation. As a consequence of these circumstances, samples are submitted to different transport and storage times, as well as different temperature conditions and in some cases successive freezing and thawing cycles. As clenbuterol is the most detected beta(2)-agonist growth promoter in the Portuguese Residue Monitoring Plan, studies were conducted on the stability of this compound in incurred samples (bovine liver and urine) at +4, -20 and -60 degrees C over time. Samples kept at -20 degrees C were also analyzed over time after successive freezing and thawing cycles. The analyses of clenbuterol over time were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Clenbuterol in incurred urine and liver samples was significantly stable up to 20 weeks at -20 and -60 degrees C and after, at least, six consecutive freezings and thawings. At +4 degrees C, clenbuterol remained stable, at least until 12 weeks in urine and up to 20 weeks in liver.

  14. The effects of formalin fixation and tissue embedding of bovine liver on copper, iron, and zinc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Lamm, Catherine; Erb, Hollis N; Hillebrandt, Joseph R

    2008-03-01

    Veterinary analytical chemistry laboratories might be called upon to analyze formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded tissue samples for trace minerals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether concentrations of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) are comparable among fresh or frozen, formalin-fixed, and paraffin-embedded bovine liver samples on an as-received basis. Three liver sample subtypes (fresh or frozen, formalin-fixed, and paraffin-embedded) from 12 cows were collected and analyzed for Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations. Concentrations were measured by using inductively coupled argon plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy. There was no significant difference in mineral measurements between fresh or frozen and formalin-fixed samples for Cu and Zn (both P > or = 0.052). The median concentration of Fe was lower in the fresh or frozen samples than in the formalin-fixed samples. However, for every pair of fresh or frozen and paraffin-embedded samples for all 3 minerals, the fresh or frozen sample had a lower measurement than the paraffin-embedded sample (all P = 0.005). Differences in mineral measurements associated with tissue processing did not result in differences in classification (within or outside the reference range) for Fe. However, the classification of Cu and Zn was different up to 25% of the time with fresh or frozen versus formalin-fixed or embedded liver. Although Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations attained from processed tissue may be useful, they must be evaluated with caution.

  15. Some studies on liver and rumen flukes of bovines in Sri Lanka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nkpc001

    particularly used in land preparation and post- harvest processing, while the milk is usually consumed in the form of curd .... Adults of rumen and liver flukes. During this study, five liver and rumen flukes were identified .... Site B, the main source of drinking water for animals during floods. The present study also revealed that.

  16. Novel use of an iodo-myristyl-CoA analog identifies a semialdehyde dehydrogenase in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichaite, I; Berthiaume, L; Peseckis, S M; Patton, W F; Resh, M D

    1993-06-25

    We describe here the identification, purification, and characterization of a semialdehyde dehydrogenase with a novel fatty acid binding function. The coenzyme A derivative of an 125I-labeled long chain saturated fatty acid (13-iodo-tridecanoate) was used to tag proteins which bind myristoyl-CoA. A prominent 57 kDa band was identified, which was isolated from bovine liver by a high salt extraction followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Sequential chromatographic separation using phenyl-Sepharose, hydroxyapatite, DEAE-Sepharose, Mono Q, and Fast Flow S resins resulted in a purified protein that migrated as a single band of 57 kDa on denaturing gels. Sephacryl-200 gel filtration provided a native molecular mass estimation of 118 kDa suggesting that this protein exists as a dimer. Two-dimensional gel analysis resolved three isoform variants with pI values of 7.4, 7.7, and 7.9, respectively, and established that the pI = 7.9 form has the highest propensity for fatty acid binding. We proceeded to generate tryptic peptides from the purified protein and subjected several peptides to microchemical sequencing. Degenerate oligonucleotide probes were designed and polymerase chain reaction was used to generate a unique nucleotide sequence. Subsequent screening of a bovine liver cDNA library yielded a 1.7-kilobase clone which encodes a protein of 537 amino acids (58 kDa) with 95% identity to mammalian methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (MMSDH). In vitro assays confirmed that the purified 57-kDa protein exhibited MMSDH activity, and that preincubation of the enzyme with fatty acyl-CoA inhibited its dehydrogenase activity. The myristyl-CoA analog therefore serves as an affinity label for MMSDH. We propose that fatty acyl CoAs may have the potential to function as enzyme regulators in vivo.

  17. Bovine liver sample preparation and micro-homogeneity study for Cu and Zn determination by solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Cassiana S.; Silva, Cíntia S.; Nogueira, Ana R. A.; Oliveira, Pedro V.

    2005-06-01

    This work describes a systematic study for the bovine liver sample preparation for Cu and Zn determination by solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The main parameters investigated were sample drying, grinding process, particle size, sample size, microsample homogeneity, and their relationship with the precision and accuracy of the method. A bovine liver sample was prepared using different drying procedures: (1) freeze drying, and (2) drying in a household microwave oven followed by drying in a stove at 60 °C until constant mass. Ball and cryogenic mills were used for grinding. Less sensitive wavelengths for Cu (216.5 nm) and Zn (307.6 nm), and Zeeman-based three-field background correction for Cu were used to diminish the sensitivities. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures adopted were 1000 °C and 2300 °C for Cu, and 700 °C and 1700 °C for Zn, respectively. For both elements, it was possible to calibrate the spectrometer with aqueous solutions. The use of 250 μg of W + 200 μg of Rh as permanent chemical modifier was imperative for Zn. Under these conditions, the characteristic mass and detection limit were 1.4 ng and 1.6 ng for Cu, and 2.8 ng and 1.3 ng for Zn, respectively. The results showed good agreement (95% confidence level) for homogeneity of the entire material (> 200 mg) when the sample was dried in microwave/stove and ground in a cryogenic mill. The microsample homogeneity study showed that Zn is more dependent on the sample pretreatment than Cu. The bovine liver sample prepared in microwave/stove and ground in a cryogenic mill presented results with the lowest relative standard deviation for Cu than Zn. Good accuracy and precision were observed for bovine liver masses higher than 40 μg for Cu and 30 μg for Zn. The concentrations of Cu and Zn in the prepared bovine liver sample were 223 mg kg - 1 and 128 mg kg - 1, respectively. The relative standard deviations were lower than 6% ( n = 5). The accuracy of the entire

  18. Amino acid sequence of the tryptic peptide containing the catalytic-site thiol group of bovine liver uridine diphosphate glucose dehydrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Franzen, B.; Carrubba, C; Feingold, D S; Ashcom, J; Franzen, J S

    1981-01-01

    The catalytic-site thiol groups of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from bovine liver were carboxymethylated with iodo[2-14C]acetate or with iodoacetamidofluorescein. After the residual thiol groups were carboxymethylated with iodoacetate, the proteins were digested with trypsin. The 14C-labelled peptide from the carboxymethylated enzyme was purified to homogeneity by successive thick-layer chromatography on silica gel, paper electrophoresis and chromatography, and column chromatography on Bio-Gel P...

  19. Multiresidue determination of ten nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in bovine, porcine, and chicken liver tissues by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, JeongWoo; Park, Su-Jeong; Park, Hae-Chul; Gedi, Vinayakumar; So, ByungJae; Lee, Kwang-Jick

    2014-09-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the group of drugs having the therapeutic efficacy of analgesic and antipyretic. To detect health-threatening residues of NSAIDs, a fast and easy multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was described. Ten NSAIDs were extracted from the tissues using 2 mL of acetonitrile and 0.1 mL of 2 mM ammonium formate in distilled water. After clean-up using C18 sorbent, it was evaporated under nitrogen, reconstituted with 1 mL distilled water and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method was validated based on guideline for residue testing laboratory. Furthermore, the method has also been applied successfully to detect ten NSAIDs from bovine, porcine, and chicken liver tissues. In a total of 315 liver samples tested, acetylic salicylic acid was detected from 28 porcine and 2 chicken liver tissues at levels of 13 ∼ 576 and 50 ∼ 53 ng/g, respectively. Subsequently, paracetamol was detected in 15 porcine liver tissues with a detection levels of 28 ∼ 381 ng/g. Phenylbutazone and its metabolite, oxyphenylbutazone, were detected at 247 and 15 ng/g range in one of the bovine liver tissue, respectively.

  20. Liver morphometrics and metabolic blood profile across divergent phenotypes for feed efficiency in the bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanholi, Yuri Regis; Haas, Livia Sadocco; Swanson, Kendall Carl; Coomber, Brenda Lynn; Yamashiro, Shigeto; Miller, Stephen Paul

    2017-04-26

    Feed costs are a major expense in the production of beef cattle. Individual variation in the efficiency of feed utilization may be evident through feed efficiency-related phenotypes such as those related to major energetic sinks. Our objectives were to assess the relationships between feed efficiency with liver morphometry and metabolic blood profile in feedlot beef cattle. Two populations (A = 112 and B = 45) of steers were tested for feed efficiency. Blood from the 12 most (efficient) and 12 least feed inefficient (inefficient) steers from population A was sampled hourly over the circadian period. Blood plasma samples were submitted for analysis on albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase urea, cholesterol, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, lipase, carbon dioxide, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetate and bile acids. Liver tissue was also harvested from 24 steers that were blood sampled from population A and the 10 steers with divergent feed efficiency in each tail of population B was sampled for microscopy at slaughter. Photomicroscopy images were taken using the portal triad and central vein as landmarks. Histological quantifications included cross-sectional hepatocyte perimeter and area, hepatocyte nuclear area and nuclei area as proportion of the hepatocyte area. The least square means comparison between efficient and inefficient steers for productive performance and liver morphometry and for blood analytes data were analyzed using general linear model and mixed model procedures of SAS, respectively. No differences were observed for liver weight; however, efficient steers had larger hepatocyte (i.e. hepatocyte area at the porta triad 323.31 vs. 286.37 µm2) and nuclei dimensions at portal triad and central vein regions, compared with inefficient steers. The metabolic profile indicated efficient steers had lower albumin (36.18 vs. 37.65 g/l) and cholesterol (2.62 vs. 3.05 mmol/l) and higher creatinine (118.59 vs. 110.50

  1. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation using internally cooled electrodes in ex vivo bovine liver: prediction of coagulation volume from applied energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Stephan; Schmidt, Diethard; Dietz, Klaus; Boss, Andreas; Kröber, Stefan M; Schraml, Christina; Fritz, Jan; Claussen, Claus D; Pereira, Philippe L

    2007-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between parameters of bipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation using internally cooled electrodes. Bipolar RF ablations (n = 24) were performed in ex vivo bovine liver using an internally cooled applicator with 2 electrodes located on the same shaft. The power-output was systematically varied (20-75 W). On the basis of our experimental data, mathematical functions were fitted and the goodness-of-fit was assessed by the parameter R. The duration to induce an increase of tissue resistance and the amount of applied energy increased with a decreased power-output. The maximum short-axis was 4.5 cm (20 W) and required an application of 64 kilojoules (kJ). The volume of coagulation can be determined as a function of the duration of energy application (R = 0.954) and the amount of applied energy (R = 0.945). The amount of applied energy and the duration of energy application can predict the volume of induced coagulation and may be useful to control internally cooled bipolar RF ablation.

  2. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin on nutritional status and liver function of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, G F; Block, E

    1990-11-01

    Twenty-four high producing, multiparous Holstein cows were utilized to evaluate effects of long-term administration of sustained-release rbST on blood pH, gases, buffer capacity, circulating metabolites and hormones, and on liver lipid content and functions during lactation. Treatment, commencing 98 to 112 d postpartum and continued until d 305, consisted of a subcutaneous injection of a placebo or 350 mg of rbST every 14 d. Milk and 3.5% FCM were increased significantly by rbST, but milk fat and protein content, feed intake, energy balance, corrected feed efficiency for milk production, and body condition scores were unaffected. Somatotropin decreased blood pH and buffer capacity by decreasing bicarbonate without affecting blood partial pressures of oxygen or carbon dioxide. Concentration of plasma albumin was decreased and nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, rbST and insulin-like growth factor-I were increased by treatment. Total plasma proteins and cortisol, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were unaffected. Liver DM, total lipid and triacylglycerol contents, and plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase were not affected by rbST, but the percentage of triacylglycerol in total lipids was increased. Results of this experiment suggest that rbST exhibited lipolytic and diabetogenic activities in lactating dairy cows in vivo and that these effects might be important for the increase in nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland elicited by rbST.

  3. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  4. Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…

  5. Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of glycyrrhetinic acid on CCl4-induced damage in precision-cut liver slices from Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian) through inhibition of the nf-kƁ pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liping; Ding, Weidong; Jia, Rui; Du, Jingliang; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Chunyun; Gu, Zhengyan; Yin, Guojun

    2017-05-01

    In order to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) from Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio. Jian), an acute liver damage model was established in this study. The viability of PCLS, levels of anti-oxidases in liver homogenates, expression of inflammation-related genes including nuclear factor-κB (nf-κB)/c-rel, inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos), interleukin-1β (il-1β), interleukin-6 (il-6) and interleukin-8 (il-8), and protein levels of (nf-κB)/c-rel in liver tissues were measured. The results showed that pretreatment of PCLS with GA at 5 and 10 μg/mL for 6 h significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of CCl 4 . GA attenuated CCl 4 -induced oxidative stress in PCLS through promoting the recovery of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels, and inhibiting malondialdehyde (MDA) synthesis. In inflammatory response, GA at both 5 and 10 μg/mL significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines including nf-kƁ/c-rel, inos, il-1β, il-6 and il-8, and the protein level of Nf-kƁ/C-rel induced by CCl 4 . Furthermore, treatment with pyrrolyl dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 4 μg/mL), an inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor nf-kB, significantly inhibited nf-kB levels, and transcription of downstream cytokines inos, il-1β, il-6 and il-8, also the viability of PCLS was significantly increased. These results indicated that GA suppressed inflammation and reduced cytotoxicity by inhibiting the nf-kƁ signaling pathway, and plays a role in liver protection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Fluid preinjection for microwave ablation in an ex vivo bovine liver model assessed with volumetry in an open MRI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collettini, Federico; Rathke, Hendrik; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Thomas, Andreas; Albrecht, Liane; Suttmeyer, Britta; Jonczyk, Martin; Guettler, Felix; Teichgräber, Ulf; Kroncke, Thomas; Hamm, Bernd; de Bucourt, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to detect possible differences in microwave ablation (MWA) volumes after different fluid preinjections using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MWA volumes were created in 50 cuboid ex vivo bovine liver specimens (five series: control [no injection], 10 mL water, 10 mL 0.9% NaCl, 10 mL 6% NaCl, and 10 mL 12% NaCl preinjections; n=10 for each series). The operating frequency (915 megahertz), ablation time (7 min), and energy supply (45 watts) were constant. Following MWA, two MR sequences were acquired, and MR volumetry was performed for each sequence. For both sequences, fluid preinjection did not lead to significant differences in MWA ablation volumes compared to the respective control group (sequence 1: mean MWA volumes ranged from 7.0±1.2 mm [water] to 7.8±1.3 mm [12% NaCl] vs. 7.3±2.1 mm in the control group; sequence 2: mean MWA volumes ranged from 4.9±1.4 mm [12% NaCl] to 5.5±1.9 mm [0.9% NaCl] vs. 4.7±1.6 mm in the control group). The ablation volumes visualized with the two sequences differed significantly in general (P < 0.001) and between the respective groups (control, P ≤ 0.001; water, P < 0.001; 0.9% NaCl, P < 0.001; 6% NaCl, P ≤ 0.001; 12% NaCl, P < 0.001). The volumes determined with sequence 1 were closer to the expected ablation volume of 8 mL compared to those determined with sequence 2. For the fluid qualities and concentrations assessed, there is no evidence that fluid preinjection results in larger coagulation volumes after MWA. Because ablation volumes determined by MRI vary with the sequence used, interventionalists should gain experience in how to interpret postinterventional imaging findings (with the MR scanner, sequences, and parameters used) to accurately estimate the outcome of the interventions they perform.

  7. Multipolar radiofrequency ablation with internally cooled electrodes: experimental study in ex vivo bovine liver with mathematic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Stephan; Schmidt, Diethard; Boss, Andreas; Dietz, Klaus; Kröber, Stefan M; Claussen, Claus D; Pereira, Philippe L

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the size and geometry of thermally induced coagulation by using multipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation and to determine a mathematic model to predict coagulation volume. Multipolar RF ablations (n = 80) were performed in ex vivo bovine livers by using three internally cooled bipolar applicators with two electrodes on the same shaft. Applicators were placed in a triangular array (spacing, 2-5 cm) and were activated in multipolar mode (power output, 75-225 W). The size and geometry of the coagulation zone, together with ablation time, were assessed. Mathematic functions were fitted, and the goodness of fit was assessed by using r(2). Coagulation volume, short-axis diameter, and ablation time were dependent on power output and applicator distance. The maximum zone of coagulation (volume, 324 cm(3); short-axis diameter, 8.4 cm; ablation time, 193 min) was induced with a power output of 75 W at an applicator distance of 5 cm. Coagulation volume and ablation time decreased as power output increased. Power outputs of 100-125 W at applicator distances of 2-4 cm led to a reasonable compromise between coagulation volume and ablation time. At 2 cm (100 W), coagulation volume, short-axis diameter, and ablation time were 66 cm(3), 4.5 cm, and 19 min, respectively; at 3 cm (100 W), 90 cm(3), 5.2 cm, and 22 min, respectively; at 4 cm (100 W), 132 cm(3), 6.1 cm, and 27 min, respectively; at 2 cm (125 W), 56 cm(3), 4.2 cm, and 9 min, respectively; at 3 cm (125 W), 73 cm(3), 4.9 cm, and 12 min, respectively; and at 4 cm (125 W), 103 cm(3), 5.5 cm, and 16 min, respectively. At applicator distances of 4 cm (>125 W) and 5 cm (>100 W), the zones of coagulation were not confluent. Coagulation volume (r(2) = 0.80) and RF ablation time (r(2) = 0.93) were determined by using the mathematic model. Multipolar RF ablation with three bipolar applicators may produce large volumes of confluent coagulation ex vivo. A compromise is necessary between prolonged RF ablations at lower

  8. Detection of xenobiotic-induced DNA damage by the comet assay applied to human and rat precision-cut liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plazar, Janja; Hrejac, Irena; Pirih, Primoz; Filipic, Metka; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    The comet assay is a simple and sensitive method for measuring DNA damage at the level of individual cells and is extensively used in genotoxicity studies. It is commonly applied to cultured cells. The aim of this study was to apply the comet assay for use in fresh liver tissue, where metabolic

  9. Comparison of findings of spontaneous splenorenal shunt in color Doppler sonography with multislice CT scan (64 slices) in liver transplant candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Mohammadhadi, E-mail: Bagherimh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajati, Azadeh, E-mail: azadeh.hajati@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammadkazem, E-mail: hosseiniaslm@sums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ostad, Seyed Pouria, E-mail: Pouria.Ostad@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Background: Liver transplantation is the only definite treatment for end stage liver disease and it has high costs for the medical system so decreasing its complication and increasing its effectiveness is crucial. One of the factors that affect liver transplantation is the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Its diagnosis is mainly overlooked in pre-liver transplant patients. Main modality for its diagnosis is multislice CT scan however this is more expensive than sonography. Also, it exposes the patients to ionizing radiation. Considering the advantages of color Doppler ultrasound, studies to determine the sensitivity and specificity for detection of spontaneous splenorenal shunt is essential. Materials and methods: In our study 70 cirrhotic patients who were referred by liver transplant surgeons for evaluation of abdomen by CT and sonograhy were assessed for presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt, left adrenal varix and left renal vein diameter and velocity and sensitivity and specificity of both modalities were checked. Patients in whom left renal vein could not evaluated by sonography and patients with splenectomy and nutcracker syndrome were excluded. Results: In the point of 10 mm diameter of left renal vein in CT scan there was 78.6% sensitivity and 67.9% specificity for the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Left adrenal varix in CT had sensitivity of 71.4%, specificity of 100%, and positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 70% and varix below spleen in CT had sensitivity of 54.8%, specificity of 96.4%, and positive predictive value of 95.8% and negative predictive value of 58.7% for the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. In the point of 8 mm diameter of left renal vein in sonography there was 66.7% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity for the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. For the velocity of more than 35 cm/s of left renal vein in sonography there was 61.9% sensitivity and 82.1% specificity for

  10. Parametric Trace Slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Grigore (Inventor); Chen, Feng (Inventor); Chen, Guo-fang; Wu, Yamei; Meredith, Patrick O. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A program trace is obtained and events of the program trace are traversed. For each event identified in traversing the program trace, a trace slice of which the identified event is a part is identified based on the parameter instance of the identified event. For each trace slice of which the identified event is a part, the identified event is added to an end of a record of the trace slice. These parametric trace slices can be used in a variety of different manners, such as for monitoring, mining, and predicting.

  11. Effects of different hydrostatic pressure on lesions in ex vivo bovine livers induced by high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Zhong, Zhiqiang; Li, Xing; Gong, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Faqi

    2017-05-01

    It is well-known that acoustic cavitation associated with the high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment often would change the morphology and size of lesions in its treatment. In most studies reported in literature, high ambient hydrostatic pressure was used to suppress the cavitation completely. Investigation of the effects by varying the ambient hydrostatic pressure (Pstat) is still lacking. In this paper, the effects of HIFU on lesions in ex vivo bovine liver specimens under various Pstat are systematically investigated. A 1MHz HIFU transducer, with an aperture diameter of 70mm and a focal length of 55mm, was used to generate two groups US exposure of different acoustic intensities and exposure time (6095W/cm(2)×8s and 9752W/cm(2)×5s), while keeping the same acoustic energies per unit area (48760J/cm(2)). The peak acoustic negative pressures (p(-)) of the two groups were p1(-)=9.58MPa and p2(-)=10.82MPa, respectively, with the difference pd(-)=p2(-)-p1(-)=1.24MPa. A passive cavitation detection (PCD) was used to monitor the ultrasonic cavitation signal during exposure of the two groups. The US exposures were done under the following ambient hydrostatic pressures, Pstat: atmospheric pressure, 0.5MPa, 1.0MPa, 1.5MPa, 2.0MPa, 2.5MPa and3.0MPa, respectively. The result of PCD showed that there was a statistically significant increase above background noise level in broadband emissions at dose of 9752W/cm(2)×5s, but not at dose of 6095W/cm(2)×8s under atmospheric pressure; i.e., the acoustic cavitation took place for p2(-) but not for p1(-) when under atmospheric pressure. The results also showed that there was no statistically difference of the morphology and size of lesions for 6095W/cm(2)×8s exposure under the aforementioned different ambient hydrostatic pressures. But the lesions generated at 9752W/cm(2)×5s exposure under Pstat=atmospheric pressure, 0.5MPa, 1.0MPa (all of them are less than pd(-)), were larger than those under 1.5MPa, 2.0MPa, 2

  12. Amino acid sequence of the tryptic peptide containing the catalytic-site thiol group of bovine liver uridine diphosphate glucose dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, B; Carrubba, C; Feingold, D S; Ashcom, J; Franzen, J S

    1981-01-01

    The catalytic-site thiol groups of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from bovine liver were carboxymethylated with iodo[2-14C]acetate or with iodoacetamidofluorescein. After the residual thiol groups were carboxymethylated with iodoacetate, the proteins were digested with trypsin. The 14C-labelled peptide from the carboxymethylated enzyme was purified to homogeneity by successive thick-layer chromatography on silica gel, paper electrophoresis and chromatography, and column chromatography on Bio-Gel P-6. Homogeneous fluoresceincarboxamidomethylated peptide was prepared from a tryptic digest of fluoresceincarboxamidomethylated enzyme by specific adsorption--desorption from Sephadex G-25. The sequences of either peptide determined by the manual Edman dansyl procedure is: Ala-Ser-Val-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Ser-Cys-Phe-Glx-Glx-Gly-Lys. PMID:6896145

  13. Amino acid sequence of the tryptic peptide containing the catalytic-site thiol group of bovine liver uridine diphosphate glucose dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, B; Carrubba, C; Feingold, D S; Ashcom, J; Franzen, J S

    1981-12-01

    The catalytic-site thiol groups of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from bovine liver were carboxymethylated with iodo[2-14C]acetate or with iodoacetamidofluorescein. After the residual thiol groups were carboxymethylated with iodoacetate, the proteins were digested with trypsin. The 14C-labelled peptide from the carboxymethylated enzyme was purified to homogeneity by successive thick-layer chromatography on silica gel, paper electrophoresis and chromatography, and column chromatography on Bio-Gel P-6. Homogeneous fluoresceincarboxamidomethylated peptide was prepared from a tryptic digest of fluoresceincarboxamidomethylated enzyme by specific adsorption--desorption from Sephadex G-25. The sequences of either peptide determined by the manual Edman dansyl procedure is: Ala-Ser-Val-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Ser-Cys-Phe-Glx-Glx-Gly-Lys.

  14. Use of trout liver slices to enhance mechanistic interpretation of estrogen receptor binding for cost-effective prioritization of chemicals within large inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Patricia K; Tapper, Mark A; Denny, Jeffrey S; Kolanczyk, Richard C; Sheedy, Barbara R; Henry, Tala R; Veith, Gilman D

    2004-12-01

    The cost of testing chemicals as reproductive toxicants precludes the possibility of evaluating large chemical inventories without a robust strategyfor prioritizing chemicals to test. The use of quantitative structure-activity relationships in early hazard identification is a cost-effective prioritization tool, but in the absence of systematic collection of interpretable test data upon which models are formulated, these techniques fall short of their intended use. An approach is presented for narrowing the focus of candidate ED chemicals using two in vitro assays: one optimized to measure the potential of chemicals to bind rainbow trout estrogen receptors (rtER), and a second to enhance interpretation of receptor binding data in a relevant biological system (i.e., fish liver tissue). Results of rtER competitive binding assays for 16 chemicals yielded calculable relative binding affinities (RBA) from 179 to 0.0006% for 13 chemicals and partial or no binding for an additional 3 chemicals. Eleven lower to no affinity chemicals (RBA RBA of 0.0006%. Two chemicals with only partial binding curves up to their solubility limit did not induce VTG. The monohydroxy metabolite of methoxychlor was the only chemical tested that apparently bound rtER but did not induce VTG mRNA. Data are presented illustrating the utility of the two assays in combination for interpreting the role of metabolism in VTG induction, as well as the sensitivity of the assays for measuring enantiomer selective binding and ER-mediated induction. The combined approach appears particularly useful in interpreting the potential relevance of extremely low affinity chemical binding to fish receptors (RBA = 0.01-0.0001%) within a defined toxicity pathway as a basis for prioritizing within large chemical inventories of environmental concern.

  15. In Vitro Enhancement of Carvedilol Glucuronidation by Amiodarone-Mediated Altered Protein Binding in Incubation Mixture of Human Liver Microsomes with Bovine Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Makoto; Takamori, Toru; Nakamura, Saki; Taguchi, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Carvedilol is mainly metabolized in the liver to O-glucuronide (O-Glu). We previously found that the glucuronidation activity of racemic carvedilol in pooled human liver microsomes (HLM) was increased, R-selectively, in the presence of amiodarone. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms for the enhancing effect of amiodarone on R- and S-carvedilol glucuronidation. We evaluated O-Glu formation of R- and S-carvedilol enantiomers in a reaction mixture of HLM including 0.2% bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the absence of amiodarone, glucuronidation activity of R- and S-carvedilol for 25 min was 0.026, and 0.51 pmol/min/mg protein, and that was increased by 6.15 and 1.60-fold in the presence of 50 µM amiodarone, respectively. On the other hand, in the absence of BSA, or when BSA was replaced with human serum albumin, no enhancing effect of amiodarone on glucuronidation activity was observed, suggesting that BSA played a role in the mechanisms for the enhancement of glucuronidation activity. Unbound fraction of S-carvedilol in the reaction mixture was greater than that of R-carvedilol in the absence of amiodarone. Also, the addition of amiodarone caused a greater increase of unbound fraction of R-carvedilol than that of S-carvedilol. These results suggest that the altered protein binding by amiodarone is a key mechanism for R-selective stimulation of carvedilol glucuronidation.

  16. Slice hyperholomorphic Schur analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel; Sabadini, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book defines and examines the counterpart of Schur functions and Schur analysis in the slice hyperholomorphic setting. It is organized into three parts: the first introduces readers to classical Schur analysis, while the second offers background material on quaternions, slice hyperholomorphic functions, and quaternionic functional analysis. The third part represents the core of the book and explores quaternionic Schur analysis and its various applications. The book includes previously unpublished results and provides the basis for new directions of research.

  17. Characterization and conservation of the inner E2 core domain structure of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex from bovine liver. Construction of a cDNA encoding the entire transacylase (E2b) precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, T A; Lau, K S; Chuang, D T

    1988-10-05

    A cDNA clone encoding the entire transacylase (E2b) precursor of the bovine branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex has been constructed from two overlapping incomplete cDNA clones which were isolated from a lambda ZAP library prepared from bovine liver poly(A)+ RNA. Nucleotide sequencing indicates that this bovine E2b cDNA insert (bE2-11) is 2701 base pairs in length with an open reading frame of 1446 base pairs. The bE2-11 cDNA insert encodes a leader peptide of 61 residues and a mature E2b polypeptide of 421 amino acid residues with a calculated monomeric molecular mass of 46,518 daltons. The molecular mass of the native E2b component isolated from bovine liver is 1,110,000 daltons as determined by sedimentation equilibrium. This value establishes the 24-subunit octahedral model for the quaternary structure of bovine E2b. The amino-terminal sequences of two tryptic fragments (A and B) of the E2b protein have been determined. Fragment A comprises residues 175 to 421 of the E2b protein and is the inner E2 core domain which contains the transacylase active site. Fragment B, produced by further tryptic cleavage of fragment, comprises residues 205 to 421, but does not have transacylase activity. Both fragments A and B confer the highly assembled 24-mer structure. The primary structure of the inner E2 core domain of bovine E2b (fragment A) is very similar to those of three other E2 proteins (human E2p, Escherichia coli E2p, and E. coli E2k). These similarities suggest that these E2 proteins are structurally and evolutionarily related.

  18. The virtual slice setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, William W; Neymotin, Samuel A; Hines, Michael L

    2008-06-30

    In an effort to design a simulation environment that is more similar to that of neurophysiology, we introduce a virtual slice setup in the NEURON simulator. The virtual slice setup runs continuously and permits parameter changes, including changes to synaptic weights and time course and to intrinsic cell properties. The virtual slice setup permits shocks to be applied at chosen locations and activity to be sampled intra- or extracellularly from chosen locations. By default, a summed population display is shown during a run to indicate the level of activity and no states are saved. Simulations can run for hours of model time, therefore it is not practical to save all of the state variables. These, in any case, are primarily of interest at discrete times when experiments are being run: the simulation can be stopped momentarily at such times to save activity patterns. The virtual slice setup maintains an automated notebook showing shocks and parameter changes as well as user comments. We demonstrate how interaction with a continuously running simulation encourages experimental prototyping and can suggest additional dynamical features such as ligand wash-in and wash-out-alternatives to typical instantaneous parameter change. The virtual slice setup currently uses event-driven cells and runs at approximately 2 min/h on a laptop.

  19. Studies on the inactivation of bovine liver enoyl-CoA hydratase by (methylenecyclopropyl)formyl-CoA: elucidation of the inactivation mechanism and identification of cysteine-114 as the entrapped nucleophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakoji, S; Li, D; Agnihotri, G; Zhou, H Q; Liu, H W

    2001-10-10

    The inhibitory properties of (methylenecyclopropyl)formyl-CoA (MCPF-CoA), a metabolite derived from a natural amino acid, (methylenecyclopropyl)glycine, against bovine liver enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECH) were characterized. We have previously demonstrated that MCPF-CoA specifically targets ECHs, which catalyze the reversible hydration of alpha,beta-unsaturated enoyl-CoA substrates to the corresponding beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA products. Here, we synthesized (R)- and (S)-diastereomers of MCPF-CoA to examine the stereoselectivity of this inactivation. Both compounds were shown to be competent inhibitors for bovine liver ECH with nearly identical second-order inactivation rate constants (k(inact)/K(I)) and partition ratios (k(cat)/k(inact)), indicating that the inactivation is nonstereospecific with respect to ring cleavage. The inhibitor, upon incubation with bovine liver ECH, labels a tryptic peptide, ALGGGXEL, near the active site of the protein, where X is the amino acid that is covalently modified. Cloning and sequence analysis of bovine liver ECH gene revealed the identity of the amino acid residue entrapped by MCPF-CoA as Cys-114 (mature sequence numbering). On the basis of gHMQC (gradient heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence) analysis with [3-(13)C]-labeled MCPF-CoA, the ring cleavage is most likely induced by the nucleophilic attack at the terminal carbon of the exomethylene group (C(2)'). We propose a plausible inactivation mechanism that involves relief of ring strain and is consistent with examples found in the literature. In addition, these studies provide important clues for future design of more efficient and selective inhibitors to control and/or regulate fatty acid metabolism.

  20. Preclinical evaluation of an MR-compatible microwave ablation system and comparison with a standard microwave ablation system in an ex vivo bovine liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rüdiger; Kessler, David-Emanuel; Weiss, Jakob; Clasen, Stephan; Pereira, Philippe L; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Rempp, Hansjörg

    2017-09-01

    Evaluation of a newly developed MR-compatible microwave ablation system with focus on ablation performance and comparison with a corresponding standard microwave ablation system. A total of 52 ablations were performed with a non-cooled microwave ablation system in an ex vivo bovine liver model using the following settings: [A] 16G-standard antenna, 2 cm active tip, 2.4 m cable; [B] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 2 cm active tip, 2.4 m cable; [C] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 2 cm active tip, extended 6 m cable; and [D] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 4 cm active tip, extended 6 m cable. Ablation durations were 3, 5 and 10 min, and additionally 15 min for [D]. Ablations zones were measured for short-axis diameter (SA) and long-axis diameter (LA). Settings [A]-[C] were compared regarding SA, volume (V) and generator energy output (E) with analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. Ablation performance of the MR-compatible settings [C] and [D] were compared regarding SA, V, E and sphericity index (SA/LA) with unpaired t-test. p standard system.

  1. Radiofrequency tissue ablation with cooled-tip electrodes:an experimental study in a bovine liver model on variables influencing lesion size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyun Young [Eulgy Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Chong Soo [Chonbuk National Univ. Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of various factors on the extent of thermal coagulation necrosis after radiofrequency (RF) tissue ablation using a cooled-tip electrode in bovine liver. RF ablation was induced by a monopolar 500 KHz-RF generator (CC-1; Radionics, Burlington, Mass., U.S.A.) and an 18-G cooled-tip with single or clustered electrodes. The ablation protocol involved a combination of varying current, ablation time, power output, gradual or abrupt increase of this out-put, and pulsed radiofrequency techniques. The maximum diameter of all thermal lesions which showed a color change was measured perpendicular to the electrode axis by two observers who reached their decisions by consensus. Twenty representative lesions were pathologically examined. With increasing current lesion diameter also increased, but above 1500 mA no further increase was induced. Extending the ablation time to 9 minutes for a single electrode and 15 minutes for a clustered electrode increased lesion diameter until a steady state was reached. Higher power levels caused larger lesions, but above 100 W no increase was observed. Ample exposure time coupled with a stepwise increase in power level induced a lesion larger than that resulting from an abrupt increase. Continuous pulsed RF with a high current led to increased coagulation necrosis diameter. These experimental findings may be useful thermotherapy. The data suggest that all involved factors significantly affect lesion size:if the factors are better understood, cancer thermotherapy can be better controlled.

