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Sample records for bovine interleukin-10 receptor

  1. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding bovine interleukin-10 receptor alpha are associated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection status

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    Kelton David F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Since this pathogen has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human IBDs, the goal of this study was to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs in several well-known candidate genes for human IBD are associated with susceptibility to MAP infection in dairy cattle. Methods The bovine candidate genes, interleukin-10 (IL10, IL10 receptor alpha/beta (IL10RA/B, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1, TGFB receptor class I/II (TGFBR1/2, and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (SLC11A1 were sequenced for SNP discovery using pooled DNA samples, and the identified SNPs were genotyped in a case-control association study comprised of 242 MAP negative and 204 MAP positive Holstein dairy cattle. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of SNPs and reconstructed haplotypes with MAP infection status. Results A total of 13 SNPs were identified. Four SNPs in IL10RA (984G > A, 1098C > T, 1269T > C, and 1302A > G were tightly linked, and showed a strong additive and dominance relationship with MAP infection status. Haplotypes AGC and AAT, containing the SNPs IL10RA 633C > A, 984G > A and 1185C > T, were associated with an elevated and reduced likelihood of positive diagnosis by serum ELISA, respectively. Conclusions SNPs in IL10RA are associated with MAP infection status in dairy cattle. The functional significance of these SNPs warrants further investigation.

  2. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10.

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    Gerco den Hartog

    Full Text Available Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors, and used directly or allowed to differentiate to dendritic cells under the influence of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Recombinant bovine IL-10 inhibited TLR induced activation of monocytes, and dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced activation of monocyte-derived DCs comparable to human IL-10. By using blocking antibodies to either bovine IL-10 or the human IL-10 receptor it was demonstrated that inhibition of monocyte activation by bovine IL-10 was dependent on binding of bovine IL-10 to the human IL-10R. These data demonstrate that bovine IL-10 potently inhibits the activation of human myeloid cells in response to TLR activation. Bovine IL-10 present in dairy products may thus potentially contribute to the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and allergy, enhance mucosal tolerance induction and decrease intestinal inflammation and may therefore be applicable in infant foods and in immunomodulatory diets.

  3. Inflammatory bowel disease and mutations affecting the interleukin-10 receptor.

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    Glocker, Erik-Oliver; Kotlarz, Daniel; Boztug, Kaan; Gertz, E Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Noyan, Fatih; Perro, Mario; Diestelhorst, Jana; Allroth, Anna; Murugan, Dhaarini; Hätscher, Nadine; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Sauer, Martin; Kreipe, Hans; Lacher, Martin; Nustede, Rainer; Woellner, Cristina; Baumann, Ulrich; Salzer, Ulrich; Koletzko, Sibylle; Shah, Neil; Segal, Anthony W; Sauerbrey, Axel; Buderus, Stephan; Snapper, Scott B; Grimbacher, Bodo; Klein, Christoph

    2009-11-19

    The molecular cause of inflammatory bowel disease is largely unknown. We performed genetic-linkage analysis and candidate-gene sequencing on samples from two unrelated consanguineous families with children who were affected by early-onset inflammatory bowel disease. We screened six additional patients with early-onset colitis for mutations in two candidate genes and carried out functional assays in patients' peripheral-blood mononuclear cells. We performed an allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in one patient. In four of nine patients with early-onset colitis, we identified three distinct homozygous mutations in genes IL10RA and IL10RB, encoding the IL10R1 and IL10R2 proteins, respectively, which form a heterotetramer to make up the interleukin-10 receptor. The mutations abrogate interleukin-10-induced signaling, as shown by deficient STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) phosphorylation on stimulation with interleukin-10. Consistent with this observation was the increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha and other proinflammatory cytokines from peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from patients who were deficient in IL10R subunit proteins, suggesting that interleukin-10-dependent "negative feedback" regulation is disrupted in these cells. The allogeneic stem-cell transplantation performed in one patient was successful. Mutations in genes encoding the IL10R subunit proteins were found in patients with early-onset enterocolitis, involving hyperinflammatory immune responses in the intestine. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation resulted in disease remission in one patient. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  4. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Schoemaker, R.; Tijhaar, E.; Westphal, A.H.; Ruiter, de T.; Weg-Schrijver, van de Elise; Neerven, van R.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood

  5. Identification and functional characterization of a second chain of the interleukin-10 receptor complex.

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    Kotenko, S V; Krause, C D; Izotova, L S; Pollack, B P; Wu, W; Pestka, S

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine which signals through a specific cell surface receptor complex. Only one chain, that for ligand binding (IL-10Ralpha or IL-10R1), was identified previously. We report here that, although human IL-10 binds to the human IL-10R1 chain expressed in hamster cells, it does not induce signal transduction. However, the co-expression of CRFB4, a transmembrane protein of previously unknown function belonging to the class II cytokine receptor family, toge...

  6. Macrophage-restricted interleukin-10 receptor deficiency, but not IL-10 deficiency, causes severe spontaneous colitis.

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    Zigmond, Ehud; Bernshtein, Biana; Friedlander, Gilgi; Walker, Catherine R; Yona, Simon; Kim, Ki-Wook; Brenner, Ori; Krauthgamer, Rita; Varol, Chen; Müller, Werner; Jung, Steffen

    2014-05-15

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic anti-inflammatory cytokine produced and sensed by most hematopoietic cells. Genome-wide association studies and experimental animal models point at a central role of the IL-10 axis in inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we investigated the importance of intestinal macrophage production of IL-10 and their IL-10 exposure, as well as the existence of an IL-10-based autocrine regulatory loop in the gut. Specifically, we generated mice harboring IL-10 or IL-10 receptor (IL-10Rα) mutations in intestinal lamina propria-resident chemokine receptor CX3CR1-expressing macrophages. We found macrophage-derived IL-10 dispensable for gut homeostasis and maintenance of colonic T regulatory cells. In contrast, loss of IL-10 receptor expression impaired the critical conditioning of these monocyte-derived macrophages and resulted in spontaneous development of severe colitis. Collectively, our results highlight IL-10 as a critical homeostatic macrophage-conditioning agent in the colon and define intestinal CX3CR1(hi) macrophages as a decisive factor that determines gut health or inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interleukin-10 receptor signaling in innate immune cells regulates mucosal immune tolerance and anti-inflammatory macrophage function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Shouval (Dror); R.S. Biswas (Rajat); J.A. Goettel (Jeremy); K. McCann (Katelyn); E. Conaway (Evan); N.S. Redhu (Naresh); I.D. Mascanfroni (Ivan); Z. AlAdham (Ziad); S. Lavoie (Sydney); M. Ibourk (Mouna); D.D. Nguyen (Deanna); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); J.C. Escher (Johanna); R. Somech (Raz); B. Weiss (Batia); R. Beier (Rita); L.S. Conklin (Laurie); C.L. Ebens (Christen); F.G.M.S. Santos (Fernanda); A.R. Ferreira (Alexandre); J.K. Sherlock (Jon); A.K. Bhan (Atul); W. Müller (Werner); J.R. Mora (J. Rodrigo); F.J. Quintana (Francisco); C. Klein (Christoph); A.M. Muise (Aleixo); R.I. Horwitz (Ralph); S.B. Snapper (Scott)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntact interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) signaling on effector and T regulatory (Treg) cells are each independently required to maintain immune tolerance. Here we show that IL-10 sensing by innate immune cells, independent of its effects on Tcells, was critical for regulating mucosal

  8. Rational Structure-Based Rescaffolding Approach to De Novo Design of Interleukin 10 (IL-10 Receptor-1 Mimetics.

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    Gloria Ruiz-Gómez

    Full Text Available Tackling protein interfaces with small molecules capable of modulating protein-protein interactions remains a challenge in structure-based ligand design. Particularly arduous are cases in which the epitopes involved in molecular recognition have a non-structured and discontinuous nature. Here, the basic strategy of translating continuous binding epitopes into mimetic scaffolds cannot be applied, and other innovative approaches are therefore required. We present a structure-based rational approach involving the use of a regular expression syntax inspired in the well established PROSITE to define minimal descriptors of geometric and functional constraints signifying relevant functionalities for recognition in protein interfaces of non-continuous and unstructured nature. These descriptors feed a search engine that explores the currently available three-dimensional chemical space of the Protein Data Bank (PDB in order to identify in a straightforward manner regular architectures containing the desired functionalities, which could be used as templates to guide the rational design of small natural-like scaffolds mimicking the targeted recognition site. The application of this rescaffolding strategy to the discovery of natural scaffolds incorporating a selection of functionalities of interleukin-10 receptor-1 (IL-10R1, which are relevant for its interaction with interleukin-10 (IL-10 has resulted in the de novo design of a new class of potent IL-10 peptidomimetic ligands.

  9. Rational Structure-Based Rescaffolding Approach to De Novo Design of Interleukin 10 (IL-10) Receptor-1 Mimetics.

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    Ruiz-Gómez, Gloria; Hawkins, John C; Philipp, Jenny; Künze, Georg; Wodtke, Robert; Löser, Reik; Fahmy, Karim; Pisabarro, M Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Tackling protein interfaces with small molecules capable of modulating protein-protein interactions remains a challenge in structure-based ligand design. Particularly arduous are cases in which the epitopes involved in molecular recognition have a non-structured and discontinuous nature. Here, the basic strategy of translating continuous binding epitopes into mimetic scaffolds cannot be applied, and other innovative approaches are therefore required. We present a structure-based rational approach involving the use of a regular expression syntax inspired in the well established PROSITE to define minimal descriptors of geometric and functional constraints signifying relevant functionalities for recognition in protein interfaces of non-continuous and unstructured nature. These descriptors feed a search engine that explores the currently available three-dimensional chemical space of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) in order to identify in a straightforward manner regular architectures containing the desired functionalities, which could be used as templates to guide the rational design of small natural-like scaffolds mimicking the targeted recognition site. The application of this rescaffolding strategy to the discovery of natural scaffolds incorporating a selection of functionalities of interleukin-10 receptor-1 (IL-10R1), which are relevant for its interaction with interleukin-10 (IL-10) has resulted in the de novo design of a new class of potent IL-10 peptidomimetic ligands.

  10. Interleukin-10 receptor signaling in innate immune cells regulates mucosal immune tolerance and anti-inflammatory macrophage function.

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    Shouval, Dror S; Biswas, Amlan; Goettel, Jeremy A; McCann, Katelyn; Conaway, Evan; Redhu, Naresh S; Mascanfroni, Ivan D; Al Adham, Ziad; Lavoie, Sydney; Ibourk, Mouna; Nguyen, Deanna D; Samsom, Janneke N; Escher, Johanna C; Somech, Raz; Weiss, Batia; Beier, Rita; Conklin, Laurie S; Ebens, Christen L; Santos, Fernanda G M S; Ferreira, Alexandre R; Sherlock, Mary; Bhan, Atul K; Müller, Werner; Mora, J Rodrigo; Quintana, Francisco J; Klein, Christoph; Muise, Aleixo M; Horwitz, Bruce H; Snapper, Scott B

    2014-05-15

    Intact interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) signaling on effector and T regulatory (Treg) cells are each independently required to maintain immune tolerance. Here we show that IL-10 sensing by innate immune cells, independent of its effects on T cells, was critical for regulating mucosal homeostasis. Following wild-type (WT) CD4(+) T cell transfer, Rag2(-/-)Il10rb(-/-) mice developed severe colitis in association with profound defects in generation and function of Treg cells. Moreover, loss of IL-10R signaling impaired the generation and function of anti-inflammatory intestinal and bone-marrow-derived macrophages and their ability to secrete IL-10. Importantly, transfer of WT but not Il10rb(-/-) anti-inflammatory macrophages ameliorated colitis induction by WT CD4(+) T cells in Rag2(-/-)Il10rb(-/-) mice. Similar alterations in the generation and function of anti-inflammatory macrophages were observed in IL-10R-deficient patients with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease. Collectively, our studies define innate immune IL-10R signaling as a key factor regulating mucosal immune homeostasis in mice and humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and Function of Immune Cells in an Adolescent Patient with a Deficiency in the Interleukin-10 Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Veenbergen (Sharon); M.A. Van Leeuwen (Marieke); G.J. Driessen (Gertjan J.); R. Kersseboom (Rogier); L.F. de Ruiter (Lilian); Raatgeep, R.H.C. (Rolien (H.) C.); D.J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve (Dicky); Y. Simons-Oosterhuis (Ytje); K. Biermann (Katharina); Halley, D.J.J. (Dicky J.J.); L. de Ridder (Lissy); J.C. Escher (Johanna); J.N. Samsom (Janneke)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE:: Monogenic defects in the interleukin-10 (IL-10) pathway are extremely rare and cause infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-like pathology. Understanding how immune responses are dysregulated in monogenic IBD-like diseases can provide valuable insight in “classical”

  12. Autocrine Interleukin-10 Mediates Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor-Induced Spinal Microglial β-Endorphin Expression.

