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Sample records for bovine lactation genome

  1. Unlocking the bovine genome

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    Worley Kim C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries.

  2. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control c

  3. A case of bovine ketoacidosis in a lactating woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harminder S; Michelis, Michael F; DeVita, Maria V

    2009-08-01

    A 36 year-old 5 weeks postpartum lactating woman presented to the emergency room with severe nausea and vomiting for 48 hours. The patient was found to be in non-diabetic ketoacidosis with a serum pH 6.9 and a HCO3 of <5mEq/L. This condition rapidly improved with the administration of intravenous dextrose and bicarbonate and with the cessation of breast feeding. The course and pathophysiology of the rarely described phenomenon of bovine ketosis in a human is discussed here.

  4. Expression profiles of microRNAs from lactating and non-lactating bovine mammary glands and identification of miRNA related to lactation

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    Li Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of milk protein synthesis and development of the mammary gland (MG. However, the specific functions of miRNAs in these regulations are not clear. Therefore, the elucidation of miRNA expression profiles in the MG is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms of lactogenesis. Results Two miRNA libraries were constructed from MG tissues taken from a lactating and a non-lactating Holstein dairy cow, respectively, and the short RNA sequences (18–30 nt in these libraries were sequenced by Solexa sequencing method. The libraries included 885 pre-miRNAs encoding for 921 miRNAs, of which 884 miRNAs were unique sequences and 544 (61.5% were expressed in both periods. A custom-designed microarray assay was then performed to compare miRNA expression patterns in the MG of lactating and non-lactating dairy cows. A total of 56 miRNAs in the lactating MG showed significant differences in expression compared to non-lactating MG (P Conclusion Our study provides a broad view of the bovine MG miRNA expression profile characteristics. Eight hundred and eighty-four miRNAs were identified in bovine MG. Differences in types and expression levels of miRNAs were observed between lactating and non-lactating bovine MG. Systematic predictions aided in the identification of lactation-related miRNAs, providing insight into the types of miRNAs and their possible mechanisms in regulating lactation.

  5. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in the bovine mammary gland during lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mammary glands undergo functional and metabolic changes during virgin,lactation and dry periods.A total of 122 genes were identified as differentially expressed,including 79 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated genes during lactation compared with virgin and dry periods.Gene ontology analysis showed the functional classification of the up-regulated genes in lactation,including transport,biosynthetic process,signal transduction,catalytic activity,immune system process,cell death,and positive regulation of the developmental process.Microarray data clarified molecular events in bovine mammary gland lactation.

  6. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik;

    2010-01-01

    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...

  7. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Borne, B. H. P.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Van Schaik, G.;

    2010-01-01

    of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli during lactation and the dry period in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. Input parameters on cure were obtained from recent Dutch field data. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were....... Changing the probability of cure resulted in a nonlinear change in the cumulative incidence of IMI cases and associated costs. Lactational treatment was able to prevent IMI epidemics in dairy herds at high transmission rates of Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli. Lactational treatment did......This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics...

  8. Sialyloligosaccharides in human and bovine milk and in infant formulas: variations with the progression of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sosa, S; Martín, M J; García-Pardo, L A; Hueso, P

    2003-01-01

    Several lines of research support a role for human milk oligosaccharides in the defense of breast-fed infants against pathogens. Some ofthese oligosaccharides contain at least one moiety of sialic acid and are, thus, termed sialyloligosaccharides. These constitute a significant component (>1 g/L) of human milk. It is well established that milk composition varies among species, and previous reports have indicated that one ofthe differences between human and bovine milk is precisely their contents of sialyloligosaccharides. Because most infant formulas are manufactured with bovine milk components, it follows that formula-fed and breast-fed infants ingest dissimilar quantities of these carbohydrate structures. To ascertain these differences and their impact along lactation, the contents of oligosaccharide-bound sialic acids and major sialyloligosaccharides in samples of human and bovine milk (obtained at different lactation stages) were determined. In addition, infant formulas were assayed for their sialyloligosaccharide contents. Seven sialyloligosaccharides were identified in human milk; namely, 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose and sialyllacto-N-tetraoses (a and b+c), the predominant structures at all lactation stages. Five sialyloligosaccharides were identified in bovine milk, of which 6'-sialyllactosamine and 3'-sialyllactose were the most abundant. In addition, sialyloligosaccharides in human and bovine milk decreased along lactation, and infant formulas did not contain significant amounts of sialyloligosaccharides. The results point to the general conclusion that regarding both qualitative and quantitative aspects, milk from humans and cows and infant formulas have different oligosaccharide contents. In this sense, bottle-fed infants are subject to reduced sialyloligosaccharide intake as compared to breast-fed infants.

  9. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

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    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies.

  10. Role of lactate dehydrogenase in metmyoglobin reduction and color stability of different bovine muscles.

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    Kim, Y H; Keeton, J T; Smith, S B; Berghman, L R; Savell, J W

    2009-11-01

    The role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) and color stability of different bovine muscles was studied in two consecutive experiments. In experiment 1, three different bovine muscles -M. longissimus lumborum (LL), M. semimembranosus (SM), and M. psoas major (PM) - were obtained (n=7, respectively), cut into steaks, PVC packaged, and then displayed for 7days at 1°C. The LL was the most red over display time and had more (PLDH-B activity (catalyzing toward NADH generation), LDH1 isoform expression, NADH, and higher (PLDH-B activity, NADH, and a* values after 10days display at 1°C. These results suggest that variation in color stability of physiologically different muscles is regulated by different replenishment rates of NADH via different LDH isozymes.

  11. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics.

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    Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches.

  12. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

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    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  13. Mammary transcriptome analysis of lactating dairy cows following administration of bovine growth hormone.

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    McCoard, S A; Hayashi, A A; Sciascia, Q; Rounce, J; Sinclair, B; McNabb, W C; Roy, N C

    2016-12-01

    The galactopoietic effect of growth hormone (GH) in lactating ruminants is well established; however the mechanisms that mediate these effects are not well understood. The first objective of this study was to determine the effect of GH on the synthesis of the major casein and whey proteins. The second objective was to identify the genes and pathways that may be involved in mediating the effect of GH on milk synthesis. A single subcutaneous injection of a commercially available slow release formulation of GH (Lactatropin®), or physiological saline solution (control) was administered to non-pregnant dairy cows (n=4/group) in mid-late lactation. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis and mammary lobulo-alveolar tissue was collected postmortem 6 days post injection. Gene expression profiles were evaluated using either a 22 000 bovine complementary DNA microarray or quantitative PCR (qPCR), and microarrays were validated by qPCR. The yield of all the major casein and whey proteins was increased 32% to 41% in GH-treated cows, with the exception of α-lactalbumin yield which was elevated by 70% relative to controls. Treatment with GH treatment tended to increase the concentration of α-lactalbumin but had no effect on the concentration of any of the major milk proteins. Messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of the major whey and casein genes, with the exception of α-s2-casein, was increased in response to GH compared with controls, which is consistent with the positive effect of GH on milk production. Treatment with GH treatment influenced the mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation, transcriptional and translational regulation, actin cytoskeleton signalling, lipid metabolism and cell death. This study has provided new insights into the cell signalling that may be involved in mediating the effect of GH on milk production in the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium Strain HAZ 596 from a Bovine Vagina in Japan

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    Nagai, Kazuya; Murakami, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, a mycoplasmal species involved in various bovine diseases, including genital disease and mastitis, is also a commensal microorganism that inhabits the bovine genital organs. We present here the complete 853,553-bp genome sequence of M. bovigenitalium strain HAZ 596, which was isolated from a bovine vagina in Japan. PMID:28183755

  15. Genomic analysis of lactation persistency in four breeds of dairy cattle

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    The objectives of this study were to determine gains in reliability from the addition of genomic information to genetic evaluations for best predictions of lactation persistency in US Ayrshire (AY), Brown Swiss (BS), Holstein (HO), and Jersey (JE) cattle, and to identify genomic regions with large e...

  16. Old and new stories: revelations from functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during the lactation cycle.

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    Massimo Bionaz

    Full Text Available The cow mammary transcriptome was explored at -30, -15, 1, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 300 d relative to parturition. A total of 6,382 differentially expressed genes (DEG at a false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 were found throughout lactation. The greatest number of DEG (>3,500 DEG was observed at 60 and 120 d vs. -30 d with the largest change between consecutive time points observed at -15 vs. 1 d and 120 vs. 240 d. Functional analysis of microarray data was performed using the Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA. The DIA analysis of KEGG pathways uncovered as the most impacted and induced 'Galactose metabolism', 'Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchor biosynthesis', and 'PPAR signaling'; whereas, 'Antigen processing and presentation' was among the most inhibited. The integrated interpretation of the results suggested an overall increase in metabolism during lactation, particularly synthesis of carbohydrates and lipid. A marked degree of utilization of amino acids as energy source, an increase of protein export, and a decrease of the protein synthesis machinery as well cell cycle also were suggested by the DIA analysis. The DIA analysis of Gene Ontology and other databases uncovered an induction of Golgi apparatus and angiogenesis, and the inhibition of both immune cell activity/migration and chromosome modifications during lactation. All of the highly-impacted and activated functions during lactation were evidently activated at the onset of lactation and inhibited when milk production declined. The overall analysis indicated that the bovine mammary gland relies heavily on a coordinated transcriptional regulation to begin and end lactation. The functional analysis using DIA underscored the importance of genes associated with lactose synthesis, lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, Golgi, transport, cell cycle/death, epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and immune function during lactation.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme Bovine Liver Abscess Isolate B35.

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    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Stewart, George C

    2014-05-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and the less virulent organism F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme are recognized. We present here a draft genome sequence of the bovine liver abscess isolate F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme strain B35, which affords a genomic perspective of virulence and bovine adaptation.

  18. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica from Bovine Sources.

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    Cassidy L Klima

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1 and 6 (S6 isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2 found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2-8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design

  19. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2 from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

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    Cíntia Daudt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2 from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8 and two late (L1 and L2 genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available.

  20. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2) from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudt, Cíntia; da Silva, Flavio RC; Cibulski, Samuel P; Weber, Matheus N; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Varela, Ana Paula M; Roehe, Paulo M; Canal, Cláudio W

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2) from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8) and two late (L1 and L2) genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available. PMID:27074259

  1. Ancient DNA: genomic amplification of Roman and medieval bovine bones

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    A. Valentini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cattle remains (bones and teeth of both roman and medieval age were collected in the archaeological site of Ferento (Viterbo, Italy with the aim of extracting and characterising nucleic acids. Procedures to minimize contamination with modern DNA and to help ancient DNA (aDNA preservation of the archaeological remains were adopted. Different techniques to extract aDNA (like Phenol/chloroform extraction from bovine bones were tested to identify the method that applies to the peculiar characteristics of the study site. Currently, aDNA investigation is mainly based on mtDNA, due to the ease of amplification of the small and high-copied genome and to its usefulness in evolutionary studies. Preliminary amplification of both mitochondrial and nuclear aDNA fragments from samples of Roman and medieval animals were performed and partial specific sequences of mitochondrial D-loop as well as of nuclear genes were obtained. The innovative amplification of nuclear aDNA could enable the analysis of genes involved in specific animal traits, giving insights of ancient economic and cultural uses, as well as providing information on the origin of modern livestock population.

  2. Use of genomics to track bovine tuberculosis transmission.

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    Kao, R R; Price-Carter, M; Robbe-Austerman, S

    2016-04-01

    The control of any infectious disease of livestock is made more difficult by the presence of a wildlife reservoir, as the reservoir is often poorly observed and difficult to manage. This problem is particularly acute for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) because the long duration of infection and low levels of infectiousness make tracing the sources of infection difficult. For over 30 years, the process of contact tracing has been aided by the exploitation of molecular markers in the pathogen, but this has largely only been capable of characterising broad associations between large communities of similar types. However, the recent advent of mass high-throughput 'whole-genome' sequencing (WGS) has revolutionised forensic epidemiology for other diseases, and now it has the potential to do so for bTB. In this review, the authors consider the historical context of WGS use and look at what prior molecular techniques have already achieved. They outline the key approaches to interpreting WGS data and consider both the role of advanced analytical techniques that exploit the evolutionary and epidemiological properties of the system and the problems associated with quantifying the role of hidden reservoirs of disease. Finally, they consider the particular difficulties associated with developing this technology for routine diagnostics and its potential for mass use.

  3. An interactomics overview of the human and bovine milk proteome over lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Dijk, van Aalt-Jan; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Background: Milk is the most important food for growth and development of the neonate, because of its nutrient composition and presence of many bioactive proteins. Differences between human and bovine milk in low abundant proteins have not been extensively studied. To better understand the differ

  4. Host adaptation of bovine Staphylococcus aureus seems associated with bacteriological cure after lactational antimicrobial treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Nielen, M.; Schaik, van G.; Melchior, M.B.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in multiple species. Some sequence types (ST) are observed in a variety of hosts, whereas other strains are mainly associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting host adaptation. We propose that host adaptation of Staph. aureus may influence bacteri

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1h Strain Isolated in Italy

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    Bazzucchi, Moira; Bertolotti, Luigi; Casciari, Cristina; Rossi, Elisabetta; Rosati, Sergio; De Mia, Gian Mario

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We sequenced the complete genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain UM/126/07. It belongs to subgenotype 1h. The complete genome is composed of 12,196 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1h. PMID:28232427

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1h Strain Isolated in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzucchi, Moira; Bertolotti, Luigi; Giammarioli, Monica; Casciari, Cristina; Rossi, Elisabetta; Rosati, Sergio; De Mia, Gian Mario

    2017-02-23

    We sequenced the complete genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain UM/126/07. It belongs to subgenotype 1h. The complete genome is composed of 12,196 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1h.

  7. Concentrations of sialyloligosaccharides in bovine colostrum and milk during the prepartum and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Kawase, H; Kimura, K; Watanabe, Y; Ohtani, M; Arai, I; Urashima, T

    2003-04-01

    Sialyloligosaccharides and sialylglycoconjugates in colostrum and milk are regarded to be important biological components with respect to be source of brain gangliosides in infant and to be antiinfectional components for the attack by the pathogenic bacteria and virus. Several acidic oligosaccharides have been characterised in both bovine and human milk or colostrum. The sialyloligosaccharide content of human colostrum and milk has been extensively studied, whereas that of cows milk and colostrum has received less attention. In this study, the concentrations of three sialyloligosaccharides of bovine colostrum and milk were determined at various stages during the prepartum and the first 7 d postpartum. The concentration of 3'SL (Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc) reached a maximum value of 0.85 mg/ml immediately following parturition while the concentrations of 6'SL (Neu5Ac(alpha2-6)Gal(beta1-4)Glc) and 6'SLN (Neu5Ac(alpha2-6)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc) of 0.14 and 0.12 mg/ml, respectively, were much lower at this initial stage, although these concentration were maximum immediately following parturition. Bovine colostrum, especially that collected immediately after parturition, may be suitable as a source of 3'SL and other sialyloligosaccharides for use as additives by the food or pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Complete Genome Sequencing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1, Subgenotypes 1n and 1o.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Asuka; Tateishi, Kentaro; Shinohara, Minami; Naoi, Yuki; Shiokawa, Mai; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Keitaro; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Nagai, Makoto

    2016-02-18

    To gain further insight into the genomic features of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) subgenotypes, we sequenced the complete genome of BVDV-1n Shitara/02/06 and BVDV-1o IS26NCP/01. The complete genome of Shitara/02/06 and IS26NCP/01 shared 77.7 to 79.3% and 78.0 to 85.7% sequence identities with other BVDV-1 subgenotype strains, respectively.

  9. Discovery and genomic characterization of a novel ovine partetravirus and a new genotype of bovine partetravirus.

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    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available Partetravirus is a recently described group of animal parvoviruses which include the human partetravirus, bovine partetravirus and porcine partetravirus (previously known as human parvovirus 4, bovine hokovirus and porcine hokovirus respectively. In this report, we describe the discovery and genomic characterization of partetraviruses in bovine and ovine samples from China. These partetraviruses were detected by PCR in 1.8% of bovine liver samples, 66.7% of ovine liver samples and 71.4% of ovine spleen samples. One of the bovine partetraviruses detected in the present samples is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported bovine partetraviruses and likely represents a novel genotype. The ovine partetravirus is a novel partetravirus and phylogenetically most related to the bovine partetraviruses. The genome organization is conserved amongst these viruses, including the presence of a putative transmembrane protein encoded by an overlapping reading frame in ORF2. Results from the present study provide further support to the classification of partetraviruses as a separate genus in Parvovirinae.

  10. Expression of Bovine Leukemia Virus Genome is Blocked by a Nonimmunoglobulin Protein in Plasma from Infected Cattle

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    Gupta, P.; Ferrer, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma of cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus contains a soluble factor that blocks the expression of the viral genome in cultured lymphocytes. The blocking factor is not present in plasma of bovine leukemia virus-free cattle or of cattle infected with common bovine viruses. Blocking of bovine leukemia virus expression by the plasma factor is reversible, and seems to be mediated by a nonimmunoglobulin protein molecule.

  11. Genome Sequence Analysis of Staphylococcus equorum Bovine Mastitis Isolate UMC-CNS-924.

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    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C; Middleton, John R

    2013-10-17

    Intramammary infections in dairy cattle are frequently caused by staphylococci, resulting in mastitis and associated economic losses. A draft genome sequence was determined for Staphylococcus equorum UMC-CNS-924, isolated from the milk of a Holstein cow, to better understand the genetic basis of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the bovine mammary gland.

  12. Transcriptomic and genomic evidence for Streptococcus agalactiae adaptation to the bovine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bovine mastitis, which is the dominant health disorder affecting milk production within the dairy industry and is responsible for substantial financial losses to the industry worldwide. However, there is considerable evidence for host adaptation (ecotypes) within S. agalactiae, with both bovine and human sourced isolates showing a high degree of distinctiveness, suggesting differing ability to cause mastitis. Here, we (i) generate RNAseq data from three S. agalactiae isolates (two putative bovine adapted and one human) and (ii) compare publicly available whole genome shotgun sequence data from an additional 202 isolates, obtained from six host species, to elucidate possible genetic factors/adaptations likely important for S. agalactiae growth and survival in the bovine mammary gland. Results Tests for differential expression showed distinct expression profiles for the three isolates when grown in bovine milk. A key finding for the two putatively bovine adapted isolates was the up regulation of a lactose metabolism operon (Lac.2) that was strongly correlated with the bovine environment (all 36 bovine sourced isolates on GenBank possessed the operon, in contrast to only 8/151 human sourced isolates). Multi locus sequence typing of all genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis using conserved operon genes from 44 S. agalactiae isolates and 16 additional Streptococcus species provided strong evidence for acquisition of the operon via multiple lateral gene transfer events, with all Streptococcus species known to be major causes of mastitis, identified as possible donors. Furthermore, lactose fermentation tests were only positive for isolates possessing Lac.2. Combined, these findings suggest that lactose metabolism is likely an important adaptation to the bovine environment. Additional up regulation in the bovine adapted isolates included genes involved in copper homeostasis, metabolism of purine, pyrimidine

  13. A second generation radiation hybrid map to aid the assembly of the bovine genome sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janitz Michal

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several approaches can be used to determine the order of loci on chromosomes and hence develop maps of the genome. However, all mapping approaches are prone to errors either arising from technical deficiencies or lack of statistical support to distinguish between alternative orders of loci. The accuracy of the genome maps could be improved, in principle, if information from different sources was combined to produce integrated maps. The publicly available bovine genomic sequence assembly with 6× coverage (Btau_2.0 is based on whole genome shotgun sequence data and limited mapping data however, it is recognised that this assembly is a draft that contains errors. Correcting the sequence assembly requires extensive additional mapping information to improve the reliability of the ordering of sequence scaffolds on chromosomes. The radiation hybrid (RH map described here has been contributed to the international sequencing project to aid this process. Results An RH map for the 30 bovine chromosomes is presented. The map was built using the Roslin 3000-rad RH panel (BovGen RH map and contains 3966 markers including 2473 new loci in addition to 262 amplified fragment-length polymorphisms (AFLP and 1231 markers previously published with the first generation RH map. Sequences of the mapped loci were aligned with published bovine genome maps to identify inconsistencies. In addition to differences in the order of loci, several cases were observed where the chromosomal assignment of loci differed between maps. All the chromosome maps were aligned with the current 6× bovine assembly (Btau_2.0 and 2898 loci were unambiguously located in the bovine sequence. The order of loci on the RH map for BTA 5, 7, 16, 22, 25 and 29 differed substantially from the assembled bovine sequence. From the 2898 loci unambiguously identified in the bovine sequence assembly, 131 mapped to different chromosomes in the BovGen RH map. Conclusion Alignment of the

  14. Whole-Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium bovis Strain MbURU-001, Isolated from Fresh Bovine Infected Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Moira; Berná, Luisa; Greif, Gonzalo; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Naya, Hugo; Castro-Ramos, Miguel; Juambeltz, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis in cattle has a high incidence in Uruguay, where it is considered a disease of national importance. We present the genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis strain MbURU-001, isolated from pectoral lymph nodes of a bovine host from a cattle farm. PMID:26543108

  15. Construction and characterization of a bovine BAC library with four genome-equivalent coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilertsen Ken

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A bovine artificial chromosome (BAC library of 105 984 clones has been constructed in the vector pBeloBAC11 and organized in 3-dimension pools and high density membranes for screening by PCR and hybridization. The average insert size, determined after analysis of 388 clones, was estimated at 120 kb corresponding to a four genome coverage. Given the fact that a male was used to construct the library, the probability of finding any given autosomal and X or Y locus is respectively 0.98 and 0.86. The library was screened for 164 microsatellite markers and an average of 3.9 superpools was positive for each PCR system. None of the 50 or so BAC clones analysed by FISH was chimeric. This BAC library increases the international genome coverage for cattle to around 28 genome equivalents and extends the coverage of the ruminant genomes available at the Inra resource center to 15 genome equivalents.

  16. Genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 strains D153 and D193 from bovine pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report two genomes, one complete and one draft, from virulent bovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica(strains D171 and D35)serotype A2 recovered prior to the field usage of modern antimicrobial drugs....

  17. Genome sequences of serotype A6 Mannheimia haemolytica isolates D174 and D38 recovered from bovine pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report two genomes, one complete and one draft, from virulent bovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica(strains D174 and D38)serotype A2 recovered prior to the field usage of modern antimicrobial drugs....

  18. Comparative 2D-DIGE Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells during Lactation Reveals Protein Signatures for Lactation Persistency and Milk Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Jena, Manoj K.; Varshney, Nishant; Kola, Srujana; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K.; Grover, Sunita; Dang, Ajay K.; Mukesh, Manishi; Prakash, B. S.; Mohanty, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC) reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling. PMID:25111801

  19. A Profile of Native Integration Sites Used by φC31 Integrase in the Bovine Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijuan Qu; Qingwen Ma; Zaiwei Zhou; Haiyan Ma; Ying Huang; Shuzhen Huang; Fanyi Zeng; Yitao Zeng

    2012-01-01

    The Streptomyces phage φC31 integrase can efficiently target attB-beadng transgenes to endogenous pseudo attP sites within mammalian genomes.To better understand the activity of φC31 integrase in the bovine genome,DNA sequences of 44 integration events were analyzed,and 32 pseudo attP sites were identified.The majority of these sites share a sequence motif that contains inverted repeats and has similarities to wild-type attP site.Genomic DNA flanking these sites typically contained repetitive sequence elements,such as short and long interspersed repetitive elements.These sequence features indicate that DNA sequence recognition plays an important role in guiding φC31-mediated site-specific integration.In addition,BF27 integration hotspot sites were identified in the bovine genome,which accounted for 13.6% of all isolated integration events and mapped to an intron of the deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) gene.Also we found that the pseudo attP sites in the bovine genome had other features in common with those in the human genome.This study represents the first time that the sequence features of pseudo attP sites in the bovine genome were analyzed.We conclude that this sitespecific integrase system has great potential for applied modifications of the bovine genome.

  20. Perspective on calf and mammary gland development through changes in the bovine milk proteome over a complete lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Boeren, J.A.; Hageman, J.A.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Milk contains all the nutrients for the growth and development of the neonate. However, milk composition is not constant during lactation. To study the changes of the milk proteome over lactation, filter-aided sample preparation combined with dimethyl labeling followed by liquid chromatography tande

  1. Genetic association of marbling score with intragenic nucleotide variants at selection signals of the bovine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J; Lee, C

    2016-04-01

    Selection signals of Korean cattle might be attributed largely to artificial selection for meat quality. Rapidly increased intragenic markers of newly annotated genes in the bovine genome would help overcome limited findings of genetic markers associated with meat quality at the selection signals in a previous study. The present study examined genetic associations of marbling score (MS) with intragenic nucleotide variants at selection signals of Korean cattle. A total of 39 092 nucleotide variants of 407 Korean cattle were utilized in the association analysis. A total of 129 variants were selected within newly annotated genes in the bovine genome. Their genetic associations were analyzed using the mixed model with random polygenic effects based on identical-by-state genetic relationships among animals in order to control for spurious associations produced by population structure. Genetic associations of MS were found (PCSPG4). In particular, the genetic associations with CDC42BPA and LARGE were confirmed using an independent data set of Korean cattle. The results implied that allele frequencies of functional variants and their proximity variants have been augmented by directional selection for greater MS and remain selection signals in the bovine genome. Further studies of fine mapping would be useful to incorporate favorable alleles in marker-assisted selection for MS of Korean cattle.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a virulent bacteriophage SPW specific for Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis of lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longping; Zhang, Zhiying

    2014-09-01

    Mastitis in dairy cattle continues to be an economically important disease. However, control is complicated by a high prevalence of resistance to antibiotics. Phage therapy, therefore, is considered as an alternative way of controlling bacterial infections and contaminations. In this study, we have described isolation and characterization of a highly virulent phage SPW from wastewater of dairy farm, which possesses a strong lytic capability against mastitis-associated Staphylococcus aureus, the most important pathogen in bovine clinical and subclinical mastitis. The phage SPW produced large, round and clear plaques on bacterial culture plates. TEM showed phage SPW has an icosahedral head 62.5 nm in diameter and long tail of 106 nm, head and tail were held together by a connector of 18 ± 1.5 nm long and can be classified as a member of the Myoviridae family. Restriction analysis indicated that phage SPW was a dsDNA virus with an approximate genome size of 65-69 kb. One-step growth kinetics showed a short latency period of about 10-15 min and a rise period of 50 min and a relatively small burst size was 44 ± 3 phages particles/infected cell. Moreover, adsorption rates were not influenced by calcium ions and phage SPW was relatively stable in a wide range of temperature and pH values, and resistant to chloroform and isopropanol. The optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) was 0.01. When phage SPW was used to infect five other clinically isolated pathogenic isolates, it showed relatively wide spectrum host range. Phage SPW was capable of eliciting efficient lysis of S. aureus, revealing it potentially as an effective approach to prophylaxis or treatment of S. aureus-associated mastitis in dairy cows.

  3. Genomic structure, organisation, and promoter analysis of the bovine (Bos taurus) Mx1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérardin, Joël A; Baise, Etienne A; Pire, Grégory A; Leroy, Michaël P-P; Desmecht, Daniel J-M

    2004-02-04

    Some MX proteins are known to confer a specific resistance against a panel of single-stranded RNA viruses. Many diseases due to such viruses are known to affect cattle worldwide, raising the possibility that the identification of an antiviral isoform of a bovine MX protein would allow the implementation of genetic selection programs aimed at improving innate resistance of cattle. With this potential application in mind, the present study was designed to isolate the bovine Mx1 gene including its promoter region and to investigate its genomic organisation and promoter reactivity. The bovine Mx1 gene is made up of 15 exons. All exon-intron boundaries conformed to the consensus sequences. A PCR product that contained a approximately 1-kb, 5'-flanking region upstream from the putative transcription start site was sequenced. Unexpectedly, this DNA region did not contain TATA or CCAAT motifs. A computer scan of the region disclosed a series of putative binding sites for known cytokines and transcription factors. There was a GAAAN(1-2)GAAA(C/G) motif, typical of an interferon-sensitive responsive element, between -118 and -107 from the putative transcription start site. There were also a NF-kappaB, two interleukin-6 binding sites, two Sp1 sites and five GC-rich boxes. The region also contained 12 stretches of the GAAA type, as described in all IFN-inducible genes. Bovine Mx1 expression was assessed by Northern blotting and immunofluorescence in the Madin Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK) cell line treated with several stimuli. In conclusion, the bovine Mx1 gene and promoter region share the major structural and functional characteristics displayed by their homologs described in the rainbow trout, chicken, mouse and man.

  4. Genomic clones of bovine parvovirus: Construction and effect of deletions and terminal sequence inversions on infectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, B.C.; Chen, K.C.; Lederman, M.; Stout, E.R.; Bates, R.C. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA))

    1988-02-01

    Genomic clones of the autonomous parvovirus bovine parvovirus (BPV) were constructed by blunt-end ligation of reannealed virion plus and minus DNA strands into the plasmid pUC8. These clones were stable during propagation in Escherichia coli JM107. All clones tested were found to be infectious by the criteria of plaque titer and progressive cytophathic effect after transfection into bovine fetal lung cells. Sequencing of the recombinant plasmids demonstrated that all of the BPV inserts had left-end (3{prime})-terminal deletions of up to 34 bases. Defective genomes could also be detected in the progeny DNA even though the infection was initiated with homogeneous, cloned DNA. Full-length genomic clones with 3{prime} flip and 3{prime} flop conformations were constructed and were found to have equal infectivity. Expression of capsid proteins from tranfected genomes was demonstrated by hemagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation of ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled cell lysates. Use of appropriate antiserum for immunoprecipitation showed the synthesis of BPV capsid and noncapsid proteins after transfection. Independently, a series of genomic clones with increasingly larger 3{prime}-terminal deletions was prepared from separately subcloned 3{prime}-terminal fragments. Transfection of these clones into bovine fetal lung cells revealed that deletions of up to 34 bases at the 3{prime} end lowered but did not abolish infectivity, while deletions of greater than 52 bases were lethal. End-label analysis showed that the 34-base deletion was repaired to wild-type length in the progeny virus.

  5. Genome sequences and comparative genomics of two Lactobacillus ruminis strains from the bovine and human intestinal tracts

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background The genus Lactobacillus is characterized by an extraordinary degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity, which recent genomic analyses have further highlighted. However, the choice of species for sequencing has been non-random and unequal in distribution, with only a single representative genome from the L. salivarius clade available to date. Furthermore, there is no data to facilitate a functional genomic analysis of motility in the lactobacilli, a trait that is restricted to the L. salivarius clade. Results The 2.06 Mb genome of the bovine isolate Lactobacillus ruminis ATCC 27782 comprises a single circular chromosome, and has a G+C content of 44.4%. In silico analysis identified 1901 coding sequences, including genes for a pediocin-like bacteriocin, a single large exopolysaccharide-related cluster, two sortase enzymes, two CRISPR loci and numerous IS elements and pseudogenes. A cluster of genes related to a putative pilin was identified, and shown to be transcribed in vitro. A high quality draft assembly of the genome of a second L. ruminis strain, ATCC 25644 isolated from humans, suggested a slightly larger genome of 2.138 Mb, that exhibited a high degree of synteny with the ATCC 27782 genome. In contrast, comparative analysis of L. ruminis and L. salivarius identified a lack of long-range synteny between these closely related species. Comparison of the L. salivarius clade core proteins with those of nine other Lactobacillus species distributed across 4 major phylogenetic groups identified the set of shared proteins, and proteins unique to each group. Conclusions The genome of L. ruminis provides a comparative tool for directing functional analyses of other members of the L. salivarius clade, and it increases understanding of the divergence of this distinct Lactobacillus lineage from other commensal lactobacilli. The genome sequence provides a definitive resource to facilitate investigation of the genetics, biochemistry and host

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C; Middleton, John R

    2013-12-12

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci are frequently isolated from cases of subclinical bovine mastitis. Reported here is a draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, an isolate recovered from a chronic intramammary infection of a Holstein cow. Unexpectedly, a cluster of genes encoding gas vesicle proteins was found within the 2,755-kb genome.

  7. Complete and Closed Genome Sequences of 10 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Anatum Isolates from Human and Bovine Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Scott V.; Bono, James L.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Fields, Patricia I.; Dinsmore, Blake A.; Santovenia, Monica; Kelley, Christy M.; Wang, Rong; Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Harhay, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen transmitted by numerous vectors. Genomic comparisons of Salmonella strains from disparate hosts have the potential to further our understanding of mechanisms underlying host specificities and virulence. Here, we present the closed genome and plasmid sequences of 10 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Anatum isolates from bovine and human sources. PMID:27257192

  8. Extensive Genomic Diversity among Bovine-Adapted Staphylococcus aureus: Evidence for a Genomic Rearrangement within CC97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Kathleen E; McCoy, Finola; Monecke, Stefan; Cormican, Paul; Mitchell, Jennifer; Keane, Orla M

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen associated with both human and veterinary disease and is a common cause of bovine mastitis. Genomic heterogeneity exists between S. aureus strains and has been implicated in the adaptation of specific strains to colonise particular mammalian hosts. Knowledge of the factors required for host specificity and virulence is important for understanding the pathogenesis and management of S. aureus mastitis. In this study, a panel of mastitis-associated S. aureus isolates (n = 126) was tested for resistance to antibiotics commonly used to treat mastitis. Over half of the isolates (52%) demonstrated resistance to penicillin and ampicillin but all were susceptible to the other antibiotics tested. S. aureus isolates were further examined for their clonal diversity by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). In total, 18 different sequence types (STs) were identified and eBURST analysis demonstrated that the majority of isolates grouped into clonal complexes CC97, CC151 or sequence type (ST) 136. Analysis of the role of recombination events in determining S. aureus population structure determined that ST diversification through nucleotide substitutions were more likely to be due to recombination compared to point mutation, with regions of the genome possibly acting as recombination hotspots. DNA microarray analysis revealed a large number of differences amongst S. aureus STs in their variable genome content, including genes associated with capsule and biofilm formation and adhesion factors. Finally, evidence for a genomic arrangement was observed within isolates from CC97 with the ST71-like subgroup showing evidence of an IS431 insertion element having replaced approximately 30 kb of DNA including the ica operon and histidine biosynthesis genes, resulting in histidine auxotrophy. This genomic rearrangement may be responsible for the diversification of ST71 into an emerging bovine adapted subgroup.

  9. Extensive Genomic Diversity among Bovine-Adapted Staphylococcus aureus: Evidence for a Genomic Rearrangement within CC97.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E Budd

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen associated with both human and veterinary disease and is a common cause of bovine mastitis. Genomic heterogeneity exists between S. aureus strains and has been implicated in the adaptation of specific strains to colonise particular mammalian hosts. Knowledge of the factors required for host specificity and virulence is important for understanding the pathogenesis and management of S. aureus mastitis. In this study, a panel of mastitis-associated S. aureus isolates (n = 126 was tested for resistance to antibiotics commonly used to treat mastitis. Over half of the isolates (52% demonstrated resistance to penicillin and ampicillin but all were susceptible to the other antibiotics tested. S. aureus isolates were further examined for their clonal diversity by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST. In total, 18 different sequence types (STs were identified and eBURST analysis demonstrated that the majority of isolates grouped into clonal complexes CC97, CC151 or sequence type (ST 136. Analysis of the role of recombination events in determining S. aureus population structure determined that ST diversification through nucleotide substitutions were more likely to be due to recombination compared to point mutation, with regions of the genome possibly acting as recombination hotspots. DNA microarray analysis revealed a large number of differences amongst S. aureus STs in their variable genome content, including genes associated with capsule and biofilm formation and adhesion factors. Finally, evidence for a genomic arrangement was observed within isolates from CC97 with the ST71-like subgroup showing evidence of an IS431 insertion element having replaced approximately 30 kb of DNA including the ica operon and histidine biosynthesis genes, resulting in histidine auxotrophy. This genomic rearrangement may be responsible for the diversification of ST71 into an emerging bovine adapted subgroup.

  10. Status of dosage compensation of X chromosome in bovine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Sojeong; Ahn, Hyeonju; Seo, Minseok; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jin Nam; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Dosage compensation system with X chromosome upregulation and inactivation have evolved to overcome the genetic imbalance between sex chromosomes in both male and female of mammals. Although recent development of chromosome-wide technologies has allowed us to test X upregulation, discrete data processing and analysis methods draw disparate conclusions. A series of expression studies revealed status of dosage compensation in some species belonging to monotremes, marsupials, rodents and primates. However, X upregulation in the Artiodactyla order including cattle have not been studied yet. In this study, we surveyed the genome-wide transcriptional upregulation in X chromosome in cattle RNA-seq data using different gene filtration methods. Overall examination of RNA-seq data revealed that X chromosome in the pituitary gland expressed more genes than in other peripheral tissues, which was consistent with the previous results observed in human and mouse. When analyzed with globally expressed genes, a median X:A expression ratio was 0.94. The ratio of 1-to-1 ortholog genes between chicken and mammals, however, showed considerable reduction to 0.68. These results indicate that status of dosage compensation for cattle is not deviated from those found in rodents and primate, and this is consistent with the evolutionary history of cattle.

  11. Isolation, identification, and complete genome sequence of a bovine adenovirus type 3 from cattle in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yuan-Mao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3 belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae and is involved in respiratory and enteric infections of calves. The isolation of BAV-3 has not been reported prior to this study in China. In 2009, there were many cases in cattle showing similar clinical signs to BAV-3 infection and a virus strain, showing cytopathic effect in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, was isolated from a bovine nasal swab collected from feedlot cattle in Heilongjiang Province, China. The isolate was confirmed as a bovine adenovirus type 3 by PCR and immunofluorescence assay, and named as HLJ0955. So far only the complete genome sequence of prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain has been reported. In order to further characterize the Chinese isolate HLJ0955, the complete genome sequence of HLJ0955 was determined. Results The size of the genome of the Chinese isolate HLJ0955 is 34,132 nucleotides in length with a G+C content of 53.6%. The coding sequences for gene regions of HLJ0955 isolate were similar to the prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain, with 80.0-98.6% nucleotide and 87.5-98.8% amino acid identities. The genome of HLJ0955 strain contains 16 regions and four deletions in inverted terminal repeats, E1B region and E4 region, respectively. The complete genome and DNA binding protein gene based phylogenetic analysis with other adenoviruses were performed and the results showed that HLJ0955 isolate belonged to BAV-3 and clustered within the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae. Conclusions This is the first study to report the isolation and molecular characterization of BAV-3 from cattle in China. The phylogenetic analysis performed in this study supported the use of the DNA binding protein gene of adenovirus as an appropriate subgenomic target for the classification of different genuses of the family Adenoviridae on the molecular basis. Meanwhile, a large-scale pathogen and serological epidemiological

  12. Comparative functional genomics and the bovine macrophage response to strains of the Mycobacterium genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin eRue-Albrecht

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in cattle and are also potential zoonotic agents with implications for human health. Despite the implementation of comprehensive animal surveillance programs, many mycobacterial diseases have remained recalcitrant to eradication in several industrialized countries. Two major mycobacterial pathogens of cattle are Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, the causative agents of bovine tuberculosis and Johne’s disease, respectively. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, granulomatous disease of the respiratory tract that is spread via aerosol transmission, while Johne’s disease is a chronic granulomatous disease of the intestines that is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Although these diseases exhibit differential tissue tropism and distinct complex etiologies, both M. bovis and MAP infect, reside and replicate in host macrophages—the key host innate immune cell that encounters mycobacterial pathogens after initial exposure and mediates the subsequent immune response. The persistence of M. bovis and MAP in macrophages relies on a diverse series of immunomodulatory mechanisms, including the inhibition of phagosome maturation and apoptosis, generation of cytokine-induced necrosis enabling dissemination of infection through the host, local pathology, and ultimately shedding of the pathogen. Here, we review the bovine macrophage response to infection with M. bovis and MAP. In particular, we describe how recent advances in functional genomics are shedding light on the host macrophage-pathogen interactions that underlie different mycobacterial diseases. To illustrate this, we present new analyses of previously published bovine macrophage transcriptomics data following in vitro infection with virulent M. bovis, the attenuated vaccine strain M. bovis BCG, and MAP, and discuss our findings with respect to the differing etiologies of bovine tuberculosis and

  13. Sequencing of bovine herpesvirus 4 v.test strain reveals important genome features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillet Laurent

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a useful model for the human pathogenic gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus. Although genome manipulations of this virus have been greatly facilitated by the cloning of the BoHV-4 V.test strain as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC, the lack of a complete genome sequence for this strain limits its experimental use. Methods In this study, we have determined the complete sequence of BoHV-4 V.test strain by a pyrosequencing approach. Results The long unique coding region (LUR consists of 108,241 bp encoding at least 79 open reading frames and is flanked by several polyrepetitive DNA units (prDNA. As previously suggested, we showed that the prDNA unit located at the left prDNA-LUR junction (prDNA-G differs from the other prDNA units (prDNA-inner. Namely, the prDNA-G unit lacks the conserved pac-2 cleavage and packaging signal in its right terminal region. Based on the mechanisms of cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes, this feature implies that only genomes bearing left and right end prDNA units are encapsulated into virions. Conclusions In this study, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the BAC-cloned BoHV-4 V.test strain and identified genome organization features that could be important in other herpesviruses.

  14. In-Silico Genomic Approaches To Understanding Lactation, Mammary Development, And Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation-related traits are influenced by genetics. From a quantitative standpoint, these traits have been well studied in dairy species, but there has also been work on the genetics of lactation in humans and mice. In addition, there is evidence to support the notion that other mammary gland trait...

  15. Effects of supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin and mist-fan cooling on the renal tubular handling of sodium in different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsanit, Dolrudee; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

    2012-08-01

    The effect of supplementary administration of recombinant bovine somatotrophin (rbST) on the renal tubular handling of sodium in crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle housed in normal shade (NS) or mist-fan cooled (MF) barns was evaluated. The cows were injected with 500 mg rbST at three different stages of lactation. The MF barn housed cows showed a slightly decreased ambient temperature and temperature humidity index, but an increased relative humidity. Rectal temperature and respiration rates were significantly lower in cooled cows. The rbST treated cows, housed in NS or MF barns, showed markedly increased milk yields, total body water, extracellular fluid and plasma volume levels, along with a reduced rate of urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and osmolar clearance, in all three stages of lactation. Renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption were increased after rbST administration without any alteration in the renal hemodynamics. Lithium clearance data suggested that the site of response is in the proximal nephron segment, which may be mediated via increases in the plasma levels of aldosterone and IGF-1, but not vasopressin, during rbST administration.

  16. Genomic characterization of three bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dongjie; Song, Quanjiang; Wang, Jiufeng; Zhu, Yaohong

    2016-12-01

    Three strains of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were isolated from cattle in Beijing, China. To investigate their genomic features, we sequenced and characterized the complete genome of each of the isolates. Each of the three virus genomes is about 12,220 bp in length, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR), one open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 3897-amino-acid polypeptide, and a 3' UTR. The nucleotide sequence of the three isolates were 99.0 % identical to each and other shared nucleotide sequence identities of 73.4 % to 98.3 % with other BVDV-1 strains, about 70.0 % with BVDV-2 strains, about 67.0 % with BVDV-3, and less than 67.0 % with other pestiviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome, 3' UTR, and the N(pro) gene demonstrated that the three viruses were BVDV-1 isolates. This is the first report of complete genome sequences of BVDV 1d isolates from China and might have implications for vaccine development.

  17. Differential expression and localization of lipid transporters in the bovine mammary gland during the pregnancy-lactation cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mani, O; Sørensen, M T; Sejrsen, K

    2009-01-01

    The transport of lipids across mammary gland epithelial cells (MEC) determines milk lipid content and composition. We investigated the expression of lipid transporters and their regulators in comparison to blood metabolites during lactation and dry period (DP) in dairy cows. Repeated mammary gland...... biopsies and blood samples were taken from 10 animals at 7 stages of the pregnancy-lactation cycle. Expression levels of the specific mRNAs were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, whereas ABCA1 was localized by immunohistochemistry. Blood serum metabolites were determined by common...... of these transporters in the clearance of apoptotic cells and the intracellular redistribution of cholesterol, respectively. Regulation of lipid transporters in the mammary gland is partially associated with transcription factors that control lipid homeostasis....