  2. Identification of cysteine-319 as the target amino acid of 8-[(4-bromo-2,3-dioxobutyl)thio]adenosine 5'-triphosphate in bovine liver glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, D H; Colman, R F

    1991-07-23

    The affinity label 8-[(4-bromo-2,3-dioxobutyl)thio]adenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-BDB-TA-5'-TP) has been shown to react with bovine liver glutamate dehydrogenase in the region of the GTP-dependent NADH inhibitory site with incorporation of about 1 mol of reagent/mol of subunit [Ozturk, D. H., Safer, D., & Colman, R. F. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 7112-7118]. The modified enzyme was shown to contain only 5 free sulfhydryl groups upon 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate) titration as compared with 6 in the unmodified enzyme. In the unmodified enzyme digested with trypsin, 6 cysteinyl peptides were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography upon treatment with iodo [3H]acetic acid. In contrast, only 5 (carboxymethyl)cysteinyl peptides were detected in 8-BDB-TA-5'-TP-modified enzyme. When carboxymethylated modified and unmodified enzymes were digested with thermolysin, 6 peptide sequences containing (carboxymethyl)cysteine were obtained in the unmodified enzyme, but only 5 were observed in the modified enzyme. The (carboxymethyl)cysteine which was absent in the modified enzyme was determined to be Cys-319, leading to the conclusion that 8-BDB-TA-5'-TP reacts with Cys-319, thereby preventing it from subsequent reaction with radioactive iodoacetate. It was previously reported that 6-[(4-bromo-2,3-dioxobutyl)thio]-6-deaminoadenosine 5'-diphosphate (6-BDB-TA-5'-DP) modifies Cys-319 in this enzyme [Batra, S. P., & Colman, R. F. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 3508-3515].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Thermal ablation a comparison of thermal dose required for radiofrequency-, microwave-, and laser-induced coagulation in an ex vivo bovine liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertyna, Pawel; Goldberg, Wallace; Yang, Wei; Goldberg, S Nahum

    2009-12-01

    To compare thermal dosimetry metrics for specified diameters of coagulation achieved using three different ablation energy sources. 204 ablations measuring 20, 30, or 40 +/- 2 mm were created in an ex-vivo bovine liver model using 1) 2.5 cm cluster RF electrodes (n = 114), 2) 3 cm microwave antennas (n = 45), and 3) 3 cm laser diffusing fibers (n = 45). Continuous temperature monitoring was performed 5-20 mm from the applicators to calculate: a) the area under the curve (AUC), b) cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 degrees C (CEM43), and c) Arrhenius damage integral (Omega) for the critical ablation margin (DOC), with results compared by multivariate analysis of variance and regression analysis. The end temperatures at the margin of coagulation varied, and was lowest for the RF cluster electrode (33-58 degrees C), higher for laser (52-72 degrees C), and covered the widest range for microwave (42-95 degrees C). These end temperatures correlated with applied energy, as linear functions (r(2) = 0.74-0.96). The total heat needed to achieve ablation (AUC) varied with applied energy and coagulation diameter as negative exponential (RF and laser) or negative power (microwave) functions (r(2) = 0.82-0.98). Similarly, CEM43 values varied exponentially with energy and distance (r(2) = 0.52-0.76) over a wide range of values (10(12)). Likewise, Omega varied not only based upon energy source and DOC, but also as a positive linear correlation to applied energy and with sigmoid correlation to duration of ablation (r(2) = 0.85-0.97). Our study demonstrates that the thermal dosimetry of ablation is not based solely on a fixed end temperature at the margin of the coagulation zone. Thermal dosimetry is not constant, but dependent on the type and amount of energy applied and distance suggesting the need to take into account the rate of heat transfer for ablation dosimetry.

  4. Multipolar radiofrequency ablation using internally cooled electrodes in ex vivo bovine liver: correlation between volume of coagulation and amount of applied energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Stephan; Rempp, Hansjörg; Schmidt, Diethard; Schraml, Christina; Hoffmann, Rüdiger; Claussen, Claus D; Pereira, Philippe L

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between applied energy and volume of coagulation induced by multipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Multipolar RF ablations (n=80) were performed in ex vivo bovine liver. Three bipolar applicators with two electrodes located on each applicator shaft were placed in a triangular array. The power-output (75-225 W) and the distance between the different applicators (2, 3, 4, 5 cm) were systematically varied. The volume of confluent white coagulation and the amount of applied energy were assessed. Based on our experimental data the relationship between the volume of coagulation and applied energy was assessed by nonlinear regression analysis. The variability explained by the model was determined by the parameter r(2). The volume of coagulation increases with higher amounts of applied energy. The maximum amount of energy was applied at a power-output of 75 W and an applicator distance of 5 cm. The corresponding maximum volume of coagulation was 324 cm(3) and required an application of 453 kJ. The relationship between amount of applied energy (E) and volume (V) of coagulation can be described by the function, V=4.39E(0.7) (r(2)=0.88). By approximation the volume of coagulation can be calculated by the linear function V=0.61E+40.7 (r(2)=0.87). Ex vivo the relationship between volume of coagulation and amount of applied energy can be described by mathematical modeling. The amount of applied energy correlates to the volume of coagulation and may be a useful parameter to monitor multipolar RF ablation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  6. A revised mechanism for the inactivation of bovine liver enoyl-CoA hydratase by (methylenecyclopropyl)formyl-CoA based on unexpected results with the C114A mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Gautam; He, Shouming; Hong, Lin; Dakoji, Srikanth; Withers, Stephen G; Liu, Hung-wen

    2002-02-12

    The compound (methylenecyclopropyl)formyl-CoA (MCPF-CoA) has been reported earlier as a potent active site-directed inactivator of bovine liver enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECH). It is believed that the mechanism of inactivation involves the attack of Cys114 at C-2' of MCPF-CoA, resulting in ring cleavage and permanent covalent modification of the enzyme. Here, we describe studies with the C114A mutant of bovine liver ECH, which was constructed and purified to determine the role of this residue in the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. The C114A mutant, which is catalytically competent, shows an unexpected susceptibility to inactivation by MCPF-CoA, indicating that Cys114 is not the primary nucleophile responsible for the inactivation of the enzyme. To determine if catalytic residues Glu115 and Glu135 play a role in the inactivation of the enzyme, the E115Q and E135Q mutants were also constructed and purified. It was determined that these mutants did not react with MCPF-CoA, indicating a possible role for both residues in the inactivation of the wild-type enzyme. Pepsin digestion and subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis of the inactivated wild-type enzyme and C114A mutant revealed that Glu115 was modified in each case, supporting the hypothesis that this residue is the true nucleophile that traps MCPF-CoA and indicating that the covalent modification of Cys114 reported earlier may be a postinactivation artifact. We propose a modified mechanism of inactivation involving Glu115 and Glu135, and suggest that MCPF-CoA may be a mechanism-based inhibitor for bovine liver ECH.

  7. Evaluation of fibrosis in precision-cut tissue slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, I. M.; Pham, B. T.; Groothuis, G. M. M.; Olinga, P.

    1. In this review, the use of precision-cut tissue slices (PCTS) of the liver, kidney, lung and intestine in fibrosis research are evaluated and future possibilities are discussed. 2. In vivo models or techniques that are applicabless to be investigated in PCTS are discussed. 3. It is concluded that

  8. Slice Segal-Bargmann transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnudde, L.; De Bie, H.

    2017-06-01

    The Segal-Bargmann transform is a unitary map between the Schrödinger and Fock space, which is used, for example, to show the integrability of quantum Rabi models. Slice monogenic functions provide the framework in which functional calculus for quaternionic quantum mechanics can be developed. In this paper, a generalisation of the Segal-Bargmann transform, to the context of slice monogenic functions, is constructed and studied in detail. It is shown to interact appropriately with the recently constructed slice Fourier transform. This leads furthermore to a construction of a slice Fock space, which is shown to be a reproducing kernel space.

  9. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  10. Bovine cytochrome c oxidases, purified from heart, skeletal muscle, liver and kidney, differ in the small subunits but show the same reaction kinetics with cytochrome c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinjorgo, K. M.; Durak, I.; Dekker, H. L.; Edel, C. M.; Hakvoort, T. B.; van Gelder, B. F.; Muijsers, A. O.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate of purified cytochrome c oxidase preparations revealed that bovine kidney, skeletal muscle and heart contain different cytochrome c oxidase isoenzymes, which show differences in mobility of the subunits encoded by the

  11. Influence of microwave and conventional cooking on beef liver lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, R. S.; Abu-Raiia, S. H.; Al-Asfahany, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Liver slices were cooked with a mixture of cottonseed oil and margarine using microwave oven and gas cooker. The acid values, peroxide numbers, total sterols and fatty acid profiles of unheated and cooked liver slices conventionally and by microwaves were determined. The time required for cooking liver slices by microwaves was one-half of the time required conventionally. Heating the lipid mixture by both heating methods caused highly significant decrease in the acid value. Conversely, the ac...

  12. Can multi-slice or navigator-gated R2* MRI replace single-slice breath-hold acquisition for hepatic iron quantification?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Ralf B.; McCarville, M.B.; Song, Ruitian; Hillenbrand, Claudia M. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Wagstaff, Anne W. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Rhodes College, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL (United States); Smeltzer, Matthew P. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Memphis, Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Memphis, TN (United States); Krafft, Axel J. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); University Hospital Center Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Hankins, Jane S. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Hematology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Liver R2* values calculated from multi-gradient echo (mGRE) magnetic resonance images (MRI) are strongly correlated with hepatic iron concentration (HIC) as shown in several independently derived biopsy calibration studies. These calibrations were established for axial single-slice breath-hold imaging at the location of the portal vein. Scanning in multi-slice mode makes the exam more efficient, since whole-liver coverage can be achieved with two breath-holds and the optimal slice can be selected afterward. Navigator echoes remove the need for breath-holds and allow use in sedated patients. To evaluate if the existing biopsy calibrations can be applied to multi-slice and navigator-controlled mGRE imaging in children with hepatic iron overload, by testing if there is a bias-free correlation between single-slice R2* and multi-slice or multi-slice navigator controlled R2*. This study included MRI data from 71 patients with transfusional iron overload, who received an MRI exam to estimate HIC using gradient echo sequences. Patient scans contained 2 or 3 of the following imaging methods used for analysis: single-slice images (n = 71), multi-slice images (n = 69) and navigator-controlled images (n = 17). Small and large blood corrected region of interests were selected on axial images of the liver to obtain R2* values for all data sets. Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis were used to compare R2* values from single-slice images to those of multi-slice images and navigator-controlled images. Bland-Altman analysis showed that all imaging method comparisons were strongly associated with each other and had high correlation coefficients (0.98 ≤ r ≤ 1.00) with P-values ≤0.0001. Linear regression yielded slopes that were close to 1. We found that navigator-gated or breath-held multi-slice R2* MRI for HIC determination measures R2* values comparable to the biopsy-validated single-slice, single breath-hold scan. We conclude that these three R2* methods can be

  13. A Quantitative Assessment of Causes of Bovine Liver Condemnation and Its Implication for Food Security in the Eastern Cape Province South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmael Festus Jaja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food production needs to double, with minimum waste, if hunger and poverty is to be alleviated in South Africa. The condemnation of liver during meat inspection represents a huge waste of a protein food resource. This paper measures the quantity of liver condemned in three abattoirs in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and assesses the causes and the monetary loss associated with these condemnations. A retrospective study (RS (n = 51 302 involving the use of abattoir slaughter records from 2010–2012 and a post-mortem meat inspection (PMMI (n = 1374 was conducted from July to December 2013. The RS revealed the leading cause of liver wastage as fasciolosis (5.95%, 4.48%, and 2.7%, fibrosis (2.74%, 2.37%, and 1.0%, and abscessation (1.11%, 2.78%, and 1.5% for the 2010, 2011, and 2012 respectively. During the PMMI, the same factors caused liver condemnation in addition to calcification (8.3%, 6.8%, and 3.2%, Cysticercosis bovis (1.7%, 2.4%, and 1.3% and improper evisceration (4.8%, 12.4%, and 27.1% for the abattoirs X, Y, and Z respectively. A total of R 343, 330 (USD 45,271.07 was lost due to the condemnation of liver between 2010 and 2012. The further loss of 3290.4 kg of liver was calculated for the six month in 2013, and its financial value was R 59, 227.2 (USD 5889.82. The result of this study provide baseline information on major causes of liver wastage in cattle slaughtered in South Africa as well as the direct financial losses and demonstrate the huge waste of ideal protein food source.

  14. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease: Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ...

  15. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  16. Identification of cysteine-319 as the target amino acid of 8-((4-bromo-2,3-dioxobutyl)thio)adenosine 5 prime -triphosphate in bovine liver glutamate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, D.H.; Colman, R.F. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

    1991-07-23

    The affinity label 8-((4-bromo-2,3-dioxobutyl)thio)adenosine 5{prime}-triphosphate (8-BDB-TA-5{prime}-TP) has been shown to react with bovine liver glutamate dehydrogenase in the region of the GTP-dependent NADH inhibitory site with incorporation of about 1 mol of reagent/mol of subunit. The modified enzyme was shown to contain only 5 free sulfhydryl groups upon 5,5{prime}-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) titration as compared with 6 in the unmodified enzyme. In the unmodified enzyme digested with trypsin, 6 cysteinyl peptides were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography upon treatment with iodo ({sup 3}H)acetic acid. In contrast, only 5(carboxymethyl)cysteinyl peptides were detected in 8-BDB-TA-5{prime}-TP-modified enzyme. When carboxymethylated modified and unmodified enzymes were digested with thermolysin, 6 peptide sequences containing (carboxymethyl)cysteine which was absent in the modified enzyme was determined to be Cys-319, leading to the conclusion that 8-BDB-TA-5{prime}-TP reacts with Cys-319, thereby preventing it from subsequent reaction with radioactive iodoacetate.

  17. [Determination of five avermectins in bovine liver by on-line solid-phase extraction with hydrophobic monolithic column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yaoqin; Ai, Lianfeng; Wang, Xuesheng; Wang, Manman; Xu, Houjun; Hao, Yulan

    2015-06-01

    A method based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) with hydrophobic monolithic column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of five avermectins in bovine liver. A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was used as the sorbent. The parameters influenced on on-line SPE and separation process such as the loading mobile phase, the eluting flow rate and the solvent for the separation were investigated in detail. Blank samples, spiked samples, matrix effect and recovery experiments were investigated to evaluate the extraction efficiency and potential interfering compounds originating from the matrix. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed a linear range of 1-100 µg/L and the quantification limit of 5 µg/kg for each analyte. The presented method gave recoveries of 77.4%-98.4%. The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were 4.46%-8.03% and 4.79%-8.68%, respectively. Moreover, no significant changes were found in the extraction performance after more than 400 usages on one monolithic column, and even on the monoliths with various batches. The feasibility of the developed poly (butyl methacrylate-coethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column based on the on-line SPE method for the determination of avermectins was further demonstrated by the analysis of real samples.

  18. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of nine corticosteroid residues in bovine liver samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusi, Guglielmo, E-mail: guglielmo.dusi@izsler.it [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell' Emilia Romagna, ' B. Ubertini' , Via Bianchi 9, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Gasparini, Mara; Curatolo, Michele; Assini, Walter; Bozzoni, Eros; Tognoli, Nadia; Ferretti, Enrica [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell' Emilia Romagna, ' B. Ubertini' , Via Bianchi 9, 25124 Brescia (Italy)

    2011-08-26

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) confirmatory method for the simultaneous determination of nine corticosteroids in liver, including the four MRL compounds listed in Council Regulation 37/2010, was developed. After an enzymatic deconjugation and a solvent extraction of the liver tissue, the resulting solution was cleaned up through an SPE Oasis HLB cartridge. The analytes were then detected by liquid chromatography-negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, using deuterium-labelled internal standards. The procedure was validated as a quantitative confirmatory method according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. The results showed that the method was suitable for statutory residue testing regarding the following performance characteristics: instrumental linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility), recovery, decision limit (CC{alpha}), detection capability (CC{beta}) and ruggedness. All the corticosteroids can be detected at a concentration around 1 {mu}g kg{sup -1}; the recoveries were above 62% for all the analytes. Repeatability and reproducibility (within-laboratory reproducibility) for all the analytes were below 7.65% and 15.5%, respectively.

  19. Robust reflective pupil slicing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Jeffrey T.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-07-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems (TSS) has developed the High Throughput Virtual Slit (HTVSTM), robust all-reflective pupil slicing technology capable of replacing the slit in research-, commercial- and MIL-SPEC-grade spectrometer systems. In the simplest configuration, the HTVS allows optical designers to remove the lossy slit from pointsource spectrometers and widen the input slit of long-slit spectrometers, greatly increasing throughput without loss of spectral resolution or cross-dispersion information. The HTVS works by transferring etendue between image plane axes but operating in the pupil domain rather than at a focal plane. While useful for other technologies, this is especially relevant for spectroscopic applications by performing the same spectral narrowing as a slit without throwing away light on the slit aperture. HTVS can be implemented in all-reflective designs and only requires a small number of reflections for significant spectral resolution enhancement-HTVS systems can be efficiently implemented in most wavelength regions. The etendueshifting operation also provides smooth scaling with input spot/image size without requiring reconfiguration for different targets (such as different seeing disk diameters or different fiber core sizes). Like most slicing technologies, HTVS provides throughput increases of several times without resolution loss over equivalent slitbased designs. HTVS technology enables robust slit replacement in point-source spectrometer systems. By virtue of pupilspace operation this technology has several advantages over comparable image-space slicer technology, including the ability to adapt gracefully and linearly to changing source size and better vertical packing of the flux distribution. Additionally, this technology can be implemented with large slicing factors in both fast and slow beams and can easily scale from large, room-sized spectrometers through to small, telescope-mounted devices. Finally, this same technology is directly

  20. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... products to revise the conditions for the importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines...

  1. Discrete frequency slice wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhonghong; Tao, Ting; Jiang, Zhongwei; Wang, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces a new kind of Time-Frequency Representation (TFR) method called Discrete Frequency Slice Wavelet Transform (DFSWT). It is an improved version of Frequency Slice Wavelet Transform (FSWT). The previous researches on FSWT show that it is a new efficient TFR in an easy way without strict limitation as traditional wavelet theory. DFSWT as well as FSWT are defined directly in frequency domain, and still keep its properties in time-frequency domain as FSWT decomposition, reconstruction and filter design, etc. However, the original signal is decomposed and reconstructed on a Chosen Frequency Domains (CFD) as need of application. CFD means that the decomposition and reconstruction are not completed on all frequency components. At first, it is important to discuss the necessary condition of CFD to reconstruct the original signal. And then based on norm l2, an optimization algorithm is introduced to reconstruct the original signal even accurately. Finally, for a test example, the TFR analysis of a real life signal is shown. Some conclusions are drawn that the concept of CFD is very useful to application, and the DFSWT can become a simple and easy tool of TFR method, and also provide a new idea of low speed sampling of high frequency signal in applications.

  2. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  3. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  4. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  5. Prevalence of Bovine Fasciolosis in major Abattiors of Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross sectional epidemiologic studies of bovine Fasciolosis was conducted in some selected abattoirs of Adamawa state (Yola, Mubi and Numan) using postmortem examination from liver of slaughtered animals.A total of 3,015 slaughtered cattled were examined at post mortem and 657 (21.8%) liver fluke cases were ...

  6. prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in major abattiors of adamawa state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Cross sectional epidemiologic studies of bovine Fasciolosis was conducted in some selected abattoirs of Adamawa state (Yola, Mubi and Numan) using postmortem examination from liver of slaughtered animals.A total of 3,015 slaughtered cattled were examined at post mortem and 657. (21.8%) liver fluke ...

  7. Preparation of osmotic dehydrated ripe banana slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, U D; Prabhukhanolkar, A E; Pawar, V D

    2010-08-01

    Process for preparation of ripe banana slices using osmotic dehydration was standardized. Fully ripe banana fruits were peeled and slices of 8 mm thickness were prepared. The slices were divided into 5 lots and pretreated with sulphur fumigation @ 2 g/kg of slices for 2 h then each lot was soaked in 60 (0)Brix sugar syrup containing 0.1% KMS + 0.1 % citrate, 0.1% KMS + 0.1% citrate + 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% ascorbic acid and control respectively. After 16 h soaking, quick washing, blotting and then cabinet drying at 55 °C for 10 h up to 18% moisture content was done. The dried products were packed in 200 gauge polypropylene bags and stored at ambient condition for 6 months. The chemical, microbial and organoleptic changes were monitored for 6 months. The osmo-dried banana slices prepared with sulphur fumigation @ 2 g /kg slices for 2 h followed by soaking in 60(0)Brix sugar syrup containing 0.1% KMS + 0.1% citrate + 0.2% ascorbic acid were found better with respect to colour and appearance, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability with non-stickiness of the product. Storage study showed that there was marginal decrease in moisture content and organoleptic quality and increase in TSS, total sugars and reducing sugars content of osmodried banana slices. The products were found microbiologically safe and sensorily acceptable up to 6 months storage at ambient condition.

  8. Liver metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CT scan of the abdomen Liver function tests Liver biopsy MRI of the abdomen PET scan Ultrasound of ... Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases Images Liver biopsy Hepatocellular cancer, CT scan Liver metastases, CT scan ...

  9. Liver Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Transplant Living > Organ facts and surgeries > Liver Liver The liver is one of the largest and ... lobes. Detail of the liver How does your liver work? The liver has many functions that are ...

  10. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is caused by a number of Mycobacterium species, of which Mycobacterium bovis, causing 'bovine tuberculosis' is ... KEY WORDS: Mycobacterium bovis, Zoonosis, Holeta, Ethiopia causing 'bovine tuberculosis ..... isolation of infected animals in which communal grazing and watering practiced.

  11. 256-slice wide-detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This article provides opinions and predictions about an emerging technology-256-slice wide-detector computed tomography-to help healthcare facilities decide whether the technology is worth tracking and when it might be ready for adoption. We believe 256-slice CT is worth monitoring based on its predicted clinical and business impact. We consider it unlikely, however, that more than a few select facilities will begin adopting this technology within the next three years.

  12. Kit comercial de ELISA® para a detecção de coproantígenos e exame coproparasitológico em bovinos com fígados condenados por fasciolose Commercial ELISA® kit for detection of coproantigen and coproparasitological method in bovine livers with fascioliasis convicted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia das Chagas Bernardo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente estudo comparar um kit comercial de ELISA para a detecção de coproantígenos e um exame coproparasitológico de sedimentação utilizando-se como padrão ouro o diagnóstico da inspeção de fígados bovinos ao abate. Além disso, avaliou-se a correlação entre a intensidade parasitária mensurada pela contagem de ovos nas fezes e a de parasitos ao abate. Foram coletadas as fezes e avaliados macroscopicamente os fígados de 81 bovinos, dos quais 45 tiveram os fígados condenados por fasciolose hepática ao abate, nos quais se realizou a contagem dos parasitos. Duas frações de cada amostra de fezes coletadas foram separadas e uma delas foi armazenada em congelador para posterior realização do ELISA e a outra processada segundo uma técnica de sedimentação fecal para diagnóstico de ovos de Fasciola hepatica. O coeficiente de correlação de Spearman e o qui-quadrado de McNemar foram utilizados, adotando-se o nível de significância de 5%. Em oito fígados bovinos condenados por apresentarem lesões características de fasciolose, não foram encontrados exemplares do parasito. O exame coproparasitológico e o ELISA para detecção de coproantígenos, respectivamente, apresentaram sensibilidade de 51,11% e 75,55%, especificidade de 100% e 91,66%, valor preditivivo positivo de 100% e 91,89%, valor preditivo negativo de 62% e 75% e kappa de 0,48 e 0,65. Os resultados obtidos pelo kit ELISA comercial não diferiram (P=0,06 dos obtidos ao abate, mas o exame coproparasitológico diferiu (PThe aim of this study was to compare a commercial ELISA kit for detection on coproantigen examination and fecal sedimentation using as gold standard inspection diagnosis of bovine livers at slaughter. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the measured intensity of infection by counting eggs in the feces and the parasites in bovine livers. Feces were collected and evaluated macroscopically of 81 cattle livers, 45 of

  13. Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... put you on a waiting list for a liver transplant. Doctors do liver transplants when other treatment cannot keep a damaged liver working. During a liver transplantation, the surgeon removes the diseased liver and replaces ...

  14. Interactive Slice of the CMS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Davis, Siona Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This slice shows a colorful cross-section of the CMS detector with all parts of the detector labelled. Viewers are invited to click on buttons associated with five types of particles to see what happens when each type interacts with the sections of the detector. The five types of particles users can select to send through the slice are muons, electrons, neutral hadrons, charged hadrons and photons. Supplementary information on each type of particles is given. Useful for inclusion into general talks on CMS etc. *Animated CMS "slice" for Powerpoint (Mac & PC) Original version - 2004 Updated version - July 2010 *Six slides required - first is a set of buttons; others are for each particle type (muon, electron, charged/neutral hadron, photon) Recommend putting slide 1 anywhere in your presentation and the rest at the end

  15. Holographic entanglement entropy on generic time slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuki, Yuya; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Umemoto, Koji

    2017-06-01

    We study the holographic entanglement entropy and mutual information for Lorentz boosted subsystems. In holographic CFTs at zero and finite temperature, we find that the mutual information gets divergent in a universal way when the end points of two subsystems are light-like separated. In Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating geometries dual to non-relativistic theories, we show that the holographic entanglement entropy is not well-defined for Lorentz boosted subsystems in general. This strongly suggests that in non-relativistic theories, we cannot make a real space factorization of the Hilbert space on a generic time slice except the constant time slice, as opposed to relativistic field theories.

  16. Slice through an LHC bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Slice through an LHC superconducting dipole (bending) magnet. The slice includes a cut through the magnet wiring (niobium titanium), the beampipe and the steel magnet yokes. Particle beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have the same energy as a high-speed train, squeezed ready for collision into a space narrower than a human hair. Huge forces are needed to control them. Dipole magnets (2 poles) are used to bend the paths of the protons around the 27 km ring. Quadrupole magnets (4 poles) focus the proton beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams’ paths cross. There are 1232 15m long dipole magnets in the LHC.

  17. Silicon ingot casting: Heat exchanger method. Multi-wire slicing: Fixed abrasive slicing technique, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    In the area of ingot casting the proof of concept of heat exchanger method (HEM) was established. It was also established that HEM cast silicon yielded solar cell performance comparable to Czochralski grown material. Solar cells with conversion efficiencies of up to 15% were fabricated. It was shown that square cross-section ingots can be cast. In the area of crystal slicing, it was established that silicon can be sliced efficiently with the fixed abrasive slicing technique approach. This concept was carried forward to 10 cm diameter workpiece.

  18. Adaptive slices for acquisition of anisotropic BRDF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Radomír; Filip, Jiří

    (2018) ISSN 2096-0433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-18407S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : anisotropic BRDF * slice * sampling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/RO/vavra-0486116.pdf

  19. Thin-Slice Perception Develops Slowly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Body language and facial gesture provide sufficient visual information to support high-level social inferences from "thin slices" of behavior. Given short movies of nonverbal behavior, adults make reliable judgments in a large number of tasks. Here we find that the high precision of adults' nonverbal social perception depends on the slow…

  20. Detecting Psychopathy from Thin Slices of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that features of psychopathy can be reliably and validly detected by lay raters from "thin slices" (i.e., small samples) of behavior. Brief excerpts (5 s, 10 s, and 20 s) from interviews with 96 maximum-security inmates were presented in video or audio form or in both modalities combined. Forty raters used…

  1. nem_slice ver. 3.34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-08

    Nem_slice reads in a finite element model description of the geometry of a problem from an ExodusII file and generates either a nodal or elemental graph of the problem. It then calls Chaco to load balance the graph and then outputs a NemesisI load-balance file.

  2. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing on...

  3. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule document...

  4. Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur; Shen, H

    1993-01-01

    that directs expression of E. coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), were microapplied into stratum pyramidale or stratum granulosum of slice cultures. Twenty-four hours later, a cluster of transduced cells expressing beta-gal was observed at the microapplication site. Gene transfer by microapplication was both...... effective and rapid. The titer of the HSVlac stocks was determined on NIH3T3 cells. Eighty-three percent of the beta-gal forming units successfully transduced beta-gal after microapplication to slice cultures. beta-Gal expression was detected as rapidly as 4 h after transduction into cultures of fibroblasts...... or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions....

  5. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  6. Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from one or both of your parents can cause various substances to build up in your liver, resulting in liver damage. Genetic liver diseases include: Hemochromatosis Hyperoxaluria and oxalosis Wilson's disease Cancer and other growths Examples include: Liver cancer Bile ...

  7. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease: Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ...

  8. Development and evaluation of a machine for slicing African oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A manually operated machine for slicing African oil bean seeds was designed and fabricated as replacement of the traditional hand slicing technique, and to address the drudgery, time consuming and injuries associated with hand slicing. Geometric characteristics and physical dimensions of the beans were used as ...

  9. Development of a bread slicing machine from locally sourced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the development of a bread slicing machine which is a mechanical device that is used for slicing bread instead of the crude cumbersome and unhygienic method of manual slicing of bread. In an attempt to facilitate the final processing of bread which is a common daily food requirement of most Nigerians ...

  10. Slice through an LHC focusing magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Slice through an LHC superconducting quadrupole (focusing) magnet. The slice includes a cut through the magnet wiring (niobium titanium), the beampipe and the steel magnet yokes. Particle beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have the same energy as a high-speed train, squeezed ready for collision into a space narrower than a human hair. Huge forces are needed to control them. Dipole magnets (2 poles) are used to bend the paths of the protons around the 27 km ring. Quadrupole magnets (4 poles) focus the proton beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams’ paths cross. Bringing beams into collision requires a precision comparable to making two knitting needles collide, launched from either side of the Atlantic Ocean.

  11. prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in major abattiors of adamawa state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Prevalence, Bovine, Fasciolosis, Abattoirs, Adamawa state. INTRODUCTION. Fasciolosis a parasitic disease of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats horses and human of all ages caused by liver flukes (Armour, 1975; Ramajo et al., 2001). Fasciola a trematode belonging to the sub- class. Digenea, which is commonly ...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine and ovine fasciolosis, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2010 to March, 2011 to estimate the prevalence of bovine and ovine fasciolosis, to assess risk factors and to estimate direct financial loss due to liver condemnation on cattle and sheep slaughtered at Bahir Dar municipal abattoir. Additionally, the sensitivity of direct ...

  13. Seasonal prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and its direct economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to report the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and to estimate the direct economic losses (DEL) from condemnation of liver as a result of detection of lesions of fasciolosis in cattle slaughtered in Makurdi abattoirs. Retrospective data were collected from the abattoir records obtained from Ministry of ...

  14. Seasonal prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and its direct economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-06-29

    Jun 29, 2015 ... Relationship between rainfall trends and flooding in the Niger-Benue. River Basin. The Journal of Meteorology,. 13 (132): 318–324. Ibironke AA & Fasina FO (2010). Socio-economic implications of bovine liver rejection in a major abattoir in south western Nigeria. Revista de Ciˆencias Agr´arias, 33(2) 211–.

  15. Slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  16. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G. [Department of Neuroscience, Room 215, Stemmler Hall, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zorec, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Zorec@mf.uni-lj.si [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  17. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  18. Infection of differentiated airway epithelial cells from caprine lungs by viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Keil, Günther M; Schwegmann-Wessels, Christel; Ganter, Martin; Herrler, Georg

    2014-05-14

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) are important pathogens associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Non-bovine ruminants such as goats may also be infected and serve as a virus reservoir to be considered in the development of control strategies. To evaluate the susceptibility of caprine airway epithelial cells to infection by viruses of BRDC, we established a culture system for differentiated caprine epithelial cells. For this purpose, we generated precision-cut lung slices (PCLS), in which cells are retained in their original structural configuration and remain viable for more than a week. The three bovine viruses were found to preferentially infect different cell types. Ciliated epithelial cells were the major target cells of BPIV3, whereas BHV-1 preferred basal cells. Cells infected by BRSV were detected in submucosal cell layers. This spectrum of susceptible cells is the same as that reported recently for infected bovine PCLS. While infection of caprine cells by BRSV and BPIV3 was as efficient as that reported for bovine cells, infection of caprine cells by BHV-1 required a tenfold higher dose of infectious virus as compared to infection of bovine airway cells. These results support the notion that non-bovine ruminants may serve as a reservoir for viruses of BRDC and introduce a culture system to analyze virus infection of differentiated airway epithelial cells from the caprine lung. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum Limb Blastema Cell Proliferation by Nerves and BMP2 in Organotypic Slice Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lehrberg

    Full Text Available We have modified and optimized the technique of organotypic slice culture in order to study the mechanisms regulating growth and pattern formation in regenerating axolotl limb blastemas. Blastema cells maintain many of the behaviors that are characteristic of blastemas in vivo when cultured as slices in vitro, including rates of proliferation that are comparable to what has been reported in vivo. Because the blastema slices can be cultured in basal medium without fetal bovine serum, it was possible to test the response of blastema cells to signaling molecules present in serum, as well as those produced by nerves. We also were able to investigate the response of blastema cells to experimentally regulated changes in BMP signaling. Blastema cells responded to all of these signals by increasing the rate of proliferation and the level of expression of the blastema marker gene, Prrx-1. The organotypic slice culture model provides the opportunity to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal co-regulation of pathways in order to induce and enhance a regenerative response.

  20. Liver Hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  1. Body composition estimation from selected slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Dupej, Ján; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices. Methods We present a new semi-automatic approach to defining the density cutoff between adipose tissue (AT) and lean tissue (LT) in such material. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to validate the method. The equations for estimating......Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total...

  2. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  3. Liver Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Liver Panel Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Images View Sources Ask Us Also Known As Liver Profile Liver Function Tests LFTs Formal Name Hepatic ...

  4. Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is advanced. This makes it harder to treat. Doctors use tests that examine the liver and the blood to diagnose liver cancer. Treatment options include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or liver ...

  5. Validation of volumetric and single-slice MRI adipose analysis using a novel fully automated segmentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addeman, Bryan T; Kutty, Shelby; Perkins, Thomas G; Soliman, Abraam S; Wiens, Curtis N; McCurdy, Colin M; Beaton, Melanie D; Hegele, Robert A; McKenzie, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    To validate a fully automated adipose segmentation method with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fat fraction abdominal imaging. We hypothesized that this method is suitable for segmentation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) in a wide population range, easy to use, works with a variety of hardware setups, and is highly repeatable. Analysis was performed comparing precision and analysis time of manual and automated segmentation of single-slice imaging, and volumetric imaging (78-88 slices). Volumetric and single-slice data were acquired in a variety of cohorts (body mass index [BMI] 15.6-41.76) including healthy adult volunteers, adolescent volunteers, and subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and lipodystrophies. A subset of healthy volunteers was analyzed for repeatability in the measurements. The fully automated segmentation was found to have excellent agreement with manual segmentation with no substantial bias across all study cohorts. Repeatability tests showed a mean coefficient of variation of 1.2 ± 0.6% for SAT, and 2.7 ± 2.2% for IAAT. Analysis with automated segmentation was rapid, requiring 2 seconds per slice compared with 8 minutes per slice with manual segmentation. We demonstrate the ability to accurately and rapidly segment regional adipose tissue using fat fraction maps across a wide population range, with varying hardware setups and acquisition methods. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nonneurogenic hypoxia sensitivity in rat adrenal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Y; Mochizuki-Oda, N; Yamada, H; Kurokawa, K; Watanabe, Y

    2001-11-23

    A change in the intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) level induced by hypoxia was detected in rat adrenal slices by use of fura-2/AM. After hypoxic stress, an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was observed only in the adrenal medulla. This increase was inhibited by nifedipine, but not modified by the cholinergic receptor blockers. The hypoxia-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was observed in all postnatal developmental stages to a similar extent, whereas the nicotine and high K(+) sensitivities increased along with postnatal development. A 10 nM ryanodine enhanced the hypoxia-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase in adult but not in neonatal rat slices. These results suggest the existence of an oxygen-sensing mechanism in adult rat adrenals even after sympathetic innervation. Hypoxic responses seemed to be similar both in neonate and in adult rat adrenals and were triggered by the influx of Ca(2+) via L-type voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels. However, the sustained [Ca(2+)](i) increase caused by hypoxia might depend on postnatal development and be triggered by Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. Thin-Slice Measurement of Wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao S; Ferrari, Michel; Wang, Qiandong; Woodruff, Earl

    2017-01-01

    Objective Measurement of Wisdom within a short period of time is vital for both the public interest (e.g., understanding a presidential election) and research (e.g., testing factors that facilitate wisdom development). A measurement of emotion associated with wisdom would be especially informative; therefore, a novel Thin-Slice measurement of wisdom was developed based on the Berlin Paradigm. For about 2 min, participants imagined the lens of a camera as the eyes of their friend/teacher whom they advised about a life dilemma. Verbal response and facial expression were both recorded by a camera: verbal responses were then rated on both the Berlin Wisdom criteria and newly developed Chinese wisdom criteria; facial expressions were analyzed by the software iMotion FACET module. Results showed acceptable inter-rater and inter-item reliability for this novel paradigm. Moreover, both wisdom ratings were not significantly correlated with Social desirability, and the Berlin wisdom rating was significantly negatively correlated with Neuroticism; feeling of surprise was significantly positively correlated with both wisdom criteria ratings. Our results provide the first evidence of this Thin-slice Wisdom Paradigm's reliability, its immunity to social desirability, and its validity for assessing candidates' wisdom within a short timeframe. Although still awaiting further development, this novel Paradigm contributes to an emerging Universal Wisdom Paradigm applicable across cultures.