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    Wu, Hai-Yun; Tang, Xue-Qi; Mao, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2017-11-29

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist exenatide stimulates microglial β-endorphin expression and subsequently produces neuroprotection and antinociception. This study illustrated an unrecognized autocrine role of IL-10 in mediation of exenatide-induced β-endorphin expression. Treatment with exenatide in cultured primary spinal microglia concentration dependently stimulated the expression of the M2 microglial markers IL-10, IL-4, Arg 1, and CD206, but not the M1 microglial markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, or CD68. Intrathecal exenatide injection also significantly upregulated spinal microglial expression of IL-10, IL-4, Arg 1, and CD206, but not TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, or CD68. Intrathecal injection of exenatide stimulated spinal microglial expression of IL-10 and β-endorphin in neuropathic rats. Furthermore, treatment with IL-10 (but not IL-4) stimulated β-endorphin expression in cultured primary microglia, whereas treatment with β-endorphin failed to increase IL-10 expression. The IL-10-neutralizing antibody entirely blocked exenatide-induced spinal microglial expression of β-endorphin in vitro and in vivo and fully blocked exenatide mechanical antiallodynia in neuropathic rats. Moreover, specific cAMP/PKA/p38 signal inhibitors and siRNA/p38β, but not siRNA/p38α, completely blocked exenatide-induced IL-10 expression in cultured primary microglia. Knock-down of IL-10 receptor-α mRNA using siRNA fully inhibited exenatide-induced spinal microglial β-endorphin expression and mechanical antiallodynia in neuropathy. Exenatide also markedly stimulated phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 in cultured primary microglia and β-endorphin stimulation was completely inhibited by the specific STAT3 activation inhibitor. These results revealed that IL-10 in microglia mediated β-endorphin expression after GLP-1 receptor activation through the autocrine cAMP/PKA/p38β/CREB and subsequent IL-10 receptor/STAT3 signal pathways. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

  13. Interleukin-10 increases reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages through its bidirectional interaction with liver X receptor α

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    Halvorsen, Bente, E-mail: Bente.Halvorsen@rr-research.no [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); K.G. Jebsen Inflammation Research Center, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Holm, Sverre [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Yndestad, Arne [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); K.G. Jebsen Inflammation Research Center, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Scholz, Hanne [Section for Transplantation, Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Sagen, Ellen Lund [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Nebb, Hilde [Department of Nutrition, Institute for Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Holven, Kirsten B. [Department of Nutrition, Institute for Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Dahl, Tuva B. [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Aukrust, Pål [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Section of Clinical Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); K.G. Jebsen Inflammation Research Center, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • IL-10 promotes reverse cholesterol efflux from lipid loaded macrophages. • IL-10 increases the expression of ABCA-1 and ABCG-1. • IL-10 exhibits cross-talk with the nuclear receptor LXRα. - Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-10 is a prototypical anti-inflammatory cytokine that has been shown to attenuate atherosclerosis development. In addition to its anti-inflammatory properties, the anti-atherogenic effect of IL-10 has recently also been suggested to reflect a complex effect of IL-10 on lipid metabolism in macrophages. In the present study we examined the effects of IL-10 on cholesterol efflux mechanism in lipid-loaded THP-1 macrophages. Our main findings were: (i) IL-10 significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux induced by fetal-calf serum, high-density lipoprotein (HDL){sub 2} and apolipoprotein A-1. (ii) The IL-10-mediated effects on cholesterol efflux were accompanied by an increased IL-10-mediated expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, that was further enhanced when the cells were co-activated with the liver X receptor (LXR)α agonist (22R)-hydroxycholesterol. (iii) The effect of LXRα activation on the IL-10-mediated effects on the ATP-binding cassette transporters seems to include enhancing effects on the IL-10 receptor 1 (IL10R1) expression and interaction with STAT-3 signaling. (iv) These enhancing effects on ABCA1 and ABCG1 was not seen when the cells were stimulated with the IL-10 family members IL-22 and IL-24. This study suggests that the anti-atherogenic properties of IL-10 may include enhancing effects on cholesterol efflux mechanism that involves cross-talk with LXRα activation.

  14. Interleukin-10 Is Produced by a Specific Subset of Taste Receptor Cells and Critical for Maintaining Structural Integrity of Mouse Taste Buds

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    Chai, Jinghua; Zhou, Minliang; Simon, Nirvine; Huang, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    Although inflammatory responses are a critical component in defense against pathogens, too much inflammation is harmful. Mechanisms have evolved to regulate inflammation, including modulation by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Previously we have shown that taste buds express various molecules involved in innate immune responses, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here, using a reporter mouse strain, we show that taste cells also express the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Remarkably, IL-10 is produced by only a specific subset of taste cells, which are different from the TNF-producing cells in mouse circumvallate and foliate taste buds: IL-10 expression was found exclusively in the G-protein gustducin-expressing bitter receptor cells, while TNF was found in sweet and umami receptor cells as reported previously. In contrast, IL-10R1, the ligand-binding subunit of the IL-10 receptor, is predominantly expressed by TNF-producing cells, suggesting a novel cellular hierarchy for regulating TNF production and effects in taste buds. In response to inflammatory challenges, taste cells can increase IL-10 expression both in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that taste buds use separate populations of taste receptor cells that coincide with sweet/umami and bitter taste reception to modulate local inflammatory responses, a phenomenon that has not been previously reported. Furthermore, IL-10 deficiency in mice leads to significant reductions in the number and size of taste buds, as well as in the number of taste receptor cells per taste bud, suggesting that IL-10 plays critical roles in maintaining structural integrity of the peripheral gustatory system. PMID:24523558

  15. Induction of interleukin-10 in the T helper type 17 effector population by the G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) agonist G-1

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    Brunsing, Ryan L; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent suppressor of the immune system, commonly produced by CD4+ T cells to limit ongoing inflammatory responses minimizing host damage. Many autoimmune diseases are marked by large populations of activated CD4+ T cells within the setting of chronic inflammation; therefore, drugs capable of inducing IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells would be of great therapeutic value. Previous reports have shown that the small molecule G-1, an agonist of the membrane-bound G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER, attenuates disease in an animal model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. However, the direct effects of G-1 on CD4+ T-cell populations remain unknown. Using ex vivo cultures of purified CD4+ T cells, we show that G-1 elicits IL-10 expression in T helper type 17 (Th17) -polarized cells, increasing the number of IL-10+ and IL-10+ IL-17A+ cells via de novo induction of IL-10. T-cell cultures differentiated in the presence of G-1 secreted threefold more IL-10, with no change in IL-17A, tumour necrosis factor-α, or interferon-γ. Moreover, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (but not p38 or Jun N-terminal kinase) signalling blocked the response, while analysis of Foxp3 and RORγt expression demonstrated increased numbers of IL-10+ cells in both the Th17 (RORγt+) and Foxp3+ RORγt+ hybrid T-cell compartments. Our findings translated in vivo as systemic treatment of male mice with G-1 led to increased IL-10 secretion from splenocytes following T-cell receptor cross-linking. These results demonstrate that G-1 acts directly on CD4+ T cells, and to our knowledge provide the first example of a synthetic small molecule capable of eliciting IL-10 expression in Th17 or hybrid T-cell populations. PMID:21722102

  16. Analysis of Polymorphisms in Interleukin-10, Interleukin-6, and Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist in Mexican-Mestizo Women with Pre-eclampsia

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    Valencia Villalvazo, Elith Yazmin; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Romero Arauz, Juan Fernando; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Coronel, Agustín; Carlos Falcón, Juan; Hernández Rivera, Jaime; Ibarra, Roberto; Polanco Reyes, Lucila

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that studies seeking associations of polymorphisms in regulatory regions of cytokine genes with pre-eclampsia (PE) have not always been consistent in different population analyses, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between rs1800896 of interleukin-10 (IL-10), rs1800795 of interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in intron 2 of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), as well as gene–gene interactions between these three polymorphisms with the presence of PE in Mexican-Mestizo women and one Amerindian population from México (Maya). A case–control study was performed where 411 pre-eclamptic cases and 613 controls were genotyped. For the rs1800896 of IL-10 and rs1800795 of IL-6, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination and for the VNTR of IL-1Ra, PCR. Allele frequency differences were assessed by Chi-squared test; logistic regression was used to test for associations; a gene–gene interaction was conducted. Genotypic and allelic distribution of the polymorphisms was similar in our population. The estimated of the gene–gene interaction between the polymorphisms did not differ significantly. However, we observed important differences in the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the three polymorphisms analyzed between Mestiza-Mexicanas and Maya-Mestizo women. In conclusion, we did not find an association between polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1Ra and PE in Mexican-Mestizo and Maya-Mestizo women. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these three polymorphisms were analyzed together with gene–gene interaction in women with PE. PMID:23013217

  17. A Gly15Arg mutation in the Interleukin-10 gene reduces secretion of Interleukin-10 in Crohn disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, van der K.; Boor, P.P.C.; Sandkuijl, L.A.; Meijssen, M.A.C.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wilson, J.H.P.; Rooij, F.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Genetic susceptibility, probably involving cytokines and their receptors, plays an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study we examine the potential role of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene as a susceptibility gene in IBD. Methods: We studied 17 sib-pairs with

  18. Immunomodulation of Crohn's disease by interleukin-10.

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    Narula, S K; Cutler, D; Grint, P

    1998-01-01

    Interleukin-10 is an important cytokine that is involved in regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and T-cell responses. Interleukin-10 has been studied extensively in various preclinical and clinical models of inflammation. The most remarkable and consistently reproducible quality of IL-10 is its ability to downregulate macrophage functions. This includes inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such TNF-alpha, Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 and antigen presentation by these professional antigen presenting cells. Additionally, Interleukin-10 also has effects on various other cell types of hematopoietic origin such as B-cells, neutrophils, and most importantly T-cells. Interleukin-10 has shown efficacy in several models of autoimmune disease. The present article deals with the effect of Interleukin-10 in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease and the results of phase I clinical trials in normal human volunteers and chronic active Crohn's disease patients.

  19. Viral infection increases glucocorticoid-induced interleukin-10 production through ERK-mediated phosphorylation of the glucocorticoid receptor in dendritic cells: potential clinical implications.

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    Sinnie Sin Man Ng

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis plays a central role in the adaptive response to stress including infection of pathogens through glucocorticoids. Physical and/or mental stress alter susceptibility to viral infection possibly by affecting this regulatory system, thus we explored potential cellular targets and mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon in key immune components dendritic cells (DCs. Dexamethasone (DEX treatment and subsequent Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection most significantly and cooperatively stimulated mRNA expression of the interleukin (IL-10 in murine bone marrow-derived DCs among 89 genes involved in the Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. NDV increased DEX-induced IL-10 mRNA and protein expression by 7- and 3-fold, respectively, which was observed from 3 hours after infection. Conventional DCs (cDCs, but not plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs were major sources of IL-10 in bone marrow-derived DCs treated with DEX and/or infected with NDV. Murine cytomegalovirus and DEX increased serum IL-10 cooperatively in female mice. Pre-treatment of DCs with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK inhibitor U0126 abolished cooperative induction of IL-10 by DEX and NDV. Further, ERK overexpression increased IL-10 promoter activity stimulated by wild-type human GR but not by its mutant defective in serine 203, whereas ERK knockdown abolished NDV/DEX cooperation on IL-10 mRNA and phosphorylation of the mouse GR at serine 213. NDV also increased DEX-induced mRNA expression of three known glucocorticoid-responsive genes unrelated to the Toll-like receptor signaling pathways in DCs. These results indicate that virus and glucocorticoids cooperatively increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by potentiating the transcriptional activity of GR in DCs, through which virus appears to facilitate its own propagation in infected hosts. The results may further underlie in part known exacerbation of IL-10/T helper-2-related

  20. Viral Infection Increases Glucocorticoid-Induced Interleukin-10 Production through ERK-Mediated Phosphorylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Dendritic Cells: Potential Clinical Implications

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    Ng, Sinnie Sin Man; Li, Andrew; Pavlakis, George N.; Ozato, Keiko; Kino, Tomoshige

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis plays a central role in the adaptive response to stress including infection of pathogens through glucocorticoids. Physical and/or mental stress alter susceptibility to viral infection possibly by affecting this regulatory system, thus we explored potential cellular targets and mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon in key immune components dendritic cells (DCs). Dexamethasone (DEX) treatment and subsequent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection most significantly and cooperatively stimulated mRNA expression of the interleukin (IL)-10 in murine bone marrow-derived DCs among 89 genes involved in the Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. NDV increased DEX-induced IL-10 mRNA and protein expression by 7- and 3-fold, respectively, which was observed from 3 hours after infection. Conventional DCs (cDCs), but not plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) were major sources of IL-10 in bone marrow-derived DCs treated with DEX and/or infected with NDV. Murine cytomegalovirus and DEX increased serum IL-10 cooperatively in female mice. Pre-treatment of DCs with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor U0126 abolished cooperative induction of IL-10 by DEX and NDV. Further, ERK overexpression increased IL-10 promoter activity stimulated by wild-type human GR but not by its mutant defective in serine 203, whereas ERK knockdown abolished NDV/DEX cooperation on IL-10 mRNA and phosphorylation of the mouse GR at serine 213. NDV also increased DEX-induced mRNA expression of three known glucocorticoid-responsive genes unrelated to the Toll-like receptor signaling pathways in DCs. These results indicate that virus and glucocorticoids cooperatively increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by potentiating the transcriptional activity of GR in DCs, through which virus appears to facilitate its own propagation in infected hosts. The results may further underlie in part known exacerbation of IL-10/T helper-2-related allergic disorders

  1. The effects of dexamethasone and chlorpromazine on tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-10 in human volunteers.