  18. Genome Scan for Parent-of-Origin QTL Effects on Bovine Growth and Carcass Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imumorin, Ikhide G; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Yun-Mi; De Koning, Dirk-Jan; van Arendonk, Johan A; De Donato, Marcos; Taylor, Jeremy F; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Parent-of-origin effects (POE) such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents, and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus × Brahman cattle crossbreds. We identified 24 POE-QTL on 15 Bos taurus autosomes (BTAs) of which six were significant at 5% genome-wide (GW) level and 18 at the 5% chromosome-wide (CW) significance level. Six QTL were paternally expressed while 15 were maternally expressed. Three QTL influencing post-weaning growth map to the proximal end of BTA2 (linkage region of 0-9 cM; genomic region of 5.0-10.8 Mb), for which only one imprinted ortholog is known so far in the human and mouse genomes, and therefore may potentially represent a novel imprinted region. The detected QTL individually explained 1.4 ∼ 5.1% of each trait's phenotypic variance. Comparative in silico analysis of bovine genomic locations show that 32 out of 1,442 known mammalian imprinted genes from human and mouse homologs map to the identified QTL regions. Although several of the 32 genes have been associated with quantitative traits in cattle, only two (GNAS and PEG3) have experimental proof of being imprinted in cattle. These results lend additional support to recent reports that POE on quantitative traits in mammals may be more common than previously thought, and strengthen the need to identify and experimentally validate cattle orthologs of imprinted genes so as to investigate their effects on quantitative traits.

  19. Genome scan for parent-of-origin QTL effects on bovine growth and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhide G. Imumorin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Parent-of-origin effects (POE such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus x Brahman cattle crossbreds. We identified 24 POE-QTL on 15 Bos taurus autosomes (BTAs of which 6 were significant at 5% genome-wide level and 18 at the 5% chromosome-wide significance level. Six QTL were paternally expressed while 15 were maternally expressed. Three QTL influencing post-weaning growth map to the proximal end of BTA2 [linkage region of 0 – 9 cM; genomic region of 5.0 – 10.8 Mb], for which only one imprinted orthologue is known so far in the human and mouse genomes, and therefore may potentially represent a novel imprinted region. The detected QTL individually explained 1.4% ~ 5.1% of each trait’s phenotypic variance. Comparative in-silico analysis of bovine genomic locations show that 32 out of 1,442 known mammalian imprinted genes from human and mouse homologues map to the identified QTL regions. Although several of the 32 genes have been associated with quantitative traits in cattle, only 2 (GNAS and PEG3 have experimental proof of being imprinted in cattle. These results lend additional support to recent reports that POE on quantitative traits in mammals may be more common than previously thought, and strengthen the need to identify and experimentally validate cattle orthologues of imprinted genes so as to investigate their effects on quantitative traits.

  20. A genome-wide association study for the incidence of persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses (BVDV) comprises a diverse group of viruses that causes disease in cattle. BVDV may establish both, transient and persistent infections depending on the developmental stage of the animal at exposure. The objective was to determine if genomic regions harboring single nuc...

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of the Bovine Mastitis Pathogen Mycoplasma californicum Strain ST-6T (ATCC 33461T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Fox, Lawrence K

    2014-07-03

    Mycoplasma californicum is one of several mycoplasmal species associated with bovine mastitis. The complete genome sequence of 793,841 bp has been determined and annotated for the M. californicum ST-6 type strain, providing a resource for the identification of surface antigens and putative pathoadaptive features.

  2. An atlas of bovine gene expression reveals novel distinctive tissue characteristics and evidence for improving genome annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background A comprehensive transcriptome survey, or gene atlas, provides information essential for a complete understanding of the genomic biology of an organism. We present an atlas of RNA abundance for 92 adult, juvenile and fetal cattle tissues and three cattle cell lines. Results The Bovine Gene...

  3. Comparative functional genomics and the bovine macrophage response to strains of the mycobacterium genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; Magee, David A; Killick, Kate E; Nalpas, Nicolas C; Gordon, Stephen V; MacHugh, David E

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterial infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in cattle and are also potential zoonotic agents with implications for human health. Despite the implementation of comprehensive animal surveillance programs, many mycobacterial diseases have remained recalcitrant to eradication in several industrialized countries. Two major mycobacterial pathogens of cattle are Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agents of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and Johne's disease (JD), respectively. BTB is a chronic, granulomatous disease of the respiratory tract that is spread via aerosol transmission, while JD is a chronic granulomatous disease of the intestines that is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Although these diseases exhibit differential tissue tropism and distinct complex etiologies, both M. bovis and MAP infect, reside, and replicate in host macrophages - the key host innate immune cell that encounters mycobacterial pathogens after initial exposure and mediates the subsequent immune response. The persistence of M. bovis and MAP in macrophages relies on a diverse series of immunomodulatory mechanisms, including the inhibition of phagosome maturation and apoptosis, generation of cytokine-induced necrosis enabling dissemination of infection through the host, local pathology, and ultimately shedding of the pathogen. Here, we review the bovine macrophage response to infection with M. bovis and MAP. In particular, we describe how recent advances in functional genomics are shedding light on the host macrophage-pathogen interactions that underlie different mycobacterial diseases. To illustrate this, we present new analyses of previously published bovine macrophage transcriptomics data following in vitro infection with virulent M. bovis, the attenuated vaccine strain M. bovis BCG, and MAP, and discuss our findings with respect to the differing etiologies of BTB and JD.

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with /sup 32/P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus.

  5. 奶牛乳腺体外培养模型应用研究进展%Research Progress on Application of in Vitro Cultured Lactating Bovine Mammary Gland Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周苗苗; 崔景香

    2014-01-01

    奶牛乳腺上皮细胞(BMEC)具有分泌乳汁的特殊功能,体外培养的奶牛乳腺细胞是研究乳成分合成调控和乳腺生理代谢的良好模型。近年来,奶牛乳腺体外培养模型受到越来越多的关注,其应用也更广泛。本文主要从奶牛乳腺体外培养模型在乳成分合成调控和乳腺生理代谢机制领域的应用两个方面进行简要综述。%Bovine mammary gland epithelial cells have special functions of synthesis and lactation, and lactating bovine mammary gland model cultured in vitro can be used to study the regulation of the synthesis of milk components and mammary gland physiological metabolism. In recent years, this model has attracted more and more attention, and its application is wider and wider. In this paper, cultural method and its application in regulation of milk composition synthesis and mammary physiological metabolism of in vitro cultured lactating bovine mammary gland model are reviewed.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Moraxella bovoculi Strain 237T (ATCC BAA-1259T) Isolated from a Calf with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Martin, Neal T; Mhlanga-Mutangadura, Tendai; Reilly, Thomas J

    2014-06-26

    Moraxella bovoculi is a recently identified species, recovered from the bovine eye, which is under investigation as an etiological agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. A draft genome sequence of the Moraxella bovoculi type strain 237(T) has been determined to identify features that may be important during host colonization.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of redox reactions reveals metabolic engineering targets for D-lactate overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Hou, Bo Kyeng; Lee, Sung Gun; Kim, Joong Su; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Sang Jun

    2013-07-01

    Most current metabolic engineering applications rely on the inactivation of unwanted reactions and the amplification of product-oriented reactions. All of the biochemical reactions involved with cellular metabolism are tightly coordinated with the electron flow, which depends on the cellular energy status. Thus, the cellular metabolic flux can be controlled either by modulation of the electron flow or the regulation of redox reactions. This study analyzed the genome-wide anaerobic fermentation products of 472 Escherichia coli single gene knockouts, which comprised mainly of dehydrogenases, oxidoreductases, and redox-related proteins. Many metabolic pathways that were located far from anaerobic mixed-acid fermentation significantly affected the profiles of lactic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol. Unexpectedly, D-lactate overproduction was determined by a single gene deletion in dehydrogenases (e.g., guaB, pyrD, and serA) involved with nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, the combined knockouts of guaB, pyrD, serA, fnr, arcA, or arcB genes, which are involved with anaerobic transcription regulation, enhanced D-lactate overproduction. These results suggest that the anaerobic fermentation profiles of E. coli can be tuned via the disruption of peripheral dehydrogenases in anaerobic conditions.

  8. Molecular cloning and analysis of functional cDNA and genomic clones encoding bovine cellular retinoic acid-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubeita, H E; Sambrook, J F; McCormick, A M

    1987-08-01

    A recombinant cDNA clone, pCRABP-HS1, encoding cellular retinoic acid-binding protein was isolated from a bovine adrenal cDNA library. COS-7 cells transfected with pCRABP-HS1 produced a biologically active retinoic acid-binding protein molecule of the expected molecular mass (15.5 kDa). RNA blot hybridization analysis using pCRABP-HS1 as a probe revealed a single 1050-nucleotide mRNA species in bovine adrenal, uterus, and testis, tissues that contain the highest levels of retinoic acid-binding activity. No hybridization was detected in RNA extracted from ovary, spleen, kidney, or liver, which contain relatively low levels of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein activity. Analysis of genomic clones isolated from an EcoRI bovine genomic library demonstrated that the bovine cellular retinoic acid-binding protein gene is composed of four exons and three introns. Two putative promoter sequences were identified in the cloned 5' sequence of the gene.

  9. Bovine somatotropin increases embryonic development in superovulated cows and improves post-transfer pregnancy rates when given to lactating recipient cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F; Badinga, L; Burnley, C; Thatcher, W W

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies indicated that the use of bovine somatotropin (bST) in concurrence with a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol increased pregnancy rates. However, the mechanisms for such a bST effect on fertility were not clear. Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of bST on fertilization and early embryonic development after cows received a superovulation treatment, test whether embryos recovered from bST-treated cows were more likely to survive after transfer to recipients, and evaluate whether treatment of recipient cows with bST affects pregnancy rates. Lactating (n = 8) and nonlactating (n = 4) Holstein donor cows were superovulated, inseminated at detected estrus and assigned to a nontreated control group or to a treatment group receiving a single injection of bST (500 mg, sc) at insemination. Embryos were nonsurgically flushed 7 days after AI and frozen in ethylene glycol for direct transfer. Embryos derived from bST-treated (bST-embryos) or control (control-embryos) donors were transferred to lactating Holstein recipient cows that received either bST treatment 1 day after estrus (500 mg, sc; bST-recipients) or were untreated controls (control-recipients). Thus, there were four treatment groups: control-embryos/control-recipients (n = 43), bST-embryos/control-recipients (n = 41), control-embryos/bST-recipients (n = 37), and bST-embryos/bST-recipients (n = 60). Pregnancy was determined by palpation per rectum 33-43 days after embryo transfer. Unfertilized ova per flush was less for bST than for control (1.0 +/- 0.9 56.4%; P 0.4 +/- 0.7; P cows with bST increased pregnancy rates as compared to control-recipients that received a control-embryo. However, there was no additive effect when bST-recipients received a bST-embryo. Administration of bST at AI decreased the number of unfertilized ova, increased the percentage of transferable embryos, and stimulated embryonic development to the blastocyst stage. Moreover, bST affected both

  10. Quantitative milk genomics: estimation of variance components and prediction of fatty acids in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian

    The composition of bovine milk fat, used for human consumption, is far from the recommendations for human fat nutrition. The aim of this PhD was to describe the variance components and prediction probabilities of individual fatty acids (FA) in bovine milk, and to evaluate the possibilities...

  11. Nucleologenesis and embryonic genome activation are defective in interspecies cloned embryos between bovine ooplasm and rhesus monkey somatic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yong-Mahn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT has been proposed as a tool to address basic developmental questions and to improve the feasibility of cell therapy. However, the low efficiency of iSCNT embryonic development is a crucial problem when compared to in vitro fertilization (IVF and intraspecies SCNT. Thus, we examined the effect of donor cell species on the early development of SCNT embryos after reconstruction with bovine ooplasm. Results No apparent difference in cleavage rate was found among IVF, monkey-bovine (MB-iSCNT, and bovine-bovine (BB-SCNT embryos. However, MB-iSCNT embryos failed to develop beyond the 8- or 16-cell stages and lacked expression of the genes involved in embryonic genome activation (EGA at the 8-cell stage. From ultrastructural observations made during the peri-EGA period using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, we found that the nucleoli of MB-iSCNT embryos were morphologically abnormal or arrested at the primary stage of nucleologenesis. Consistent with the TEM analysis, nucleolar component proteins, such as upstream binding transcription factor, fibrillarin, nucleolin, and nucleophosmin, showed decreased expression and were structurally disorganized in MB-iSCNT embryos compared to IVF and BB-SCNT embryos, as revealed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. Conclusion The down-regulation of housekeeping and imprinting genes, abnormal nucleolar morphology, and aberrant patterns of nucleolar proteins during EGA resulted in developmental failure in MB-iSCNT embryos. These results provide insight into the unresolved problems of early embryonic development in iSCNT embryos.

  12. Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Aaron M; Loy, John D; Bono, James L; Smith, Timothy P L; Apley, Mike D; Lubbers, Brian V; DeDonder, Keith D; Capik, Sarah F; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J; Blom, Jochen; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Clawson, Michael L

    2016-02-13

    Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or "pinkeye" in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine cases and four from the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle. Isolates that originated from the eyes of IBK cases profoundly differed from those that originated from the nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle in genome structure, gene content and polymorphism diversity and consequently placed into two distinct phylogenetic groups. These results suggest that there are genetically distinct strains of M. bovoculi that may not associate with IBK.

  13. Transcriptional profiling of bovine milk using RNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramasinghe Saumya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a complex bioactive fluid consumed by humans beyond infancy. Even though the chemical and physical properties of cow milk are well characterized, very limited research has been done on characterizing the milk transcriptome. This study performs a comprehensive expression profiling of genes expressed in milk somatic cells of transition (day 15, peak (day 90 and late (day 250 lactation Holstein cows by RNA sequencing. Milk samples were collected from Holstein cows at 15, 90 and 250 days of lactation, and RNA was extracted from the pelleted milk cells. Gene expression analysis was conducted by Illumina RNA sequencing. Sequence reads were assembled and analyzed in CLC Genomics Workbench. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway analysis were performed using the Blast2GO program and GeneGo application of MetaCore program. Results A total of 16,892 genes were expressed in transition lactation, 19,094 genes were expressed in peak lactation and 18,070 genes were expressed in late lactation. Regardless of the lactation stage approximately 9,000 genes showed ubiquitous expression. Genes encoding caseins, whey proteins and enzymes in lactose synthesis pathway showed higher expression in early lactation. The majority of genes in the fat metabolism pathway had high expression in transition and peak lactation milk. Most of the genes encoding for endogenous proteases and enzymes in ubiquitin-proteasome pathway showed higher expression along the course of lactation. Conclusions This is the first study to describe the comprehensive bovine milk transcriptome in Holstein cows. The results revealed that 69% of NCBI Btau 4.0 annotated genes are expressed in bovine milk somatic cells. Most of the genes were ubiquitously expressed in all three stages of lactation. However, a fraction of the milk transcriptome has genes devoted to specific functions unique to the lactation stage. This indicates the ability of milk somatic cells to adapt to different

  14. [Genome sequencing and analysis of the bovine viral diarrhea virus-2 strain JZ05-1 isolated in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-chao; Miao, Li-guang; Li, Hai-tao; Liu, Yan-huan; Zhang, Guang-lei; Xiao, Jia-mei

    2010-05-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus, which is a widespread problem for beef and dairy herds, and has given rise to a significant loss in the livestock industry all over the world. The BVDV strain JZ05-1 isolated from cattle in Jilin, China generated cytopathic effect (CPE) in MDBK cells. Eight overlapped gene fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced, the complete genom sequence of BVDV strain JZ05-1 was assembled. According to the results, the JZ05-1 genome was composed of 12285 nucleotides in length (GenBank accession No. GQ888686), which could be divided into three regions: a 387 nt 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 11694 nt single large open reading frame encoding a polyprotein, and a 204 nt 3'-UTR. The 5'-UTR and genome sequences were analyzed by sequence alignment and construction of phylogenetic trees. The strain JZ05-1 was classified as BVDV type 2a. The BVDV-2 strain JZ05-1 genome showed high similarity to the p11Q isolated in Canada and the XJ-04 isolated in China, with 90% and 91% identity in nucleotide sequence, respectively. Compared with the similarity within the BVDV-2 genotype (96%), the JZ05-1 had low sequence similarity to other BVDV-2 strains.

  15. Genome-Wide Study of Structural Variants in Bovine Holstein, Montbéliarde and Normande Dairy Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Barbieri, Johanna; Djari, Anis; Pinton, Alain; Letaief, Rabia; Salin, Gérald; Escudié, Frédéric; Roulet, Alain; Fritz, Sébastien; Samson, Franck; Grohs, Cécile; Bernard, Maria; Klopp, Christophe; Boichard, Didier; Rocha, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have offered in recent years new opportunities to study genome variations. These studies have mostly focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms, small insertions or deletions and on copy number variants. Other structural variants, such as large insertions or deletions, tandem duplications, translocations, and inversions are less well-studied, despite that some have an important impact on phenotypes. In the present study, we performed a large-scale survey of structural variants in cattle. We report the identification of 6,426 putative structural variants in cattle extracted from whole-genome sequence data of 62 bulls representing the three major French dairy breeds. These genomic variants affect DNA segments greater than 50 base pairs and correspond to deletions, inversions and tandem duplications. Out of these, we identified a total of 547 deletions and 410 tandem duplications which could potentially code for CNVs. Experimental validation was carried out on 331 structural variants using a novel high-throughput genotyping method. Out of these, 255 structural variants (77%) generated good quality genotypes and 191 (75%) of them were validated. Gene content analyses in structural variant regions revealed 941 large deletions removing completely one or several genes, including 10 single-copy genes. In addition, some of the structural variants are located within quantitative trait loci for dairy traits. This study is a pan-genome assessment of genomic variations in cattle and may provide a new glimpse into the bovine genome architecture. Our results may also help to study the effects of structural variants on gene expression and consequently their effect on certain phenotypes of interest. PMID:26317361

  16. Resolving bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected US beef calves with complete genome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic differences. Currently, three major subtypes circulate in the United States: BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a. In addition, a single case of BVDV-2b infection ...

  17. Genomic DNA methylation patterns in bovine preimplantation embryos derived from in vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jian; LIU Lei; LEI TingHua; CUI XiuHong; AN XiaoRong; CHEN YongFu

    2007-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of bovine zygotes and preimplantation embryos derived from oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo in vitro culture (IVC). The results showed that: a) paternal-specific demethylation occurred in 61.5% of the examined zygotes, while 34.6% of them showed no demethylation; b) decreased methylation level was observed after the 8-cell stage and persisted through the morula stage, however methylation levels were different between blastomeres within the same embryos; c) at the blastocyst stage, the methylation level was very low in inner cell mass, but high in trophectoderm cells. The present study suggests, at least partly, that IVM/IVF/IVC may have effects on DNA methylation reprogramming of bovine zygotes and early embryos.

  18. Genomic DNA methylation patterns in bovine preim-plantation embryos derived from in vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of bovine zygotes and preimplanta-tion embryos derived from oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo in vitro culture (IVC). The results showed that: a) paternal-specific demethylation occurred in 61.5% of the examined zygotes, while 34.6% of them showed no demethylation; b) decreased methylation level was observed after the 8-cell stage and persisted through the morula stage, however methylation levels were different between blastomeres within the same embryos; c) at the blastocyst stage, the methyla-tion level was very low in inner cell mass, but high in trophectoderm cells. The present study suggests, at least partly, that IVM/IVF/IVC may have effects on DNA methylation reprogramming of bovine zygotes and early embryos.

  19. Genome scan for parent-of-origin QTL effects on bovine growth and carcass traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imumorin, I.G.; Kim, B.; Li, Y.; Koning, de D.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Donato, S.

    2011-01-01

    Parent-of-origin effects (POE) such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents, and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus × Brahman cattle crossbreds. We ident

  20. Phenotype definition is a main point in genome-wide association studies for bovine Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, J; Brandt, H; Donat, K; Erhardt, G

    2014-10-01

    Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes economic losses and is present in dairy herds worldwide. Different studies used different diagnostic tests to detect infection status and are the basis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies with inconsistent results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and compare genomic regions associated with MAP susceptibility in the same cohort of cattle using different diagnostic tests. The GWA study was performed in German Holsteins within a case-control assay using 305 cows tested for MAP by fecal culture and additional with four different commercial ELISA-tests. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip. The results using fecal culture or ELISA test led to the identification of different genetic loci. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed significant association with the ELISA-status. However, no significant association for MAP infection could be confirmed. Our results show that the definition of the MAP-phenotype has an important impact on the outcome of GWA studies for paratuberculosis.

  1. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh

    2013-10-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Mekki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. Results The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. Conclusion A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis

  3. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for bovine milk protein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopen, G.C.B.; Koks, P.D.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk protein composition in 849 Holstein–Friesian cows originating from seven sires. One morning milk sample was analysed for the major milk proteins using capillary zone electrophoresis. A gen

  4. Revealing misassembled segments in the bovine reference genome by high resolution linkage disequilibrium scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misassembly signatures, created by shuffling the order of sequences while assembling a genome, can be easily seen by analyzing the unexpected behaviour of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. A heuristic process was proposed to identify those misassembly signatures and presented the ones found in ...

  5. Genomic and Evolutionary Analysis of Two Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky Sequence Types Isolated from Bovine and Poultry Sources in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Bradd J.; Kim, Seon Woo; Pettengill, James; Luo, Yan; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky is frequently isolated from healthy poultry and dairy cows and is occasionally isolated from people with clinical disease. A genomic analysis of 119 isolates collected in the United States from dairy cows, ground beef, poultry and poultry products, and human clinical cases was conducted. Results of the analysis demonstrated that the majority of poultry and bovine-associated S. Kentucky were sequence type (ST) 152. Several bovine-associated (n = 3) and food product isolates (n = 3) collected from the United States and the majority of human clinical isolates were ST198, a sequence type that is frequently isolated from poultry and occasionally from human clinical cases in Northern Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that both STs are more closely related to other Salmonella serovars than they are to each other. Additionally, there was strong evidence of an evolutionary divergence between the poultry-associated and bovine-associated ST152 isolates that was due to polymorphisms in four core genome genes. The ST198 isolates recovered from dairy farms in the United States were phylogenetically distinct from those collected from human clinical cases with 66 core genome SNPs differentiating the two groups, but more isolates are needed to determine the significance of this distinction. Identification of S. Kentucky ST198 from dairy animals in the United States suggests that the presence of this pathogen should be monitored in food-producing animals. PMID:27695032

  6. Identification and complete genome analysis of novel picornavirus in bovine in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We identified novel viruses in feces from cattle with diarrhea collected in 2009 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, by using a metagenomics approach and determined the (near) complete sequences of the virus. Sequence analyses revealed that they had a standard picornavirus genome organization, i.e. 5'...... with diarrhea were positive, indicating the prevalence of these picornavirus in the Japanese cattle population in Hokkaido Prefecture. However, further studies are needed to investigate the pathogenic potential and etiological role of these viruses in cattle....

  7. Genomic characterization of Pasteurella multocida HB01, a serotype A bovine isolate from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhong; Liang, Wan; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Bin; Tang, Biao; Tan, Chen; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-04-25

    Pasteurella multocida infects various domestic and feral animals, generally causing clinical disease. To investigate P. multocida disease in cattle, we sequenced the complete genome of P. multocida HB01 (GenBank accession CP006976), a serotype A organism isolated from a cow in China. The genome is composed of a single circular chromosome of 2,416,068 base pairs containing 2212 protein-coding sequences, 6 ribosomal rRNA operons, and 56 tRNA genes. The present study confirms that P. multocida HB01 possesses a more complete metabolic pathway with an intact trichloroacetic acid cycle for anabolism compared with A. pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. This is the first time that this metabolic mechanism of P. multocida has been described. We also identified a full spectrum of genes related to known virulence factors of P. multocida. The differences in virulence factors between strains of different serotypes and origins were also compared. This comprehensive comparative genome analysis will help in further studies of the metabolic pathways, genetic basis of serotype, and virulence of P. multocida.

  8. A rural worker infected with a bovine-prevalent genotype of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus supports zoonotic transmission and inconsistency of MLST and whole-genome typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, G; Betancor, L; Calleros, L; Gadea, P; Algorta, G; Galeano, S; Muxi, P; Greif, G; Pérez, R

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome characterisation in clinical microbiology enables to detect trends in infection dynamics and disease transmission. Here, we report a case of bacteraemia due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in a rural worker under cancer treatment that was diagnosed with cellulitis; the patient was treated with antibiotics and recovered. The routine typing methods were not able to identify the microorganism causing the infection, so it was further analysed by molecular methods and whole-genome sequencing. The multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) revealed the presence of the bovine-associated ST-4 genotype. Whole-genome comparisons with other C. fetus strains revealed an inconsistent phylogenetic position based on the core genome, discordant with previous ST-4 strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first C. fetus subsp. fetus carrying the ST-4 isolated from humans and represents a probable case of zoonotic transmission from cattle.

  9. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic...... function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...

  10. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for bovine milk protein composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopen, G C B; Koks, P D; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H; Visker, M H P W

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk protein composition in 849 Holstein-Friesian cows originating from seven sires. One morning milk sample was analysed for the major milk proteins using capillary zone electrophoresis. A genetic map was constructed with 1341 single nucleotide polymorphisms, covering 2829 centimorgans (cM) and 95% of the cattle genome. The chromosomal regions most significantly related to milk protein composition (P(genome) casein, alpha(S2)-casein, beta-casein and kappa-casein. The QTL on BTA11 was found at 124 cM, and affected beta-lactoglobulin, and the QTL on BTA14 was found at 0 cM, and affected protein percentage. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL was 3.6% for beta-casein and 7.9% for kappa-casein on BTA6, 28.3% for beta-lactoglobulin on BTA11, and 8.6% for protein percentage on BTA14. The QTL affecting alpha(S2)-casein on BTA6 and 17 showed a significant interaction. We investigated the extent to which the detected QTL affecting milk protein composition could be explained by known polymorphisms in beta-casein, kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin and DGAT1 genes. Correction for these polymorphisms decreased the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL previously found on BTA6, 11 and 14. Thus, several significant QTL affecting milk protein composition were found, of which some QTL could partially be explained by polymorphisms in milk protein genes.

  11. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits.

  12. Identification and complete genome analysis of a novel bovine picornavirus in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroshi; Kaku, Yoshihiro; Belsham, Graham J; Haga, Kei; Naoi, Yuki; Sano, Kaori; Umetsu, Moeko; Shiokawa, Mai; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Furuya, Tetsuya; Okazaki, Sachiko; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Shirai, Junsuke; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2015-12-02

    We identified novel viruses in feces from cattle with diarrhea collected in 2009 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, by using a metagenomics approach and determined the (near) complete sequences of the virus. Sequence analyses revealed that they had a standard picornavirus genome organization, i.e. 5' untranslated region (UTR) - L- P1 (VP4- VP3- VP2- VP1) - P2 (2A- 2B- 2C) - P3 (3A- 3B- 3C-3D) - 3'UTR- poly(A). They are closely related to other unclassified Chinese picornaviruses; bat picornaviruses group 1-3, feline picornavirus, and canine picornavirus, sharing 45.4-51.4% (P1), 38.0-44.9% (P2), and 49.6-53.3% (P3) amino acid identities, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses and detailed genome characterization showed that they, together with the unclassified Chinese picornaviruses, grouped as a cluster for the P1, 2C, 3CD and VP1 coding regions. These viruses had conserved features (e.g. predicted protein cleavage sites, presence of a leader protein, 2A, 2C, 3C, and 3D functional domains), suggesting they have a common ancestor. Reverse-transcription-PCR assays, using specific primers designed from the 5'UTR sequence of these viruses, showed that 23.0% (20/87) of fecal samples from cattle with diarrhea were positive, indicating the prevalence of these picornavirus in the Japanese cattle population in Hokkaido Prefecture. However, further studies are needed to investigate the pathogenic potential and etiological role of these viruses in cattle.

  13. Investigation of the migration of triclabendazole residues to milk products manufactured from bovine milk, and stability therein, following lactating cow treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, C; Danaher, M; Sayers, R; O'Brien, B; Clancy, C; Furey, A; Jordan, K

    2013-10-01

    Triclabendazole (TCB) is a flukicide used in the treatment of liver fluke in cattle; however, its use is currently prohibited in lactating dairy cows. In this study, following administration of 10% Fasinex (triclabendazole, Novartis Animal Health UK Ltd., Camberley, UK) the milk of 6 animals was used to manufacture dairy products, to ascertain if TCB residues in milk migrate into dairy products. The detection limit of the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used was 0.67 μg/kg. The highest concentrations of TCB residue measured, within the individual cow milk yield, was 1,529 ± 244 µg/kg (n=6), on d 2 posttreatment. Days 2 and 23 posttreatment represented high and low residue concentrations, respectively. At each of these 2 time points, the milk was pooled into 2 independent aliquots and refrigerated. Milk products, including cheese, butter, and skim milk powder were manufactured using pasteurized and unpasteurized milk from each aliquot. The results for high residue milks demonstrated that TCB residues concentrated in the cheese by a factor of 5 (5,372 vs. 918 µg/kg for cheese vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. Residue concentrations are the sum of TCB and its metabolites, expressed as keto-TCB. Residues were concentrated in the butter by a factor of 9 (9,177 vs. 1,082 μg/kg for butter vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. For milk, which was separated to skim milk and cream fractions, the residues were concentrated in the cream. Once skim milk powder was manufactured from the skim milk fraction, the residue in powder was concentrated 15-fold compared with the starting skim milk (7,252 vs. 423 µg/kg for powder vs. skim milk), despite the high temperature (185 °C) required during powder manufacture. For products manufactured from milk with low residue concentrations at d 23 posttreatment, TCB residues were detected in butter, cheese, and skim milk powder, even though there was no detectable residue in the

  14. Whole genome detection of rotavirus mixed infections in human, porcine and bovine samples co-infected with various rotavirus strains collected from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaga, Martin M; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Esona, Mathew D; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Stucker, Karla M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Akopov, Asmik; Stockwell, Timothy B; Peenze, Ina; Diop, Amadou; Ndiaye, Kader; Boula, Angeline; Maphalala, Gugu; Berejena, Chipo; Mwenda, Jason M; Steele, A Duncan; Wentworth, David E; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are among the main global causes of severe diarrhea in children under the age of 5years. Strain diversity, mixed infections and untypeable RVA strains are frequently reported in Africa. We analysed rotavirus-positive human stool samples (n=13) obtained from hospitalised children under the age of 5years who presented with acute gastroenteritis at sentinel hospital sites in six African countries, as well as bovine and porcine stool samples (n=1 each), to gain insights into rotavirus diversity and evolution. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and genotyping with G-(VP7) and P-specific (VP4) typing primers suggested that 13 of the 15 samples contained more than 11 segments and/or mixed G/P genotypes. Full-length amplicons for each segment were generated using RVA-specific primers and sequenced using the Ion Torrent and/or Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platforms. Sequencing detected at least one segment in each sample for which duplicate sequences, often having distinct genotypes, existed. This supported and extended the PAGE and RT-PCR genotyping findings that suggested these samples were collected from individuals that had mixed rotavirus infections. The study reports the first porcine (MRC-DPRU1567) and bovine (MRC-DPRU3010) mixed infections. We also report a unique genome segment 9 (VP7), whose G9 genotype belongs to lineage VI and clusters with porcine reference strains. Previously, African G9 strains have all been in lineage III. Furthermore, additional RVA segments isolated from humans have a clear evolutionary relationship with porcine, bovine and ovine rotavirus sequences, indicating relatively recent interspecies transmission and reassortment. Thus, multiple RVA strains from sub-Saharan Africa are infecting mammalian hosts with unpredictable variations in their gene segment combinations. Whole-genome sequence analyses of mixed RVA strains underscore the considerable diversity of rotavirus sequences and

  15. TALEN-mediated modification of the bovine genome for large-scale production of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddassi, Shaida; Eyestone, Will; Bishop, Colin E

    2014-01-01

    As an initial step towards creating genetically modified cattle as a biopharming source of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA), we report modification of the bovine albumin (bA) locus by transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-stimulated homology-directed repair (HDR). Pedigreed bovine fibroblasts were co-transfected with TALENs and an 11.5-kb human serum albumin (HSA) minigene donor construct, designed to simultaneously disrupt and replace bovine serum albumin (BSA) expression with controlled rHSA expression in both the liver and the milk. Targeted integration of the HSA minigene was confirmed in transfected fibroblasts at a frequency of approximately 11% and transgenic bovine embryos were produced from targeted fibroblasts using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The research delineated here lays the foundation for the future generation of transgenic rHSA cattle with the potential to provide a large-scale, reliable, and quality-controlled source of rHSA.

  16. Use of a bovine genome array to identify new biological pathways for beef marbling in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Da-jeong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling (intramuscular fat is a valuable trait that impacts on meat quality and an important factor determining price of beef in the Korean beef market. Animals that are destined for this high marbling market are fed a high concentrate ration for approximately 30 months in the Korean finishing farms. However, this feeding strategy leads to inefficiencies and excessive fat production. This study aimed to identify candidate genes and pathways associated with intramuscular fat deposition on highly divergent marbling phenotypes in adult Hanwoo cattle. Results Bovine genome array analysis was conducted to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs in m. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling score 2 to 7. Three data-processing methods (MAS5.0, GCRMA and RMA were used to test for differential expression (DE. Statistical analysis identified 21 significant transcripts from at least two data-processing methods (P . All 21 differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR. Results showed a high concordance in the gene expression fold change between the microarrays and the real time PCR data. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway analysis demonstrated that some genes (ADAMTS4, CYP51A and SQLE over expressed in high marbled animals are involved in a protein catabolic process and a cholesterol biosynthesis process. In addition, pathway analysis also revealed that ADAMTS4 is activated by three regulators (IL-17A, TNFα and TGFβ1. QRT-PCR was used to investigate gene expression of these regulators in muscle with divergent intramuscular fat contents. The results demonstrate that ADAMTS4 and TGFβ1 are associated with increasing marbling fat. An ADAMTS4/TGFβ1 pathway seems to be associated with the phenotypic differences between high and low marbled groups. Conclusions Marbling differences are possibly a function of complex signaling pathway interactions between muscle and fat. These results suggest that ADAMTS4

  17. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  18. DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα-encoding (GNAS genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes which are epigenetically regulated via genomic imprinting can be potential targets for artificial selection during animal breeding. Indeed, imprinted loci have been shown to underlie some important quantitative traits in domestic mammals, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In this candidate gene study, we have identified novel associations between six validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning a 97.6 kb region within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha gene (GNAS domain on bovine chromosome 13 and genetic merit for a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian sires. The mammalian GNAS domain consists of a number of reciprocally-imprinted, alternatively-spliced genes which can play a major role in growth, development and disease in mice and humans. Based on the current annotation of the bovine GNAS domain, four of the SNPs analysed (rs43101491, rs43101493, rs43101485 and rs43101486 were located upstream of the GNAS gene, while one SNP (rs41694646 was located in the second intron of the GNAS gene. The final SNP (rs41694656 was located in the first exon of transcripts encoding the putative bovine neuroendocrine-specific protein NESP55, resulting in an aspartic acid-to-asparagine amino acid substitution at amino acid position 192. Results SNP genotype-phenotype association analyses indicate that the single intronic GNAS SNP (rs41694646 is associated (P ≤ 0.05 with a range of performance traits including milk yield, milk protein yield, the content of fat and protein in milk, culled cow carcass weight and progeny carcass conformation, measures of animal body size, direct calving difficulty (i.e. difficulty in calving due to the size of the calf and gestation length. Association (P ≤ 0.01 with direct calving difficulty (i.e. due to calf size and maternal calving difficulty (i.e. due to the maternal pelvic width size was also observed at the rs

  19. Milk Yield of Holstein Cows Induced into Lactation Twice Consecutively and Lactation Curve Models Fitted to Artiifcial Lactations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesus Mellado; Edgar Sepulveda; Jose E Garcia; Alvaro Rodriguez; Maria A De Santiago; Francisco G Veliz; Miguel Mellado

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen multiparous barren Holstein cows were subjected to an induction of lactation protocol for 21 d administering estradiol cypionate (2 mg kg-1 of body weight (BW) d-1, on day 1 to 14), progesterone (0.10 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 1 to 7), lfumethasone (0.03 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 18 to 20) and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST;500 mg per cow, on day 1, 6, 16 and 21). At the end of lactation and with a minimum of a 2-mon dry period, the same cows were again hormonally induced into lactation. Cows in both lactations were not artiifcially inseminated, they were milked 3 times daily and received rbST throughout lactation. Mean accumulated milk yield at 305 d in milk (DIM) did not differ between the ifrst and second induced lactations ((9 710 ±1 728) vs. (9 309±2 150) kg;mean±SD). Total milk yield ((12 707±3 406) vs. (12 306±4 218) kg;mean±SD) and lactation length ((405±100) vs. (410±91) d;mean±SD) were not different between the ifrst and second induced lactations. In a second study, 15 empirical models including exponential, power law, yield-density, sigmoidal and miscellaneous models were compared for their suitability by modeling 12-mon (n=334), 18-mon (n=164) and 29-mon (n=22) lactation cycles of Holsteins cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout the lactation. Hoerl (Y=ab1/xxc), Wood (Y=axb exp(cx)) and Dhanoa (Y=ax(bc)exp(cx)) models were equally suitable to describe 12-mon lactations. An exponential model with ifve parameters (Y=exp(a+bx+cd2+e/x)) showed the best ift for milk yield for 18-mon lactations. The rational model (Y=a+bx/1+cx+dx2) was found to produce the closest ift for 29-mon lactations. It was concluded that, with the protocol used in the present study, multiparous cows respond favorably to a second cycle of induced lactation, with milk yield similar to that experienced during the ifrst cycle. Thus, dairy producers might be able to lengthen the productive life of infertile high producing cows with a renewal of

  20. Dinosaur lactation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  1. Molecular cloning and analysis of functional cDNA and genomic clones encoding bovine cellular retinoic acid-binding protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Shubeita, H E; Sambrook, J F; McCormick, A M

    1987-01-01

    A recombinant cDNA clone, pCRABP-HS1, encoding cellular retinoic acid-binding protein was isolated from a bovine adrenal cDNA library. COS-7 cells transfected with pCRABP-HS1 produced a biologically active retinoic acid-binding protein molecule of the expected molecular mass (15.5 kDa). RNA blot hybridization analysis using pCRABP-HS1 as a probe revealed a single 1050-nucleotide mRNA species in bovine adrenal, uterus, and testis, tissues that contain the highest levels of retinoic acid-bindin...

  2. Full genome analysis of bovine astrovirus from fecal samples of cattle in Japan: identification of possible interspecies transmission of bovine astrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroshi; Otomaru, Konosuke; Uto, Takehiko; Koizumi, Motoya; Minami-Fukuda, Fujiko; Takai, Hikaru; Murakami, Toshiaki; Masuda, Tsuneyuki; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Shiokawa, Mai; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Naoi, Yuki; Sano, Kaori; Okazaki, Sachiko; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Furuya, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2015-10-01

    A viral metagenomics approach was used to investigate fecal samples of Japanese calves with and without diarrhea. Of the different viral pathogens detected, read counts gave nearly complete astrovirus-related RNA sequences in 15 of the 146 fecal samples collected in three distinct areas (Hokkaido, Ishikawa, and Kagoshima Prefectures) between 2009 and 2015. Due to the lack of genetic information about bovine astroviruses (BoAstVs) in Japan, these sequences were analyzed in this study. Nine of the 15 Japanese BoAstVs were closely related to Chinese BoAstVs and clustered into a lineage (tentatively named lineage 1) in all phylogenetic trees. Three of 15 strains were phylogenetically separate from lineage 1, showing low sequence identities, and clustered instead with an American strain isolated from cattle with respiratory disease (tentatively named lineage 2). Interestingly, two of 15 strains clustered with lineage 1 in the open reading frame (ORF)1a and ORF1b regions, while they clustered with lineage 2 in the ORF2 region. Remarkably, one of 15 strains exhibited low amino acid sequence similarity to other BoAstVs and was clustered separately with porcine astrovirus type 5 in all trees, and ovine astrovirus in the ORF2 region, suggesting past interspecies transmission.

  3. Molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in bovine embryonic genome activation and their regulation by alternative in vivo and in vitro culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Ahmed; Hoelker, Michael; Besenfelder, Urban; Havlicek, Vitezslav; Cinar, Ulas; Rings, Franca; Held, Eva; Dufort, Isabelle; Sirard, Marc-André; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2012-10-01

    Understanding gene expression patterns in response to altered environmental conditions at different time points of the preimplantation period would improve our knowledge on regulation of embryonic development. Here we aimed to examine the effect of alternative in vivo and in vitro culture conditions at the time of major embryonic genome activation (EGA) on the development and transcriptome profile of bovine blastocysts. Four different blastocyst groups were produced under alternative in vivo and in vitro culture conditions before or after major EGA. Completely in vitro- and in vivo-produced blastocysts were used as controls. We compared gene expression patterns between each blastocyst group and in vivo blastocyst control group using EmbryoGENE's bovine microarray. The data showed that changing culture conditions from in vivo to in vitro or vice versa, either before or after the time of major EGA, had no effect on the developmental rates; however, in vitro conditions during that time critically influenced the transcriptome of the blastocysts produced. The source of oocyte had a critical effect on developmental rates and the ability of the embryo to react to changing culture conditions. Ontological classification highlighted a marked contrast in expression patterns for lipid metabolism and oxidative stress response between blastocysts generated in vivo versus in vitro, with opposite trends. Molecular mechanisms and pathways that are influenced by altered culture conditions during EGA were defined. These results will help in the development of new strategies to modify culture conditions at this critical stage to enhance the development of competent blastocysts.

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  5. Complete, closed genome sequences of 10 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains isolated from human and bovine sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica are a leading cause of enterocolitis for humans and animals. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium infects a broad range of hosts. To facilitate genomic comparisons among isolates from different sources, we present the complete genome sequences of ten S. Typhimurium strains, five each...

  6. Complete and closed genome sequences of 10 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Anatum isolated from human and bovine sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen transmitted by numerous vectors. Genomic comparisons of Salmonella from disparate hosts have the potential to further our understanding of mechanisms underlying host specificities and virulence. Here, we present closed genome and plasmid sequences of 10...

  7. Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 genome in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikalan, M; Rajukumar, K; Mishra, N; Kumar, M; Kalaiyarasu, S; Rajesh, K; Gavade, V; Behera, S P; Dubey, S C

    2016-06-01

    In this study, cellular localization and the distribution pattern of BVDV genome in lymphoid tissues during the course of experimental acute BVDV-1 infection of sheep was investigated. Tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were collected on 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post infection (dpi) from twenty 4-month-old lambs, experimentally inoculated intra-nasally with 5 × 10(5) TCID50 of a non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV-1 isolate, Ind-17555. Tissues collected from ten mock-infected lambs served as controls. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out in paraformaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections using digoxigenin labelled riboprobe targeting 5'-UTR of BVDV-1. BVDV genome was detected at all the intervals from 3 dpi to 15 dpi in the lymphoid tissues with variations between the intervals and also amongst the infected sheep. During the early phase of acute infection, presence of viral genome was more in tonsils than MLN and spleen, whereas the distribution was higher in MLN during later stages. BVDV-1 genome positive cells included lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, reticular cells and sometimes crypt epithelial cells. Genome distribution was frequently observed in the lymphoid follicles of tonsils, MLN and spleen, besides the crypt epithelium in tonsils, paracortex and medullary sinus and cords of MLN. Most abundant and widespread distribution of BVDV-1 genome was observed on 6 dpi while there was a reduction in number and intensity of positive signals by 15 dpi in most of the infected animals. This is the first attempt made to study the localisation of BVDV-1 in lymphoid tissues of acutely infected sheep by in situ hybridization. The results show that the kinetics of BVDV-1 distribution in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected non-pregnant sheep follows almost a similar pattern to that demonstrated in BVDV infected cattle.

  8. Genome Sequence of Historical Bacillus anthracis Strain Tyrol 4675 Isolated from a Bovine Anthrax Case in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwerpen, Markus; Wölfel, Roman

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 1988, an outbreak of anthrax occurred among cattle in the Austrian state of Tyrol. Since then, Austria has been declared anthrax-free. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of one of these last outbreak strains, Bacillus anthracis Tyrol 4675, isolated from a diseased cow. PMID:28280006

  9. Whole genome sequences of the USMARC beef cattle diversity panel v2.9 aligned to the bovine reference genome assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    A searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes from 96 beef sires from 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle was created. These sires with minimal pedigree relationships, represent >99% of the germplasm used in the US beef industry circa 2000. The group is estimated to contain more than 187 u...