  8. Finite slice analysis (FINA) of sliced and velocity mapped images on a Cartesian grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. O. F.; Amarasinghe, C.; Foley, C. D.; Rombes, N.; Gao, Z.; Vogels, S. N.; van de Meerakker, S. Y. T.; Suits, A. G.

    2017-08-01

    Although time-sliced imaging yields improved signal-to-noise and resolution compared with unsliced velocity mapped ion images, for finite slice widths as encountered in real experiments there is a loss of resolution and recovered intensities for the slow fragments. Recently, we reported a new approach that permits correction of these effects for an arbitrarily sliced distribution of a 3D charged particle cloud. This finite slice analysis (FinA) method utilizes basis functions that model the out-of-plane contribution of a given velocity component to the image for sequential subtraction in a spherical polar coordinate system. However, the original approach suffers from a slow processing time due to the weighting procedure needed to accurately model the out-of-plane projection of an anisotropic angular distribution. To overcome this issue we present a variant of the method in which the FinA approach is performed in a cylindrical coordinate system (Cartesian in the image plane) rather than a spherical polar coordinate system. Dubbed C-FinA, we show how this method is applied in much the same manner. We compare this variant to the polar FinA method and find that the processing time (of a 510 × 510 pixel image) in its most extreme case improves by a factor of 100. We also show that although the resulting velocity resolution is not quite as high as the polar version, this new approach shows superior resolution for fine structure in the differential cross sections. We demonstrate the method on a range of experimental and synthetic data at different effective slice widths.

  9. [Design and accuracy analysis of upper slicing system of MSCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongjian

    2013-05-01

    The upper slicing system is the main components of the optical system in MSCT. This paper focuses on the design of upper slicing system and its accuracy analysis to improve the accuracy of imaging. The error of slice thickness and ray center by bearings, screw and control system were analyzed and tested. In fact, the accumulated error measured is less than 1 microm, absolute error measured is less than 10 microm. Improving the accuracy of the upper slicing system contributes to the appropriate treatment methods and success rate of treatment.

  10. Enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, L

    1978-09-02

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is associated with infection by bovine leucosis virus. The incubation period is measured in years and a minority of infected animals develop clinical signs. The disease is widespread in Europe and elsewhere and can cause significant economic loss. The epidemiology is incompletely understood and findings from one cattle production system may not be directly applicable to another. Major control programmes exist in Denmark and West Germany and control schemes are being developed elsewhere. Eradication of enzootic bovine leucosis has been established as a goal in the EEC and research is revealing the ways in which this goal may be attained. To be effective, control and epidemiological monitoring must be interactive. Recently introduced serological tests, of improved sensitivity, provide a valuable tool.

  11. Liver Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Liver Biopsy What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that involves ... organ, has many important functions. Why is a liver biopsy performed? A health care provider will perform a ...

  12. Liver Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fatty liver disease is the build up of fat in liver cells. It can cause the liver to swell and can lead to cirrhosis. Prevention: Ways to prevent fatty liver disease are: • Eating a healthy diet • Maintaining a healthy weight • Exercising regularly • Limiting the ...

  13. Multiple-slice magnetic resonance imaging can detect visceral adipose tissue reduction more accurately than single-slice imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, R; Sasai, H; Matsuo, T; Tsujimoto, T; Eto, M; Saotome, K; Tanaka, K

    2012-12-01

    Imaging methods by magnetic resonance imaging are being increasingly used to quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but there is no clear consensus as to a standardized protocol. We compared the ability of two commonly used imaging protocols (multiple slice versus single slice) to detect changes in VAT with diet or exercise. We utilized data from the participants who completed our diet (n=22) or exercise (n=35) based weight-loss interventions. The intervention mainly comprised of weekly dietary modification sessions or aerobic exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Multiple-slice images obtained from T9 to S1 and a single-slice image at L4-L5 were compared using the effect size of the VAT change. In addition, we calculated the sample size needed to compare the two imaging protocols' ability to detect significant changes in VAT. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes and areas, and other anthropometry decreased significantly after both the diet and exercise interventions. For VAT, a single-slice image had a lower effect size (diet: 1.23; exercise: 0.49) than the multiple-slice images (diet: 1.81; exercise: 0.90). The sample size required for multiple slice was substantially lower than for the single-slice with both weight-loss interventions. The different image protocols may lead to different results in relative VAT changes. Furthermore, single-slice imaging required a substantially larger sample size than multiple-slice imaging, and for researchers to detect smaller changes in VAT with single-slice imaging, a larger sample size would be needed. Thus, multiple-slice imaging has advantages for assessing VAT change in future clinical research.

  14. Slicing AADL Specifications for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbrett, Maximilian; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To combat the state-space explosion problem in model checking larger systems, abstraction techniques can be employed. Here, methods that operate on the system specification before constructing its state space are preferable to those that try to minimize the resulting transition system as they generally reduce peak memory requirements. We sketch a slicing algorithm for system specifications written in (a variant of) the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). Given a specification and a property to be verified, it automatically removes those parts of the specification that are irrelevant for model checking the property, thus reducing the size of the corresponding transition system. The applicability and effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by analyzing the state-space reduction for an example, employing a translator from AADL to Promela, the input language of the SPIN model checker.

  15. Finite slice analysis (FINA)-A general reconstruction method for velocity mapped and time-sliced ion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J O F; Amarasinghe, C; Foley, C D; Suits, A G

    2017-07-07

    Since the advent of ion imaging, one of the key issues in the field has been creating methods to reconstruct the initial 3D distribution of particles from its 2D projection. This has led to the development of a number of different numerical methods and fitting techniques to solve this fundamental issue in imaging. In recent years, slice-imaging methods have been developed that permit direct recording of the 3D distribution, i.e., a thin slice of the recoiling fragment distribution. However, in practice, most slice imaging experiments achieve a velocity slice width of around 10%-25% around the center of the distribution. This still carries significant out-of-plane elements that can blur the spectrum, lose fine resolution, and underestimate the contribution from slow recoiling products. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new numerical method to remove these out-of-plane elements from a sliced image. The finite sliced analysis method models the off-axis elements of the 3D particle distribution through the use of radial basis functions. Once applied, the method reconstructs the underlying central slice of the 3D particle distribution. The approach may be applied to arbitrarily sliced or unsliced data and has the further advantage that it neither requires nor enforces full cylindrical symmetry of the data. We demonstrate this reconstruction approach with a broad range of synthetic and experimental data that, at the same time, allows us to examine the impact of finite slicing on the recovered distributions in detail.

  16. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  17. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  18. BOVINE CATTLE FED WITH ANDROPOGON AND BRACHIARIA GRASS: HISTOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS OF LIVER AND LYMPH NODES BOVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM CAPIM BRACHIARIA E ANDROPOGON: ALTERAÇÕES HISTOLÓGICAS DO FÍGADO E LINFONODOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Gonçalves de Araújo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous papers report hepatic alterations in ruminants fed with Brachiaria spp. The aim of this study was to verify whether the ingestion of Andropogon gayanus or Brachiaria (B. brizantha and B. decumbens produces microscopic alterations in the liver of cattle. By histological examination was characterized the hepatic injury, and determined the amount and localization of foamy macrophages in the liver and mesenteric and scapular lymphonodes. Those changes were correlated with live weight gains of the animals. Forty bulls divided into two groups of twenty were grazing, from weaning to slaughter, in Brachiaria spp or A. gayanus pastures. In the slaughterhouse, fragments of liver and mesenteric and scapular lymphonodes were collected. Results showed, in both groups, macro and microvacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, mainly in the periacinar region. The animals fed on Brachiaria spp pastures revealed larger quantity of foamy macrophages in the hepatic parenchyma and mesenteric lymphonodes. There was a negative correlation between the number of foamy macrophages in the liver and in mesenteric lymphonodes with the live weight gain, regardless of the type of ingested grass. In the lymph nodes, the highest macrophage concentrations were in the cortical zone, followed by the paracortical zone. The mesenteric lymphonodes showed a higher amount of foam cells than the liver.

    KEY WORDS: Colangiohepatitis, foamy cells, saponins, sporidesmin, tropical grasses.

    Diversos trabalhos relatam a presença de alterações hepáticas em ruminantes alimentados com Brachiaria spp, em casos espontâneos e/ou induzidos de fotossensibilização hepatógena. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o tipo de capim ingerido provoca alteração microscópica no fígado de bovinos. Foi caracterizada a lesão hepática, quantificados e localizados os macrófagos espumosos no fígado e linfonodos e as alterações correlacionadas com o peso dos

  19. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl

    2005-01-01

    at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...

  20. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain...... brain slice culturing for 16 days....

  1. Biocytin staining of glia and neurons in brain slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian

    2014-09-02

    This protocol describes the use of biocytin to visualize and distinguish the morphology of glia and neurons in rat brain slices. Patch pipettes are used to load biocytin into different cell types. The slices are subsequently fixed, stained, and mounted in preparation for imaging. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  4. Discovery and genomic characterization of a novel ovine partetravirus and a new genotype of bovine partetravirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available Partetravirus is a recently described group of animal parvoviruses which include the human partetravirus, bovine partetravirus and porcine partetravirus (previously known as human parvovirus 4, bovine hokovirus and porcine hokovirus respectively. In this report, we describe the discovery and genomic characterization of partetraviruses in bovine and ovine samples from China. These partetraviruses were detected by PCR in 1.8% of bovine liver samples, 66.7% of ovine liver samples and 71.4% of ovine spleen samples. One of the bovine partetraviruses detected in the present samples is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported bovine partetraviruses and likely represents a novel genotype. The ovine partetravirus is a novel partetravirus and phylogenetically most related to the bovine partetraviruses. The genome organization is conserved amongst these viruses, including the presence of a putative transmembrane protein encoded by an overlapping reading frame in ORF2. Results from the present study provide further support to the classification of partetraviruses as a separate genus in Parvovirinae.

  5. Drying studies on peach and strawberry slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbu Clemensis Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments were carried out on peach and strawberry slices using a laboratory scale tray dryer with chamber dimension 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm at temperatures of 50, 60, and 70°C for air flow velocities of 0.18, 0.22, and 0.26 m/s. The experimental data were found to fit well with the Page thin-layer drying model. Transport of water during drying was described by Fick’s second law of diffusion and the diffusion coefficients were 3.99, 5.37, and 7 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for peach and 5.39, 7.41, and 8.59 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for strawberry. Activation energy was determined to be 25.92 kJ/mol for peach and 21.49 kJ/mol for strawberry using Arrhenius-type equation.

  6. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  7. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  8. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  10. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Díaz Ismael Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  11. Slices method to describe ray propagation in inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Gutiérrez, J. F.; Arroyo Carrasco, M. L.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    We describe an alternative method that numerically calculates the trajectory followed by a light ray in rotationally symmetric inhomogeneous media in the paraxial approximation. The medium is divided into thin parallel slices and a radial quadratic refractive index is considered for each slice. The ABCD matrix is calculated in each slice and the trajectory of the ray was obtained. The method is demonstrated considering media with a refractive index distribution used to describe the human eye lens. The results are compared with the exact numerical solution for each particular distribution. In all cases, a good agreement is obtained for the proposed method and the exact numerical solution.

  12. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices

    OpenAIRE

    Workneh, T. S.; Zinash, A.; Woldetsadik, K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. ...

  13. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  14. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Slice Algorithm For Irreducible Decomposition of Monomial Ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    2009-01-01

    Irreducible decomposition of monomial ideals has an increasing number of applications from biology to pure math. This paper presents the Slice Algorithm for computing irreducible decompositions, Alexander duals and socles of monomial ideals. The paper includes experiments showing good performance...

  16. Study of Energy Consumption of Potato Slices During Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafezi Negar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the new methods of food drying using infrared heating under vacuum is to increase the drying rate and maintain the quality of dried product. In this study, potato slices were dried using vacuum-infrared drying. Experiments were performed with the infrared lamp power levels 100, 150 and 200 W, absolute pressure levels 20, 80, 140 and 760 mmHg, and with three thicknesses of slices 1, 2 and 3 mm, in three repetitions. The results showed that the infrared lamp power, absolute pressure and slice thickness have important effects on the drying of potato. With increasing the radiation power, reducing the absolute pressure (acts of vacuum in the dryer chamber and also reducing the thickness of potato slices, drying time and the amount of energy consumed is reduced. In relation to thermal utilization efficiency, results indicated that with increasing the infrared radiation power and decreasing the absolute pressure, thermal efficiency increased.

  17. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar...... and 40 min; 90degreesC for 2 and 9 min); (iii) immersed in citric acid solutions of different concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) for half an hour. Glucose and asparagine concentration was determined in potato slices before frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the resultant fried potato chips....... Glucose content decreased in similar to32% in potato slices soaked 90 min in distilled water. Soaked slices showed on average a reduction of acrylamide formation of 27%, 38% and 20% at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC, respectively, when they were compared against the control. Blanching reduced...

  18. Microfluidics and multielectrode array-compatible organotypic slice culture method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Sabolek, Helen; Levine, John B.; Staley, Kevin J.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    Organotypic brain slice cultures are used for a variety of molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging studies. However, the existing culture methods are difficult or expensive to apply in studies requiring long-term recordings with multielectrode arrays (MEAs). In this work, a novel method to maintain organotypic cultures of rodent hippocampus for several weeks on standard MEAs in an unmodified tissue culture incubator is described. Polydimethylsiloxane (Sylgard) mini-wells were used to stabilize organotypic cultures on glass and MEA surfaces. Hippocampus slices were successfully maintained within PDMS mini-wells for multiple weeks, with preserved pyramidal layer organization, connectivity, and activity. MEAs were used to record the development of spontaneous activity in an organotypic cultures for four weeks. This method is compatible with integration of microchannels into the culture substrate. Microchannels were incorporated into the mini-wells and applied to the guidance of axons originating within the slice, paving the way for studies of axonal sprouting using organotypic slices. PMID:19100768

  19. Multiple-bipolar-tap tunable spectrum sliced microwave photonic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Yi, Xiaoke; Huang, Thomas; Minasian, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    A spectrum sliced microwave photonic signal processor structure, which is all-fiber based and features simplicity, together with the ability to realize tunability, reconfigurability, bipolar taps, and multiple-tap rf filtering, is presented. It is based on thermally controlled optical slicing filters induced into two linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings. Experimental results demonstrate the realization of versatile microwave photonic filters with frequency tunable, reconfiguration, and bipolar-tap generation capabilities.

  20. Generalized Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang-Ren; Jiang, Dazong; Yang, Kevin; Yang, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The cone-beam reconstruction theory has been proposed by Kirillov in 1961, Tuy in 1983, Feldkamp in 1984, Smith in 1985, Pierre Grangeat in 1990. The Fourier slice theorem is proposed by Bracewell 1956, which leads to the Fourier image reconstruction method for parallel-beam geometry. The Fourier slice theorem is extended to fan-beam geometry by Zhao in 1993 and 1995. By combining the above mentioned cone-beam image reconstruction theory and the above mentioned Fourier slice theory of fan-beam geometry, the Fourier slice theorem in cone-beam geometry is proposed by Zhao 1995 in short conference publication. This article offers the details of the derivation and implementation of this Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam geometry. Especially the problem of the reconstruction from Fourier domain has been overcome, which is that the value of in the origin of Fourier space is 0/0. The 0/0 type of limit is proper handled. As examples, the implementation results for the single circle and two perpendicular circle source orbits are shown. In the cone-beam reconstruction if a interpolation process is considered, the number of the calculations for the generalized Fourier slice theorem algorithm is O(N^4), which is close to the filtered back-projection method, here N is the image size of 1-dimension. However the interpolation process can be avoid, in that case the number of the calculations is O(N5).

  1. Slice-timing effects and their correction in functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladky, Ronald; Friston, Karl J.; Tröstl, Jasmin; Cunnington, Ross; Moser, Ewald; Windischberger, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Exact timing is essential for functional MRI data analysis. Datasets are commonly measured using repeated 2D imaging methods, resulting in a temporal offset between slices. To compensate for this timing difference, slice-timing correction (i.e. temporal data interpolation) has been used as an fMRI pre-processing step for more than fifteen years. However, there has been an ongoing debate about the effectiveness and applicability of this method. This paper presents the first elaborated analysis of the impact of the slice-timing effect on simulated data for different fMRI paradigms and measurement parameters, taking into account data noise and smoothing effects. Here we show, depending on repetition time and paradigm design, slice-timing effects can significantly impair fMRI results and slice-timing correction methods can successfully compensate for these effects and therefore increase the robustness of the data analysis. In addition, our results from simulated data were supported by empirical in vivo datasets. Our findings suggest that slice-timing correction should be included in the fMRI pre-processing pipeline. PMID:21757015

  2. An effective dissolve detector using spatio-temporal slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Cheng; Lam, Kin-Man; Tan, Zheng

    2005-07-01

    The detection of edits in a video sequence is the first step in video analysis, which segments a video into its basic components. Spatio-temporal slice analysis is an effective method for video partitioning because it can detect and classify different scene breaks. In a spatio-temporal slice, cut and wipe can be detected successfully based on measuring the changes of the color-texture properties of the slices. Dissolve can be measured by means of the parabolic variance curve (PVC) method. However, the statistical information extracted from the horizontal, vertical, and diagonal slices is not enough to show the PVC features. Thus, Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based dissolve detector was proposed, which extracts features based on the Gabor wavelets from a spatio-temporal slice and then identifies dissolves by means of the SVM-based classifier. However, this method is computationally intensive. In our method, we propose an efficient dissolve detector based on the spatio-temporal slices by using three simple second-order filters. Based on the linear estimation of the successive frames in a video shot, dissolve and static scenes exhibit different patterns in the temporal dimension. By applying the three simple filters, we can identify dissolves with arbitrary lengths accurately. Experiments based on the MPEG-7 standard sequences show encouraging results.

  3. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the Liver Galactosemia Gilbert’s Syndrome Diseases of the Liver Glycogen Storage ... Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the Liver Galactosemia Gilbert’s Syndrome Diseases of the Liver Glycogen Storage ...

  4. Ocorrência de resíduos de dietilestilbestrol e zeranol em fígado de bovinos abatidos no Brasil Occurence of diethylstilbestrol and zeranol residues in liver of bovines slaughtered in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Chaves CARDOSO

    1999-12-01

    hundred and sixteen samples of liver were searched for DES and 385 for zeranol presence by radioimmunoassay (RIA. DES was detected in no samples (p > 0,05 on the other hand zeranol was detected in two (p < 0,05. Zeranol presence was confirmed by gas cromatography-mass spectrometry (p < 0,05. Average recoveries obtained for DES were 62,6% ± 5,7 in the extractive phase (³H-DES and 83,8% ± 16,8 in the extractive phase plus RIA (DES. As to zeranol, average recoveries were 63,0% ± 5,8 in the extractive phase (³H-zeranol and 94,8% ± 13,8 in the extractive phase plus RIA (zeranol. Therefore, it is concluded that Brazilian cattle meat is in accordance with current legislation in regard to DES; it is not, however, in regard to zeranol for it was found in 0,52% of samples.

  5. Enlarged liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spread of cancer to the liver) Congestive heart failure Glycogen storage disease Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatocellular carcinoma Hereditary fructose intolerance Infectious mononucleosis Leukemia Niemann- ...

  6. Mycoflora of sun-dried sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L .) slices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to isolate and quantify the fungi present in sun-dried sweet potato slices in Benin City, Nigeria. Potato tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and sun-dried for 30 days. Oven-dried slices served as control. Meteorological data were obtained for the period of study. Fungal colonies on slices were counted ...

  7. Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Goris, Katherina; Keil, Günther M; Herrler, Georg

    2014-02-18

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the major cause of serious respiratory tract infections in calves. The disease is multifactorial, with either stress or reduced immunity allowing several pathogens to emerge. We investigated the susceptibility of bovine airway epithelial cells (BAEC) to infection by the three major viruses associated with the BRDC: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). For this purpose, two culture systems for well-differentiated BAEC were used: the air-liquid interface (ALI) system, where filter-grown BAEC differentiate into a pseudostratified respiratory epithelium and precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) where BAEC are maintained in the original tissue organisation. Comparative infection studies demonstrated that entry and release of BPIV3 occurred specifically via the apical membrane with ciliated cells being the major target cells. By contrast, airway epithelial cells were largely resistant to infection by BHV-1. When the epithelial barrier was abolished by opening tight junctions or by injuring the cell monolayer, BHV-1 infected mainly basal cells. Respiratory epithelial cells were also refractory to infection by BRSV. However, this virus infected neither differentiated epithelial cells nor basal cells when the integrity of the epithelial barrier was destroyed. In contrast to cells of the airway epithelium, subepithelial cells were susceptible to infection by BRSV. Altogether, these results indicate that the three viruses of the same disease complex follow different strategies to interact with the airway epithelium. Possible entry mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Study on the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in and around Bahir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to liver condemnation at Soddo municipality abattoir. DVM Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary. Medicine, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Asrat M., 2004. Infection prevalence of bovine Fasciolosis in irrigation schemes along the upper. Awash River Basin and effects of strategic anthelmintic treatment in selected up stream.

  9. The bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: A receptor with low affinity for benzodiazepines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parola, A.L.; Laird, H.E. II (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The density of bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) in four tissues was highest in adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex PBR cofractionated with a mitochondrial membrane marker enzyme and could be solubilized with intact ligand binding properties using digitonin. The membrane bound and soluble mitochondrial receptors were pharmacologically characterized and showed the rank order of potency to inhibit ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding was PK 11195 > protoporphyrin IX > benzodiazepines. ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to bovine adrenal mitochondria was unaffected by diethylpyrocarbonate, a histidine residue modifying reagent that decreased binding to rat liver mitochondria by 70%. ({sup 3}H)PK 14105 photolabeled the bovine PBR and the Mr was estimated under nondenaturing and denaturing conditions. These results demonstrate the bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is pharmacologically and biochemically distinct from the rat receptor, but the receptor component photolabeled by an isoquinoline ligand has a similar molecular weight.

  10. Identification, localization, and sequencing of fetal bovine VASA homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Rachel A; Parks, John E

    2007-10-01

    The vasa gene, first described in Drosophila, is purported to be important in germ cell development. Vasa is present across several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, including frogs, fish, chickens, and humans. Vasa, a DEAD (asparagine-glutamine-alanine-asparagine) box protein shown to function as an RNA helicase in vitro, has not been investigated previously in fetal stage cattle. Total RNA was extracted from bovine fetal gonads obtained at 35-55 days, 55-80 days, and 80-120 days of gestation to amplify a 296 bp reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) product using primers for human vasa. The complete coding sequence of bovine vasa was cloned with 5' and 3' random amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) and subsequently identified as bovine vasa homolog (BVH). Northern blot analysis revealed that among the tissues examined (gonad, liver, heart, brain, and femur), the vasa gene was expressed in the gonad. This localization, the conserved pattern of gene expression, and the gene sequence suggests that BVH plays a role in bovine germ cell development as proposed for other mammalian species.

  11. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  12. [Transport of lithium in rat renal cortex slices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, C; Kersten, L; Bräunlich, H

    1983-01-01

    Slices of the renal cortex take up lithium from the incubation medium; this uptake does not follow a saturation kinetics and is demonstrable under aerobic and anaerobic conditions alike. The lithium uptake is associated with a variation of the sodium and potassium content in the slices. These changes are distinguishable from the electrolyte movements caused by the introduction of the slices into the incubation medium. The present findings characterize the lithium uptake into the renal tissue as a passive process. With the in vivo experiments, accumulation of lithium in the renal tissue against the serum should presuppose glomerular filtration and enrichment of lithium in the lumen of the tubuli through processes of urine concentration. In slices of the renal cortex, like in the intact animal the uptake of lithium can be influenced by inhibitors of the renal electrolyte movement. The present findings have provided evidence that lithium enters the tubular cells passively, and that slices of the renal cortex are suited for testing substances acting on the renal handling of lithium.

  13. Liver actinomycosis mimicking liver tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćulafić Đorđe M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The liver actinomycosis is a rare disease associated with complex differentiation from the liver metastases or hepatocellular carcinoma. Case report. A 50-year old immunocompetent female patient was admitted to the Surgical Department in an exhausted condition, with dyspnea, significant weight loss and intermittent fever in the recent two months. Diagnostic procedures that followed, including abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography led us to the diagnosis of metastatic liver disease of unknown etiology with pleural and pericardial effusion. Intraoperatively, the presence of liver pseudotumor without malignancy in the liver was confirmed. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of liver actinomycosis. Prolonged treatment with high dose penicillin was performed and all signs and symptoms resolved completely without further problems. The control abdominal ultrasound finding was normal. Conclusion. Liver actinomycosis has a nonspecific presentation, often mimicking liver tumor. A timely diagnosis as well as a combined surgical and antibiotic therapy is necessary in the treatment of patients with primary disease and prevention of complications.

  14. Drying kinetics and colour change of lemon slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Hosain; Khoshtaghaza, Mohammad H.; Minaei, Saeid

    2014-03-01

    The effect of microwave-convective heating on drying characteristics and colour change of lemon slices was investigated. The drying experiments were carried out at 180, 360, 540 and 720Wand at 22°C, with air velocity of 1ms-1. The values of effective moisture diffusivity were found to be in the range between 1.87 10-8 and 3.95 10-8 m2 s-1, and the activation energy was estimated to be 10.91 Wg-1. The drying data were fitted with ten mathematical models available in the literature. The model describing drying kinetics of lemon slices in the best way was found. The colour change of the dried lemon slices was analysed and considered as a quality index affecting the drying quality of the product. The values of lightness/darkness, yellowness/blueness and hue angle increased, while the value of redness/greenness decreased with increasing microwave power.

  15. Stimulation of Ethylene Production in Apple Tissue Slices by Methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Morris; Kunishi, Alice; Mapson, L. W.; Wardale, D. A.

    1966-01-01

    Methionine can induce more than a 100% increase in ethylene production by apple tissue slices. The increased amount of ethylene derives from carbons 3 and 4 of methionine. Only post-climacteric fruit tissues are stimulated by methionine, and stimulation is optimum after 8 months' storage. Copper chelators such as sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate and cuprizone very markedly inhibit ethylene production by tissue slices. Carbon monoxide does not effect ethylene production by the slices. These data suggest that the mechanism for the conversion of methionine to ethylene, in apple tissues, is similar to the previously described model system for producing ethylene from methionine and reduced copper. Therefore, it is suggested that one of the ethylene-forming systems in tissues derives from methionine and proceeds to ethylene via a copper enzyme system which may be a peroxidase. PMID:16656267

  16. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  17. Efeito de níveis crescentes de levedura de álcool em rações contendo fígado bovino sobre a performance de larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Effect of crescent levels of yeast of alcohol used in rations containing bovine liver on larvae of (Rhamdia quelen performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamari Piaia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de levedura sobre o desempenho inicial de larvas de Rhamdia quelen durante as trêss primeiras semanas de vida. Um total de 3000 larvas foram distribuídas em quinze grupos, em um sistema de criação com reutilização de água, termoregulada. Utilizou-se cinco tratamentos com níveis crescentes de levedura (T1 - 50%, T2 - 60%, T3 - 70%, T4 - 80% e T5 - 90% em substituição ao fígado bovino fresco. Os níveis de proteína bruta (PB e energia digestível variaram de 41,36 a 26,56% de PB e 3197 a 2789kcal ED/kg. A granulometria dos alimentos testados foi de 100 a 200mi, 200 a 400mi e 400 a 600mi para as três semanas experimentais, respectivamente. O alimento foi fornecido a vontade entre 8 e 20 horas. Dentro dos limites de proteína estudados houve efeito positivo de níveis mais elevados de PB sobre os comprimentos total e padrão e peso individual. Porém houve um efeito negativo sobre a sobrevivência das larvas de jundiá Rhamdia quelen.The present study was developed with the purpose of evaluating the effects of different protein levels in initial performance of Rhamdia quelen larvae during the first three weeks of life. The sample contained 3000 larvae distributed in fifteen groups, maintained in controlled conditions of culture and utilizing termoregulatory water re-use system. Five crescent levels of yeast (T1 50%, T2 60%, T3 70%, T4 80% and T5 90% were used in rations in substituition of bovine liver. Levels of crude protein and digestible energy varied 41,36% to 26,56% CP and from 3197 to 2789 kcal ED/kg. The granulometry of tested food was of 100 a 200mu, 200 a 400mu and 400 a 600mu for three experimental weeks respectively. Food distribution provided at ease between 8 Am and 8 Pm. Within the net protein used in this research, there was found a positive effect for the highest protein levels for total, standard lenght and individual weight

  18. Fast parallel algorithm for slicing STL based on pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xulong; Lin, Feng; Yao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In Additive Manufacturing field, the current researches of data processing mainly focus on a slicing process of large STL files or complicated CAD models. To improve the efficiency and reduce the slicing time, a parallel algorithm has great advantages. However, traditional algorithms can't make full use of multi-core CPU hardware resources. In the paper, a fast parallel algorithm is presented to speed up data processing. A pipeline mode is adopted to design the parallel algorithm. And the complexity of the pipeline algorithm is analyzed theoretically. To evaluate the performance of the new algorithm, effects of threads number and layers number are investigated by a serial of experiments. The experimental results show that the threads number and layers number are two remarkable factors to the speedup ratio. The tendency of speedup versus threads number reveals a positive relationship which greatly agrees with the Amdahl's law, and the tendency of speedup versus layers number also keeps a positive relationship agreeing with Gustafson's law. The new algorithm uses topological information to compute contours with a parallel method of speedup. Another parallel algorithm based on data parallel is used in experiments to show that pipeline parallel mode is more efficient. A case study at last shows a suspending performance of the new parallel algorithm. Compared with the serial slicing algorithm, the new pipeline parallel algorithm can make full use of the multi-core CPU hardware, accelerate the slicing process, and compared with the data parallel slicing algorithm, the new slicing algorithm in this paper adopts a pipeline parallel model, and a much higher speedup ratio and efficiency is achieved.

  19. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  20. Novel culturing platform for brain slices and neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel culturing system for brain slices and neuronal cells, which can control the concentration of nutrients and the waste removal from the culture by adjusting the fluid flow within the device. The entire system can be placed in an incubator. The system has been te...... tested successfully with brain slices and PC12 cells. The culture substrate can be modified using metal electrodes and/or nanostructures for conducting electrical measurements while culturing and for better mimicking the in vivo conditions....

  1. Verification of Software Product Lines with Delta-Oriented Slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Daniel; Klebanov, Vladimir; Schaefer, Ina

    Software product line (SPL) engineering is a well-known approach to develop industry-size adaptable software systems. SPL are often used in domains where high-quality software is desirable; the overwhelming product diversity, however, remains a challenge for assuring correctness. In this paper, we present delta-oriented slicing, an approach to reduce the deductive verification effort across an SPL where individual products are Java programs and their relations are described by deltas. On the specification side, we extend the delta language to deal with formal specifications. On the verification side, we combine proof slicing and similarity-guided proof reuse to ease the verification process.

  2. Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two main types: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) Alcoholic fatty liver disease, also called alcoholic steatohepatitis What is nonalcoholic ... lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer. What is alcoholic fatty liver disease? Alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to ...

  3. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  4. Acute Liver Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute liver failure Overview Acute liver failure is loss of liver function that occurs rapidly — in days or weeks — usually in a person who has no pre-existing liver disease. Acute liver failure is less common than ...

  5. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  6. Prevalence of liver condemnation due to bovine fasciolosis in Southern Espírito Santo: temporal distribution and economic losses Prevalência de condenação de fígados bovinos por fasciolose no Sul do Espírito Santo: distribuição temporal e perdas econômicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia das Chagas Bernardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the economic losses and temporal distribution of the prevalence of liver condemnation due to bovine fasciolosis. The abattoir in Atílio Vivácqua, in the South of the State of Espírito Santo, which is under state inspection by the veterinary service of the Livestock and Forest Protection Institute of Espírito Santo, was used as the data source. The prevalence of liver condemnation due to fasciolosis over the period 2006-2009 was calculated. The χ2 test, simple linear regression analysis and χ2 for trend were used, with a significance level of p O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as perdas econômicas e a distribuição temporal da prevalência de condenação de fígados bovinos devido a fasciolose. O matadouro frigorífico de Atílio Vivácqua, no sul do Estado do Espírito Santo, com inspeção estadual, realizada por médico veterinário vinculado ao Instituto de Defesa Agropecuária e Florestal do Espírito Santo, foi utilizado como fonte de dados. A prevalência de condenação de fígados por fasciolose no período de 2006-2009 foi calculada. O teste do χ2, a análise de regressão linear simples e o χ2 para tendência foram utilizados, considerando-se o nível de significância p < 0,05. No período analisado foram abatidos 110.956 bovinos, observando-se prevalências de condenação de fígados por Fasciola hepatica, de 15,24% em 2006, 23,93% em 2007, 28,57% em 2008 e de 28,24% em 2009. A tendência histórica da condenação de fígados é crescente, indicando que este parasitismo estabeleceu-se no rebanho como um problema na região com prevalência similar a de regiões tradicionalmente endêmicas. As condenações ocorreram o ano todo com maior prevalência nos meses de abril e maio e com diferenças significativas entre os períodos seco e chuvoso. As perdas econômicas devido a condenação de fígados podem ser consideradas altas.

  7. Liver Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... GGT) – another enzyme found mainly in liver cells Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) – an enzyme released with cell damage; found ...

  8. Imaging skeletal anatomy of injured cervical spine specimens: comparison of single-slice vs multi-slice helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenauer, S.; Alamo, L.; Herold, T.; Funke, M.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E. [Department of Radiology, Georg August-University Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Our objective was to compare a single-slice CT (SS-CT) scanner with a multi-slice CT (MS-CT) scanner in the depiction of osseous anatomic structures and fractures of the upper cervical spine. Two cervical spine specimens with artificial trauma were scanned with a SS-CT scanner (HighSpeed, CT/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various collimations (1, 3, 5 mm) and pitch factors (1, 1.5, 2, 3) and a four-slice helical CT scanner (LightSpeed, QX/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various table speeds ranging from 3.75 to 15 mm/rotation for a pitch of 0.75 and from 7.5 to 30 mm/rotation for a pitch of 1.5. Images were reconstructed with an interval of 1 mm. Sagittal and coronal multiplanar reconstructions of the primary and reconstructed data set were performed. For MS-CT a tube current resulting in equivalent image noise as with SS-CT was used. All images were judged by two observers using a 4-point scale. The best image quality for SS-CT was achieved with the smallest slice thickness (1 mm) and a pitch smaller than 2 resulting in a table speed of up to 2 mm per gantry rotation (4 points). A reduction of the slice thickness rather than of the table speed proved to be beneficial at MS-CT. Therefore, the optimal scan protocol in MS-CT included a slice thickness of 1.25 mm with a table speed of 7.5 mm/360 using a pitch of 1.5 (4 points), resulting in a faster scan time than when a pitch of 0.75 (4 points) was used. This study indicates that MS-CT could provide equivalent image quality at approximately four times the volume coverage speed of SS-CT. (orig.)

  9. Auxiliary Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Naresh P; Al-Lawati, Tawfiq; Kelgeri, Chaya; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation is a technique where part of diseased native liver is removed and replaced with healthy donor liver so that, the left behind native liver could later regenerate. 2 year 6 month old girl with acute liver failure due to Hepatitis A. She underwent a successful auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation. Successful native liver regeneration and immunosuppression withdrawal after two and half years of surgery. In selective cases of acute liver failure, auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation could provide a chance for native liver regeneration and immunosuppression-free life.

  10. Liver histopathology in bovine Fascioliasis | Okoye | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 33 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if ...

  11. Colour behaviour on mango ( Mangifera indica ) slices self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the syrup composition on behaviour colour of self stabilized mango slices in glass jars by hurdle technology during 180 days of storage was studied through 26-2 fractional factorial design. L* (lightness), a* (redness and greenness), and b* (yellowness and blueness) values were measured with a colorimeter ...

  12. Hexose transport by brain slices: further studies on energy dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle-Lillegard, J.; Gold, B.I.