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    Bleeker, M W; Netea, M G; Kullberg, B J; Van der Ven-Jongekrijg, J; Van der Meer, J W

    1997-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) are pro-inflammatory cytokines that play an important role in severe infections, whereas IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and IL-10 are anti-inflammatory cytokines that counteract their effects. Chlorpromazine and dexamethasone protect mice against lethal endotoxaemia by decreasing circulating concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta. We investigated whether administration of chlorpromazine or dexamethasone to human volunteers is able to modulate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production capacity in whole blood. Blood samples were taken before and several time-points after medication. Circulating cytokine concentrations were low in all samples. LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta production in whole blood was inhibited by dexamethasone treatment, while chlorpromazine had no effect. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with LPS, the addition of chlorpromazine (1-100 ng/ml) had no modulatory action on TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-1ra or IL-10 synthesis. The chlorpromazine concentrations measured in circulation of volunteers were eight to 40 times lower than the concentrations shown to be effective in mice. In conclusion, chlorpromazine inhibits TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta production in mice at concentrations that cannot be reached in humans, thus precluding its usage in clinical anti-cytokine strategies. In contrast, dexamethasone is an effective inhibitor of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:9378493

  2. Role of interleukin-10 in the neuroprotective effect of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor agonist, compound 21, after ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Pillai, Bindu; Dhandapani, Krishnan M; Ergul, Adviye; Fagan, Susan C

    2017-03-15

    We and others have shown that the angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21), provides neuroprotection and enhances recovery in rodent stroke models yet the mechanism involved is not known. Moreover, C21 treatment is associated with an anti-inflammatory response. Here we tested the hypothesis that C21 mediates neuroprotection by upregulating the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10. Wistar rats were subjected to 3h-middle cerebral artery suture occlusion and treated at reperfusion with C21 (0.03mg/kg)±IL-10 neutralizing antibody (0.1mg/kg) both given i.p. Infarct size, behavioral outcomes, and molecular analysis were performed at 24h post-injury. Primary rat neurons were used to test the direct neuroprotective effect of C21 in vitro. C21 treatment reduced infarct size, improved functional outcome and decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the ischemic hemisphere compared to saline. Anti-IL-10 co-treatment blocked the C21-induced reduction in infarct size and inflammation, and the improvement in behavioral outcome. In vitro, C21 treatment increased neuron survival and reduced cell apoptosis after oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and OGD/reoxygenation. These effects were mediated through AT2R stimulation. C21 provides direct neuroprotection as well as indirect protection through IL-10. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interleukin-10 attenuation of collagen-induced arthritis is associated with suppression of interleukin-17 and retinoid-related orphan receptor γt production in macrophages and repression of classically activated macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Our objective in the present study was to determine the signaling pathway of interleukin 10 (IL-10) for modulating IL-17 expression in macrophages and the importance of this mediation in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods IL-10-knockout (IL-10−/−) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were immunized with chicken type II collagen (CII) to induce arthritis. The expression levels of IL-17 and retinoid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) in macrophages and joint tissues of IL-10−/− and WT mice were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. The F4/80 macrophages and positive IL-17-producing macrophages in synovial tissues of the mice were determined by immunohistochemistry. The populations of classically activated macrophage (M1) and alternatively activated macrophage (M2) phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of genes associated with M1 and M2 markers was analyzed by qRT-PCR. Results Compared to WT mice, IL-10−/− mice had exacerbated CIA development, which was associated with increased production of T helper 17 cell (Th17)/Th1 proinflammatory cytokines and CII-specific immunoglobulin G2a antibody after CII immunization. Macrophages in IL-10−/− mice had increased amounts of IL-17 and RORγt compared with the amounts in WT mice with CIA. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the number of IL-17-producing macrophages in synovial tissues was significantly higher in IL-10−/− mice than in WT mice. IL-10 deficiency might promote macrophage polarization toward the proinflammatory M1 phenotype, which contributes to the rheumatoid arthritis inflammation response. Conclusion IL-10 inhibits IL-17 and RORγt expression in macrophages and suppresses macrophages toward the proinflammatory M1 phenotype, which is important for the role of IL-10 in mediating the pathogenesis of CIA. PMID:24742125

  4. Dexamethasone or interleukin-10 blocks interleukin-1beta-induced uterine contractions in pregnant rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Drew W; Novy, Miles J; Witkin, Steven S; Gravett, Michael G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment with the immune modulators dexamethasone or interleukin-10 prevents interleukin-1beta-induced uterine contractions in a nonhuman primate model. Thirteen chronically instrumented rhesus monkeys at 135 +/- 1 days of gestation (term, 167 days) received one of three interventions: (1) intra-amniotic interleukin-1beta (10 microg) infusion with maternal dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) intravenously every 6 hours for 1 day before interleukin-1beta and for 2 days thereafter (n = 4), (2) intra-amniotic interleukin-1beta infusion with maternal interleukin-10 (25 microg/kg) given intravenously and 100 microg interleukin-10 given intra-amniotically before the interleukin-1beta and continued every 8 hours for 3 days (n = 5), and (3) intra-amniotic interleukin-1beta administered alone (n = 5). Uterine activity was monitored continuously and quantified as the hourly contraction area (millimeters of mercury times seconds per hour) in all groups until delivery. Amniotic fluid was sampled for leukocyte counts and assayed for prostaglandins E(2) and F(2)alpha, cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist by specific assays. Maternal and fetal blood were assayed for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and estradiol. Interleukin-1beta infusion in the absence of immune modulators resulted in an increase in uterine activity and amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, and leukocytes. Dexamethasone and interleukin-10 treatment significantly reduced interleukin-1beta-induced uterine contractility (P dexamethasone (P Dexamethasone and interleukin-10 exert similar inhibitory effects on interleukin-1beta-induced uterine activity, which appears to be mediated by a decrease in prostaglandin production. Reduced estrogen biosynthesis or suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and leukocyte migration may contribute to the

  5. The bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: A receptor with low affinity for benzodiazepines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parola, A.L.; Laird, H.E. II (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The density of bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) in four tissues was highest in adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex PBR cofractionated with a mitochondrial membrane marker enzyme and could be solubilized with intact ligand binding properties using digitonin. The membrane bound and soluble mitochondrial receptors were pharmacologically characterized and showed the rank order of potency to inhibit ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding was PK 11195 > protoporphyrin IX > benzodiazepines. ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to bovine adrenal mitochondria was unaffected by diethylpyrocarbonate, a histidine residue modifying reagent that decreased binding to rat liver mitochondria by 70%. ({sup 3}H)PK 14105 photolabeled the bovine PBR and the Mr was estimated under nondenaturing and denaturing conditions. These results demonstrate the bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is pharmacologically and biochemically distinct from the rat receptor, but the receptor component photolabeled by an isoquinoline ligand has a similar molecular weight.

  6. Characterization of angiogenin receptors on bovine brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, M; Dehouck, M P; Fruchart, J C; Spik, G; Montreuil, J; Cecchelli, R

    1991-04-30

    The mitogenic effect of bovine milk angiogenin was studied on bovine brain capillary and aortic endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. The proliferation of only bovine brain capillary endothelial cells was detected at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml, with a maximum effect at 100 ng/ml. This mitogenic activity may be correlated with a specific binding of angiogenin which was demonstrated only to bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. [125I]-labeled angiogenin binding was time and concentration dependent and saturable. Scatchard analyses of binding data showed evidence of a single class of binding sites with an apparent dissociation constant of 5.10(-10)M. The molecular mass of the angiogenin receptor (49 kDa) was determined by ligand blotting.

  7. Interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphism as a potential host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphism as a potential host susceptibility factor in Pakistani patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. MS Afzal, S Anjum, A Salman, S Ashraf, ZUR Farooqi, T Ahmed, Y Waheed, I Qadri ...

  8. Porcine brain natriuretic peptide receptor in bovine adrenal cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, K.; Hashiguchi, T.; Ohashi, M.; Takayanagi, R.; Haji, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nawata, H.

    1989-01-01

    The action of porcine brain natriuretic peptide (pBNP) on the steroidogenesis was investigated in cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. Porcine BNP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of both ACTH- and A II-stimulated aldosterone secretion. 10/sup /minus/8/M and 10/sup /minus/7/M pBNP also significantly inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretions. Binding studies of (/sup 125/I)-pBNP to bovine adrenocortical membrane fractions showed that adrenal cortex had high-affinity and low-capacity pBNP binding sites, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.70 x 10/sup /minus/10/M and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 19.9 fmol/mg protein. Finally, the 135 Kd radioactive band was specially visualized in the affinity labeling of bovine adrenal cortex with disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). These results suggest that pBNP may have receptor-mediated suppressive actions on bovine adrenal steroidogenesis, similar to that in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).

  9. CXC chemokine receptor 4 expression and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha-induced chemotaxis in CD4+ T lymphocytes are regulated by interleukin-4 and interleukin-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Quan, S; Jacobi, H H

    2000-01-01

    We report that interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 can significantly up- or down-regulate CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression on CD4+ T lymphocytes, respectively. Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha)-induced CD4+ T-lymphocyte chemotaxis was also correspondingly regulated by IL-4 and IL......-10. IL-4 and IL-10 up- or down-regulated CXCR4 mRNA expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes, respectively, as detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Scatchard analysis revealed a type of CXCR4 with affinity (Kd approximately 6.3 nM), and approximately 70....... The regulation of CXCR4 expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes by IL-4 and IL-10 could be blocked by a selective inhibitor of protein kinase (staurosporine) or by a selective inhibitor of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (H-8), indicating that these cytokines regulate CXCR4 on CD4+ T lymphocytes via both c...

  10. Purification of the neurotensin receptor from bovine brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Demoliou-Mason, C.D.; Barnard, E.A.

    1988-01-05

    The neurotensin receptor protein, solubilized with digitonin/asolectin from bovine cerebral cortex membranes, was purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity chromatography using immobilized neurotensin. The product exhibits saturable and specific binding of (3,11-tyrosyl-3,5-/sup 3/H) neurotensin with an apparent affinity (K/sub d/ = 5.5 nM) comparable to that measured in intact membranes and crude soluble extracts. The affinity-purified material, after reduction with 100 mM dithiothreitol, in denaturing gel electrophoresis showed a single polypeptide of M/sub r/ 72,000. Under nonreducing conditions the apparent M/sub r/, however, was 50,000, suggesting the presence of intramolecular disulfide bonds. The purified neurotensin receptor was judged to be homogenous, in that (i) only a single polypeptide was detectable; and (ii) the overall purification was 30,000-50,000-fold, giving a specific neurotensin-binding activity close to the theoretical maximum.

  11. Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 10 gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 10 gene polymorphisms and the risk of ischemic stroke in south Indian population. Shehnaz Sultana Venkata K. Kolla Yasovanthi Jeedigunta Pranay K. Penagaluru Sindhu Joshi P. Usha Rani P. P. Reddy. Research Note Volume 90 Issue 2 August 2011 pp 361-364 ...

  12. Bovine pancreatic polypeptide as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, G.Z.; Lu, L.; Qian, J.; Xue, B.G.

    1987-03-01

    In dispersed acini from rat pancreas, it was found that bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) and its C-fragment hexapeptide amide (PP-6), at concentrations of 0.1 and 30 ..mu..M, respectively, could significantly inhibit amylase secretion stimulated by carbachol, and this inhibition by BPP was dose dependent. /sup 45/Ca outflux induced by carbachol was also inhibited by BPP or PP-6, but they had no effect on cholecystokinin octapeptide- (CCK-8) or A23187-stimulated /sup 45/Ca outflux. BPP was also capable of displacing the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate to its receptors, and it possessed a higher affinity (K/sub i/35nM) than carbachol (K/sub i/ 1.8 ..mu..M) in binding with M-receptors. It is concluded from this study that BPP acts as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat pancreatic acini. In addition, BPP inhibited the potentiation of amylase secretion caused by the combination of carbachol plus secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. This may be a possible explanation of the inhibitory effect of BPP on secretin-induced pancreatic enzyme secretion shown in vivo, since pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by secretin under experimental conditions may be the result of potentiation of enzyme release produced by the peptide in combination with a cholinergic stimulant.

  13. POSITIVE COOPERATIVE INTERACTION OF QUATERNARY ANTICHOLINERGICS WITH FUNCTIONAL MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN BOVINE TRACHEAL SMOOTH-MUSCLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; ELZINGA, CRS; BELTMAN, W; VANTINTELEN, EJJ; ZAAGSMA, J

    The interaction of quaternary anticholinergics with muscarinic receptors in bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips was investigated because some of these compounds have shown anomalous (biphasic) behaviour in radioligand displacement studies, in contrast to their tertiary analogues. It was found that

  14. Piroxicam treatment augments bone abnormalities in interleukin-10 knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Kristine; Dobie, Ross; Farquharson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and fractures are common complications of inflammatory bowel disease. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and has been partly attributed to intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone status and assess the association between bone loss and gut...... inflammation in an experimental colitis model. METHODS: Colitis was induced in interleukin-10 knockout mice (PAC IL-10 k.o.) by peroral administration of piroxicam for 12 days. The degree of colitis was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, and microscopic evaluation. Trabecular and cortical bone...