  10. Whole Genomic Analysis of an Unusual Human G6P[14] Rotavirus Strain Isolated from a Child with Diarrhea in Thailand: Evidence for Bovine-To-Human Interspecies Transmission and Reassortment Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacharoenmuang, Ratana; Komoto, Satoshi; Guntapong, Ratigorn; Ide, Tomihiko; Haga, Kei; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kato, Takema; Ouchi, Yuya; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Tsuji, Takao; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Taniguchi, Koki

    2015-01-01

    An unusual rotavirus strain, SKT-27, with the G6P[14] genotypes (RVA/Human-wt/THA/SKT-27/2012/G6P[14]), was identified in a stool specimen from a hospitalized child aged eight months with severe diarrhea. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the complete genome of strain SKT-27. On whole genomic analysis, strain SKT-27 was found to have a unique genotype constellation: G6-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. The non-G/P genotype constellation of this strain (I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3) is commonly shared with rotavirus strains from artiodactyls such as cattle. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that nine of the 11 genes of strain SKT-27 (VP7, VP4, VP6, VP2-3, NSP1, NSP3-5) appeared to be of artiodactyl (likely bovine) origin, while the remaining VP1 and NSP2 genes were assumed to be of human origin. Thus, strain SKT-27 was found to have a bovine rotavirus genetic backbone, and thus is likely to be of bovine origin. Furthermore, strain SKT-27 appeared to be derived through interspecies transmission and reassortment events involving bovine and human rotavirus strains. Of note is that the VP7 gene of strain SKT-27 was located in G6 lineage-5 together with those of bovine rotavirus strains, away from the clusters comprising other G6P[14] strains in G6 lineages-2/6, suggesting the occurrence of independent bovine-to-human interspecies transmission events. To our knowledge, this is the first report on full genome-based characterization of human G6P[14] strains that have emerged in Southeast Asia. Our observations will provide important insights into the origin of G6P[14] strains, and into dynamic interactions between human and bovine rotavirus strains.

  11. A gene-based high-resolution comparative radiation hybrid map as a framework for genome sequence assembly of a bovine chromosome 6 region associated with QTL for growth, body composition, and milk performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Pascal

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of different quantitative trait loci (QTL for various phenotypic traits, including milk production, functional, and conformation traits in dairy cattle as well as growth and body composition traits in meat cattle, have been mapped consistently in the middle region of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6. Dense genetic and physical maps and, ultimately, a fully annotated genome sequence as well as their mutual connections are required to efficiently identify genes and gene variants responsible for genetic variation of phenotypic traits. A comprehensive high-resolution gene-rich map linking densely spaced bovine markers and genes to the annotated human genome sequence is required as a framework to facilitate this approach for the region on BTA6 carrying the QTL. Results Therefore, we constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH map for the QTL containing chromosomal region of BTA6. This new RH map with a total of 234 loci including 115 genes and ESTs displays a substantial increase in loci density compared to existing physical BTA6 maps. Screening the available bovine genome sequence resources, a total of 73 loci could be assigned to sequence contigs, which were already identified as specific for BTA6. For 43 loci, corresponding sequence contigs, which were not yet placed on the bovine genome assembly, were identified. In addition, the improved potential of this high-resolution RH map for BTA6 with respect to comparative mapping was demonstrated. Mapping a large number of genes on BTA6 and cross-referencing them with map locations in corresponding syntenic multi-species chromosome segments (human, mouse, rat, dog, chicken achieved a refined accurate alignment of conserved segments and evolutionary breakpoints across the species included. Conclusion The gene-anchored high-resolution RH map (1 locus/300 kb for the targeted region of BTA6 presented here will provide a valuable platform to guide high-quality assembling and

  12. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  13. Evolutionary break point analysis between the proximal half of bovine chromosome 27 and conserved segments of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldammer, T; Kuehn, C; Brunner, R M; Weikard, R

    2009-01-01

    The proximal half of Bos taurus chromosome 27 (BTA27prox) delimited by microsatellite markers BM3507 and CSSM043 reveals complex rearrangements compared to its corresponding Homo sapiens chromosome (HSA) fragments. A comparative mapping approach combining somatic and radiation hybrid cell mapping techniques and related cytogenetic data resulted in an improved physical map for BTA27prox, which provides candidate genes for several important economic traits. The generated comprehensive map includes anchor loci for 103 genes and microsatellite markers. Mapping of genes proximal to BM3507 matching a region from 0.60 to 2.78 megabase pairs (Mb) of HSA8 confirmed recent sequence annotations on BTA27. Assignments of loci predicted to be on BTA27 to BTA1, BTA8, and BTA17 narrowed down evolutionary chromosome break points compared with corresponding chromosome segments in human. New physical anchors obtained in this study confirm in more detail the described evolutionary conservation between the proximal half of BTA27 and homologous segments of HSA4 and HSA8 and will contribute to the completion of the cattle DNA genome sequence.

  14. A search for RNA insertions and NS3 gene duplication in the genome of cytopathic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.L. Quadros

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Calves born persistently infected with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV frequently develop a fatal gastroenteric illness called mucosal disease. Both the original virus (ncpBVDV and an antigenically identical but cytopathic virus (cpBVDV can be isolated from animals affected by mucosal disease. Cytopathic BVDVs originate from their ncp counterparts by diverse genetic mechanisms, all leading to the expression of the non-structural polypeptide NS3 as a discrete protein. In contrast, ncpBVDVs express only the large precursor polypeptide, NS2-3, which contains the NS3 sequence within its carboxy-terminal half. We report here the investigation of the mechanism leading to NS3 expression in 41 cpBVDV isolates. An RT-PCR strategy was employed to detect RNA insertions within the NS2-3 gene and/or duplication of the NS3 gene, two common mechanisms of NS3 expression. RT-PCR amplification revealed insertions in the NS2-3 gene of three cp isolates, with the inserts being similar in size to that present in the cpBVDV NADL strain. Sequencing of one such insert revealed a 296-nucleotide sequence with a central core of 270 nucleotides coding for an amino acid sequence highly homologous (98% to the NADL insert, a sequence corresponding to part of the cellular J-Domain gene. One cpBVDV isolate contained a duplication of the NS3 gene downstream from the original locus. In contrast, no detectable NS2-3 insertions or NS3 gene duplications were observed in the genome of 37 cp isolates. These results demonstrate that processing of NS2-3 without bulk mRNA insertions or NS3 gene duplications seems to be a frequent mechanism leading to NS3 expression and BVDV cytopathology.

  15. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  16. Genomic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine intrauterineEscherichia coli and its relationship with postpartum uterine infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-ming; WANG Yi-hao; PENG Yu; MIN Jiang-tao; HANG Su-qin; ZHU Wei-yun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the roles ofEscherichia coli in the pathogenesis of postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows, a total of 145E. coli isolates were recovered from 18 healthy cows (61 isolates) and 25 cows with clinical endometritis (84 isolates) at 25–35 days after parturition. Genomic characteristics including phylogenetic grouping, genetic diversity and virulence genes of E. coli isolates were screened to proifle the characteristics related to uterine infections. The susceptibility of the bacteria against 23 antibiotics was also evaluated to support prevention and treatment of clinical cases. Genetic diversity ofE. coli identiifed by random ampliifcation of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed 103 clonal types, including 3 common types to unaffected cows and endometritis cows, 39 types speciifc to healthy cows and 61 types in endometritis subjects. In addition, the isolates from endometritis uteri showed more genetic variability compared with that of healthy cows. Ac-cording to the ifndings of phylogenetic grouping, theE. coli isolates were assigned to group A (35.9%), B1 (59.3%) and D (4.8%). The expression of 10 of 20 virulence gens were detected positively, and onlyifmH gene was revealed signiifcantly (P<0.05) associated with endometritis. From antimicrobial susceptibility test,E. coli was found highly resistant to tetracy-cline, ampicilin, carbenicilin and amoxicilin, but sensitive to amikacin, netilmicin, tobramycin, cefepime and ceftazidime. In conclusion,E. coliwere extensively observed in both healthy and endometritis cows, and presented a large clonal types, however, ifmH was the only gene observed associated with clinical endometritis. Our results suggest that the drugs like amikacin, netilmicin, tobramycin and cefepime could be considered for preventing and treating clinical endometritis in the practical management of dairy cow.

  17. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safayi, S; Theil, P K; Hou, L; Engbaek, M; Nørgaard, J V; Sejrsen, K; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis in the continuously lactating mammary gland. Nine multiparous dairy goats were used. One udder half was dried off approximately 9 wk prepartum (normal lactation; NL), and the other udder half of the same goat was milked continuously (continuous lactation; CL) until parturition or until the half-udder milk yields had dropped to below 50 g/d. Mammary biopsies were obtained from each udder half just before the NL gland was dried off (before dry period), within the first 2 wk after drying-off (early dry period, samples available only for NL glands), in the mid dry period, within the last 2 wk before parturition (late dry period), and at d 1 (the day of parturition), 3, 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Mammary morphology was characterized in biopsies by quantitative histology, and cell turnover was determined by immunohistochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and Ki-67). Transcription of genes encoding factors involved in mammary epithelial cell (MEC) turnover and vascular function was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results demonstrated that omitting the dry period was possible in goats but was not as easy as claimed before. Renewal of MEC was suppressed in CL glands, which resulted in a smaller MEC population in the subsequent lactation. At the time of parturition (and throughout lactation), the mammary glands subjected to CL had smaller alveoli, more fully differentiated MEC, and a substantially larger capillary fraction compared with NL glands. The continuously lactating gland thus resembled a normally lactating gland in an advanced stage of lactation. None of the studied genomic factors could account for these treatment

  18. Free and total GMP (glycomacropeptide contents of milk during bovine lactation Variação dos teores de GMP (glicomacropeptídeo livre e total no leite bovino durante a lactação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Furlanetti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual milk samples taken every two weeks from parturition to the end of lactation from 34 animals of three different herds and breeds were analyzed for free-GMP. A milk pool of each herd was analyzed for free and total GMP (released from k-casein by the action of rennin and the data were correlated with sanitary conditions of animal and udder, phase of lactation and milk production. Most udder problems were concentrated near parturition, with few and spaced occurrences of clinical mastitis. The Californian Mastitis Test (CMT results showed oscillations compatible with the phases of lactation period and environmental conditions. The widest variations in free-GMP occurred as a function of lactation period and as a consequence of clinical or subclinical mastitis. Higher levels were observed at the beginning of lactation (5.87mg L-1 of sialic acid, becoming normal with mean values of about 3.30mg L-1 at the end of the second month, and increasing again during the final third of lactation. On average, the same trends were observed for total GMP released by commercial rennet, beginning with slightly high values (35.59mg L-1, becoming normal by the sixth month with values close to 27.15mg L-1, and rising gradually up to the end of lactation, with 58.35mg L-1 of sialic acid. These results prove to be useful for the correct interpretation of tests applied to milk selection with respect to proteolytic status or even to restrain frauds by the addition of whey to milk.Amostras quinzenais, desde o parto até o final do período de lactação, obtidas de 34 vacas de três diferentes raças e propriedades, foram analisadas quanto à presença de GMP livre. Um "pool" das amostras quinzenais de cada rebanho foi analisada tanto para o conteúdo de GMP livre quanto para o GMP total (liberado da k-caseína pela ação da renina, correlacionando-os com as condições sanitárias do animal e do úbere, à fase da lactação e à produção de leite. A maioria

  19. Administração de somatotropina bovina no período pré-parto sobre parâmetros produtivos, sanitários e reprodutivos da primeira lactação de vacas holandesas Bovine somatotropin administration during pre-delivery period to productive, sanitary and reproductive parameters of holstein cows' first lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a administração de somatotropina bovina (bST no período pré-parto, sobre o desempenho na primeira lactação, foram utilizadas 18 novilhas gestantes, de modo que 9 receberam injeções subcutâneas de 500mg de bST nos dias 21 e 9 antes da data prevista para o parto. Os animais foram alimentados com dieta total, 2 vezes ao dia, e os dados coletados foram relativos a parâmetros sanitários, produtivos e reprodutivos na primeira lactação. A administração de bST não afetou os parâmetros sanitários (retenção de placenta, metrite, deslocamento de abomaso, febre do leite e cetose e reprodutivo (cisto folicular. Entretanto, o uso de bST no pré-parto levou à variação de escore de condição corporal (ECC 65% maior, adiantou o pico de produção de leite em 9,7 dias e diminuiu os dias em lactação em 21,8 dias em relação ao controle (P The effects of pre-delivery administration of bovine somatotropin (bST on first lactation performance were evaluated in this study, which involved eighteen Holstein pregnant heifers. Nine animals were supplemented with subcutaneous injections of 500 mg of bST, on days 21 and 9 prior expected delivery, and 9 were not supplemented (control group. Animals were fed total mixed ration, twice daily. Data evaluated in this experiment were related to sanitary, reproductive and productive parameters during first lactation. Administration of bST did not affect parameters related to sanity (retained placenta, metritis, displacement abomasum, milk fever, ketosis, reproduction (follicular cysts. However, heifers supplemented with bST showed changes of body condition score 65% greater, anticipated milk production peak in 9.7 days and decreased number of days in lactation in 21,8 days, compared to the non-supplemented ones (p < 0.05. Milk production peak and milk production corrected for 305 days were not affected by bST administration.

  20. Expression of lactate/H⁺ symporters MCT1 and MCT4 and their chaperone CD147 predicts tumor progression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: immunohistochemical and The Cancer Genome Atlas data analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Choi, Jung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Han; Kim, Young-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) have inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau protein, leading to the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α). HIF-1α induces aerobic glycolysis, the Warburg effect, whereas HIF-2α functions as an oncoprotein. Lactate transport through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and the chaperone CD147 is essential for high glycolytic cancer cell survival. To elucidate the clinical significance of MCT1, MCT4, and CD147 expression, we investigated their expressions by immunohistochemistry in ccRCC specimens and validated the results by an open-access The Cancer Genome Atlas data analysis. Overexpression of MCT1, MCT4, and CD147 was observed in 49.4% (89/180), 39.4% (71/180), and 79.4% (143/180) of ccRCC patients, respectively. High MCT1 expression was associated with older age (P = .017), larger tumor size (P = .015), and advanced TNM stage (P = .012). However, MCT4 overexpression was not related to any variables. CD147 overexpression correlated with high grade (P = .005), tumor necrosis (P = .016), and larger tumor size (P = .038). In univariate analysis, high expression of MCT1 (P CD147 (P = .02) was linked to short progression-free survival. In multivariate analysis, high MCT1 expression was associated with worse progression-free survival (P = .001). In conclusion, high expression of MCT1 and CD147 is associated with poor prognostic factors. Overexpression of MCT1, MCT4, and CD147 predicts tumor progression. Reversing the Warburg effect by targeting the lactate transporters may be a useful strategy to prevent ccRCC progression.

  1. Kajian Fisiologis Penggunaan Bovine Somatotropin (bST Pada Sapi Pra Afkir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzarnisa Araby

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of physiological bovine somatotropin (bST on post lactating dairy ABSTRACT. To increase of milk production nationally with used in dairy cattle business can assist to increase milk production, eighteen post lactating dairy cows in the highland Cipelang Bogor, were used to study the effect used of bovine somatotropin and lactating time. The experimental cows were assigned into a Randomized Block Design with a 3x2 factorial arrangement. The first factor was using of somatotropin (bSTwith three levels (non bST injection, biweekly injection and three weekly injection. The second factor was lactating time with two levels (4th lactating time and 6 th lactating time Parameters measured were heart rate, respiration frequency, rectal temperature, milk production efficiency, milk production, 4% FCM (fat corrected milk., Milk composition, weigh gain, milk quality consist of protein, fat, pH. Bovine somatotropin significantly increased heart rate and respiration rate. Also bovine somatotropin injection at 4th lactating time significantly increased milk production. There were an interaction between bST dan lactating time on milk production and weight gain. Bovine somatotropin injection biweekly in cows on 4th lactating time ration increased milk production by 16-26 %, but injection in cows 6th lactating time increased milk production by 8-18 % combination with somatotropin doze 250/ml/14 days. Somatothropine supplementation was injection biweekly and three weekly did significantly affect to milk production, body temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate however in normal physiology . Bovine somatotropine can increase post lactating dairy production interval 14 days better than 21 days.

  2. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neill John D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were

  3. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

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    Laetitia ePieulle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR, with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation though the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon. Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant 26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant 32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species.

  4. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  5. 重组溶菌酶质粒pcDNAKLYZ治疗泌乳期奶牛乳房炎%The Treatment of Lactating Bovine Mastitis by Using Recombinant Plasmid pcDNAKLYZ Containing Lysozyme Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈诚; 林源; 叶承荣; 金耀忠; 俞向前; 孙怀昌; 朱建国

    2011-01-01

    通过比较注射人溶菌酶重组质粒pcDNAKLYZ的隐性乳房炎奶牛注射前后的奶样中细菌计数结果,对重组溶菌酶基因工程质粒治疗奶牛乳房炎的效果进行分析.对乳房炎患牛的156个乳区治疗前后312份奶样进行细菌培养,其中在注射前的乳样的培养结果中,阴性率为0(0/156),菌落数在50以内的比率为12.82%(20/156),在51~100的比率为16.67%(26/156),大于等于100的比率为70.51%(110/150);在注射人溶菌酶的重组质粒pcDNAKLYz后的奶牛乳样的培养结果中,阴性率为51.92%(81/156),菌落数在50以内的比率为45.51%(71/156),菌落数在51~100的比率为0%(0/156),大于等于100的比率为2.56%(4/156).因此,从细菌计数结果来看,重组质粒组的阴性及小于50的比率(97.44%)远高于治疗前(12.82%),重组质粒的抑菌效果显著(P<0.05),该重组质粒对奶牛乳房炎具有较好的治疗效果.%To analysis the curative effect to bovine mastitis by using the recombinant plasmid pcDNAKLYZ containing lysozyme gene, We make several bacterial cultures with 312 parts of milk samples collected from 156 mammary area of cattle infected with subclinical or clinical mastitis to compare the bacterial colonies between the pre-and-post-injection of the recombinant plasmid. In the sample of pre-injection, the culture result showing negative result of samples accounts for 0(0/156), the number of samples showing bacterial colonies from 1 to 50 accounts for 12.82%(20/156), the number of samples showing bacterial colonies from 51 to 100 accounts for 16.67% (26/156), the number of samples show bacterial colonies above 100 accounts for 70.51% (110/156); In the post-injection sample, the culture result showing negative result of samples accounts for 51.92%(81/156), the number of samples showing bacterial colonies from 1 to 50 accounts for 45.51%(71/156), the number of samples showing bacterial colonies from 51 to 100 accounts for 0(0/156), the number of samples

  6. Isolation and characterization of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 from a cow affected by post partum metritis and cloning of the genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a gammaherpesvirus with a Worldwide distribution in cattle and is often isolated from the uterus of animals with postpartum metritis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Virus strain adaptation to an organ, tissue or cell type is an important issue for the pathogenesis of disease. To explore the mechanistic role of viral strain variation for uterine disease, the present study aimed to develop a tool enabling precise genetic discrimination between strains of BoHV-4 and to easily manipulate the viral genome. Methods A strain of BoHV-4 was isolated from the uterus of a persistently infected cow and designated BoHV-4-U. The authenticity of the isolate was confirmed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing using the TK and IE2 loci as genetic marker regions for the BoHV-4 genome. The isolated genome was cloned as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC and manipulated through recombineering technology Results The BoHV-4-U genome was successfully cloned as a BAC, and the stability of the pBAC-BoHV-4-U clone was confirmed over twenty passages, with viral growth similar to the wild type virus. The feasibility of using BoHV-4-U for mutagenesis was demonstrated using the BAC recombineering system. Conclusion The analysis of genome strain variation is a key method for investigating genes associated with disease. A resource for dissection of the interactions between BoHV-4 and host endometrial cells was generated by cloning the genome of BoHV-4 as a BAC.

  7. Dinâmica folicular em cabras da raça Toggenburg em lactação tratadas ou não com somatotropina bovina recombinante Follicular dynamics of lactating Toggenburg does treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.M. Amorim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da injeção de somatotropina bovina recombinante (r-bST sobre o ciclo estral de cabras. Foram utilizadas 24 fêmeas da raça Toggenburg, distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 (n=12, cabras tratadas com r-bST; e T2 (n=12, cabras tratadas com solução salina (controle. A partir da primeira injeção do tratamento, acompanhou-se o ciclo dos animais em estro até o estro subseqüente. O comprimento médio do ciclo estral e o período interovulatório não diferiram (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos. Foram verificados ciclos estrais de duas, três e quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos quanto ao número de ondas do ciclo estral. O número de folículos detectados com diâmetro >3mm nas cabras do T1 foi maior (P0,05. A r-bST não alterou a dinâmica folicular de cabras lactantes da raça Toggenburg, mas promoveu o aumento do número de folículos recrutados ³3mm durante o ciclo estral.The effect of the r-bST injection was evaluated on the goats estrous cycles. Twenty-four Toggenburg does were used in two treatments: T1 (n=12 treated with r-bST; and T2 (n=12 treated with saline solution (control. After the first r-bST injection, the estrous cycles were checked between two estrus. The estrous cycle length and interovulatory period of the goats did not differ between treatments (P>0.05. Estrous cycles with two, three and four waves of follicular growth were observed. The number of waves during the estrous cycle were not affected by the r-bST treatment (P>0.05. The number of 3mm follicles was different between T1 and T2 (P0.05 between treatments. The r-bST did not affect the ovarian response during the estrous cycle. The r-bST not affected the follicular dynamic of Toggenburg lactating does, but increased the number of emerging follicles >3mm during the estrous cycle.

  8. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography. Quantita

  9. Short communication: amino acid supplementation and stage of lactation alter apparent utilization of nutrients by blood neutrophils from lactating dairy cows in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutamine is the preferred AA used by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during the inflammatory response. However, the effect of other AA on bovine PMN response during inflammation and how this is altered by stage of lactation has not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to dete...

  10. Extension model of lactation curves to evaluate the effect of the recombinant bovine somatotropin on milk yield in Holstein cows Modelo de extensão de curvas de lactação para avaliar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante sobre a produção de leite em vacas Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Palacios-Espinosa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An extension model of lactation curves was used to determine the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST-r on milk yield in Holstein dairy cattle. This model use the fitted values obtained by the Wood model, and was tested on the records of 66 cows. The milk yield predicted with the extension model and the observed yield were compared and no significant differences were observed (P>0.05. Once the extension model was validated, the milk yield tests of 199 cows were used. The cows received bST-r 500mg by subcutaneous injections. The injections were applied after 100 days in milk at 14-day intervals (seven injections. The observed milk yield was compared with the yield expected by the extension model. An increase of 5.3% was observed in milk yield in response to the bST-r. This increase is lower than that reported in the literature in response to the growth hormone in dairy cattle. It is concluded that extension model used in the present work is reliable for extending the lactation curve in Holstein cows, and the increase in milk yield in response to the application of bST-r, determined in the same animal using the extension model, was lower than that reported by other authors.Um modelo de extensão de curvas de lactância foi utilizado para determinar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST-r sobre a produção de leite em vacas Holstein. Este modelo, que utiliza os valores ajustados obtidos pelo modelo de Wood, foi testato nos registros de 66 vacas. A produção de leite predita com o modelo de extensão e a produção observada foram comparadas e não se observaram diferenças significativas (P>0,05. Uma vez validado o modelo de extensão, utilizaram-se os controles de produção de leite (de cada 15 dias de 199 vacas. As vacas receberam injeções de 500mg de bST-r via subcutânea. As injeções fora aplicadas a partir dos 100 dias de lactação a intervalos de 14 dias (sete injeções. A produção de leite observada foi

  11. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Comments on the proposed rule were required to......

  12. Comparative analysis of super-shedder strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 reveals distinctive genomic features and a strongly aggregative adherent phenotype on bovine rectoanal junction squamous epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Cote

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157 are significant foodborne pathogens and pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. The major reservoirs of O157 are asymptomatic cattle which harbor the organism in the terminal recto-anal junction (RAJ. Some colonized animals, referred to as "super-shedders" (SS, are known to shed O157 in exceptionally large numbers (>104 CFU/g of feces. Recent studies suggest that SS cattle play a major role in the prevalence and transmission of O157, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms associated with super-shedding. Whole genome sequence analysis of an SS O157 strain (SS17 revealed a genome of 5,523,849 bp chromosome with 5,430 open reading frames and two plasmids, pO157 and pSS17, of 94,645 bp and 37,446 bp, respectively. Comparative analyses showed that SS17 is clustered with spinach-associated O157 outbreak strains, and belongs to the lineage I/II, clade 8, D group, and genotype 1, a subgroup of O157 with predicted hyper-virulence. A large number of non-synonymous SNPs and other polymorphisms were identified in SS17 as compared with other O157 strains (EC4115, EDL933, Sakai, TW14359, including in key adherence- and virulence-related loci. Phenotypic analyses revealed a distinctive and strongly adherent aggregative phenotype of SS17 on bovine RAJ stratified squamous epithelial (RSE cells that was conserved amongst other SS isolates. Molecular genetic and functional analyses of defined mutants of SS17 suggested that the strongly adherent aggregative phenotype amongst SS isolates is LEE-independent, and likely results from a novel mechanism. Taken together, our study provides a rational framework for investigating the molecular mechanisms associated with SS, and strong evidence that SS O157 isolates have distinctive features and use a LEE-independent mechanism for hyper-adherence to bovine rectal epithelial cells.

  13. Genome-wide scan for bovine milk-fat composition. I. Quantitative trait loci for short- and medium-chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.; Schennink, A.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Mullaart, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    A genome-wide scan was performed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for short- and medium-chain fatty acids (expressed in wt/wt %). Milk samples were available from 1,905 cows from 398 commercial herds in the Netherlands, and milk-fat composition was measured by gas chromatography. DNA was av

  14. Short communication: Genome-wide scan for bovine milk-fat composition. II. Quantitative trait loci for long-chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.; Stoop, W.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a genome-wide scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to genetic variation in long-chain milk fatty acids. Milk-fat composition phenotypes were available on 1,905 Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows. A total of 849 cows and their 7 sires were genotyped for 1

  15. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  16. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  17. Rapid genome detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus by use of isothermal amplification methods and high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests.

  18. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G

    1993-01-01

    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity.

  19. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  20. Lactate in Bitches with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, R.; L. Rodello; Abibe, R. B. [UNESP; Lopes, Maria Denise [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the mo...

  1. Lactate in bitches with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, R; Rodello, L; Abibe, R B; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the most common diseases that occur in the genital tract of female dogs. A total of 31 dogs were diagnosed with pyometra. The diagnosis was confirmed at ultrasonography. Of the 31 dogs, 25 females had open cervix pyometra and six had closed cervix pyometra. Plasma lactate concentrations were determined by an enzymatic colorimetric method. The average concentration (±SD) of plasma lactate in all 31 bitches with pyometra was 3.55 ± 0.46 mm. Healthy dogs had plasma lactate concentrations between 0.3 and 2.5 mm (mean ± SD). Concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 mm when plasma lactate was measured with a portable device and 0.4-2.6 mm with the blood gas analyser. Even though plasma lactate values vary between several studies and equipment used to measure concentrations, our results for dogs with pyometra are higher indicating hyperlactataemia (Thorneloe et al. , Can Vet J 48, 283-288). Plasma lactate in dogs with closed cervix pyometra was mean ± SD and in dogs with open cervix pyometra, it was mean ± SD. The plasma lactate concentration in dogs with pyometra was higher than in healthy bitches, and there was no influence of patency of the cervix on the concentration of plasma lactate concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations were similar for animals with open and closed pyometra (3.54 ± 0.52 to 3.64 ± 1.03 mm).

  2. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  3. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  4. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  5. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  6. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received suppl...

  7. Lactate in cystic fibrosis sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensel, Tobias; Stotz, Martin; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by decreasing neutrophil-derived inflammation. We investigated the origin and clinical significance of lactate in the chronically inflamed CF lung. Methods Lactate was measured in sputa of 18 exacerbated ...

  8. Safety assessment of lactate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clary, J.J.; Feron, V.J.; Velthuijsen, J.A. van

    1998-01-01

    Lactate eaters have an oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is generally above 5000 mg/m3 and they may be potential eye and skin irritants, but not skin sensitizers. No evidence of teratogenicity or maternal toxicity was observed in an inhalation (2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate) or derm

  9. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Patterns of Bovine Blastocysts Developed In Vivo from Embryos Completed Different Stages of Development In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Fournier, Eric; Hoelker, Michael; Saeed-Zidane, Mohammed; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Neuhoff, Christiane; Besenfelder, Urban; Havlicek, Vita; Rings, Franca; Gagné, Dominic; Sirard, Marc-André; Robert, Claude; Shojaei Saadi, Habib A; Gad, Ahmed; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2015-01-01

    Early embryonic loss and altered gene expression in in vitro produced blastocysts are believed to be partly caused by aberrant DNA methylation. However, specific embryonic stage which is sensitive to in vitro culture conditions to alter the DNA methylation profile of the resulting blastocysts remained unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the stage specific effect of in vitro culture environment on the DNA methylation response of the resulting blastocysts. For this, embryos cultured in vitro until zygote (ZY), 4-cell (4C) or 16-cell (16C) were transferred to recipients and the blastocysts were recovery at day 7 of the estrous cycle. Another embryo group was cultured in vitro until blastocyst stage (IVP). Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of ZY, 4C, 16C and IVP blastocyst groups were then determined with reference to blastocysts developed completely under in vivo condition (VO) using EmbryoGENE DNA Methylation Array. To assess the contribution of methylation changes on gene expression patterns, the DNA methylation data was superimposed to the transcriptome profile data. The degree of DNA methylation dysregulation in the promoter and/or gene body regions of the resulting blastocysts was correlated with successive stages of development the embryos advanced under in vitro culture before transfer to the in vivo condition. Genomic enrichment analysis revealed that in 4C and 16C blastocyst groups, hypermethylated loci were outpacing the hypomethylated ones in intronic, exonic, promoter and proximal promoter regions, whereas the reverse was observed in ZY blastocyst group. However, in the IVP group, as much hypermethylated as hypomethylated probes were detected in gene body and promoter regions. In addition, gene ontology analysis indicated that differentially methylated regions were found to affected several biological functions including ATP binding in the ZY group, programmed cell death in the 4C, glycolysis in 16C and genetic imprinting and

  10. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Patterns of Bovine Blastocysts Developed In Vivo from Embryos Completed Different Stages of Development In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Salilew-Wondim

    Full Text Available Early embryonic loss and altered gene expression in in vitro produced blastocysts are believed to be partly caused by aberrant DNA methylation. However, specific embryonic stage which is sensitive to in vitro culture conditions to alter the DNA methylation profile of the resulting blastocysts remained unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the stage specific effect of in vitro culture environment on the DNA methylation response of the resulting blastocysts. For this, embryos cultured in vitro until zygote (ZY, 4-cell (4C or 16-cell (16C were transferred to recipients and the blastocysts were recovery at day 7 of the estrous cycle. Another embryo group was cultured in vitro until blastocyst stage (IVP. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of ZY, 4C, 16C and IVP blastocyst groups were then determined with reference to blastocysts developed completely under in vivo condition (VO using EmbryoGENE DNA Methylation Array. To assess the contribution of methylation changes on gene expression patterns, the DNA methylation data was superimposed to the transcriptome profile data. The degree of DNA methylation dysregulation in the promoter and/or gene body regions of the resulting blastocysts was correlated with successive stages of development the embryos advanced under in vitro culture before transfer to the in vivo condition. Genomic enrichment analysis revealed that in 4C and 16C blastocyst groups, hypermethylated loci were outpacing the hypomethylated ones in intronic, exonic, promoter and proximal promoter regions, whereas the reverse was observed in ZY blastocyst group. However, in the IVP group, as much hypermethylated as hypomethylated probes were detected in gene body and promoter regions. In addition, gene ontology analysis indicated that differentially methylated regions were found to affected several biological functions including ATP binding in the ZY group, programmed cell death in the 4C, glycolysis in 16C and genetic

  11. Homologous recombination in bovine pestiviruses. Phylogenetic and statistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leandro Roberto; Weber, E Laura

    2004-12-01

    Bovine pestiviruses (Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1 (BVDV 1) and Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 2 (BVDV 2)) belong to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae), which is composed of positive stranded RNA viruses causing significant economic losses world-wide. We used phylogenetic and bootstrap analyses to systematically scan alignments of previously sequenced genomes in order to explore further the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for variation in the virus. Previously published data suggested that homologous crossover might be one of the mechanisms responsible for the genomic rearrangements observed in cytopathic (cp) strains of bovine pestiviruses. Nevertheless, homologous recombination involves not just homologous crossovers, but also replacement of a homologous region of the acceptor RNA. Furthermore, cytopathic strains represent dead paths in evolution, since they are isolated exclusively from the fatal cases of mucosal disease. Herein, we report evidence of homologous inter-genotype recombination in the genome of a non-cytopathic (ncp) strain of Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1, the type species of the genus Pestivirus. We also show that intra-genotype homologous recombination might be a common phenomenon in both species of Pestivirus. This evidence demonstrates that homologous recombination contribute to the diversification of bovine pestiviruses in nature. Implications for virus evolution, taxonomy and phylogenetics are discussed.

  12. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  13. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  14. 牛副流感病毒3型毒株的分离鉴定及基因组遗传变异分析%Isolation,Identification and Genomic Characterization of Bovine Parainfluenza Viruses Type 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明; 陈西钊; 李岩; 刘巧荣; 张鲁安; 乔明明; 李静; 邓小雨; 冯向辉; 刘伯华

    2016-01-01

    Three strains of bovine parainfluenza viruses type 3 (BPIV3 )were successfully isolated from lung tissues of sick cattle with symptom of fever and cough emerged at a farm in Xinjiang region,and further identified by SYBR green RT -PCR.Their genome sequences were characterized.Three isolates of BPIV3 in total were obtained and designated as XJ03,XJ022 and XJ023 respectively.Genomic characterization of the two isolate XJ03 and XJ023 showed their whole genome lengths were 15475 bp and 15477 bp respectively,and were phylogenetically most closely related to the BPIV SD0835,with 99.3% identity at nucleotide,they all belong to BIPV3 genotype C.Among isolates of BIPV3 genotype C,the isolates XJ03 and XJ023 exhibited the lowest nucleotide similarity with South Korean 12Q061 strain (97.5%).In comparison to strains SD0835,the F,N, HN,L,P and M protein of isolate XJ03 have 99.63%,92.15%,99.48%,99.28%,98.50% and 100%amino acid sequence identity to those of SD0835,respectively,and there exist several new amino acid mutations. These results would be helpful for the diagnosis and control of BPIV3.%从新疆地区某牛场出现发热、咳嗽等症状的多例病牛的肺组织中分离得到3株牛副流感病毒3型,分别命名为 XJ03、XJ022、XJ023,对其中两株病毒 XJ03和 XJ023的基因组进行序列测定,测序结果显示,XJ03和 XJ023毒株基因组全长分别为15474 bp(GenBank 登录号为 KU198929)和15475 bp,其核苷酸同源性为99.89%。同代表性的牛副流感病毒基因组比对发现,与我国的山东毒株 SD0835同源性最高为99.3%,均属 C 型 BPIV。在 C 型毒株中,与南韩12Q061分离株(C 型)同源性最低为97.5%。F、N、HN、L、P、M蛋白基因氨基酸序列分析显示,与 SD0835毒株相应序列对比,同源性分别为99.63%、92.15%、99.48%、99.28%、98.50%和100%,部分氨基酸发生了新的变异。试验结果将为今后更好地开展 BPIV3防控奠定基础。

  15. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... during the long (30- to 45-min) recovery periods amounted to / 10 mmol/L. Blood lactate changes were highly reproducible. However, a 3-week oral lactate supplementation did not result in differences in lactate disappearance. This study does not support the hypothesis that regular oral lactate intake...

  16. Quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld (Cg1027 is essential for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on D-lactate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oikawa Tadao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow with lactate as sole or combined carbon and energy source. Quinone-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase LldD is known to be essential for utilization of L-lactate by C. glutamicum. D-lactate also serves as sole carbon source for C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Results Here, the gene cg1027 was shown to encode the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld by enzymatic analysis of the protein purified from recombinant E. coli. The absorption spectrum of purified Dld indicated the presence of FAD as bound cofactor. Inactivation of dld resulted in the loss of the ability to grow with D-lactate, which could be restored by plasmid-borne expression of dld. Heterologous expression of dld from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 in C. efficiens enabled this species to grow with D-lactate as sole carbon source. Homologs of dld of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 are not encoded in the sequenced genomes of other corynebacteria and mycobacteria. However, the dld locus of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 shares 2367 bp of 2372 bp identical nucleotides with the dld locus of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, a bacterium used in Swiss-type cheese making. Both loci are flanked by insertion sequences of the same family suggesting a possible event of horizontal gene transfer. Conclusions Cg1067 encodes quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Dld is essential for growth with D-lactate as sole carbon source. The genomic region of dld likely has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

  17. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  18. Saturated fatty acids stimulate and insulin suppresses CIDE-A expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomo; Haga, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Katoh, Kazuo; Obara, Yoshiaki

    2009-07-10

    Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector A (CIDE-A) was first identified by its sequence homology with the N-terminal domain of DNA fragmentation factor (DFF). CIDE-A negatively regulates the activity of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue. CIDE-A and UCP1 mRNA were detected by RT-PCR in cloned bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and lactating bovine mammary glands. Physiological concentrations of saturated fatty acids (stearate and palmitate), but not unsaturated fatty acids (oleate and linoleate) induced up-regulation of CIDE-A mRNA in bMEC. Treatment with insulin (5-10 ng/ml) induced down-regulation of CIDE-A and UCP1. The expression levels of CIDE-A and UCP1 mRNA in bovine mammary glands at various stages of the lactation cycle were determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. CIDE-A mRNA expression at peak lactation (2 months after parturition) was significantly higher than at dry off and non-pregnancy but not late lactation. These results suggest that CIDE-A and UCP1 are regulated by insulin and/or fatty acids in mammary epithelial cells and lactating mammary glands, and thereby play an important role in lipid and energy metabolism.

  19. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  20. Bendable Electro-chemical Lactate Sensor Printed with Silver Nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar, Md Abu; Dong, Yue; Lee, Paul Kyuheon; Kim, Woo Soo

    2016-07-01

    Here we report a flexible amperometric lactate biosensor using silver nanoparticle based conductive electrode. Mechanically bendable cross-serpentine-shaped silver electrode is generated on flexible substrate for the mechanical durability such as bending. The biosensor is designed and fabricated by modifying silver electrode with lactate oxidase immobilized by bovine serum albumin. The in-sensor pseudo Ag/AgCl reference electrode is fabricated by chloridization of silver electrode, which evinced its long-term potential stability against a standard commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The amperometric response of the sensor shows linear dependence with lactate concentration of 1~25 mM/L. Anionic selectivity is achieved by using drop-casted Nafion coated on silver electrode against anionic interferences such as ascorbate. This non-invasive electrochemical lactate sensor also demonstrates excellent resiliency against mechanical deformation and temperature fluctuation which leads the possibility of using it on human epidermis for continuous measurement of lactate from sweat. Near field communication based wireless data transmission is demonstrated to reflect a practical approach of the sensor to measure lactate concentration portably using human perspiration.

  1. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  2. Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Aspergillus niger for L-Lactic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Khyati K; Punekar, Narayan S

    2015-01-01

    Different engineered organisms have been used to produce L-lactate. Poor yields of lactate at low pH and expensive downstream processing remain as bottlenecks. Aspergillus niger is a prolific citrate producer and a remarkably acid tolerant fungus. Neither a functional lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from nor lactate production by A. niger is reported. Its genome was also investigated for the presence of a functional ldh. The endogenous A. niger citrate synthase promoter relevant to A. niger acidogenic metabolism was employed to drive constitutive expression of mouse lactate dehydrogenase (mldhA). An appraisal of different branches of the A. niger pyruvate node guided the choice of mldhA for heterologous expression. A high copy number transformant C12 strain, displaying highest LDH specific activity, was analyzed under different growth conditions. The C12 strain produced 7.7 g/l of extracellular L-lactate from 60 g/l of glucose, in non-neutralizing minimal media. Significantly, lactate and citrate accumulated under two different growth conditions. Already an established acidogenic platform, A. niger now promises to be a valuable host for lactate production.

  3. Sequence-based Association Analysis Reveals an MGST1 eQTL with Pleiotropic Effects on Bovine Milk Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Mathew D.; Tiplady, Kathryn; Fink, Tania A.; Lehnert, Klaus; Lopdell, Thomas; Johnson, Thomas; Couldrey, Christine; Keehan, Mike; Sherlock, Richard G.; Harland, Chad; Scott, Andrew; Snell, Russell G.; Davis, Stephen R.; Spelman, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is a prolific lipogenic organ, synthesising copious amounts of triglycerides for secretion into milk. The fat content of milk varies widely both between and within species, and recent independent genome-wide association studies have highlighted a milk fat percentage quantitative trait locus (QTL) of large effect on bovine chromosome 5. Although both EPS8 and MGST1 have been proposed to underlie these signals, the causative status of these genes has not been functionally confirmed. To investigate this QTL in detail, we report genome sequence-based imputation and association mapping in a population of 64,244 taurine cattle. This analysis reveals a cluster of 17 non-coding variants spanning MGST1 that are highly associated with milk fat percentage, and a range of other milk composition traits. Further, we exploit a high-depth mammary RNA sequence dataset to conduct expression QTL (eQTL) mapping in 375 lactating cows, revealing a strong MGST1 eQTL underpinning these effects. These data demonstrate the utility of DNA and RNA sequence-based association mapping, and implicate MGST1, a gene with no obvious mechanistic relationship to milk composition regulation, as causally involved in these processes. PMID:27146958

  4. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Erskine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  5. Lactate transport and signaling in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    , such as in physical exercise, there is net influx of lactate from blood to brain, where the lactate is used for energy production and myelin formation. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81 aka hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR1) on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, and regulates the levels of c...... of the favorable effects on the brain resulting from physical exercise.......Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According...

  6. Restriction endonuclease mapping of linear unintegrated proviral DNA of bovine leukemia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kettmann, R; Couez, D; Burny, A

    1981-01-01

    A detailed restriction map was deduced for the genome of the exogenous bovine leukemia virus. The cleavage sites for nine restriction enzymes were mapped. The unintegrated linear viral DNA intermediate that is produced by infection of permissive cells with bovine leukemia virus was isolated. The linear viral DNA had a unique restriction map, indicating that it is not a set of random circular permutations of the RNA genome. From hybridization with a 3'-enriched probe, the DNA restriction map w...

  7. Transcriptome difference and potential crosstalk between liver and mammary tissue in mid-lactation primiparous dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Dengpan; Bionaz, Massimo; Wang, Mengzhi; Nan, Xuemei; Ma, Lu; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-01-01

    Liver and mammary gland are among the most important organs during lactation in dairy cows. With the purpose of understanding both the different and the complementary roles and the crosstalk of those two organs during lactation, a transcriptome analysis was performed on liver and mammary tissues of 10 primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation. The analysis was performed using a 4×44K Bovine Agilent microarray chip. The transcriptome difference between the two tissues was analyzed using SAS JMP Genomics using ANOVA with a false discovery rate correction (FDR). The analysis uncovered >9,000 genes differentially expressed (DEG) between the two tissues with a FDR<0.001. The functional analysis of the DEG uncovered a larger metabolic (especially related to lipid) and inflammatory response capacity in liver compared with mammary tissue while the mammary tissue had a larger protein synthesis and secretion, proliferation/differentiation, signaling, and innate immune system capacity compared with the liver. A plethora of endogenous compounds, cytokines, and transcription factors were estimated to control the DEG between the two tissues. Compared with mammary tissue, the liver transcriptome appeared to be under control of a large array of ligand-dependent nuclear receptors and, among endogenous chemical, fatty acids and bacteria-derived compounds. Compared with liver, the transcriptome of the mammary tissue was potentially under control of a large number of growth factors and miRNA. The in silico crosstalk analysis between the two tissues revealed an overall large communication with a reciprocal control of lipid metabolism, innate immune system adaptation, and proliferation/differentiation. In summary the transcriptome analysis confirmed prior known differences between liver and mammary tissue, especially considering the indication of a larger metabolic activity in liver compared with the mammary tissue and the larger protein synthesis, communication, and proliferative

  8. Effects of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus antigen insertion in two 3' proximal genome positions of bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 on virus replication and immunogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Tang (Roderick); J.H. Schickli (Jeanne); M. MacPhail (Mia); F. Fernandes (Fiona); L. Bicha (Leenas); J. Spaete (Joshua); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R. Spaete (Richard); A.A. Haller (Aurelia)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA live attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), harboring the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes of human PIV3, was used as a virus vector to express surface glycoproteins derived from two human pathogens, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncyt

  9. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.