    1983-04-01

    We studied the uptake of (/sup 3/H)2-deoxyglucose ((/sup 3/H)2DG) by slices of rat cerebral cortex in vitro as a model of glucose transport by brain. Slices were incubated with (/sup 3/H)2DG, or with L-(/sup 3/H)glucose as a marker for diffusion; the difference between (/sup 3/H)2DG uptake and L-(/sup 3/H)glucose uptake was defined as net (/sup 3/H)2DG transport. Net (/sup 3/H)2DG transport was a function of incubation temperature, with an estimated temperature coefficient of 1.87 from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C. The net uptake of (/sup 3/H)2DG was not inhibited by phlorizin or phloretin in concentrations well above the reported Ki of these inhibitors for hexose uptake in other systems. To examine the hypothesis that (/sup 3/H)2DG transport by brain slices is dependent on mitochondrial energy, we studied net (/sup 3/H)2DG uptake by slices which had been preincubated in media designed to alter intracellular ATP stores. The transport process was very sensitive to inhibition by DNP, but the correlation between (/sup 3/H)2DG transport and ATP levels was unclear. In contrast to our published hypothesis that the transport process required mitochondrial energy, these data indicate that dependence on energy is not absolute.

  13. Development of frozen-fried yam slices: Optimization of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The industrial process of production of frozen French fries traditionally includes a pre-frying step. ... An adiabatic system was also developed by means of an insulator in which the core temperature of fried yam slices can be maintained constant at about 55°C after 15min of cooling, facilitating texture measurements at ...

  14. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  15. Vitrification of in vitro-produced bovine embryos matured inmodified TCM-199 medium

    OpenAIRE

    SANDAL, ASİYE İZEM; ÖZDAŞ, Özen Banu

    2015-01-01

    In vitro-produced bovine embryos matured in modified Tissue Culture Medium 199 (TCM-199) were vitrified at the 7th and 8th days of culture, and development at 48 h after warming was recorded. Ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir, and the oocytes were recovered by slicing method and divided into two main groups. The first group included cysteamine in the TCM-199 (Group A) and the second did not (Group B). They were incubated for 24 h at 38.8 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in humidified a...

  16. Fan beam image reconstruction with generalized Fourier slice theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    For parallel beam geometry the Fourier reconstruction works via the Fourier slice theorem (or central slice theorem, projection slice theorem). For fan beam situation, Fourier slice can be extended to a generalized Fourier slice theorem (GFST) for fan-beam image reconstruction. We have briefly introduced this method in a conference. This paper reintroduces the GFST method for fan beam geometry in details. The GFST method can be described as following: the Fourier plane is filled by adding up the contributions from all fanbeam projections individually; thereby the values in the Fourier plane are directly calculated for Cartesian coordinates such avoiding the interpolation from polar to Cartesian coordinates in the Fourier domain; inverse fast Fourier transform is applied to the image in Fourier plane and leads to a reconstructed image in spacial domain. The reconstructed image is compared between the result of the GFST method and the result from the filtered backprojection (FBP) method. The major differences of the GFST and the FBP methods are: (1) The interpolation process are at different data sets. The interpolation of the GFST method is at projection data. The interpolation of the FBP method is at filtered projection data. (2) The filtering process are done in different places. The filtering process of the GFST is at Fourier domain. The filtering process of the FBP method is the ramp filter which is done at projections. The resolution of ramp filter is variable with different location but the filter in the Fourier domain lead to resolution invariable with location. One advantage of the GFST method over the FBP method is in short scan situation, an exact solution can be obtained with the GFST method, but it can not be obtained with the FBP method. The calculation of both the GFST and the FBP methods are at O(N^3), where N is the number of pixel in one dimension.

  17. Systematic analysis of gene expression changes due to chilling injury in precision-cut liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, Na; Blomsma, Sylvia; Fahy, Gregory M.; Groothuis, Genoveva; de Graaf, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Chilling injury is one of the limiting steps for successful vitrification of cells, organs and tissue. Chilling injury is known to be caused by the decrease of temperature per se. Although some research has been done to study chilling injury in cryopreserved oocytes and sperm cells amongst others,

  18. Liver transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mies

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation has always fascinated humanity, this fact issupported by historical reports of ancient civilizations. The firstliver transplant was performed in 1955, in experimental animals.Human liver transplant was first attempted by Thomas Starzl in1963, but was unsuccessful. Latter, in 1967, the same groupdescribed the first successful human ortotopic liver transplant inhistory. Many facts contributed for the triumph of this procedureand among them we can point out the improvements of surgicaltechniques, the development of preservation solutions, discoveryof better antibiotics, appearance of the concept of intensive careunit and the most important mark in transplant survival –cyclosporine as a new immunossuppression agent. In Brazil, thefirst human liver transplant with prolonged survival was in 1985and was fulfilled by the Liver Unit. This same team was latterresponsible for the world’s first description of living donor livertransplantation. Brazilian’s legislation has improved in order touse wisely the resources related to transplant programs and thisincludes the grafts that are so scarce for the demand of patientson our waiting lists. Another great necessity is to create aeducational effort aimed to general population and medical socialgroup to instruct and show the importance of organ donation, butall these efforts will be usefulness if public health policies fail toput in practice actions that will improve the organization andrationalization of equipment and human resources in emergencymedical centers.

  19. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  20. Organotypic slice cultures containing the preBötzinger complex generate respiratory-like rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Wiktor S; Herly, Mikkel; Del Negro, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Acute brainstem slice preparations in vitro have advanced understanding of the cellular and synaptic mechanisms of respiratory rhythm generation, but their inherent limitations preclude long-term manipulation and recording experiments. Here, we developed an organotypic slice culture preparation...

  1. Effect of simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration on quality characteristics of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of various processing parameters on carrot slices exposed to infrared (IR) radiation heating for achieving simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD). The investigated parameters were product surface temperature, slice thickness and processing ti...

  2. Metabolism of 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) Atropisomers in Tissue Slices from Phenobarbital or Dexamethasone-Induced Rats is Sex-Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Dammanahalli, Karigowda J.; Duffel, Michael; Lein, Pamela J.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as PCB 136 enantioselectively sensitize the ryanodine receptor (RyR). In light of recent evidence that PCBs cause developmental neurotoxicity via RyR-dependent mechanisms, this suggests that enantioselective PCB metabolism may influence the developmental neurotoxicity of chiral PCBs. However, enantioselective disposition of PCBs has not been fully characterized.The effect of sex and cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme induction on the enantioselective metabolism of PCB 136 was studied using liver tissue slices prepared from naïve control (CTL), phenobarbital (PB; CYP2B inducer) or dexamethasone (DEX; CYP3A inducer) pretreated adult Sprague-Dawley rats. PCB 136 metabolism was also examined in hippocampal slices derived from untreated rat pups.In liver tissue slices, hydroxylated PCB (OH-PCB) profiles depended on sex and inducer pretreatment, and OH-PCB levels followed the rank orders male > female and PB > DEX > CTL. In contrast, the enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 136 and its metabolites was independent of sex and inducer pretreatment. Only small amounts of PCB 136 partitioned into hippocampal tissue slices and no OH-PCB metabolites were detected.Our results suggest that enantioselective metabolism, sex and induction status of P450 enzymes in the liver may modulate the neurotoxic outcomes of developmental exposure to chiral PCBs. PMID:23581876

  3. Coculture system with an organotypic brain slice and 3D spheroid of carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Han-Ning; Lohaus, Raphaela; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Binder, Claudia; Dehghani, Faramarz; Pukrop, Tobias

    2013-10-09

    Patients with cerebral metastasis of carcinomas have a poor prognosis. However, the process at the metastatic site has barely been investigated, in particular the role of the resident (stromal) cells. Studies in primary carcinomas demonstrate the influence of the microenvironment on metastasis, even on prognosis(1,2). Especially the tumor associated macrophages (TAM) support migration, invasion and proliferation(3). Interestingly, the major target sites of metastasis possess tissue-specific macrophages, such as Kupffer cells in the liver or microglia in the CNS. Moreover, the metastatic sites also possess other tissue-specific cells, like astrocytes. Recently, astrocytes were demonstrated to foster proliferation and persistence of cancer cells(4,5). Therefore, functions of these tissue-specific cell types seem to be very important in the process of brain metastasis(6,7). Despite these observations, however, up to now there is no suitable in vivo/in vitro model available to directly visualize glial reactions during cerebral metastasis formation, in particular by bright field microscopy. Recent in vivo live imaging of carcinoma cells demonstrated their cerebral colonization behavior(8). However, this method is very laborious, costly and technically complex. In addition, these kinds of animal experiments are restricted to small series and come with a substantial stress for the animals (by implantation of the glass plate, injection of tumor cells, repetitive anaesthesia and long-term fixation). Furthermore, in vivo imaging is thus far limited to the visualization of the carcinoma cells, whereas interactions with resident cells have not yet been illustrated. Finally, investigations of human carcinoma cells within immunocompetent animals are impossible(8). For these reasons, we established a coculture system consisting of an organotypic mouse brain slice and epithelial cells embedded in matrigel (3D cell sphere). The 3D carcinoma cell spheres were placed directly next to

  4. Liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller, Ramon; Gao, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption causes a wide spectrum of liver disease, ranging from simple steatosis to severe forms of liver injury such as steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Moreover, alcohol consumption also accelerates liver fibrosis in patients with other types of liver diseases such as viral hepatitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Virtually all clinical complications of alcoholic liver disease occur in patients with established fibrosis and cirrhosis, thus making fibrosis a key parameter for treatment and prognosis of patients. Here, the authors review diagnosis, management, and antifibrotic therapy of alcoholic liver fibrosis. They discuss both the unique features of alcoholic liver fibrosis and the similarities to liver fibrosis from other etiologies, and review molecular pathogenesis and animal models. Finally, future directions for basic and clinical research on alcoholic liver fibrosis are proposed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Ethanol induces MAP2 changes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    1998-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific protein (NeuN) immunostains were used to demonstrate neurotoxic effects in mature hippocampal slice cultures exposed to ethanol (50, 100, 200 mM) for 4 weeks. At the low dose the density of MAP2 immunostaining in the dentate molecular...... layer was 118% of the control cultures, with no detectable changes in CA1 and CA3. At 100 mM no changes were detected, while 200 mM ethanol significantly reduced the MAP2 density in both dentate (19%) and hippocampal dendritic fields (CA3, 52%; CA1, 55%). At this dose NeuN staining showed considerable...... loss of CA3 pyramidal cells and moderate loss of dentate granule cells, as seen in vivo. The results indicate that brain slice cultures combined with immunostaining for cytoskeleton and neuronal markers can be used for studies of ethanol and organic solvent neurotoxicity....

  6. [Grades evaluation of Scutellariae Radix slices based on quality constant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhe; Zhang, Jun; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Zhong, Wen; Cui, Wen-Jin; Cheng, Jin-Tang; Chen, Sha; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Liu, An

    2017-05-01

    By measuring the morphological indexes and the marker components content of 22 batches of Scutellariae Radix slices as well as calculating the quality constant, this research was aimed to establish a new method of evaluating the specifications and grades of Scutellariae Radix slices. The quality constants of these samples were in the range of 0.04-0.49, which can be divided into several grades based on the real requirement. If they were divided into three grades, the quality constant was ≥0.39 for the first grade, grade, and grade. This work indicated that the quality constants characterizing both apparent parameters and intrinsic quality can be used as a comprehensive evaluation index to classify the grades of traditional Chinese medicine quantitatively, clearly and objectively. The research results in this paper would provide new ideas and references for evaluating the specifications and grades of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  8. Trimethyltin (TMT) neurotoxicity in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Gramsbergen, J B; Fonnum, F

    1998-01-01

    to in vivo cell stain observations of rats acutely exposed to TMT. The mean PI uptake of the cultures and the LDH efflux into the medium were highly correlated. The combined results obtained by the different markers indicate that the hippocampal slice culture method is a feasible model for further studies......The neurotoxic effects of trimethyltin (TMT) on the hippocampus have been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, we examined whether the toxicity of TMT to hippocampal neurons could be reproduced in organotypic brain slice cultures in order to test the potential of this model...... for neurotoxicological studies, including further studies of neurotoxic mechanisms of TMT. Four-week-old cultures, derived from 7-day-old donor rats and grown in serum-free medium, were exposed to TMT (0.5-100 microM) for 24 h followed by 24 h in normal medium. TMT-induced neurodegeneration was then monitored by (a...

  9. Benchmark test of accelerated multi-slice simulation by GPGPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Shinkawa, Takao; Arai, Yoshihiro; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2015-11-01

    A fast multi-slice image simulation by parallelized computation using a graphics processing unit (GPU) has been developed. The image simulation contains multiple sets of computing steps, such as Fourier transform and pixel-to-pixel operation. The efficiency of GPU varies depending on the type of calculation. In the effective case of utilizing GPU, the calculation speed is conducted hundreds of times faster than a central processing unit (CPU). The benchmark test of parallelized multi-slice was performed, and the results of contents, such as TEM imaging, STEM imaging and CBD calculation are reported. Some features of the simulation software are also introduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A through E and beyond. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/viralhepatitis/index.aspx. Accessed March 25, 2014. July 15, 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/liver- ...

  11. Amoebic liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Diagnostic Radiology. Medical University of Southern Africa. Introduction. The complications of amoebic liver abscess can be due to intravesica] rupture into the gallbladder, rupture into the pericardium which is rare and almost always fatal, or rupture into the peritoneum or duodenum with for- mation of ...

  12. Liver fibrosis markers in alcoholic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chrostek, Lech; Panasiuk, Anatol

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the main factors of liver damage. The evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is of great value for therapeutic decision making in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Staging of liver fibrosis is essential to define prognosis and management of the disease. Liver biopsy is a gold standard as it has high sensitivity and specificity in fibrosis diagnostics. Taking into account the limitations of liver biopsy, there is an exigency to introduce non-invasive serum mark...

  13. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Liver Transplant: Nutrition for Veterans and the Public Nutrition Liver Transplant Patients with liver disease have to ... liver functioning and to maintain their overall health. Nutrition recommendations are customized for individual patients, both pre- ...

  14. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  15. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  16. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Porto, Isabel M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FOP/UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia; Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Rieirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia; Costa, Fanny N. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10{sup -1}0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  17. Drying of carrots in slices with osmotic dehydration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-23

    Jul 23, 2014 ... The experiment of pre-osmotic dehydration of carrot slices in two temperature levels with complementary drying in heat with air circulation at 70°C was used. The best results were obtained with the solution OD1 at 60°C with immersion time of 60 min. The osmotic pre-treatment reduced the initial humidity of ...

  18. Dried fruit breadfruit slices by Refractive Window™ technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Tirado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of products are dried due several reasons as preservation, weight reduction and improvement of stability. However, on the market are not offered low-cost and high quality products simultaneously. Although there are effective methods of dehydrating foods such as freeze drying, which preserves the flavor, color and vitamins, they are poor accessibility technologies. Therefore, alternative processes are required to be efficient and economical. The aim of this research was compare drying kinetics of sliced of breadfruit (Artocarpus communis using the technique of Refractive Window® (VR with the tray drying. To carry out this study, sliced of 1 and 2 mm thick were used. Refractive window drying was performed with the water bath temperature to 92 °C; and tray drying at 62 °C and an air velocity of 0.52 m/s. During the Refractive window drying technique, the moisture content reached the lower than tray drying levels. Similarly it happened with samples of 1 mm, which, having a smaller diameter reached lower moisture levels than samples 2 mm. The higher diffusivities were obtained during drying sliced VR 1 and 2 mm with coefficients of 6.13 and 3.90*10-9 m2/s respectively.

  19. Modeling of drying kiwi slices and its sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoorian, Abbas; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Fayyaz, Nasrin; Rahmati, Fatemeh; Sayyadi, Shabnam; Ariaii, Peiman

    2017-05-01

    In this study, monolayer drying of kiwi slices was simulated by a laboratory-scale hot-air dryer. The drying process was carried out at three different temperatures of 50, 60, and 70°C. After the end of drying process, initially, the experimental drying data were fitted to the 11 well-known drying models. The results indicated that Two-term model gave better performance compared with other models to monitor the moisture ratio (with average R(2) value equal .998). Also, this study used artificial neural network (ANN) in order to feasibly predict dried kiwi slices moisture ratio (y), based on the time and temperature drying inputs (x1, x2). In order to do this research, two main activation functions called logsig and tanh, widely used in engineering calculations, were applied. The results revealed that, logsig activation function base on 13 neurons in first and second hidden layers were selected as the best configuration to predict the moisture ratio. This network was able to predict moisture ratio with R(2) value .997. Furthermore, kiwi slice favorite is evaluated by sensory evaluation. In this test, sense qualities as color, aroma, flavor, appearance, and chew ability (tissue brittleness) are considered.

  20. Drug-induced and postnatal hypothyroidism impairs the accumulation of diacylglycerol in liver and liver cell plasma membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavok Nataliya S

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormones are well known modulators of signal transduction. The effect of hyper- and hypo-thyroidism on diacylglycerol/protein kinase C (DAG/PKC signaling in cardiomiocytes has been determined. Triiodothyronine (T3 has been shown to prevent the α1-adrenoreceptor-mediated activation of PKC but does not alter the stimulation of enzyme and hepatic metabolism by phorbol ethers. It has been suggested that the elevation of endogenous DAG in senescent or hypothyroid cells changes the PKC-dependent response of cells to phorbol esters and hormones. In the present study, was examined the formation of DAG and activation of PKC in liver cells from rats of different thyroid status. Results The results obtained provide the first demonstration of DAG accumulation in liver and cell plasma membranes at age- and drug-dependent thyroid gland malfunction. The experiments were performed in either the [14C]CH3COOH-labeled rat liver, liver slices or hepatocytes labeled by [14C] oleic acid and [3H]arachidonic acid or [14C]palmitic acid as well as in the isolated liver cell plasma membranes of 90- and 720-day-old rats of different thyroid status. The decrease of T4 and T3 levels in blood serum of 720-day-old rats and mercazolil-treated animals was associated with increases of both the DAG mass in liver and liver cell plasma membranes and newly synthesized [14C]DAG level in liver and isolated hepatocytes. Hypothyroidism decreased PKC activity in both membrane and cytosol as well as phospholipid and triacylglycerol synthesis in liver. These hypothyroidism effects were restored in liver by injection of T4. T4 administration to the intact animals of different ages decreased the DAG level in liver and isolated plasma membranes and the content of newly synthesized DAG in liver. The reduction of DAG level in liver was not associated with increasing free fatty acid level. DAG labeling ratio 14C/3H in liver slices of rats of different thyroid state

  1. Correlation between Abdominal Fat Amount and Fatty Liver, using Liver to Kidney Echo Ratio on Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yanhg Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Lee, Jong Mee; Choi, Jae Woong; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    It has been generally recognized that fatty liver can often be seen in the obese population. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between fatty liver and abdominal fat volume. A total of 105 patients who visited our obesity clinic in the recent three years underwent fat CT scans and abdominal US. Attenuation difference between liver and spleen on CT was considered as a reference standard for the diagnosis of fatty liver. On US, the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma was measured in three different regions of interest (ROI) close to the adjacent right kidney in the same slice, avoiding vessels, bile duct, and calcification. Similar measurements were performed in the right renal cortex. The mean values were calculated automatically on the histogram of the ROI using the PACS program. The hepatorenal echogenicity ratio (HER; mean hepatic echogenicity/ mean renal echogenicity) was then calculated. Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan at the L4/5 level and was calculated automatically using a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified according to total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used Pearson's bivariate correlation method for assessment of the correlation between HER and TF, VF, and SF, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between HER and abdominal fat (TF, VF, and SF). HER showed significant correlation with VF and TF (r = 0.491 and 0.402, respectively; p = 0.000). The correlation between HER and SF (r = 0.255, p = 0.009) was less significant than for VF or TF. Fat measurement (HER) by hepatic ultrasound correlated well with the amount of abdominal fat. In particular, the VF was found to show a stronger association with fatty liver than SF.

  2. 25 Ways to Love Your Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ...

  3. Constitutive androstane receptor (Car)-driven regeneration protects liver from failure following tissue loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschuor, Christoph; Kachaylo, Ekaterina; Limani, Përparim; Raptis, Dimitri A; Linecker, Michael; Tian, Yinghua; Herrmann, Uli; Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Weber, Achim; Columbano, Amedeo; Graf, Rolf; Humar, Bostjan; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2016-07-01

    Liver can recover following resection. If tissue loss is too excessive, however, liver failure will develop as is known from the small-for-size-syndrome (SFSS). The molecular processes underlying liver failure are ill-understood. Here, we explored the role and the clinical potential of Nr1i3 (constitutive androstane receptor, Car) in liver failure following hepatectomy. Activators of Car, various hepatectomies, Car(-/-) mice, humanized CAR mice, human tissue and ex vivo liver slice cultures were used to study Car in the SFSS. Pathways downstream of Car were investigated by in vivo siRNA knockdown. Excessive tissue loss causing liver failure is associated with deficient induction of Car. Reactivation of Car by an agonist normalizes all features associated with experimental SFSS. The beneficial effects of Car activation are relayed through Foxm1, an essential promoter of the hepatocyte cell cycle. Deficiency in the CAR-FOXM1 axis likewise is evident in human SFSS. Activation of human CAR mitigates SFSS in humanized CAR mice and improves the culture of human liver slices. Impaired hepatic Car-Foxm1 signaling provides a first molecular characterization of liver that fails to recover after tissue loss. Our findings place deficient regeneration as a principal cause behind the SFSS and suggest CAR agonists may bear clinical potential against liver failure. The unique regenerative capacity of liver has its natural limits. Following tissue loss that is too excessive, such as through extended resection in the clinic, liver failure may develop. This is known as small-for-size-syndrome (SFSS) and represents the most frequent cause of death due to liver surgery. Here we show that deficient induction of the protein Car, a central regulator of liver function and growth, is a cause of liver failure following extended resection; reactivation of Car through pharmacological means is sufficient to prevent or rescue the SFSS. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the

  4. Transcriptional profiling of the bovine hepatic response to experimentally induced E. coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Buitenhuis, Bart; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian liver works to keep the body in a state of homeostasis and plays an important role in systemic acute phase response to infections. In this study we investigated the bovine hepatic acute phase response at the gene transcription level in dairy cows with experimentally E. coli-induced ...

  5. Protein synthesis as a function of depth in slices of rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G W; Shashoua, V E

    1990-02-05

    Physiologically viable slices of rat hippocampus were incubated in radiolabeled valine, then cut into 20 microns serial sections to evaluate the profile of protein synthesis through the depth of the slice. Maximum radiolabel incorporation was observed near the center of the slice, while at the upper (gas interface) and lower (liquid interface) surfaces radiolabel incorporation per section was reduced by about 30% and 90%, respectively. The results suggest that in properly slices damage due to slicing may be less important to cell viability than are limits on oxygen diffusion into the tissue.

  6. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  7. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general

  8. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-14

    A cattle dashboard has recently been developed to share surveillance information gathered from submissions to the Great Britain veterinary diagnostic network. Data relating to Scotland come from the SAC C VS. This article, by Tim Geraghty, relates to cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland, as summarised on the APHA Cattle Dashboard. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Identification of lactoferrin in bovine tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1996-09-01

    To determine whether bovine tear film contains the iron-binding glycoprotein, lactoferrin. 40 Adult Hereford, Angus, and Simmental cattle. Protein analysis: pooled bovine tears were used for protein analysis (size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] fractionation). HPLC was used for tear analysis. A diode array detector was used (215 and 280 microns) for chromatogram analysis and comparisons. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE): protein electrophoresis was performed, using 7.5% running gels with 4% stacking gels. Molecular weight of proteins in the unknown samples was determined as recommended by the manufacturer of the standards. Protein sequencing: amino acid sequencing, using automated Edman degradation of HPLC purified protein, was performed. The sequence obtained was compared with the known protein sequence of bovine lactoferrin. HPLC analysis of whole bovine tears resulted in a consistent chromatogram. Peak collection was performed to recover a protein from the bovine tear film with chromatogram characteristics nearly identical to purified bovine lactoferrin. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE of this peak revealed a band with molecular mass consistent with bovine lactoferrin (estimated mass of 78 kd). The first 13 amino acid residues of this protein were identical to the amino acid sequence of bovine lactoferrin. Analysis of whole bovine tears, using size exclusion HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and amino acid sequencing, provided evidence that bovine tears contain lactoferrin. Lactoferrin probably exerts a bacteriostatic effect in bovine tear film. Locally produced lactoferrin may bathe the ocular surface and sequester iron from potential pathogens.

  10. Effect of dietary fat on uptake of lysine, phenylalanine, leucine and methionine by bovine mammary tissue slices in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nianogo, A.J.; Amos, H.E.; Dean, R.; Froetschel, A. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Fernandez, J.M. (Langston Univ., OK (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Four mature Holstein cows in late lactation were blocked in two groups based on milk production, in a 2x2 reversal with 21-day periods, and fed: (A) control diet; (B) A plus 1 kg/day tallow. Cows were fed sorghum silage ad libitum. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on day 15, 17, and 19 of each period. Fat did not effect DM intake or milk yield, however milk CP yield was 20% lower. Plasma lipids increased 33.6%, glucose decreased 9% and insulin/glucagon ratio decreased 21.2% in cow fed fat. After period two, cows were slaughtered and mammary tissue sampled for incubation in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 22 AA at arterial concentration and .225 {mu}Ci/ml of {sup 14}C-labelled L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Lys or D/L Met. Dietary fat decreased tissue AA uptake rate by 21.2%. Uptake was 4.8, 10.3, 17.8 and 2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} {mu}M/min/gm of tissue DM for Phe, Lys, Leu and Met, respectively. Results suggest that dietary fat may decrease milk protein synthesis by lowering the rate of AA uptake.

  11. The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

  12. Engineering liver

    OpenAIRE

    Linda G Griffith; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2013-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the e...

  13. Bovine leukemia virus: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliarena MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marcela Alicia Juliarena,1 Clarisa Natalia Barrios,1 Claudia María Lützelschwab,1 Eduardo Néstor Esteban,2 Silvina Elena Gutiérrez1 1Department of Animal Health and Preventive Medicine, Veterinary Research Center of Tandil (CIVETAN, CIC-CONICET, Faculty of Veterinary Science, National University of the Center of Buenos Aires Province, Tandil, Argentina; 2BIOALPINA Program (GENIAL/COTANA, Colonia Alpina, Argentina Abstract: Enzootic bovine leukosis, caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, is the most common neoplasm of dairy cattle. Although beef and dairy cattle are susceptible to BLV infection and BLV-associated lymphosarcoma, the disease is more commonly detected in dairy herds, mostly because of the management practices in dairy farms. The pathogenicity of BLV in its natural host, the bovine, depends mainly on the resistance/susceptibility genetics of the animal. The majority of infected cattle are asymptomatic, promoting the extremely high dissemination rate of BLV in many bovine populations. The important productive losses caused by the BLV, added to the health risk of maintaining populations with a high prevalence of infection with a retrovirus, generates the need to implement control measures. Different strategies to control the virus have been attempted. The most effective approach is to identify and cull the totality of infected cattle in the herd. However, this approach is not suitable for herds with high prevalence of infection. At present, no treatment or vaccine has proven effective for the control of BLV. Thus far, the genetic selection of resistant animals emerges as a natural strategy for the containment of the BLV dissemination. In natural conditions, most of the infected, resistant cattle can control the infection, and therefore do not pass the virus to other animals, gradually decreasing the prevalence of the herd. Keywords: bovine leukemia virus, control, genetic resistance, BoLA-DRB3

  14. A catalogue of novel bovine long noncoding RNA across 18 tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambros T Koufariotis

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA have been implicated in diverse biological roles including gene regulation and genomic imprinting. Identifying lncRNA in bovine across many differing tissue would contribute to the current repertoire of bovine lncRNA, and help further improve our understanding of the evolutionary importance and constraints of these transcripts. Additionally, it could aid in identifying sites in the genome outside of protein coding genes where mutations could contribute to variation in complex traits. This is particularly important in bovine as genomic predictions are increasingly used in genetic improvement for milk and meat production. Our aim was to identify and annotate novel long non coding RNA transcripts in the bovine genome captured from RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq data across 18 tissues, sampled in triplicate from a single cow. To address the main challenge in identifying lncRNA, namely distinguishing lncRNA transcripts from unannotated genes and protein coding genes, a lncRNA identification pipeline with a number of filtering steps was developed. A total of 9,778 transcripts passed the filtering pipeline. The bovine lncRNA catalogue includes MALAT1 and HOTAIR, both of which have been well described in human and mouse genomes. We attempted to validate the lncRNA in libraries from three additional cows. 726 (87.47% liver and 1,668 (55.27% blood class 3 lncRNA were validated with stranded liver and blood libraries respectively. Additionally, this study identified a large number of novel unknown transcripts in the bovine genome with high protein coding potential, illustrating a clear need for better annotations of protein coding genes.

  15. Exploring intra- and inter-reader variability in uni-dimensional, bi-dimensional, and volumetric measurements of solid tumors on CT scans reconstructed at different slice intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Binsheng; Tan, Yongqiang; Bell, Daniel J; Marley, Sarah E; Guo, Pingzhen; Mann, Helen; Scott, Marietta L J; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Ghiorghiu, Dana C

    2013-06-01

    Understanding magnitudes of variability when measuring tumor size may be valuable in improving detection of tumor change and thus evaluating tumor response to therapy in clinical trials and care. Our study explored intra- and inter-reader variability of tumor uni-dimensional (1D), bi-dimensional (2D), and volumetric (VOL) measurements using manual and computer-aided methods (CAM) on CT scans reconstructed at different slice intervals. Raw CT data from 30 patients enrolled in oncology clinical trials was reconstructed at 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mm slice intervals. 118 lesions in the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes were analyzed. For each lesion, two independent radiologists manually and, separately, using computer software, measured the maximum diameter (1D), maximum perpendicular diameter, and volume (CAM only). One of them blindly repeated the measurements. Intra- and inter-reader variability for the manual method and CAM were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models and Bland-Altman method. For the three slice intervals, the maximum coefficients of variation for manual intra-/inter-reader variability were 6.9%/9.0% (1D) and 12.3%/18.0% (2D), and for CAM were 5.4%/9.3% (1D), 11.3%/18.8% (2D) and 9.3%/18.0% (VOL). Maximal 95% reference ranges for the percentage difference in intra-reader measurements for manual 1D and 2D, and CAM VOL were (-15.5%, 25.8%), (-27.1%, 51.6%), and (-22.3%, 33.6%), respectively. Variability in measuring the diameter and volume of solid tumors, manually and by CAM, is affected by CT slice interval. The 2.5mm slice interval provides the least measurement variability. Among the three techniques, 2D has the greatest measurement variability compared to 1D and 3D. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Standardization of dot-enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine visceral schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kommu Sudhakar; Sreenivasa Murthy, G. S.; Gaddam Rajeshwari

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Bovine visceral schistosomiasis has been reported as an important disease entity as it affects animal health, productivity, causes economic losses due to liver condemnation, and produces a high morbidity. This study was conducted to standardize an easy, reliable dot-enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of visceral schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma spindale and to know the prevalence rate in and around Hyderabad. Materials and Methods: A dot-ELISA was stand...

  17. Tracks in a small slice of the NA49 TPC

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    An event display of the data recorder by the six readout chambers of the Vertex TPC. After amplification the drifting ionization is detected in small pads of 3x20 mm (small rectangles in the six readout chambers) at 10 nanosecond intervals. Only a two centimeter slice of the data is projected here while the full depth of the TPC is about 80 cm. A complicated analysis on those data aims into ``reconstructing'' the real trajectories of the charged particles that crossed the TPC.

  18. Response surface optimization of osmotic dehydration process for aonla slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Shafiq; Amarjit, Singh; Sawhney, B K

    2010-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of sugar concentration (50-70° Brix), solution temperature (30-60°C), solution to fruit ratio (4:1-8:1) and immersion time (60-180 min) on the water loss, solute gain, rehydration ratio, vitamin-C loss, colour change and sensory overall acceptability of Indian gooseberry (aonla) slices. The optimum process parameters obtained by computer generated response surfaces, canonical analysis and contour plot interpretation were: sugar concentration, 59° Brix solution temperature 51°C, solution to fruit ratio 4:1 and immersion time of 60 min.

  19. Evolution of carbohydrates of pre-cut mango slices subjected to osmotic dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Beatríz; García, Hugo S; Mata, Miguel

    2005-12-01

    Haden mango slices (non-osmotic dehydrated, NOD) were immersed in calcium chloride (2 g/l), citric acid (5 g/l), hydrogen peroxide (25 ml/l) and sodium benzoate (20 g/l) solutions. Slices to be treated with osmotic dehydration (OD) were first immersed in calcium, then placed in the osmotic solution (sucrose 65 degrees Bx, 30 degrees C) and 211 mbar vacuum was applied for 30 min. After the osmotic treatment, the slices were immersed in the same solutions as for NOD slices. All the slices were stored in sterile chambers at 24, 13 or 5 degrees C. Both OD and NOD slices displayed sucrose synthesis (SS) during storage, which was highest in NOD slices that were kept at 13 degrees C. Sucrose synthesis was the most significant change during ripening of whole mangoes (WM). Starch breakdown could not supply the necessary substrates for sucrose synthesis in either whole mangoes or slices. Injured tissues from mango slices sustained sucrose synthesis, which was highest at 13 degrees C in NOD slices, but the osmotic treatment decreased sucrose formation. Storage at 5 degrees C for 12 days affected sucrose content of Haden mangoes. Glucose and fructose concentrations remained low in all treatments.

  20. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  1. Slice selection and T1 contrast in FLASH NMR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänicke, Wolfgang; Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Frahm, Jens

    This paper describes the signal intensity in rapid FLASH NMR imaging as a function of the repetition time, the NMR relaxation times, the flip angle, and the shape of the tailored RF pulses used for slice selection. In the absence or after elimination of signal contributions from transverse coherences the theoretical treatment may be confined to a steady state of the longitudinal magnetization. It turns out that deviations from a rectangular excitation profile due to imperfect pulse shapes strongly alter both the dynamic approach to steady-state conditions and the resulting saturation behavior as expected from theoretical expressions. As a consequence the signal-to-noise and image contrast become dependent on the actual slice profile. In T1 images calculated from series of FLASH images with different flip angles or repetition times qualitative relations between tissues with different T1 values are borne out correctly, whereas the accuracy of T1 relaxation times may not be satisfactory. No restrictions are expected for 3D imaging using a spatially homogeneous RF excitation. Experiments have been carried out on phantoms and human volunteers using a Bruker 2.35 T 40 cm NMR system.

  2. X-radiography of slices of the Allende Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Anderson, J. B.; Heymann, D.

    1984-01-01

    A 2.2 kg fragment of the Allende Meteorite was derinded and sliced by bandsawing. Several X-radiographs were made of all slices. The following features are resolved: grains of blocky troilite (bright spots), troilite rimmed chondrules (bright halos), chondrules with central vugs (dim halos), white aggregates (dark patches), and dark inclusions (medium dark patches). The number of FeS grains larger than about 0.5 mm is one per 6 + or - 1 gram of this fragment. Their concentration appears to be uniform at the 1 kg weight level, but is not uniform at the 100 g level. The number of FeS rimmed chondrules is one per 10 g. Their concentration is also nonuniform at the 100 g weight level. The number of white aggregates is roughly one per 20 g. These disc shaped objects show a distinct preferred orientation of the axis orthogonal to the plane of the disc. Chondrules with central vugs are numerous. Linear and curved arrays of chondrules, up to a few cm long, were observed. An interpretation of the observed features is given.

  3. Detecting anomalous traders using multi-slice network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-05-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. Many efforts have been made to detect manipulation in stock market. However, it is still an open problem to identify the fraudulent traders, especially when they collude with each other. In this paper, we focus on the problem of identifying anomalous traders using the transaction data of 8 manipulated stocks and 42 non-manipulated stocks during a one-year period. For each stock, we construct a multi-slice trading network to characterize the daily trading behavior and the cross-day participation of each trader. Comparing the multi-slice trading network of manipulated stocks and non-manipulated stocks with their randomized version, we find that manipulated stocks exhibit high number of trader pairs that trade with each other in multiple days and high deviation from randomized network at correlation between trading frequency and trading activity. These findings are effective at distinguishing manipulated stocks from non-manipulated ones and at identifying anomalous traders.

  4. Slices: A shape-proxy based on planar sections

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James

    2011-12-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies.