  15. The dual nature of Interleukin-10 in pemphigus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Michael Jeffrey; Ellebrecht, Christoph T.; Payne, Aimee S.

    2014-01-01

    The immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays beneficial but also potentially detrimental roles in inflammation, infection, and autoimmunity. Recent studies suggest a regulatory role for IL-10-expressing B cells in the autoimmune blistering disease pemphigus vulgaris. Here we review the studies on IL-10 in pemphigus vulgaris and discuss the potential pathophysiological significance of these findings in comparison to prior studies of IL-10 in other human conditions. A better understanding of the complex roles of IL-10 in immune regulation may improve our understanding of pemphigus pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:25464924

  16. A functional interleukin-10 mutation in Dutch patients with Crohn's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, K. van der; Boor, P.P.C.; Bodegraven, A.A; Jong, D.J. de; Crusius, J.B.; Naber, A.H.J.; Kuipers, E.J.; Wilson, J.H.; Rooij, F.W. de

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interleukin-10 is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine. Interleukin-10 deficient mice are prone to develop chronic colitis. Administration of recombinant human interleukin-10 has been proposed to have a beneficial effect in a subgroup of patients with Crohn's

  17. Smoking modulates interleukin-6:interleukin-10 and RANKL:osteoprotegerin ratios in the periodontal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César-Neto, J B; Duarte, P M; de Oliveira, M C G; Tambeli, C H; Sallum, E A; Nociti, F H

    2007-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of smoking on the gene expression of interleukin-1alpha, -1ra, -6, -8 and -10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -8, receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin, in sites with periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were divided into three groups: the healthy group (periodontally healthy subjects; n=10); the periodontitis group [subjects with severe chronic periodontitis who never smoked (probing depth>or=7 mm) (n=25)]; and the smoking group (subjects diagnosed with severe chronic periodontitis who smoked>or=1 pack per day for at least 10 years; n=25). Gene and protein expressions were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Data analysis demonstrated that, except for MMP-8 and osteoprotegerin, the levels of all factors were increased by inflammation (pperiodontitis compared with controls, whereas the levels of interleukin-10, MMP-8 and osteoprotegerin were lower (pSmoking lowered the levels of interleukin-1alpha, -8, -10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, MMP-8 and osteoprotegerin, and increased the levels of interleukin-6 and -1ra in sites with a comparable type of periodontitis (psmoking modulates gene expression in the periodontium, and the influence of smoking on periodontal disease may involve effects of interleukin-6:interleukin-10 and RANKL:osteoprotegerin ratios.

  18. Interleukin-10 and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, S.A.; Bendtzen, K.; Moller, B.

    1999-01-01

    , and the type and duration of immunosuppression. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine, produced primarily by T-helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes in the later stages of T-cell activation, suggested to play a role in EBV-associated PTLD, We recently reported preliminary findings on IL-10 in relation...... human recombinant IL-10 was employed; the assay is specific for human natural and viral IL-10, Results, Three patients experienced primary EBV infection, five reactivated EBV infections, and one did not change EBV status. Three patients had a fulminant course and died with EBV-associated PTLD; confirmed...... immunosuppression and are now in a state of operational tolerance. In three of four cases with initial lymphoma, EBV infection (primary or reactivation) preceded the increase in IL-10, In all four cases, the IL-10 increase preceded the PTLD diagnosis. In six cases, IL-10 could be followed after treatment showing...

  19. Pathologic patterns of interleukin 10 expression – A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larisa; Debeljak, Željko; Horvat, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is important pleiotropic immunoregulatory cytokine which gene is located on chromosome 1 at 1q31-32. There are many genetic variants of IL-10 gene. However, the most studied are two dinucleotide repeats (microsatellites), IL10.G and IL10.R, located 1.2 kb and 4 kb upstream of the transcription start site and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) -1082(G/A), -819(C/T) and -592(C/A). A large number of studies have shown that IL-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with different diseases and play an important role in pathophysiology and clinical course of these diseases. This review summarizes published literature knowledge about the association of IL-10 polymorphisms and expression patterns with asthma, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis and some neoplasms. PMID:25672465

  20. beta-agonist-induced constitutive beta(2)-adrenergic receptor activity in bovine tracheal smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, B; Meurs, H; Roffel, AF; Elzinga, CRS; Hoiting, BH; de Vries, MML; Zaagsma, J

    2000-01-01

    1 According to the two state receptor model, the beta (2)-adrenergic receptor (beta (2)-AR) isomerizes between an inactive state and a constitutively active state, which couples to the stimulatory G-protein in the absence of agonist. In bovine tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM), we investigated the

  1. Foxd3 suppresses interleukin-10 expression in B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zhiding; Xiao, He; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhu, Gaizhi; Yu, Dandan; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Ma, Ning; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Wang, Tianxiao; Wang, Renxi

    2017-04-01

    Interleukin-10-positive (IL-10 + ) regulatory B (Breg) cells play an important role in restraining excessive inflammatory responses by secreting IL-10. However, it is still unclear what key transcription factors determine Breg cell differentiation. Hence, we explore what transcription factor plays a key role in the expression of IL-10, a pivotal cytokine in Breg cells. We used two types of web-based prediction software to predict transcription factors binding the IL-10 promoter and found that IL-10 promoter had many binding sites for Foxd3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation PCR assay demonstrated that Foxd3 directly binds the predicted binding sites around the start codon upstream by -1400 bp. Further, we found that Foxd3 suppressed the activation of IL-10 promoter by using an IL-10 promoter report system. Finally, knocking out Foxd3 effectively promotes Breg cell production by up-regulating IL-10 expression. Conversely, up-regulated Foxd3 expression was negatively associated with IL-10 + Breg cells in lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice. Hence, our data suggest that Foxd3 suppresses the production of IL-10 + Breg cells by directly binding the IL-10 promoter. This study demonstrates the mechanism for Breg cell production and its application to the treatment of autoimmune diseases by regulating Foxd3 expression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Expression of thromboxane A2 receptor gene and thromboxane A2 synthase in bovine corpora lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Z M; Rao, C V; Chakraborty, C

    1992-08-01

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the expression of thromboxane (TXA2) receptor gene, from mRNA to functional receptor protein in terms of ligand binding, along with the cellular and subcellular distribution of the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the ligand for the receptors. Bovine corpora lutea contained a single TXA2 receptor mRNA transcript of 2.8 kb. All the cell types in bovine corpora lutea contained immunoreactive TXA2 synthase, TXB2, TXA2 receptor transcripts, and receptor protein that bound the TXA2 antagonist 9,11-dimethylmethano-11,12-methano-16 (3-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-13-14-dihydro-13-aza-15 alpha beta-omega-tetranor TXA2. The large luteal cells (20-35 microns) contained more receptor transcripts, receptor protein, and immunoreactive TXA2 synthase than did the small luteal cells (12-19 microns), luteal blood vessels, and nonluteal cells (7-12 microns). After correction for the cellular area differences, small luteal cells were seen to contain more receptor protein than did large luteal cells and nonluteal cells. All the cells showed an increase of TXA2 receptors and catalytically active TXA2 synthase from mid-luteal phase to early pregnancy, suggesting the possibility that TXA2 could be a luteotropic eicosanoid. Bovine lung homogenates (a positive control), bovine luteal plasma membranes-mitochondria-lysosomes fraction, rough-smooth endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi fraction, and highly purified nuclei contained 65-kDa immunoreactive protein, presumably representing TXA2 synthase. In addition, the luteal fractions, but not bovine lung, contained other small and large molecular-size immunoreactive proteins. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that immunoreactive TXA2 synthase was present primarily in plasma membranes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear membranes, and chromatin; and immunoreactive TXB2 was present primarily in different-size vesicles and nuclear chromatin. In summary, the present studies demonstrate for the first time that

  3. Clinical, hematologic, and immunologic effects of interleukin-10 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A C; Granowitz, E V; Shapiro, L; Vannier, E; Lonnemann, G; Angel, J B; Kennedy, J S; Rabson, A R; Radwanski, E; Affrime, M B; Cutler, D L; Grint, P C; Dinarello, C A

    1996-09-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunological properties of interleukin-10 (IL-10) administration in healthy humans. Volunteers received a single intravenous bolus injection of recombinant human IL-10 (1, 10, or 25 micrograms/kg) or placebo. Cytokine production in whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was assessed before and 3, 6, 24, and 48 hr after the injection. Peak serum concentrations of IL-10 (15 +/- 1.1, 208 +/- 20.1, and 505 +/- 22.3 ng/ml) occurred after 2-5 min for 1, 10, and 25 micrograms/kg IL-10, respectively. The terminal-phase half-life was 3.18 hr. A transient leukocytosis (24-63% above baseline) was observed 6 hr after injection, which coincided with a dose-dependent decrease (12-24%) in neutrophil superoxide generation. There was a marked inhibition (60-95%) of endotoxin-induced IL-6 production from whole blood in each group receiving IL-10. Production of IL-8 in endotoxin-stimulated blood was reduced in the 10 micrograms/kg group. In PBMC stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and phorbol ester, there was a decrease (72-87%) in interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) production 6 hr after IL-10 with a return to pre-IL-10 levels after 24 hr. This reduction was only partially associated with a decrease in the number of CD2-bearing cells. We conclude that IL-10 administration into humans is without significant side effects, and a single injection reduces ex vivo production of IL-6, IL-8, and IFN gamma.

  4. The therapeutic potential of interleukin-10 in neuroimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwilasz, A.J.; Grace, P.M.; Serbedzija, P.; Maier, S.F.; Watkins, L.R.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimmune diseases have diverse symptoms and etiologies but all involve pathological inflammation that affects normal central nervous system signaling. Critically, many neuroimmune diseases also involve insufficient signaling/bioavailability of interleukin-10 (IL-10). IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine released by immune cells and glia, which drives the regulation of a variety of anti-inflammatory processes. This review will focus on the signaling pathways and function of IL-10, the current evidence for insufficiencies in IL-10 signaling/bioavailability in neuroimmune diseases, as well as the implications for IL-10-based therapies to treating such problems. We will review in detail four pathologies as examples of the common etiologies of such disease states, namely neuropathic pain (nerve trauma), osteoarthritis (peripheral inflammation), Parkinson’s disease (neurodegeneration), and multiple sclerosis (autoimmune). A number of methods to increase IL-10 have been developed (e.g. protein administration, viral vectors, naked plasmid DNA, plasmid DNA packaged in polymers to enhance their uptake into target cells, and adenosine 2A agonists), which will also be discussed. In general, IL-10-based therapies have been effective at treating both the symptoms and pathology associated with various neuroimmune diseases, with more sophisticated gene therapy-based methods producing sustained therapeutic effects lasting for several months following a single injection. These exciting results have resulted in IL-10-targeted therapeutics being positioned for upcoming clinical trials for treating neuroimmune diseases, including neuropathic pain. Although further research is necessary to determine the full range of effects associated with IL-10-based therapy, evidence suggests IL-10 may be an invaluable target for the treatment of neuroimmune disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Neuroimmunology and Synaptic Function’. PMID:25446571

  5. Disruption of the 37-kDa/67-kDa laminin receptor gene in bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 37-kDa/67-kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR), also known as ribosomal protein SA (RPSA), acts as a cell surface receptor for prions and plays an important role in internalization of cellular prion protein. In this study, we knocked out the part of prion binding sites (aa 161-205) by gene targeting in the bovine fetal fibroblasts ...

  6. NO EVIDENCE FOR A ROLE OF MUSCARINIC M(2) RECEPTORS IN FUNCTIONAL ANTAGONISM IN BOVINE TRACHEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; MEURS, H; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1 The functional antagonism between methacholine- or histamine-induced contraction and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation was evaluated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle in vitro. In addition, the putative contribution of muscarinic M(2) receptors mediating inhibition of beta-adrenoceptor-induced

  7. The role of cortisol and interleukin-10 gene expression patterns in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of interleukin-10 genes were up-regulated at 4 hours post exercise and sustained till 24 hours post exercise (χ² = 50, P = 0.000). Post exercise stress activates the release of cortisol, and interleukin-10 genes to reinstate homeostasis through modulation of the immune response. Keywords: Homeostasis, immune response, ...