  10. [Drugs and lactation. Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerany Pardo, C; Bassons Boncompte, M T; Font Pous, M

    1986-01-01

    This document lists categories of drugs and provides brief descriptions of the effects on lactation and nursing infants of specific drugs within categories. Because any drug may pass to some extent to the mother's milk, the effect on the infant must always be considered before a drug is given to the mother. This review provides information on the excretion of drugs through breast milk and identifies drugs that are contraindicated for nursing mothers. The medications considered include drugs for gastrointestinal pathology, drugs for the central nervous system, hormones and hormone substitution drugs, radioisotopes, vitamins and minerals, foods and additives, social toxics such as nicotine and caffeine, and environmental agents. Among hormones and hormone substitution drugs, combinations of estrogens, estrogens and progestins, or estrogens and androgens at high doses may suppress lactation. Low doses of oral contraceptives (OCs) have slight effects on the volume of milk but may suppress lactation in women in whom lactation is not established. OCs also alter the composition of milk, although the changes are within normal limits and their clinical significance is not clear. Cases have been described in which OCs have caused breast development in boys and proliferation of vaginal epithelium in girls, although the causal relationship has not been proven. Androgens are contraindicated because they may cause masculinization of girls or precocious development in boys. Doses of over 50 mcg/day of ethinyl estradiol diminish milk production and may produce feminization of boys. Mestranol at doses of under 100 mcg/day produces insignificant levels in milk.

  11. Nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udipi, S A; Ghugre, P; Antony, U

    2000-09-01

    Nutrition at optimal levels is fundamental in the maintenance of positive health. Matemal nutrition is very important for the course and outcome of pregnancy. Lactation represents a stage wherein health and nutritional status of the infant are dependent on the mother. Successful pregnancy and lactation require adjustments in maternal body composition, metabolism and function of various physioogical systems. A diet that meets matemal nutritional needs is required for these adjustments, so that maternal well-being is safeguarded with birth of an healthy infant. Adequate nutrition supports the growth of both matemal and foetal tissues. Chronic undernutrition throughout pregnancy affects birth weights of newborns. Poor nutrition causes intra-uterine growth retardation. Specific nutrients like zinc, iodine and folate are also required for development of the foetus. Foetal iron deficiency exists in maternal iron deficiency anaemia. Maternal nutritional status, breast milk composition and volume are elaborated in the article. Proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins and their requirements are narrated in detail. Additional nutritional requirements during lactation have been tabulated in this article. Thus improving the nutrition and health of girls and younger women and of mothers during pregnancy and lactation will derive benefits in terms of improved health of their children throughout their lives.

  12. Ivermectin pharmacokinetics in lactating sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Grabnar, V.; Skubic, V.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.; Kosorok, M.D.; Pogacnik, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) concentrations in plasma and milk were studied in six Istrian Pramenka dairy sheep after a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of IVM in the early lactation period to describe IVM disposition in milk and to evaluate the transfer of IVM residues via milk to suckling lambs. Lar

  13. Bovine copy number variation and its implication in animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently it has become apparent that previously unappreciated genomic structural variation, including copy number variations (CNV), contributes significantly to individual health and disease in humans and rodents. As a complement to the bovine HapMap project, we initiated a systematic study of the C...

  14. Genetic analysis of protein composition of bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopen, G.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of the Dutch Milk Genomics Initiative, and the general aim was to obtain more insight into the genetic background of bovine milk protein composition. Morning milk samples from roughly 2000 cows were analyzed for the six major milk proteins (αS1-casein, αS2-casein, β-casein, κ-cas

  15. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    )] from a resting value of 6 to exercise, cerebral activation associated with mental activity, or exposure to a stressful situation. The CMR decrease is prevented with combined beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor......The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up...

  16. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken;

    2016-01-01

    In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also ...

  17. New Research Strategies in Lactation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Ogorevc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Different approaches have been used to study milk related traits in farm animals, reaching from statistical dissection of phenotypic variation to the search of candidate genes with major phenotypic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a new research tool devoted to in vitro studies of physiological pathways responsible for mammary gland development, lactation, remodeling and immune response, supported by a user friendly map based bioinformatics tool for integration of different types of data. We established goat mammary gland derived primary epithelial cell line with predominantly epithelial morphology, responsive to lactogenic hormones and exhibiting regeneration potential in heterologous mouse system. The response of primary epithelial cells to pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae was studied using RNA sequencing approach and 1553 differentially expressed genes were detected 24h post infection. The majority of differentially expressed genes belonged to cell cycle regulating genes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and genes involved in lipid metabolism. Bioinformatic analysis of 359 putative target sites for mammary gland expressed miRNAs revealed polymorphic miRNA target sites for bta-miR-199b, -199a-5p, and -361 in the IL1B gene and for -miR-126 in the CYP11B1 gene. Graphical integration of different types of data to DairyVis platform allowed identification of genomic regions with higher number of potential functional elements that deserve further experimental analysis. The newly developed MEC line and integration of bioinformatics tools into DairyVis database represent a promising methodological support for further research in the field of lactation biology.

  18. Bovine CCL28 Mediates Chemotaxis via CCR10 and Demonstrates Direct Antimicrobial Activity against Mastitis Causing Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyler B Pallister

    Full Text Available In addition to the well characterized function of chemokines in mediating the homing and accumulation of leukocytes to tissues, some chemokines also exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. Little is known of the potential role of chemokines in bovine mammary gland health and disease. The chemokine CCL28 has previously been shown to play a key role in the homing and accumulation of IgA antibody secreting cells to the lactating murine mammary gland. CCL28 has also been shown to act as an antimicrobial peptide with activity demonstrated against a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Here we describe the cloning and function of bovine CCL28 and document the concentration of this chemokine in bovine milk. Bovine CCL28 was shown to mediate cellular chemotaxis via the CCR10 chemokine receptor and exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bovine mastitis causing organisms. The concentration of bovine CCL28 in milk was found to be highly correlated with the lactation cycle. Highest concentrations of CCL28 were observed soon after parturition, with levels decreasing over time. These results suggest a potential role for CCL28 in the prevention/resolution of bovine mastitis.

  19. Sexing Bovine Embryos Using PCR Amplification of Bovine SRY Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾溢滔; 张美兰; 陈美珏; 周霞娣; 黄英; 任兆瑞; 黄淑帧; 胡明信; 吴学清; 高建明; 张斌; 徐慧如

    1994-01-01

    This study analyses the bovine SRY DNA sequence by direct sequencing procedure, followed by the designation of the PCR primers specific for bovine SRY. Using PCR amplification of bovine SRY gene, the embryo sex was determined. The results of the embryo sex identification were confirmed after the embryo transfer and pregnancies.

  20. Toxicology of a bovine paraplegic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Domínguez-Bello, M G; Lovera, M; Mijares, A J; Bónoli, S

    1993-12-01

    A clinical entity named 'bovine paraplegic syndrome' ('síndrome parapléjico de los bovinos') has spread alarmingly in the cattle-growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. It is estimated that four million cattle are bred in the area where the disease occurs. The mortality ranges from 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly pregnant or lactating cows. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is ventral or sternal decubitus, in animals that make vain efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established when all other possible causes (e.g. paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such as Anaplasma marginal, Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and Trypanosoma vivax) have been ruled out clinically and by laboratory tests. Death always occurs, usually after a few days, and there is no known treatment. In this work, we describe results that show the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering from, or liable to suffer from the syndrome. The toxin is produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, the toxin blocks the sodium current. We detected the toxin analytically by absorbance measurements at 340 nm after reacting with picrylsulfonic acid. We obtained a good separation of the toxin with isocratic high pressure liquid chromatography, using 40% methanol in water on phenylborasil columns.

  1. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien S Bouchard

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation; inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC; and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  2. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  3. Enzootic bovine leukosis and Bovine leukemia virus

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri; Alice Fernandes Alfieri; Luis Álvaro Leuzzi Junior

    2004-01-01

    All over de World the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a important viral infection in cattle herds. This revision points out topics relative to the etiological agent, clinical signals, diagnosis methods, control and prophylaxis of the infection.A Leucose Enzoótica Bovina é uma infecção viral amplamente disseminada em rebanhos bovinos de todo o mundo. Esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar tópicos relacionados ao agente etiológico, à doença clínica e aos métodos de diagnóstico, controle e profila...

  4. Drugs in pregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaque K. Shaikh; Madhuri D. Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Drug use during pregnancy and lactation is an almost inevitable event. Some of the drugs may have adverse effects on the baby on exposure. It is therefore necessary for the physician to be aware of the changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during pregnancy. Knowledge about the known teratogens and drugs safe to be used during pregnancy is essential on the part of the prescribing physician. There are many factors affecting drug passage into the milk and thus affecting the child in s...

  5. Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Cirone, Francesco; D'Abramo, Maria; Lorusso, Eleonora; Greco, Grazia; Mari, Viviana; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-01-01

    Four outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infection in Italian cattle herds were reported. In 3 outbreaks, BRD was observed only in 2-3-month-old feedlot calves, whereas in the remaining outbreak, lactating cows, heifers, and calves were simultaneously affected. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), BCoV RNA was detected in all outbreaks without evidence of concurrent viral pathogens (i.e., bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine parainfluenza virus). Common bacteria of cattle were recovered only from 2 outbreaks of BRD: Staphylococcus spp. and Proteus mirabilis (outbreak 1) and Mannheimia haemolytica (outbreak 4). A recently established real-time RT-PCR assay showed that viral RNA loads in nasal secretions ranged between 3.10 x 10(2) and 7.50 x 10(7) RNA copies/microl of template. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from respiratory specimens from all outbreaks except outbreak 1, in which real-time RT-PCR found very low viral titers in nasal swabs.

  6. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions: the lactate shuttle during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, G A

    1986-12-01

    O2 insufficiency and other factors increase the rate of lactate production. Significant quantities of lactate are produced under postabsorptive as well as postprandial conditions in resting individuals. In humans during postabsorptive rest, 25-50% of the total carbohydrate combusted appears to pass through the lactate pool. During sustained submaximal (in terms of VO2max) exercise, the rates of lactate production (Ri) and oxidation (Rox) are greatly elevated as compared to rest. However, lactate production and oxidation increase relatively less than O2 consumption during moderate-intensity exercise. Because the lactate production index (RiI = Ri/VO2) decreases during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise compared to rest, it is concluded that skeletal muscle and other sites of lactate production are effectively oxygenated. Alterations in the levels of circulating catecholamines can affect levels and turnover rates of glucose and lactate. In pure red dog gracilis muscle in situ and in the healthy and myocardium in vivo, contraction results in glycolysis and lactate production. This production of lactate occurs despite an apparent abundance of O2. Similarly, glucose catabolism in the human brain results in lactate production. The formation of lactate under fully aerobic conditions of rest and exercise represents an important mechanism by which different tissues share a carbon source (lactate) for oxidation and other processes such as gluconeogenesis. This mechanism has been termed the lactate shuttle.

  7. Bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  8. Bovine milk glycome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, N; DePeters, E J; Freeman, S; German, J B; Grimm, R; Lebrilla, C B

    2008-10-01

    Bovine milk oligosaccharides have several potentially important biological activities including the prevention of pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelial and as nutrients for beneficial bacteria. It has been suggested that milk oligosaccharides are an important source of complex carbohydrates as supplements for the food and the pharmaceutical industries. However, only a small number of structures of bovine milk oligosaccharides (bMO) are known. There have been no systematic studies on bMO. High-performance mass spectrometry and separation methods are used to evaluate bMO, and nearly 40 oligosaccharides are present in bovine milk. Bovine milk oligosaccharides are composed of shorter oligomeric chains than are those in human milk. They are significantly more anionic with nearly 70%, measured abundances, being sialylated. Additionally, bMO are built not only on the lactose core (as are nearly all human milk oligosaccharides), but also on lactose amines. Sialic acid residues include both N-acetyl and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, although the former is significantly more abundant.

  9. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  10. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The sy

  11. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is caused by a novel contagion, known to as a prion. Prions are proteins capable of converting a normal cellular protein into a prion, thereby propagating an infection. BSE is the first known prion zoonotic. As such it has attracted broad scientific and, to a r...

  12. Detection of monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA as a malignant marker in two enzootic bovine leukosis cases with difficult clinical diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Miura, Saori; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; INOKUMA, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral DNA into bovine genomes was detected in peripheral blood from two clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. A BLV-specific probe hybridized with 1 to 3 EcoRI and HindIII fragments in these 2 atypical EBL cattle by Southern blotting and hybridization, as well as in 3 typical EBL cattle. The probe also hybridized to a large number of EcoRI and HindIII fragments in 5 cattle with ...

  13. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  15. Evaluation of natural transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de, F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of seroconversion to bovine leukaemia virus and to estimate the main parameters needed for future model building. A longitudinal study was carried out between February 1999 and November 2001 in seven commercial dairy farms in Argentina using 1535 lactating cows. Time-interval parameters were analysed using a parametric survival model with shared frailty, time until infection was analysed using a Bayesian interval-censoring survival model and ...

  16. Bovine mammary stem cells: new perspective for dairy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignani, E; Cravero, D; Miretti, S; Accornero, P; Baratta, M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary stem cells provide opportunities for the cyclic remodelling of the bovine mammary gland. Therefore, understanding the character and regulation of mammary stem cells is important for increasing animal health and productivity. The exciting possibility that stem cell expansion can influence milk production is currently being investigated by several researchers. In fact, appropriate regulation of mammary stem cells could hopefully benefit milk yield, persistency of lactation, dry period management and tissue repair. Accordingly, we and others have attempted to characterize and regulate the function of bovine mammary stem cells. However, research on mammary stem cells requires tissue biopsies, which represents a limitation for the management of animal welfare. Interestingly, different studies recently reported the identification of putative mammary stem cells in human breast milk. The possible identification of primitive cell types within cow's milk may provide a non-invasive source of relevant mammary cells for a wide range of applications. In this review, we have summarized the main achievements in this field for dairy cow science and described the interesting perspectives open to manipulate milk persistency during lactation and to cope with oxidative stress during the transition period by regulating mammary stem cells.

  17. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti Díaz, Ismael Alejandro; Vargas, Roberto; Apolo, Ada; Moraña, José Antonio; Pedrana, Graciela; Cardozo, Elena; Almeida, Edgardo

    2003-01-01

    A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  18. Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Lactation in Half-lactating Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu-cai; ZHONG Guang-hui; WANG Yong; PENG Xian-wen; MAO Yong-jiang; ZOU Si-xiang; CHEN Wei-hua; CHEN Jie

    2002-01-01

    Yaks of two lactating types, the half-lactating yak and the total lactating yak, were investigated in their milk compositions, milk coagulation properties, and contents of three kinds of hormones, glucose,and protein in plasma. The half-lactating Maiwa yak and Jiulong yak contained significantly higher contents of protein, fat, and activities of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in milk than that of the corresponding total-lactating yak breeds, with reduced milk yield and similar lactose level and relative percentages of main milk protein components. The half-lactatin yak resembled yaks in a late stage of lactation in their biochemical composition of milk; however, significant differences were also observed, which indicated that the former was in a special stage of lactation quite different from dairy cows. Milk of the total-lactating or halflactating yaks could be coagulated normally by adding chymosin, with a similar coagulation time. No significant difference was observed between prolactin and progesterone concentrations in plasma of the half-lactating yaks and total-lactating yaks; however, half-lactating yaks had significantly lower level of oestradiol-17 β in plasma than total-lactating yaks.

  19. METABOLISM OF PREGNANT-LACTATING RATS IS ADAPTED TO PREGNANCY RATHER THAN TO LACTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, S; MOES, H; KOITER, TR

    1992-01-01

    In pregnant-lactating rats implantation was induced on day 4 of lactation so that, as an exception, lactation coincided with the period of high fetal growth. The already present suckling litters of these animals lagged behind in growth, but the "second" litters were at birth normal in size and weigh

  20. The Role of MicroRNAs in Bovine Infection and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eLawless

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that are recognised as critical regulators of immune gene expression during infection. Many immunologically significant human miRNAs have been found to be conserved in agriculturally important species, including cattle. Discovering how bovine miRNAs mediate the immune defence during infection is critical to understanding the aetiology of the most prevalent bovine diseases. Here, we review current knowledge of miRNAs in the bovine genome, and discuss the advances in understanding of miRNAs as regulators of immune cell function, and bovine immune response activation, regulation, and resolution. Finally, we consider the future perspectives on miRNAs in bovine viral disease, their role as potential biomarkers and in therapy.

  1. Breastfeeding practices and lactation mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, B; Schwartz, K; Looman, S J

    1994-03-01

    Clinical impression suggests that lactation mastitis is associated with inexperienced nursers, improper nursing techniques, stress and fatigue. A pilot study was conducted to describe the frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices during the first week post partum among 100 breastfeeding women delivering at a freestanding birthing center or participating in an early discharge program. Nine cases of lactation mastitis were identified from the survey population and an additional 8 from the target population for the survey. Seventeen controls matched by delivery date were identified from survey participants. The frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices, the presence of fatigue and stress during the week prior to the mastitis date in the case was compared among cases and controls. In the first week post partum, most women fed their babies every 2-3 hr for approx. 20 min a feeding. The cradle or Madonna position was the most frequently used nursing position. Nine percent reported supplementing feedings with formula. Women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report a history of mastitis with a previous child. In the week prior to the mastitis date of the case, women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report breast or nipple pain and cracks or breast fissures. They were less likely to report being able to take a daytime nap. Future studies should focus on the relative importance of and interrelationships among these factors.

  2. Selenium in bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, S M; Kuzan, F B; Senger, P L

    1981-05-01

    This study investigated the association of selenium with ejaculated bovine spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive selenium-75 was released after 30 min of incubation in 2 X 10(-3) dithiothreitol. Of the selenium-75 released by dithiothreitol, 85% was associated with spermatozoal protein. Protein containing selenium-75 was found predominantly in a single band after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight was approximately 21,500 daltons.

  3. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelos, JA

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The...

  4. Role of lactate in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chugh Krishan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a common finding in critically ill patients. It has been used as a prognostic marker of the outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit patients. Lactic acid is produced as a product of anaerobic glycolysis and is reversibly converted to pyruvate in the presence of favorable metabolic environment. All the body tissues can produce and consume lactate with few having predominant function of production and others of consumption. Liver is a major organ for lactate consumption and it is the liver, which metabolizes the increased lactic acid produced in regional tissue beds. The lactate levels can be done on arterial, venous, or mixed venous blood and can be measured by various methods. Serial lactate concentrations and the difference in arterial and mixed venous lactate levels or between the arterial and regional blood lactate levels like jugular venous lactate levels have been shown to have better correlation with the outcome. High initial blood lactate levels and persistently high lactate levels have been correlated with poor outcome. There are various causes of lactic acid overproduction, which may produce either hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis. High blood lactate levels are found in critically ill patients with shock of any etiology and sepsis due to various reasons, which include increased catecholamine induced glucose flux apart from the tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Various other illnesses can cause an increase in blood lactate levels like acute lung/liver injury, severe asthma, poisoning, post cardiac surgery etc. Treating the underlying disease leading to lactic acidosis is the best measure to control lactic acidosis. Some therapeutic choices are available to neutralize the effect of lactic acid on cell function, but none has stood the test of time and are tried only in desperate situations.

  5. Custo e resultados do tratamento de seqüelas de laminite bovina: relato de 112 casos em vacas em lactação no sistema free-stall Results and costs of treatment for bovine laminitis sequelae: study of 112 lameness cases in lactating cows in free-stall system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Ferreira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados e o custo do tratamento de seqüelas podais da laminite subclínica são descritos em 112 casos de manqueira em vacas em lactação mantidas no sistema free-stall. As observações feitas durante um ano abrangeram animais de 2,5 a 10 anos de idade, da primeira à sexta lactação e com média de produção de 8.000±2.000kg de leite. O protocolo de tratamento, descrito detalhadamente para cada uma das afecções podais, foi eficiente na reversão de todas elas. O custo total do tratamento para o rebanho foi de US$5,005.23, equivalente ao custo médio de US$44.68 por animal. O tratamento das úlceras de sola foi o mais dispendioso (US$72.58 e o mais demorado (26,8 dias. As afecções mais comuns foram os abscessos de sola e do talão e as lesões da linha branca (64/112 ou 57,2%.The results and costs of treatments of feet sequelae of subclinic dairy cattle laminitis were described in 112 cases of lameness in lactating cows maintained in free stall system. The analyses were performed in an one-year-period using 2.5 to 10 year-old, first to sixth parity cows. Average milk yield was 8,000±2,000kg. The treatment protocol was described in details for each digit lesion and it was very successful to reverse all kinds of lesions. The total treatment cost for the herd was US$5,005.23 and the mean cost/animal was US$44.68. The ulcer treatments were costly (US$72.58 and longer (26.8 days. Sole and heel abscesses and white line disease at the foe (64/112 or 57.2% were most commonly observed.

  6. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  7. Expression of growth factor ligand and receptor genes in the preimplantation bovine embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A J; Hogan, A; Hahnel, A; Wiemer, K E; Schultz, G A

    1992-02-01

    The sensitive technique of mRNA phenotyping with the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine the patterns of gene expression for several growth factor ligand and receptor genes during bovine preimplantation development. Several thousand bovine embryos encompassing a developmental series from one-cell zygotes to hatched blastocysts were produced by the application of in vitro maturation, fertilization, and oviductal epithelial cell embryo coculture methods. Transcripts for transforming growth factor (TGF-alpha) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-A) are detectable in all preimplantation bovine stages as observed in the mouse. Transcripts for TGF-beta 2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-II) and the receptors for PDGF-alpha, insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II are also detectable throughout bovine preimplantation development, suggesting that these mRNAs are products of both the maternal and the embryonic genomes in the cow, whereas in the mouse they are present only following the activation of the embryonic genome at the two-cell stage. In contrast to the mouse embryo, IGF-I mRNA was detected within preimplantation bovine embryos. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a maternal message in the bovine embryo, since it is only detectable up until the eight-cell embryo stage. Bovine trophoblast protein (bTP) mRNA was detectable within day 8 bovine blastocysts. As was observed in the mouse, the transcripts for insulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), or nerve growth factor (NGF) were not detectable in any bovine embryo stage. Analyses of this type should aid the development of a completely defined culture medium for the more efficient production of preimplantation bovine embryos.

  8. Production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Vanleeuwen, J A; Dohoo, I R; Keefe, G P; Haddad, J P; Tremblay, R; Scott, H M; Whiting, T

    2007-02-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against BLV (IDEXX ELISA; IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME), MAP (IDEXX or Biocor ELISA; Biocor Animal Health, Inc., Omaha, NE), and NC (IDEXX or Biovet ELISA; Biovet Inc., St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada). Up to 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 mo of age were tested for virus-neutralizing antibodies to the Singer strain of type 1 BVDV. Dairy Herd Improvement records were obtained electronically for all sampled cows. Linear mixed models with herd and cow as random variables were fit, with significant restricted maximum likelihood estimates of outcome effects being obtained, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Bovine leukemia virus seropositivity was not associated with 305-d milk, 305-d fat, or 305-d protein production. Cows in BVDV-seropositive herds (at least one unvaccinated animal with a titer > or =1:64) had reductions in 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 368, 10.2, and 9.5 kg, respectively, compared with cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seropositivity was associated with lower 305-d milk of 212 kg in 4+-lactation cows compared with MAP-seronegative 4+-lactation cows. Neospora caninum seropositivity in primiparous cows was associated with lower 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 158, 5.5, and 3.3 kg, respectively, compared with NC-seronegative primiparous cows. There were no interactions among seropositivity for any of the pathogens and their effects on any of the outcomes examined, although the low MAP seroprevalence limited this analysis. Results from this research

  9. The quality of lactation studies including antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, Hazel; Bertholee, Daphne; van der Meer, Douwe; Smit, Jan Pieter; Wilffert, Bob; ter Horst, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the quality of lactation studies that investigated antipsychotics in breast milk according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA) draft guidelines. We used the draft FDA and ILCA guidelines to review t

  10. The antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, the action spectrum and mechanism of microbial growth inhibition by sodium lactate were examined, with special emphasis on its use in meat products.The concentrations (mM) of lactate needed to prevent growth of various spoilage organisms and pathogens in a broth were determined and c

  11. Managing antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses data on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy and lactation, and the clinical consequences thereof, thus providing a basis for a rational management of AEDs during pregnancy and lactation. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have confirmed t...

  12. Lactate as a fuel for mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during muscle contraction is a subject of debate. Historically, skeletal muscle was seen mainly as the site of lactate production during contraction and lac...

  13. Aspects of the regulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Factors involved in regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation were examined using liver slices. Fatty acid oxidation was measured as the conversion of l-(/sup 14/C) palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C) acid-soluble metabolites. Extended (5 to 7 d) fasting of Holstein cows had relatively little effect on palmitate oxidation to acid-soluble metabolites by liver slices, although oxidation to CO/sup 2/ was decreased. Feeding a restricted roughage, high concentrate ration to lactating cows resulted in inhibition of palmitate oxidation. Insulin, glucose, and acetate inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. The authors suggest the regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation may be less dependent on hormonally induced alterations in enzyme activity as observed in rat liver and more dependent upon action of rumen fermentation products or their metabolites on enzyme systems involved in fatty acid oxidation.

  14. [Microbiological colonisation of bovine teat canal--significance and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Krömker, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The teat canal of lactating dairy cattle is of particular importance for the defence of facultative pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., staphylococci) invading the bovine udder. Furthermore the canal is usually colonized with microorganisms, too. In addition to microorganisms inhibiting mastitis pathogens the teat canal is colonized by staphylococci. The microbial colonization can be influenced by the environment of the animals, the care and disinfection of the teat skin and indirectly by the effects of forces being associated with machine milking. Because of vacuum fluctuations occurring under the teat tip microorganisms, which colonize the teat canal, can invade the bovine mammary gland and cause infections there. This paper gives a review of the microbial colonization of the bovine teat duct and of influencing factors on the microbial populations as well as of the significance of the teat canal colonization for the development of mastitis.

  15. A multiway analysis for identifying high integrity bovine BACs

    OpenAIRE

    McEwan John C; Brauning Rudiger; McWilliam Sean; Barris Wesley; Ratnakumar Abhirami; Snelling Warren M; Dalrymple Brian P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In large genomics projects involving many different types of analyses of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), such as fingerprinting, end sequencing (BES) and full BAC sequencing there are many opportunities for the identities of BACs to become confused. However, by comparing the results from the different analyses, inconsistencies can be identified and a set of high integrity BACs preferred for future research can be defined. Results The location of each bovine BAC in...

  16. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  17. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A

    2015-03-01

    As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The discoveries of Mor bovoculi and reports of IBK associated with Mycoplasma spp without concurrent Mor bovis or Mor bovoculi have raised new questions into the roles that other organisms may play in IBK pathogenesis.

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  19. A catalogue of novel bovine long noncoding RNA across 18 tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambros T Koufariotis

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA have been implicated in diverse biological roles including gene regulation and genomic imprinting. Identifying lncRNA in bovine across many differing tissue would contribute to the current repertoire of bovine lncRNA, and help further improve our understanding of the evolutionary importance and constraints of these transcripts. Additionally, it could aid in identifying sites in the genome outside of protein coding genes where mutations could contribute to variation in complex traits. This is particularly important in bovine as genomic predictions are increasingly used in genetic improvement for milk and meat production. Our aim was to identify and annotate novel long non coding RNA transcripts in the bovine genome captured from RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq data across 18 tissues, sampled in triplicate from a single cow. To address the main challenge in identifying lncRNA, namely distinguishing lncRNA transcripts from unannotated genes and protein coding genes, a lncRNA identification pipeline with a number of filtering steps was developed. A total of 9,778 transcripts passed the filtering pipeline. The bovine lncRNA catalogue includes MALAT1 and HOTAIR, both of which have been well described in human and mouse genomes. We attempted to validate the lncRNA in libraries from three additional cows. 726 (87.47% liver and 1,668 (55.27% blood class 3 lncRNA were validated with stranded liver and blood libraries respectively. Additionally, this study identified a large number of novel unknown transcripts in the bovine genome with high protein coding potential, illustrating a clear need for better annotations of protein coding genes.

  20. Control of cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves: use of halofuginone lactate in two different calf rearing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, V; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Mulcahy, G; Murphy, T M

    2010-09-01

    To date there is no effective treatment for bovine cryptosporidiosis. This study describes the use of halofuginone lactate in preventing cryptosporidiosis in naturally infected neonatal calves on a dairy farm with a high prevalence of infection. The animals were kept in two different calf rearing systems. A randomized double-blind trial was carried out with 32 naturally infected calves, divided into four groups. The two prophylactic halofuginone lactate treated groups were kept in either individual or group pens. Similarly, the animals receiving the placebo were housed in either individual pens or together in a large pen. A total of ten faecal samples were collected periodically during the 28 days study from each calf and tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. using microscopic and molecular methods. Generalized estimating equations models were used to determine if the effects of the various treatments and/or rearing systems on the presence of diarrhoea and infection were statistically significant. Further analysis (classification trees models) was carried out to explore possible risk factors for cryptosporidiosis and interactions between treatments and rearing systems. Halofuginone lactate was shown to be effective in reducing clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and environmental contamination. However, the treatment did not delay the onset of diarrhoea and did not reduce the risk of infection amongst calves reared together in a highly contaminated environment. The use of halofuginone lactate in combination with good hygienic measures, such as rearing animals in clean individual pens, was the most effective method to reduce the risk of cryptosporidiosis amongst 7-13 days old calves. It was concluded that the control of the parasite could be achieved by the combination of using effective preventive drugs, such as halofuginone lactate and good animal husbandry procedures.

  1. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis.

  2. Detection of monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA as a malignant marker in two enzootic bovine leukosis cases with difficult clinical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Saori; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2015-07-01

    Monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral DNA into bovine genomes was detected in peripheral blood from two clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. A BLV-specific probe hybridized with 1 to 3 EcoRI and HindIII fragments in these 2 atypical EBL cattle by Southern blotting and hybridization, as well as in 3 typical EBL cattle. The probe also hybridized to a large number of EcoRI and HindIII fragments in 5 cattle with persistent leukosis. These results suggest that the detection of monoclonal integration of BLV provirus into the host genome may serve as a marker of monoclonal proliferation and malignancy in difficult to diagnose EBL cattle.

  3. Short communication: Telomere lengths in different tissues of dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubenthal, L; Hoelker, M; Frahm, J; Dänicke, S; Gerlach, K; Südekum, K-H; Sauerwein, H; Häussler, S

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres create a protective cap on the ends of chromosomes that shorten with cell division and are influenced by stressful conditions. With the onset of lactation, high-yielding dairy cows are exposed to metabolic stress. In the present study, we aimed to analyze telomere length (TL) in key metabolic organs, such as liver, subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue (AT), and mammary gland, as well as in peripheral blood cells during early and late lactation in German Holstein cows (n=21). Animals were fed according to their requirement, and biopsies from scAT, liver, and mammary gland as well as blood cells were collected in early and late lactation. The relative quantity of telomere products (qT), which is proportional to the average TL, was determined in genomic DNA by multiplex quantitative PCR. In this study, relative qT varied widely in the investigated tissues and blood. In late lactation, slowly proliferating tissues, such as liver and scAT, had the highest qT, whereas peripheral blood cells and in the mammary gland had the lowest qT. Comparing early with late lactation, relative qT attrition was limited to blood and mammary gland. Relationships between relative qT in blood, mammary gland, scAT, and liver suggest that blood qT might serve as a surrogate marker for tissue-specific qT. Cows with high initial qT in tissues and blood in early lactation had greater qT attrition during the course of lactation than cows with lower qT. The determination of qT could be included when phenotyping dairy cattle to test for associations with performance and fitness traits.

  4. Short communication: Milk ELISA status for bovine leukosis virus infection is not associated with milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Lissemore, K; Cantin, R; Kelton, D F

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether the milk ELISA status for antibodies against bovine leukemia virus was associated with 305-d milk production in Canadian dairy cattle. Test results and test-day production data from 19,785 dairy cows were available for analysis. A linear mixed model was used with the estimated 305-d milk production as the outcome and lactation number, somatic cell count, calving season, days in milk, and breed as fixed effects. Herd nested in province was included as random effect. In conclusion, bovine leukemia virus antibody milk ELISA status was not associated with milk production.

  5. 猪源牛病毒性腹泻病毒SH-28分离株的全基因组序列及遗传进化分析%Complete genomic sequencing and analysis of the pig bovine viral diarrhea virus strain SH-28

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶洁; 王银; 廖金虎; 杨颖; 羊扬; 朱国强

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome of a pig bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) SH-28 was sequenced in order to analyze the genetic difference between pig BVDV and bovine BVDV. Amplified by RT-PCR,18 fragments of SH-28 were cloned into pGEM-T and then sent for sequencing by commerical serves. The retrieved sequences were timed and aligned with CLUSTX(1.8) and Lasergene. Ultimately, we obtained the complete sequence of SH-28. The genome of SH-28 comprises 12 279 nucleotides and contains a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein of 3 895 amino acids. The 5',3'-untranslated region (5'-UTR,3'-UTR) are 385 nt and 206 nt, respectively. The phylogenetic tree of complete sequence showed that SH-28 and HLJ-10 were in the same branch,yet it was most similar to XJ-04 (92. 3%) and divergent with the other pig BVDV-1 (ZM-95,SD0806)(70. 0%,70. 1%). The phylogenetic tree of 5'-UTR showed that SH-28 belonged to BVDV-2a2 while HLJ-10 and XJ-04 were classified into BVDV-2al. Therefore, we speculate that SH-28 is a new BVDV-2 isolate different from the previous BVDV-2 strains and may originate from bovine BVDV-2.%为了解猪源牛病毒性腹泻病毒(BVDV)与牛源BVDV在遗传特性上的差异,本试验对实验室分离保存的1株猪源BVDV(SH-28)进行了全基因组测序.利用反转录-聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)方法分段扩增了SH-28分离株的18条cDNA片段,分别克隆于pGEM-T质粒载体并进行测序,用CLUSTX(1.8)和Lasergene软件进行序列的剪切和拼接,最终获得SH-28基因组序列全长为12 279个核苷酸(nt),开放阅读框(ORF)长11 685 nt,编码3 895个氨基酸(aa),5'-UTR和3’-UTR分别长385 nt和206 nt.全基因组进化树结果表明,虽然SH-28与HLJ-10同处于一个分支上,但其与XJ-04的全基因组核苷酸同源性最高(92.3%),而与另外2株猪源BVDV-1(ZM-95、SD0806)的亲缘性较远(70.0%、70.1%).5’-UTR进化树结果显示,SH-28分离株属于BVDV-2a2基因亚型,而HLJ-10和J-04株属于BVDV-2a1.

  6. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  7. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor - using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    (ABL), (2) the correlation between lactate and pH measured in scalp blood and (3) the correlation between fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord SBE. The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values of lactate in predicting low pH were analyzed and expressed as Receiver Operating......OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory...... Curves (ROC). RESULTS: Lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the ABL correlated well (r(2 )= 0.85). Both lactate and pH were measured in 1009 scalp blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of lactate ≥4.8 mmol/l in predicting a pH

  8. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  9. Transcriptome profiling of bovine milk oligosaccharide metabolism genes using RNA-sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Wickramasinghe

    Full Text Available This study examines the genes coding for enzymes involved in bovine milk oligosaccharide metabolism by comparing the oligosaccharide profiles with the expressions of glycosylation-related genes. Fresh milk samples (n = 32 were collected from four Holstein and Jersey cows at days 1, 15, 90 and 250 of lactation and free milk oligosaccharide profiles were analyzed. RNA was extracted from milk somatic cells at days 15 and 250 of lactation (n = 12 and gene expression analysis was conducted by RNA-Sequencing. A list was created of 121 glycosylation-related genes involved in oligosaccharide metabolism pathways in bovine by analyzing the oligosaccharide profiles and performing an extensive literature search. No significant differences were observed in either oligosaccharide profiles or expressions of glycosylation-related genes between Holstein and Jersey cows. The highest concentrations of free oligosaccharides were observed in the colostrum samples and a sharp decrease was observed in the concentration of free oligosaccharides on day 15, followed by progressive decrease on days 90 and 250. Ninety-two glycosylation-related genes were expressed in milk somatic cells. Most of these genes exhibited higher expression in day 250 samples indicating increases in net glycosylation-related metabolism in spite of decreases in free milk oligosaccharides in late lactation milk. Even though fucosylated free oligosaccharides were not identified, gene expression indicated the likely presence of fucosylated oligosaccharides in bovine milk. Fucosidase genes were expressed in milk and a possible explanation for not detecting fucosylated free oligosaccharides is the degradation of large fucosylated free oligosaccharides by the fucosidases. Detailed characterization of enzymes encoded by the 92 glycosylation-related genes identified in this study will provide the basic knowledge for metabolic network analysis of oligosaccharides in mammalian milk. These candidate

  10. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  11. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...... underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than...

  12. [Natural remedies during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, E; Melzer, J; von Mandach, U; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    Up to date there is a lack of systematically gathered data on the use of natural remedies (phytotherapeutic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, spagyric, Bach and Schussler remedies) during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this non-representative pilot study on 139 women, who came for delivery to three institutions between mid-1997 and the beginning of 1998, was to receive data about how often and within which spectrum natural remedies are used during pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy 96% and within the lactation period 84% of the women consumed at least 1 natural remedy. Phytotherapeutic drugs were used most frequently. In contrast to the widespread use of natural remedies by pregnant women and nursing mothers in this study, little information on the effectiveness and possible risks is available. Therefore it seems necessary to examine and evaluate natural remedies used during pregnancy and lactation.

  13. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B

    1992-01-01

    that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...... phase probably does not reflect the degree of anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxic neuronal tissue....

  14. Whole genome resequencing of black Angus and Holstein cattle for SNP and CNV discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stothard Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals of livestock genomics research is to identify the genetic differences responsible for variation in phenotypic traits, particularly those of economic importance. Characterizing the genetic variation in livestock species is an important step towards linking genes or genomic regions with phenotypes. The completion of the bovine genome sequence and recent advances in DNA sequencing technology allow for in-depth characterization of the genetic variations present in cattle. Here we describe the whole-genome resequencing of two Bos taurus bulls from distinct breeds for the purpose of identifying and annotating novel forms of genetic variation in cattle. Results The genomes of a Black Angus bull and a Holstein bull were sequenced to 22-fold and 19-fold coverage, respectively, using the ABI SOLiD system. Comparisons of the sequences with the Btau4.0 reference assembly yielded 7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 24% of which were identified in both animals. Of the total SNPs found in Holstein, Black Angus, and in both animals, 81%, 81%, and 75% respectively are novel. In-depth annotations of the data identified more than 16 thousand distinct non-synonymous SNPs (85% novel between the two datasets. Alignments between the SNP-altered proteins and orthologues from numerous species indicate that many of the SNPs alter well-conserved amino acids. Several SNPs predicted to create or remove stop codons were also found. A comparison between the sequencing SNPs and genotyping results from the BovineHD high-density genotyping chip indicates a detection rate of 91% for homozygous SNPs and 81% for heterozygous SNPs. The false positive rate is estimated to be about 2% for both the Black Angus and Holstein SNP sets, based on follow-up genotyping of 422 and 427 SNPs, respectively. Comparisons of read depth between the two bulls along the reference assembly identified 790 putative copy-number variations (CNVs. Ten

  15. Arginine Supplementation Recovered the IFN-γ-Mediated Decrease in Milk Protein and Fat Synthesis by Inhibiting the GCN2/eIF2α Pathway, Which Induces Autophagy in Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Xiaojing; Che, Yanyi; Gao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Shuang; Ao, Changjin; Yang, Hongjian; Liu, Juxiong; Liu, Guowen; Han, Wenyu; Wang, Yuping; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-01-01

    During the lactation cycle of the bovine mammary gland, autophagy is induced in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) as a cellular homeostasis and survival mechanism. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor that has been shown to induce autophagy in multiple cell lines in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether IFN-γ can induce autophagy and whether autophagy affects milk synthesis in BMECs. To understand whether IFN-γ affects milk synthesis, we...

  16. Horizontal gene transfers link a human MRSA pathogen to contagious bovine mastitis bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brody

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance by many clinically important bacteria can be traced to horizontal gene transfer (HGT between related or evolutionarily distant microflora. Comparative genomic analysis has become an important tool for identifying HGT DNA in emerging pathogens. We have adapted the multi-genome alignment tool EvoPrinter to facilitate discovery of HGT DNA sequences within bacterial genomes and within their mobile genetic elements. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EvoPrinter analysis of 13 different Staphylococcus aureus genomes revealed that one of the human isolates, the hospital epidemic methicillin-resistant MRSA252 strain, uniquely shares multiple putative HGT DNA sequences with different causative agents of bovine mastitis that are not found in the other human S. aureus isolates. MRSA252 shares over 14 different DNA sequence blocks with the bovine mastitis ET3 S. aureus strain RF122, and many of the HGT DNAs encode virulence factors. EvoPrinter analysis of the MRSA252 chromosome also uncovered virulence-factor encoding HGT events with the genome of Listeria monocytogenes and a Staphylococcus saprophyticus associated plasmid. Both bacteria are also causal agents of contagious bovine mastitis. CONCLUSIONS: EvoPrinter analysis reveals that the human MRSA252 strain uniquely shares multiple DNA sequence blocks with different causative agents of bovine mastitis, suggesting that HGT events may be occurring between these pathogens. These findings have important implications with regard to animal husbandry practices that inadvertently enhance the contact of human and livestock bacterial pathogens.

  17. Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E

    2011-12-01

    Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, the current status of iodine nutrition in the United States, the global efforts toward achieving universal iodine sufficiency, and substances that may interfere with iodine use.

  18. Lactate determination in ante- and intrapartum surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Wiberg-Itzel, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Lactate concentration is reported to be high in amniotic fluid (AF). Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) occur in about 20% of all pregnancies. The condition is associated with fetal and maternal complications, and might be a marker of imminent delivery. Therefore among women with suspected prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM), it is of great importance to accurately confirm the diagnosis. In our studies we wanted to assess whether lactate determination in vaginal/...

  19. Exploration of the genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic basis underlying variation in feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. A genome-wide association study was performed for residual feed intake (RFI) and related traits using a large data set, consisting of nearly 5,000 cows. It wa...

  20. Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the...

  1. Intervet symposium: bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, T; Dubey, J P; Adrianarivo, A; Frankena, K; Romero, J J; Pérez, E; Heuer, C; Nicholson, C; Russell, D; Weston, J

    2004-10-28

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The symposium was organised by Juan Muñoz-Bielsa,Wicher Holland, Enzo Foccoliand Theo Schetters (chairman). The focus was on the present state of knowledge of the biology, epidemiology(presented by J.P. Dubey) and immunology of Neospora infection (presented by A. Adrianarivo),with special emphasis on the prospects of vaccination of cattle against Neospora-induced abortion (presentations of K. Frankena (Costa Rican trial) and C. Heuer (New Zealand trial)).

  2. Hyperoxia decreases muscle glycogenolysis, lactate production, and lactate efflux during steady-state exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Leblanc, Paul J; Hollidge, Melanie G; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the decreased muscle and blood lactate during exercise with hyperoxia (60% inspired O2) vs. room air is due to decreased muscle glycogenolysis, leading to decreased pyruvate and lactate production and efflux. We measured pyruvate oxidation via PDH, muscle pyruvate and lactate accumulation, and lactate and pyruvate efflux to estimate total pyruvate and lactate production during exercise. We hypothesized that 60% O2 would decrease muscle glycogenolysis, resulting in decreased pyruvate and lactate contents, leading to decreased muscle pyruvate and lactate release with no change in PDH activity. Seven active male subjects cycled for 40 min at 70% VO2 peak on two occasions when breathing 21 or 60% O2. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples and blood flow measurements were obtained throughout exercise, and muscle biopsies were taken at rest and after 10, 20, and 40 min of exercise. Hyperoxia had no effect on leg O2 delivery, O2 uptake, or RQ during exercise. Muscle glycogenolysis was reduced by 16% with hyperoxia (267 +/- 19 vs. 317 +/- 21 mmol/kg dry wt), translating into a significant, 15% reduction in total pyruvate production over the 40-min exercise period. Decreased pyruvate production during hyperoxia had no effect on PDH activity (pyruvate oxidation) but significantly decreased lactate accumulation (60%: 22.6 +/- 6.4 vs. 21%: 31.3 +/- 8.7 mmol/kg dry wt), lactate efflux, and total lactate production over 40 min of cycling. Decreased glycogenolysis in hyperoxia was related to an approximately 44% lower epinephrine concentration and an attenuated accumulation of potent phosphorylase activators ADPf and AMPf during exercise. Greater phosphorylation potential during hyperoxia was related to a significantly diminished rate of PCr utilization. The tighter metabolic match between pyruvate production and oxidation resulted in a decrease in total lactate production and efflux over 40 min of exercise during hyperoxia.