  5. Recombinant bovine dihydrofolate reductase produced by mutagenesis and nested PCR of murine dihydrofolate reductase cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Vivian; Mao, Qilong; Queener, Sherry F

    2008-11-01

    Recent reports of the slow-tight binding inhibition of bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase (bDHFR) in the presence of polyphenols isolated from green tea leaves has spurred renewed interest in the biochemical properties of bDHFR. Earlier studies were done with native bDHFR but in order to validate models of polyphenol binding to bDHFR, larger quantities of bDHFR are necessary to support structural studies. Bovine DHFR differs from its closest sequence homologue, murine DHFR, by 19 amino acids. To obtain the bDHFR cDNA, murineDHFR cDNA was transformed by a series of nested PCRs to reproduce the amino acid coding sequence for bovine DHFR. The bovine liver DHFR cDNA has an open reading frame of 561 base pairs encoding a protein of 187 amino acids that has a high level of conservation at the primary sequence level with other DHFR enzymes, and more so for the amino acid residues in the active site of the mammalian DHFR enzymes. Expression of the bovine DHFR cDNA in bacterial cells produced a stable recombinant protein with high enzymatic activity and kinetic properties similar to those previously reported for the native protein.

  6. Enhanced gluconeogenesis from lactate in perfused livers after endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, K D; Urdiales, J H; Donovan, C M

    1993-02-01

    The effects of endurance training (running 90 min/day at 30 m/min, 10% grade) on hepatic gluconeogenesis were studied in 24-h-fasted rats with use of the isolated liver perfusion technique. After isolation, the liver was perfused (single pass) for 30 min with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer and fresh bovine erythrocytes (hematocrit 22-24%) with no added substrate. Subsequent to the "washout" period, the reservoir was elevated with various concentrations of lactate and [U-14C]lactate (10,000 dpm/ml) to assess hepatic glucose production. Relative flow rates were not significantly different between trained (1.94 +/- 0.05 ml/g liver) and control livers (1.91 +/- 0.05 ml/g liver). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in perfusate pH, hematocrit, bile production, or serum alanine aminotransferase effluxing from trained or control livers. At saturating arterial lactate concentrations (> 2 mM), the maximal rate (Vmax) for hepatic glucose production was significantly higher for trained (0.91 +/- 0.04 mumol.min-1 x g liver-1) than for control livers (0.73 +/- 0.02 mumol.min-1 x g liver-1). That this reflected increased gluconeogenesis is supported by a significant elevation in the Vmax for [14C]glucose production from trained (13,150 +/- 578 dpm.min-1 x g liver-1) compared with control livers (10,712 +/- 505 dpm.min-1 x g liver-1). Significant increases were also observed in the Vmax for lactate uptake (25%), O2 consumption (19%), and 14CO2 production (23%) from endurance-trained livers. The Km for hepatic glucose output, approximately 1.05 mM lactate, was unchanged after endurance training. These findings demonstrate that chronic physical activity results in an elevated capacity for hepatic gluconeogenesis, as assessed in situ at saturating lactate concentrations.

  7. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography in the detection of lung and liver cysts in cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Echinococcosis is the major cause of lung and liver cysts in ruminants. This study compared usefulness of radiography and ultrasonography (USG in the detection of lung and/or liver cysts in sick bovine animals. The study also worked out cooccurrence of lung and liver cysts, and whether these cysts were primary cause of sickness or not. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 sick bovine (37 buffaloes and 8 cattle suffering from lung and liver cysts. A complete history of illness and clinical examination was carried out. Lateral radiographs of chest and reticular region were taken. In radiographically positive or suspected cases of cysts, USG of the lung and liver region was done. Depending on the location of cyst and clinical manifestations of the animal, the cysts were categorized as primary or secondary causes of sickness. Results: Using either imaging technique, it was observed that 46.7% of the animals had both lung and liver cysts, whereas 33.3% had only lung and 20% had only liver cyst. Cysts were identified as primary cause of sickness in 31.1% animals only. For diagnosing lung cysts, radiography (71.1% and USG (62.2% had similar diagnostic utility. However, for detecting liver cysts, USG was the only imaging tool. Conclusion: The lung and liver cysts, depending on their number and size may be a primary cause of sickness in bovine. Radiography and USG are recommended, in combination, as screening tools to rule out echinococcosis.

  8. Fluidic system for long-term in vitro culturing and monitoring of organotypic brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmand, Tanya; Troels-Smith, Ane R.; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brain slice preparations cultured in vitro have long been used as a simplified model for studying brain development, electrophysiology, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. In this paper an open fluidic system developed for improved long term culturing of organotypic brain slices is presented....... The positive effect of continuous flow of growth medium, and thus stability of the glucose concentration and waste removal, is simulated and compared to the effect of stagnant medium that is most often used in tissue culturing. Furthermore, placement of the tissue slices in the developed device was studied...... by numerical simulations in order to optimize the nutrient distribution. The device was tested by culturing transverse hippocampal slices from 7 days old NMRI mice for a duration of 14 days. The slices were inspected visually and the slices cultured in the fluidic system appeared to have preserved...

  9. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  10. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back A tumor is an abnormal growth ... health risk. Frequently Asked Questions How are benign liver tumors detected? In most cases, benign liver tumors ...

  11. Liver transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100090.htm Liver transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver ...

  12. Pyogenic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  13. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic ( ... or kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a ...

  14. Liver Disease and IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Liver Disease and IBD Go Back Liver Disease and IBD Email Print + Share Several complications ... be necessary to make the definitive diagnosis. FATTY LIVER DISEASE (HEPATCI STEATOSIS) This is the most common ...

  15. Promoting consumption of fruit in elementary school cafeterias. The effects of slicing apples and oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Branscum, Adam; Nakayima, Peace Julie

    2009-10-01

    We examined how slicing apples and oranges affected elementary students' selection and consumption of fruit. Slicing increased the percentage of children selecting and consuming oranges, while a similar effect was not found for apples. The impact of slicing fruit was greatest among younger students. These findings suggest that school cafeterias can increase accessibility and consumption of foods through simple, inexpensive food preparation techniques, with the impact of such measures varying by foods and student characteristics.

  16. The clinical efficacy of 1 mm-slice CT of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kazuhiro; Noiri, Teruhisa [Kawanishi Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Doi, Katsumi; Koizuka, Izumi; Tanaka, Hisashi; Mishiro, Yasuo; Okumura, Shin-ichi; Kubo, Takeshi

    2000-02-01

    The efficacy of the preoperative 1 mm-slice CT for evaluating the condition of the ossicular chain and the facial canal was assessed. CT findings were compared with the operative findings of middle ears in 120 cases of chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma that underwent tympanoplasty. The reliability of 1 mm-slice CT in detecting any defect of the ossicular chain was much superior to those of 2 mm-slice CT previously reported, and the difference between them is essential for preoperative information. On the other hand, thinner slice than 1 mm may be unnecessary, especially in routine use. (author)

  17. Optimized Protocol of Methanol Treatment for Immunofluorescent Staining in Fixed Brain Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng; Xiong, Guoxiang; Cohen, Noam A; Cohen, Akiva S

    2017-03-01

    We optimized methanol treatment in paraformaldehyde-fixed slices for immunofluorescent staining of ependymal basal bodies in brain ventricles. As 100% methanol induced severe deformations to the slices (including rolling and folding over), we tried to decrease methanol concentration. We found that 33.3% to 75% methanol could result in ideal immunostaining of basal bodies without inducing obvious deformations. Instead of treating slices at -20°C (without proper cryoprotection measurements) as suggested in previous studies, we carried out methanol treatment at room temperature. Our modified protocol can not only raise immunostaining efficiency in tissue slices, it may also prevent potential freezing damages to the samples.

  18. Genetic relationship between the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto cysts located in lung and liver of hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Cabaret, Jacques; M'rad, Selim; Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Mekki, Mongi; Zmantar, Sofien; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    G1 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is the major cause of hydatidosis in Northern Africa, Tunisia included. The genetic relationship between lung and liver localization were studied in ovine, bovine and human hydatid cysts in Tunisia. Allozyme variation and single strand conformation polymorphism were used for genetic differentiation. The first cause of genetic differentiation was the host species and the second was the localization (lung or liver). The reticulated genetic relationship between the liver or the lung human isolates and isolates from bovine lung, is indicative of recombination (sexual reproduction) or lateral genetic transfer. The idea of two specialized populations (one for the lung one for the liver) that are more or less successful according to host susceptibility is thus proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Amebic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  20. Enhancement of liver regeneration and liver surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, P.B.

    2017-01-01

    Liver regeneration allows surgical resection of up to 75% of the liver and enables curative treatment potential for patients with primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Liver surgery is associated with substantial risks, reflected by considerable morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of

  1. Characterization and Profiling of Liver microRNAs by RNA-sequencing in Cattle Divergently Selected for Residual Feed Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijdan Al-Husseini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of mRNAs in many biological pathways. Liver plays an important role in the feed efficiency of animals and high and low efficient cattle demonstrated different gene expression profiles by microarray. Here we report comprehensive miRNAs profiles by next-gen deep sequencing in Angus cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI and identify miRNAs related to feed efficiency in beef cattle. Two microRNA libraries were constructed from pooled RNA extracted from livers of low and high RFI cattle, and sequenced by Illumina genome analyser. In total, 23,628,103 high quality short sequence reads were obtained and more than half of these reads were matched to the bovine genome (UMD 3.1. We identified 305 known bovine miRNAs. Bta-miR-143, bta-miR-30, bta-miR-122, bta-miR-378, and bta-let-7 were the top five most abundant miRNAs families expressed in liver, representing more than 63% of expressed miRNAs. We also identified 52 homologous miRNAs and 10 novel putative bovine-specific miRNAs, based on precursor sequence and the secondary structure and utilizing the miRBase (v. 21. We compared the miRNAs profile between high and low RFI animals and ranked the most differentially expressed bovine known miRNAs. Bovine miR-143 was the most abundant miRNA in the bovine liver and comprised 20% of total expressed mapped miRNAs. The most highly expressed miRNA in liver of mice and humans, miR-122, was the third most abundant in our cattle liver samples. We also identified 10 putative novel bovine-specific miRNA candidates. Differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI cattle were identified with 18 miRNAs being up-regulated and 7 other miRNAs down-regulated in low RFI cattle. Our study has identified comprehensive miRNAs expressed in bovine liver. Some of the expressed miRNAs are novel in cattle. The differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI

  2. Simultaneous Operation of Hydatid Cyst of the Heart and Liver: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Rezayat; Namdar, Hossein; Bilehjani, Eissa; Bayat, Amrollah; sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad ali

    2013-01-01

    Primary echinococcosis of the heart is exceptionally uncommon and is reported 0.5% to 2% of all hydatid cyst sites in comparison with liver (70%) or lung (20%) involvement. Hydatid disease of the heart is caused by the cestode tapeworm echinococcosis granulosis or alveolaris. We present a 29-year-old female with hydatid disease of the liver and heart. She only complained of abdominal pain and palpitation. Echocardiography and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) showed a 120×101 mm cyst in the liver and 64 mm in the right ventricular free wall. Both cysts were excised within one procedure successfully. PMID:24252990

  3. Simultaneous Operation of Hydatid Cyst of the Heart and Liver:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezayat Parvizi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary echinococcosis of the heart is exceptionally uncommon and is reported 0.5% to 2% of all hydatid cyst sites in comparison with liver (70% or lung (20% involvement. Hydatid disease of the heart is caused by the cestode tapeworm echinococcosis granulosis or alveolaris. We present a 29-year-old female with hydatid disease of the liver and heart. She only complained of abdominal pain and palpitation. Echocardiography and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT showed a 120×101 mm cyst in the liver and 64 mm in the right ventricular free wall. Both cysts were excised within one procedure successfully.

  4. Effects of 2-oxoglutarate concentrations on canine slice ammoniagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risquez, A; Slemmer Gaydos, D; Preuss, H G

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of renal 2-oxoglutarate has been proposed as an important regulator of ammoniagenesis in dog kidneys. In the present study, canine kidney slices produced less ammonia from glutamine and glutamate when 2-oxoglutarate was present in the incubation medium. However, the addition of arsenite, a metabolic blocker known to block 2-oxoglutarate metabolism and lead to its accumulation, overcame 2-oxoglutarate inhibition of ammoniagenesis when glutamine and glutamate were the ammonia precursors. Therefore, metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, rather than its concentration, governed ammonia production from glutamine and glutamate in incubating dog renal tissue. In contrast to the results with 2-oxoglutarate, inhibition of glutamine ammoniagenesis by glutamate was not overcome by arsenite. The results suggest that renal ammonia adaptation in acidotic dogs cannot be ascribed to a theory based upon 2-oxoglutarate concentrations controlling the direction of the glutamate dehydrogenase pathway (GDH), decreasing glutamine transport, or directly inhibiting GDH enzyme activity.

  5. Astrocyte calcium signalling orchestrates neuronal synchronization in organotypic hippocampal slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tomoe; Abe, Reimi; Nakayama, Ryota; Asada, Akiko; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are thought to detect neuronal activity in the form of intracellular calcium elevations; thereby, astrocytes can regulate neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Little is known, however, about how the astrocyte calcium signal regulates the activity of neuronal populations. In this study, we addressed this issue using functional multineuron calcium imaging in hippocampal slice cultures. Under normal conditions, CA3 neuronal networks exhibited temporally correlated activity patterns, occasionally generating large synchronization among a subset of cells. The synchronized neuronal activity was correlated with astrocyte calcium events. Calcium buffering by an intracellular injection of a calcium chelator into multiple astrocytes reduced the synaptic strength of unitary transmission between pairs of surrounding pyramidal cells and caused desynchronization of the neuronal networks. Uncaging the calcium in the astrocytes increased the frequency of neuronal synchronization. These data suggest an essential role of the astrocyte calcium signal in the maintenance of basal neuronal function at the circuit level. PMID:24710057

  6. Colchicine induces apoptosis in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bjarne W; Noer, Helle; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2003-01-01

    The microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine is known to be particular toxic for certain types of neurons, including the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. In this study we investigated whether colchicine could induce such neuron-specific degeneration in developing (1 week in vitro) and mature (3...... weeks in vitro) organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and whether the induced cell death was apoptotic and/or necrotic. When applied to 1-week-old cultures for 48 h, colchicine induced primarily apoptotic, but also a minor degree of necrotic cell death in the dentate granule cells, as investigated...... by cellular uptake of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide (PI), immunostaining for active caspase 3 and c-Jun/AP-1 (N) and fragmentation of nuclei as seen in Hoechst 33342 staining. All four markers appeared after 12 h of colchicine exposure. Two of them, active caspase 3 and c-Jun/AP-1 (N) displayed...

  7. Persistent gliosis interferes with neurogenesis in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eGerlach

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus has become an intensively investigated research topic, as it is essential for proper hippocampal function and considered to bear therapeutic potential for the replacement of pathologically lost neurons. On the other hand, neurogenesis itself is frequently affected by CNS insults. To identify processes leading to the disturbance of neurogenesis, we made use of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC, which, for unknown reasons, lose their neurogenic potential during cultivation. In the present study, we show by BrdU/Prox1 double-immunostaining that the generation of new granule cells drops by 90% during the first week of cultivation. Monitoring neurogenesis dynamically in OHSC from POMC-eGFP mice, in which immature granule cells are endogenously labeled, revealed a gradual decay of the eGFP signal, reaching 10% of initial values within seven days of cultivation. Accordingly, RT-qPCR analysis showed the downregulation of the neurogenesis-related genes doublecortin and Hes5, a crucial target of the stem cell-maintaining Notch signaling pathway. In parallel, we demonstrate a strong and long-lasting activation of astrocytes and microglial cells, both, morphologically and on the level of gene expression. Enhancement of astroglial activation by treating OHSC with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF accelerated the loss of neurogenesis, whereas treatment with indomethacin or an antagonist of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor exhibited potent protective effects on the neurogenic outcome. Therefore, we conclude that OHSC rapidly lose their neurogenic capacity due to persistent inflammatory processes taking place after the slice preparation. As inflammation is also considered to affect neurogenesis in many CNS pathologies, OHSC appear as a useful tool to study this interplay and its molecular basis. Furthermore, we propose that modification of glial activation might bear the therapeutic potential of enabling

  8. 128 slice computed tomography dose profile measurement using thermoluminescent dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehhon, N.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Ang, W. C.; Musa, Y.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice marks the needs to understand the dose descriptor and dose profile. The purposes of the current study were to determine the CT dose index free-in-air (CTDIair) in 128 slice CT scanner and to evaluate the single scan dose profile (SSDP). Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were used to measure the dose profile of the scanner. There were three sets of CT protocols where the tube potential (kV) setting was manipulated for each protocol while the rest of parameters were kept constant. These protocols were based from routine CT abdominal examinations for male adult abdomen. It was found that the increase of kV settings made the values of CTDIair increased as well. When the kV setting was changed from 80 kV to 120 kV and from 120 kV to 140 kV, the CTDIair values were increased as much as 147.9% and 53.9% respectively. The highest kV setting (140 kV) led to the highest CTDIair value (13.585 mGy). The p-value of less than 0.05 indicated that the results were statistically different. The SSDP showed that when the kV settings were varied, the peak sharpness and height of Gaussian function profiles were affected. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of dose profiles for all protocols were coincided with the nominal beam width set for the measurements. The findings of the study revealed much information on the characterization and performance of 128 slice CT scanner.

  9. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. A variational approach to liver segmentation using statistics from multiple sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shenhai; Fang, Bin; Li, Laquan; Gao, Mingqi; Wang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Medical image segmentation plays an important role in digital medical research, and therapy planning and delivery. However, the presence of noise and low contrast renders automatic liver segmentation an extremely challenging task. In this study, we focus on a variational approach to liver segmentation in computed tomography scan volumes in a semiautomatic and slice-by-slice manner. In this method, one slice is selected and its connected component liver region is determined manually to initialize the subsequent automatic segmentation process. From this guiding slice, we execute the proposed method downward to the last one and upward to the first one, respectively. A segmentation energy function is proposed by combining the statistical shape prior, global Gaussian intensity analysis, and enforced local statistical feature under the level set framework. During segmentation, the shape of the liver shape is estimated by minimization of this function. The improved Chan–Vese model is used to refine the shape to capture the long and narrow regions of the liver. The proposed method was verified on two independent public databases, the 3D-IRCADb and the SLIVER07. Among all the tested methods, our method yielded the best volumetric overlap error (VOE) of 6.5 +/- 2.8 % , the best root mean square symmetric surface distance (RMSD) of 2.1 +/- 0.8 mm, the best maximum symmetric surface distance (MSD) of 18.9 +/- 8.3 mm in 3D-IRCADb dataset, and the best average symmetric surface distance (ASD) of 0.8 +/- 0.5 mm, the best RMSD of 1.5 +/- 1.1 mm in SLIVER07 dataset, respectively. The results of the quantitative comparison show that the proposed liver segmentation method achieves competitive segmentation performance with state-of-the-art techniques.

  11. A variational approach to liver segmentation using statistics from multiple sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shenhai; Fang, Bin; Li, Laquan; Gao, Mingqi; Wang, Yi

    2018-01-16

    Medical image segmentation plays an important role in digital medical research, and therapy planning and delivery. However, the presence of noise and low contrast renders automatic liver segmentation an extremely challenging task. In this study, we focus on a variational approach to liver segmentation in computed tomography scan volumes in a semiautomatic and slice-by-slice manner. In this method, one slice is selected and its connected component liver region is determined manually to initialize the subsequent automatic segmentation process. From this guiding slice, we execute the proposed method downward to the last one and upward to the first one, respectively. A segmentation energy function is proposed by combining the statistical shape prior, global Gaussian intensity analysis, and enforced local statistical feature under the level set framework. During segmentation, the shape of the liver shape is estimated by minimization of this function. The improved Chan-Vese model is used to refine the shape to capture the long and narrow regions of the liver. The proposed method was verified on two independent public databases, the 3D-IRCADb and the SLIVER07. Among all the tested methods, our method yielded the best volumetric overlap error (VOE) of [Formula: see text], the best root mean square symmetric surface distance (RMSD) of [Formula: see text] mm, the best maximum symmetric surface distance (MSD) of [Formula: see text] mm in 3D-IRCADb dataset, and the best average symmetric surface distance (ASD) of [Formula: see text] mm, the best RMSD of [Formula: see text] mm in SLIVER07 dataset, respectively. The results of the quantitative comparison show that the proposed liver segmentation method achieves competitive segmentation performance with state-of-the-art techniques.

  12. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik L; Andersen, Jens H

    2017-04-01

    After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulphates. The effectiveness of solvolysis on androgenic steroid sulphates was tested with selected aliphatic steroid sulphates (boldenone sulphate, nortestosteron sulphate and testosterone sulphate), and the method was validated for analysis of androgenic steroids in bovine urine using free steroids, steroid sulphates and steroid glucuronides as standards. Glucuronidase and sulphuric acid in ethyl acetate were used for deconjugation and the extract was purified by solid-phase extraction. The final extract was evaporated to dryness, re-dissolved and analysed by LC-MS/MS.

  13. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  14. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo ...

  15. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  16. Liver tumor gross margin identification and ablation monitoring during liver radiofrequency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Christopher P; Razavi, Mahmood K; So, Samuel K; Parachikov, Ilian H; Benaron, David A

    2005-11-01

    To determine whether tissue visible light spectroscopy (VLS) used during radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumors could aid in detecting when tissue becomes adequately ablated, locate grossly ablated regions long after temperature and hydration measures would no longer be reliable, and differentiate tumor from normal hepatic tissue based on VLS spectral characteristics. Studies were performed on human liver in vivo and animal liver ex vivo. In three ex vivo cow livers, RF-induced lesions were created at 80 degrees C. A 28-gauge needle embedded with VLS optical fibers was inserted alongside an RF ablation array, and tissue spectral characteristics were recorded throughout ablation. In one anesthetized sheep in vivo, a VLS needle probe was passed through freshly ablated liver lesions, and ablated region spectral characteristics were recorded during probe transit. In two human subjects, a VLS needle probe was passed through liver tumors in patients undergoing hepatic tumor resection without ablation, and tumor spectral characteristics were recorded during probe transit. In bovine studies, there was significant change in baseline absorbance (P gross ablation margins were clearly defined with millimeter resolution during needle transit through the region, suggesting that VLS is sensitive to gross margins of ablation, even after the temperature has normalized. In humans, absorbance decreased as the needle passed from normal tissue into tumor and normalized after emerging from the tumor, suggesting that absence of native liver pigment may serve as a marker for the gross margins and presence of tumors of extrahepatic origin. In human subjects, VLS during RF liver tumor ablation depicted gross hepatic tumor margins in real time; in animal subjects, VLS achieved monitoring of when and where RF ablation endpoints were achieved, even long after the tissue cooled. Real-time in vivo monitoring and treatment feedback may be possible with the use of real-time VLS sensors

  17. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin ... condition called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of ...

  18. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver

  19. Comparing thin slices of verbal communication behavior of varying number and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcone, April Idalski; Naar, Sylvie; Eggly, Susan; Foster, Tanina; Albrecht, Terrance L; Brogan, Kathryn E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of thin slices to characterize the verbal communication behavior of counselors and patients engaged in Motivational Interviewing sessions relative to fully coded sessions. Four thin slice samples that varied in number (four versus six slices) and duration (one- versus two-minutes) were extracted from a previously coded dataset. In the parent study, an observational code scheme was used to characterize specific counselor and patient verbal communication behaviors. For the current study, we compared the frequency of communication codes and the correlations among the full dataset and each thin slice sample. Both the proportion of communication codes and strength of the correlation demonstrated the highest degree of accuracy when a greater number (i.e., six versus four) and duration (i.e., two- versus one-minute) of slices were extracted. These results suggest that thin slice sampling may be a useful and accurate strategy to reduce coding burden when coding specific verbal communication behaviors within clinical encounters. We suggest researchers interested in using thin slice sampling in their own work conduct preliminary research to determine the number and duration of thin slices required to accurately characterize the behaviors of interest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mycoflora of sun-dried sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) slices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... slices were counted with the aid of a hand lens and the average number of colonies calculated. The relative density of each fungus was ... several changes of distilled water. A weight of 200 g was taken from each .... ciated with sun-dried sweet potato slices, some of them potential mycotoxin producers.

  1. Coupling of organotypic brain slice cultures to silicon-based arrays of electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Henrik; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Thiébaud, P

    1999-01-01

    such hippocampal rat brain slice cultures on biocompatible silicon-based chips with arrays of electrodes with a histological organization comparable to that of conventional brain slice cultures grown by the roller drum technique and on semiporous membranes. Intracellular and extracellular recordings from neurons...

  2. Non-enzymatic browning and flavour kinetics of vacuum dried onion slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, Shanker L.; Rao, Pavuluri S.

    2015-01-01

    Onion slices were dehydrated under vacuum to produce good quality dried ready-to-use onion slices. Colour development due to non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss in terms of thiosulphinate concentration was determined, along with moisture content and rehydration ratio. Kinetics of non-enzymatic browning and thiosulphinate loss during drying was analysed. Colour change due to non-enzymatic browning was found to be much lower in the case of vacuum dried onion, and improved flavour retention was observed as compared to hot air dried onion slices. The optical index values for non-enzymatic browning varied from 18.41 to 38.68 for untreated onion slices and from 16.73 to 36.51 for treated slices, whereas thiosulphinate concentration in the case of untreated onion slices was within the range of 2.96-3.92 μmol g-1 for dried sample and 3.71-4.43 μmol g-1 for the treated onion slices. Rehydration ratio was also increased, which may be attributed to a better porous structure attained due to vacuum drying. The treatment applied was found very suitable in controlling non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss during drying, besides increasing rehydration ratio. Hence, high quality dried ready- to-use onion slices were prepared.

  3. Reproducibility of multi-slice spiral computed tomography scans: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Marcel; Venema, Henk W.; Hartman, Joris; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.

    2004-01-01

    In multi-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) images interpolation artifacts are present. The relationship between the x-ray tube rotation angle and these artifacts is demonstrated. A head phantom was repeatedly scanned with a four-slice CT scanner at different pitch values. Two scans, made with

  4. Excitatory and inhibitory pathways modulate kainate excitotoxicity in hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur; Rai, R

    1993-01-01

    In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, kainate (KA) specifically induces cell loss in the CA3 region while N-methyl-D-aspartate induces cell loss in the CA1 region. The sensitivity of slice cultures to KA toxicity appears only after 2 weeks in vitro which parallels the appearance of mossy fib...

  5. Automatic slice identification in 3D medical images with a ConvNet regressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Bob D.; Viergever, Max A.; de Jong, Pim A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Identification of anatomical regions of interest is a prerequisite in many medical image analysis tasks. We propose a method that automatically identifies a slice of interest (SOI) in 3D images with a convolutional neural network (ConvNet) regressor. In 150 chest CT scans two reference slices were

  6. Pediatric Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Nidhi; Yazigi, Nada

    2017-06-01

    Excellent outcomes over the last 3 decades have made liver transplantation the treatment of choice for many advanced liver disorders. This success also opened liver transplantation to new indications such as liver tumors and metabolic disorders. The emergence of such new indications for liver transplantation is bringing a new stream of patients along with disease-specific challenges. The cumulative number of liver transplant recipients is peaking, requiring novel systems of health care delivery that meet the needs of this special patient population. This article reviews updates and new development in pediatric liver transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  8. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling and Realization of a Bearingless Flux-Switching Slice Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gruber

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces a novel bearingless slice motor design: the bearingless flux-switching slice motor. In contrast to state-of-the-art bearingless slice motors, the rotor in this new design does not include any permanent rotor magnets. This offers advantages for disposable devices, such as those used in the medical industry, and extends the range of bearingless slice motors toward high-temperature applications. In this study, our focus is on the analytical modeling of the suspension force torque generation of a single coil and the bearingless motor. We assessed motor performance in relation to motor topology by applying performance factors. A prototype motor was optimized, designed, and manufactured. We also presented the state-of-the-art nonlinear feedback control scheme used. The motor was operated, and both static and dynamic measurements were taken on a test bench, thus successfully demonstrating the functionality and applicability of the novel bearingless slice motor concept.

  10. Obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yan; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2005-05-01

    It has been suggested that obesity and fatty liver may be associated with the morbidity and mortality of liver cancer, and the early diagnosis and effective treatment of fatty liver coupled with liver cancer are supposed to improve the prognosis of obese patients. This review was attempted to understand the relationship between obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer. An English-language literature search using PUBMED (1990-2004) on obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer and other related articles in Chinese. Obesity is associated with the risk of death from all cancers and from cancers at individual sites including liver cancer, and it is an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and cryptogenic cirrhosis. Because nonalcoholic steatohepatitis has been implicated as a major cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis, the development of HCC may be part of progressive nature of this condition. Obesity is associated with the incidence and mortality of HCC. More frequent surveillance for HCC may be warranted in obese patients with fatty liver and attempts should be made to interrupt the progression from simple hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and ultimately HCC.

  11. Assessments of Coronary Artery Visibility and Radiation Dose in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease on Cardiac 128-slice CT and on Cardiac 64-slice CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Huang, M; Zheng, J; Li, J; Liu, H; Liang, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the coronary artery visibility and radiation dose in infants with CHD on cardiac 128-slice CT and on cardiac 64-slice CT. The images of 200 patients were analyzed in this study, 100 patients were selected randomly from a group of 789 infants (coronary artery segments was graded on a four-point scale. The coronary arteries were considered to be detected or visible when grade was 2 or higher. The visibility of the coronary artery segments and the radiation dose was compared between the two groups. Except for the rate of LM (96 vs. 99%), the detection rates of the total, LAD, LCX, RCA, and the proximal segment of the RCA in the 256-slice CT group were significantly higher than those in the 64-slice CT group (51.7, 53.33, 33.67, 53.33, and 99 vs. 34.8, 34.33, 18, 30.67, and 75%, respectively). The counts of visibility score (4/3/2/1) for the LM and the proximal segment of the RCA were 62/22/12/4 and 56/20/17/7, respectively, in the 128-slice CT group and 17/42/30/1 and 9/30/38/25, respectively, in the 64-slice CT group. There were significant differences, especially for score 4 and 3, between the two groups. The radiation dose in the 128-slice CT group was significantly decreased than those in the 64-slice CT group (CTDIvol 1.88 ± 0.51 vs. 5.61 ± 0.63 mGy; SSDE 4.48 ± 1.15 vs. 13.97 ± 1.52 mGy; effective radiation dose 1.36 ± 0.44 vs. 4.06 ± 0.7 mSv). With reduced radiation dose, the visibility of the coronary artery in infants with CHD via prospective ECG-triggered mode on a 128-slice CT is superior to that of the 64-slice CT using retrospective ECG-gated spiral mode.

  12. Liver fibrosis markers in alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrostek, Lech; Panasiuk, Anatol

    2014-07-07

    Alcohol is one of the main factors of liver damage. The evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is of great value for therapeutic decision making in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Staging of liver fibrosis is essential to define prognosis and management of the disease. Liver biopsy is a gold standard as it has high sensitivity and specificity in fibrosis diagnostics. Taking into account the limitations of liver biopsy, there is an exigency to introduce non-invasive serum markers for fibrosis that would be able to replace liver biopsy. Ideal serum markers should be specific for the liver, easy to perform and independent to inflammation and fibrosis in other organs. Serum markers of hepatic fibrosis are divided into direct and indirect. Indirect markers reflect alterations in hepatic function, direct markers reflect extracellular matrix turnover. These markers should correlate with dynamic changes in fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. The assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease has diagnostic and prognostic implications, therefore noninvasive assessment of fibrosis remains important. There are only a few studies evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values of noninvasive biomarkers of fibrosis in patients with ALD. Several noninvasive laboratory tests have been used to assess liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease, including the hyaluronic acid, FibroTest, FibrometerA, Hepascore, Forns and APRI indexes, FIB4, an algorithm combining Prothrombin index (PI), α-2 macroglobulin and hyaluronic acid. Among these tests, Fibrotest, FibrometerA and Hepascore demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and additionally, Fibrotest was independently associated with survival. Therefore, the use of biomarkers may reduce the need for liver biopsy and permit an earlier treatment of alcoholic patients.

  13. Improved wedge method for the measurement of sub-millimeter slice thicknesses in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Ohkubo, Masaki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Inagawa, Shoichi

    2017-12-01

    The standard method for measuring the slice thickness of magnetic resonance images uses the inclined surface of a wedge (wedge method); it is sensitive to small increases in noise because of the differentiation of the edge response function (ERF) required. The purpose of this study was to improve the wedge method by fitting a curve to the ERF. The curve-fit function was obtained by convolving an ideal ERF (a ramp function) with a Gaussian function to represent ERF blurring. Measurements of 5- and 3-mm slice thicknesses were performed on a 3T scanner using the conventional wedge method, the improved wedge method, and another standard method using an inclined slab (slab method). Subsequently, 0.5- and 0.25-mm slice thicknesses from multiple slices acquired using a three-dimensional sequence were measured using the improved wedge method. When measuring 5-mm slices, the differences in measurements obtained using the improved wedge method and the conventional slab and wedge methods were very small: <0.6% of the 5-mm slice thickness. The difference was ≤1.7% for 3-mm slices. For 0.5- and 0.25-mm slices, the mean values obtained using the improved wedge method were 0.543 ± 0.007 mm and 0.247 ± 0.015 mm, with a 1.2 and 5.9% coefficient of variation across slices, respectively. The improved wedge method is valid and potentially applicable to the measurement of sub-millimeter slice thicknesses.

  14. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five bovine...

  15. A Novel Approach for Transmission of 56 Gbit/s NRZ Signal in Access Network Using Spectrum Slicing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Bobrovs, V.

    2013-01-01

    We present the spectrum slicing and stitching concept for high-capacity low optics complexity optical access networks. Spectrum slicing and stitching of a 56 Gbit/s NRZ electrical signal is experimentally demonstrated for the first time....

  16. Cavernous Transformation of the Portal Vein Might Increase the Risk of Liver Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bo Ai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV is not quite common in adults, and cases with CTPV and acute liver abscess are lacking. We report a patient with CTPV inducing extrahepatic and intrahepatic obstruction, finally leading to acute liver abscess due to bile duct infection. We aim to find out the possible relationship between CTPV and acute liver abscess. A 45-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital for recurrent upper abdominal pain and distension for one year, aggravated with fever for three years. A diagnosis of CTPV and liver abscess was made by 16-slice computed tomography. Effective antibiotics and drainage were used for this patients, and she was eventually cured. When treating patients with CTPV, extrahepatic and intrahepatic obstruction, one should be aware of the presence of acute liver abscess, and empirical antibiotics might be valuable.

  17. Volumetric contraction and drying kinetics of Musa sapientum slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Letícia Moron Pereira Leite

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a method employed in food preservation, which influences the preservation time, quality and durability of these products. This study aimed to characterize the drying kinetics and evaluate the shrinkage of Musa sapientum slices, under temperatures of 40-60 ºC. The mathematical models used to analyze drying were diffusion approximation, two terms, Midilli & Kucuk and Thompson, while the ones used to evaluate shrinkage were Lozano, McMinn & Magee, Rovedo, Suarez & Viollaz and Ratti. The model that best fitted the experimental drying data was Midilli & Kucuk, for presenting the best coefficient of determination (R2 and the lowest average relative error (P and estimate standard deviation (SE. For shrinkage, the best model was Ratti, due to its higher R2 and lower P and SE. The volume reduction (VR presented an inverse relation with temperature. For temperatures of 40 ºC, 50 ºC and 60 ºC, the VR estimates with pachymeter were respectively 21.65 %, 19.46 % and 17.74 %, while the estimates with image were 27.74 %, 24.08 % and 22.50 %.

  18. Process variables in the osmotic dehydration of sliced peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Pimentel Marconi Germer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the influence of temperature and concentration of the sucrose syrup on the pre-osmotic dehydration of peaches. Physical (colour and texture and chemical variables (soluble solid content; total sugar, reducing and non-reducing sugar contents; and titratable acidity were investigated, as well as the osmotic dehydration parameters (loss of weight and water; solids incorporation. An experimental central composite design was employed varying the temperature (from 30 to 50 ºC and concentration (from 45 to 65 ºBrix and maintaining the syrup to fruit ratio (4:1, process time (4 hours, and format (slices. The degree of acceptance was used in the sensory analysis evaluating the following characteristics: appearance, taste, texture, colour, and overall quality using a hedonic scale. The results were modelled using the Statistica program (v. 6.0 and the Response Surface Methodology. The mathematical models of the following dimensionless variations yielded significant (p < 0.05 and predictive results: soluble solids content, total and non-reducing sugar contents, titratable acidity, colour parameter L*, and water loss. The models of the attributes colour and appearance yielded significant (p < 0.10 but not predictive results. Temperature was the prevalent effect in the models. The process conditions in the range from 50 to 54.1 ºC and from 45 to 65 ºBrix led to greater water losses and better sensory performances.