  8. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  9. Effects of interleukin-10 on cutaneous wounds and scars in humans of African continental ancestral origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieran, Ingrid; Taylor, Catherine; Bush, Jim; Rance, Mark; So, Karen; Boanas, Adam; Metcalfe, Anthony; Hobson, Rosalind; Goldspink, Nick; Hutchison, John; Ferguson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Scars in humans of African continental ancestry heal with an exaggerated inflammatory response and a generally wider scar. Interleukin-10 is an anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic cytokine. A randomized controlled trial in Caucasians found that exogenous interleukin-10 resulted in improved macroscopic scar appearance and reduced scar redness. We investigated the effects of interleukin-10 on cutaneous scarring in volunteers of African ancestral origin in an exploratory, single-center, within-subject, double-blind randomized controlled trial. Fifty-six subjects received two of four potential prerandomized concentrations of interleukin-10 (5, 25, 100, and 250 ng/100 µL) in two full-thickness incisions on the upper inner arms. Anatomically matching incisions on the contralateral arm were treated with placebo. Scars were excised at 1 month for histological analysis and were redosed with the same regimen. Resultant excision scars were followed up for 12 months for scar width measurement and scoring. Scoring was performed by trial doctors, subjects, and a panel. Incisions treated with 100 ng/100 µL interleukin-10 had significantly reduced microscopic scar widths. Incisions treated with 5 and 25 ng/100 µL interleukin-10 were also narrower, but not significantly. There were no differences observed in pro-inflammatory or pro-fibrotic markers between interleukin-10 and placebo treatment. There was no long-term evidence that 100 ng/100 µL interleukin-10 had a therapeutic effect on macroscopic scar width or appearance, as excisions treated with this concentration were significantly wider than placebo between 8 and 12 months of maturation. Doctors showed a trend toward favoring the macroscopic appearance of placebo-treated excisions compared with those treated with 250 ng/100 µL interleukin-10. Panelists scored placebo-treated excisions as significantly better-appearing than those treated with 250 ng/100 µL interleukin-10. Doctors' scores showed a

  10. Relaxin-Family Peptide Receptors 1 and 2 Are Fully Functional in the Bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhenzi Dai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In most mammals the peptide hormone relaxin is a key physiological component regulating early pregnancy and birth. However, synteny analysis shows that the gene encoding ovarian relaxin-2 is deleted in cows and sheep. While, these ruminants appear to exhibit a relaxin-like physiology, as in other mammals, until now a molecular understanding of this has been lacking. Cloning and expression analysis of the cognate bovine receptor for relaxin, RXFP1, as well as of the structurally related receptor, RXFP2, in female tissues, shows that these are expressed in a similar way to other mammals. RXFP1 transcripts are found in ovarian theca cells, endometrium, and myometrium, whereas RXFP2 transcripts are expressed in ovarian theca cells, oocytes, as well as in myometrium. Transfection of receptor-expressing gene constructs into HEK293 cells indicates that bovine RXFP1 has a greater EC50 at 10–50 nM for porcine or human relaxin, compared to human RXFP1. For bovine RXFP2, in contrast, the EC50 is <1 nM for its cognate ligand, bovine INSL3, but also 10–30 nM for porcine or human relaxin. Functional analysis shows that bovine myometrial cells are able to respond to exogenous relaxin and INSL3 with a significant increase in cAMP. Although expressing mRNA for both RXFP1 and RXFP2, bovine follicular theca cells only respond to INSL3 with a dose-dependent increase in cAMP. Altogether the results suggest that the cow is able to compensate for the missing hormone, and moreover imply that relaxin analogs could offer an important therapeutic option in treating female ruminant infertility.

  11. Affinity labeling the bovine gallbladder cholecystokinin receptor using a battery of probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schjoldager, B.; Powers, S.P.; Miller, L.J. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Although the gallbladder was the first recognized target of the peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) and is a physiologically important target, only one preliminary report of the biochemical characterization of this receptor exists. Recently, a series of molecular probes for the affinity labeling of different domains of the pancreatic CCK receptor have been developed. In this work the authors report the application of several of those probes toward the biochemical characterization of the bovine gallbladder muscularis receptor. These include long ({sup 125}I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK-33) and short ({sup 125}I-D-Tyr-Gly-((Nle{sup 28,31})CCK-(26-33))) probes chemically cross-linkable through their amino-terminal amino groups and monofunctional probes with their photolabile moieties at their amino terminus (2-diazo-3,3,3-trifluoropropionyl-{sup 125}I-D-Tyr-Gly-((Nle{sup 28,31})CCK-(26-33))) and carboxyl terminus ({sup 125}I-D-Tyr-Gly-((Nle{sup 28,31},pNO{sub 2}-Phe{sup 33})CCK-(26-33))), that span the receptor-binding region. Each of these bound specifically and saturably to a preparation enriched in plasma membranes from bovine gallbladder muscularis. These observations support the identification of the M{sub r} 70,000-85,000 protein as the bovine gallbladder CCK-binding subunit and, since this is a different size from the pancreatic CCK-binding subunit, provide biochemical evidence for molecular heterogeneity of peripheral CCK receptors.

  12. Species difference in the G protein selectivity of the human and bovine A1-adenosine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jockers, R; Linder, M E; Hohenegger, M; Nanoff, C; Bertin, B; Strosberg, A D; Marullo, S; Freissmuth, M

    1994-12-23

    The purified bovine brain A1-adenosine receptor has previously been shown to discriminate among closely related G protein alpha-subunits. To obtain analogous information for the human receptor, the cDNA coding for the human A1-adenosine receptor was inserted into a plasmid placing the synthesis of the receptor protein under the control of the MalE promoter. Following induction by maltose, active receptor accumulated in Escherichia coli membranes. Binding of the antagonist 8-[3H]cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine to E. coli membranes (KD approximately 2 nM, Bmax approximately 0.2-0.4 pmol/mg) showed the appropriate pharmacological profile. Incubation of E. coli membranes with purified Go,i-reconstituted guanine nucleotide-sensitive high affinity binding of the agonist (-)[125I] N6-3-(iodo-4-hydroxyphenylisopropyl)adenosine to the receptor (KD approximately 1 nM). In the presence of purified beta gamma-subunit, the recombinant receptor interacted equally well with the recombinant G protein alpha-subunits Gi alpha-1, Gi alpha-2, Gi alpha-3; G(o) alpha displayed a lower affinity for the receptor while Gs alpha was inactive. Parallel experiments were carried out in bovine and human brain membranes pretreated with N-ethylmaleimide to inactivate the endogenous G(o)/Gi proteins; Gi alpha-3 was most potent in reconstituting 125I-HPIA binding to bovine membranes, while Gi alpha-1, Gi alpha-2, and G(o) alpha displayed similar affinities. However, in human membranes, Gi alpha-1, Gi alpha-2, and Gi alpha-3, were equipotent and high concentrations of G(o) alpha were required to promote 125I-HPIA binding. These observations show (i) that functional human A1-adenosine receptors were synthesized in E. coli; (ii) that the pattern of G protein coupling is identical for the recombinant human A1-receptor and its counterpart in the native membrane; (iii) and that species differences between bovine and human receptor exist not only in their pharmacological profile but also in their G

  13. Protective role of interleukin-10 in Ozone-induced pulmonary inflammation**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanisms underlying ozone (03)-induced pulmonary inflammation remain unclear. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that is known to inhibit inflammatory mediators. Objectives: We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying interleuken-10...

  14. Characterization of putative receptors specific for quercetin on bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.C.; Becker, C.G.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have reported that tobacco glycoprotein (TGP), rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates (R-BSA), quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells (SMC). To investigate whether there are binding sites or receptors for these polyphenol-containing molecules on SMC, the authors have synthesized /sup 125/I-labeled rutin-bovine serum albumin ((/sup 125/I)R-BSA) of high specific activity (20 Ci/mmol). SMC were isolated from a bovine thoracic aorta and maintained in Eagle's minimum essential medium with 10% calf serum in culture. These SMC at early subpassages were suspended (3-5 x 10/sup 7/ cells/ml) in phosphate-buffered saline and incubated with (/sup 125/I)R-BSA (10 pmol) in the presence or absence of 200-fold unlabeled R-BSA, TGP, BSA, rutin, quercetin or related polyphenols, and catecholamines. Binding of (/sup 125/I)R-BSA to SMC was found to be reproducible and the radioligand was displaced by R-BSA, and also by TGP, rutin, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid, but not by BSA, ellagic acid, naringin, hesperetin, dopamine, epinephrine, or isoproterenol. The binding was saturable, reversible, and pH-dependent. These results demonstrate the presence of specific binding sites for quercetinon arterial SMC.

  15. Cotreatment with interleukin 4 and interleukin 10 modulates immune cells and prevents hypertension in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Chiasson, Valorie L; Seerangan, Geetha; Tobin, Richard P; Kopriva, Shelley E; Newell-Rogers, M Karen; Mitchell, Brett M

    2015-01-01

    Excessive maternal immune system activation plays a central role in the development of the hypertensive disorder of pregnancy preeclampsia (PE). The immunomodulatory cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) are dysregulated during PE; therefore we hypothesized that treatment with both recombinant IL-4 and IL-10 during pregnancy could prevent the development of PE in mice. Using our mouse model of PE in which immune system activation is induced by the double-stranded RNA receptor agonist poly I:C, we gave daily injections of IL-4, IL-10, or both on days 13-17 of pregnancy. Mice were then killed on day 18. Poly I:C caused a significant increase in systolic blood pressure in pregnant (P-PIC) mice compared with vehicle-treated pregnant (P) mice. All 3 treatments significantly decreased blood pressure in P-PIC mice to P levels, ameliorated the endothelial dysfunction, and decreased placental TLR3 levels in P-PIC mice. However, only IL-4/IL-10 cotreatment prevented the proteinuria and increased incidence of fetal demise in P-PIC mice; IL-4 or IL-10 alone had no effect. Additionally, only IL-4/IL-10 cotreatment prevented the significant increase in CD3(+)/γδ(+) T cells and CD11c(+) dendritic cells and significant decrease in CD11b(+)/CD14(-) suppressor monocytes, as well as completely prevented placental necrosis, in P-PIC mice. Importantly, IL-4/IL-10 cotreatment in P mice had no detrimental effects. Taken together, these data demonstrate that exogenous IL-4 and IL-10 administration concurrently during pregnancy can normalize immune cell subsets and prevent PE induced by maternal immune system activation. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Distinct cytokines balance the development of regulatory T cells and interleukin-10-producing regulatory B cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, Vladimir; Zajicova, Alena; Javorkova, Eliska; Trosan, Peter; Chudickova, Milada; Pavlikova, Michaela; Krulova, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells have been well described and the factors regulating their development and function have been identified. Recently, a growing body of evidence has documented the existence of interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing B cells, which are called regulatory B10 cells. These cells attenuate autoimmune, inflammatory and transplantation reactions, and the main mechanism of their inhibitory action is the production of IL-10. We show that the production of IL-10 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B cells is significantly enhanced by IL-12 and interferon-γ and negatively regulated by IL-21 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, exogenous IL-10 also inhibits B-cell proliferation and the expression of the IL-10 gene in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B cells. The negative autoregulation of IL-10 production is supported by the observation that the inclusion of anti-IL-10 receptor monoclonal antibody enhances IL-10 production and the proliferation of activated B cells. The effects of cytokines on IL-10 production by B10 cells did not correlate with their effects on B-cell proliferation or on IL-10 production by T cells or macrophages. The cytokine-induced changes in IL-10 production occurred on the level of IL-10 gene expression, as confirmed by increased or decreased IL-10 mRNA expression in the presence of a particular cytokine. The regulatory cytokines modulate the number of IL-10-producing cells rather than augmenting or decreasing the secretion of IL-10 on a single-cell level. Altogether these data show that the production of IL-10 by B cells is under the strict regulatory control of cytokines and that individual cytokines differentially regulate the development and activity of regulatory T cells and IL-10-producing regulatory B cells. PMID:24256319

  17. Low density lipoprotein receptors in bovine adrenal cortex. II. Low density lipoprotein binding to membranes prepared from fresh tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanen, P T; Basu, S K; Goldstein, J L; Brown, M S

    1979-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-binding activity was measured in whole homogenates and membranes prepared from fresh bovine adrenal cortex by an ultracentrifugation assay. The binding site for 125I-labeled LDL in isolated membranes shared the properties of the LDL receptor previously demonstrated in intact monolayers of cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. The amount of high affinity [125I]iodo-LDL-binding activity in the adrenal cortex was 6- to 12-fold higher than in the medulla of the same glands. Large amounts of high affinity [125I]iodo-LDL-binding activity were also present in the ovarian corpus luteum but not in the ovarian interstitium. Lesser amounts of high affinity binding activity were observed in 14 other bovine tissues. These results lend support to the concept that cells in the bovine adrenal cortex can obtain cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis through the receptor-mediated uptake of plasma LDL.