  3. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates.

  4. Radiation-induced defects in magnesium lactate as ESR dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, G M; Takaki, S

    1999-01-01

    Magnesium lactate (Mg-lactate: (CH sub 3 CH(OH)COO) sub 2 Mg), magnesium lactate doped with lithium lactate (Mg(Li)-lactate) and nominal pure lithium lactate (CH sub 3 CH(OH)COOLi) doped with Mg-lactate (Li(Mg)-lactate) were irradiated by gamma-rays to study radicals for materials of radiation dosimeter with electron spin resonance (ESR). Quartet spectra were ascribed to lactate radicals in Mg-lactate and Li(Mg)-lactate with the spectroscopic splitting factors (g-factor) of 2.0032+-0.004 and 2.0029+-0.004 and the intensity ratio of 1:3:3:1 due to the hyperfine coupling constants of (A/g beta) of 1.92+-0.06 and 1.82+-0.06 mT, respectively. The response to gamma-ray dose and the thermal stability as well as the effect of UV-illumination have been studied to establish this material as an ESR dosimeter. The number of free radicals per 100 eV (G-value) was obtained to be 1.15+-0.32, 1.35+-0.35, 0.46+-0.14 and 0.78+-0.24 for Mg-lactate, Mg(Li)-lactate, Li-lactate and Lie(Mg)-lactate, respectively. Thermoluminescenc...

  5. Regulation of progesterone synthesis and action in bovine corpus luteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekawiecki, R; Kowalik, M K; Slonina, D; Kotwica, J

    2008-12-01

    The main function of the corpus luteum (CL) is to synthesize and secrete progesterone (P4), which regulates the duration of the estrous cycle and maintains of pregnancy in many species. Both synthesis and action of this hormone is regulated by many luteotropic and luteolytic factors. Progesterone also affects its own synthesis by regulation of the activity and genes expression of crucial enzymes which control steroidogenesis. The physiological effect of P4 on luteal cells is mediated through the nuclear receptor which occurs in two specific A and B receptor isoforms and also by non-genomic pathways. The nature of non-genomic action of P4 has not been fully understood. It is possible that P4 can temporarily impair binding of oxytocin to its receptor or it can bind one of the three potential membrane receptors. It is assumed that one of these proteins, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 may be involved in regulation of CL function and it can participate in protecting bovine CL against luteolysis. This review summarize the data involving the molecular regulation of P4 synthesis, its intracellular and membrane receptor and the genomic and non-genomic action in the bovine CL.

  6. C基因型牛副流感3型病毒分离株全基因组测序及分析%Sequencing of complete genome of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus genotype C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    目的 对宁夏地区分离得到的1株C基因型牛副流感3型病毒(bovine parainfluenza 3 virus,BPIV3)进行全基因组测序,并进行同源性及进化树分析.方法 参考GenBank上登录的BPIV3中国分离株SD0835基因组序列设计5对引物,覆盖病毒基因组全长,提取BPIV3总RNA,以其为模板,进行RT-PCR扩增,扩增产物与pMD@18-T Vector 连接,连接产物转化大肠埃希菌DH5α感受态细胞,将阳性克隆进行核苷酸测序,测序结果通过分子生物学软件进行拼接,并与GenBank上登录的参考序列进行比较,构建系统进化树.结果 成功分离得到1株BPIV3,命名为NX49,NX49株全基因组核酸序列为15 474 nt,提交至GenBank的序列号为KT071671.NX49与中国山东C型分离株SD0835的同源性最高,为99.3%;与中国内蒙古A型分离株NM09的同源性为82.5%;与澳大利亚B型分离株Q5592的同源性为81.4%.结论 NX49与SD0835同属一个进化分枝,但由于地域及时间上的不同,可能造成它们之间在基因水平上存在差异.

  7. Design and characterization of a lactate biosensor based on immobilized lactate oxidase onto gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Casero, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, No 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pariente, F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lorenzo, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: encarnacion.lorenzo@uam.es

    2006-01-12

    The design and characterization of a lactate biosensor and its application to the determination of this analyte in wine and beer are described. The biosensor is developed through the immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) using two different strategies including direct adsorption and covalent binding. The characterization of the resulting lactate oxidase monolayers was performed in aqueous phosphate buffer solutions using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques. In presence of lactate and using hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator, biosensors obtained by either direct adsorption or by covalent binding exhibit a clear electrocatalytic activity, and lactate could be determined amperometrically at 300 mV versus SSCE. Results obtained under these conditions give a linear current response versus lactate concentration up to 0.3 mM, with a detection limit of 10 {mu}M of lactate and a sensitivity of 0.77 {+-} 0.08 {mu}A mM{sup -1}. Finally, biosensors were applied to the determination of lactate in wine and beer. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by a well-established enzymatic-spectrophotometric assay kit.

  8. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J;

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying the im...

  9. Lactate oxidation at the mitochondria: a lactate-malate-aspartate shuttle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Kane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactate, the conjugate base of lactic acid occurring in aqueous biological fluids, has been derided as a dead-end waste product of anaerobic metabolism. Catalyzed by the near-equilibrium enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, the reduction of pyruvate to lactate is thought to serve to regenerate the NAD+ necessary for continued glycolytic flux. Reaction kinetics for LDH imply that lactate oxidation is rarely favored in the tissues of its own production. However, a substantial body of research directly contradicts any notion that LDH invariably operates unidirectionally in vivo. In the current Perspective, a model is forwarded in which the continuous formation and oxidation of lactate serves as a mitochondrial electron shuttle, whereby lactate generated in the cytosol of the cell is oxidized at the mitochondria of the same cell. From this perspective, an intracellular lactate shuttle operates much like the malate-aspartate shuttle; it is also proposed that the two shuttles are necessarily interconnected. Among the requisite features of such a model, significant compartmentalization of LDH, much like the creatine kinase of the PCr shuttle, would facilitate net cellular lactate oxidation under a variety of conditions.

  10. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M; Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Zaar, Morten; Homann, Pernille; Evans, Kevin A; Nielsen, Henning B; Secher, Niels H

    2012-07-01

    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions were combined. We measured cerebral lactate turnover via a tracer dilution method ([1-(13)C]lactate), using arterial to right internal jugular venous differences in 9 healthy individuals (5 males and 4 females), at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (F(i)o(2) 10%, arterial oxygen saturation 72 ± 10%, mean ± sd). Whole-body lactate turnover increased 3.5-fold and 9-fold at two workloads in normoxia and 18-fold during exercise in hypoxia. Although middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity increased during exercise in hypoxia, calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension decreased by 13 mmHg (Pbrain. These results support the existence of a cell-cell lactate shuttle that may involve neurons and astrocytes.

  11. Kinetics of lactate transport into rat liver in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, M.A.; Cefalu, W.T.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1990-04-01

    Lactate clearance by liver plays an important role in lactate homeostasis and in the development of lactic acidosis. The role of lactate delivery to liver as a limiting factor in hepatic uptake of lactate is unclear. Lactate delivery of mechanisms could be important if rates of lactate transport approximate rates of lactate metabolism by liver. The rates of lactate transport into liver have been determined in vitro with isolated liver cells and the results have been conflicting. Therefore, the present studies measure the rate of transport of (14C)-L-lactate, and its poorly metabolizeable stereoisomer, (14C)-D-lactate, into rat liver in vivo using a portal vein injection technique. The transport of (3H)-water and of (14C)-sucrose, an extracellular reference compound, were also studied. Portal blood flow was determined from the kinetics of (3H)-water efflux in liver and was 1.93 +/- 0.22 mL/min/g. The volumes of distribution of (14C)-L-lactate, and (14C)-sucrose were 1.31 +/- 0.22, 0.71 +/- 0.07, and 0.22 +/- 0.07 mL/g, respectively. The extraction of unidirectional influx of (14C)-L-lactate and (14C)-D-lactate by rat liver was 93% +/- 10% and 91% +/- 9%, respectively. The rate of lactate transport into rat liver in vivo, 1.8 mumols.min-1.g-1, is approximately twofold greater than the rate of lactate metabolism by rat liver reported in the literature. Therefore, lactate uptake by liver may not be limited by transport under normal conditions. However, conditions such as decreased portal blood flow, which slow lactate delivery to liver by 50% or more, could cause lactate uptake by liver to be limited by transport of circulating lactate.

  12. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus reinfections and decreased milk yield in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Poel, W H; Mourits, M C; Nielen, M; Frankena, K; Van Oirschot, J T; Schukken, Y H

    1995-09-01

    The influence of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) reinfections on the daily milk yield was studied by evaluating the milk production of 32 BRSV reinfected cows. For the estimation of milk production losses, four lactation curve models were used, including a gamma function, a second degree polynomial, and both of these models with a lag variable. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus reinfections seemed to have only a small effect on the daily milk production. Comparison of the true production with an estimated production according to the gamma function showed that the production for first lactation cows dropped 0.14 kg on average and for cows in their second or later lactation 0.56 kg on average, during 5 consecutive days in the infection period. For the second-degree polynomial model these values were respectively 0.42 kg and 0.80 kg. All calculated average production losses were relatively small and not significant (P > 0.15). The models without lag variable were more suitable than the models with the lag variable to estimate small production losses caused by BRSV reinfections. The power of this study was sufficient to detect a decrease in production of approximately 1-1.5 kg milk per cow per day. It was therefore concluded that BRSV reinfections were not associated with an important loss of milk production.

  13. Systems biology analysis merging phenotype, metabolomic and genomic data identifies Non-SMC Condensin I Complex, Subunit G (NCAPG and cellular maintenance processes as major contributors to genetic variability in bovine feed efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Widmann

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency is a paramount factor for livestock economy. Previous studies had indicated a substantial heritability of several feed efficiency traits. In our study, we investigated the genetic background of residual feed intake, a commonly used parameter of feed efficiency, in a cattle resource population generated from crossing dairy and beef cattle. Starting from a whole genome association analysis, we subsequently performed combined phenotype-metabolome-genome analysis taking a systems biology approach by inferring gene networks based on partial correlation and information theory approaches. Our data about biological processes enriched with genes from the feed efficiency network suggest that genetic variation in feed efficiency is driven by genetic modulation of basic processes relevant to general cellular functions. When looking at the predicted upstream regulators from the feed efficiency network, the Tumor Protein P53 (TP53 and Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 (TGFB1 genes stood out regarding significance of overlap and number of target molecules in the data set. These results further support the hypothesis that TP53 is a major upstream regulator for genetic variation of feed efficiency. Furthermore, our data revealed a significant effect of both, the Non-SMC Condensin I Complex, Subunit G (NCAPG I442M (rs109570900 and the Growth /differentiation factor 8 (GDF8 Q204X (rs110344317 loci, on residual feed intake and feed conversion. For both loci, the growth promoting allele at the onset of puberty was associated with a negative, but favorable effect on residual feed intake. The elevated energy demand for increased growth triggered by the NCAPG 442M allele is obviously not fully compensated for by an increased efficiency in converting feed into body tissue. As a consequence, the individuals carrying the NCAPG 442M allele had an additional demand for energy uptake that is reflected by the association of the allele with increased daily

  14. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hou, Lei;

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis...... in the continuously lactating mammary gland. Nine multiparous dairy goats were used. One udder half was dried off approximately 9 wk prepartum (normal lactation; NL), and the other udder half of the same goat was milked continuously (continuous lactation; CL) until parturition or until the half-udder milk yields had...... period), and at d 1 (the day of parturition), 3, 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Mammary morphology was characterized in biopsies by quantitative histology, and cell turnover was determined by immunohistochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and Ki-67). Transcription...

  15. Characterization of a bovine viral diarrhea virus originated from cattle in Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shandian; Shao, Junjun; Du, Junzheng; Lin, Tong; Cong, Guozheng; Zhao, Furong; Chang, Huiyun; Yin, Hong

    2013-08-01

    A bovine viral diarrhea disease virus (BVDV) GS-4 was isolated in Western China form dairy cattle with respiratory disease. Genomic comparison analysis with the 5' half genome sequence encompassing the coding region of N(pro), capsid, and envelope glycoproteins showed that the GS-4 should be classified into BVDV-1b1, which is considered as one of the predominant subgenotypes found in China. This classification was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis based on E2 coding region.

  16. Lactation in insulin-dependent diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, S H

    1990-01-01

    The ability of insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) women to breast-feed has been documented, however, there is little information concerning milk composition or factors that influence successful breastfeeding. Placental lactogen and prolactin levels can be normalized during pregnancy with good metabolic control. These hormones affect the readiness of the mammary gland for lactation. Prolactin maintains mammary gland insulin receptors to ensure anabolism. Lactation in IDDM women may be influenced by hyper- or hypoglycemia as women balance their insulin needs. Milk from diabetic animals has decreased lactose, fat, protein and volume and these effects can be reversed with insulin administration. Mature breast milk of IDDM women has increased glucose and sodium and mammary gland lipid metabolism may be impaired. Milk lactose and citrate, markers of lactogenesis II, suggest delayed lactation occurs in diabetic women. Many factors may influence lactation success and breast milk composition of IDDM women. Some of these include: method of delivery, feeding frequency, fetal condition, gestational age, mastitis incidence, metabolic control and maternal dietary intake. Lactation management of the IDDM woman must address these factors.

  17. Lactate metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; van Hall, Gerrit;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mitochondrial DNA mutations often have elevated plasma lactate at rest and during exercise, but it is unknown whether the high lactate levels are caused by a high production, an impaired oxidation or a combination. We studied lactate kinetics in 10 patients with mtDNA mutations and 10...... matched healthy control subjects at rest and during cycle exercise with a combination of femoral arterio-venous differences of lactate, and lactate tracer dilution methodology. During exercise, lactate concentration and production rates were several-fold higher in patients, but despite mitochondrial...... dysfunction, lactate was oxidized in muscle to the same extent as in healthy control subjects. This surprisingly high ability to burn lactate in working muscle with defective mitochondria, probably relates to the variability of oxidative capacity among muscle fibers. The data suggests that lactate...

  18. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River Watershed: hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, M. A.; Spencer, S. K.; Hughes, Peter E.; Baldwin, Austin K.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  19. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Linda Carpenter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In traumatic brain injury (TBI patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well recognised, and are associated statistically with unfavourable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolised via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate’s association with unfavourable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilise lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilisation of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labelled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labelling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilisation via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilise the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e. uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining association between high lactate and poor outcome. An intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients showed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review current knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  20. Effects of amino acids infused into the vein on ghrelin-induced GH, insulin and glucagon secretion in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, Rika; Yokotani, Akinori; Sugino, Toshihisa; Itoh, Fumiaki; Kushibiki, Shiro; Shingu, Hiroyuki; Moriya, Naoko; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Kojima, Masayasu; Kangawa, Kenji; Obitsu, Taketo; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effects of amino acids on ghrelin-induced growth hormone (GH), insulin and glucagon secretion in lactating dairy cattle, six Holstein cows were randomly assigned to two infusion treatments in a cross-over design. Mixture solution of amino acids (AMI) or saline (CON) was continuously infused into the left side jugular vein via catheter for 4 h. At 2 h after the start of infusion, synthetic bovine ghrelin was single injected into the right side jugular vein through the catheter. Ghrelin injection immediately increased plasma GH, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (Pghrelin injection in both treatments. The peak value of plasma insulin concentration was greater in AMI compared with CON (Pghrelin action which in turn enhances insulin and glucagon secretions in lactating cows.

  1. Overexpression of interleukin 2 receptor, thymidine kinase and immunoglobulin-associated alpha-1 messenger RNA in a clinical case of enzootic bovine leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Tagawa, Michihito; Itoh, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 49-month-old Holstein cow with anorexia, tachypnea, enlarged peripheral lymph nodes, and difficulty standing up was suspected of bovine leukosis. Hematological examination revealed lymphocytosis with the presence of neoplastic cells. Increased total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, isozymes of LDH-2 and LDH-3 activities and thymidine kinase activity were observed. Cytological findings of fine needle aspiration of subiliac lymph nodes indicated lymphosarcoma. Histopathology and antibody analysis confirmed the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukosis, a B-cell bovine lymphoma caused by bovine leukemia virus. Gene expressions known as biomarkers of hematopoietic neoplasia in human were also examined in the present case. Increased messenger RNA expression of interleukin 2 receptor, thymidine kinase, and immunoglobulin-associated alpha-1 was observed in the case animal.

  2. Sex determination of bovine preimplantation embryos by oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Zhong, Fagang; Yang, Yonglin; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Shouren; Zhu, Bin

    2013-06-01

    The aim has been to set up a rapid and accurate microarray assay using sandwich mode for sex determination of bovine preimplantation embryos. Twelve sequence-specific oligonucleotide capture probes used to discriminate 12 samples were spotted onto the aldehyde-modified glass slides by Arrayer. The 2 recognition probes used to identify coding regions of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome gene (SRY) and β-casein (CSN2) reference gene were coupled with biotin. The assay was optimized by using genomic DNA extracted from blood samples of known sex individuals. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the fragments in the HMG box region of SRY gene and CSN2 gene with sequence-specific primers. The sex of samples was identified by detecting both the SRY and CSN2 genes simultaneously in 2 reaction cells of microarrays, with the male having SRY and CSN2 signals and the female only CSN2. The sex of 20 bovine preimplantation embryos was determined by oligonucleotide microarray. The protocol was run with a blind test that showed a 100% (82/82) specificity and accuracy in sexing of leukocytes. The bovine embryos were transferred into 20 bovine recipients, with a pregnant rate of 40% (8/20). Three calves were born at term, and 5 fetuses were miscarried. Their sexes were fully in accordance with the embryonic sex predetermination predicted by oligonucleotide microarray. This suggests that the oligonucleotide microarray method of SRY gene analysis can be used in early sex prediction of bovine embryos in breeding programs.

  3. Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during exercise is much debated. In the early days skeletal muscle was mainly seen as the site of lactate production during contraction and lactate production...... lactate metabolism at rest and during exercise and suggestions are put forward to explain the simultaneous lactate uptake and release; and (2) lactate metabolism in the heart, liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue and lungs will be discussed and its potential importance in these tissues....

  4. Blood lactate concentration as diagnostic predictors of uterine necrosis and its outcome in dairy cows with uterine torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MURAKAMI, Takashi; NAKAO, Shigeru; SATO, Yohei; NAKADA, Satoshi; SATO, Akane; MUKAI, Shuhei; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; YAMADA, Yutaka; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine blood lactate concentrations (bLac) and their validity as a diagnostic marker in bovine uterine torsion, blood samples were taken from 54 Holstein cows with uterine torsion before the correction of torsion. bLac in a group of cows with and without uterine necrosis were 15.0 and 3.0 mmol/l, respectively (P5.0 and >6.5 mmol/l, respectively. These findings suggest that in dairy cows with uterine torsion, an increase in bLac is a diagnostic predictor of uterine necrosis as well as poor prognosis in dams. PMID:28163266

  5. Extended antibiotic treatment of persistent bovine mastitis during lactation : Efficacy, economics and social influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder caused by bacteria that invade the udder through the teat canal, causing either persistent intramammary infections, or short, transient infections. Mastitis is the most costly disease on a dairy farm because it directly affects the production of milk, the pri

  6. Diet for a Healthy Lactating Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Kathryn M; Firnhaber, Gina; Haven, Kelley

    2015-12-01

    The nutrient and caloric requirements for lactation are set by the Institute of Medicine. The dietary pattern to meet those needs is found in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Only deficiency states for selected nutrients and/or prolonged inadequate caloric intake appear to affect the volume and quality of breast milk. Other dietary concerns of lactating women include "dieting" to return to prepregnancy weight; low maternal intake of selected nutrients due to health conditions or food choices; need for supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, and fatty acids; and use of non-nutritive sweeteners, caffeine, herbal supplements, and alcohol.

  7. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  8. Intermittent suckling enables estrus and pregnancy during lactation in sows: Effects of stage of lactation and lactation during early pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Soede, N.M.; Hazeleger, W.; Langendijk, P.; Dieleman, S.J.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that pre-ovulatory LH and post-ovulatory progesterone (P4) concentrations in plasma were low and embryo development was retarded when sows were induced to ovulate during lactation by submitting them to intermittent suckling (IS). The present study investigated whether this

  9. Renal lactate elimination is maintained during moderate exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Dawson, Ellen A; Dalsgaard, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Reduced hepatic lactate elimination initiates blood lactate accumulation during incremental exercise. In this study, we wished to determine whether renal lactate elimination contributes to the initiation of blood lactate accumulation. The renal arterial-to-venous (a-v) lactate difference was dete......Reduced hepatic lactate elimination initiates blood lactate accumulation during incremental exercise. In this study, we wished to determine whether renal lactate elimination contributes to the initiation of blood lactate accumulation. The renal arterial-to-venous (a-v) lactate difference...... was determined in nine men during sodium lactate infusion to enhance the evaluation (0.5 mol x L(-1) at 16 ± 1 mL x min(-1); mean ± s) both at rest and during cycling exercise (heart rate 139 ± 5 beats x min(-1)). The renal release of erythropoietin was used to detect kidney tissue ischaemia. At rest, the a-v O......(2) (CaO(2)-CvO(2)) and lactate concentration differences were 0.8 ± 0.2 and 0.02 ± 0.02 mmol x L(-1), respectively. During exercise, arterial lactate and CaO(2)-CvO(2) increased to 7.1 ± 1.1 and 2.6 ± 0.8 mmol x L(-1), respectively (P

  10. Comparative Genomic Analysis of the ICESa2603 Family ICEs and Spread of erm(B- and tet(O-Carrying Transferable 89K-Subtype ICEs in Swine and Bovine Isolates in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhu eHuang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs of the ICESa2603 family have been isolated from several species of Streptococcus spp.; however, the comparative genomic and evolutionary analyses of these particular ICEs are currently only at their initial stages. By investigating 13 ICEs of the ICESa2603 family and two ICESa2603 family-like ICEs derived from diverse hosts and locations, we have determined that ICEs comprised a backbone of 30 identical syntenic core genes and accessory genes that were restricted to the intergenic sites or the 3'-end of the non-conserved domain of core genes to maintain its function. ICESa2603 family integrase IntICESa2603 specifically recognized a 15-bp att sequence (TTATTTAAGAGTAAC at the 3'-end of rplL, which was highly conserved in genus Streptococcus. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that extensive recombination/insertion and the occurrence of a hybrid/mosaic in the ICESa2603 family were responsible for the significant increase in ICE diversity, thereby broadening its host range. Approximately 42.5% and 38.1% of the tested Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus agalactiae clinical isolates respectively contained ICESa2603 family Type Ⅳ secretion system (T4SS genes, and 80.5% and 62.5% of which also respectively carried intICESa2603, indicating that ICESa2603 family is widely distributed across these bacteria. Sequencing and conjugation transfer of a novel sequence type ST303 clinical S. suis isolate HB1011 demonstrated that the 89K-subtype ICESsuHB1011 retained its transferrable function, thereby conferring tetracycline and macrolide resistance.

  11. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M

    2012-01-01

    were combined. We measured cerebral lactate turnover via a tracer dilution method ([1-(13)C]lactate), using arterial to right internal jugular venous differences in 9 healthy individuals (5 males and 4 females), at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (F(i)o(2) 10......%, arterial oxygen saturation 72±10%, mean±SD). Whole-body lactate turnover increased 3.5-fold and 9-fold at two workloads in normoxia and 18-fold during exercise in hypoxia. Although middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity increased during exercise in hypoxia, calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen...... tension decreased by 13 mmHg (P...

  12. Short communication: Imputation of markers on the bovine X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaowei; Johansson, Anna Maria; Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; De Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2016-09-01

    Imputation is a cost-effective approach to augment marker data for genomic selection and genome-wide association studies. However, most imputation studies have focused on autosomes. Here, we assessed the imputation of markers on the X chromosome in Holstein cattle for nongenotyped animals and animals genotyped with low-density (Illumina BovineLD, Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) chips, using animals genotyped with medium-density (Illumina BovineSNP50) chips. A total of 26,884 genotyped Holstein individuals genotyped with medium-density chips were used in this study. Imputation was carried out using FImpute V2.2. The following parameters were examined: treating the pseudoautosomal region as autosomal or as X specific, different sizes of reference groups, different male/female proportions in the reference group, and cumulated degree of relationship between the reference group and target group. The imputation accuracy of markers on the X chromosome was improved if the pseudoautosomal region was treated as autosomal. Increasing the proportion of females in the reference group improved the imputation accuracy for the X chromosome. Imputation for nongenotyped animals in general had lower accuracy compared with animals genotyped with the low-density single nucleotide polymorphism array. In addition, higher cumulative pedigree relationships between the reference group and the target animal led to higher imputation accuracy. In the future, better marker coverage of the X chromosome should be developed to facilitate genomic studies involving the X chromosome.

  13. Effects of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis on productivity in a dairy herd in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, S; Mazuz, M; Brenner, J; Friedgut, O; Koren, O; Goshen, T; Elad, D

    2008-05-01

    Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is characterized by the development of a necrotic vulvovaginal lesion, almost exclusively in post-parturient first-lactation cows, associated with Porphyromonas levii. The scope of this survey was to evaluate the impact of BNVV on herd productivity as a means to rationally evaluate the resources that should be allocated in dealing with the syndrome. During an outbreak of BNVV in a dairy herd, following the introduction of a large number of cows from another farm, the impact of the animals' origin (local or transferred) and BNVV (positive or negative) upon involuntary culling rate, milk yield and days between pregnancies were assessed. The results indicated that the number of days between pregnancies was significantly higher in first-lactation cows with BNVV but was not influenced by the other independent variables. None of the other variables included in this survey had any effect on the involuntary culling rate and milk yield.

  14. ABC- and SLC-Transporters in Murine and Bovine Mammary Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Oskarsson, Agneta; Knight, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Some chemicals are ligands to efflux transporters which may result in high concentrations in milk. Limited knowledge is available on the influence of maternal exposure to chemicals on the expression and function of transporters in the lactating mammary gland. We determined gene expression of ABC...... and SLC transporters in murine mammary tissue of different gestation and lactation stages, in murine mammary cells (HC11) featuring resting and secreting phenotypes and in bovine mammary tissue and cells (BME-UV). Effects on transporter expression and function of the imidazole fungicide prochloraz......, previously reported toinfluence BCRP in mammary cells, was investigated on transporter expression and functionin the two cell lines. Transporters studied were BCRP, MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5/OATP1A2,OCTN1 and OCT1. Gene expressions of BCRP and OCT1 in murine mammary glandswere increased during gestation...

  15. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one of the newest additions to the ...

  16. Effects of protocol design on lactate minimum power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Sharpe, G R

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to use a validated lactate minimum test protocol and evaluate whether blood lactate responses and the lactate minimum power are influenced by the starting power (study 1) and 1 min inter-stage rest intervals (study 2) during the incremental phase. Study 1: 8 subjects performed a lactate minimum test comprising a lactate elevation phase, recovery phase, and incremental phase comprising 5 continuous 4 min stages with starting power being 40% or 45% of the maximum power achieved during the lactate elevation phase, and with power increments of 5% maximum power. Study 2: 8 subjects performed 2 identical lactate minimum tests except that during one of the tests the incremental phase included 1 min inter-stage rest intervals. The lactate minimum power was lower when the incremental phase commenced at 40% (175±29 W) compared to 45% (184±30 W) maximum power (pvalidity and therefore training status evaluation and exercise prescription.

  17. Clinical use of lactate monitoring in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.W.N. Nijsten (Maarten); T.C. Jansen (Tim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIncreased blood lactate levels (hyperlactataemia) are common in critically ill patients. Although frequently used to diagnose inadequate tissue oxygenation, other processes not related to tissue oxygenation may increase lactate levels. Especially in critically ill patients, increased gly

  18. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yang; Lykke, Mikkel; Chatterton, D E W

    2014-01-01

    height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar...... effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk...

  19. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants : A quality review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Douwe H.; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G.J.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. METHODS: We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19 anticonvu

  20. Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele; Fitzpatrick, Julie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactational mastitis is a painful, debilitating condition that if inappropriately managed, may lead women to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. The aim of this paper is to report the incidence of mastitis in the first six months postpartum in a Scottish population, its impact on b...

  1. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2008-01-01

    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  2. Cadmium and zinc in pregnancy and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucis, O.J.; Lucis, R.; Shaikh, Z.A.

    1972-07-01

    Radioactive cadmium (/sup 109/Cd) and zinc (/sup 65/Zn) were injected subcutaneously into pregnant rats. More cadmium than zinc was found in the placentae. After birth, newborns showed detectable /sup 109/Cd only in liver, gastrointestinal tract, and in the brain tissue. Zinc 65 was present in all newborns' tissues. During lactation, highest output of /sup 65/Zn was in colostrum and, on subsequent days, /sup 65/Zn in milk declined rapidly. Cadmium 109 in milk was present in low concentration throughout the lactation period. Rats injected with /sup 109/Cd and /sup 65/Zn after parturition excreted these isotopes in milk in a similiar pattern. Newborns nursed on radioactive milk showed rapid absorption of /sup 65/Zn, whereas /sup 109/Cd accumulated primarily in the intestinal tract; a lesser quantity of /sup 109/Cd was deposited in the liver. In other organs, only /sup 65/Zn was found. The lactating mammary gland contained more /sup 109/Cd than /sup 65/Zn; after lactation, /sup 65/Zn was depleted, whereas /sup 109/Cd remained in mammary tissue.

  3. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  4. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous... examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy.,...

  5. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  6. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone treatment on milk production and plasma hormones and metabolites in lactating Japanese Black cows under negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingu, H; Hodate, K; Kushibiki, S; Touno, E; Oshibe, A; Ueda, Y; Shinoda, M; Ohashi, S

    2009-04-01

    The current study was performed to clarify the effects of GHRH treatment on milk production and plasma hormones and metabolites in lactating Japanese Black cows (a beef breed) under negative energy balance (EB). Ten multiparous lactating beef cows were offered a normal-energy diet daily (110% of ME requirements for maintenance and lactation) until 5 d in milk (DIM) to standardize the cows before dietary treatment. From 6 DIM to the final days (63 DIM) of the experiment, the cows were allotted to experimental dietary treatments: 5 cows were offered a diet formulated for 130% [high-energy diet (HED)] and the remaining 5 cows were offered a diet formulated for 80% [low-energy diet (LED)] of ME requirements for maintenance and lactation. In addition, all cows received daily subcutaneous injections of 3 mg of bovine GHRH from 36 to 56 DIM (GHRH treatment period). Differences in BW of HED- and LED-fed cows at 63 DIM were +28.4 and -7.2 kg compared with BW at 6 DIM, and HED- and LED-fed cows were under positive EB (+23.7 MJ/d) and negative EB (-11.6 MJ/d) throughout the experiment period. Treatment with GHRH increased (Pnegative EB in lactating beef cows.

  7. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general p

  8. Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates at calving and lactation performance within the same lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whist, A C; Østerås, O; Sølverød, L

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the association between early lactation Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis, and culling in the same lactation. The 178 commercial dairy herds were randomly placed into 3 penicillin- or penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin-based dry-cow treatments and 3 different postmilking teat disinfection groups-negative control, iodine, or external teat sealant. All cows were sampled in early lactation, and Strep. dysgalactiae-positive and culture-negative cows were followed throughout the remainder of the lactation. Mixed models, including repeated measurements, with test-day observation as dependent variable, were used to compare milk yield, SCC, and available milk quality variables throughout the remaining lactation. Survival analyses, using a positive frailty model to account for any herd random effects, were used to estimate the hazard ratio for clinical mastitis and culling. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-positive cows had a significantly higher SCC throughout the lactation compared to culture-negative cows. For primiparous or multiparous cows, respectively, the differences in the geometric mean SCC between Strep. dysgalactiae-positive and culture-negative cows was 197,000 or 280,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the lactation, 24,000 or 46,000 cells/mL in mid lactation, and 39,000 or 111,000 cells/mL at the end of the lactation. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-positive primiparous or multiparous cows produced 334 or 246 kg less milk, respectively, during a 305-d lactation compared with culture-negative cows. Compared with culture-negative cows, the hazard ratios for clinical mastitis in Strep. dysgalactiae-positive cows were 2.3 (1.9 to 2.9) and 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) for culling. For cows with both Strep. dysgalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus isolates, the hazard ratio for culling significantly increased to 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2).

  9. The nutritive and immunoprotective quality of human milk beyond 1 year postpartum: are lactation-duration-based donor exclusions justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Allen, Jonathan C

    2013-08-01

    Donor human milk is critical for the fragile preterm infant who does not have access to his or her mother's milk, improving survival rates and quality of survival and decreasing hospital stay. Despite the opening of donor milk banks around the world, shortages continue as demand for donor milk exceeds supply. One potential means of increasing supply is by reducing exclusion criteria that prohibit mothers from donating milk based on duration of lactation. Minimal research has been done on the composition of human milk during the second year of lactation, with most research focusing on the nutritive compounds and not the immunoprotective compounds. Several immunoprotective compounds, including lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and oligosaccharides, are abundant in human milk compared to bovine-based infant formula and are partially or fully retained during Holder pasteurization, making them an important differentiating feature of donor milk. A PubMed search was conducted to review studies in human milk composition during the second year of lactation. Limitations of existing research include sample collection protocols, small study sizes, and use of populations that may have been at risk for nutritional deficiencies. Stable concentrations of several components were reported including protein, lactose, iron, copper, lactoferrin, and secretory immunoglobulin A. Lysozyme concentration increased during extended lactation, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined into the second year. Conflicting findings were reported on fat content, and no information was available regarding oligosaccharide content. More research is needed to create evidence-based guidelines regarding the nutritive and immunoprotective value of donor milk throughout the course of lactation.

  10. Elevated cerebral lactate: Implications in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosoi, Cristina R; Rose, Christopher F

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome, is a frequent complication of liver failure/disease. Increased concentrations of lactate are commonly observed in HE patients, in the systemic circulation, but also in the brain. Traditionally, increased cerebral lactate is considered a marker of energy failure/impairment however alterations in lactate homeostasis may also lead to a rise in brain lactate and result in neuronal dysfunction. The latter may involve the development of brain edema. This review will target the significance of increased cerebral lactate in the pathogenesis of HE.

  11. Monocarboxylate Transporters and Lactate Metabolism in Equine Athletes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pösö AR

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is known as the end product of anaerobic glycolysis, a pathway that is of key importance during high intensity exercise. Instead of being a waste product lactate is now regarded as a valuable substrate that significantly contributes to the energy production of heart, noncontracting muscles and even brain. The recent cloning of monocarboxylate transporters, a conserved protein family that transports lactate through biological membranes, has given a new insight into the role of lactate in whole body metabolism. This paper reviews current literature on lactate and monocarboxylate transporters with special reference to horses.

  12. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H;

    2002-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... by 10 min of double poling and diagonal stride at 72-76% maximal O(2) uptake. A high lactate appearance rate (R(a), 184 +/- 17 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) but a low arterial lactate concentration ( approximately 2.5 mmol/l) were observed during Continuous Arm + Leg despite a substantial net lactate...

  13. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.

    2015-03-11

    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  14. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during their lifetime; The bovines from which the... from animals that are not known to have been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during... community is that the agent is an abnormal form of a normal protein known as cellular prion protein. The...

  15. Lactate and force production in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Albertsen, Janni; Rentsch, Maria;

    2005-01-01

    Lactic acid accumulation is generally believed to be involved in muscle fatigue. However, one study reported that in rat soleus muscle (in vitro), with force depressed by high external K+ concentrations a subsequent incubation with lactic acid restores force and thereby protects against fatigue....... However, incubation with 20 mm lactic acid reduces the pH gradient across the sarcolemma, whereas the gradient is increased during muscle activity. Furthermore, unlike active muscle the Na+-K+ pump is not activated. We therefore hypothesized that lactic acid does not protect against fatigue in active...... muscle. Three incubation solutions were used: 20 mm Na-lactate (which acidifies internal pH), 12 mm Na-lactate +8 mm lactic acid (which mimics the pH changes during muscle activity), and 20 mm lactic acid (which acidifies external pH more than internal pH). All three solutions improved force in K...

  16. Purification and properties of a monomeric lactate dehydrogenase from yak Hypoderma sinense larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Jin, Suyu; Huang, Lin; Liu, Haohao; Huang, Zhihong; Lin, Yaqiu; Zheng, Yucai

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to study the characteristics of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from Hypoderma sinense larva. H. sinense larvae were collected from yak (Bos grunniens) and identified by a PCR-RFLP method. Analysis of LDH activity showed that the total LDH activity in H. sinense larva was negatively correlated with the length of larva. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the extracts of H. sinense larvae revealed one band of LDH, which was then purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. This enzyme showed an approximately 36 kDa band on SDS-gel under both reducing and non-reducing conditions, in addition, size exclusion chromatography analysis showed that its molecular weight was smaller than bovine serum albumin (67 kDa), indicating that it contains only one subunit. Michaelis constants (Km) values assay revealed that LDH from H. sinense larva showed significantly lower Km for lactate than other animals. LDH of H. sinense larva was stable at 60 °C for 15 min, and also exhibited high catalytic efficiency in a wide range of pH. HgCl₂ at the concentration of 0.1mM significantly decreased the activity of LDH from H. sinense larva but not at the concentration of 0.01 mM. The results of the present study demonstrate that LDH from H. sinense larva is a thermal stable and pH insensitive enzyme suitable for catalyzing both forward and reverse reactions.

  17. Transfer of protein antigens into milk after intravenous injection into lactating mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmatz, P.R.; Hanson, D.G.; Walsh, M.K.; Kleinman, R.E.; Bloch, K.J.; Walker, W.A.

    1986-08-01

    We investigated the transfer of bovine serum /sup 125/I-albumin (/sup 125/I-BSA), bovine /sup 125/I-gamma-globulin (/sup 125/I-BGG), /sup 125/I-ovalbumin (/sup 125/I-OVA), and /sup 125/I-beta-lactoglobulin (/sup 125/I-BLG) from the blood into the milk of lactating mice. Equal amounts (by weight) of the radiolabeled proteins were injected intravenously into mice 1 wk postpartum. Total radioactivity, trichloroacetic acid-precipitable radioactivity, and specifically immunoprecipitable radioactivity were measured in serum, mammary gland homogenate, and milk. Clearance of immunoreactive OVA (iOVA) and iBLG from the circulation was more rapid than iBSA and iBGG. The radioactivity in mammary tissue associated with BSA and BGG was greater than 70% immunoprecipitable throughout the 4-h test interval; /sup 125/I-OVA and /sup 125/I-BLG were less than 12% precipitable 1 and 4 h after injection. In milk obtained at 4 h, there was an approximately 10-fold greater accumulation of iBSA or iBGG than of iOVA or iBLG. These experiments demonstrate that protein antigens differ in their ability to transfer from maternal circulation into milk. The transfer into milk appeared to be in proportion to persistence of the antigens in the maternal circulation.

  18. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin;

    2001-01-01

    a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... were determined and it was found that lactate dehydrogenase exerted virtually no control on the glycolytic flux at the wild-type enzyme level and also not on the flux catalyzed by the enzyme itself, i.e. on the lactate production. As expected, the flux towards the mixed-acid products was strongly...... enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...

  19. In vivo voltammetric detection of rat brain lactate with carbon fiber microelectrodes coated with lactate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shram, N F; Netchiporouk, L I; Martelet, C; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Bonnet, C; Cespuglio, R

    1998-07-01

    To allow rat brain lactate measurement in vivo, a specific sensor based on a carbon fiber (phi = 30 microns) microelectrode coated with lactate oxidase was prepared. Combined with the differential normal pulse voltammetry measurement method, such a sensor, with a sensitivity of 9.15 +/- 0.91 mA.M-1.cm-2, provided a lactate linear response in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 mM. The measurements performed appeared to be essentially insensitive to usual interference caused by the electroactive compounds present in the brain (ascorbic acid and peptides). In vivo detection performed in the cortex of the anesthetized rat led to the determination of a lactate concentration of 0.41 +/- 0.02 mM. Moreover, to validate the results obtained in vivo, an ex vivo determination of the lactate level was also performed in samples of brain tissue, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid, using both voltammetry and a clinical analyzer with colorimetric-based detection. A good correlation was observed between the sets of data established by both methods.

  20. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Andrus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide (pAam. Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial “break-in” period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors.

  1. Correlation between Arterial Lactate and Central Venous Lactate in Children with Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fernández Sarmiento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lactate is an important indicator of tissue perfusion. The objective of this study is to evaluate if there are significant differences between the arterial and central venous measurement of lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and/or septic shock. Methods. Longitudinal retrospective observational study. Forty-two patients were included between the age of 1 month and 17 years, with a diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock, who were admitted to the intensive care unit of a university referral hospital. The lactate value obtained from an arterial blood sample and a central venous blood sample drawn simultaneously, and within 24 hours of admission to the unit, was recorded. Results. The median age was 2.3 years (RIC 0,3–15, with a predominance of males (71.4%, having a 2.5 : 1 ratio to females. Most of the patients had septic shock (78.5% of pulmonary origin (50.0%, followed by those of gastrointestinal origin (26.1%. Using Spearman’s Rho, a 0.872 (p<0.001 correlation was found between arterial and venous lactate, which did not vary when adjusted for age (p<0.05 and the use of vasoactive drugs (p<0.05. Conclusion. There is a good correlation between arterial and venous lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and septic shock, which is not affected by demographic variables or type of vasoactive support.

  2. Molecular characterization of Bovine herpesvirus type 1 Indonesian isolates

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    Muharam Saepulloh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Different subtypes of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 have been associated with different clinical conditions of cattle. For that reason subtypes differentiation has become an essential tool for understanding the pathogenesis and epidemiology of BHV infections. In search for a genomic region that would allow a clear distinction between BHV-1.1 and BHV-1.2 of glycoprotein D (gD genes of 8 Indonesian isolates were amplified and sequenced. The amino acid sequence alignments revealed that the levels of genomic similarity ranging from 98.8 to 100% among BHV-1 Indonesian isolates and its results were also similar between BHV-1 Indonesia isolates and BHV-1.1 reference, and 98.4 to 98.8% between BHV-1 Indonesian isolates and BHV-1.2 reference. The isolates could be clearly separated into BHV-1.1 and BHV-1.2 after phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that the Indonesian isolates were characterized as BHV-1.1 as agent caused respiratory tract infections in cattle or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR disease. The results suggest that the phylogenetic analysis performed here can be used as a potential molecular epidemiological tool for herpesviruses.

  3. Molecular detection and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Mongolian cattle and yaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Odzaya, Battogtokh; Gansukh, Shura; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, and affects cattle worldwide, resulting in significant economic loss. The prevalence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 infections and its genotypes in Mongolian animals has not been studied. In this study, we surveyed BVDV infection in dairy cattle and yaks from Bornuur and Bulgan counties by RT-PCR, and the average infection rate in the sampling sites was 15.8 % and 20.0 %, respectively. In addition, molecular features of the 5'-UTR region of the BVDV genome in Mongolian cattle and yaks were identified as belonging to the subtypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a, respectively. Determining the prevalence, geographical distribution, and molecular diversity of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in various host species in Mongolia is important for further studies and process control programs.

  4. Genetic characterization of a noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 2b isolated from cattle in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Chen, Chaoyang; Wu, Hua

    2014-10-01

    In January 2013, several clinical signs of cattle with diarrhea, cough, nasal discharge, and fever were reported in Jilin province, China. One virus named SD1301 was isolated and identified. Complete genome of the virus is 12258nt in length and contains a 5'UTR, one open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,897 amino acids and a 3'UTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5'UTR, N(pro), E1 and E2 gene demonstrated the virus belonged to BVDV 2b, and genetically related to the BVDV strain Hokudai-Lab/09 from Japan in 2010. This bovine viral diarrhea virus displays a unique genetic signature with 27-nucleotide deletion in the 5'UTR, which is similar to the bovine viral diarrhea virus C413 (AF002227). This was the first confirmed isolation of ncp BVDV2b circulating in bovine herd of China.