  19. Slice of the LHC prototype beam tubes in dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    A slice of the LHC accelerator prototype beam tubes surrounded by magnets. The LHC will accelerate two proton beams in opposite directions. The high bending and accelerating fields needed can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC will be the largest superconducting installation ever built, a unique challenge for CERN and its industrial partners. About dipole magnets: There will be 1232 dipole magnets in the LHC, used to guide the particles around the 27 km ring. Dipole magnets must have an extremely uniform field, which means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. The temperature is measured to five thousandths of a degree, the current to one part in a million. The current creating the magnetic field will pass through superconducting wires at up to 12 500 amps, about 30 000 times the current flowing ...

  20. MSE spectrograph optical design: a novel pupil slicing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer shall be mainly devoted to perform deep, wide-field, spectroscopic surveys at spectral resolutions from ~2000 to ~20000, at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectral coverage at low resolution is required, while at high resolution only selected windows can be covered. Moreover, very high multiplexing (3200 objects) must be obtained at low resolution. At higher resolutions a decreased number of objects (~800) can be observed. To meet such high demanding requirements, a fiber-fed multi-object spectrograph concept has been designed by pupil-slicing the collimated beam, followed by multiple dispersive and camera optics. Different resolution modes are obtained by introducing anamorphic lenslets in front of the fiber arrays. The spectrograph is able to switch between three resolution modes (2000, 6500, 20000) by removing the anamorphic lenses and exchanging gratings. Camera lenses are fixed in place to increase stability. To enhance throughput, VPH first-order gratings has been preferred over echelle gratings. Moreover, throughput is kept high over all wavelength ranges by splitting light into more arms by dichroic beamsplitters and optimizing efficiency for each channel by proper selection of glass materials, coatings, and grating parameters.

  1. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  2. Experimental bovine infection with Taenia saginata eggs: recovery rates and cysticerci location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Minozzo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the recovery rate and cysticerci location in bovines experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs. Three calves of 6.5 months and one with 19 months of age were infected orally with 2 x 10(4 eggs of Taenia saginata. A fifth calf served as control. After 90 days of infection, the animals were slaughtered and organs and skeletal muscles were inspected using a slicing technique every 5 mm. From the four infected calves, 702 cysticerci were recovered, of which 570 (81.2% were alive and 132 (18.8% were degenerated. The recovery rate ranged from 0.01 to 1.43% with an average of 0.88%. The cysticerci presented the following anatomical distribution: hioideos muscles 02 (0.28%, kidneys 03 (0.43%, tongue 07 (1.00%, liver 12 (1.71%, lungs 15 (2.14%, diaphragm 18 (2.56%, mastication muscles 25 (3.56%, heart 49 (6.98%, anterior muscle 323 (46.00% and posterior muscle 248 (35.33%.Foi avaliada a taxa de recuperação e localização de cisticercos em bovinos experimentalmente infectados com ovos de Taenia saginata. Três bezerros de 6,5 meses e um adulto com 19 meses de idade foram infectados, por via oral, com 2 x 10(4 ovos de Taenia saginata. Um quinto bezerro serviu como testemunha. Após 90 dias da infecção, os animais foram abatidos. Fez-se inspeção, de todos os animais, por fatiamento de órgãos e musculatura esquelética, com intervalo entre os cortes de, no máximo, cinco milímetros. Dos quatros bezerros desafiados foram recuperados 702 cisticercos sendo 570 (81,20% vivos e 132 (18,80% degenerados. A taxa de recuperação foi de 0,01% a 1,43% com média de 0,88%. Os 702 cistos encontrados apresentaram a seguinte distribuição anatômica: músculos hióideos 02 (0,28%, rins 03 (0,43%, língua 07 (1,00%, fígado 12 (1,71%, pulmões 15 (2,14%, diafragma 18 (2,56%, músculos da mastigação 25 (3,56%, coração 49 (6,98%, musculatura dianteira 323 (46,00% e musculatura traseira 248 (35,33%. Na infecção experimental

  3. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  4. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  5. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  6. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2017-05-16

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  7. Induction of C-type virus in cell lines derived from calf form bovine lymphosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, M; Okada, K; Yamazaki, Y; Fujinaga, K; Fujimoto, Y; Mikami, T

    1978-01-01

    For attempt to detect an etiological agent, cultures from bovine lymphosarcoma cases (adult form (ALS), calf form (CLS), and thymic form (TLS) were maintained in vitro for over a 18 month period. In two cultures from ALS, bovine leukemia virus (BLV) antigen was constantly detected. On the other hand, BLV antigen remained negative in cultures from two CLS and one TLS cases up to 40 passages. The RNA dependent DNA polymerase activities in these cultures were also negative. Treatment of a culture from CLS (3178) originated from liver tumor with 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU) and dexamethasone (DXM) resulted in production of an agent serologically and morphologically similar to BLV and in alteration of cell morphology. No virus was detected in culture from TLS after treatment with IdU and DXM.

  8. Dye coupling in hypothalamic slices: dependence on in vivo hydration state and osmolality of incubation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, P; Hatton, G I

    1984-12-01

    Electrotonic coupling is one mechanism which may coordinate the electrophysiological activity of a population of neurons. By measuring the incidence of dye coupling, we have investigated whether conditions that stimulate hormone secretion by hypothalamic magnocellular neuroendocrine cells affect coupling between these neurons. Neurons in the magnocellular regions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), in slices prepared from normally hydrated or chronically dehydrated male rats, were intracellularly injected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow CH. The dye coupling index (DCI), the ratio of the number of dye-coupled neurons to the total number of filled cells, was determined for each treatment group. The DCI for slices from dehydrated animals incubated in 310 milliosmoles/kg of medium (0.121) was significantly lower than that for slices for hydrated animals incubated in medium of the same osmolality (0.333). This decrease was reversed when slices from dehydrates were incubated in medium having an osmolality of 340 milliosmoles/kg (DCI = 0.307). There was also evidence for an interaction between slices incubated in the same chamber: the DCI in slices from dehydrated animals was significantly higher (0.475) when slices from normally hydrated rats were also present in the incubation chamber. Based on these data and on cited evidence, we suggest that the osmolality of the extracellular fluid and the local concentration of sex steroid hormones may influence dye coupling in the PVN.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamics of unsteady viscous fluid on boundary layer past a sliced sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursalim, Rahmat; Widodo, Basuki; Imron, Chairul

    2017-10-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is important study in engineering and industrial fields. By study on MHD, we can reach the fluid flow characteristics that can be used to minimize its negative effect to an object. In decades, MHD has been widely studied in various geometry forms and fluid types. The sliced sphere is a geometry form that has not been investigated. In this paper we study magnetohydrodynamics of unsteady viscous fluid on boundary layer past a sliced sphere. Assumed that the fluid is incompressible, there is no magnetic field, there is no electrical voltage, the sliced sphere is fix and there is no barrier around the object. In this paper we focus on velocity profile at stagnation point (x = 0°). Mathematical model is governed by continuity and momentum equation. It is converted to non-dimensional, stream function, and similarity equation. Solution of the mathematical model is obtained by using Keller-Box numerical method. By giving various of slicing angle and various of magnetic parameter we get the simulation results. The simulation results show that increasing the slicing angle causes the velocity profile be steeper. Also, increasing the value of magnetic parameter causes the velocity profile be steeper. On the large slicing angle there is no significant effect of magnetic parameter to velocity profile, and on the high the value of magnetic parameter there is no significant effect of slicing angle to velocity profile.

  10. Deformable Image Registration of Liver With Consideration of Lung Sliding Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yaoqin; Chao, Ming; Xiong, Guanglei [Key Laboratory for Health Informatics, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China and Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205-7199 (United States); Department of Biomedical Informatics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 251 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305-5479 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: A feature based deformable registration model with sliding transformation was developed in the upper abdominal region for liver cancer. Methods: A two-step thin-plate spline (bi-TPS) algorithm was implemented to deformably register the liver organ. The first TPS registration was performed to exclusively quantify the sliding displacement component. A manual segmentation of the thoracic and abdominal cavity was performed as a priori knowledge. Tissue feature points were automatically identified inside the segmented contour on the images. The scale invariant feature transform method was utilized to match feature points that served as landmarks for the subsequent TPS registration to derive the sliding displacement vector field. To a good approximation, only motion along superior/inferior (SI) direction of voxels on each slice was averaged to obtain the sliding displacement for each slice. A second TPS transformation, as the last step, was carried out to obtain the local deformation field. Manual identification of bifurcation on liver, together with the manual segmentation of liver organ, was employed as a ''ground truth'' for assessing the algorithm's performance. Results: The proposed two-step TPS was assessed with six liver patients. The average error of liver bifurcation between manual identification and calculation for these patients was less than 1.8 mm. The residual errors between manual contour and propagated contour of liver organ using the algorithm fell in the range between 2.1 and 2.8 mm. An index of Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) between manual contour and calculated contour for liver tumor was 93.6% compared with 71.2% from the conventional TPS calculation. Conclusions: A high accuracy ({approx}2 mm) of the two-step feature based TPS registration algorithm was achievable for registering the liver organ. The discontinuous motion in the upper abdominal region was properly taken into consideration. Clinical implementation

  11. Antiviral Activity of Marine Actinobacteria against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Cristina Santiago Bastos; Cláudia Beatriz Afonso de Menezes; Fabiana Fantinatti-Garboggini; Marina Aiello Padilla; Clarice Weis Arns; Luciana Konecny Kohn

    2015-01-01

    The Hepatitis C virus (Flaviviridae family, Hepacivirus genus) represents a major public health problem worldwide and it is responsible for chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. As this virus does not replicate efficiently in cell culture and in animals, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is used as a surrogate model for screening assays of antiviral activity, and mechanism of action assays. From marine invertebrates and their microor...

  12. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-01-01

    ...) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV...

  13. Virome of US bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Yugo, Danielle M; Phan, Tung Gia; Deng, Xutao; Kanevsky, Isis; Opriessnig, Tanja; Woolums, Amelia R; Hurley, David J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Delwart, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Using viral metagenomics we analyzed four bovine serum pools assembled from 715 calves in the United States. Two parvoviruses, bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) and a previously uncharacterized parvovirus designated as bosavirus (BosaV), were detected in 3 and 4 pools respectively and their complete coding sequences generated. Based on NS1 protein identity, bosavirus qualifies as a member of a new species in the copiparvovirus genus. Also detected were low number of reads matching ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, bovine hepacivirus, and several papillomaviruses. This study further characterizes the diversity of viruses in calf serum with the potential to infect fetuses and through fetal bovine serum contaminate cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term potentiation in the hippocampal slice: evidence for stimulated secretion of newly synthesized proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, C; Teyler, T J; Shashoua, V E

    1981-06-05

    Long-term potentiation of the hippocampal slice preparation results in an increase in the incorporation of labeled valine into the proteins destined for secretion into the extracellular medium. Double-labeling methods established that the increased secretion of the labeled proteins was limited to the potentiated region of a slice; incorporation of labeled valine was increased in the hippocampus if potentiation was through the Schaffer collaterals and in the dentate if potentiation was through the perforant path. Controls for nonspecific stimulation showed no changes. There appears to be a link between long-term potentiation and the metabolic processes that lead to protein synthesis in the hippocampal slice system.

  15. Long-term potentiation in the hippocampal slice: evidence for stimulated secretion of newly synthesized proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, C.; Teyler, T.J.; Shashoua, V.E.

    1981-06-01

    Long-term potentiation of the hippocampal slice preparation results in an increase in the incorporation of labeled valine into the proteins destined for secretion into the extracellular medium. Double-labeling methods established that the increased secretion of the labeled proteins was limited to the potentiated region of a slice; incorporation of labeled valine was increased in the hippocampus if potentiation was through the Schaffer collaterals and in the dentate if potentiation was through the perforant path. Controls for nonspecific stimulation showed no changes. There appears to be a link between long-term potentiation and the metabolic processes that lead to protein synthesis in the hippocampal slice system.

  16. Covering link calculus and the bipolar filtration of topologically slice links.

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jae Choon; Powell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The bipolar filtration introduced by T Cochran, S Harvey and P Horn is a framework for the study of smooth concordance of topologically slice knots and links. It is known that there are topologically slice 1–bipolar knots which are not 2–bipolar. For knots, this is the highest known level at which the filtration does not stabilize. For the case of links with two or more components, we prove that the filtration does not stabilize at any level: for any n, there are topologically slice links whi...

  17. Covering link calculus and the bipolar filtration of topologically slice links

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jae Choon; Powell, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The bipolar filtration introduced by T. Cochran, S. Harvey, and P. Horn is a framework for the study of smooth concordance of topologically slice knots and links. It is known that there are topologically slice 1-bipolar knots which are not 2-bipolar. For knots, this is the highest known level at which the filtration does not stabilize. For the case of links with two or more components, we prove that the filtration does not stabilize at any level: for any n, there are topologically slice links...

  18. K-Slicing the Reissner-Nordstrom Spacetime: Some New Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Qadir, Asghar; Siddiqui, Azad A

    2010-01-01

    There were problems encountered in extending the K-slicing of the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) spacetimes [1, 2] to the extreme case, when charge equals mass (in gravitational units). The earlier procedure is here modified so as to allow us to obtain a K-slicing of the region outside the horizon of the extreme metric by spacelike hypersurfaces. We checked this new procedure by applying it to the Schwarzschild and usual RN metrics and recovering the previous foliation with an improved accuracy. We have also checked the asymptotic behaviour of the K-slicing for large K by extrapolation.

  19. Cartography of high-dimensional flows: a visual guide to sections and slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, Predrag; Borrero-Echeverry, Daniel; Carroll, Keith M; Robbins, Bryce; Siminos, Evangelos

    2012-12-01

    Symmetry reduction by the method of slices quotients the continuous symmetries of chaotic flows by replacing the original state space by a set of charts, each covering a neighborhood of a dynamically important class of solutions, qualitatively captured by a "template." Together these charts provide an atlas of the symmetry-reduced "slice" of state space, charting the regions of the manifold explored by the trajectories of interest. Within the slice, relative equilibria reduce to equilibria and relative periodic orbits reduce to periodic orbits. Visualizations of these solutions and their unstable manifolds reveal their interrelations and the role they play in organizing turbulence/chaos.

  20. Investigation of Solar Drying of Plantain and Cassava Slices under Natural Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar drying of cassava and plantain under natural convection were investigated in this study. Slices of cassava and plantain weighing 451.2 and 369.8 g respectively were dried in a natural convection solar dryer while equal masses were dried in the open sun. Moisture removal of 71 and 68.2% were obtained for the cassava and plantain slices in the solar dryer while 55.7 and 55.6% were obtained in the open sun. The study further revealed that the slices dried in the solar drier were neater with no coloration. Natural convection solar drier is thus recommended for use in the rural areas.

  1. Slice-Based Formal Specification Measures -- Mapping Coupling and Cohesion Measures to Formal Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that existing slice-based measures can reasonably be mapped to the field of state-based specification languages. By making use of Z specifications this contribution renews the idea of slice-profiles and derives coupling and cohesion measures for them. The measures are then assessed by taking a critical look at their sensitiveness in respect to modifications on the specification source. The presented study shows that slice-based coupling and cohesion measures have the potential to be used as quality indicators for specifications as they reflect the changes in the structure of a specification as accustomed from their program-related pendants.

  2. The luminosity function for the CfA redshift survey slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lapparent, Valerie; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1989-01-01

    The luminosity function for two complete slices of the extension of the CfA redshift survey is calculated. The nonparametric technique of Lynden-Bell (1971) and Turner (1979) is used to determine the shape for the luminosity function of the 12 deg slice of the redshift survey. The amplitude of the luminosity function is determined, taking large-scale inhomogeneities into account. The effects of the Malmquist bias on a magnitude-limited redshift survey are examined, showing that the random errors in the magnitudes for the 12 deg slice affect both the determination of the luminosity function and the spatial density constrast of large scale structures.

  3. Characterization of Hanwoo Bovine By-products by Means of Yield, Physicochemical and Nutritional Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Sil

    2014-01-01

    Though the edible bovine by-products are widely used for human consumption in most countries worldwide but the scientific information regarding the nutritional quality of these by-products is scarce. In the present study, the basic information regarding the yields, physicochemical and nutritional compositions of edible Hanwoo bovine by-products was studied. Our results showed that the yields, physicochemical and nutritional composition widely varied between the by-products examined. The highest pH values were found in rumen, reticulum, omasum and reproductive organ. Heart, liver, kidney and spleen had the lowest CIE L* values and highest CIE a* values. Liver had the highest vitamin A, B2 and niacin contents whereas the highest B1 and B5 contents were found in kidney. The highest Ca content was found in rumen, reticulum, omasum, head and leg while the highest Mn and Fe contents were found in rumen, omasum and spleen, respectively. Liver had the highest Cu content. Total essential amino acids (EAA)/amino acids (AA) ratios ranged between the by-products from 38.37% to 47.41%. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels ranged between the by-products from 2.26% to 26.47%, and most by-products showed favorable PUFA/SFA ratios. It is concluded that most of by-products examined are good sources of essential nutrients and these data will be of great importance for promotion of consumption and utilization of beef by-products in future. PMID:26761281

  4. Metabolism and Calcification of Bovine Tooth Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    高木, 亨; 田上, 順次; 中村, 聡; Tohru, Takagi; Junji, TAGAMI; Satoshi, Nakamura; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 生化学講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 歯科保存学第1講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 医用器材研究所; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Institute of Medical and Dental Engineering, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mineralization mechanism in developing enamel using pH staining. Unerupted bovine teeth were used for the expriment. The activity of a proteolytic enzyme was evaluated against enamel protein obtainedfrom bovine enamel. Crystals in developing enamel, which were classlfied into neutral zone 1 and 2, acid zone 1 and 2, were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and power X-ray diffractometry. Proteolytic enzyme showed the hig...

  5. Interactions between bovine cornea proteoglycans and collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Speziale, P.; Bardoni, A; Balduini, C.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of proteoglycan subunits were obtained from bovine cornea, the first mainly composed of proteochondroitin sulphate and the second of proteokeratan sulphate. These two fractions can be obtained from the tissue as an aggregate, and are able to recombine each other after separation, to re-form the original structure. In order to investigate collagen-proteoglycan interactions, type-I collagen was isolated from bovine cornea by pepsin digestion followed by 3.5% (w/v) NaCl precipitation, ...

  6. Electron slicing for the generation of tunable femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free electron laser and slice diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Di Mitri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the experimental results of femtosecond slicing an ultrarelativistic, high brightness electron beam with a collimator. In contrast to some qualitative considerations reported in Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.92.074801, we first demonstrate that the collimation process preserves the slice beam quality, in agreement with our theoretical expectations, and that the collimation is compatible with the operation of a linear accelerator in terms of beam transport, radiation dose, and collimator heating. Accordingly, the collimated beam can be used for the generation of stable femtosecond soft x-ray pulses of tunable duration, from either a self-amplified spontaneous emission or an externally seeded free electron laser. The proposed method also turns out to be a more compact and cheaper solution for electron slice diagnostics than the commonly used radio frequency deflecting cavities and has minimal impact on the machine design.

  7. Colorectal polyps: detection with multi-slice CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessling, J.; Fischbach, R.; Neumann, E.; Heindel, W. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Domagk, D.; Luegering, N. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Gastroenterology

    2001-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of virtual and conventional colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal polyps using a multislice spiral CT scanner (MSCT). Materials and Methods: 48 patients (20 women, 28 men, mean age 61.5 years) with clinical indication for conventional colonoscopy were prospectively studied using a MSCT (Somatom Volume Zoom, Siemens, Forchheim). Examination was performed after standard oral preparation for colonoscopy and colonic distension with room air and i.v. butylscopolamin. Images were obtained in prone and supine position using a detector configuration of 4 x 1 mm, a table feed of 5 mm/rotation at 140 mAs and 120 kV. Slice thickness and reconstruction increment were 3 and 1.5 mm, respectively. CT data were assessed by two blinded radiologists on a Vitrea workstation (Vital Images, USA) using a software with multiplanar and volume-rendering capabilities. Results: 33 patients had normal findings on conventional colonoscopy. In 15 patients a total of 30 polyps and one carcinoma with stenosis were identified. MSCT-colonography identified the carcinoma and 23 polyps (77%). 3 of 3 polyps were 10 mm or more (100%), 6 of 7 were 5.1 to 9.9 mm (86%) and 14 of 20 were 5 mm or smaller (70%). There were 13 false positive findings for polyps (10 lesions <6 mm in 5 patients) and no false positive finding of carcinoma. Conclusions: MSCT colonography allows accurate detection of polyps larger than 10 mm. Compared to published results of single-slice CT, multislice CT colonography increases the rate of detection of small colorectal polyps in particular. However, false positive results still remain a problem. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Vergleich der Mehrschichtspiral-CT (MSCT)-Kolographie mit der konventionellen Koloskopie in der Detektion von kolorektalen Polypen. Material und Methoden: 48 Patienten (20 Frauen, 28 Maenner, Durchschnittsalter 61,5 Jahre) mit erhoehtem kolorektalen Karzinomrisiko wurden prospektiv an einem MSCT (Somatom Volume Zoom, Siemens

  8. Liver biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liver biopsy is not a routine procedure, but is performed when it is necessary to determine the presence of liver disease and to look for malignancy, cysts, parasites, or other pathology. The actual procedure is only slightly uncomfortable. ...

  9. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liver disease is more likely to develop if people Drink large amounts of alcohol Have been drinking a long time (usually, for more than 8 years) Are women Have a genetic makeup that makes them susceptible to alcoholic liver disease ...

  10. American Liver Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Disease Information Select Info Center Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune ... NEW JERSEY (CENTRAL/SOUTHERN) NEW JERSEY (NORTHERN) NEW MEXICO NEW YORK NORTH CAROLINA NORTH DAKOTA OHIO OKLAHOMA ...

  11. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  12. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  13. Diet - liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002441.htm Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet ...

  14. [Ultrasound after liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, M- W; Friedrich-Rust, M

    2015-01-01

    Graft specific complications after liver transplantation may be classified as vascular, biliar, and miscellaneous. This review provides an overview on sonography after liver transplantation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Liver transplantation in polycystic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Paul S; Hillingsø, Jens; Kirkegaard, Preben

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a rare, hereditary, benign disorder. Hepatic failure is uncommon and symptoms are caused by mass effects leading to abdominal distension and pain. Liver transplantation (LTX) offers fully curative treatment, but there is still some controversy about...... whether it is a relevant modality considering the absence of liver failure, relative organ shortage, perioperative risks and lifelong immunosuppression. The purpose of this study was to review our experience of LTX for PLD and to compare the survival with the overall survival of patients who underwent LTX...... from 1992 to 2005. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of the journals of 440 patients, who underwent 506 LTXs between 1992 and 2005, showed that 14 patients underwent LTX for PLD. All patients had normal liver function. Three were receiving haemodialysis and thus underwent combined liver...

  16. Hemoglobinopathies: slicing the Gordian knot of Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve M; Cerami, Carla; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits--including hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and α-thalassemia--are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait). Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a "natural experiment" to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the "Gordian knot" of host and parasite

  17. Holographic photolysis for multiple cell stimulation in mouse hippocampal slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad Zahid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced light microscopy offers sensitive and non-invasive means to image neural activity and to control signaling with photolysable molecules and, recently, light-gated channels. These approaches require precise and yet flexible light excitation patterns. For synchronous stimulation of subsets of cells, they also require large excitation areas with millisecond and micrometric resolution. We have recently developed a new method for such optical control using a phase holographic modulation of optical wave-fronts, which minimizes power loss, enables rapid switching between excitation patterns, and allows a true 3D sculpting of the excitation volumes. In previous studies we have used holographic photololysis to control glutamate uncaging on single neuronal cells. Here, we extend the use of holographic photolysis for the excitation of multiple neurons and of glial cells. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The system combines a liquid crystal device for holographic patterned photostimulation, high-resolution optical imaging, the HiLo microscopy, to define the stimulated regions and a conventional Ca(2+ imaging system to detect neural activity. By means of electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging in acute hippocampal slices, we show that the use of excitation patterns precisely tailored to the shape of multiple neuronal somata represents a very efficient way for the simultaneous excitation of a group of neurons. In addition, we demonstrate that fast shaped illumination patterns also induce reliable responses in single glial cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that the main advantage of holographic illumination is that it allows for an efficient excitation of multiple cells with a spatiotemporal resolution unachievable with other existing approaches. Although this paper focuses on the photoactivation of caged molecules, our approach will surely prove very efficient for other probes, such as light-gated channels, genetically

  18. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Drying Characteristics and Product Quality of Lemon Slices Dried with Hot Air Circulation Oven and Hybrid Heatpump Dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hong Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, drying characteristics and product quality of Coulomb-force-assisted heatpump and oven dried lemon slices were studied. Lemon slices with 3 mm thickness each, were dried using oven and Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump dryer with and without auxiliary heater at different drying conditions. It was found that the drying rate of the lemon slices dried by all drying methods showed only falling rate states, which indicates the drying kinetics were controlled by internal moisture diffusion. Oven drying of lemon slices at 60°C showed the highest drying rate among all, followed by oven dried slices at 50°C, Coulomb-force-heater-assisted-heatpump (CF-HT-HP dried slices at 31°C, Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump (CF-HP dried slices at 22°C, oven dried slices at 40°C and heatpump dried slices at 22°C. The average effective moisture diffusivity value for the slices dried with these drying methods was found in the range of 16.2 to 63.8´10-4 mm2min-1. In terms of quality assessment, CF-HP dried lemon slices retained the highest amount of Vitamin C as compared to the lemon slices dried by other drying methods. However, it retained relatively lower amount of total phenolic content (TPC as compared to oven dried products. Among of all, CF-HP drying method produced dried lemon slices with the highest Vitamin C (6.74 mg AA / g dry weight whereas oven dried lemon slices at 50°C preserved most of the TPC in the dried slices, which recorded as 13.76 mg GA / g dry weight.

  20. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  1. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat-Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat-bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  2. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals. PMID:28638381

  3. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okagawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1, is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2 was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV. Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  4. A slice chamber for intracellular and extracellular recording during continuous perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, S R; Nelson, D O; Silva, N L; Boulant, J A

    1983-06-01

    The design of a tissue slice perfusion system is described, and examples are given showing the stability of this system for intracellular and extracellular recordings during changes in perfusion media. The stability of this system is attributed to several features. Mini-drips serve to cushion transient changes in flow rate when switching from one medium to another. Solenoid valves are used to quickly switch perfusion media with minimal mechanical movement. A finely-controlled adjustable flow valve provides a uniform flow rate for all media. Constant tissue temperature is maintained by media perfusion through a thermoelectric Peltier assembly. In addition, a filter paper wick insures that the perfusate is constantly removed without movement in the tissue slices. With this design, the slices are supported on a net at the interface between the perfusion medium and a humidified, oxygenated atmosphere. This arrangement appears to be conducive to tissue viability and facilitates the placement of microelectrodes in the slices.

  5. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  6. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  7. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  8. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of the United States, in an Albers Equal-Area...

  9. Effect of drying temperature and slice size on quality of dried okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendre, N K; Nema, Prabhat K; Sharma, Harsh P; Rathore, S S; Kushwah, S S

    2012-06-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is an important vegetable crop of India. Dried okra pods have wide use in snacks and are in great demand for domestic as well as export market. Hence, effect of four slice sizes (1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) and four drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on quality of hot air dried okra were studied. Okra pods were dried in the form of slices cut across the length at different temperatures. Quality assessment of okra was done on the basis of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content. Okra slice sizes and drying temperatures affected all the quality parameters significantly (p < 0.05). Maximum retention of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content were found in 2 cm long slices dried at 60 °C temperature.

  10. SMEX02 Sliced Core Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek Watershed, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes sliced soil core moisture data collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02), conducted during June and July 2002 in the Walnut...

  11. A mouse juvenile or adult slice with preserved functional nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, R; Lopez, C; Fiorentino, H; Gonon, F; Hammond, C

    2009-03-03

    The effect of endogenous dopamine on the activity of target neurons recorded with patch clamp or Ca2+ imaging techniques in slices has been studied to date with intra-striatal stimuli. Yet, this approach is severely handicapped by the nonphysiological and nonspecific stimulation of local neurons and fibers within the striatum. We now report a new juvenile and adult mouse slice preparation in which a component of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway is preserved in its entirety, from cell bodies to axon terminals. This tilted parasagittal slice (380-400 microm) just medial to the subthalamic nucleus contains functional nigro-striatal neurons as assessed by morphological examination of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cell bodies and axons, combined with electrochemical assays of dopamine release in the striatum in response to stimulation of the substantia nigra pars compacta. The nigro-striatal slice constitutes a suitable in vitro preparation to determine the impact of endogenously released dopamine on target neurons of the striatum.

  12. Does multi-slice CT provide reliable attenuation values if measured with low slice thickness and low tube current? Results of a phantom study; Sind mit der Mehrschicht-Computertomografie Dichtemessungen auch bei geringer Schichtdicke und niedrigem Roehrenstrom verlaesslich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhof, K.; Bohndorf, K. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany); Welzel, T. [Abt. klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Wagner, T. [Pathologisches Inst., Klinikum Augsburg (Germany); Behr, W. [Inst. fuer Laboratoriumsmedizin, Mikrobiologie und Umwelthygiene, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: to test whether CT with low slice thickness and low tube current provides reliable attenuation measurements. Materials and methods: using multi-slice CT and a phantom, we measured the attenuation values of thrombi with different proportions of erythrocytes, using a slice thickness of 1.25 mm, 2.5 mm, and 5 mm with tube currents of 200 mA, 300 mA, and 400 mA and a slice thickness of 0.625 mm with tube currents of 150 mA, 175 mA, and 200 mA. Differences in attenuation values and pixel noise between the three thrombi for tube current and slice thickness were statistically analyzed. Results: the attenuation values of all thrombi increased (p < 0.05) when the slice thickness decreased using a tube current of 200 mA or when the tube current decreased using a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. With higher tube currents and thicker slices, the CT values depended on the type of thrombus and the slice thickness. In slices with a thickness of 0.625 mm, the CT values decreased with the tube current in the mixed thrombus with a low proportion of erythrocytes and in the red thrombus (p < 0.05). The maximal difference in mean attenuation values was 4.3 HU with a slice thickness of 0.625 mm and 2.2 HU with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. The pixel noise increased as the slice thickness decreased (p < 0.05) with the exception of the red thrombus, if reduced to 0.625 mm. The pixel noise also increased as the tube current decreased (p < 0.05) except in mixed thrombi measured with 0.625 mm. The maximal difference in mean standard deviation was 1.8 HU with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. (orig.)

  13. Susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial cells to bovine herpesviruses and pseudocowpox virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Jongejan, F.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial (BUE) cells to bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1, BHV2, BHV4 and BHV5, and to pseudocowpox virus. the detection limits and growth curves of these viruses in BUE cells were compared with those in Vero,

  14. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all t...

  15. Hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, Jose Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; Joao, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima, E-mail: ecamic@uol.com.br [Hospital Universitario Onofre Lopes (HUOL/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Clinica Gastrocentro e Ambulatorios de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo e de Cirurgia Hepatobiliopancreatica

    2017-09-01

    Background: The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. Aim: To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. Method: This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Results: Eighty eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. Conclusion: It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine amino transaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. (author)

  16. Effects of Peeling Methods on the Quality of Ready-to-use Carrot Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Barry-Ryan, Catherine; O'Beirne, David

    2000-01-01

    The effects of methods used for peeling and physiological age (over-wintering) on the quality and storage life of carrot disks packaged in modified atmosphere were examined. Commercial mechanical abrasion peeling using fine or coarse carborundum plates, was compared with carrots peeled by hand, before slicing into disks. Slices which had been peeled by abrasion had higher respiration rates, greater microbial contamination and growth rates, higher pH values, higher rates of weight loss and sho...

  17. Drying characteristics of pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata) slices in convective and freeze dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Gulsah; Dirim, Safiye Nur

    2017-06-01

    This study was intended to determine the drying and rehydration kinetics of convective and freeze dried pumpkin slices (0.5 × 3.5 × 0.5 cm). A pilot scale tray drier (at 80 ± 2 °C inlet temperature, 1 m s-1 air velocity) and freeze drier (13.33 kPa absolute pressure, condenser temperature of -48 ± 2 °C) were used for the drying experiments. Drying curves were fitted to six well-known thin layer drying models. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to evaluate the parameters of the selected models by using statistical software SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., USA). For the convective and freeze drying processes of pumpkin slices, the highest R2 values, and the lowest RMSE as well as χ2 values were obtained from Page model. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of the convective and freeze dried pumpkin slices were obtained from the Fick's diffusion model, and they were found to be 2.233 × 10-7 and 3.040 × 10-9 m2s-1, respectively. Specific moisture extraction rate, moisture extraction rate, and specific energy consumption values were almost twice in freeze drying process. Depending on the results, moisture contents and water activity values of pumpkin slices were in acceptable limits for safe storage of products. The rehydration behaviour of [at 18 ± 2 and 100 ± 2 °C for 1:25, 1:50, 1:75, 1:100, and 1:125 solid:liquid ratios (w:w)] dried pumpkin slices was determined by Peleg's model with the highest R2. The highest total soluble solid loss of pumpkin slices was observed for the rehydration experiment which performed at 1:25 solid: liquid ratio (w:w). Rehydration ratio of freeze dried slices was found 2-3 times higher than convective dried slices.

  18. Measurement of the pollutants on the surface of crystal slice using PIXE

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu Guang Hua; Wang Xin Fu; Zhou Hong Yu

    2001-01-01

    The analytical sensitivity and detection limit and the applications of the PIXE technique or the samples of crystal slice are presented. The crystal slices implanted with oxygen ions at different implantation machines are polluted with element Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu etc. during oxygen ion implantation. These results show that PIXE method has high sensitivity and is non-destructive for measuring pollutants, and is suitable in this research field

  19. Organotypic slice cultures containing the preBötzinger complex generate respiratory-like rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Wiktor S; Herly, Mikkel; Del Negro, Christopher A; Rekling, Jens C

    2016-02-01

    Study of acute brain stem slice preparations in vitro has advanced our understanding of the cellular and synaptic mechanisms of respiratory rhythm generation, but their inherent limitations preclude long-term manipulation and recording experiments. In the current study, we have developed an organotypic slice culture preparation containing the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the core inspiratory rhythm generator of the ventrolateral brain stem. We measured bilateral synchronous network oscillations, using calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes, in both ventrolateral (presumably the preBötC) and dorsomedial regions of slice cultures at 7-43 days in vitro. These calcium oscillations appear to be driven by periodic bursts of inspiratory neuronal activity, because whole cell recordings from ventrolateral neurons in culture revealed inspiratory-like drive potentials, and no oscillatory activity was detected from glial fibrillary associated protein-expressing astrocytes in cultures. Acute slices showed a burst frequency of 10.9 ± 4.2 bursts/min, which was not different from that of brain stem slice cultures (13.7 ± 10.6 bursts/min). However, slice cocultures that include two cerebellar explants placed along the dorsolateral border of the brainstem displayed up to 193% faster burst frequency (22.4 ± 8.3 bursts/min) and higher signal amplitude (340%) compared with acute slices. We conclude that preBötC-containing slice cultures retain inspiratory-like rhythmic function and therefore may facilitate lines of experimentation that involve extended incubation (e.g., genetic transfection or chronic drug exposure) while simultaneously being amenable to imaging and electrophysiology at cellular, synaptic, and network levels. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. The Role of Furosemide on Intrinsic Optical Signals in Hippocampal slices

    OpenAIRE

    Kuta, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Title of work: The Role of Furosemide on Intrinsic Optical Signals in hippocampal slices Objective: Learn how furosemide affects the internal optical signals in the rat hippocampus. Method: Measurement of IOS on slices of hippocampus in electro DG. detection IOS changes in the application of furosemide. Results: Internal optical signals are dependent on the activation of tissues and exhibit regional differences in hippocampal different layers. The concentration furosemide increases optical re...