  18. A Multihit Model: Colitis Lessons from the Interleukin-10–deficient Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keubler, Lydia M.; Buettner, Manuela; Häger, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Complex mechanisms are pulling the strings to initiate the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Current evidence indicates that an interaction of genetic susceptibilities (polymorphisms), environmental factors, and the host microbiota leads to a dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. In the past decades, the interleukin-10–deficient mouse has served as an excellent model to mirror the multifactorial nature of this disease. Here, we want to review in detail the interplay of the genetic factors, immune aspects, and especially summarize and discuss the role of the microbiota contributing to colitis development in the interleukin-10–deficient mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease as a multihit model. PMID:26164667

  19. The structural network of Interleukin-10 and its implications in inflammation and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammation has significant roles in all phases of tumor development, including initiation, progression and metastasis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a well-known immuno-modulatory cytokine with an anti-inflammatory activity. Lack of IL-10 allows induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and hinders anti-tumor immunity, thereby favoring tumor growth. The IL-10 network is among the most important paths linking cancer and inflammation. The simple node-and-edge network representation is useful, but limited, hampering the understanding of the mechanistic details of signaling pathways. Structural networks complete the missing parts, and provide details. The IL-10 structural network may shed light on the mechanisms through which disease-related mutations work and the pathogenesis of malignancies. Results Using PRISM (a PRotein Interactions by Structural Matching tool), we constructed the structural network of IL-10, which includes its first and second degree protein neighbor interactions. We predicted the structures of complexes involved in these interactions, thereby enriching the available structural data. In order to reveal the significance of the interactions, we exploited mutations identified in cancer patients, mapping them onto key proteins of this network. We analyzed the effect of these mutations on the interactions, and demonstrated a relation between these and inflammation and cancer. Our results suggest that mutations that disrupt the interactions of IL-10 with its receptors (IL-10RA and IL-10RB) and α2-macroglobulin (A2M) may enhance inflammation and modulate anti-tumor immunity. Likewise, mutations that weaken the A2M-APP (amyloid precursor protein) association may increase the proliferative effect of APP through preventing β-amyloid degradation by the A2M receptor, and mutations that abolish the A2M-Kallikrein-13 (KLK13) interaction may lead to cell proliferation and metastasis through the destructive effect of KLK13 on the extracellular matrix

  20. Bovine ovarian cells have (pro)renin receptors and prorenin induces resumption of meiosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Andressa Minussi Pereira; da Silva, Eduardo Pradebon; da Rosa, Paulo Roberto Antunes; Bastiani, Felipe Tusi; Gutierrez, Karina; Ilha, Gustavo Freitas; Comim, Fabio Vasconcellos; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of a receptor that binds prorenin and renin in human endothelial and mesangial cells highlights the possible effect of renin-independent prorenin in the resumption of meiosis in oocytes that was postulated in the 1980s.This study aimed to identify the (pro)renin receptor in the ovary and to assess the effect of prorenin on meiotic resumption. The (pro)renin receptor protein was detected in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes, theca cells, granulosa cells, and in the corpus luteum. Abundant (pro)renin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells, while prorenin mRNA was identified in the cumulus cells only. Prorenin at concentrations of 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8)M incubated with oocytes co-cultured with follicular hemisections for 15h caused the resumption of oocyte meiosis. Aliskiren, which inhibits free renin and receptor-bound renin/prorenin, at concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-5), and 10(-3)M blocked this effect (Pmeiosis resumption, cumulus-oocyte complexes and follicular hemisections were treated with prorenin and with angiotensin II or saralasin (angiotensin II antagonist). Prorenin induced the resumption of meiosis independently of angiotensin II. Furthermore, cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured with forskolin (200μM) and treated with prorenin and aliskiren did not exhibit a prorenin-induced resumption of meiosis (Pmeiosis in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Toll-like receptor and antimicrobial peptide expression in the bovine endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlan R Steven

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endometrium is commonly infected with bacteria leading to severe disease of the uterus in cattle and humans. The endometrial epithelium is the first line of defence for this mucosal surface against bacteria and Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a critical component of the innate immune system for detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. Antimicrobial peptides, acute phase proteins and Mucin-1 (MUC-1 also provide non-specific defences against microbes on mucosal surfaces. The present study examined the expression of innate immune defences in the bovine endometrium and tested the hypothesis that endometrial epithelial cells express functional receptors of the TLR family and the non-specific effector molecules for defence against bacteria. Methods Bovine endometrial tissue and purified populations of primary epithelial and stromal cells were examined using RT-PCR for gene expression of TLRs, antimicrobial peptides and MUC-1. Functional responses were tested by evaluating the secretion of prostaglandin E2 and acute phase proteins when cells were treated with bacterial PAMPs such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS and lipoproteins. Results The endometrium expressed TLRs 1 to 10, whilst purified populations of epithelial cells expressed TLRs 1 to 7 and 9, and stromal cells expressed TLRs 1 to 4, 6, 7, 9 and 10. The TLRs appear to be functional as epithelial cells secreted prostaglandin E2 in response to bacterial PAMPs. In addition, the epithelial cells expressed antimicrobial peptides, such as Tracheal and Lingual Antimicrobial Peptides (TAP and LAP and MUC-1, which were upregulated when the cells were treated with LPS. However, the epithelial cells did not express appreciable amounts of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin or serum amyloid A. Conclusion Epithelial cells have an essential role in the orchestration of innate immune defence of the bovine endometrium and are likely to be the key to prevention of

  2. Anti-inflammatory effect of interleukin-10 in rabbit immune complex-induced colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grool, TA; Van Dullemen, H; Meenan, J; Koster, F; ten Kate, F. J. W.; Lebeaut, A; Tytgat, GNJ; Van Deventer, SJH

    Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that downregulates the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and additionally induces the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, thus possibly leading to reduction of chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. In this

  3. Low plasma concentrations of interleukin 10 in severe malarial anaemia compared with cerebral and uncomplicated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Adabayeri, V; Goka, B Q

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia is a major complication of malaria but little is known about its pathogenesis. Experimental models have implicated tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in induction of bone-marrow suppression and eythrophagocytosis. Conversely, interleukin 10 (IL-10), which mediates feed...

  4. Association of interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphisms with chronic and aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, S M; Ababneh, K T; Jaradat, S A; Abbadi, M S; Taha, A H; Karasneh, J A; Haddad, H I

    2012-04-01

    Interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphisms have been associated with interleukin-10 decreased production, thereby playing a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate whether interleukin-10 single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions -1087(G/A) and -597(C/A) are associated with generalised chronic periodontitis and localised aggressive periodontitis. Genomic DNA samples were isolated from 276 unrelated Jordanian participants. Subjects were categorised into 86 periodontally healthy controls, 105 chronic periodontitis patients and 85 localised aggressive periodontitis patients. Genotype frequencies were calculated, and differences were determined using Pearson chi-squared test, and odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were included. The frequencies of the -1087A and -597A alleles were significantly more common in chronic periodontitis patients than controls. The A-positive allele genotypes (GA, AA) at position -1087 and A-positive allele genotypes (CA, AA) at position -597 appeared to increase the risk of having chronic periodontitis. No significant differences were observed in the genotype frequencies between localised aggressive periodontitis patients and controls. These findings indicate the possible use of interleukin-10 single nucleotide polymorphisms as genetic markers in chronic periodontitis patients and further emphasise the molecular differences between chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Treatment of Crohn's disease with recombinant human interleukin 10 induces the proinflammatory cytokine interferon gamma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilg, H.; van Montfrans, C.; van den Ende, A.; Kaser, A.; van Deventer, S. J. H.; Schreiber, S.; Gregor, M.; Ludwiczek, O.; Rutgeerts, P.; Gasche, C.; Koningsberger, J. C.; Abreu, L.; Kuhn, I.; Cohard, M.; LeBeaut, A.; Grint, P.; Weiss, G.

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) exerts anti-inflammatory actions by counteracting many biological effects of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). To investigate this in humans, we studied the effects of human recombinant IL-10 administration on IFN-gamma production by patient leucocytes. Furthermore, we assessed

  6. Multiple doses of intravenous interleukin 10 in steroid-refractory Crohn's disease. Crohn's Disease Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deventer, S. J.; Elson, C. O.; Fedorak, R. N.

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities. Gene-targeted IL-10-deficient mice develop a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease that is reminiscent of Crohn's disease. The present double-blind randomized multicenter trial was designed to evaluate

  7. Expression of interleukin-10 activity by Epstein-Barr virus protein BCRF1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, D. H.; de Waal Malefyt, R.; Fiorentino, D. F.; Dang, M. N.; Vieira, P.; de Vries, J.; Spits, H.; Mosmann, T. R.; Moore, K. W.

    1990-01-01

    Cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF; interleukin-10), a product of mouse TH2 T cell clones that inhibits synthesis of cytokines by mouse TH1 T cell clones, exhibits extensive sequence similarity to an uncharacterized open reading frame in the Epstein-Barr virus BCRF1. Recombinant BCRF1

  8. Study of interleukin-10 promoter region polymorphisms (−1082A/G ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T helper type 1 and 2 (Th1 and Th2) cells may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of T1DM. (Almawi et al. 1999). Cytokines can be classified into two groups: Th1 (proinflammatory) cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin 1, and Th2 (anti-inflammatory) cytokines such as interleukin 10 and interleukin 4 (Keen 2002).

  9. Genetically modified lactococcus lactis for delivery of human interleukin-10 to dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Braat (Henri); I.L. Huibregtse (Inge ); S.A.J. Zaat (Sebastiaan); M.L. Kapsenberg (Martien ); M.A. Sartori da Silva; M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); S. van Deventer (Sander)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractInterleukin-10 (IL-10) plays an indispensable role in mucosal tolerance by programming dendritic cells (DCs) to induce suppressor Th-cells. We have tested the modulating effect of L. lactis secreting human IL-10 (L.lacti s IL-10) on DC function in vitro. Monocyte-derived DC incubated

  10. Genetically Modified Lactococcus lactis for Delivery of Human Interleukin-10 to Dendritic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibregtse, Inge L.; Zaat, Sebatian A.; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; Sartori da Silva, Maria A.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; Braat, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays an indispensable role in mucosal tolerance by programming dendritic cells (DCs) to induce suppressor Th-cells. We have tested the modulating effect of L. lactis secreting human IL-10 (L. lactis(IL-10)) on DC function in vitro. Monocyte-derived DC incubated with L.

  11. Differential regulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12 by glucocorticoids in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Boxel-Dezaire, A. van; Methorst, D.; Brunt, T.; Kloet, E.R. de; Nagelkerken, L.

    1998-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells are thought to modulate the development of Th1 and Th2 cells by the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12. Because glucocorticoids (GC) favor the development of Th2 responses, we determined whether dexamethasone (DEX) and hydrocortisone (HC) have differential effects

  12. Interactions of purified bovine brain A1-adenosine receptors with G-proteins. Reciprocal modulation of agonist and antagonist binding.

    OpenAIRE

    Freissmuth, M.; Selzer, E.; Schütz, W.

    1991-01-01

    The bovine brain A1-adenosine receptor was purified 8000-fold by affinity chromatography on xanthine-amine-congener (XAC)-Sepharose. Addition of a 120-fold molar excess of a purified bovine brain G-protein preparation (Go,i a mixture of Go and Gi, containing predominantly Go) decreases the Bmax of the binding of the antagonist radioligand [3H]XAC to the receptor. This decrease is observed not only after insertion into phospholipid vesicles but also in detergent solution, and is reversed by GT...

  13. Temporo-spatial expression of adrenomedullin and its receptors in the bovine placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adrenomedullin (AM) is a potent vasodilator peptide and is also involved in various physiological activities. In humans and rodents, AM is found in the uteroplacental unit and may be responsible for fetal development and maintenance of placental function. This study investigated 1) the mRNA expression patterns of AM and its receptor components (calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) 2 and RAMP3) during pregnancy and 2) mRNA and protein localization of AM, CRLR and RAMPs in the bovine placentome. Methods For real-time quantitative RT-PCR, bovine uteroplacental tissues were collected from Day 25, 60, 100, 150, 200 and 250 of gestation and separated into uterine caruncle (CAR), intercaruncular endometrium (ICAR), extra-embryonic membranes on Day 25 and cotyledonary villous after Day 60 (EEM-COT) and intercotyledonary chorion (ICOT). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the cellular localization of mRNA and protein of AM, CRLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3 in the placentome on Day 56, 150 and 230 of gestation and interplacentomal tissues on Day 56 of gestation. Results AM mRNA was highly expressed on Day 200 in EEM-COT, CAR and ICAR. CRLR mRNA was highly expressed on Day 60 in all portions. RAMP2 mRNA was also highly expressed on Day 60 in ICOT and ICAR. In EEM-COT, mRNA expression of CRLR and RAMP2 decreased from Day 150 to 250. RAMP3 mRNA was highly expressed on Day 150 in EEM-COT, ICOT and ICAR. A distinct AM mRNA and protein signal were only found in trophoblast binucleate cells (BNCs), whereas those of CRLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3 were detected in cotyledonary villous and caruncular epithelial cells. In interplacentomal tissues, AM was detected in BNCs of fetal membrane and a small part of luminal epithelium, endothelial lineage of blood vessels and glandular epithelium of the endometrium. Distinct signals of CRLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3 were found in trophoblast cells, luminal epithelium, stroma

  14. Interleukin-10 Gene Polymorphisms are Associated With Freedom From Treatment Failure for Patients With Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Nils; Franklin, Jeremy; Fürst, Robert; Zander, Thomas; von Bonin, Frederike; Peyrade, Frederic; Trümper, Lorenz; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by the production of various cytokines possibly involved in immune deregulation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) serum levels have been associated with clinical outcome in patients with HL. Because host genetic variations are known to alter the expression and function of cytokines and their receptors, we investigated whether genetic variations influence clinical outcome of patients with HL. Methods. A total of 301 patients with HL who were treated within randomized trials by the German Hodgkin Study Group were included in this exploratory retrospective study. Gene variations of IL-10 (IL-10-597AC, rs1800872; IL-10-824CT, rs1800871; IL-10-1087AG, rs1800896; IL-10-3538AT, rs1800890; IL-10-6208CG, rs10494879; IL-10-6752AT, rs6676671; IL-10-7400InDel), IL-13 (IL-13-1069CT, rs1800925; IL-13Q144R, rs20541), and IL-4R (IL-4RI75V, rs1805010; IL-4RQ576R, rs1801275) were genotyped. Results. Inferior freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) was found in patients harboring the IL-10-597AA, IL-10-824TT, or the IL-10-1087AA genotype. In contrast, the IL-10-1087G-824C-597C haplotype present in about 48% of analyzed HL patients is nominally significant for a better FFTF in a Cox-Regression model accounting for stage and treatment. No associations were observed between the other IL-10 gene variations, IL-13-1069CT, IL-13Q144R, IL-4RI75V, IL-4RQ576R and the clinical outcome of patients with HL. Conclusions. Our study provides further evidence that proximal IL-10 promoter gene variations are associated with clinical course of patients with HL. However, treatment success and survival rates are already at a very high rate, supporting the need to design studies focusing on identification of predictors to reduce the side effects of therapy. PMID:23299779