  5. Comparative analysis of human and bovine protein kinases reveals unique relationship and functional diversity

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    Nuzhat N. Kabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible protein phosphorylation by protein kinases and phosphatases is a common event in various cellular processes. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily, which is one of the largest superfamilies of eukaryotic proteins, plays several roles in cell signaling and diseases. We identified 482 eukaryotic protein kinases and 39 atypical protein kinases in the bovine genome, by searching publicly accessible genetic-sequence databases. Bovines have 512 putative protein kinases, each orthologous to a human kinase. Whereas orthologous kinase pairs are, on an average, 90.6% identical, orthologous kinase catalytic domain pairs are, on an average, 95.9% identical at the amino acid level. This bioinformatic study of bovine protein kinases provides a suitable framework for further characterization of their functional and structural properties.

  6. The Comparison of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Fish and Bovine using Multilocus Sequence Typing

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    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has greater utility for determining the recent ancestral lineage and the relatedness of individual strains. Group B streptococci (GBS is one of the major causes of subclinical mastitis of dairy cattle in several countries. GBS also sporadically causes epizootic infections in fish. The aim of this study was to compare the evolutionary lineage of fish and bovine isolates in relation to the S. agalactiae global population as a whole by comparing the MLST profiles. Twenty S. agalactiae isolates were obtained from dairy cattle and fish. PCR products were amplified with seven different oligonucleotide primer pairs designed from the NEM316 GBS genome sequence. Clone complexes demonstrated that bovine and fish isolates were separate populations. These findings lead us to conclude that fish S. agalactiae is not a zoonotic agent for bovine. MLST could help clarify the emergence of pathogenic clones and to decide whether the host acts as a reservoir for another pathogenic lineage.

  7. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

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    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  8. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

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    Lori A Newman

    Full Text Available When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  9. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori A; Korol, Donna L; Gold, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  10. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1998-01-01

    The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) warrants continued investigation of the mechanisms by which Moraxella bovis survives on and colonizes the corneal surface. Virulent strains of M bovis produce hemolysin and exhibit different plasmid profiles than nonvirulent strains. Interactions among host, environment, vector, season, and concurrent infection influence the prevalence of IBK. Mycoplasma sp. or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus may enhance or hasten the disease process. The manifestations of IBK may range from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness. Treatment of IBK is dictated by economic considerations, intended animal use, and feasibility of administration. Antibiotic therapy is aimed at achieving drug concentrations in tears to meet or exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged periods. At present, IBK is not a preventable disease. Affected animals must be separated from the herd and vector control vigorously instituted. Carrier animals must be identified and removed from the herd. Vaccination trials have been unsuccessful because of pili antigen cross-reactivity, variable strains, and uncontrolled environmental factors. Recent investigations have determined that M bovis may utilize host iron sources via iron-repressible outer membrane proteins and siderophores for growth. Elucidation of normal defense mechanisms of the bovine eye may lead to new strategies to enhance the immune response against M bovis.

  11. Lactate-a suicide mode or survival kit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cellular energy status is often believed to be crucial in the patho physiology of severe acute diseases involving sepsis or trauma such as multiorgan failure, mu ltiorgan dysfunction syndrome, systemic inflammatory response system, etc. Wit h this in mind increased blood lactate, mainly considered only as a marker or t issue hypoxia is a classical tool used to assess the severity of the illness an d to predict the pejorative outcome. However, during the past years the actual r ole of hypoxia in the pathophysiology of such acute diseases with an increased b lood lactate has been questioned. The association between increased blood lactate concentration and poor prognosi s in ICU patients is well documented but it is clearly not a cause-effect relat ionship. It is similar to what occurs in the case of increased blood ketone I n severe insulin deficient state and it would be a major understanding to be lieve that lactate is a toxic compound in acute states. In acute illness, incre ased lactate concentration or lactate metabolism can be due to the combination of various origin in which the role of splanchnic bed is prominent. In the case of strong reduction in oxygen delivery, such as severe shock, it is quite clear that there is a relationship between cellular energy defect and increased lact ate production. But even in these cases a decrease in lactate metabolism (eithe r oxidative or recycling routes) may also be involved. In septic states, the ro le of blood lactate is a matter of controversy and several reports have e mphasiz ed the fact that hyperlactatemia in sepsis was not due to the oxygen d eficit. It has been shown that mild hyperlactatemia in stable septic patients was due to an impaired lactate clearance rather than overproduction. Besides the main conc lusion that any therapeutic attempts to increase oxygen delivery in such situa tion may not be adapted, another point can be raised concerning the meaning of s uch lactate increase. In fact, increased blood

  12. Regional Regulation of Transcription in the Bovine Genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommadath, A.; Nie, H.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are distributed along chromosomes as clusters of highly expressed genes termed RIDGEs (Regions of IncreaseD Gene Expression) and lowly expressed genes termed anti-RIDGEs, interspersed among genes expressed at intermediate levels or not expressed. Previous studies based on this obser

  13. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...

  14. Development and validation of a bovine macrophage specific cDNA microarray

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    Waddington David

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of macrophages to danger signals is an important early stage in the immune response. Our understanding of this complex event has been furthered by microarray analysis, which allows the simultaneous investigation of the expression of large numbers of genes. However, the microarray resources available to study these events in livestock animals are limited. Results Here we report the development of a bovine macrophage specific (BoMP cDNA microarray. The BoMP microarray contains 5026 sequence elements (printed in duplicate and numerous controls. The majority of the clones incorporated on the microarray were derived from the BoMP cDNA library generated from bovine myeloid cells subjected to various stimuli, including over 900 sequences unique to the library. Additional clones representing immunologically important genes have been included on the BoMP microarray. The microarray was validated by investigating the response of bovine monocytes to stimulation with interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide using amplified RNA. At 2 and 16 hours post stimulation 695 genes exhibited statistically significant differential expression, including; 26 sequences unique to the BoMP library, interleukin 6, prion protein and toll-like receptor 4. Conclusion A 5 K cDNA microarray has been successfully developed to investigate gene expression in bovine myeloid cells. The BoMP microarray is available from the ARK-Genomics Centre for Functional Genomics in Farm Animals, UK.

  15. In vitro secretion of zymogens by bovine pancreatic acini and ultra-structural analysis of exocytosis

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    Sivalingam Jayaveni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish a bovine pancreatic acinar cell culture model with longer viability and functionality. The cells could be maintained in a functional state for upto 20 days with normal morphology. Cells were positive for amylase as observed by immunofluorescence staining. Acinar cells are spherical and range about 2–3 µm in diameter. The porosome formed by exocytosis and heterogenous enzyme granules of size ranging 100–300 nm were seen on the surface of cells by electron microscopy. The activity of the enzymes was high on day 15 and the activity profile of the enzymes is in the order: protease>lipase>amylase and the enzymes were identified by SDS-PAGE. Long-term culture of bovine pancreatic acini could be useful in studying the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Since the bovine genome shares about 80% identity with the human genome, the cells derived from bovine pancreas can be engineered and used as a potential xenotransplant to treat conditions like pancreatitis as the tissue source is abundantly available.

  16. Expression of the Bovine NK-Lysin Gene Family and Activity against Respiratory Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfeng; Yang, Chingyuan; Tizioto, Polyana C.; Huang, Huan; Lee, Mi O. K.; Payne, Harold R.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals. The effects of synthetic peptides corresponding to functional region helices 2 and 3 of each gene product were tested on both model membranes and bio-membranes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that these peptides adopted a more helical secondary structure upon binding to an anionic model membrane and liposome leakage assays suggested that these peptides disrupt membranes. Bacterial killing assays further confirmed the antimicrobial effects of these peptides on BRD-associated bacteria, including both Pasteurella multocida and Mannhemia haemolytica and an ultrastructural examination of NK-lysin-treated P. multocida cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the lysis of target membranes. These studies demonstrate that the expanded bovine NK-lysin gene family is potentially important in host defense against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease. PMID:27409794

  17. Expression of the Bovine NK-Lysin Gene Family and Activity against Respiratory Pathogens.

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    Junfeng Chen

    Full Text Available Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq. The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals. The effects of synthetic peptides corresponding to functional region helices 2 and 3 of each gene product were tested on both model membranes and bio-membranes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that these peptides adopted a more helical secondary structure upon binding to an anionic model membrane and liposome leakage assays suggested that these peptides disrupt membranes. Bacterial killing assays further confirmed the antimicrobial effects of these peptides on BRD-associated bacteria, including both Pasteurella multocida and Mannhemia haemolytica and an ultrastructural examination of NK-lysin-treated P. multocida cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the lysis of target membranes. These studies demonstrate that the expanded bovine NK-lysin gene family is potentially important in host defense against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease.

  18. Nutrition in pregnancy and lactation: how a healthy infant is born

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    Federico Mecacci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation influences the growth and potential development of the fetus and contributes to the maturity of a healthy baby.The lack of sufficient calories, of macro- and micronutrients, can lead to deficiencies in building materials for the development and growth of the fetus: moreover there is growing evidence that the maternal nutritional status can alter the epigenetic state of the fetal genome, therefore alterations in nutrition during crucial periods of fetal development may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the physiology, the metabolism of the offspring, and, as a consequence, predispose these individuals to diseases as adults.In this review we collected indications for the recommended intake of calories and nutrients for a healthy diet during pregnancy and lactation, also analyzing some nutritional choices that may increase the risk of nutritional deficiencies and the way to prevent them.Pregnancy-related dietary changes should begin prior to conception, with appropriate modifications throughout pregnancy and lactation, and appropriate supplementation of vitamins and minerals. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  19. Apoptosis in lactating and involuting mouse mammary tissue demonstrated by nick-end DNA labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, L H; Addey, C V; Wilde, C J

    1995-09-01

    Mammary involution after cessation of milk removal is associated with extensive loss of secretory epithelial cells. Ultrastructural changes and the appearance of oligonucleosomal DNA laddering in ethidium bromide-stained gels indicates that cell loss during involution occurs by apoptosis. In this study, a technique for nick end-labelling of genomic DNA with radiolabelled deoxynucleotide has been used to monitor the induction of programmed cell death in mice after litter removal at peak lactation. This technique proved more sensitive than conventional ethidium bromide staining, and results suggested that apoptosis was induced rapidly by milk stasis, before extensive tissue re-modelling had begun. Oligonucleosomal DNA laddering on agarose gels was detected within 24 h of milk stasis, and increased progressively for at least 4 days. Nick-end labelling also detected laddering before litter removal, suggesting that programmed cell death is a normal feature of the lactating tissue. The DNA end-labelling technique was also adapted for in situ visualisation of apoptotic cells in tissue sections. By this criterion, apoptotic cells were identified in both the secretory epithelium lining the alveoli of the gland and, increasingly with prolonged milk stasis, amongst those sloughed into the alveolar lumen. The results demonstrate the utility of these techniques for study of mammary cell death and suggest that, whilst apoptosis is rapidly induced by milk stasis, it is also a normal physiological event in the lactating mammary gland.

  20. A high resolution RH map of the bovine major histocompatibility complex

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    Womack James E

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle MHC is termed the bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA and, along with the MHCs of other ruminants, is unique in its genomic organization. Consequently, correct and reliable gene maps and sequence information are critical to the study of the BoLA region. The bovine genome sequencing project has produced two assemblies (Btau_3.1 and 4.0 that differ substantially from each other and from conventional gene maps in the BoLA region. To independently compare the accuracies of the different sequence assemblies, we have generated a high resolution map of BoLA using a 12,000rad radiation hybrid panel. Seventy-seven unique sequence tagged site (STS markers chosen at approximately 50 kb intervals from the Btau 2.0 assembly and spanning the IIa-III-I and IIb regions of the bovine MHC were mapped on a 12,000rad bovine radiation hybrid (RH panel to evaluate the different assemblies of the bovine genome sequence. Results Analysis of the data generated a high resolution RH map of BoLA that was significantly different from the Btau_3.1 assembly of the bovine genome but in good agreement with the Btau_4.0 assembly. Of the few discordancies between the RH map and Btau_4.0, most could be attributed to closely spaced markers that could not be precisely ordered in the RH panel. One probable incorrectly-assembled sequence and three missing sequences were noted in the Btau_4.0 assembly. The RH map of BoLA is also highly concordant with the sequence-based map of HLA (NCBI build 36 when reordered to account for the ancestral inversion in the ruminant MHC. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that studies using Btau_3.1 for analyses of the BoLA region should be reevaluated in light of the Btau_4.0 assembly and indicate that additional research is needed to produce a complete assembly of the BoLA genomic sequences.

  1. Enhanced responsiveness to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during lactation.

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    Nicholas J Jury

    Full Text Available The physiology of mood regulation in the postpartum is poorly understood despite the fact that postpartum depression (PPD is a common pathology. Serotonergic mechanisms and their dysfunction are widely presumed to be involved, which has led us to investigate whether lactation induces changes in central or peripheral serotonin (5-HT systems and related affective behaviors. Brain sections from lactating (day 10 postpartum and age-matched nulliparous (non-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were processed for 5-HT immunohistochemistry. The total number of 5-HT immunostained cells and optical density were measured. Lactating mice exhibited lower immunoreactive 5-HT and intensity in the dorsal raphe nucleus when compared with nulliparous controls. Serum 5-HT was quantified from lactating and nulliparous mice using radioimmunoassay. Serum 5-HT concentrations were higher in lactating mice than in nulliparous controls. Affective behavior was assessed in lactating and non-lactating females ten days postpartum, as well as in nulliparous controls using the forced swim test (FST and marble burying task (MBT. Animals were treated for the preceding five days with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram, 5mg/kg/day or vehicle. Lactating mice exhibited a lower baseline immobility time during the FST and buried fewer marbles during the MBT as compared to nulliparous controls. Citalopram treatment changed these behaviors in lactating mice with further reductions in immobility during the FST and decreased marble burying. In contrast, the same regimen of citalopram treatment had no effect on these behaviors in either non-lactating postpartum or nulliparous females. Our findings demonstrate changes in both central and peripheral 5-HT systems associated with lactation, independent of pregnancy. They also demonstrate a significant interaction of lactation and responsiveness to SSRI treatment, which has important implications in the treatment of PPD. Although

  2. KEGG-PATH: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes-based pathway analysis using a path analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junli; Yuan, Zhifa; Ma, Ziwei; Song, Jiuzhou; Xie, Xiaoli; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-29

    The dynamic impact approach (DIA) represents an alternative to overrepresentation analysis (ORA) for functional analysis of time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. The DIA can be used to estimate the biological impact of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with particular biological functions, for example, as represented by the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) annotations. However, the DIA does not take into account the correlated dependence structure of the KEGG pathway hierarchy. We have developed herein a path analysis model (KEGG-PATH) to subdivide the total effect of each KEGG pathway into the direct effect and indirect effect by taking into account not only each KEGG pathway itself, but also the correlation with its related pathways. In addition, this work also attempts to preliminarily estimate the impact direction of each KEGG pathway by a gradient analysis method from principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, the advantage of the KEGG-PATH model is demonstrated through the functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during lactation.

  3. Lactate storm marks cerebral metabolism following brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Sanju; Auer, Roland N; Tyson, Randy; Gallagher, Clare N; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2014-07-18

    Brain metabolism is thought to be maintained by neuronal-glial metabolic coupling. Glia take up glutamate from the synaptic cleft for conversion into glutamine, triggering glial glycolysis and lactate production. This lactate is shuttled into neurons and further metabolized. The origin and role of lactate in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. Using a modified weight drop model of severe TBI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with infusion of (13)C-labeled glucose, lactate, and acetate, the present study investigated the possibility that neuronal-glial metabolism is uncoupled following severe TBI. Histopathology of the model showed severe brain injury with subarachnoid and hemorrhage together with glial cell activation and positive staining for Tau at 90 min post-trauma. High resolution MR spectroscopy of brain metabolites revealed significant labeling of lactate at C-3 and C-2 irrespective of the infused substrates. Increased (13)C-labeled lactate in all study groups in the absence of ischemia implied activated astrocytic glycolysis and production of lactate with failure of neuronal uptake (i.e. a loss of glial sensing for glutamate). The early increase in extracellular lactate in severe TBI with the injured neurons rendered unable to pick it up probably contributes to a rapid progression toward irreversible injury and pan-necrosis. Hence, a method to detect and scavenge the excess extracellular lactate on site or early following severe TBI may be a potential primary therapeutic measure.

  4. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, S.R., E-mail: srcorsi@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2615 Yellowstone Dr., Marshfield, WI 54449 (United States); Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  5. From genes to milk: Genomic organization and epigenetic regulation of the mammary transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even in genomes lacking operons, a gene's position in the genome influences its potential for expression. The mechanisms by which adjacent genes are co-expressed are still not completely understood. Using lactation and the mammary gland as a model system, we explore the hypothesis that chromatin sta...

  6. MicroRNA roles in signalling during lactation: an insight from differential expression, time course and pathway analyses of deep sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Duy N.; Li, Ran; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.

    2017-01-01

    The study examined microRNA (miRNA) expression and regulatory patterns during an entire bovine lactation cycle. Total RNA from milk fat samples collected at the lactogenesis (LAC, day1 [D1] and D7), galactopoiesis (GAL, D30, D70, D130, D170 and D230) and involution (INV, D290 and when milk production dropped to 5 kg/day) stages from 9 cows was used for miRNA sequencing. A total of 475 known and 238 novel miRNAs were identified. Fifteen abundantly expressed miRNAs across lactation stages play regulatory roles in basic metabolic, cellular and immunological functions. About 344, 366 and 209 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (DE) between GAL and LAC, INV and GAL, and INV and LAC stages, respectively. MiR-29b/miR-363 and miR-874/miR-6254 are important mediators for transition signals from LAC to GAL and from GAL to INV, respectively. Moreover, 58 miRNAs were dynamically DE in all lactation stages and 19 miRNAs were significantly time-dependently DE throughout lactation. Relevant signalling pathways for transition between lactation stages are involved in apoptosis (PTEN and SAPK/JNK), intracellular signalling (protein kinase A, TGF-β and ERK5), cell cycle regulation (STAT3), cytokines, hormones and growth factors (prolactin, growth hormone and glucocorticoid receptor). Overall, our data suggest diverse, temporal and physiological signal-dependent regulatory and mediator functions for miRNAs during lactation. PMID:28317898

  7. Studies of pituitary function in lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, B J; Kearins, R D; Starr, B G

    1977-03-01

    The release of LH from the pituitary of lactating ewes was studied. In Exp. 1, ewes were injected with 50 microng oestradiol benzoate (OB), 2-0 mg testosterone propionate (TP) or oil only (control) on days 5, 10, or 20 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples obtained 20-38 h after treatment, and the ovulations were recorded. The number of ewes in which an LH release was detected, and the amount released, declined between Day 5 and 20 after OB treatment but increased after TP treatment. The releases of LH were not always accompanied by ovulation and the incidence of ovulation was higher in ewes treated with TP. In Exp. 2, lactating ewes were injected with 1 or 5 (at 2-h intervals) doses of 50 microng Gn-RH, on Days 12 or 25 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples collected every 2 h for 10 h and every 3 h for a further 70 h. Release of LH occurred in all ewes, the amount being greater in ewes receiving multiple injections and in ewes treated on Day 25. The incidence of ovulation was higher after treatment on Day 25. Multiple injections of Gn-RH appeared to reduce the incidence of abnormal corpora lutea.

  8. ROLE OF LACTATION IN FAMILY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of metoprolol during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Rachel J; Eyal, Sara; Easterling, Thomas R; Caritis, Steve N; Venkataraman, Raman; Hankins, Gary; Rytting, Erik; Thummel, Kenneth; Kelly, Edward J; Risler, Linda; Phillips, Brian; Honaker, Matthew T; Shen, Danny D; Hebert, Mary F

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metoprolol during pregnancy and lactation. Serial plasma, urine, and breast milk concentrations of metoprolol and its metabolite, α-hydroxymetoprolol, were measured over 1 dosing interval in women treated with metoprolol (25-750 mg/day) during early pregnancy (n = 4), mid-pregnancy (n = 14), and late pregnancy (n = 15), as well as postpartum (n = 9) with (n = 4) and without (n = 5) lactation. Subjects were genotyped for CYP2D6 loss-of-function allelic variants. Using paired analysis, mean metoprolol apparent oral clearance was significantly higher in mid-pregnancy (361 ± 223 L/h, n = 5, P pregnancy (568 ± 273 L/h, n = 8, P pregnancy (P pregnancy-induced changes in metoprolol pharmacokinetics, if inadequate clinical responses are encountered, clinicians who prescribe metoprolol during pregnancy should be prepared to make aggressive changes in dosage (dose and frequency) or consider using an alternate beta-blocker.

  10. Clinical significance of lactate in acute cardiac patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiara; Lazzeri; Serafina; Valente; Marco; Chiostri; Gian; Franco; Gensini

    2015-01-01

    Lactate, as a metabolite of easy and quick assessment, has been studied over time in critically ill patients in order to evaluate its prognostic ability. The present review is focused on the prognostic role of lactate levels in acute cardiac patients(that is with acute coronary syndrome, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, non including post cardiac surgery patients). In patients with STelevation myocardial infarction treated with mechanical revascularization, hyperlactatemia identified a subset of patients at higher risk for early death and in-hospital complications, being strictly related mainly to hemodynamic derangement. The prognostic impact of hyperlactatemia on mortality has been documented in patients with cardiogenic shock and in those with cardiac arrest even if there is no cut-off value of lactate to be associated with worse outcome or to guide resuscitation or hemodynamic management. Therapeutic hypothermia seems to affect per se lactate values which have been shown to progressively decrease during hypothermia. The mechanism(s) accounting for lactate levels during hypothemia seem to be multiple ranging from the metabolic effects of reduced temperatures to the hemodynamic effects of hypothermia(i.e., reduced need of vasopressor agents). Serial lactate measurements over time, or lactate clearance, have been reported to be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value also in acute cardiac patients. Despite differences in study design, timing of lactate measurements and type of acute cardiac conditions(i.e., cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, refractory cardiac arrest), available evidence strongly suggests that higher lactate levels can be observed on admission in non-survivors and that higher lactate clearance is associated with better outcome.

  11. Genomewide association analysis of sow lactation performance traits in lines of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkoot, D M; Young, J M; Rothschild, M F; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-06-01

    Lactation is an economically and biologically important phase in the life cycle of sows. Short generation intervals in nucleus herds and low heritability of traits associated with lactation along with challenges associated with collecting accurate lactation performance phenotypes emphasize the importance of using genomic tools to examine the underlying genetics of these traits. We report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) on traits associated with lactation and efficiency in 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase. A total of 862 farrowing records from 2 parities were analyzed using a Bayesian whole genome variable selection model (Bayes B) to locate 1-Mb regions that were most strongly associated with each trait. The GWAS was conducted separately for parity 1 and 2 records. Marker-based heritabilities ranged from 0.03 to 0.39 for parity 1 traits and from 0.06 to 0.40 for parity 2 traits. For all traits studied, around 90% of genetic variance came from a large number of genomic regions with small effects, whereas genomic regions with large effects were found to be different for the same trait measured in parity 1 and 2. The highest percentage of genetic variance explained by a 1-Mb window for each trait ranged from 0.4% for feed intake during lactation to 4.2% for back fat measured at farrowing in parity 1 sows and from 0.2% for lactation feed intake to 5.4% for protein mass loss during lactation in parity 2 sows. A total of thirteen 1-Mb nonoverlapping windows were found to explain more than 1.5% of genetic variance for either a single trait or across multiple traits. These 1-Mb windows were on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18. The major positional candidate genes within 1 Mb upstream and downstream of these windows were , (SSC2), (SSC6) (SSC7), (SSC8), (SSC11), (SSC14), (SSC17). Further validation studies on larger populations are required to validate these findings and

  12. Phylogenetic characterization of bovine parainfluenza 3 from contaminated cell cultures and field isolates from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Almeida Vaucher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic fragments of the HN and L genes from Brazilian bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (bPIV-3 isolated as contaminants from cell cultures and clinical specimens were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, sequenced using specific degenerate primers and analyzed by phylogenetic comparison with reference strains of bPI3V. The Brazilian isolates revealed a high degree of genomic when compared to SF4/32 prototype strain, within the recently proposed genotype A of bPIV-3.

  13. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  14. Cancer genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Bodil; Guldberg, Per; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner

    2007-01-01

    Almost all cells in the human body contain a complete copy of the genome with an estimated number of 25,000 genes. The sequences of these genes make up about three percent of the genome and comprise the inherited set of genetic information. The genome also contains information that determines whe...

  15. Kinetics of lactate and pyruvate transport in cultured rat myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Grumbckow, Lena; Elsner, Peter; Hellsten, Ylva;

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle transport of lactate and pyruvate was studied in primary cultures of rat myotubes, applying the pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator 2', 7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. The initial rate of decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) upon lactate or pyruvate incubation was used...

  16. Evidence for facilitated lactate uptake in lizard skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, E R; Gleeson, T T

    2001-12-01

    To understand more fully lactate metabolism in reptilian muscle, lactate uptake in lizard skeletal muscle was measured and its similarities to the monocarboxylate transport system found in mammals were examined. At 2 min, uptake rates of 15 mmol l(-1) lactate into red iliofibularis (rIF) were 2.4- and 2.2-fold greater than white iliofibularis (wIF) and mouse soleus, respectively. alpha-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (15 mmol l(-1)) caused little inhibition of uptake in wIF but caused a 42-54 % reduction in the uptake rate of lactate into rIF, suggesting that much of the lactate uptake by rIF is via protein-mediated transport. N-ethymaleimide (ETH) (10 mmol l(-1)) also caused a reduction in the rate of uptake, but measurements of adenylate and phosphocreatine concentrations show that ETH had serious effects on rIF and wIF and may not be appropriate for transport inhibition studies in reptiles. The higher net uptake rate by rIF than by wIF agrees with the fact that rIF shows much higher rates of lactate utilization and incorporation into glycogen than wIF. This study also suggests that lactate uptake by reptilian muscle is similar to that by mammalian muscle and that, evolutionarily, this transport system may be relatively conserved even in animals with very different patterns of lactate metabolism.

  17. Early Embryo Survival and Development in Sows with Lactational Ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Soede, N.M.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    During lactation, daily separation of sow and piglets, intermittent suckling (IS), can induce lactational oestrus and ovulation. This study examined effects of IS on subsequent early embryo survival and development. Multiparous Topigs40 sows were separated from their piglets for either 12 consecutiv

  18. Cumulative lactate and hospital mortality in ICU patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; Brander, Lukas; Jansen, Sebastiaan P. A.; Rommes, Johannes H.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both hyperlactatemia and persistence of hyperlactatemia have been associated with bad outcome. We compared lactate and lactate-derived variables in outcome prediction. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Case records from 2,251 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients admit

  19. Comparison of breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broka Līga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although benefits of breast-feeding have been known for a long time and breast milk is considered as ideal nutrition for infants, the composition of breast milk is still being studied, since breast milk differs among mothers and populations, as well as during different times of lactation. Further, no study has been performed among lactating women in Latvia during recent years. The objective of the study was to determine the breast milk composition and influencing factors among lactating women in Latvia in different lactation periods, as well as to compare the results with data from other countries. Fifty breast milk samples were obtained from 44 mothers (on the 5th-7th and 11th-28th day of lactation, whose neonates were treated in the Neonatal Care Unit, Children’s Clinical University Hospital, Rīga. Milk analysis (pH, density, protein, fat, and lactose concentration was performed in the Latvia University of Agriculture. Breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia on the 5th-7th lactation day more resembled transitional milk containing a higher amount of protein and a lower amount of fat. The composition of the studied milk samples on the 11th-28th lactation day was comparable to data from other countries. Concentration of lactose was correlated with neonatal weight and not gestational age.

  20. Lactic acid and Lactates in Health and wellness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Gertjan; Schreurs, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  1. Lactate to creatinine ratio in amniotic fluid : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Helen L.; Pistorius, Lourens; Voorbij, Hieronymus A. M.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of amniotic fluid (AF) lactate concentration in complicated pregnancies may provide information on the extent of fetal acidemia. However, normalisation for AF volume may be necessary by calculating the lactate: creatinine (L: C) ratio. We measured these AF parameters and compared them to

  2. 0.3 MM Diameter Flexible Amperometric Lactate Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-26

    also the oxidation of the FADH 2 by 02, whereby H202 is formed. LOX-FAD + Lactate -, Pvruvate + LOX-FADH2 (1) Amperometric lactate sensors have been...tile reduced forms of a diffusional mediator, such :is 0- H-,O, or Fc-/Fc (where Fc is a ferrocene derivativei. 5 -10 FAD/ FADH - centers of LOX were also

  3. Bovine milk antibodies for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S

    2000-11-01

    The immunoglobulins of bovine colostrum provide the major antimicrobial protection against microbial infections and confer a passive immunity to the newborn calf until its own immune system matures. The concentration in colostrum of specific antibodies against pathogens can be raised by immunising cows with these pathogens or their antigens. Immune milk products are preparations made of such hyperimmune colostrum or antibodies enriched from it. These preparations can be used to give effective specific protection against different enteric diseases in calves and suckling pigs. Colostral immunoglobulin supplements designed for farm animals are commercially available in many countries. Also, some immune milk products containing specific antibodies against certain pathogens have been launched on the market. A number of clinical studies are currently in progress to evaluate the efficacy of immune milks in the prevention and treatment of various human infections, including those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bovine colostrum-based immune milk products have proven effective in prophylaxis against various infectious diseases in humans. Good results have been obtained with products targeted against rotavirus, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Streptococcus mutans, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori. Some successful attempts have been made to use immune milk in balancing gastrointestinal microbial flora. Immune milk products are promising examples of health-promoting functional foods, or nutraceuticals. This review summarises the recent progress in the development of these products and evaluates their potential as dietary supplements and in clinical nutrition.

  4. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  5. Bovine Colostrum Supplementation During Running Training Increases Intestinal Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant D. Brinkworth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 ± 4.7 yr; mean ± SD completed eight weeks of running three times per week for 45 minutes at their lactate threshold while consuming 60 g/day of BC, whey protein (WP or control (CON. Intestinal permeability was assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by measuring the ratio of urinary lactulose (L and rhamnose (R excretion. After eight weeks the L/R ratio increased significantly more in volunteers consuming BC (251 ± 140% compared with WP (21 ± 35%, P < 0.05 and CON (−7 ± 13%, P < 0.02. The increase in intestinal permeability with BC may have been due to BC inducing greater leakiness of tight junctions between enterocytes or by increasing macromolecular transport as it does in neonatal gut. Further research should investigate the potential for BC to increase intestinal macromolecular transport in adults.

  6. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential.

  7. Repertoire of bovine miRNA and miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs expressed upon viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A Glazov

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA and other types of small regulatory RNAs play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Several distinct classes of small regulatory RNAs have been discovered in recent years. To extend the repertoire of small RNAs characterized in mammals and to examine relationship between host miRNA expression and viral infection we used Illumina's ultrahigh throughput sequencing approach. We sequenced three small RNA libraries prepared from cell line derived from the adult bovine kidney under normal conditions and upon infection of the cell line with Bovine herpesvirus 1. We used a bioinformatics approach to distinguish authentic mature miRNA sequences from other classes of small RNAs and short RNA fragments represented in the sequencing data. Using this approach we detected 219 out of 356 known bovine miRNAs and 115 respective miRNA* sequences. In addition we identified five new bovine orthologs of known mammalian miRNAs and discovered 268 new cow miRNAs many of which are not identifiable in other mammalian genomes and thus might be specific to the ruminant lineage. In addition we found seven new bovine mirtron candidates. We also discovered 10 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA loci that give rise to small RNA with possible miRNA-like function. Results presented in this study extend our knowledge of the biology and evolution of small regulatory RNAs in mammals and illuminate mechanisms of small RNA biogenesis and function. New miRNA sequences and the original sequencing data have been submitted to miRNA repository (miRBase and NCBI GEO archive respectively. We envisage that these resources will facilitate functional annotation of the bovine genome and promote further functional and comparative genomics studies of small regulatory RNA in mammals.

  8. Induction of lactational estrus in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    The longer lactation period required in organic piglet producing herds reduces the potential number of produced litters per sow per year compared with that of conventional production. Induction and use of lactational estrus may be a way to increase the productivity in organic production. However...... in an organic outdoor system based on ad libitum feeding, individual housing until Day 35 in lactation, followed by grouping and introduction of a boar and weaning of piglets after 8 wk. Five groups with four sows ((Danish Yorkshire × Danish Landrace) × Danish Duroc) in each were observed, and rank...... study indicate that it is possible to combine lactational estrus and batch farrowing procedures to increase the number of weaned piglets per year per sow in organic piglet production based on 8 wk of lactation or more....

  9. Nutritional regulation of mammary cell apoptosis in lactating ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Colitti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in understanding the control of the mammary cell population now offer new insights to understand the decline in milk yield of dairy animals, which has long been a biological conundrum for the mammary biologists. Evidence indicates that change in mammary cell number is the result of an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell removal and that this is a principal cause of declining production (Stefanon et al., 2001. Further, it suggests that the persistency of lactation, the rate of decline in milk yield with stage of lactation, is strongly influenced by the rate of cell death by apoptosis in the lactating gland (Wilde et al., 1997. The most significant advance in understanding the cell biology underpinning persistency of lactation has come from the demonstration that cell loss during lactation occurs by apoptosis. Several researches obtained in cell cultures in mouse and rat have indicated that gene expression and cellular activities are modulated by the reactive oxygen species..........

  10. LACTATE PROFILE DURING GRECO-ROMAN WRESTLING MATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Uljevic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare lactate profile of two groups of Greco-Roman wrestlers with different competences and training experience. Study was conducted on 10 wrestles that were members of Croatian national team and 10 wrestlers that were members of Wrestling club Split. Lactate samples were collected at four intervals during control fights that were held according to international wrestling rules of World wrestling federation FILA. Values of lactate increased as competition progressed, and they were highest at the end of the match for both groups of wrestlers. According to this study there were no significant differences in lactate between two groups at the end of the match, while significant differences were noted during the match. The information about lactate profile presented in this study can be used by coaches and wrestlers to develop condition programs

  11. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  12. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-02-15

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids.

  13. Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele; Fitzpatrick, Julie;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactational mastitis is a painful, debilitating condition that if inappropriately managed, may lead women to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. The aim of this paper is to report the incidence of mastitis in the first six months postpartum in a Scottish population, its impact...... questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice...... they received from health professionals. RESULTS: In total, 74 women (18%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis. More than one half of initial episodes (53%) occurred within the first four weeks postpartum. One in ten women (6/57) were inappropriately advised to either stop breastfeeding from...

  14. Managing Migraine During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Turner, Dana P; Lee, Michelle; Bishop, Laura; Strauss, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    While over half of women with migraine report improvement during pregnancy, having a history of migraine may increase the chance of negative health outcomes. The state of pregnancy increases the risk of several dangerous secondary headache disorders, especially those associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and providers need to know the red flags to diagnose and treat emergently. Non-pharmacological migraine treatments can be instituted in advance of pregnancy as many are considered the safest options during pregnancy, but understanding the safety of medications and dietary supplements ensures appropriate care for the refractory migraine patient. New controversy exists over the safety of several historically routine and safe migraine treatment options in pregnancy, such as magnesium, acetaminophen, ondansetron, and butalbital. While it is not clear if breastfeeding decreases the postpartum recurrence of migraine, understanding safe treatment options during lactation can allow women to continue breastfeeding while achieving migraine relief.

  15. [Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlen, M; Lazarescu, A D; Hinz, C; Boncu, B; Schmidt, N; Pfeifer, M; Schwarz-Eywill, M; Pollähne, W; Minne, H W

    2017-01-13

    Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis, which occurs in the last trimester or postpartum. So far 100 cases have been published. The leading symptoms are severe low back pain or less frequently hip pain. Many patients develop postpartum depression due to inability to care for the baby and vertebral fractures. The therapeutic decision has to be made individually but teriparatid and bisphosphonates seem to be the best option. We report the clinical course (16 years) of a 37-year-old patient with PLO, who suffered 6 vertebral fractures. There were severe physical limitations and mental problems caused by the disease. The patient was treated by multimodal therapy including physiotherapy and psychotherapy and bisphosphonates were given. The time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 5 months. No further fractures occurred in the following 16 years. The physical and mental condition significantly improved.

  16. IBD medications during pregnancy and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Maxwell, Cynthia; Hendel, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    IBD often affects patients during their peak reproductive years. Several drugs are available for the treatment of IBD and new drugs are continuously in the pipeline. As long-term administration of medications is often necessary, the safety of drug therapy during pregnancy and breast-feeding needs...... to be considered in daily clinical practice. The aim of this Review is to summarize the latest information concerning the safety of medications used to treat IBD during pregnancy and lactation, as well as their effect on fertility. Although only thalidomide and methotrexate are absolutely contraindicated during...... pregnancy and breast-feeding, alternatives to ciprofloxacin, natalizumab and sodium phosphate should also be considered for pregnant women. Breast-feeding is also discouraged while on treatment with ciclosporin, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin. However, therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations...

  17. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav;

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  18. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav;

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM...

  19. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  20. [Lactate acidosis: a rare or common disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubát, K

    1995-05-01

    The authors present a survey of 50 documented cases of metabolic lactic acidosis (MLAC) recorded in the course of 5 years. To this study cases of severe hyperlactataemia (determined minimum lactate level of concentration 4 mmol/l) have been included. The sample consists of patients hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine Litomĕrice (hinterland of about 110,000 inhabitants). Liver involvement in 5 cases, cardiogenous shock in 6 cases, sepsis in 2 cases were the cause of lactic acidosis. The administration of biguanids (Adebit, Silubin R, Diformin) seems to be the probable cause in 21 cases, other cases were triggered by rarer causes. Dehydratation (16), vomiting (9), diarrhoea (11) dominate often in the clinical picture. The patients were admitted to the hospital often unconscious, with diagnose of vasculo-cerebral incidence, transitory ischaemic incidence... Quit rarely the typical Kussmaul's respiratory (only 9 cases) was recorded. Hyperlactatemia was usually associated with decrease of blood pH (theta = 7.12, pH less than 7.35 was recorded in 49 cases, pH less than 6.8 in 5 cases) and with decrease of BE value (= Ccoase, theta = -15.3 mmol/l). When the hypochloremia and/or hypocapnia was simultaneously more severe, only in these cases the value of pH was within physiological limits or even increased (10). The conclusions show that MLAC is not a rare disorder, however, its occurrence is depended rather on the clinician's capacity to diagnose this disorder and to indicate lactate examination. Usual signs of acidosis (Kussmaul's respiratory, decrease of pH, decrease of BE) can be missing in many cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of time of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallyne Bolognini Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of lactation time. Methods: We followed 51 lactating adolescents, between the 6th and 14th weeks postpartum (WPP. The determination of fat, protein and lactose in milk were conducted, respectively, by the methods of Lucas, Lowry and Perry & Doan. Micronutrients were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data was presented by the mean and standard error. ANOVA with repeated measures was used and Tukey as post test. It was accepted a significance level of 5%. Results: There was a significant reduction (P<0.05 in protein content during the postpartum weeks studied (6th: 16.6 ± 1.1; 10th: 13.7 ± 1.0; 14th WPP: 12.3 ± 1.1 g/day. The lactose (6th: 60.2 ± 1.9; 10th: 60.4 ± 2.6; 14th WPP: 65.1 ± 4.0 g/day and fat (6th: 41.6 ± 3.3; 10th: 36.2 ± 3.4; 14th WPP: 31.5 ± 9.0 g/day concentration remained unaffected. The zinc concentration in the breast milk was lower than that is commonly found in literature (mean 1.16 mg/day. The copper, iron, calcium and phosphorus concentration was sufficient to meet the needs of the infants between 0 and 6 months old. Conclusion: The lactation period did not influence the concentration of micronutrients, lactose and lipids, but there is a reduction on protein of the breast milk. In spite of the reducing concentration of protein, it is sufficient to meet the needs of infants from 0 to 6 months old.

  2. Lactate, Glucose and Oxygen Uptake in Human Brain During Recovery from Maximal Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojiro, I.; Schmalbruch, I.K.; Quistorff, B.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake......Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake...

  3. Portable lactate analyzer for measuring lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma ? method-comparison evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma lactate levels can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders in HIV infected individuals. Objective: To determine whether a portable analyzer is valid for measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma lactate levels in HIV infected individuals. Method: CSF and plasma were collected from 178 subjects. Samples tested by the Accutrend® portable analyzer were compared to those tested by a reference device (SYNCHRON LX® 20. Results: The portable analyzer had in plasma sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity 0.87. For CSF the specificity was 0.95; the sensitivity 0.33; the negative predictive value was 95% and the positive predictive value 33%. Conclusions: These findings support the validity of the portable analyzer in measuring lactate concentrations in CSF that fall within the normal range. The relatively poor positive predictive value indicates that a result above the reference range may represent a “false positive test”, and should be confirmed by the reference device before concluding abnormality.

  4. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation......, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans....

  5. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  6. Application of combined SMRT and long-read pyrosequencing to produce reference genome sequences of bacteria associated with respiratory disease outbreaks in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of comparing complete genomes for elucidating mechanisms of virulence in pathogenic organisms has been demonstrated recently in foodborne and waterborne human disease outbreaks. We built upon this concept to investigate virulence mechanisms in bovine respiratory disease complex (B...

  7. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  8. Pentose phosphate pathway activity: effect on in vitro maturation and oxidative status of bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnisky, Cynthia; Dalvit, Gabriel C; Thompson, Jeremy G; Cetica, Pablo D

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and oxidative and mitochondrial activity in bovine oocytes was evaluated with the aim of analysing the impact of two inhibitors (NADPH and 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN)) and a stimulator (NADP) of the key enzymes of the PPP on the maturation rate, oxidative and mitochondrial activity and the mitochondrial distribution in oocytes. The proportion of COCs with measurable PPP activity (assessed using brilliant cresyl blue staining), glucose uptake, lactate production and meiotic maturation rate diminished when 6-AN (0.1, 1, 5 and 10mM for 22h) was added to the maturation medium (P<0.05). The addition of NADPH did not modify glucose uptake or lactate production, but reduced PPP activity in COCs and meiotic maturation rates (P<0.05). The presence of NADP (0.0125, 0.125, 1.25 and 12.5mM for 22h of culture) in the maturation medium had no effect on PPP activity in COCs, glucose uptake, lactate production and meiotic maturation rate. However, in the absence of gonadotropin supplementation, NADP stimulated both glucose uptake and lactate production at 12.5mM (the highest concentration tested; P<0.05). NADP did not modify cleavage rate, but decreased blastocyst production (P<0.05). During IVM, oocyte oxidative and mitochondrial activity was observed to increase at 15 and 22h maturation, which was also related to progressive mitochondrial migration. Inhibiting the PPP with 6-AN or NADPH led to reduced oxidative and mitochondrial activity compared with the respective control groups and inhibition of mitochondrial migration (P<0.05). Stimulation of the PPP with NADP increased oxidative and mitochondrial activity at 9h maturation (P<0.05) and delayed mitochondrial migration. The present study shows the significance of altering PPP activity during bovine oocyte IVM, revealing that there is a link between the activity of the PPP and the oxidative status of the oocyte.

  9. The bovine chemokine receptors and their mRNA abundance in mononuclear phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley George

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chemokine and chemokine receptor families play critical roles in both the healthy and diseased organism mediating the migration of cells. The chemokine system is complex in that multiple chemokines can bind to one chemokine receptor and vice versa. Although chemokine receptors have been well characterised in humans, the chemokine receptor repertoire of cattle is not well characterised and many sequences are yet to be experimentally validated. Results We have identified and sequenced bovine homologs to all identified functional human chemokine receptors. The bovine chemokine receptors show high levels of similarity to their human counterparts and similar genome arrangements. We have also characterised an additional bovine chemokine receptor, not present in the available genome sequence of humans or the more closely related pigs or horses. This receptor shows the highest level of similarity to CCR1 but shows significant differences in regions of the protein that are likely to be involved in ligand binding and signalling. We have also examined the mRNA abundance levels of all identified bovine chemokine receptors in mononuclear phagocytic cells. Considerable differences were observed in the mRNA abundance levels of the receptors, and interestingly the identified novel chemokine receptor showed differing levels of mRNA abundance to its closest homolog CCR1. The chemokine receptor repertoire was shown to differ between monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. This may reflect the differing roles of these cells in the immune response and may have functional consequences for the trafficking of these cells in vivo. Conclusions In summary, we have provided the first characterisation of the complete bovine chemokine receptor gene repertoire including a gene that is potentially unique to cattle. Further study of this receptor and its ligands may reveal a specific role of this receptor in cattle. The availability of the bovine

  10. Gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium in mice during gestation and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Whelton, B.D.; Peterson, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect on cadmium retention of continuous exposure to drinking water containing low levels of cadmium during pregnancy and lactation was studied in mice. Female mice were provided drinking water ad libitum containing /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ (0.03 ..mu..Ci /sup 109/Cd/ml, 0.11 ppb total cadmium) throughout either gestation, lactation, or a combined period of pregnancy and lactation. Nonpregnant control mice were exposed to the same cadmium solution for similar time periods. Dams in all three experimental groups retained two to three times cadmium (expressed as percentage of ingested dose) than did nonpregnant controls. The /sup 109/Cd contents of liver, kidney, mammary tissue, and duodenum increased strikingly in all three groups. Increases in kidney and mammary tissue were particularly apparent during lactation, with increases of fivefold for kidney and at least ninefold for mammary tissue, compared to levels in nonpregnant controls. Increases in /sup 109/Cd retention by the duodenum were fivefold during gestation and three- to fourfold during lactation. The kidneys of dams exposed during lactation retained 53% of the whole body /sup 109/Cd, while kidneys of nonpregnant controls retained only 27%. Results indicate that pregnant and lactating mice absorb and subsequently retain substantially more cadmium from their diets than do nonpregnant mice.