  1. Accuracy of limited four-slice CT-scan in diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zojaji, R; Nekooei, S; Naghibi, S; Mazloum Farsi Baf, M; Jalilian, R; Masoomi, M

    2015-12-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common chronic health condition worldwide. Standard CT-scan is the method of choice for diagnosis of CRS but its high price and considerable radiation exposure have limited its application. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of limited four-slice coronal CT-scan in the diagnosis of CRS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 46 patients with CRS, for one year, based on American Society of Head and Neck Surgery criteria. All patients received the preoperative standard and four-slice CT-scans, after which endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. Findings of four-slice CT-scans were compared with those of conventional CT-scan and the sensitivity and specificity of four-slice CT-scan and its agreement with conventional CT-scan was calculated. In this study, 46 patients including 32 males (69.6%) and 14 females (30.46%) with a mean age of 33 and standard deviation of 9 years, were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of four-slice CT-scan were 97.5% and 100%, respectively. Also, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of four-slice CT was 100% and 85.71%, respectively. There was a strong agreement between four-slice CT and conventional CT findings. Considering the high sensitivity and specificity of four-slice CT-scan and strong agreement with conventional CT-scan in the diagnosis of CRS and the lower radiation exposure and cost, application of this method is suggested for both diagnosis and treatment follow-up in CRS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Organotypic Cultured Cardiac Slices: New Platform For High Throughput Preclinical Human Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, C; Qiao, Y.; Li, G.; Baechle, K.; Camelliti, P; S. Rentschler; Efimov, I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Translation of novel therapies from bench to bedside is hampered by profound disparities between animal and human genetics and physiology. The ability to test for efficacy and cardiotoxicity in a clinically relevant human model system would enable more rapid therapy development. We have developed a preclinical platform for validation of new therapies in human heart tissue using organotypic slices isolated from donor and end-stage failing hearts. A major advantage of the slices when compared w...

  3. Fluidized bed drying characteristics and modeling of ginger ( zingiber officinale) slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Nezaket

    2015-08-01

    In this study fluidized bed drying characteristics of ginger have been investigated. The effects of the fluidizing air temperature, velocity, humidity and bed height on the drying performance of ginger slices have been found. The experimental moisture loss data of ginger slices has been fitted to the eight thin layer drying models. Two-term model drying model has shown a better fit to the experimental data with R2 of 0.998 as compared to others.

  4. A comparison of texture models for automatic liver segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mailan; Susomboon, Ruchaneewan; Disney, Tim; Raicu, Daniela; Furst, Jacob

    2007-03-01

    Automatic liver segmentation from abdominal computed tomography (CT) images based on gray levels or shape alone is difficult because of the overlap in gray-level ranges and the variation in position and shape of the soft tissues. To address these issues, we propose an automatic liver segmentation method that utilizes low-level features based on texture information; this texture information is expected to be homogenous and consistent across multiple slices for the same organ. Our proposed approach consists of the following steps: first, we perform pixel-level texture extraction; second, we generate liver probability images using a binary classification approach; third, we apply a split-and-merge algorithm to detect the seed set with the highest probability area; and fourth, we apply to the seed set a region growing algorithm iteratively to refine the liver's boundary and get the final segmentation results. Furthermore, we compare the segmentation results from three different texture extraction methods (Co-occurrence Matrices, Gabor filters, and Markov Random Fields (MRF)) to find the texture method that generates the best liver segmentation. From our experimental results, we found that the co-occurrence model led to the best segmentation, while the Gabor model led to the worst liver segmentation. Moreover, co-occurrence texture features alone produced approximately the same segmentation results as those produced when all the texture features from the combined co-occurrence, Gabor, and MRF models were used. Therefore, in addition to providing an automatic model for liver segmentation, we also conclude that Haralick cooccurrence texture features are the most significant texture characteristics in distinguishing the liver tissue in CT scans.

  5. Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Rahimi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations of sugar solution (hypertonic (30%, 45% and 60% w/v and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC (0%, 1% and 2% w/v coating on freeze drying of apple slices was studied. In total, nine treatments with respect to concentrations of hypertonic solution and coating layer were prepared to analyze their influence on the physical and chemical properties of freeze dried apple slices. It was observed that increase in the sugar solution concentration, decreased the moisture content of the apple slices significantly impacting its water activity, texture and sugar gain. Application of different concentrations of CMC coating had no significant effect on the properties of dried apple slices. A significant change was observed for color of CMC coated freeze dried apple slices pretreated with 60% sugar solution. Drying kinetics of pretreated apple slices were fitted by using two drying models, Newton’s and Page’s. Page’s model showed higher R-square and lower root mean square error (RSME compared to Newton’s model.

  6. Fast whole-brain optical tomography capable of automated slice-collection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Deng, Lei; Long, Beng; Peng, Jie; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Acquiring brain-wide composite information of neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping is crucial to understand brain functions. However, current whole-brain imaging methods based on mechnical sectioning haven't achieved brain-wide acquisition of both neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping due to the lack of appropriate whole-brain immunostaining of embedded samples. Here, we present a novel strategy of acquiring brain-wide structural and molecular maps in the same brain, combining whole-brain imaging and subsequent immunostaining of automated-collected slices. We developed a whole-brain imaging system capable of automatically imaging and then collecting imaged tissue slices in order. The system contains three parts: structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput optical sectioning, vibratome for high-precision sectioning and slice-collection device for automated collecting of tissue slices. Through our system, we could acquire a whole-brain dataset of agarose-embedded mouse brain at lateral resolution of 0.33 µm with z-interval sampling of 100 µm in 9 h, and automatically collect the imaged slices in sequence. Subsequently, we performed immunohistochemistry of the collected slices in the routine way. We acquired mouse whole-brain imaging datasets of multiple specific types of neurons, proteins and gene expression profiles. We believe our method could accelerate systematic analysis of brain anatomical structure with specific proteins or genes expression information and understanding how the brain processes information and generates behavior.

  7. Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Jamshid; Singh, Ashutosh; Adewale, Peter Olusola; Adedeji, Akinbode A.; Ngadi, Michael O.; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of sugar solution (hypertonic) (30%, 45% and 60% w/v) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) (0%, 1% and 2% w/v) coating on freeze drying of apple slices was studied. In total, nine treatments with respect to concentrations of hypertonic solution and coating layer were prepared to analyze their influence on the physical and chemical properties of freeze dried apple slices. It was observed that increase in the sugar solution concentration, decreased the moisture content of the apple slices significantly impacting its water activity, texture and sugar gain. Application of different concentrations of CMC coating had no significant effect on the properties of dried apple slices. A significant change was observed for color of CMC coated freeze dried apple slices pretreated with 60% sugar solution. Drying kinetics of pretreated apple slices were fitted by using two drying models, Newton’s and Page’s. Page’s model showed higher R-square and lower root mean square error (RSME) compared to Newton’s model. PMID:28239107

  8. Evaluation of slice accelerations using multiband echo planar imaging at 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junqian; Moeller, Steen; Auerbach, Edward J; Strupp, John; Smith, Stephen M; Feinberg, David A; Yacoub, Essa; Uğurbil, Kâmil

    2013-12-01

    We evaluate residual aliasing among simultaneously excited and acquired slices in slice accelerated multiband (MB) echo planar imaging (EPI). No in-plane accelerations were used in order to maximize and evaluate achievable slice acceleration factors at 3 T. We propose a novel leakage (L-) factor to quantify the effects of signal leakage between simultaneously acquired slices. With a standard 32-channel receiver coil at 3 T, we demonstrate that slice acceleration factors of up to eight (MB=8) with blipped controlled aliasing in parallel imaging (CAIPI), in the absence of in-plane accelerations, can be used routinely with acceptable image quality and integrity for whole brain imaging. Spectral analyses of single-shot fMRI time series demonstrate that temporal fluctuations due to both neuronal and physiological sources were distinguishable and comparable up to slice-acceleration factors of nine (MB=9). The increased temporal efficiency could be employed to achieve, within a given acquisition period, higher spatial resolution, increased fMRI statistical power, multiple TEs, faster sampling of temporal events in a resting state fMRI time series, increased sampling of q-space in diffusion imaging, or more quiet time during a scan. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Amebic liver abscess and polycystic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan V. S. Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic liver disease is a rare disorder which remains asymptomatic. Infection of cyst is a major complication and is usually pyogenic. We report a rare case of amebic liver abscess in a patient with polycystic liver disease. In our search we found one such case report. Clinical features and radiological findings are usually sufficient, but atypical history and the presence of multiple hepatic abscesses in CT scan delayed diagnosis in our case. Histopathology of the cyst wall and enzyme immunoassay asserted the diagnosis.

  10. Dynamic bowtie filter for cone-beam/multi-slice CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Liu

    Full Text Available A pre-patient attenuator ("bowtie filter" or "bowtie" is used to modulate an incoming x-ray beam as a function of the angle of the x-ray with respect to a patient to balance the photon flux on a detector array. While the current dynamic bowtie design is focused on fan-beam geometry, in this study we propose a methodology for dynamic bowtie design in multi-slice/cone-beam geometry. The proposed 3D dynamic bowtie is an extension of the 2D prior art. The 3D bowtie consists of a highly attenuating bowtie (HB filled in with heavy liquid and a weakly attenuating bowtie (WB immersed in the liquid of the HB. The HB targets a balanced flux distribution on a detector array when no object is in the field of view (FOV. The WB compensates for an object in the FOV, and hence is a scaled-down version of the object. The WB is rotated and translated in synchrony with the source rotation and patient translation so that the overall flux balance is maintained on the detector array. First, the mathematical models of different scanning modes are established for an elliptical water phantom. Then, a numerical simulation study is performed to compare the performance of the scanning modes in the cases of the water phantom and a patient cross-section without any bowtie and with a dynamic bowtie. The dynamic bowtie can equalize the numbers of detected photons in the case of the water phantom. In practical cases, the dynamic bowtie can effectively reduce the dynamic range of detected signals inside the FOV. Furthermore, the WB can be individualized using a 3D printing technique as the gold standard. We have extended the dynamic bowtie concept from 2D to 3D by using highly attenuating liquid and moving a scale-reduced negative copy of an object being scanned. Our methodology can be applied to reduce radiation dose and facilitate photon-counting detection.

  11. Dynamic Bowtie Filter for Cone-Beam/Multi-Slice CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenglin; Yang, Qingsong; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    A pre-patient attenuator (“bowtie filter” or “bowtie”) is used to modulate an incoming x-ray beam as a function of the angle of the x-ray with respect to a patient to balance the photon flux on a detector array. While the current dynamic bowtie design is focused on fan-beam geometry, in this study we propose a methodology for dynamic bowtie design in multi-slice/cone-beam geometry. The proposed 3D dynamic bowtie is an extension of the 2D prior art. The 3D bowtie consists of a highly attenuating bowtie (HB) filled in with heavy liquid and a weakly attenuating bowtie (WB) immersed in the liquid of the HB. The HB targets a balanced flux distribution on a detector array when no object is in the field of view (FOV). The WB compensates for an object in the FOV, and hence is a scaled-down version of the object. The WB is rotated and translated in synchrony with the source rotation and patient translation so that the overall flux balance is maintained on the detector array. First, the mathematical models of different scanning modes are established for an elliptical water phantom. Then, a numerical simulation study is performed to compare the performance of the scanning modes in the cases of the water phantom and a patient cross-section without any bowtie and with a dynamic bowtie. The dynamic bowtie can equalize the numbers of detected photons in the case of the water phantom. In practical cases, the dynamic bowtie can effectively reduce the dynamic range of detected signals inside the FOV. Furthermore, the WB can be individualized using a 3D printing technique as the gold standard. We have extended the dynamic bowtie concept from 2D to 3D by using highly attenuating liquid and moving a scale-reduced negative copy of an object being scanned. Our methodology can be applied to reduce radiation dose and facilitate photon-counting detection. PMID:25051067

  12. Acquisition of thin coronal sectional dataset of cadaveric liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Li; Liu, Shu Wei; Zhao, Zhen Mei; Tang, Yu Chun; Lin, Xiang Tao

    2014-04-01

    To obtain the thin coronal sectional anatomic dataset of the liver by using digital freezing milling technique. The upper abdomen of one Chinese adult cadaver was selected as the specimen. After CT and MRI examinations verification of absent liver lesions, the specimen was embedded with gelatin in stand erect position and frozen under profound hypothermia, and the specimen was then serially sectioned from anterior to posterior layer by layer with digital milling machine in the freezing chamber. The sequential images were captured by means of a digital camera and the dataset was imported to imaging workstation. The thin serial section of the liver added up to 699 layers with each layer being 0.2 mm in thickness. The shape, location, structure, intrahepatic vessels and adjacent structures of the liver was displayed clearly on each layer of the coronal sectional slice. CT and MR images through the body were obtained at 1.0 and 3.0 mm intervals, respectively. The methodology reported here is an adaptation of the milling methods previously described, which is a new data acquisition method for sectional anatomy. The thin coronal sectional anatomic dataset of the liver obtained by this technique is of high precision and good quality.

  13. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  14. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  15. Detection and characterization of benign focal liver lesions with multislice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterer, J.T.; Kotter, E.; Ghanem, N.; Langer, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    MDCT is a rapidly evolving technique that significantly improves CT imaging for several indications including depiction of focal benign lesions. Imaging mainly profits from improved longitudinal spatial resolution allowing high-quality non-axial reformations and 3D reconstructions and CT angiography as well as rapid accurate multiphase imaging with short breath-holding periods. This review provides an overview of the current status of MDCT with respect to liver imaging and the implications for characterizing benign focal liver lesions. MDCT currently allows the acquisition of thin slices in daily routine diagnostics providing an improved detection rate of small liver lesions. Whereas large benign focal liver lesions exhibit typical patterns of morphology, attenuation and perfusion, which also may be assessed with single-slice scanners, small lesions remain challenging even with MDCT, since the specific criteria for confident diagnosis become more ambiguous. Here, MR imaging provides more detailed information about tissue components and the availability of liver-specific contrast agents, adding further impact to this technique. With respect to dose considerations, the number of necessary multiphase scans as well as the application of very thin collimation should be strictly checked for each patient undergoing MDCT based on the individual clinical situation and question. (orig.)

  16. An "ex vivo" model to evaluate toxicological responses to mixtures of contaminants in cetaceans: integumentum biopsy slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Casini, Silvia; Maltese, Silvia; Panti, Cristina; Spinsanti, Giacomo; Marsili, Letizia

    2014-10-01

    The need for powerful new tools to detect the effects of chemical pollution, in particular of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Mediterranean cetaceans led us to develop and apply a suite of sensitive biomarkers for integument biopsies of stranded and free-ranging animals. This multi-response ex vivo method has the aim to detect toxicological effects of contaminant mixtures. In the present study, we applied an ex vivo assay using skin biopsy and liver slices, combining molecular biomarkers [Western blot of Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and Cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B)] and gene expression biomarkers (Quantitative real-time PCR of CYP1A1, heat shock protein 70, estrogen receptor alpha and E2F transcription factor) in response to chemical exposure [organochlorines compounds (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PAHs] for stranded Mediterranean Stenella coeruleoalba. The main goal of this experiment was to identify the biomarker and/or a suite of biomarkers that could best detect the presence of a specific class of pollutants (OCs, PBDEs, and PAHs) or a mixture of them. This multi-response biomarker methodology revealed an high sensitivity and selectivity of responses (such as CYP1A and ER α mRNA variations after OCs and PAHs exposure) and could represent a valid future approach for the study of inter- and intra-species sensitivities to various classes of environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  17. Bovine Eimeria species in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W

    2012-05-01

    Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from

  18. Obesity and Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Schlesinger, Sabrina

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure. Accumulating evidence has established an association between higher body mass index as an indicator of general obesity and higher risk of primary liver cancer. The associations are stronger in men, in patients with underlying liver disease and in white ethnic groups. Abdominal obesity, weight gain in adult life and metabolic factors related to visceral fat accumulation were also suggested as important risk factors for liver cancer; however, more studies are needed to evaluate these associations. The association of obesity and metabolic parameters with liver cancer survival remains controversial. It is unclear which exact mechanisms could provide links between obesity and liver cancer risk. Recent evidence has implicated several molecular pathways in obesity-associated liver cancer. These include insulin resistance leading to increased levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factors, chronic inflammation, adipose tissue remodeling, pro-inflammatory cytokine and adipokine secretion, and altered gut microbiota. These mechanisms coincide with inflammatory and metabolic processes occurring in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease predisposing cancer development and progression. In the context of the current evidence, better understanding of the role of obesity and related metabolic factors may help in

  19. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of ...

  20. Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factors for human infection with bovine tuberculosis among dairy and non-dairy farming neighbour households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  1. The Effect of Prolonged Fasting on Total Lipid Synthesis and Enzyme Activities in the Liver of the European Eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, S. A.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, F.N.

    1984-01-01

    The extent of fatty acid synthesis from [1-14C]acetate in liver slices was reduced 6-fold when eels were fasted for 1-7 wk and 20-fold when fasted for 39 wk, thereafter hepatic lipogenesis seemed to remain constant for up to 95 wk of fasting. After a 1-3 wk fast some hepatic enzyme activities wer...

  2. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of tissue slices with tumour inclusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hagan, Joseph J; Samani, Abbas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)], E-mail: asamani@uwo.ca

    2008-12-21

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community as there are several applications where parameters characterizing these properties are critical for a reliable outcome. This includes applications such as surgery planning, needle biopsy and cancer diagnosis using medical imaging. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in slice specimens. In this paper, we present a method of measuring the hyperelastic parameters of tissue slice samples with tumours. In this method, to measure the hyperelastic properties of a tumour within a slice sample, the tumour was indented to acquire its force-displacement response while the slice remained intact. To calculate the hyperelastic parameters from the acquired data, we developed two inversion techniques that use the slice nonlinear finite element model as their forward problem solver. One of these techniques was based on nonlinear optimization while the other is a novel iterative technique that processes the variable slopes of the force-displacement response to calculate the hyperelastic parameters. The latter was developed specifically for the Yeoh and the second-order polynomial hyperelastic models, since we found that the other optimization-based inversion technique did not perform well with these models. To validate the proposed techniques, we performed numerical and phantom experiments. While we were able to achieve convergence with wide ranges of parameters of initial guesses to within 1% error with the numerical simulation experiments, we achieved convergence to within errors of around 5% with the tissue mimicking phantoms. Moreover, we successfully applied these techniques to data we acquired from nine pathological breast tissue slice specimens where the goal was to

  3. Multi-slice CT urography after diuretic injection: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Wildberger, J.E.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Borchers, H. [Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Urology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of CT urography (CTU) using a multi-slice (MS) scanner and to find out whether a low-dose diuretic injection is advantageous for the opacification of the urinary tract. Methods: MS-CTU was performed in 21 patients with urologic diseases. In 5/21 patients, 250 ml of physiologic saline solution were injected. In 16/21 patients, 10 mg of furosemide were injected 3-5 min before contrast material administration. A 4x2.5 mm collimation with a pitch of 1.25 and a tube curent of 100-150 mA were used. Scan time was 12-16 sec. 3 mm thin axial images with an overlap of 67% were reconstructed. Multiplanar maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were postprocessed to obtain urographic views. Bone structures were eliminated using the volume-of-interest method. Results: Furosemide-enhanced MS-CTU achieved either near complete or complete opacification in 30/32 (94%) ureters and in 32/32 (100%) pelvicaliceal systems up to a serum creatinine of 150 {mu}mol/l. In our series, only one CTU scan per patient was needed to obtain a diagnostic urogram after 10 min of contrast material injection. Ureteral compression was not necessary. When physiologic saline solution was used instead of furosemide, the radiopacity inside the enhanced pelvicalices was 4-5 times higher and more inhomogeneous. Diuretic-enhanced MS-CTU was more accurate in the depiction of pelvicaliceal details. In combination with furosemide, calculi were well identified inside the opacified urine and were safely differentiated from phleboliths. Postprocessing times of up to 20 minutes were problematic as were contrast-enhanced superimposing bowel loops on MIP images. Conclusion: Preliminary results demonstrate a good feasibility of furosemide-enhanced MS-CTU for obtaining detailed visualization of the entire upper urinary tract. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung zur Durchfuehrbarkeit der CT Urographie (CTU) mit einem Multidetektor(MD)-Computertomographen und ob eine

  4. Microarray analysis of gene expression changes due to chilling injury in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, Na; Blomsma, Sylvia; Fahy, Gregory M.; Groothuis, Genoveva; de Graaf, Inge

    Successful cryopreservation of PCLS would allow the building of a tissue bank and reduce the use of laboratory animals. During vitrification, tissue may be damaged by toxicity of the cryoprotective agent (CPA), chilling injury (injury due to temperature reduction per se) and injury from ice crystal

  5. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY LIVER TISSUE SLICES FROM PHENOBARBITAL-PRETREATED MICE IS CONGENER-SPECIFIC AND ATROPSELECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xianai; Duffel, Michael; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models are powerful tools to study the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); however, studies of the oxidation of chiral PCB congeners to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in mice have not been reported. Here we investigate the atropselective oxidation of chiral PCB 91 (2,2',3,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 95 (2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 132 (2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl), PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) and ...

  6. Liver disease in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Shekhar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deranged liver function tests are encountered in 3% of pregnancies. The potential causes are classified as those unique to and those just incidental to pregnancy. Pregnancy-related diseases are the most frequent causes of liver dysfunction during pregnancy and exhibit a trimester-specific occurrence during pregnancy. Differentiation of liver dysfunction as that related to and just incidental to pregnancy is the key to management, especially when liver dysfunction is encountered after 28 weeks of pregnancy. It can be judged from the fact that delivery remains the cornerstone of management of pregnancy-related diseases except hyperemesis gravidarum. This is an overview of the causes of liver dysfunction during pregnancy; an update on the underlying mechanisms of their occurrence, especially liver diseases unique to pregnancy; and a methodological approach to their diagnosis and management.

  7. Development of a radioimmunoassay for quantitation of calregulin in bovine tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, N.C.; Waisman, D.M.

    1986-03-11

    Experimental conditions are described for a convenient and simple one-step method for radioimmunoassay (RIA) of the calcium binding protein calregulin. The radioimmunoassay utilizes /sup 125/I-labeled calregulin and pansorbin cells (Staphylococcus aureus) coated with rabbit anti-calregulin antibody. Binding equilibrium is attained in 30 min, and the total time of the assay is 1 h. The assay is sensitive to about 30 fmol of calregulin. Calregulin was quantitated in various bovine tissue extracts and was detected in all tissues except erythrocytes. It was present in particularly high amounts in pancreas (540 micrograms/g of tissue), liver (375 micrograms/g of tissue), and testis (256 micrograms/g of tissue). While about 80% of the total tissue calregulin is soluble, about 20% of this protein was found to be associated with particulate fractions. Unmasking of particulate calregulin required the presence of nonionic detergent. Gel permeation chromatography of bovine brain 100 000 g supernatant in the presence or absence of calcium has resolved a single peak of calregulin by RIA. In addition, the distribution of calregulin in the soluble or particulate fraction of bovine brain was unaffected by the presence or absence of calcium during homogenization, suggesting that calregulin does not form either calcium-dependent or calcium-independent association with soluble or particulate proteins. These results identify calregulin as a major tissue Ca2+ binding protein.

  8. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortíz-Estrada, Guillermo; Calderón-Salinas, Víctor; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; León-Sicairos, Nidia; de la Garza, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe) for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf) and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf). We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar K d . However, averages of 9.45 × 10(5) and 6.65 × 10(6) binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.

  9. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ortíz-Estrada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf. We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar Kd. However, averages of 9.45 × 105 and 6.65 × 106 binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.

  10. Protection against bovine leukosis virus infection in sheep with the BL 20 bovine lymphoblastoid cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Sands, J; Wibberley, G

    1982-11-01

    The bovine lymphoblastoid BL 20 cell line derived from a case of sporadic bovine leukosis when inoculated into sheep did not induce an antibody response directed against bovine leukosis virus (BLV) structural proteins. Sheep were inoculated twice with the BL 20 cell line and then challenged with BLV infected lymphocytes. Three out of four sheep challenged four weeks after BL 20 inoculation did not develop BLV antibodies. Of the 12 sheep challenged later, three sheep did not develop BLV antibodies. BLV was isolated from all the seropositive animals and from none of the seronegative animals.

  11. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's Solution...

  12. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  13. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cultures for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine...

  14. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  15. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine...

  16. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vs 17.67, 15.68, 16.53). In conclusion in this experiment, melatonin cannot improve cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes. When concentrations is high, melatonin may affect bovine oocytes meiotic maturation at metaphase-1 stage, but it is improbable melatonin be toxic for bovine oocytes.

  17. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public meetings...

  18. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  19. High hydrostatic pressure influences the in vitro response to xenobiotics in Dicentrarchus labrax liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Mignolet, Eric; Debier, Cathy [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Calderon, Pedro Buc [Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73, B-1200 Woluwé-Saint-Lambert (Belgium); Thomé, Jean Pierre [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale et Ecotoxicologie, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 août 15, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Rees, Jean François, E-mail: jf.rees@uclouvain.be [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The methodology of precision-cut liver slices was applied to the European seabass. • Liver slices remained viable and functional in short-term co-exposure studies. • CYP1A induction was blocked in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • HSP70 induction was lower in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • Oxidative stress responses to tBHP were less pronounced at high pressure. - Abstract: Hydrostatic pressure (HP) increases by about 1 atmosphere (0.1 MPa) for each ten-meter depth increase in the water column. This thermodynamical parameter could well influence the response to and effects of xenobiotics in the deep-sea biota, but this possibility remains largely overlooked. To grasp the extent of HP adaptation in deep-sea fish, comparative studies with living cells of surface species exposed to chemicals at high HP are required. We initially conducted experiments with precision-cut liver slices of a deep-sea fish (Coryphaenoides rupestris), co-exposed for 15 h to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3-methylcholanthrene at HP levels representative of the surface (0.1 MPa) and deep-sea (5–15 MPa; i.e., 500–1500 m depth) environments. The transcript levels of a suite of stress-responsive genes, such as the AhR battery CYP1A, were subsequently measured (Lemaire et al., 2012; Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 10310–10316). Strikingly, the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA content was pressure-dependently reduced in C. rupestris. Here, the same co-exposure scenario was applied for 6 or 15 h to liver slices of a surface fish, Dicentrarchus labrax, a coastal species presumably not adapted to high HP. Precision-cut liver slices of D. labrax were also used in 1 h co-exposure studies with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as to investigate the pressure-dependence of the oxidative stress response (i.e., reactive oxygen production, glutathione and lipid peroxidation status). Liver cells remained

  20. Autoimmune liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Invernizzi, Pietro; Mackay, Ian R

    2008-01-01

    The liver was one of the earliest recognized sites among autoimmune diseases yet autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and their overlap forms, are still problematic in diagnosis and causation. The contributions herein comprise 'pairs of articles' on clinical characteristics, and concepts of etiopathogenesis, for each of the above diseases, together with childhood autoimmune liver disease, overlaps, interpretations of diagnostic serology, and liver t...

  1. Treatment of Liver Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chun-Yu; Chen, Kuen-Feng; Chen, Pei-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver cancer, mostly hepatocellular carcinoma, remains a difficult-to-treat cancer. Incidence of liver cancer varies geographically and parallels with the geographic prevalence of viral hepatitis. A number of staging systems have been developed, reflecting the heterogeneity of primary liver cancer, regional preferences, and regional variations in resectability or transplant eligibility. Multimodality treatments are available for this heterogeneous malignancy, and there are variations ...

  2. A method for dynamic subtraction MR imaging of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setti Ernesto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtraction of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced 3D Magnetic Resonance (DCE-MR volumes can result in images that depict and accurately characterize a variety of liver lesions. However, the diagnostic utility of subtraction images depends on the extent of co-registration between non-enhanced and enhanced volumes. Movement of liver structures during acquisition must be corrected prior to subtraction. Currently available methods are computer intensive. We report a new method for the dynamic subtraction of MR liver images that does not require excessive computer time. Methods Nineteen consecutive patients (median age 45 years; range 37–67 were evaluated by VIBE T1-weighted sequences (TR 5.2 ms, TE 2.6 ms, flip angle 20°, slice thickness 1.5 mm acquired before and 45s after contrast injection. Acquisition parameters were optimized for best portal system enhancement. Pre and post-contrast liver volumes were realigned using our 3D registration method which combines: (a rigid 3D translation using maximization of normalized mutual information (NMI, and (b fast 2D non-rigid registration which employs a complex discrete wavelet transform algorithm to maximize pixel phase correlation and perform multiresolution analysis. Registration performance was assessed quantitatively by NMI. Results The new registration procedure was able to realign liver structures in all 19 patients. NMI increased by about 8% after rigid registration (native vs. rigid registration 0.073 ± 0.031 vs. 0.078 ± 0.031, n.s., paired t-test and by a further 23% (0.096 ± 0.035 vs. 0.078 ± 0.031, p t-test after non-rigid realignment. The overall average NMI increase was 31%. Conclusion This new method for realigning dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D MR volumes of liver leads to subtraction images that enhance diagnostic possibilities for liver lesions.

  3. Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Jagdish K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Desai, Sajjad A; Sabale, Rajendra N; Naik, Sameer P; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2014-08-11

    A bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) containing rotavirus human-bovine (UK) reassortant strains of serotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 has been developed by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA. The vaccine underwent animal toxicity studies and Phase I and II studies in adults, toddlers and infants. It has been found safe and immunogenic and will undergo a large Phase III study to assess efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic......, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard...

  5. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  6. Thick slices from tomosynthesis data sets: phantom study for the evaluation of different algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Felix; Meyer, Henning; Diekmann, Susanne; Puong, Sylvie; Muller, Serge; Bick, Ulrich; Rogalla, Patrik

    2009-10-01

    Tomosynthesis is a 3-dimensional mammography technique that generates thin slices separated one to the other by typically 1 mm from source data sets. The relatively high image noise in these thin slices raises the value of 1-cm thick slices computed from the set of reconstructed slices for image interpretation. In an initial evaluation, we investigated the potential of different algorithms for generating thick slices from tomosynthesis source data (maximum intensity projection-MIP; average algorithm-AV, and image generation by means of a new algorithm, so-called softMip). The three postprocessing techniques were evaluated using a homogeneous phantom with one textured slab with a total thickness of about 5 cm in which two 0.5-cm-thick slabs contained objects to simulate microcalcifications, spiculated masses, and round masses. The phantom was examined by tomosynthesis (GE Healthcare). Microcalcifications were simulated by inclusion of calcium particles of four different sizes. The slabs containing the inclusions were examined in two different configurations: adjacent to each other and close to the detector and with the two slabs separated by two 1-cm thick breast equivalent material slabs. The reconstructed tomosynthesis slices were postprocessed using MIP, AV, and softMip to generate 1-cm thick slices with a lower noise level. The three postprocessing algorithms were assessed by calculating the resulting contrast versus background for the simulated microcalcifications and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for the other objects. The CNRs of the simulated round and spiculated masses were most favorable for the thick slices generated with the average algorithm, followed by softMip and MIP. Contrast of the simulated microcalcifications was best for MIP, followed by softMip and average projections. Our results suggest that the additional generation of thick slices may improve the visualization of objects in tomosynthesis. This improvement differs from the different

  7. A method for accurate spatial registration of PET images and histopathology slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Tanuj; Chalkidou, Anastasia; Henley-Smith, Rhonda; Roy, Arunabha; Barber, Paul R; Guerrero-Urbano, Teresa; Oakley, Richard; Simo, Ricard; Jeannon, Jean-Pierre; McGurk, Mark; Odell, Edward W; O'Doherty, Michael J; Marsden, Paul K

    2015-12-01

    Accurate alignment between histopathology slices and positron emission tomography (PET) images is important for radiopharmaceutical validation studies. Limited data is available on the registration accuracy that can be achieved between PET and histopathology slices acquired under routine pathology conditions where slices may be non-parallel, non-contiguously cut and of standard block size. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a method for aligning PET images and histopathology slices acquired from patients with laryngeal cancer and to assess the registration accuracy obtained under these conditions. Six subjects with laryngeal cancer underwent a (64)Cu-copper-II-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) ((64)Cu-ATSM) PET computed tomography (CT) scan prior to total laryngectomy. Sea urchin spines were inserted into the pathology specimen to act as fiducial markers. The specimen was fixed in formalin, as per standard histopathology operating procedures, and was then CT scanned and cut into millimetre-thick tissue slices. A subset of the tissue slices that included both tumour and fiducial markers was taken and embedded in paraffin blocks. Subsequently, microtome sectioning and haematoxylin and eosin staining were performed to produce 5-μm-thick tissue sections for microscopic digitisation. A series of rigid registration procedures was performed between the different imaging modalities (PET; in vivo CT-i.e. the CT component of the PET-CT; ex vivo CT; histology slices) with the ex vivo CT serving as the reference image. In vivo and ex vivo CTs were registered using landmark-based registration. Histopathology and ex vivo CT images were aligned using the sea urchin spines with additional anatomical landmarks where available. Registration errors were estimated using a leave-one-out strategy for in vivo to ex vivo CT and were estimated from the RMS landmark accuracy for histopathology to ex vivo CT. The mean ± SD accuracy for registration of the in vivo to ex

  8. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick-Melin, A J; Kalinski, M I; Kelly, K R

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging chronic liver disease and is reported to affect up to 70-80% of overweight and obese individuals. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases that range from simple hepatic steatosis, to a more severe and treatment resistant stage...... that features steatosis plus inflammation, termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may in turn progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and sub-acute liver failure. Thus, NAFLD and its subsequent complications create a significant health burden, and currently there is no effective treatment strategy...

  9. [Elevated liver enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Elevated liver enzymes are a frequent finding in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients necessitating further evaluation to clarify the underlying disease. Three different patterns of increased liver enzymes can be defined to allow for a more precise and rational further diagnostic approach. A predominant increase in transaminase activities reflects a disturbance of hepatocellular integrity which can be found in patients with viral hepatitis, genetic liver diseases like Wilson`s disease or hemochromatosis, and drug-induced liver diseases. A second pattern is characterized by high serum alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activities indicating cholestatic liver diseases. The next important diagnostic measure in this group is an ultrasound study discerning intra- from extrahepatic cholestasis. Intrahepatic cholestatic diseases include primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, genetic disturbances of canalicular membrane transporters or drug-induced liver dieseases. Extrahepatic cholestasis involves obstruction of the large bile ducts by gall stones or tumors. The third enzym pattern is defined by a predominant rise in γ-glutamyl transpeptidase which is observed in alcoholic or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and infiltrating liver diseases. A rise in liver enzymes is not necessarily indicative of a primary hepatic origin. Extrahepatic diseases often cause similarly increased serum activities. In addition even higher values can be observed under normal conditions during pregnancy or in adolescens. Lower values in asymptomatic patients should only be controlled since more than 30% of elevated transaminases spontaneously normalize during follow-up. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Catherine D

    2016-12-01

    Pediatric acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex and rapidly progressive syndrome that results from a variety of age-dependent etiologies. It is defined by the acute onset of liver disease with no evidence of chronic liver disease. There must be biochemical or clinical evidence of severe liver dysfunction as defined by an international normalized ratio (INR) ≥2. If hepatic encephalopathy is present, INR should be ≥1.5. Unfortunately, due to the rarity of ALF in pediatric patients, there is a paucity of diagnostic and management algorithms and each patient must have an individualized approach. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(12):e433-e438.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Effects of copper and the sea lice treatment Slice on nutrient release from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, D J; Solan, M; McMillan, H; Killham, K; Paton, G I

    2009-04-01

    Copper-based antifoulant paints and the sea lice treatment Slice are widely used, and often detectable in the sediments beneath farms where they are administered. Ten-day, whole sediment mesocosm experiments were conducted to examine how increasing sediment concentrations of copper or Slice influenced final water column concentrations of ammonium-nitrogen (NH(4)-N), nitrate+nitrite-nitrogen (NO(X)-N) and phosphate-phosphorus (PO(4)-P) in the presence of the non-target, benthic organisms Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor. Nominal sediment concentrations of copper and Slice had significant effects on the resulting concentrations of almost all nutrients examined. The overall trends in nutrient concentrations at the end of the 10-day incubations were highly similar between the trials with either copper or Slice, irrespective of the invertebrate species present. This suggests that nutrient exchange from the experimental sediments was primarily influenced by the direct effect of copper/Slice dose on the sediment microbial community, rather than the indirect effect of reduced bioturbation/irrigation due to increased macrofaunal mortality.