  15. Interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with freedom from treatment failure for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Nils; Franklin, Jeremy; Fürst, Robert; Zander, Thomas; von Bonin, Frederike; Peyrade, Frederic; Trümper, Lorenz; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas; Kube, Dieter; Re, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by the production of various cytokines possibly involved in immune deregulation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) serum levels have been associated with clinical outcome in patients with HL. Because host genetic variations are known to alter the expression and function of cytokines and their receptors, we investigated whether genetic variations influence clinical outcome of patients with HL. A total of 301 patients with HL who were treated within randomized trials by the German Hodgkin Study Group were included in this exploratory retrospective study. Gene variations of IL-10 (IL-10(-597AC), rs1800872; IL-10(-824CT), rs1800871; IL-10(-1087AG), rs1800896; IL-10(-3538AT), rs1800890; IL-10(-6208CG), rs10494879; IL-10(-6752AT), rs6676671; IL-10(-7400InDel)), IL-13 (IL-13(-1069CT), rs1800925; IL-13(Q144R), rs20541), and IL-4R (IL-4R(I75V), rs1805010; IL-4R(Q576R), rs1801275) were genotyped. Inferior freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) was found in patients harboring the IL-10(-597AA), IL-10(-824TT), or the IL-10(-1087AA) genotype. In contrast, the IL-10(-1087G-824C-597C) haplotype present in about 48% of analyzed HL patients is nominally significant for a better FFTF in a Cox-Regression model accounting for stage and treatment. No associations were observed between the other IL-10 gene variations, IL-13(-1069CT), IL-13(Q144R), IL-4R(I75V), IL-4R(Q576R) and the clinical outcome of patients with HL. Our study provides further evidence that proximal IL-10 promoter gene variations are associated with clinical course of patients with HL. However, treatment success and survival rates are already at a very high rate, supporting the need to design studies focusing on identification of predictors to reduce the side effects of therapy.

  16. Characterization of specific receptors for atrial natriuretic factor in bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Léan, A; Gutkowska, J; McNicoll, N; Schiller, P W; Cantin, M; Genest, J

    1984-12-03

    We have recently shown that synthetic rat atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) directly inhibits mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid secretion in cultured bovine adrenal cells with a potency of 100 pM. [125I]iodo-ANF was used in the present study to characterize potential receptor sites in bovine zona glomerulosa membranes. ANF binds to a class of high affinity binding sites with a pK of 10.2 and a density of 1.3 pmol/mg protein. Detailed competition curves with ANF document a class of high affinity sites with a pK of 10.2 and also a second class of lower affinity sites with a pK of 8.5. Nonspecific binding amounts to less than 10% of [125I]iodo-ANF binding at concentrations less than 100 pM. High affinity binding of [125I]iodo-ANF is reversible with a half-time of association of 15 minutes at 25 pM and a half-time of dissociation of 140 minutes. Monovalent cations Na, Li and K equipotently enhance [125I]iodo-ANF specific binding. Divalent cations Mg, Ca and Mn also increase [125I]iodo-ANF specific binding, with Mn being the most active cation. No effect of guanine nucleotide could be detected on ANF binding. The binding of [125I]iodo-ANF is very specific and is not inhibited by 1 microM angiotensin II, ACTH, VIP, somatostatin, Leu-enkephalin, dynorphin or by the N-terminal of POMC. The N-terminal fragment ANF-(1-16) is also completely inactive. Reduction of the disulfide bridge of ANF inactivates the peptide. This enabled the development of a highly specific radio-receptor assay for ANF with a minimum detectable dose of 2 femtomoles. The results document the specific receptor involved in the potent inhibitory effect of ANF on adrenal steroidogenesis and indicate that bovine adrenal zonal glomerulosa provide a highly sensitive system for studying the recently discovered atrial natriuretic factor.

  17. Exploitation of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Signaling Pathways: Alternate Roles of Viral and Cellular IL-10 in Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Meghan K; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Fike, Joseph; Short, Rebecca; Schmidt, Kimberli A; Blozis, Shelley A; Walter, Mark R; Barry, Peter A

    2016-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the viral interleukin-10 (vIL-10) ortholog of both human and rhesus cytomegalovirus (HCMV and RhCMV, respectively) suppresses the functionality of cell types that are critical to contain virus dissemination and help shape long-term immunity during the earliest virus-host interactions. In particular, exposure of macrophages, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells to vIL-10 suppresses multiple effector functions including, notably, those that link innate and adaptive immune responses. Further, vaccination of RhCMV-uninfected rhesus macaques with nonfunctional forms of RhCMV vIL-10 greatly restricted parameters of RhCMV infection following RhCMV challenge of the vaccinees. Vaccinees exhibited significantly reduced shedding of RhCMV in saliva and urine following RhCMV challenge compared to shedding in unvaccinated controls. Based on the evidence that vIL-10 is critical during acute infection, the role of vIL-10 during persistent infection was analyzed in rhesus macaques infected long term with RhCMV to determine whether postinfection vaccination against vIL-10 could change the virus-host balance. RhCMV-seropositive macaques, which shed RhCMV in saliva, were vaccinated with nonfunctional RhCMV vIL-10, and shedding levels of RhCMV in saliva were evaluated. Following robust increases in vIL-10-binding and vIL-10-neutralizing antibodies, shedding levels of RhCMV modestly declined, consistent with the interpretation that vIL-10 may play a functional role during persistent infection. However, a more significant association was observed between the levels of cellular IL-10 secreted in peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to RhCMV antigens and shedding of RhCMV in saliva. This result implies that RhCMV persistence is associated with the induction of cellular IL-10 receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Human health is adversely impacted by viruses that establish lifelong

  18. Presence and distribution of urocortin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptors in the bovine thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Alì, S; Ciarcia, R; Germano, G; Vittoria, A; Mirabella, N

    2014-12-01

    Urocortin (UCN), a 40 amino acid peptide, is a corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-related peptide. The biological actions of CRH family peptides are mediated via two types of G-protein-coupled receptors, CRH type 1 (CRHR1) and CRH type 2 (CRHR2). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 by immunoprecipitation, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR in the bovine thyroid gland. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis showed that tissue extracts reacted with the anti-UCN, anti-CRHR1 and anti-CRHR2 antibodies. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that mRNAs of UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 were expressed. UCN immunoreactivity (IR) and CRHR2-IR were found in the thyroid follicular and parafollicular cells and CRHR1-IR in the smooth muscle of the blood vessels. These results suggest that a regulatory system exists in the bovine thyroid gland based on UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 and that UCN plays a role in the regulation of thyroid physiological functions through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Cerebral Edema and Cerebral Hemorrhages in Interleukin-10-Deficient Mice Infected with Plasmodium chabaudi

    OpenAIRE

    Sanni, Latifu A.; Jarra, William; Li, Ching; Langhorne, Jean

    2004-01-01

    During a Plasmodium chabaudi infection in interleukin-10 (IL-10) knockout mice, there is greater parasite sequestration, more severe cerebral edema, and a high frequency of cerebral hemorrhage compared with infection of C57BL/6 mice. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment ameliorated both cerebral edema and hemorrhages, suggesting that proinflammatory responses contributed to cerebral complications in infected IL-10−/− mice.

  20. Interleukin 10 secretion in relation to human IL-10 locus haplotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Eskdale, Joyce; Gallagher, Grant; Verweij, Cor L.; Keijsers, Vivian; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Huizinga, Tom W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Stimulation of human blood cultures with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) shows large inter-individual variation in interleukin 10 (IL-10) secretion, which has been shown to have a genetic component of over 70%. Alleles at two microsatellite loci in the 4 kb immediately upstream of the human IL-10 transcription initiation site in 132 individuals from 56 Dutch families were defined and assigned as haplotypes. LPS-induced IL-10 secretion was measured by ELISA and related to the IL-10 promoter...

  1. Interleukin-10 production by myeloid-derived suppressor cells contributes to bacterial persistence during Staphylococcus aureus orthopedic biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Cortney E; Vidlak, Debbie; Kielian, Tammy

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is known to establish biofilms on medical devices. We recently demonstrated that Ly6G(high)Ly6C(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells are critical for allowing S. aureus biofilms to subvert immune-mediated clearance; however, the mechanisms whereby myeloid-derived suppressor cells promote biofilm persistence remain unknown. Interleukin-10 expression was significantly increased in a mouse model of S. aureus orthopedic implant biofilm infection with kinetics that mirrored myeloid-derived suppressor cell recruitment. Because myeloid-derived suppressor cells produce interleukin-10, we explored whether it was involved in orchestrating the nonproductive immune response that facilitates biofilm formation. Analysis of interleukin-10-green fluorescent protein reporter mice revealed that Ly6G(high)Ly6C(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells were the main source of interleukin-10 during the first 2 wk of biofilm infection, whereas monocytes had negligible interleukin-10 expression until day 14. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell influx into implant-associated tissues was significantly reduced in interleukin-10 knockout mice at day 14 postinfection, concomitant with increased monocyte and macrophage infiltrates that displayed enhanced proinflammatory gene expression. Reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cell recruitment facilitated bacterial clearance, as revealed by significant decreases in S. aureus burdens in the knee joint, surrounding soft tissue, and femur of interleukin-10 knockout mice. Adoptive transfer of interleukin-10 wild-type myeloid-derived suppressor cells into S. aureus-infected interleukin-10 knockout mice restored the local biofilm-permissive environment, as evidenced by increased bacterial burdens and inhibition of monocyte proinflammatory activity. These effects were both interleukin-10-dependent and interleukin-10-independent because myeloid-derived suppressor cell-derived interleukin-10 was required for promoting biofilm growth and anti

  2. Interleukin-10 production by myeloid-derived suppressor cells contributes to bacterial persistence during Staphylococcus aureus orthopedic biofilm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Cortney E.; Vidlak, Debbie; Kielian, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is known to establish biofilms on medical devices. We recently demonstrated that Ly6GhighLy6C+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells are critical for allowing S. aureus biofilms to subvert immune-mediated clearance; however, the mechanisms whereby myeloid-derived suppressor cells promote biofilm persistence remain unknown. Interleukin-10 expression was significantly increased in a mouse model of S. aureus orthopedic implant biofilm infection with kinetics that mirrored myeloid-derived suppressor cell recruitment. Because myeloid-derived suppressor cells produce interleukin-10, we explored whether it was involved in orchestrating the nonproductive immune response that facilitates biofilm formation. Analysis of interleukin-10–green fluorescent protein reporter mice revealed that Ly6GhighLy6C+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells were the main source of interleukin-10 during the first 2 wk of biofilm infection, whereas monocytes had negligible interleukin-10 expression until day 14. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell influx into implant-associated tissues was significantly reduced in interleukin-10 knockout mice at day 14 postinfection, concomitant with increased monocyte and macrophage infiltrates that displayed enhanced proinflammatory gene expression. Reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cell recruitment facilitated bacterial clearance, as revealed by significant decreases in S. aureus burdens in the knee joint, surrounding soft tissue, and femur of interleukin-10 knockout mice. Adoptive transfer of interleukin-10 wild-type myeloid-derived suppressor cells into S. aureus–infected interleukin-10 knockout mice restored the local biofilm-permissive environment, as evidenced by increased bacterial burdens and inhibition of monocyte proinflammatory activity. These effects were both interleukin-10-dependent and interleukin-10-independent because myeloid-derived suppressor cell–derived interleukin-10 was required for promoting biofilm growth and anti

  3. RAGE-Mediated Suppression of Interleukin-10 Results in Enhanced Mortality in a Murine Model of Acinetobacter baumannii Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Michael J; Becker, Kyle W; Boyd, Kelli L; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Skaar, Eric P

    2017-03-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor capable of recognizing multiple pathogen-associated and danger-associated molecular patterns that contributes to the initiation and potentiation of inflammation in many disease processes. During infection, RAGE functions to either exacerbate disease severity or enhance pathogen clearance depending on the pathogen studied. Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing severe infections, including pneumonia and sepsis, in impaired hosts. The role of RAGE signaling in response to opportunistic bacterial infections is largely unknown. In murine models of A. baumannii pneumonia, RAGE signaling alters neither inflammation nor bacterial clearance. In contrast, RAGE -/- mice systemically infected with A. baumannii exhibit increased survival and reduced bacterial burdens in the liver and spleen. The increased survival of RAGE -/- mice is associated with increased circulating levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Neutralization of IL-10 in RAGE -/- mice results in decreased survival during systemic A. baumannii infection that mirrors that of wild-type (WT) mice, and exogenous IL-10 administration to WT mice enhances survival in this model. These findings demonstrate the role for RAGE-dependent IL-10 suppression as a key modulator of mortality from Gram-negative sepsis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Interleukin-10 limits intense acute swimming-induced muscle mechanical hyperalgesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Sergio M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Zarpelon, Ana C; Cunha, Thiago M; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Ferreira, Sergio H; Cunha, Fernando Q; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2015-04-20