  11. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of bovine UQCC and its association with body measurement traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Zhao, Shuanping

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex chaperone (UQCC) involved in the development and maintenance of bone and cartilage is an important candidate gene for body measurement traits selection through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The expression of UQCC is upregulated in many human and animal ...... measurement traits in bovine reproduction and breeding, and provide data for establishing of an animal model using cattle to study big animal body type....... models of height as well as other stature indexes. We have cloned the cDNA sequence coding UQCC gene in bovine. Genomic structural analysis indicated that bovine UQCC shares a high similarity with human UQCC. Furthermore, Real-Time PCR analysis show that the expression of bovine UQCC is remarkably...... effects on the BL (p = 0.0047) and CD (p = 0.0454. Regarding association analysis of combination of the two SNPs, there are significant effects on the BL (p = 0.0215), CD (p = 0.0282) and PBW (p = 0.0329) in the total population. The results suggest that the UQCC gene is a candidate gene of body...

  12. The bovine Mx1 gene: characterization of the gene structure, alternative splicing, and promoter region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takatoshi; Oshima, Kazunaga; Watanabe, Hiroko; Komatsu, Masanori

    2003-12-01

    The Mx gene encodes an antiviral protein and is induced by type 1 interferons (IFNs). In this study, a new bovine Mx gene (designated Mx1B) was isolated from the endometrial cDNA library of the early pregnant cow. Although the Mx1B cDNA contained a single open reading frame (ORF) the same as the known Mx1, the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 5' coding region of Mx1B were rather different from the corresponding regions of Mx1. Genomic structure analysis revealed that bovine Mx1B was an alternative splicing variant of Mx1 and had transcription regulatory sequences in the upstream region. RT-PCR and its sequencing identified another Mx1 splicing variant and demonstrated that these bovine Mx1 splicing variants were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, it was found that all the bovine breeds investigated had identical splice sites of Mx1 and Mx1B. It is speculated that cattle have at least two functional Mx isoforms that might provide strong natural resistance to specific viruses.

  13. Emergence of new genotype and diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites from bovines in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Neena; Bhandari, Vasundhra; Reddy, D Peddi; Sharma, Paresh

    2015-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a serious threat to livestock worldwide. Uncertainty around species prevalence, antigenic diversity and genotypes of strains make it difficult to assess the impact of this parasite and to provide necessary treatment. We aimed to characterize genotypic diversity, phylogeny and prevalence of Theileria orientalis parasites from the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India by collecting bovine blood samples from the major districts of the two states. Bioinformatic analysis identified antigenic diversity among the prevalent parasite strains using major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. Our study revealed a prevalence rate of 4.8% (n=41/862) of T. orientalis parasites in bovine animals and a new genotype of T. orientalis parasite which was not previously reported in India. The emergence of these new genotypes could be an explanation for the frequent outbreaks of bovine theileriosis. Further, whole genome sequencing of T. orientalis strains will help to elucidate the genetic factors relevant for transmissibility and virulence as well as vaccine and new drug development.

  14. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstam Erika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  15. Induced lactation: a study of 37 non-puerperal mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemba, K

    1994-08-01

    Of a series of 37 non-puerperal women aged between 19 and 55 years who requested bottle feeding, 27 were known to have completed a lactation induction programme and 24 (89 per cent) of these women were known to be successfully breast feeding well nourished children. All 11 women who had never previously lactated were successful. Of the three mothers in whom induction was unsuccessful, two obtained a bottle from other sources and both their children were malnourished. This study indicates that given a high degree of motivation combined with medication, support, and encouragement, lactation induction is likely to be highly successful and may thus be an important factor in child survival.

  16. Short communication: localization and expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in different subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues of early-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, S; Sacré, C; Friedauer, K; Dänicke, S; Sauerwein, H

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to examine the mRNA abundance of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and to localize the MCP-1 protein in different subcutaneous (s.c.) and visceral (v.c.) fat depots in high-yielding dairy cows. Early-lactating German Holstein cows (n=25) were divided into a control (CON) and a conjugated linoleic acids (CLA)-supplemented group to investigate potential effects of dietary CLA treatment on MCP-1. The MCP-1 was localized in different s.c. and v.c. adipose tissue (AT) by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mRNA abundance was investigated using quantitative PCR. Albeit the infiltration of immune cells into bovine AT has been demonstrated to be only marginal, both MCP-1 protein and mRNA could be detected in bovine AT depots. The MCP-1 protein was localized both in the cytoplasm of adipocytes and in the cytoplasm of cells from the stromal vascular fraction; however, the number of MCP-1-positive cells was low. The mRNA abundances of MCP-1 were higher in v.c. compared with s.c. AT. Moreover, neither mRNA abundance nor protein expression of MCP-1 was seriously influenced by CLA supplementation of early-lactating dairy cows.

  17. Homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining repair pathways in bovine embryos with different developmental competence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrique Barreta, Marcos [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario de Curitibanos, Curitibanos, SC (Brazil); Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Reproducao Animal-BioRep, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garziera Gasperin, Bernardo; Braga Rissi, Vitor; Cesaro, Matheus Pedrotti de [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Reproducao Animal-BioRep, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Ferreira, Rogerio [Centro de Educacao Superior do Oeste-Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Chapeco, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, Joao Francisco de; Goncalves, Paulo Bayard Dias [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Reproducao Animal-BioRep, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bordignon, Vilceu, E-mail: vilceu.bordignon@mcgill.ca [Department of Animal Science, McGill University, Ste-Anne-De-Bellevue, QC (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the expression of genes controlling homologous recombination (HR), and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA-repair pathways in bovine embryos of different developmental potential. It also evaluated whether bovine embryos can respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced with ultraviolet irradiation by regulating expression of genes involved in HR and NHEJ repair pathways. Embryos with high, intermediate or low developmental competence were selected based on the cleavage time after in vitro insemination and were removed from in vitro culture before (36 h), during (72 h) and after (96 h) the expected period of embryonic genome activation. All studied genes were expressed before, during and after the genome activation period regardless the developmental competence of the embryos. Higher mRNA expression of 53BP1 and RAD52 was found before genome activation in embryos with low developmental competence. Expression of 53BP1, RAD51 and KU70 was downregulated at 72 h and upregulated at 168 h post-insemination in response to DSBs induced by ultraviolet irradiation. In conclusion, important genes controlling HR and NHEJ DNA-repair pathways are expressed in bovine embryos, however genes participating in these pathways are only regulated after the period of embryo genome activation in response to ultraviolet-induced DSBs.

  18. Genome sequence of Halorhabdus tiamatea, the first archaeon isolated from a deep-sea anoxic brine lake.

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre

    2011-09-01

    We present the draft genome of Halorhabdus tiamatea, the first member of the Archaea ever isolated from a deep-sea anoxic brine. Genome comparison with Halorhabdus utahensis revealed some striking differences, including a marked increase in genes associated with transmembrane transport and putative genes for a trehalose synthase and a lactate dehydrogenase.

  19. Activation of immune cells in bovine mammary gland secretions by zymosan treated bovine serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis, caused by bacterial infection of the mammary gland, is a major disease of dairy cattle. The greatest risks of intramammary infection occur at the end of lactation and at the initiation of the next lactation when the cow calves. Treating serum with zymosan (yeast cell wall preparation) ca...

  20. Effect of the Ketone Body Beta-Hydroxybutyrate on the Innate Defense Capability of Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hillreiner

    Full Text Available Negative energy balance and ketosis are thought to cause impaired immune function and to increase the risk of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of elevated levels of the predominant ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate on the innate defense capability of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC challenged with the mastitis pathogen Escherichia coli (E. coli. Therefore, pbMEC of healthy dairy cows in mid- lactation were isolated from milk and challenged in culture with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli. pbMEC stimulated with E. coli for 6 h or 30 h showed an up-regulation of several innate immune genes, whereas co-stimulation of pbMEC with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli resulted in the down-regulation of CCL2, SAA3, LF and C3 gene expression compared to the challenge with solely the bacterial stimulus. These results indicated that increased BHBA concentrations may be partially responsible for the higher mastitis susceptibility of dairy cows in early lactation. Elevated levels of BHBA in blood and milk during negative energy balance and ketosis are likely to impair innate immune function in the bovine mammary gland by attenuating the expression of a broad range of innate immune genes.

  1. Psychological stress and breast diseases during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Dakn, Michael; Schäfer-Graf, Ute; Wöckel, Achim

    2009-11-01

    Termination of breastfeeding in the first six months after childbirth is frequently caused by breastfeeding-related diseases and problems of the breast such as pain, milk stasis or mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between psychological stress and the occurrence of breastfeeding associated disorders. In a prospective cohort study of 379 primiparous women without breast anomalies or diseases, psychometric data were collected from participants between the confirmation of the pregnancy and one year post-partum. Primarily, standardised questionnaires (PSQ, WHO QoL and F-SOZU K22) were used for data analysis while additional data was gathered in follow-up interviews. The subgroup analysis showed a significant relationship between stress and breastfeeding-related diseases. Women with pain, cracked nipples, milk stasis or mastitis reported a higher stress level than women without breast problems. Additionally, the majority of women with breast problems and increased psychological stress gave up breastfeeding sooner and, in contrast to the group without problems, indicated significantly more frequently that the milk quantity was insufficient. Breast diseases during lactation are associated with higher levels of psychological stress. Further studies are needed to examine the causes of the higher stress in order to develop strategies to prolong breastfeeding duration.

  2. [Lactation after breast plastic surgery: literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhassira, J; Haddad, K; Burin des Roziers, B; Achouche, J; Cartier, S

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of lactation is a rare complication of breast plastic surgery. During the course of his practice, the plastic surgeon will probably encounter this complication. The goal of this article is to carry out a literature review of all published galactorrhea and/or galactocele cases following a breast-reduction or a breast-augmentation, representing a total of 34 cases reported in 21 articles. The physiopathology of this complication is linked to an inappropriate secretion of prolactin in a surgical context. The factors favoring this complication would be the number of pregnancies, a history of recent and extensive nursing, and the intake of certain medicines such as an oestro-progestative pill. The main symptom of this complication is the occurrence of a uni- or bilateral galactorrhea, on average 12.6 days after the surgery. The main differential diagnosis is a postoperative infection. The explorations presented a hyperprolactinemia in 69% of cases. No biological inflammatory syndrome was reported. A fluid collection evoking a galactocele was visible on the ultrasound in 65% of cases. One case of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma was reported. Depending on the case, the treatment varied from a simple surveillance to the association of a dopamine agonist, an antibiotic therapy, and a surgical revision. A diagnostic and therapeutic management strategy is proposed.

  3. Treatment of insufficient lactation is often not evidence-based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Paul Bryde; Bjerrum, Flemming; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast milk has many advantages over formula for infants in developed and developing countries alike. Despite intentions of breastfeeding, some women develop insufficient lactation. Treatment options traditionally include breastfeeding education and pharmacotherapy. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: An electronic questionnaire regarding treatment of insufficient lactation was sent to all obstetric departments (n = 21) and neonatal wards (n = 17) in Denmark. Three main questions were included which focused on: breastfeeding education for women, use of pharmacotherapy and availability of local...... guidelines. RESULTS: In all, 30 out of a total of 38 departments participated; and among those, 93% offered some form of breastfeeding education. 50% used either metoclopramide or syntocinon to promote lactation. None used domperidone. 73% had a local clinical guideline. 77% offered sessions with a lactation...

  4. Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUIDELINE Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women This is one of a series of statements discussing the ... text. This guide- line updates a previously issued guideline on this topic. 1 In preparing this guideline, ...

  5. Atraumatic femoral neck fracture secondary to prolonged lactation induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhammapal Sahebrao Bhamare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a case of atraumatic fracture neck femur secondary to 2 years of prolonged lactation. A 26-year-old lactating mother presented with pain in left hip from last 12 months. She was apparently alright before and during pregnancy. Plain radiograph showed a complete undisplaced fracture of femoral neck. Osteomalacia was diagnosed by radiological and serological investigations. The fracture was fixed using AO type cannulated cancellous screws. The fracture showed good clinical and radiological union at 3 months. Literature review shows that this is a first case of atraumatic fracture of neck femur due to prolonged lactational osteomalacia. It showed that even apparently healthy Indians are susceptible to osteomalacia, more so during pregnancy and lactation and can be presented as atraumatic fracture. Although considered relatively stable, a compression type incomplete fracture neck femur may progress to a complete fracture if not treated in time.

  6. Effect of methylxanthines on lactational performance of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A D; Grimble, R F

    1990-01-01

    Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are commonly consumed methylxanthines. There are conflicting reports that methylxanthines may adversely affect the outcome of pregnancy. The effects of methylxanthines on lactational performance were investigated by administration of pure alkaloids via drinking water to Wistar albino rats throughout pregnancy and lactation. Litter growth was used as an index of lactational performance in relation to maternal food and fluid intake, changes in weight, and lipid content of the carcass. Caffeine induced increased fluid intake (p less than 0.01). While theophylline produced no significant differences in litter growth, maternal weight and carcass fat during pregnancy/lactation compared with controls, caffeine and theobromine significantly enhanced litter growth (p less than 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). The enhancement in pup growth did not involve increases in maternal food intake or maternal lipid mobilization.

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee [Dnakook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Tae Hee [Cha Women' s Hospital of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    To evaluate ultrasonographic findings and usefulness in the diagnosis of breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period. The authors evaluated the ultrasonographic findings of 18 breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation retrospectively. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed with linear-array 5 MHz transducer (ATL). Final diagnoses were obtained by the excisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration and clinical follow-up. Total 18 cases of breast diseases were consisted of 8 cases of galactocele, 4 cases of fibroadenoma, 3 cases of axillary accessory breast, 2 cases of lactating adenoma, and 1 case of phylloides tumor. The ultrasonographic findings of the above breast diseases were valuable in the diagnosis and therapeutic planning. Ultrasonography is the initial and useful method of diagnosing breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period.

  8. Determination of cadmium in human milk during lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte-Loebbert, F.J. (Univ., Muenster, Ger.); Bohn, G.

    1977-01-01

    During lactation,, Cd-levels in human milk were determined by means of flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels in colostrum were some 50 to 65% higher than in transitional and mature milk.

  9. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  10. Gluconeogenesis and hepatic glycogenolysis during exercise at the lactate threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhoff, Chi-An W; Messonnier, Laurent A; Horning, Michael A; Fattor, Jill A; Carlson, Thomas J; Brooks, George A

    2013-02-01

    Because the maintenance of glycemia is essential during prolonged exercise, we examined the effects of endurance training, exercise intensity, and plasma lactate concentration ([lactate]) on gluconeogenesis (GNG) and hepatic glycogenolysis (GLY) in fasted men exercising at, and just below, the lactate threshold (LT), where GNG precursor lactate availability is high. Twelve healthy men (6 untrained, 6 trained) completed 60 min of constant-load exercise at power outputs corresponding to their individual LT. Trained subjects completed two additional 60-min sessions of constant-load exercise: one at 10% below the LT workload (LT-10%), and the other with a lactate clamp (LT-10%+LC) to match the [lactate] of the LT trial. Flux rates were determined by primed continuous infusion of [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose, [3-(13)C]lactate, and [(13)C]bicarbonate tracers during 90 min of rest and 60 min of cycling. Exercise at LT corresponded to 67.6 ± 1.3 and 74.8 ± 1.7% peak O(2) consumption in the untrained and trained subjects, respectively (P < 0.05). Relative exercise intensity was matched between the untrained group at LT and the trained group at LT-10%, and [lactate] during exercise was matched in the LT and LT-10%+LC trials via exogenous lactate infusion. Glucose kinetics (rate of appearance, rate of disposal, and metabolic clearance rate) were augmented with the lactate clamp. GNG was decreased in the trained subjects exercising at LT and LT-10% compared with the untrained subjects, but increasing [lactate] in the LT-10%+LC trial significantly increased GNG (4.4 ± 0.9 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) compared with its corresponding control (1.7 ± 0.4 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.05). Hepatic GLY was higher in the trained than untrained subjects, but not significantly different across conditions. We conclude that GNG plays an essential role in maintaining total glucose production during exercise in fasted men, regardless of training state. However, endurance training increases the ability to

  11. Use of cosmeceuticals during pregnancy and lactation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of topical or systemic herbs and herbal extracts (cosmeceuticals during pregnancy and lactation period has increased in the recent years. These cosmeceuticals are not only viewed as having clinical benefits but are also generally believed to be safe by users. A small part of thousands of plants and botanical ingredients has been investigated scientifically. The purpose of this review was to provide the safety information about the dermatologic cosmeceuticals which can be used during pregnancy and lactation period.

  12. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  13. Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Sakwinska, Olga; Moine, Déborah; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Rezzonico, Enea; Descombes, Patrick; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol wi...

  14. Effects of Pregnancy and Lactation on Iron Metabolism in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofen Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In female, inadequate iron supply is a highly prevalent problem that often leads to iron-deficiency anemia. This study aimed to understand the effects of pregnancy and lactation on iron metabolism. Rats with different days of gestation and lactation were used to determine the variations in iron stores and serum iron level and the changes in expression of iron metabolism-related proteins, including ferritin, ferroportin 1 (FPN1, ceruloplasmin (Cp, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, and the major iron-regulatory molecule—hepcidin. We found that iron stores decline dramatically at late-pregnancy period, and the low iron store status persists throughout the lactation period. The significantly increased FPN1 level in small intestine facilitates digestive iron absorption, which maintains the serum iron concentration at a near-normal level to meet the increase of iron requirements. Moreover, a significant decrease of hepcidin expression is observed during late-pregnancy and early-lactation stages, suggesting the important regulatory role that hepcidin plays in iron metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. These results are fundamental to the understanding of iron homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation and may provide experimental bases for future studies to identify key molecules expressed during these special periods that regulate the expression of hepcidin, to eventually improve the iron-deficiency status.

  15. Peripheral administration of lactate produces antidepressant-like effects

    KAUST Repository

    Carrard, A

    2016-10-18

    In addition to its role as metabolic substrate that can sustain neuronal function and viability, emerging evidence supports a role for l-lactate as an intercellular signaling molecule involved in synaptic plasticity. Clinical and basic research studies have shown that major depression and chronic stress are associated with alterations in structural and functional plasticity. These findings led us to investigate the role of l-lactate as a potential novel antidepressant. Here we show that peripheral administration of l-lactate produces antidepressant-like effects in different animal models of depression that respond to acute and chronic antidepressant treatment. The antidepressant-like effects of l-lactate are associated with increases in hippocampal lactate levels and with changes in the expression of target genes involved in serotonin receptor trafficking, astrocyte functions, neurogenesis, nitric oxide synthesis and cAMP signaling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of l-lactate may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression.

  16. Effect of Multiparity and Prolonged Lactation on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natung, Tanie; Barooah, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was done to determine the effect of multiparity and prolonged lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 196 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old. Age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, duration of menopause, parity and total duration of lactation, nutritional history were recorded. Lumbar spine (LS; L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation of parity and lactation with BMD were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results Parity was inversely correlated to BMD for LS (β = −0.266, P = 0.001) and FN (β = −0.380, P = 0.000). This relation remained significant even after adjusting for age, BMI and duration of menopause. Duration of lactation was inversely correlated with BMD for LS (β = −0.271, P = 0.001) but no for FN (β = −0.124, P = 0.130). Conclusions Multiparity and prolonged lactation have negative impact on BMD especially with in a socioeconomic group whose nutritional intake is borderline. Our data support that parity and duration of lactation can be associated with future osteoporosis. PMID:28119896

  17. Lactational transfer of volatile chemicals in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Mahle, D; Bankston, L; Greene, R; Gearhart, J

    1997-06-01

    Lactational transfer of chemicals to nursing infants is a concern for occupational physicians when women who are breast-feeding return to the workplace. Some work environments, such as paint shops, have atmospheric contamination from volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Very little is known about the extent of exposure a nursing infant may receive from the mother's occupational exposure. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed for a lactating woman to estimate the amount of chemical that a nursing infant ingests for a given nursing schedule and maternal occupational exposure. Human blood/air and milk/air partition coefficients (PCs) were determined for 19 VOCs. Milk/blood PC values were above 3 for carbon tetrachloride, methylchloroform, perchloroethylene, and 1,4-dioxane, while the remaining 16 chemicals had milk/blood PC values of less than 3. Other model parameters, such as solid tissue PC values, metabolic rate constants, blood flow rates, and tissue volumes were taken from the literature and incorporated into the lactation model. In a simulated exposure of a lactating woman to a threshold limit value concentration of an individual chemical, only perchloroethylene, bromochloroethane, and 1,4-dioxane exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency non-cancer drinking water ingestion rates for children. Very little data exists on the pharmacokinetics of lactational transfer of volatile organics. More data are needed before the significance of the nursing exposure pathway can be adequately ascertained. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models can play an important role in assessing lactational transfer of chemicals.

  18. The mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the genetic evaluation based on test day records has shifted the interest of modellers towards more flexible and general linear functions, as polynomials or splines. Thus the main interest of modelling is no longer the reconstruction of the general pattern of the phenomenon but the fitting of individual deviations from an average curve. Other specific approaches based on the modelling of the correlation structure of test day records within lactation, such as mixed linear models or principal component analysis, have been used to test the statistical significance of fixed effects in dairy experiments or to create new variables expressing main lactation curve traits. The adequacy of a model is not an absolute requisite, because it has to be assessed according to the specific purpose it is used for. Occurrence of extended lactations and of new productive and functional traits to be described and the increase of records coming from automatic milking systems likely will represent some of the future challenges for the mathematical modelling of the lactation curve in dairy cattle.

  19. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and typing of Brucella melitensis biovar 2 in lactating cows in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel El-Gohary

    2016-09-01

    Results: The results showed that the overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 339 (7.25% by BAPAT, 332 (7.1% by RBPT, and 329 (7.04% by CFT. The results revealed that, 42 (8.6%, 5 (1.4% and 292 (7.6% sera were positive for brucellosis by BAPAT in the cows of Al-Wafra, Al-Kabed and Al-Salebia areas, respectively. Whereas, their respective number and seroreactive cases by RBPT were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 288 (7.4%. Similarly, as confirmatory test by CFT, the number and seroreactive cases in these areas were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 285 (7.46%. MRT revealed that the average positive case was 61.67% (59.46% in Al-Wafra; 60% in Al-Kabed and 66.6% in Al-Salebia. Two Brucella isolates could be recovered from the stomach content of the two aborted feti and typed as Brucella melitensis biovar 2. Conclusion: Brucellosis is prevalent among lactating cows in Kuwait. This indicates the potential role of these dairy animals in disseminating and spread of such zoonosis to human. Considering public health significance, appropriate preventive measures are suggestive for combating brucellosis in Kuwait. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 229-235

  20. Goat's αS1-casein polymorphism affects gene expression profile of lactating mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, S; Chauvet, S; Martin, P; Chilliard, Y; Leroux, C

    2008-04-01

    Goat's αS1-casein (CSN1S1) polymorphism has a significant effect on milk protein and lipid composition, which affects the nutritional quality and technological properties of milk. Moreover, this polymorphism has a large impact on the morphology of mammary epithelial cells. To explore the metabolic pathways modulated in relation to this polymorphism, we compared the mammary gene expression profiles of two groups of lactating goats carrying either two reference or two defective alleles, using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray representing 8379 genes. We identified 41 differentially expressed genes between the two genotype groups. In particular, we showed a downregulation of two key lipogenic genes encoding fatty acid synthase and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in agreement with the low fat concentration associated with CSN1S1 deficiency. In addition, this study highlights changes in the expression level of several genes known to influence membrane fluidity, cell-cell interaction or chromatin organization. Our results open up new fields of investigation on structural modifications associated with CSN1S1 deficiency that could affect mammary gland function.

  1. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analyses of Bovine Rhinovirus Type 2 Shows it is Closely Related to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinovirus 2 (BRV2), a causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle, is currently an unclassified species tentatively assigned to the genus rhinovirus in the family Picornaviridae. A nearly full-length cDNA of the BRV2 genome was cloned and the nucleotide sequence from the poly(C) to the ...

  2. Full-length coding sequence for 12 bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates from persistently infected cattle in a feedyard in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report here the full-length coding sequence of 12 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from persistently infected cattle from a feedyard in southwest Kansas, USA. These 12 genomes represent the three major genotypes (BVDV 1a, 1b, and 2a) of BVDV currently circulating in the United States....

  3. Analysis of Two Chinese Yak(Bos grunniens) Population Using Bovine Microsatellite Primers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Minqiang; S.Weigend; A.Barre-Dirie; J.W.Carnwath; Lou Zhonglin; H.Niemann

    2005-01-01

    Two Chinese domestic yak populations representing the Plateau type and the Huanhu Alpine type were analysed with 12 bovine microsatellite primers. All primer pairs functioned in the yak genome and polymorphism was found at all loci. The allele size ranges and frequencies of the two yak populations were similar and there was considerable overlap with the allele size ranges observed in cattle. Data for European cattle breeds was obtained from the Cattle Diversity Database(CaDBase)to interpret the heterozygosity and genetic distance estimates in yak populations. Heterozygosity estimated for the two yak populations was comparable to that of European cattle while Nei's Genetic Distance DA between the two yak populations was less than distances between the most closely related German cattle breeds. Bovine microsatellite primers proved to be a valuable tool for characterization of yak populations.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in bovine liver using RNA-seq technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Błaszczyk, Paweł; Dziuba, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Background RNA-seq is a useful next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology that has been widely used to understand mammalian transcriptome architecture and function. In this study, a breed-specific RNA-seq experiment was utilized to detect putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in liver...... tissue of young bulls of the Polish Red, Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Hereford breeds, and to understand the genomic variation in the three cattle breeds that may reflect differences in production traits. Results The RNA-seq experiment on bovine liver produced 107,114,4072 raw paired-end reads.......21% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. This study identified 5,641,401 SNPs and insertion and deletion (indel) positions expressed in the bovine liver with an average of 313,411 SNPs and indel per young bull. Following the removal...

  5. Nuclear and nuclear reprogramming during the first cell cycle in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Petrovicova, Ida; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The immediate events of genomic reprogramming at somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are to high degree unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the nuclear and nucleolar changes during the first cell cycle. Bovine SCNT embryos were produced from starved bovine fibroblasts and fixed......, somatic cell nuclei introduced into enucleated oocytes displayed chromatin condensation, partial nuclear envelope breakdown, nucleolar desegregation and transcriptional quiescence already at 0.5 hpa. Somatic cell cytoplasm remained temporally attached to introduced nucleus and nucleolus was partially...... restored indicating somatic influence in the early SCNT phases. At 1-3 hpa, chromatin gradually decondensed toward the nucleus periphery and nuclear envelope reformed. From 4 hpa, the somatic cell nucleus gained a PN-like appearance and displayed NPBs suggesting ooplasmic control of development....

  6. Genetic and serological analysis of the immunogenic 67-kDa lipoprotein of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, J; Cheng, X; Monnerat, M P; Abdo, E M; Krawinkler, M; Bölske, G; Nicolet, J

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding a lipoprotein of 67 kDa, named P67, was cloned from Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 strain PG50 and expressed in Escherichia coli K12. Analysis of the amino acid sequence derived from the DNA sequence of the P67 gene revealed a typical prokaryotic signal peptidase II membrane lipoprotein lipid attachment site and a transmembrane structure domain in the leader sequence at the amino-terminal end of the protein. Protein P67 showed 91% identical amino acid residues to the lipoprotein P72 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC) and 53% identical amino acid residues to a peptide of an unassigned gene on the genome of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum. Antibodies made against recombinant P67 reacted with a 67-kDa protein in all Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 strains tested and also, to some extent, with P72 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. The gene encoding P67 was present in all strains of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 analysed, but not in other Mycoplasma sp. of the "mycoides cluster" and not in the phylogenetically related Mycoplasma putrefaciens. PCR and restriction fragment analysis revealed that the gene of P67 is conserved in all strains of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7. A specific PCR reaction based on the P67 gene sequence enabled rapid identification of strains belonging to Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of the medulla tissue from cattle in response to bovine spongiform encephalopathy using digital gene expression tag profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Urmila; Almeida, Luciane; Olson, N Eric; Meng, Yan; Williams, John L; Moore, Stephen S; Guan, Le Luo

    2011-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible, fatal neurodegenerative disorder of cattle produced by prions. The use of excessive parallel sequencing for comparison of gene expression in bovine control and infected tissues may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms associated with this disease. In this study, tag profiling Solexa sequencing was used for transcriptome analysis of bovine brain tissues. Replicate libraries were prepared from mRNA isolated from control and infected (challenged with 100 g of BSE-infected brain) medulla tissues 45 mo after infection. For each library, 5-6 million sequence reads were generated and approximately 67-70% of the reads were mapped against the Bovine Genome database to approximately 13,700-14,120 transcripts (each having at least one read). About 42-47% of the total reads mapped uniquely. Using the GeneSifter software package, 190 differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified (>2.0-fold change, p < .01): 73 upregulated and 117 downregulated. Seventy-nine DE genes had functions described in the Gene Ontology (GO) database and 16 DE genes were involved in 38 different pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Digital analysis expression by tag profiling may be a powerful approach to comprehensive transcriptome analysis to identify changes associated with disease progression, leading to a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of pathogenesis of BSE.

  8. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans.

  9. The effect of erythropoietin on lactate, pyruvate and excess lactate under physical exercise in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, R; Jedicke, H; Voigt, A; Lange, H

    1996-02-01

    To investigate EPO-induced increase of hemoglobin on energy metabolism plasma concentrations of lactate (L), pyruvate (P) and excess lactate (XL) were determined in ten dialysis patients at rest, immediately after 6 minutes of ergometric exercise as well as after recovery for 15 and 30 min. The investigations were performed before EPO-therapy at a mean Hb = 7.5 +/- 0.9 g/dl and under EPO-therapy at a mean Hb = 10.0 +/- 0.6 g/dl and at a mean Hb = 11.9 +/- 0.8 g/dl. Ten healthy subjects were subjected to the same investigation at Hb = 14.7 +/- 1.1 g/dl. There was a significant rise of L and XL in all patient groups under ergometric exercise. The increase of hemoglobin from 7.5 g/dl to 10.0 g/dl led to significantly (p beyond 10.5 g/dl will have an additional positive effect on oxygen supply only in occasional cases. The comparison with healthy subjects shows that despite a very large degree of normalization of the hemoglobin content, no normalization of energy metabolism can be attained.

  10. Stage-specific proteome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Daniela R; Fröhlich, Thomas; Otte, Kathrin A; Beck, Andrea; Habermann, Felix A; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J

    2014-10-03

    Development of early embryonic stages before activation of the embryonic genome depends on sufficiently stored products of the maternal genome, adequate recruitment and degradation of mRNAs, as well as activation, deactivation, and relocation of proteins. By application of an isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based approach, the proteomes of bovine embryos at the zygote and 2-cell and 4-cell stage with MII oocytes as a reference were quantitatively analyzed. Of 1072 quantified proteins, 87 differed significantly in abundance between the four stages. The proteomes of 2-cell and 4-cell embryos differed most from the reference MII oocyte, and a considerable fraction of proteins continuously increased in abundance during the stages analyzed, despite a strongly attenuated rate of translation reported for this period. Bioinformatic analysis revealed particularly interesting proteins involved in the p53 pathway, lipid metabolism, and mitosis. Verification of iTRAQ results by targeted SRM (selected reaction monitoring) analysis revealed excellent agreement for all five proteins analyzed. By principal component analysis, SRM quantifications comprising a panel of only five proteins were shown to discriminate between all four developmental stages analyzed here. For future experiments, an expanded SRM protein panel will provide the potential to detect developmental disturbances with high sensitivity and enable first insights into the underlying molecular pathways.

  11. Lactate as a Signaling Molecule That Regulates Exercise-Induced Adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Nalbandian, Minas; Takeda, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Lactate (or its protonated form: lactic acid) has been studied by many exercise scientists. The lactate paradigm has been in constant change since lactate was first discovered in 1780. For many years, it was unfairly seen as primarily responsible for muscular fatigue during exercise and a waste product of glycolysis. The status of lactate has slowly changed to an energy source, and in the last two decades new evidence suggests that lactate may play a much bigger role than was previously belie...

  12. Lactate production and clearance in exercise. Effects of training. A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Vissing, J; Galbo, H

    1998-01-01

    conditions. Due to influence on hormonal response, mitochondrial oxidative capacity and fiber recruitment, training diminishes glycogenolysis and lactate production. Training also increases lactate clearance. This reflects increased hepatic capacity for gluconeogenesis as well as increased lactate transport...... capacity and oxidative capacity and reduced glycogenolysis in muscle. The fact that endurance performance can be predicted from the plasma lactate versus exercise intensity relationship illustrates that the plasma lactate level is a finely balanced result of the interplay between many factors of importance...

  13. Interaction between season and culture with insulin-like growth factor-1 on survival of in vitro produced embryos following transfer to lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J; Hansen, P J

    2007-06-01

    Culture of bovine embryos in the presence of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can increase pregnancy rates following transfer to heat-stressed, lactating dairy cows. The objective of the present experiment was to determine whether the effect of IGF-1 on post-transfer embryo survival was a general effect or one specific to heat stress. Lactating recipients (n=311) were synchronized for timed-embryo transfer at four locations. Embryos were produced in vitro and cultured with or without 100 ng/mL IGF-1. At Day 7 after anticipated ovulation (Day 0), a single embryo was randomly transferred to each recipient. Pregnancy was diagnosed at Day 21 by elevated plasma progesterone concentrations, at Days 27-32 by ultrasonography, and at Days 41-49 by transrectal palpation. Transfers were categorized into two seasons, hot or cool (based on the month of transfer). There was a tendency (Pcalving rate (Pcalves born was 77.5%. In conclusion, treatment of embryos with IGF-1 improved pregnancy and calving rates following the transfer of in vitro produced embryos into lactating recipients, but only under heat-stress conditions.

  14. Regulation of the bovine SCD5 promoter by EGR2 and SREBP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengi, Andrea J; Corl, Benjamin A

    2012-05-04

    In rodents, the transcription factors early growth response 2 (EGR2) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1a (SREBP1a) regulate transcription of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (SCD2) gene during peripheral nerve myelination, which may be important for synthesis of the lipid component of myelin. Most non-rodent genomes do not contain the SCD2 gene, but rather express SCD5 in brain and nervous tissues. In this paper, we asked whether bovine SCD5 is regulated in a similar manner to rodent SCD2. Expression of EGR2 did not result in an increase in endogenous SCD5 mRNA expression in JEG3 cells, but did result in activation of truncated bovine SCD5 promoter luciferase reporter constructs. Similar results were obtained with expression of the active form of SREBP1a; however, unlike rodent SCD2, there was no synergistic activation of the bovine SCD5 promoter reporters when EGR2 and SREBP1a were co-expressed. Mutation of the putative EGR2 binding site in the SCD5 promoter abolished activation by SREBP1a, suggesting that EGR2 and SREBP1a bind to the same site in the SCD5 promoter. Finally, we have identified a region of the bovine SCD5 promoter between 505 and 305 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site that appears to be important for maintaining basal levels of transcription of this gene. While it appears that there are some differences between the regulation of rodent SCD2 and bovine SCD5, the promoters of both genes can be activated by EGR2 and SREBP1a. This is the first report of potential regulators of SCD5 transcription.

  15. Effects of mineral content of bovine drinking water: does iron content affect milk quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G R; Duncan, S E; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; O'Keefe, S F

    2013-01-01

    The composition of water given to dairy cattle is often ignored, yet water is a very important nutrient and plays a major role in milk synthesis. The objective of this study was to study effects of elevated levels of iron in bovine drinking water on milk quality. Ferrous lactate treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/kg drinking water concentrations were delivered through the abomasum at 10 L/d to 4 lactating dairy cows over 4 periods (1 wk infusion/period) in a Latin square design. On d 6 of infusion, milk was collected, processed (homogenized, pasteurized), and analyzed. Mineral content (Fe, Cu, P, Ca) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxidative stability of whole processed milk was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) and sensory analysis (triangle test) within 72 h of processing and after 7d of storage (4°C). Significant sensory differences between processed milks from cows receiving iron and the control infusion were observed. No differences in TBARS (1.46±0.04 mg of MDA/kg) or mineral content (0.22±0.01 mg/kg Fe) were observed. A 2-way interaction (iron treatment by cow) for Ca, Cu, and Fe concentrations was seen. While iron added directly to milk causes changes in oxidation of milk, high levels of iron given to cattle have subtle effects that initially may not be obvious.

  16. Seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Hungary - situation before launching an eradication campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kővágó, Csaba; Forgách, Petra; Szabára, Ágnes; Mándoki, Míra; Hornyák, Ákos; Duignan, Conor; Pásztiné Gere, Erzsébet; Rusvai, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a viral disease appearing in various forms and causing high economic losses in the cattle stocks of Hungary. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Hungary through a monitoring survey carried out on samples collected in cattle-keeping units throughout the country. Since no such survey had been carried out in Hungary during the last thirty years, our study may serve as a basis for later monitoring investigations aimed at following the progress of an expected eradication campaign of BVD. The tests were carried out using an ELISA method, on a total of 1200 blood samples submitted from 54 cattle herds. The herds had not been vaccinated against BVDV before the sampling. Out of the 1200 samples, 521 proved to be positive (43.4%), 40 gave doubtful result (3.3%) and 639 were negative (53.3%). In some stocks the samples were collected from cows having completed several lactation periods, and therefore the seronegativity indicates the BVDV-free status of the given stock. Moreover, among the positive herds we found a few where the seropositivity rate was rather low (campaign launched in the near future, or carried out parallel to the IBR eradication programme, are better than previously expected.

  17. Protection of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Cell Damage by Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaolu; Wang, Kai; Liu, Hongyun; Hu, Fuliang; Zhao, Fengqi; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The mammary epithelial cells (MECs) of high-producing dairy cows are likely to be subject to oxidative stress (OS) due to the intensive cell metabolism. The objectives of this study were to investigate the cytoprotective effects of resveratrol against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced OS in cultured bovine MECs (MAC-T). Pretreatment of MAC-T cells with resveratrol could rescue the decrease in cell viability and resulted in lower intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation after H2O2 exposure. Resveratrol helped MAC-T cells to prevent H2O2-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-related cell apoptosis. Moreover, resveratrol induced mRNA expression of multiple antioxidant defense genes in MAC-T cells under normal/oxidative conditions. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was required for the cytoprotective effects on MAC-T cells by resveratrol, as knockdown of Nrf2 significantly abolished resveratrol-induced cytoprotective effects against OS. In addition, by using selective inhibitors, we further confirmed that the induction of Nrf2 by resveratrol was mediated through the prolonged activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK pathways but negatively regulated by p38/MAPK pathway. Overall, resveratrol has beneficial effects on bovine MECs redox balance and may be potentially used as a therapeutic medicine against oxidative insult in lactating animals.

  18. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  19. Acrolein stimulates eicosanoid release from bovine airway epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doupnik, C.A.; Leikauf, G.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Injury to the airway mucosa after exposure to environmental irritants is associated with pulmonary inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To better understand the relationships between mediator release and airway epithelial cell injury during irritant exposures, we studied the effects of acrolein, a low-molecular-weight aldehyde found in cigarette smoke, on arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured bovine tracheal epithelial cells. Confluent airway epithelial cell monolayers, prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid, released significant levels of 3H activity when exposed (20 min) to 100 microM acrolein. (3H)arachidonic acid products were resolved using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Under control conditions the released 3H activity coeluted predominantly with the cyclooxygenase product, prostaglandin (PG) E2. After exposure to acrolein, significant peaks in 3H activity coeluted with the lipoxygenase products 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15-HETE, as well as with PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Dose-response relationships for acrolein-induced release of immunoreactive PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from unlabeled epithelial monolayers demonstrated 30 microM acrolein as the threshold dose, with 100 microM acrolein inducing nearly a fivefold increase in both PGF2 alpha and PGE2. Cellular viability after exposure to 100 microM acrolein, determined by released lactate dehydrogenase activity, was not affected until exposure periods were greater than or equal to 2 h. These results implicate the airway epithelial cell as a possible source of eicosanoids after exposure to acrolein.

  20. Construction and characterization of a glycoprotein E deletion mutant of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 strain isolated in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, A.C.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Flores, E.F.; Weiblen, R.; Roehe, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and characterization of a Brazilian strain of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a) with a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE) gene. The deletion was introduced by co-transfection of a deletion fragment containing the 5´and 3´gE flanking regions and genomic D

  1. 重组NADH氧化酶对乳酸脱氢酶乳酸氧化活性的影响%Effects of Recombinant NADH Oxidase on the Lactate Oxidation Activity of Lactate Dehydrogenase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕊; 霍贵成

    2013-01-01

    [目的]考察当存在其他利用NADH途径时,发酵型乳酸脱氢酶(lactate dehydrogenase,LDH)催化乳酸氧化能力的改变.[方法]PCR扩增乳酸乳球菌(Lactococcus lactis,L.lactis)中生成H2O的NADH氧化酶基因noxE,将其连接至表达载体并在大肠杆菌中过量表达;对亲和纯化的产物进行SDS-PAGE分析、光谱扫描和活性测定,考察纯化产物是否具有生物学活性;以2,4-二硝基苯肼法测定乳酸脱氢酶的乳酸氧化活性,考察添加NoxE重组蛋白对其活性的影响.[结果]重组NoxE蛋白是种黄素蛋白,具明显的生物学活性,说明noxE表达载体构建成功;添加NoxE后,LDH的乳酸氧化活性提高了3.84倍.[结论]在NADH经呼吸链代谢掉的生理条件下,LDH催化乳酸氧化的能力会明显提高.%[ Objective] To compare the lactate oxidation activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the presence and absence of another NADH utilization pathway. [Method] The H2O-producing NADH oxidase gene (noxE) was cloned by PCR from Lactococcws lactis genome, ligated into the expression vector and expressed in E. coli. After affinity purification, the recombinant protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, UV-vis absorption spectrum and determination of enzyme activity. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine was used to evaluate the effect of NoxE addition on the lactate oxidation activity of LDH. [Result]NoxE was purified as a flavin protein with significant activity. When NoxE was added, the lactate oxidation activity of LDH was increased 3.84-fold. [ Conclusion]The lactate oxidation capacity of LDH will be significantly increased under physical conditions where NADH can be consumed via respiration chain.

  2. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  3. Neurological disorder in cattle associated with bovine herpesvirus 4

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A nested PCR assay was used to diagnose bovine encephalitis through herpesviruses including bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Aujeszky's disease virus (SHV-1), and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) in 14 fragments of central nervous system (CNS) from cattle that died with neurological signs. In addition, as some samples of bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) have been isolated from neural tissue, it was also tested by nested PCR. The cases of encephalitis occurred in isolati...

  4. Cloning of Bovine herpesvirus type 1 and type 5 as infectious bacterial artifical chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Mathias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesviruses type 1 (BoHV1 and type 5 (BoHV5 are two closely related pathogens of cattle. The identity of the two viruses on the amino acid level averages 82%. Despite their high antigenetic similarities the two pathogens induce distinctive clinical signs. BoHV1 causes respiratory and genital tract infections while BoHV5 leads to severe encephalitis in calves. Findings The viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 were cloned as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs. First, recombinant viruses carrying the genetic elements for propagation in bacteria were generated. Second, DNA from these recombinant viruses were transferred into prokaryotic cells. Third, DNA from these bacteria were transferred into eukaryotic cells. Progeny viruses from BAC transfections showed similar kinetics as their corresponding wild types. Conclusion The two viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 cloned as BACs are accessible to the tools of bacterial genetics. The ability to easily manipulate the viral genomes on a molecular level in future experiments will lead to a better understanding of the difference in pathogenesis induced by these two closely related bovine herpesviruses.