  12. Imaging by the SSFSE single slice method at different viscosities of bile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Hiroya; Usui, Motoki; Fukunaga, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Naruto; Ikegami, Toshimi [Kawasaki Hospital, Kobe (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    The single shot fast spin echo single thick slice method (single slice method) is a technique that visualizes the water component alone using a heavy T{sub 2}. However, this method is considered to be markedly affected by changes in the viscosity of the material because a very long TE is used, and changes in the T{sub 2} value, which are related to viscosity, directly affect imaging. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the effects of TE and the T{sub 2} value of bile in the single slice method and also examined the relationship between the signal intensity of bile on T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted images and imaging by MR cholangiography (MRC). It was difficult to image bile with high viscosities at a usual effective TE level of 700-1,500 ms. With regard to the relationship between the signal intensity of bile and MRC imaging, all T{sub 2} values of the bile samples showing relatively high signal intensities on the T{sub 1}-weighted images suggested high viscosities, and MRC imaging of these bile samples was poor. In conclusion, MRC imaging of bile with high viscosities was poor with the single slice method. Imaging by the single slice method alone of bile showing a relatively high signal intensity on T{sub 1}-weighted images should be avoided, and combination with other MRC sequences should be used. (author)

  13. Texture Profile Analysis of Sliced Cheese in relation to Chemical Composition and Storage Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanrong Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative relationships among chemical composition, storage temperature, and texture of cheese were not fully understood. In this study, the effects of composition and temperature on textural properties of eight common varieties of sliced cheese were examined. The textural properties of sliced cheeses, including firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness, chewiness, and resilience, were measured by texture profile analysis after storage at 4 and 25°C for 4 h. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to describe the quantitative relationships of textural properties (dependent variables to chemical composition and storage temperature (independent variables of sliced cheeses. Results showed that protein, fat, moisture, and sodium chloride contents as well as storage temperature significantly affected the texture of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. In particular, fat in the dry matter and moisture in the nonfat substances were negatively correlated with firmness of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. As storage temperature rose from 4 to 25°C, the average values of firmness, chewiness, and resilience substantially declined by 42%, 45%, and 17%, respectively (P<0.05. This study provided reference data for adjusting chemical composition and storage temperature of common cheese products to obtain favorable texture for Chinese consumers, which thereby facilitated the localization of cheese industry in Chinese market.

  14. Three-dimensional organotypic culture of human salivary glands: the slice culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X; Fang, D; Liu, Y; Ramamoorthi, M; Zeitouni, A; Chen, W; Tran, S D

    2016-10-01

    A challenge in studying human salivary glands is to maintain the cells ex vivo in their three-dimensional (3D) morphology with an intact native extracellular matrix (ECM) environment. This paper established a human salivary 3D organotypic slice culture model that could maintain its physiological functions as well as allowing a direct visualization of the cells. Human salivary biopsies from six patients were embedded in agarose and submerged in cold buffer for thin (50 μm) sectioning using a vibratome. 'Salivary slices' were mechanically supported by a porous membrane insert that allowed an air-liquid interface and cultured in serum-free culture media. Cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, physiological functions, and gene expression were assessed during 14 days of culture. Human salivary slices maintained cell survival (70-40%) and proliferation (6-17%) for 14 days ex vivo. The protein secretory (amylase) function decreased, but fluid (intracellular calcium mobilization) function was maintained. Acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cell populations survived and maintained their 3D organization within the slice culture model. The human salivary slice culture model kept cells alive ex vivo for 14 days as well as maintaining their 3D morphology and physiological functions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sensory effects of hexanal vapor on fresh-cut slices of golden delicious apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musetti, Alessandro; Fava, Patrizia

    2012-09-01

    Hexanal is a natural antimicrobial molecule that characterizes apples aroma. In this paper, the sensory effects of hexanal, as a component of packaging atmosphere, on fresh sliced Golden Delicious apples after storage at 4 °C for 8 d were evaluated. In particular, a colorimetric analysis of slices treated with different concentrations of hexanal vapor (coming from 3.040 to 0.076 mmol of liquid aldehyde per liter of air) fixed at 0.076 mmol/L the amount of hexanal in evaluating sensory effects in the subsequent analysis. Color and texture evaluation of slices by Two-out-of-Five method did not highlight any significant difference between treatment and control. The results from olfactory evaluation showed instead that treated samples had an intense odor compared with those untreated (P evaluation (P odor of Golden Delicious slices and its flavor acceptability were verified by using regular apple consumers. A significant preference (P odor of treated apple slices came out, so the small dose of hexanal intensifies the odor of apples pleasantly. The different flavor of treated samples was not identified by the consumers, who altogether expressed positive judgments about it. This suggests the nicety of this difference that in the absence of an untreated reference sample is very difficult to detect. Journal of Food Science copy; 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  16. An aerator for brain slice experiments in individual cell culture plate wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, David M; Hauser, Caitlin A; Minnehan, Caitlin E; Meitzen, John

    2014-12-30

    Ex vivo acute living brain slices are a broadly employed and powerful experimental preparation. Most new technology regarding this tissue has involved the chamber used when performing electrophysiological experiments. Alternatively we instead focus on the creation of a simple, versatile aerator designed to allow maintenance and manipulation of acute brain slices and potentially other tissue in a multi-well cell culture plate. Here we present an easily manufactured aerator designed to fit into a 24-well cell culture plate. It features a nylon mesh and a single microhole to enable gas delivery without compromising tissue stability. The aerator is designed to be individually controlled, allowing both high throughput and single well experiments. The aerator was validated by testing material leach, dissolved oxygen delivery, brain slice viability and neuronal electrophysiology. Example experiments are also presented, including a test of whether β1-adrenergic receptor activation regulates gene expression in ex vivo dorsal striatum using qPCR. Key differences include enhanced control over gas delivery to individual wells containing brain slices, decreased necessary volume, a sample restraint to reduce movement artifacts, the potential to be sterilized, the avoidance of materials that absorb water and small biological molecules, minimal production costs, and increased experimental throughput. This new aerator is of high utility and will be useful for experiments involving brain slices and other potentially tissue samples in 24-well cell culture plates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Abscisic acid accumulation in spinach leaf slices in the presence of penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in detached, wilted leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Savoy Hybrid 612) and reached a maximum level within 3 to 4 hours. The increase in ABA over that found in detached turgid leaves was approximately 10-fold. The effects of water stress could be mimicked by the use of thin slices of spinach leaves incubated in the presence of 0.6 molar mannitol, a compound which causes plasmolysis (loss of turgor). When spinach leaf slices were incubated with ethylene glycol, a compound which rapidly penetrates the cell membrane causing a decrease in the osmotic potential of the tissue and only transient loss of turgor, no ABA accumulated. Spinach leaf slices incubated in both ethylene glycol and mannitol had ABA levels similar to those found when slices were incubated with mannitol alone. Increases similar to those found with mannitol also occurred when Aquacide III, a highly purified form of polyethylene glycol, was used. When spinach leaf slices were incubated with solutes which are supposed to disturb membrane integrity no increase in ABA was observed. These data indicate that, with respect to the accumulation of ABA, mannitol caused a physical stress rather than a chemical stress.

  18. Effect of Blanching Techniques and Treatments on Nutritional Quality of Dried Mango Slices During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzar Asad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present invention was undertaken to study and determine the effect of potassium metabisulphite (6% and potassium sorbate (350 ppm treatments on the nutritional quality of osmotically-dehydrated, infrared- and microwave-blanched dried mango slices (local cultivars “Chaunsa” and “Fajri” stored for the period of 6 months under ambient conditions. The studied parameters included physical characteristics such as water activity, non-enzymatic browning, and color values, chemical parameters such as moisture, ash, fiber, acidity and content of proteins, sugars, vitamin C, total carotenoids, and sensory attributes such as appearance, flavor and texture. Vitamin C content in osmotically-dried mango slices was higher than that of IR and MW blanched dried mango slices but the content of vitamin C of both cultivars was lower than of the fresh mango samples (Chaunsa: 135 mg/100 g, Fajri: 94 mg/100 g. Significant loss was noticed in total carotenoids content of both the cultivars with passage of time because of their susceptibility to oxidative loss caused by dry heat. No growth of yeast and mold was detected in potassium sorbate-treated dried mango slices due to their preservative effect. From the point of view of the composition and sensory quality, dried mango slices of both the cultivars have excellent nutritional qualities.

  19. Effect of the cutter parameters and machining parameters on the interference in gear slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinchun; Li, Jia; Lou, Benchao; Shi, Jiang; Yang, Qijun

    2013-11-01

    Current researches have not yet found the effect law of the cutter parameters and machining parameters on the interference in gear slicing, the interference between the cutter and machined gear often happens because the appropriate cutter parameters and machining parameters cannot be set, which reduces the gear machining accuracy. The relative position between the major flank face and edge-sweeping surface, distribution law of the interference area in forming process of edge-sweeping surface, and effect law of relative positions among edge-sweeping surfaces on the interference are studied by graphical analysis. The effect law of the cutter parameters and machining parameters on the interference is found. The effect law shows that the interference in gear slicing can be controlled when the relief angle measured on the top edge and feed of every rotation are chosen respectively larger than 9° and smaller than 0.15 mm/r. An internal helical gear is sliced with the spur slice cutter and the cutter parameters and machining parameters are set based on above the effect law. The machined gear is measured in Gear Measuring Center and the detection result shows that the comprehensive accuracy reaches GB/T Class 7, where some reach GB/T Class 6. The result can meet the gear machining accuracy requirement and shows that the effect law found is valid. The problem of the interference in gear slicing is solved and the gear machining accuracy can be improved.

  20. (Non-adiabatic) string creation on nice slices in Schwarzschild black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhm, Andrea; Rojas, Francisco; Ugajin, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Nice slices have played a pivotal role in the discussion of the black hole information paradox as they avoid regions of strong spacetime curvature and yet smoothly cut through the infalling matter and the outgoing Hawking radiation, thus, justifying the use of low energy field theory. To avoid information loss it has been argued recently, however, that local effective field theory has to break down at the horizon. To assess the extent of this breakdown in a UV complete framework we study string-theoretic effects on nice slices in Schwarzschild black holes. Our purpose is two-fold. First, we use nice slices to address various open questions and caveats of [1] where it was argued that boost-enhanced non-adiabatic string-theoretic effects at the horizon could provide a dynamical mechanism for the firewall. Second, we identify two non-adiabatic effects on nice slices in Schwarzschild black holes: pair production of open strings near the horizon enhanced by the presence of the infinite tower of highly excited string states and a late-time non-adiabatic effect intrinsic to nice slices.

  1. Accumulation of pantothenic acid by the isolated choroid plexus and brain slices in vitro. [Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, R.; Boose, B.

    1984-08-01

    In vitro, the transport of (/sup 14/C)pantothenic acid into and from the isolated rabbit choroid plexus, an anatomical locus of the blood-CSF barrier, and brain slices was studied. The choroid plexus accumulated (/sup 14/C)pantothenic acid from the medium against a concentration gradient, although at low concentrations (less than 1 microM) there was substantial intracellular phosphorylation and binding of the (/sup 14/C)pantothenic acid. The saturable accumulation process in choroid plexus was inhibited by probenecid and caproic acid but not by nicotinic acid or by weak bases. The accumulation process was markedly inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, poly-L-lysine (which blocks sodium transport), and low temperatures. (/sup 14/C)Pantothenic acid was readily released from choroid plexus by a temperature-dependent process. Brain slices also accumulated and, at low concentrations, phosphorylated (/sup 14/C)pantothenic acid from the medium by a temperature-, probenecid-, and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive saturable process. However, unlike choroid plexus, brain slices did not concentrate free pantothenic acid and (/sup 14/C)pantothenic acid accumulation was not sensitive to poly-L-lysine. (/sup 14/C)Pantothenic acid was readily released from brain slices by a temperature-sensitive process. These results are consistent with the view that (/sup 14/C)pantothenic acid enters the isolated choroid plexus and brain slices by active transport and facilitated diffusion, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of registration strategies for multi-modality images of rat brain slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Christoph; Vieten, Andrea; Salber, Dagmar; Pietrzyk, Uwe

    2009-05-01

    In neuroscience, small-animal studies frequently involve dealing with series of images from multiple modalities such as histology and autoradiography. The consistent and bias-free restacking of multi-modality image series is obligatory as a starting point for subsequent non-rigid registration procedures and for quantitative comparisons with positron emission tomography (PET) and other in vivo data. Up to now, consistency between 2D slices without cross validation using an inherent 3D modality is frequently presumed to be close to the true morphology due to the smooth appearance of the contours of anatomical structures. However, in multi-modality stacks consistency is difficult to assess. In this work, consistency is defined in terms of smoothness of neighboring slices within a single modality and between different modalities. Registration bias denotes the distortion of the registered stack in comparison to the true 3D morphology and shape. Based on these metrics, different restacking strategies of multi-modality rat brain slices are experimentally evaluated. Experiments based on MRI-simulated and real dual-tracer autoradiograms reveal a clear bias of the restacked volume despite quantitatively high consistency and qualitatively smooth brain structures. However, different registration strategies yield different inter-consistency metrics. If no genuine 3D modality is available, the use of the so-called SOP (slice-order preferred) or MOSOP (modality-and-slice-order preferred) strategy is recommended.

  3. Ingredients derived from the slaughter of bovines in dog food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina De Carli Loureiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry matter. Ten adult dogs were distributed in double Latin block squares (5x5 with five treatments and five periods, totalling ten repetitions per treatment. The residue sirloin steak presented the highest levels of essential (414.2g kg-1 of dry matter and non-essential (399.0g kg-1 of dry matter amino acids in tested ingredients. No differences (P>0.05 were observed in apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter - ADCDM (907g kg-1, ADCOM (930g kg-1, ADCCP (841g kg-1, ADCAEE (954g kg-1 values, and DE (5069kcal kg-1 and ME (4781kcal kg-1 values between testicle, residue sirloin steak, and liver. The trachea presented lower digestibility and energy values (digestible and metabolizable than the other ingredients. This lower trachea digestibility resulted in higher faecal volume for natural and dry matter (P0.05 in faecal score between ingredients. Ingredients tested in this study can be used in feeds for adult dogs; however, their nutritional levels and digestibility values should be considered for correct diet balance.

  4. Validating New Software for Semiautomated Liver Volumetry--Better than Manual Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noschinski, L E; Maiwald, B; Voigt, P; Wiltberger, G; Kahn, T; Stumpp, P

    2015-09-01

    This prospective study compared a manual program for liver volumetry with semiautomated software. The hypothesis was that the semiautomated software would be faster, more accurate and less dependent on the evaluator's experience. Ten patients undergoing hemihepatectomy were included in this IRB approved study after written informed consent. All patients underwent a preoperative abdominal 3-phase CT scan, which was used for whole liver volumetry and volume prediction for the liver part to be resected. Two different types of software were used: 1) manual method: borders of the liver had to be defined per slice by the user; 2) semiautomated software: automatic identification of liver volume with manual assistance for definition of Couinaud segments. Measurements were done by six observers with different experience levels. Water displacement volumetry immediately after partial liver resection served as the gold standard. The resected part was examined with a CT scan after displacement volumetry. Volumetry of the resected liver scan showed excellent correlation to water displacement volumetry (manual: ρ = 0.997; semiautomated software: ρ = 0.995). The difference between the predicted volume and the real volume was significantly smaller with the semiautomated software than with the manual method (33% vs. 57%, p = 0.002). The semiautomated software was almost four times faster for volumetry of the whole liver (manual: 6:59 ± 3:04 min; semiautomated: 1:47 ± 1:11 min). Both methods for liver volumetry give an estimated liver volume close to the real one. The tested semiautomated software is faster, more accurate in predicting the volume of the resected liver part, gives more reproducible results and is less dependent on the user's experience. Both tested types of software allow exact volumetry of resected liver parts. Preoperative prediction can be performed more accurately with the semiautomated software. The semiautomated software is nearly four times faster than the

  5. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in human liver microsomes, characterization of enzyme kinetics in the presence of bovine serum albumin (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) and in vitro - in vivo extrapolation of hepatic clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacharla, Raghava Choudary; Uthukam, Venkatesham; Manoharan, Arunkumar; Ponnamaneni, Ranjith Kumar; Padala, Nagasurya Prakash; Boggavarapu, Rajesh Kumar; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Ajjala, Devender Reddy; Nirogi, Ramakrishna

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fatty acids on CYP enzymes and the effect of BSA on intrinsic clearance of probe substrates. The inhibitory effect of thirteen fatty acids including saturated, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on CYP enzymes, kinetic parameters and intrinsic clearance values of nine CYP marker probe substrate reactions in the absence and presence of BSA (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) were characterized in human liver microsomes. The results demonstrate that most of the unsaturated fatty acids showed marked inhibition towards CYP2C8 mediated amodiaquine N-deethylation followed by inhibition of CYP2C9 and CYP2B6 mediated activities. The addition of 0.1% BSA in the incubation markedly improved the unbound intrinsic clearance values of probe substrates by reducing the Km values with little or no effect on maximal velocity. The addition of BSA (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) did not influence the unbound intrinsic clearance of marker reactions for CYP2A6, and CYP3A4 enzymes. The addition of 0.1% w/v BSA is sufficient to determine the intrinsic clearance of marker probe reactions by metabolite formation approach. The predicted hepatic clearance values for the substrates using the well-stirred model, in the presence of BSA (0.1% BSA), are comparable to the in vivo hepatic clearance values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Unbiased stereological estimation of d-dimensional volume in Rn from an isotropic random slice through a fixed point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Kiêu, K

    1994-01-01

    Unbiased stereological estimators of d-dimensional volume in R(n) are derived, based on information from an isotropic random r-slice through a specified point. The content of the slice can be subsampled by means of a spatial grid. The estimators depend only on spatial distances. As a fundamental ...... lemma, an explicit formula for the probability that an isotropic random r-slice in R(n) through 0 hits a fixed point in R(n) is given....

  7. Microfluidic culture chamber for the long-term perfusion and precise chemical stimulation of organotypic brain tissue slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caicedo, H. H.; Vignes, M.; Brugg, B.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a microfluidic perfusion-based culture system to study long-term in-vitro responses of organo-typic brain slices exposed to localized neurochemical stimulation. Using this microperfusion chamber we show that hip-pocampal organotypic brain slices cultures grown on nitrocellulose......-vitro micro environment, long-term culture of viable brain slices, and delivery of fluids to selected brain regions in a multiplexed and spatially defined manner....

  8. Thin Slice Ratings of Client Characteristics in Intake Assessments: Predicting Symptom Change and Dropout in Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Sasso, Katherine E.; Strunk, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Thin slice ratings of personality have been shown to predict a number of outcomes, but have yet to be examined in the context of psychotherapy. In a sample of 66 clients participating in cognitive therapy for depression, we examined the predictive utility of thin slice rated pre-treatment client traits. On the basis of short video clip excerpts (i.e., thin slices) of intake assessments, trained observers rated clients on personality characteristics and specific personality disorder (PD) trait...

  9. Whole-organ CT perfusion of the pancreas: impact of iterative reconstruction on image quality, perfusion parameters and radiation dose in 256-slice CT-preliminary findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was performed to assess whether iterative reconstruction can reduce radiation dose while maintaining acceptable image quality, and to investigate whether perfusion parameters vary from conventional filtered back projection (FBP at the low-tube-voltage (80-kVp during whole-pancreas perfusion examination using a 256-slice CT. METHODS: 76 patients with known or suspected pancreatic mass underwent whole-pancreas perfusion by a 256-slice CT. High- and low-tube-voltage CT images were acquired. 120-kVp image data (protocol A and 80-kVp image data (protocol B were reconstructed with conventional FBP, and 80-kVp image data were reconstructed with iDose(4 (protocol C iterative reconstruction. The image noise; contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR relative to muscle for the pancreas, liver, and aorta; and radiation dose of each protocol were assessed quantitatively. Overall image quality was assessed qualitatively. Among 76 patients, 23 were eventually proven to have a normal pancreas. Perfusion parameters of normal pancreas in each protocol including blood volume, blood flow, and permeability-surface area product were measured. RESULTS: In the quantitative study, protocol C reduced image noise by 36.8% compared to protocol B (P<0.001. Protocol C yielded significantly higher CNR relative to muscle for the aorta, pancreas and liver compared to protocol B (P<0.001, and offered no significant difference compared to protocol A. In the qualitative study, protocols C and A gained similar scores and protocol B gained the lowest score for overall image quality (P<0.001. Mean effective doses were 23.37 mSv for protocol A and 10.81 mSv for protocols B and C. There were no significant differences in the normal pancreas perfusion values among three different protocols. CONCLUSION: Low-tube-voltage and iDose(4 iterative reconstruction can dramatically decrease the radiation dose with acceptable image quality during whole-pancreas CT perfusion and have no

  10. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in reproductive tract and gametes of slaughtered bovine females

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Claudemir de; Freitas,Antonio Carlos de; Brunner,Olga; Góes,Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Cavalcante,Andréa Yaguiu; Beçak,Willy; Santos,Rita de Cassia Stocco dos

    2003-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are described selectively infecting epithelial tissues and are associated with many forms of cancer in different species. Considering the widespread dissemination of papillomatosis in livestock, interest is being centred on possible forms of viral transmission and respective mechanisms. In the present study, we report the detection of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA sequences in female reproductive tract tissues, fluids and oocytes from slaughtered bovines not afflicted by cu...

  11. Prototheca zopfii isolated from bovine mastitis induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yanan; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Deng, Youtian; Sabir, Naveed; Su, Jingliang; Han, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Bovine protothecal mastitis results in considerable economic losses worldwide. However, Prototheca zopfii induced morphological alterations and oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is not comprehensively studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this current study was to investigate the P. zopfii induced pathomorphological changes, oxidative stress and apoptosis in bMECs. Oxidative stress was assessed by evaluating catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxi...

  12. Dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells mediated by co-cultured rat striatal brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Mohammad Raffaqat; Andreasen, Christian Maaløv; Lippert, Solvej Kølvraa

    2008-01-01

    differentiation, we co-cultured cells from a human neural forebrain-derived stem cell line (hNS1) with rat striatal brain slices. In brief, coronal slices of neonatal rat striatum were cultured on semiporous membrane inserts placed in six-well trays overlying monolayers of hNS1 cells. After 12 days of co......Properly committed neural stem cells constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but a protocol for controlled dopaminergic differentiation is not yet available. To establish a setting for identification of secreted neural compounds promoting dopaminergic......-culture, large numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive, catecholaminergic cells could be found underneath individual striatal slices. Cell counting revealed that up to 25.3% (average 16.1%) of the total number of cells in these areas were TH-positive, contrasting a few TH-positive cells (

  13. Microbial growth and sensory quality of dried potato slices irradiated by electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Song, Hyeon-Jeong [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Bin, E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.k [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to secure the microbial safety of dried purple sweet potato. After purple sweet potato slices had been dehydrated with 20% (w/w) maltodextrin solution, the samples were irradiated at doses 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and then stored at 20 {sup o}C for 60 days. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria and of yeast and molds significantly decreased with increase in irradiation dosage. Specifically, microbial load was reduced by about three log cycles at 6 kGy compared to those of the control. Based on the color measurement of the potato slices, electron beam irradiation treatment did not affect the color quality. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect overall sensory scores during storage. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful for improving microbial safety without impairing the quality of the potato slices during storage.

  14. Improvements in low contrast detectability with iterative reconstruction and the effect of slice thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2017-03-01

    Iterative reconstruction has become a popular route for dose reduction in CT scans. One method for assessing the dose reduction of iterative reconstruction is to use a low contrast detectability phantom. The apparent improvement in detectability can be very large on these phantoms, with many studies showing dose reduction in excess of 50%. In this work, we show that much of the advantage of iterative reconstruction in this context can be explained by differences in slice thickness. After adjusting the effective reconstruction kernel by blurring filtered backprojection images to match the shape of the noise power spectrum of iterative reconstruction, we produce thick slices and compare the two reconstruction algorithms. The remaining improvement from iterative reconstruction, at least in scans with relatively uniform statistics in the raw data, is significantly reduced. Hence, the effective slice thickness in iterative reconstruction may be larger than that of filtered backprojection, explaining some of the improvement in image quality.

  15. Limitations of four-slice multirow detector computed tomography in the detection of coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, Eugenio; Razzini, Cinzia; D'Eliseo, Alessia; Marchei, Massimo; Pisani, Eliana; Romeo, Francesco

    2004-02-01

    Our aim was to compare 4-slice spiral computed tomography with conventional coronary angiography in the detection of significant (> 50%) coronary stenosis. Sixty-two patients (41 males, 21 females, mean age 60 +/- 8 years) with suspected coronary artery disease were submitted to coronary angiography and then to multislice spiral computed tomography (GE Light Speed 4 slice) performed 12 +/- 5 days later. We excluded 25% of the patients from analysis because of a heart rate > 70 b/min or because of frequent ectopic beats. We also excluded from analysis 23% of all the angiographic segments judged not evaluable at multislice spiral computed tomography. Within these limits, the sensitivity was 65%, the specificity 98%, the positive predictive value 88%, and the negative predictive value 92%. By considering the intrinsic limitations such as its low temporal and spatial resolution, 4-slice spiral computed tomography has a limited applicability and has to be used with caution in the evaluation of native coronary arteries.

  16. Use of hippocampal slices to study mRNA changes in relation to synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinestra, P; Leinekugel, X; Ben Ari, Y; Pollard, H

    1994-07-21

    We have developed a method allowing suitable morphological conservation combined with in situ hybridization, on hippocampal slices used in conventional electrophysiological studies. After a bath application of kainate (KA, 750 nM, 2 min 15 s), electrical stimulation of the mossy fibre zone evoked epileptiform activity for up to 2 h. In situ hybridization performed on these slices showed a marked increased in expression of the transcription factor Zif/268 over the pyramidal and the granule cells and the surrounding neuropils. Bath application of tetraethylammonium (TEA, 25 mM, 10 min) elicited long-term potentiation in CA1 lasting up to 4 h. This was associated with enhanced expression of Zif/268 which returned to control values after 2 h 30 min. These observations suggest that slice preparations are suitable for the study of the role of neuronal activity in the regulation of gene expression.

  17. Network Slicing in Industry 4.0 Applications: Abstraction Methods and End-to-End Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Popovski, Petar; Kalør, Anders Ellersgaard

    2018-01-01

    Industry 4.0 refers to the fourth industrial revolution, and introduces modern communication and computation technologies such as 5G, cloud computing and Internet of Things to industrial manufacturing systems. As a result, many devices, machines and applications will rely on connectivity, while...... having different requirements from the network, ranging from high reliability and low latency to high data rates. Furthermore, these industrial networks will be highly heterogeneous as they will feature a number of diverse communication technologies. In this article, we propose network slicing...... as a mechanism to handle the diverse set of requirements to the network. We present methods for slicing deterministic and packet-switched industrial communication protocols at an abstraction level which is decoupled from the specific implementation of the underlying technologies, and hence simplifies the slicing...

  18. Effects of pretreatments on the diffusion kinetics and some quality parameters of osmotically dehydrated apple slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, K A; Angersbach, A; Ade-Omowaye, B I; Knorr, D

    2001-06-01

    This study compared mass transfer during osmotic dehydration (OD) and some quality indices of untreated apple slices to those of apple slices pretreated by either blanching, freezing, or applying high-intensity electric field pulses (HELP) or high pressure (HP). HP, HELP, and blanching increased water loss. Untreated and HELP-treated samples had comparable solids gains, which were lower (P < 0.05) than in the other samples. Apple slices turned brown after pretreatment but the L values of these samples increased with OD. The breaking force of dried samples increased with OD time, and pretreated samples had firmer dried texture than the untreated. Vitamin C content decreased with OD time, but HP- and HELP-treated apples had better retention of vitamin C.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices by regulating phenolic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Tao; Nie, Qixing; Zhang, Fengying; Zhu, Liqin

    2015-06-15

    The effect of fumigation with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas on inhibiting enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices was investigated. Browning degree, changes in color, total phenol content, superoxide anion production rate (O2(-)), H2O2 content, antioxidant capacities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, ABTS radical scavenging activity and the reducing power) and activities of the phenol metabolism-associated enzymes including phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated. The results showed that treatment with 15 μl L(-1) H2S significantly inhibited the browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices (Pbrowning of fresh-cut lotus root slices by enhancing antioxidant capacities to alleviate the oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MRI Slice Segmentation and 3D Modelling of Temporomandibular Joint Measured by Microscopic Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirg, O.; Liberda, O.; Smekal, Z.; Sprlakova-Pukova, A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices and 3D modelling of the temporomandibular joint disc in order to help physicians diagnose patients with dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The TMJ is one of the most complex joints in the human body. The most common joint dysfunction is due to the disc. The disc is a soft tissue, which in principle cannot be diagnosed by the CT method. Therefore, a 3D model is made from the MRI slices, which can image soft tissues. For the segmentation of the disc in individual slices a new method is developed based on spatial distribution and anatomical TMJ structure with automatic thresholding. The thresholding is controlled by a genetic algorithm. The 3D model is realized using the marching cube method.

  1. Excitotoxic effects of non-NMDA receptor agonists in organotypic corticostriatal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B W; Noraberg, J; Jakobsen, B

    1999-01-01

    in corticostriatal slice cultures. The purpose was to examine the feasibility of these cultures for excitotoxic studies, and to demonstrate possible differential excitotoxic effects of KA and AMPA on striatal and cortical neurons. Slices of dorsolateral striatum with overlying neocortex were obtained from neonatal...... of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium and loss of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in the tissue. Histological sections were also stained by the fluorescent dye Fluoro-Jade (FJ), for degenerating neurons and by immunocytochemical staining for gamma-aminobutyric acid...... density of Fluoro-Jade staining, (3) loss of GAD-activity in tissue homogenates, and (4) loss of GABA-immunostained neurons. We conclude that both differences between compounds (AMPA vs. KA) and brain areas (striatum vs. cortex) can be demonstrated in corticostriatal slice cultures, which in conjunction...

  2. Acrylamide reduction in fried potato slices and strips by using asparaginase in combination with conventional blanching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    In this research, acrylamide reduction in potato chips was investigated in relation to blanching and asparaginase immersion treatments before final frying. Potatoes slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, thickness: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170 °C for 5 min (final moisture content of ∼2.0 g/100 g...... (control II). Blanching in hot water (ii) was almost as effective as asparaginase potato immersion (iii) in order to diminish acrylamide formation in potato chips (acrylamide reduction was ∼17% of the initial acrylamide concentration). When potato slices were blanched before asparaginase immersion......, the acrylamide content of the resultant potato chips was reduced considerably by almost 90%. We have demonstrated that blanching of potato slices plus asparaginase treatment is an effective combination for acrylamide mitigation during frying. It seems to be that blanching provokes changes in the microstructure...

  3. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Bovine Ephemeral Fever in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Amin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF is an arthropod-borne viral disease of cattle caused by a single stranded RNA virus that belongs to the rhabdovirus group. The outbreak was diagnosed as BEF on the bases of clinical signs and pathological lesions. In the present study, out of two hundred and fifty cows, fourteen cows are died from BEF by mortality ratio 5.6%. The diseased cows showed viraemia, inappetance, depression, salivation, lacrimation, nasal discharge, lameness, and recumbency followed by death. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from naturally infected cows with BEFV were grossly and microscopically evaluated and tested using immunohistochemistry. The main gross findings include grayish-white streaks in the skeletal muscles, congestion and mottling of the lung surface with darkness of the lobar septa, congestion of the tracheal mucosae with the presence of mucous exudate in their lumen. The liver and kidneys were congested with edematous and enlarged lymph nodes. The microscopical examination revealed various pathological changes in different organs. Diffuse hemorrhage and pulmonary emphysema with alveolar atelectasis and catarrhal bronchiolitis were observed in the lung. The skeletal muscle showed severe hyaline degeneration and myomalacia with inter-muscular hemorrhage. Edema with marked lymphoid depletion was observed in the pre-scapular and pre-femoral lymph nodes. Necrotic changes were noticed in the renal and intestinal tissues. Diagnosis was confirmed by detecting viral antigen in the spleen, lung, muscle, kidney, heart and lymph nodes with most of the antigen appearing within macrophages and pericytes using immunohistochemistry.

  4. Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function after partial hepatectomy in patients with liver tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Chamuleau, R. A.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Schipper, H. G.; Busemann-Sokole, E.; van der Heyde, M. N.

    1990-01-01

    Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function were studied in six patients who underwent partial hepatectomy with removal of 30-70% of the liver. Liver volume and liver regeneration were studied by single-photon computed tomography (SPECT), using 99mTc-colloid as tracer. The method was

  5. Developing a vaccine for eradicating contagious bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) — also known as lung plague — is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP kills up to 50% of infected animals, when newly introduced into a population, and many cattle.

  6. Activities for leptin in bovine trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C K; Xie, M M; McCoski, S R; Ealy, A D

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h. Transcript profiles were examined from extracted RNA. Leptin supplementation did not affect abundance of the maternal recognition of pregnancy factor, interferon-tau (IFNT), but leptin increased (P leptin. Transcript abundance of the remodeling factor, metalloprotease 2 (MMP2), was greater (P leptin-treated cells at 24 h but not at 6 h. The 24 h MMP2 response was greatest (P leptin treatment. In a separate set of studies, cell proliferation assays were completed. Leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell line proliferation at any dose tested. In conclusion, leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell proliferation or IFNT expression, but leptin increases CSH2 and MMP2 transcript abundance. Both of these factors are involved with peri-implantation and postimplantation placental development and function, and this implicates leptin as a potential mediator of early placental development and function in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Seroprevalence Study Of Bovine Brucellosis In Extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of bovine brucellosis was measured in cross sectional study in Jimma zone, Western Ethiopia using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBT) and CFT from October 2003 to April 2004. The study animals consisted of 1305 local breed found in extensive system in five districts of in the zone. The overall individual animal ...

  8. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  9. Hydrophobic interactions of phenoxazine modulators with bovine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The binding of phenothiazine drugs to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied 1. Although most of the authors obtained total binding constants of the same order of magnitude, the number of binding sites varied considerably. It has been found 2 that the number of binding sites on BSA for promazine and ...

  10. Transmission of new bovine prion to mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, T.G.M.; Biacabe, A.G.; Bencsik, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6

  11. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  12. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  13. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology and cha...

  14. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  15. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in Sokoto Metropolitan Abattoir in Nigeria. JE Onu. Abstract. No Abstract. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol.

  16. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  17. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  18. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, William; Lee, William M; Wendon, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades acute liver failure (ALF) has been transformed from a rare and poorly understood condition with a near universally fatal outcome, to one with a well characterized phenotype and disease course. Complex critical care protocols are now applied and emergency liver...

  19. Fatty liver - nonalcoholic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more serious form of the disease is called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH can cause liver failure. It can ... American Gastroenterological Association. The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Association for ...

  20. Effects of Administration of Perinatal Bupropion on the Population Spike Amplitude in Neonatal Rat Hippocampal Slice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomaayeh Heysieat-talab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sBupropion is an atypical antidepressant that is widely used in smoke cessation under FDA approval. The study of synaptic effects of bupropion can help to finding out its mechanism(s for stopping nicotine dependence. In this study the effects of perinatal bupropion on the population spike (PS amplitude of neonates were investigated. Materials and Methods Hippocampal slices were prepared from 18-25 days old rat pups. The experimental groups included control and bupropion-treated. Bupropion (40 mg/Kg, i.p. was applied daily in perinatal period as pre-treatment. Due to the studying acute effects, bupropion was also added to the perfusion medium (10, 50, 200 μM for 30 min. The evoked PS was recorded from pyramidal layer of CA1 area, following stimulation of Schaffer collaterals. ResultsA concentration of 10 μM bupropion had no significant effects on the PS amplitude. The 50 μM concentration of bupropion reduced the amplitude of responses in 50% of the studied cases. At a concentration of 200 μM, the recorded PS amplitudes were reduced in all slices (n= 22. Amplitude was completely abolished in 8 out of the 22 slices. The decrease of the PS amplitude was found to be more in the non-pre-treated slices than in the pre-treated slices when both were perfused with 200 μM bupropion.Conclusion The results showed the perinatal exposure to bupropion and its acute effects while indicating that at concentrations of 50 and 200 μM bupropion reduced the PS amplitude. It was also found that there was evidence of synaptic adaptation in comparison of bupropion-treated and non-treated slices whereas they were both perfused with 200 µM.