  5. Molecular detection and sensitivity to antibiotics and bacteriocins of pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in family dairy herds of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E; Lechuga-Arana, A Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P antibiotics tested in this study.

  6. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  7. Expression of the gap junction gene connexin43 (Cx43) in preimplantation bovine embryos derived in vitro or in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenzycki, C; Herrmann, D; Carnwath, J W; Niemann, H

    1996-09-01

    In this study we have examined the presence of mRNA encoding connexin 43 (Cx43) in bovine embryos derived in vivo and in vitro. Cumulus-oocyte complexes, immature and matured oocytes liberated from cumulus cells, zygotes, 2-4-cell and 8-16-cell embryos, morulae, blastocysts and hatched blastocysts were produced in vitro from ovaries obtained from an abattoir using TCM 199 supplemented with hormones and 10% oestrous cow serum for maturation. Cumulus-oocyte complexes matured for 24 h were exposed to bull spermatozoa for 19 h and then cultured in TCM 199 supplemented with 10% oestrous cow serum to the desired developmental stage. Morulae and blastocysts derived in vivo were collected from superovulated donor cows. Total RNA was extracted from pools of 60-200 bovine oocytes or embryos using a modified phenol-chloroform extraction method and analysed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Before reverse transcription, aliquots of DNase-digested embryonic RNA were tested by polymerase chain reaction using bovine-specific primers to control for residual genomic DNA contamination. DNA-free, total RNA was reverse transcribed after preincubation with the Cx43 specific 3'primer. The resultant cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using Cx43 specific primers that define a 516 bp fragment of Cx43. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction product was verified by restriction enzyme analysis with Alu I and sequencing. Assays were repeated at least twice for each developmental stage and provided identical results between replicates. Cx43 transcripts were detected in bovine morulae and blastocysts grown in vivo. In contrast, whereas the early in vitro stages from cumulus-oocyte complexes to morulae expressed Cx43, blastocysts and hatched blastocysts did not have detectable concentrations of mRNA from this gene. Restriction enzyme cutting revealed three fragments of the predicted size (139, 177, 200 bp). The amplified product showed 100% identity

  8. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.

  9. Transcriptional analysis implicates endoplasmic reticulum stress in bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Tang

    Full Text Available Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disease of cattle. To date, the disease process is still poorly understood. In this study, brain tissue samples from animals naturally infected with BSE were analysed to identify differentially regulated genes using Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays. A total of 230 genes were shown to be differentially regulated and many of these genes encode proteins involved in immune response, apoptosis, cell adhesion, stress response and transcription. Seventeen genes are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and 10 of these 17 genes are involved in stress related responses including ER chaperones, Grp94 and Grp170. Western blotting analysis showed that another ER chaperone, Grp78, was up-regulated in BSE. Up-regulation of these three chaperones strongly suggests the presence of ER stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR in BSE. The occurrence of ER stress was also supported by changes in gene expression for cytosolic proteins, such as the chaperone pair of Hsp70 and DnaJ. Many genes associated with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the autophagy-lysosome system were differentially regulated, indicating that both pathways might be activated in response to ER stress. A model is presented to explain the mechanisms of prion neurotoxicity using these ER stress related responses. Clustering analysis showed that the differently regulated genes found from the naturally infected BSE cases could be used to predict the infectious status of the samples experimentally infected with BSE from the previous study and vice versa. Proof-of-principle gene expression biomarkers were found to represent BSE using 10 genes with 94% sensitivity and 87% specificity.

  10. Laboratory evolution of Geobacter sulfurreducens for enhanced growth on lactate via a single-base-pair substitution in a transcriptional regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Zarath M; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Ismail, Wael; Haveman, Shelley A; Lovley, Derek R

    2012-05-01

    The addition of organic compounds to groundwater in order to promote bioremediation may represent a new selective pressure on subsurface microorganisms. The ability of Geobacter sulfurreducens, which serves as a model for the Geobacter species that are important in various types of anaerobic groundwater bioremediation, to adapt for rapid metabolism of lactate, a common bioremediation amendment, was evaluated. Serial transfer of five parallel cultures in a medium with lactate as the sole electron donor yielded five strains that could metabolize lactate faster than the wild-type strain. Genome sequencing revealed that all five strains had non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the same gene, GSU0514, a putative transcriptional regulator. Introducing the single-base-pair mutation from one of the five strains into the wild-type strain conferred rapid growth on lactate. This strain and the five adaptively evolved strains had four to eight-fold higher transcript abundance than wild-type cells for genes for the two subunits of succinyl-CoA synthase, an enzyme required for growth on lactate. DNA-binding assays demonstrated that the protein encoded by GSU0514 bound to the putative promoter of the succinyl-CoA synthase operon. The binding sequence was not apparent elsewhere in the genome. These results demonstrate that a single-base-pair mutation in a transcriptional regulator can have a significant impact on the capacity for substrate utilization and suggest that adaptive evolution should be considered as a potential response of microorganisms to environmental change(s) imposed during bioremediation.

  11. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  12. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public...

  13. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  14. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  15. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  16. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  17. Economic effect of bovine abortion syndrome in commercial dairy herds in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädicke, P; Vidal, R; Monti, G

    2010-10-01

    Bovine abortion is a limiting factor for dairy business, as it decreases milk production and the potential, number of herd replacements, increases feeding and medical treatment costs, increases the number of artificial inseminations to obtain a calf as well as culling rates of cows. An estimation of the economic impact of abortion in dairy farms in Chile is not available yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic consequences of bovine abortion syndrome (BAS) in dairy cows from Chile. A stochastic model was proposed to evaluate the cost of an abortion on a yearly basis to include variability in cost and income by dairy and by year. The marginal total net revenue (ΔTNR) for a typical, lactation was obtained by the calculating the difference between total revenues (retail milk and calf sales) and total expenses (production cost (cows, feeding, labor, health) plus administrative and, general costs) for lactation with and without abortion. Production data were obtained from a retrospective study of 127 dairy herds located in southern Chile between 2000 and 2006. Milk production from cows with and without abortion was estimated by a mixed model using milk test day data. Production cost and prices paid to farmers were obtained from service company records (TODOAGRO S.A.). Cost and income value was corrected for inflation and expressed in the values from 2006. In addition, a separate analysis for different parities (1, 2, 3 or more) was performed. Distributions for the stochastic variables were obtained by fitting distributions from our database using @Risk. The stochastic variables included in the analysis were all related to income, feeding, depreciation, health, Artificial Insemination and general costs like fuel, salaries, taxes, etc. There was a high probability (89.20%) of a negative ΔTNR in lactations with abortion for overall, parities, with a mean loss of $ -143.32. Stratifying by parity, the predicted mean of the distribution for ΔTNR in each

  18. Optimization and characterization of an in vitro bovine mammary cell culture system to study regulation of milk protein synthesis and mammary differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talhouk, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A long term bovine mammary cell culture system that maintains normal mammary cell function was established and optimized to study milk protein synthesis and secretion and mammary differentiation. This culture system used bovine mammary acini isolated from developing or lactating mammary gland by enzymatic dissociation, and cryopreserved until thawed and plated for growth in vitro for these studies. Cells in M199 with lactogenic hormones {plus minus} fetal calf serum (FCS) were cultured on plastic, 100ul and 500ul type I collagen, and Matrigel, or embedded within type I collagen. Cell morphology, cell number, and total TCA-precipitable {sup 35}S-labelled proteins were monitored. Milk protein ({alpha}{sub s,1}-casein, lactoferrin (LF), {alpha}-lactalbumin, and {beta}-lactoglobulin) secretion and intracellular levels were determined by an ELISA assay.

  19. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range 2.5 mmol l-1) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate measurement was not indicative of peritonitis. None of the bitches died during or within two months of the hospital stay. The measurements of temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, percentage bandforms of neutrophilic granulocytes, α2-globulins, creatinin, pvCO2, TCO2 and base excess showed significant differences between the SIRS positive and the SIRS negative pyometra cases. Conclusion Increased blood lactate concentrations were demonstrated in 3% (1

  20. Targeting the lactate transporter MCT1 in endothelial cells inhibits lactate-induced HIF-1 activation and tumor angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sonveaux

    Full Text Available Switching to a glycolytic metabolism is a rapid adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia. Although this metabolic conversion may primarily represent a rescue pathway to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferating tumor cells, it also creates a gradient of lactate that mirrors the gradient of oxygen in tumors. More than a metabolic waste, the lactate anion is known to participate to cancer aggressiveness, in part through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 pathway in tumor cells. Whether lactate may also directly favor HIF-1 activation in endothelial cells (ECs thereby offering a new druggable option to block angiogenesis is however an unanswered question. In this study, we therefore focused on the role in ECs of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 that we previously identified to be the main facilitator of lactate uptake in cancer cells. We found that blockade of lactate influx into ECs led to inhibition of HIF-1-dependent angiogenesis. Our demonstration is based on the unprecedented characterization of lactate-induced HIF-1 activation in normoxic ECs and the consecutive increase in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression. Furthermore, using a variety of functional assays including endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis together with in vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis through intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we documented that MCT1 blockers could act as bona fide HIF-1 inhibitors leading to anti-angiogenic effects. Together with the previous demonstration of MCT1 being a key regulator of lactate exchange between tumor cells, the current study identifies MCT1 inhibition as a therapeutic modality combining antimetabolic and anti-angiogenic activities.

  1. L-lactate metabolism can occur in normal and cancer prostate cells via the novel mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bari, Lidia; Chieppa, Gabriella; Marra, Ersilia; Passarella, Salvatore

    2010-12-01

    Both normal (PTN1A) and cancer (PC3) prostate cells produce high levels of L-lactate because of a low energy supply via the citric cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Since some mammalian mitochondria possess a mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH), we investigated whether prostate cells can take up L-lactate and metabolize it in the mitochondria. We report here that externally added L-lactate can enter both normal and cancer cells and mitochondria, as shown by both the oxygen consumption and by the increase in fluorescence of NAD(P)H which occur as a result of L-lactate addition. In both cell types L-lactate enters mitochondria in a carrier-mediated manner, as shown by the inhibition of swelling measurements due to the non-penetrant thiol reagent mersalyl. An L-lactate dehydrogenase exists in mitochondria of both cell types located in the inner compartment, as shown by kinetic investigation and by immunological analysis. The mLDHs proved to differ from the cytosolic enzymes (which themselves differ from one another) as functionally investigated with respect to kinetic features and pH profile. Normal and cancer cells were found to differ from one another with respect to mLDH protein level and activity, being the enzyme more highly expressed and of higher activity in PC3 cells. Moreover, the kinetic features and pH profiles of the PC3 mLDH also differ from those of the PNT1A enzyme, this suggesting the occurrence of separate isoenzymes.

  2. Treatment of 62 Patients with Postpartum Lactation Disorder by Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金亚蓓

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-two patients with postpartum lactation disorder were treated by needling Neiguan(PC 6), Zusanli(ST 36), Rugen(ST 18) and Jianzhen(SI 9), and moxibustion at Danzhong(CV 17). After 7 treatments, 30 puerperae were vigorous and could lactate 400 mL every day, 26 puerperae could lactate 250 mL every day, and need other milk to feed the children, and 6 puerperae had no improvement in lactation, and lactate a little as pressing the breasts.%针刺内关,足三里,乳根和肩贞穴,温灸膻中,治疗了62例产后缺乳患者.经7次治疗,30例产妇乳汁分泌每天400 mL以上,精神饱满;26例乳汁分泌每天250 mL左右,需补充牛奶喂养婴儿;6例乳汁分泌无明显改善,挤压双侧乳房极少量乳汁分泌.

  3. BREAST DISEASES, AN ISSUE DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION. OUR EXPERIENCE!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhjit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY To study the various breast conditions during pregnancy and lactation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted at various nursing homes in Jammu region during the period of one year (2011—2012. All pregnant/Lactating women with breast related problems were enrolled for the study. A detailed clinical examination was carried out on the first visit and all relevant investigations were carried out. RESULTS Majority of cases were of infective etiology like mastitis (94.11% out of which 60 were lactating and 20 were pregnant, they all got treated with antibiotics and analgesics. Antibioma and abscesses was noted in 1% each, they were drained surgically. Galactocele was noted in one lactating female (1. 16%. Only one patient (1.17%. was noted to have a mass lesion on clinical examination which proved to be malignant on FNAC. CONCLUSION Invariably, most breast disorders during pregnancy or lactation will ultimately prove to be benign. Nevertheless, the possibility of cancer should be kept in mind so as to intervene earliest possible without any risk to mother or fetus.

  4. Evaluation of metal impurities in foods preserved with sodium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kimberly Ferren; Carter, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The public is being bombarded by the media almost dailywith real and potential food health concerns leadingto a public sentiment that questions the vulnerability and quality of our food. Sodium lactate is a food-grade product that in recent years has been used in bioremediation to stimulate microbial growth and contaminant breakdown processes. In previous work, impurities including arsenic and chromium were discovered to be present in the sodium lactate concentrate. The study described in this article was performed to determine whether arsenic and chromium were at detectable levels, posing a potential concern in food products preserved with sodium lactate available to the general public. A pilot sampling of three sodium-lactate-preserved food products was obtained from a local market and used to determine the commercial laboratory's detection and reporting limits for arsenic and chromium for these food products. Once these limits were established, a random sampling and analyses of 17 food products was performed. Arsenic was not reported above the detection limits in either the pilot or subsequent study, but chromium was detected at concentrations up to 0.30 parts per million in a pilot test sample and lower concentrations in the subsequent study. This study suggests that the sodium lactate in the sampled products was diluted enough for the arsenic concentration to be below the laboratory detection limit. Chromium was detected and may be an unaccounted source of chromium in diets of vulnerable populations.

  5. Non-nutritional factors affecting lactation persistency in dairy ewes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is largely related to the shape of the lactation curve. Key elements of the lactation pattern are peak yield, which is the maximum daily yield reached during lactation, and lactation persistency, which is the medium rate of milk yield decrease after the lactation peak. The ideal lactation curve should have a reasonably high peak and a flat trend afterwards. A more persistent lactation is desirable because it is related to better animal health and reduction of feeding costs. Effective strategies to improve lactation persistency require a deep understanding of the main factors that affect this trait, including genetics, hormonal status and administration, udder morphology, seasonal changes, management, animal health (e.g. mastitis, stress and nutrition. This review covers the effects of non-nutritional factors on lactation persistency in dairy sheep.

  6. Stem/progenitor cells in non-lactating versus lactating equine mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaas, Jan H; Chiers, Koen; Bussche, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2012-11-01

    The mammary gland is a highly regenerative organ that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation, and involution. Based on the facts that (i) mammary stem/progenitor cells (MaSC) are proposed to be the driving forces behind mammary growth and function and (ii) variation exists between mammalian species with regard to physiological and pathological functioning of this organ, we believe that studying MaSC from different mammals is of great comparative interest. Over the years, important data has been gathered on MaSC of men and mice, although knowledge on MaSC in other mammals remains limited. Therefore, the aim of this work was to isolate and characterize MaSC from the mammary gland of horses. Hereby, our salient findings were that the isolated equine cells met the 2 in vitro hallmark properties of stem cells, namely the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, the cells were immunophenotyped using markers for CD29, CD44, CD49f, and Ki67. Finally, we propose the mammosphere assay as a valuable in vitro assay to study MaSC during different physiological phases since it was observed that equine lactating mammary gland contains significantly more mammosphere-initiating cells than the inactive, nonlactating gland (a reflection of MaSC self-renewal) and, moreover, that these spheres were significantly larger in size upon initial cultivation (a reflection of progenitor cell proliferation). Taken together, this study not only extends the current knowledge of mammary gland biology, but also benefits the comparative approach to study and compare MaSC in different mammalian species.

  7. Genetic parameters of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content and the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyeurt, H; Dardenne, P; Dehareng, F; Bastin, C; Gengler, N

    2008-09-01

    Fatty acid composition influences the nutritional quality of milk and the technological properties of butter. Using a prediction of fatty acid (FA) contents by mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry, a large amount of data concerning the FA profile in bovine milk was collected. The large number of records permitted consideration of more complex models than those used in previous studies. The aim of the current study was to estimate the effects of season and stage of lactation as well as genetic parameters of saturated (SAT) and monounsaturated (MONO) fatty acid contents in bovine milk and milk fat, and the ratio of SAT to unsaturated fatty acids (UNSAT) that reflect the hardness of butter (SAT:UNSAT), using 7 multiple-trait, random-regression test-day models. The relationship between these FA traits with common production traits was also studied. The data set contained 100,841 test-day records of 11,626 Holstein primiparous cows. The seasonal effect was studied based on unadjusted means. These results confirmed that milk fat produced during spring and summer had greater UNSAT content compared with winter (63.13 vs. 68.94% of SAT in fat, on average). The effect of stage of lactation on FA profile was studied using the same methodology. Holstein cows in early first lactation produced a lower content of SAT in their milk fat. Variance components were estimated using a Bayesian method via Gibbs sampling. Heritability of SAT in milk (0.42) was greater than heritability of SAT in milk fat (0.24). Estimates of heritability for MONO were also different in milk and fat (0.14 vs. 0.27). Heritability of SAT:UNSAT was moderate (0.27). For all of these traits, the heritability estimates and the genetic and phenotypic correlations varied through the lactation.

  8. Genotypic characteristics of bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 strains isolated in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, M; Harasawa, R; Zecconi, A; Luzzago, C

    2001-09-01

    Two strains of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) were isolated from calves in northern Italy. Variations in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the genome were studied by primary structure alignment and neighbor-joining method based phylogenetic tree analyses and by palindromic nucleotide substitutions at the three variable loci in the 5'-UTR. Genetic analysis indicated their appurtenance to genovar BVDV-2a. Nucleotide sequence at the 5'-UTR of strain BS-95-II, one of the Italian isolates from healthy calves, showed 98% homology to that of the Japanese isolate OY89, a cytopathic strain derived from cattle with mucosal disease.

  9. Cartographie fine de qtl de fertilite femelle chez les bovins laitiers franÇais

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jemaa, Slim

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to map finely female fertility (FF) QTL in the three main French dairy cattle breeds Prim'Holstein, Normande and Montbeliarde. The first step consisted in detecting QTL on 78 families in 12 genomic regions. Six FF QTL were found in Prim'Holstein and two in Normande breeds. In the second step of the study, the QTL on bovine chromosomes BTA01, BTA02, BTA03 and BTA21 were mapped on a sub-sample of 41 families and the confidence interval for BTA01 and BTA03 QTL was redu...

  10. Multiplex PCR followed by restriction length polymorphism analysis for the subtyping of bovine herpesvirus 5 isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Maidana; Morano, C.D.; Cianfrinid; de Campos, F.; Roehe, P.M.; Siedler, B.; G. De Stefano; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne; Romera, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several types and subtypes of bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5) have been associated to different clinical conditions of cattle, making type/subtype differentiation essential to understand the pathogenesis and epidemiology of BoHV infections. BoHV-5 subtyping is currently carried out by BstEII restriction enzyme analysis (REA) of the complete virus genome. This method allowed the description of three subtypes, one of which is the most widespread while ...

  11. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and skimmed milk, and purified. The applicant intends to add bLF to foods for particular nutritional uses, i.e. infant and follow-on formulae, dietary food for special medical purposes, dairy products, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks, and chewing gums. According to the applicant, the high intake estimate for infants would be 1.1 g bLF per day. For adults, the applicant’s calculation estimates a mean and 97.5th percentile intake of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day, respectively, and a mean and 97.5th percentile daily intake of about 45 mg and 150 mg, respectively. The Panel notes that the safety of bLF as a novel food ingredient has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. That evaluation was to a significant extent based on safety data on bLF produced by Morinaga. The Panel also notes that the applicant intends maximum use levels of bLF in foods which are equivalent or lower than those intended by the applicant of the previous Opinion, and that the range of foods to which it is intended to add bLF is smaller. Consequently, the estimated intake levels described for the present application are comparable for infants and lower for all other population groups. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, bLF, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.

  12. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  13. Antiparasitic drugs and lactation: focus on anthelmintics, scabicides, and pediculicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Isabel

    2003-11-01

    Infections involving helminths or parasitic worms affect more than 25% of the population worldwide. Because lactating women and their infants are often affected by the complications of these infections such as iron deficiency anemia and malnutrition, they benefit the most from drug therapy. However, scientific literature offers little information regarding transfer of anthelmintics in breast milk and its effects in lactating infants. Scabies and pediculosis, or lice, are common skin infections affecting school-aged children. Close contacts of infected children, which often include lactating mothers, need treatment with one of the several topical products available in the market. This article will review the physicochemical properties and use of anthelmintics, pediculicides, and scabicides while breastfeeding.

  14. Antioxidant treatment attenuates lactate production in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Nielsen, Per Mose; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying......-of-the-art hyperpolarized magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: healthy controls, untreated diabetic (streptozotocin treatment to induce insulinopenic diabetes), and diabetic, receiving chronic antioxidant treatment with TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2......-IDEAL spiral sequence. Untreated diabetic rats showed increased renal lactate production compared with that shown by the controls. However, chronic TEMPOL treatment significantly attenuated diabetes-induced lactate production. No significant effects of diabetes or TEMPOL were observed on [13C]alanine levels...

  15. Tumor metabolism: cancer cells give and take lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Gregg L

    2008-12-01

    Tumors contain well-oxygenated (aerobic) and poorly oxygenated (hypoxic) regions, which were thought to utilize glucose for oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, respectively. In this issue of the JCI, Sonveaux et al. show that human cancer cells cultured under hypoxic conditions convert glucose to lactate and extrude it, whereas aerobic cancer cells take up lactate via monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and utilize it for oxidative phosphorylation (see the related article beginning on page 3930). When MCT1 is inhibited, aerobic cancer cells take up glucose rather than lactate, and hypoxic cancer cells die due to glucose deprivation. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with an inhibitor of MCT1 retarded tumor growth. MCT1 expression was detected exclusively in nonhypoxic regions of human cancer biopsy samples, and in combination, these data suggest that MCT1 inhibition holds potential as a novel cancer therapy.

  16. Whole genome characterization of a G6P[5] rotavirus A strain isolated from a stray cat in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Miho; Mochizuki, Masami; Nakagomi, Osamu; Nakagomi, Toyoko

    2016-05-30

    The whole genome of an unusual G6P[5] rotavirus A strain named FRV537, which was isolated from a stray cat in Japan, was characterized to determine its species of origin. The genotype constellation of FRV537 was G6-P[5]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A13-N2- T6-E2-H3. No known feline rotavirus has this genotype constellation; the Japanese equine strain OH-4 is the only known strain that does. While FRV537 shares the same genotype with some feline rotaviruses in all genes except those encoding VP4 and NSP1, none of these genes are closely related to those of known feline rotaviruses. By contrast, G6P[5] is almost exclusively present in bovine rotaviruses. The VP7 and VP4 genes of FRV537 formed a lineage with typical bovine rotaviruses with high bootstrap values. As to the internal capsid and nonstructural gene constellation, three bovine rotavirus strains had a constellation identical to that of FRV537. Moreover, each of the genotypes of FRV537 was found to be a common bovine genotype. In addition to the high nucleotide sequence identities between FRV537 and bovine rotaviruses in each genome segment (≥95%), phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship to bovine/artiodactyl rotaviruses. Thus, the molecular and phylogenetic evidence suggests that FRV537 isolated from a stray cat was of bovine rotavirus origin.

  17. Genome sequence of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans ): Vector of African trypanosomiasis

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Junichi

    2014-04-24

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. Notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. Here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina morsitans morsitans genome. Analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein-encoding genes led to multiple discoveries, including chromosomal integrations of bacterial (Wolbachia) genome sequences, a family of lactation-specific proteins, reduced complement of host pathogen recognition proteins, and reduced olfaction/chemosensory associated genes. These genome data provide a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.

  18. From genes to milk: genomic organization and epigenetic regulation of the mammary transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Danielle G; Pollard, Katherine S; Martin, William F; Freeman Zadrowski, Courtneay; Hernandez, Joseph; Korf, Ian; German, J Bruce; Rijnkels, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Even in genomes lacking operons, a gene's position in the genome influences its potential for expression. The mechanisms by which adjacent genes are co-expressed are still not completely understood. Using lactation and the mammary gland as a model system, we explore the hypothesis that chromatin state contributes to the co-regulation of gene neighborhoods. The mammary gland represents a unique evolutionary model, due to its recent appearance, in the context of vertebrate genomes. An understanding of how the mammary gland is regulated to produce milk is also of biomedical and agricultural importance for human lactation and dairying. Here, we integrate epigenomic and transcriptomic data to develop a comprehensive regulatory model. Neighborhoods of mammary-expressed genes were determined using expression data derived from pregnant and lactating mice and a neighborhood scoring tool, G-NEST. Regions of open and closed chromatin were identified by ChIP-Seq of histone modifications H3K36me3, H3K4me2, and H3K27me3 in the mouse mammary gland and liver tissue during lactation. We found that neighborhoods of genes in regions of uniquely active chromatin in the lactating mammary gland, compared with liver tissue, were extremely rare. Rather, genes in most neighborhoods were suppressed during lactation as reflected in their expression levels and their location in regions of silenced chromatin. Chromatin silencing was largely shared between the liver and mammary gland during lactation, and what distinguished the mammary gland was mainly a small tissue-specific repertoire of isolated, expressed genes. These findings suggest that an advantage of the neighborhood organization is in the collective repression of groups of genes via a shared mechanism of chromatin repression. Genes essential to the mammary gland's uniqueness are isolated from neighbors, and likely have less tolerance for variation in expression, properties they share with genes responsible for an organism's survival.

  19. Listeria Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanes, Didier; Sousa, Sandra; Cossart, Pascale

    The opportunistic intracellular foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has become a paradigm for the study of host-pathogen interactions and bacterial adaptation to mammalian hosts. Analysis of L. monocytogenes infection has provided considerable insight into how bacteria invade cells, move intracellularly, and disseminate in tissues, as well as tools to address fundamental processes in cell biology. Moreover, the vast amount of knowledge that has been gathered through in-depth comparative genomic analyses and in vivo studies makes L. monocytogenes one of the most well-studied bacterial pathogens. This chapter provides an overview of progress in the exploration of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data in Listeria spp. to understand genome evolution and diversity, as well as physiological aspects of metabolism used by bacteria when growing in diverse environments, in particular in infected hosts.

  20. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew D.; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...... evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics....

  1. Postpartum Sexuality and the Lactational Amenorrhea Method for Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbok, Miriam H

    2015-12-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on postpartum coital behavior, anovulatory and ovulatory bleeding episodes, and the methodology and efficacy of Lactational Amenorrhea Method and progesterone-only oral contraceptives. Of interest is the finding that breastfeeding women may resume coital behavior earlier postpartum, but report increased discomfort over time. The high efficacy of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method is confirmed and data illustrating possible relaxation of some criteria are presented. The conflicting guidance of CDC and WHO concerning immediate postpartum use of progestin-only methods is presented. The dearth of recent studies calls for new research on these topics.

  2. Squalamine lactate for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian; Desai, Avinash; Garcia, Charles A; Thomas, Edgar; Gast, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Squalamine lactate inhibits angiogenesis by a long-lived, intracellular mechanism of action. The drug is taken up into activated endothelial cells through caveolae, small invaginations in the cellular membrane. Subsequently, the drug binds to and "chaperones" calmodulin to an intracellular membrane compartment and blocks angiogenesis at several levels. A series of basic investigations, preclinical studies, and human clinical trials have begun to establish the proof of concept, efficacy, and safety parameters for use of squalamine lactate as a therapeutic agent for exudative age-related macular degeneration and several types of malignancies.

  3. Kinetics of Homoacetic Fermentation of Lactate by Clostridium formicoaceticum

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shang-Tian; Tang, I-Ching; Okos, Martin R.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium formicoaceticum homofermentatively converted lactate to acetate at mesophilic temperatures (30 to 42°C) and at pHs between 6.6 and 9.6. The production of acetate was found to be growth associated. Approximately 0.96 g of acetic acid and 0.066 g of cells were formed from each gram of lactic acid consumed at 37°C. The concentration of the substrate (lactate) had little or no effect on the growth rate; however, the fermentation was inhibited by acetic acid. The bacterium grew at an o...

  4. Stability of plasma metabolites and hormones in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R W; Athanasiou, V N

    1978-06-01

    Plasma concentration stability of glucose, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, growth hormone, insulin were determined in lactating dairy cows. Concentrations of these metabolites and hormones were measured during a 36- to 48-hour period in 3 normal, mature dairy cows in the 2nd month of lactation. Samples were taken at 30-minute intervals; also, intensive sampling (every 10 minutes) was done at varying times in relation to feeding and milking. Of the 5 components measured, glucose concentration was the most stable, easiest to assay, and most reliable for use as a diagnostic aid in assessing metabolic carbohydrate disturbances in dairy cattle.

  5. Bovine mastitis outbreak in Japan caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus New York/Japan clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    Many methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are multidrug-resistant; consequently, infectious diseases involving MRSA are recognized as troublesome diseases not only in human health care but also in animal health care. A bovine mastitis case caused by MRSA isolates of the New York/Japan clone (NJC), which occurred in Japan in 2005, was monitored in the current study. Isolates of the NJC are typical of hospital-acquired MRSA in Japan. The genetic backgrounds of these strains differ from those of bovine-associated S. aureus, which are typically of clonal complex (CC)97, CC705, and CC133. Moreover, the NJC isolates in this bovine outbreak possessed a β-hemolysin-converting bacteriophage and an immune evasion cluster, as found in the NJC isolates from humans, so it is possible that this clone was introduced into the dairy herd by a human carrier. Most bovine intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by the NJC isolates in our study were asymptomatic, and obvious clinical signs were recognized in only the first 3 infected cows. Of a total of 78 cows, 31 cows were MRSA carriers, and these carrier cows were detected by testing the milk of all lactating cows at 1-month intervals. These S. aureus carrier cows were culled or the infected quarter was dried off and no longer milked. Both IMI and mastitis caused by MRSA were completely eradicated after 5 months. Genotyping data suggested that exchanging of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (the determining factor in methicillin resistance) occurred easily between MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus in the udders of carrier cows. This case study demonstrates an effective procedure against the spread of MRSA in a dairy herd, and highlights the risk of emergence of new MRSA strains in a dairy herd.

  6. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  7. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism in bovine Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  9. Characterization of the bovine ampkgamma1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkel, Bernhard; Kollers, Sonja; Fries, Ruedi; Sazanov, Alexei; Yoshida, Erin; Valle, Edith; Davoren, Jon; Hickey, Donal

    2005-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents the mammalian form of the core component of a kinase cascade that is conserved between fungi, plants, and animals. AMPK plays a major role in protecting mammalian cells from metabolic stress by switching off biosynthetic pathways that require ATP and switching on ATP-regenerating pathways. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of the gene for the noncatalytic bovine gamma1 subunit of AMPK. The bovine ampkgamma1 (PRKAG1) gene spans in excess of 14 kb and is located at BTA 5q21-q22. It consists of 12 exons ranging in size from 38 b to 166 b, interspersed with 11 introns that range between 97 b and 6753 b in length. The coding region of the bovine gene shares 93% and 90% nucleotide sequence similarity with its human and rat counterparts, and the bovine AMPKgamma1 protein is 98% and 95% identical to its human and rat homologs, respectively, in amino acid sequence. SNP discovery using a cattle DNA panel revealed a number of polymorphisms that may be useful for the evaluation of ampkgamma1 as a candidate gene for energy metabolism-related production traits.

  10. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  11. An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sparling, A M

    2000-01-01

    A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology.

  12. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-10-28

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection.

  13. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  14. Transmission of new bovine prion to mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, T.G.M.; Biacabe, A.G.; Bencsik, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6 mi

  15. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  16. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  17. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was dete

  18. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  19. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative conf

  20. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  1. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  2. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans......, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  3. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  4. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    of DM (dry matter), fat and protein (P=0.99, 0.82 and 0.94). Milk lactose content was, however, higher for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime (P=0.01). Sows on both dietary regimes were in negative energy balance throughout lactation. Sows fed the 1-diet regime were negative in N and Lys and reached...... a positive or zero balance in late lactation. For the 2-diet feeding regime sows’ N and Lys balance was positive throughout lactation, and N loss was higher for sows fed the 2-diet feeding regime. The concentration of urea in plasma was lower for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime. In conclusion, feeding...

  5. In Silico Genome-Scale Reconstruction and Validation of the Corynebacterium glutamicum Metabolic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kjeld Raunkjær; Nielsen, J.

    2009-01-01

    A genome-scale metabolic model of the Gram-positive bacteria Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was constructed comprising 446 reactions and 411 metabolite, based on the annotated genome and available biochemical information. The network was analyzed using constraint based methods. The model...... and lactate. Comparable flux values between in silico model and experimental values were seen, although some differences in the phenotypic behavior between the model and the experimental data were observed,...

  6. Identification of Putative Ortholog Gene Blocks Involved in Gestant and Lactating Mammary Gland Development: A Rodent Cross-Species Microarray Transcriptomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M.; Hernández-Stengele, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raúl; Salazar, Emmanuel; Sanchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio; Ramírez-Salcedo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland (MG) undergoes functional and metabolic changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, possibly by regulation of conserved genes. The objective was to elucidate orthologous genes, chromosome clusters and putative conserved transcriptional modules during MG development. We analyzed expression of 22,000 transcripts using murine microarrays and RNA samples of MG from virgin, pregnant, and lactating rats by cross-species hybridization. We identified 521 transcripts differentially expressed; upregulated in early (78%) and midpregnancy (89%) and early lactation (64%), but downregulated in mid-lactation (61%). Putative orthologous genes were identified. We mapped the altered genes to orthologous chromosomal locations in human and mouse. Eighteen sets of conserved genes associated with key cellular functions were revealed and conserved transcription factor binding site search entailed possible coregulation among all eight block sets of genes. This study demonstrates that the use of heterologous array hybridization for screening of orthologous gene expression from rat revealed sets of conserved genes arranged in chromosomal order implicated in signaling pathways and functional ontology. Results demonstrate the utilization power of comparative genomics and prove the feasibility of using rodent microarrays to identification of putative coexpressed orthologous genes involved in the control of human mammary gland development. PMID:24288657

  7. Identification of Putative Ortholog Gene Blocks Involved in Gestant and Lactating Mammary Gland Development: A Rodent Cross-Species Microarray Transcriptomics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammary gland (MG undergoes functional and metabolic changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, possibly by regulation of conserved genes. The objective was to elucidate orthologous genes, chromosome clusters and putative conserved transcriptional modules during MG development. We analyzed expression of 22,000 transcripts using murine microarrays and RNA samples of MG from virgin, pregnant, and lactating rats by cross-species hybridization. We identified 521 transcripts differentially expressed; upregulated in early (78% and midpregnancy (89% and early lactation (64%, but downregulated in mid-lactation (61%. Putative orthologous genes were identified. We mapped the altered genes to orthologous chromosomal locations in human and mouse. Eighteen sets of conserved genes associated with key cellular functions were revealed and conserved transcription factor binding site search entailed possible coregulation among all eight block sets of genes. This study demonstrates that the use of heterologous array hybridization for screening of orthologous gene expression from rat revealed sets of conserved genes arranged in chromosomal order implicated in signaling pathways and functional ontology. Results demonstrate the utilization power of comparative genomics and prove the feasibility of using rodent microarrays to identification of putative coexpressed orthologous genes involved in the control of human mammary gland development.

  8. Genetic diversity in a Brazilian bovine herd based on four microsatellite loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Sabrina E. Matos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or short tandem repeats (STRs, DNA markers relatively abundant in the genome, have a high degree of polymorphism and therefore great potential for characterizing populations. The present study estimates genetic variability in a set of four microsatellites (BMS3013, BMS3004, HEL10 and TGLA122 in a Brazilian hybrid bovine breed (5/8 Aberdeen Angus x 3/8 Nelore. The objectives were to determine the effect of crossbreeding and selection in these animals' genetic diversity as well as to discover the herd's genetic relationship with that of other breeds. Low diversity was verified in BMS3013 and high diversity was detected in BMS3004, HEL10 and TGLA122. Two alleles in TGLA122 are described here for the first time (TGLA122*155 and TGLA122*163. These genes are possibly characteristics of Zebu animals since they have not been found in other taurine samples so far investigated. Low interpopulational diversity was observed among taurine cattle populations, and clusters obtained on TGLA122 phylogenetic trees agreed with the bovine herd's geographic origin. Therefore, despite TGLA122's high polymorphism and high levels of intrapopulational diversity, the system engenders consistent bovine phylogenies. We detected an intriguingly high similarity between Brangus Ibagé and Red Angus since the former is a hybrid having 3/8 of Nelore genes. Either these animals' environment or genetic selective practices applied to the breed probably favor the Angus genotype.

  9. Comparison of transcriptomic landscapes of bovine embryos using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib Hasan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in sequencing technologies have opened a new era of high throughput investigations. Although RNA-seq has been demonstrated in many organisms, no study has provided a comprehensive investigation of the bovine transcriptome using RNA-seq. Results In this study, we provide a deep survey of the bovine embryonic transcriptomes, the first application of RNA-seq in cattle. Embryos cultured in vitro were used as models to study early embryonic development in cattle. RNA amplified from limited amounts of starting total RNA were sequenced and mapped to the reference genome to obtain digital gene expression at single base resolution. In particular, gene expression estimates from more than 1.6 million unannotated bases in 1785 novel transcribed units were obtained. We compared the transcriptomes of embryos showing distinct developmental statuses and found genes that showed differential overall expression as well as alternative splicing. Conclusion Our study demonstrates the power of RNA-seq and provides further understanding of bovine preimplantation embryonic development at a fine scale.

  10. Construction of genomic libraries of Cryptosporidium parvum and identification of antigen-encoding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, C C; Blagburn, B L; Tidwell, R R

    1991-01-01

    Genomic libraries have been constructed from bovine C. parvum DNA in the lambda ZAP and lambda DASH vectors. Based on an estimated genome size of 2 x 10(4) kilobases (kb), each recombinant library contains greater than 10 genomic equivalents. The average recombinant size for the lambda ZAP library is 2.1 kb and for the lambda DASH library is 14 kb. We have identified genes to major antigens recognized by hyperimmune bovine antiserum. These recombinants are currently being purified and characterized. Limited DNA sequence analysis of random C. parvum clones confirms suggestions that the genome is quite AT-rich. The DNA sequence of random lambda ZAP fusion proteins has identified a potential ATPase, a structural protein and a DNA-binding protein.

  11. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-11-22

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates.

  12. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Maede Moosavi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Mohsen Ghavami; Amin Tamadoد

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ≥ 150 DIM), duration of masti...

  13. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte.

  14. Cephalopod genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertin, Caroline B.; Bonnaud, Laure; Brown, C. Titus

    2012-01-01

    The Cephalopod Sequencing Consortium (CephSeq Consortium) was established at a NESCent Catalysis Group Meeting, ``Paths to Cephalopod Genomics-Strategies, Choices, Organization,'' held in Durham, North Carolina, USA on May 24-27, 2012. Twenty-eight participants representing nine countries (Austri...

  15. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    , archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: leukoencephalopathy with thalamus and brainstem involvement and high lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions LTBL leukoencephalopathy with thalamus and brainstem involvement and high lactate Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Close All Description Leukoencephalopathy with thalamus and brainstem involvement and high lactate ( LTBL ) is a disorder that affects the ...

  17. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF LACTATE DURING EXERCISE IN HUMANS USING SUBCUTANEOUS AND TRANSCUTANEOUS MICRODIALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, J; PLIJTERGROENDIJK, H; VISSER, KR; MOOK, GA; KORF, J

    1994-01-01

    We have evaluated the possibility of monitoring the plasma lactate concentration in human volunteers during cycle ergometer exercise using subcutaneous and transcutaneous microdialysis. In transcutaneous microdialysis, the relative increase in dialysate lactate concentration exceeded that of plasma

  18. A first generation whole genome RH map of the river buffalo with comparison to domestic cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantia Madhu S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recently constructed river buffalo whole-genome radiation hybrid panel (BBURH5000 has already been used to generate preliminary radiation hybrid (RH maps for several chromosomes, and buffalo-bovine comparative chromosome maps have been constructed. Here, we present the first-generation whole genome RH map (WG-RH of the river buffalo generated from cattle-derived markers. The RH maps aligned to bovine genome sequence assembly Btau_4.0, providing valuable comparative mapping information for both species. Results A total of 3990 markers were typed on the BBURH5000 panel, of which 3072 were cattle derived SNPs. The remaining 918 were classified as cattle sequence tagged site (STS, including coding genes, ESTs, and microsatellites. Average retention frequency per chromosome was 27.3% calculated with 3093 scorable markers distributed in 43 linkage groups covering all autosomes (24 and the X chromosomes at a LOD ≥ 8. The estimated total length of the WG-RH map is 36,933 cR5000. Fewer than 15% of the markers (472 could not be placed within any linkage group at a LOD score ≥ 8. Linkage group order for each chromosome was determined by incorporation of markers previously assigned by FISH and by alignment with the bovine genome sequence assembly (Btau_4.0. Conclusion We obtained radiation hybrid chromosome maps for the entire river buffalo genome based on cattle-derived markers. The alignments of our RH maps to the current bovine genome sequence assembly (Btau_4.0 indicate regions of possible rearrangements between the chromosomes of both species. The river buffalo represents an important agricultural species whose genetic improvement has lagged behind other species due to limited prior genomic characterization. We present the first-generation RH map which provides a more extensive resource for positional candidate cloning of genes associated with complex traits and also for large-scale physical mapping of the river buffalo

  19. Laboratory Prototype of Bioreactor for Oxidation of Toxic D-Lactate Using Yeast Cells Overproducing D-Lactate Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karkovska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available D-lactate is a natural component of many fermented foods like yogurts, sour milk, cheeses, and pickles vegetable products. D-lactate in high concentrations is toxic for children and people with short bowel syndrome and provokes encephalopathy. These facts convincingly demonstrate a need for effective tools for the D-lactate removal from some food products. The main idea of investigation is focused on application of recombinant thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha “tr6,” overproducing D-lactate: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.2.4, D-lactate cytochrome c oxidoreductase, D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome, DLDH. In addition to 6-fold overexpression of DLDH under a strong constitutive promoter (prAOX, the strain of H. polymorpha “tr6” (gcr1 catX/Δcyb2, prAOX_DLDH is characterized by impairment in glucose repression of AOX promoter, devoid of catalase and L-lactate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activities. Overexpression of DLDH coupling with the deletion of L-lactate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity opens possibility for usage of the strain as a base for construction of bioreactor for removing D-lactate from fermented products due to oxidation to nontoxic pyruvate. A laboratory prototype of column-type bioreactor for removing a toxic D-lactate from model solution based on permeabilized cells of the H. polymorpha “tr6” and alginate gel was constructed and efficiency of this process was tested.

  20. Electrochemical lactate biosensor based upon chitosan/carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed graphite electrodes for the determination of lactate in embryonic cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ibáñez, Naiara; García-Cruz, Leticia; Montiel, Vicente; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Iniesta, Jesús

    2016-03-15

    l-lactate is an essential metabolite present in embryonic cell culture. Changes of this important metabolite during the growth of human embryo reflect the quality and viability of the embryo. In this study, we report a sensitive, stable, and easily manufactured electrochemical biosensor for the detection of lactate within embryonic cell cultures media. Screen-printed disposable electrodes are used as electrochemical sensing platforms for the miniaturization of the lactate biosensor. Chitosan/multi walled carbon nanotubes composite have been employed for the enzymatic immobilization of the lactate oxidase enzyme. This novel electrochemical lactate biosensor analytical efficacy is explored towards the sensing of lactate in model (buffer) solutions and is found to exhibit a linear response towards lactate over the concentration range of 30.4 and 243.9 µM in phosphate buffer solution, with a corresponding limit of detection (based on 3-sigma) of 22.6 µM and exhibits a sensitivity of 3417 ± 131 µAM(-1) according to the reproducibility study. These novel electrochemical lactate biosensors exhibit a high reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3.8% and an enzymatic response over 82% after 5 months stored at 4 °C. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography technique has been utilized to independently validate the electrochemical lactate biosensor for the determination of lactate in a commercial embryonic cell culture medium providing excellent agreement between the two analytical protocols.