    What is the central question of this study? This study investigated the role of the endogenous anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in intense acute swimming-induced muscle mechanical hyperalgesia in mice. What is the main finding and its importance? Endogenous interleukin-10 has a key role in limiting exercise-induced muscle pain in a model presenting similarities to delayed-onset muscle soreness in mice. Interleukin-10 reduced muscle pain by diminishing leucocyte recruitment, hyperalgesic cytokine production, oxidative stress and myocyte damage. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an antihyperalgesic cytokine. In this study, IL-10-deficient (IL-10(-/-) ) mice were used to investigate the role of endogenous IL-10 in intense acute swimming-induced muscle mechanical hyperalgesia, which presents similarities with delayed-onset muscle soreness. An intense acute swimming session of 1 or 2 h induced significant muscle mechanical hyperalgesia in a time-dependent manner in wild-type mice compared with the sham group 24 h after the session, which was further increased in IL-10(-/-) mice (P ˂ 0.05). Intraperitoneal treatment of wild-type mice with IL-10 (1-10 ng) reduced muscle mechanical hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner and reversed the enhanced muscle hyperalgesia in IL-10(-/-) mice (P ˂ 0.05). The 2 h swimming session induced increases in tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and IL-10 production in the soleus muscle. However, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β production in the soleus muscle were even higher in IL-10(-/-) mice between 2 and 6 h after the stimulus (P ˂ 0.05). There was no statistical difference in the levels of the antihyperalgesic cytokines interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-13 and transforming growth factor-β between wild-type and IL-10(-/-) mice (P ˃ 0.05). Interleukin-10 deficiency also resulted in increased myeloperoxidase activity, greater depletion of reduced glutathione levels, increased superoxide anion

  5. mRNA expression pattern of gonadotropin receptors in bovine follicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Belkis E; Diaz, Pablo U; Salvetti, Natalia R; Rey, Florencia; Ortega, Hugo H

    2014-12-01

    Follicular growth and steroidogenesis are dependent on gonadotropin binding to their receptors in granulosa and theca cells of ovarian follicles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression patterns of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) in ovarian follicular structures from cows with cystic ovarian disease (COD) as compared with those of regularly cycling cows. Relative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR mRNA in granulosa cells was highest in small antral follicles, then decreased significantly as follicles increased in size, and was lowest in cysts. FSHR mRNA was not detected in the theca cells of any follicular category, including cysts. LHCGR mRNA expression in granulosa cells was significantly higher in large antral follicles than in cysts, and not detected in granulosa cells of small and medium antral follicles. In theca cells, the expression level of LHCGR mRNA in medium antral follicles was higher than in small and large antral follicles, whereas that in follicular cysts it was similar to those in small and medium antral follicles, but higher than that in large antral follicles. Our findings provide evidence that there is an altered gonadotropin receptor expression in bovine cystic follicles, and suggest that in conditions characterized by altered ovulation, such as COD, changes in the signaling system of gonadotropins may play a fundamental role in their pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of recombinant human interleukin-10 on Treg cells, IL-10 and TGF-β in transplantation of rabbit skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai Shan; Fan, Xiao Qin; Zhang, Lei; Wen, Qiong Na; Feng, Ji Hong; Chen, Fu Chao; Luo, Jun Min; Sun, Wan Bang

    2014-02-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the rejection and survival time of grafted skin, and the changes of Treg cells, interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in peripheral blood following skin transplantation with recombinant human interleukin-10 (rhIL-10) or cyclosporin A (CsA), as well as the role of IL-10 in immunological rejection mechanisms. A total of 36 rabbits were divided into two groups. The skin of a donor rabbit was transplanted onto the back of one receptor rabbit. Receptors were randomly divided into six groups, including rhIL-10 low-dose (5 µg/kg/d), rhIL-10 high-dose (10 µg/kg/d), CsA low-dose (5 mg/kg/d), CsA high-dose (10 mg/kg/d), rhIL-10 (5 µg/kg/d) and CsA (5 mg/kg/d) and negative control normal saline (NS; 1 ml/d). All groups received intramuscular drug injection for ten days, beginning one day prior to skin transplantation surgery. Following transplantation, each rabbit's peripheral blood was collected at different times. The changes of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, IL-10 and TGF-β were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. When compared with the control group, the rejection and survival times of the experimental groups were longer following skin graft. Compared with the two CsA groups and the control group, the proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells of rhIL-10 groups was significantly upregulated on the 4th and 7th days following surgery. However, TGF-β levels were not significantly different. Data suggested that the concentration of IL-10 was positively correlated with the proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. In addition, IL-10 may delay the rejection time of rabbit skin transplantation and prolong the survival time. Thus, the role of IL-10 in inhibited allograft rejection may be associated with CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and IL-10, and may be independent of TGF-β.

  7. Modulation of the Host Environment by Human Cytomegalovirus with Viral Interleukin 10 in Peripheral Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Vivian P; Mariano, Margarette C; Tu, Carolyn C; Allaire, Kathryn M; Avdic, Selmir; Slobedman, Barry; Spencer, Juliet V

    2017-03-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a herpesvirus with both lytic and latent life cycles. Human cytomegalovirus encodes 2 viral cytokines that are orthologs of human cellular interleukin 10 (cIL-10). Both cytomegalovirus interleukin 10 (cmvIL-10) and Latency-associated cytomegalovirus interleukin 10 (LAcmvIL-10) (collectively vIL-10) are expressed during lytic infection and cause immunosuppressive effects that impede virus clearance. LAcmvIL-10 is also expressed during latent infection of myeloid progenitor cells and monocytes and facilitates persistence. Here, we investigated whether vIL-10 could be detected during natural infection. Plasma from healthy blood donors was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-HCMV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M and for cIL-10 and vIL-10 levels using a novel vIL-10 assay that detects cmvIL-10 and LAcmvIL-10, with no cross-reactivity to cIL-10. vIL-10 was evident in HCMV+ donors (n = 19 of 26), at levels ranging 31-547 pg/mL. By comparison, cIL-10 was detected at lower levels ranging 3-69 pg/mL. There was a strong correlation between vIL-10 and cIL-10 levels (P = .01). Antibodies against vIL-10 were also detected and neutralized vIL-10 activity. vIL-10 was detected in peripheral blood of healthy blood donors. These findings suggest that vIL-10 may play a key role in sensing or modifying the host environment during latency and, therefore, may be a potential target for intervention strategies.

  8. Interleukin-10: potential benefits and possible risks in clinical infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S M; Wherry, J C; Grint, P

    1998-12-01

    Human interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that inhibits the synthesis of the major proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. IL-10 is the principal TH2-type cytokine that upregulates humoral immune responses and attenuates cell-mediated immune reactions. This cytokine has a number of immunomodulatory properties that might be clinically useful in a variety of inflammatory and infectious disease states. Clinical trials with human recombinant IL-10 are already in progress. Carefully selected patients with inflammatory conditions may benefit from IL-10 therapy if concomitant infectious diseases are recognized and treated appropriately.

  9. Interleukin-10 and Immunity against Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Intracellular Pathogens ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyktor, Joshua C.; Turner, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    The generation of an effective immune response against an infection while also limiting tissue damage requires a delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has potent immunosuppressive effects and is essential for regulation of immune responses. However, the immunosuppressive properties of IL-10 can also be exploited by pathogens to facilitate their own survival. In this minireview, we discuss the role of IL-10 in modulating intracellular bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections. Using information from several different infection models, we bring together and highlight some common pathways for IL-10 regulation and function that cannot be fully appreciated by studies of a single pathogen. PMID:21576331

  10. Purification of the receptor for the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine specific adhesin of Mannheimia haemolytica from bovine neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Mora, Alfonso; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Trigo, Francisco; Gorocica, Patricia; Solórzano, Carlos; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Agundis, Concepción; Pereyra, M Ali; Zenteno, Edgar

    2007-10-01

    The GlcNAc-specific adhesin from Mannheimia haemolytica (MhA) has been shown to participate in pathogenicity of mannheimiosis due to its capacity to adhere to tracheal epithelial cells and activate the oxidative burst of bovine neutrophils. In this work, we purified the MhA receptor from bovine neutrophils (MhAr) by affinity chromatography on MhA-Sepharose. The MhAr, which corresponded to approximately 2% of the protein from cell lysate, is a glycoprotein mainly composed of Glu, Ala, Ser, Gly, and Asp, without cysteine. The glycan portion, which corresponds to 20% by weight, is composed of GalNAc, GlcNAc, Man, Gal, and NeuAc. The receptor is a 165-kDa glycoprotein, as determined by molecular sieve chromatography under native conditions; SDS-PAGE analysis shows a heterodimer of 83 and 80 kDa subunits. This work suggests that the GlcNAc-containing receptor plays a relevant role by activating bovine neutrophils through non-opsonic mechanisms.

  11. Interactions of purified bovine brain A1-adenosine receptors with G-proteins. Reciprocal modulation of agonist and antagonist binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freissmuth, M; Selzer, E; Schütz, W

    1991-05-01

    The bovine brain A1-adenosine receptor was purified 8000-fold by affinity chromatography on xanthine-amine-congener (XAC)-Sepharose. Addition of a 120-fold molar excess of a purified bovine brain G-protein preparation (Go,i a mixture of Go and Gi, containing predominantly Go) decreases the Bmax of the binding of the antagonist radioligand [3H]XAC to the receptor. This decrease is observed not only after insertion into phospholipid vesicles but also in detergent solution, and is reversed by GTP analogues. In the presence of Go,i, about 20 and 40% of the receptors display guanine-nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity binding of the agonist radioligand (-)-N6-3-([125I]iodo-4-hydroxyphenylisopropyl)adenosine after reconstitution into lipid vesicles and in detergent solution, respectively. The ability of Go,i to enhance agonist binding and decrease antagonist binding is concentration-dependent, with a half-maximal effect occurring at approximately 10-fold molar excess of G-proteins over A1-adenosine receptors. In the presence of the receptor, the rate of guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate (GTP[35S]) binding to Go,i is accelerated. This rate is further enhanced if the receptor is activated by the agonist (-)(R)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, whereas the antagonist XAC decreases the association rate of GTP[35S] to levels observed in the absence of receptor. These results show (1) that detergent removal is not a prerequisite for the observation of coupling between the A1-adenosine receptor and Go,i, and (2) that the regulatory effect of G-proteins on antagonist binding to the A1-adenosine receptor can be reconstituted by using purified components.

  12. [Serum values of interleukin-10, gamma-interferon and vitamin A in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jorymar Y; Romero, Tania; Ortega, Pablo; Amaya, Daisy

    2007-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects the immunomodulated response mediated by cytokines. However, these studies are controversial. The purpose of the present study was to analyze Interleukin-10, gamma-Interferon and vitamin A serum concentrations in adolescents. Seventy three female, not pregnant adolescents (15.95 +/- 1.10 years old), of a low socioeconomic condition were studied. Serum retinol was determined by HPLC using the Bieri method. International reference standards were considered to define VAD (serum retinol 30 microg/dL). Serum concentrations of Interleukine-10 (IL-10) and gamma-Interferon (gamma-IFN) were detected by an ELISA method (pg/mL). The data were analyzed using the SAS/STAT statistical program; the results were presented as mean +/- Standard deviation and the differences between mean values were analyzed by the ANOVA test. The prevalence of VAD in adolescents was 6.85% (serum retinol <20 microg/dL) and 41.10% adolescents had VAD risk (20-30 microg/dL). Adolescents with VAD showed a significant increase of gamma-IFN serum concentration (p = 0.01). Correlation between serum retinol and gamma-IFN was r = -0.29 (p = 0.01). Adolescents represent a VAD risk group. Low serum levels of retinol were correlated with high levels of gamma-IFN, this cytokine has been associated with chronics inflammatory processes and it can contribute to increase the morbidity and mortality in this population.

  13. Interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in chronic Chagas disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R H T; Azevedo, E de A N; Diniz, G T N; Cavalcanti, M da G A de M; de Oliveira, W; de Morais, C N L; Gomes, Y de M

    2015-07-01

    In Chagas disease, chronically infected individuals may be asymptomatic or may present cardiac or digestive complications, and it is well known that the human immune response is related to different clinical manifestations. Different patterns of cytokine levels have been previously described in different clinical forms of this disease, but contradictory results are reported. Our aim was to evaluate the serum levels of interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in patients with asymptomatic and cardiac Chagas disease. The serum interleukin-10 levels in patients with cardiomyopathy were higher than those in asymptomatic patients, mainly in those without heart enlargement. Although no significant difference was observed in serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels among the patients, we found that cardiac patients also present high levels of this cytokine, largely those with heart dilatation. Therefore, these cytokines play an important role in chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. Follow-up investigations of these and other cytokines in patients with chronic Chagas disease need to be conducted to improve the understanding of the immunopathology of this disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Interleukin-10 and Interferon Gamma Gene Polymorphisms and Hepatitis C Virus-Related Liver Cirrhosis Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheneef, Abeer; Esmat, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Asmaa N; Mahmoud, Aida A; Moghazy, Hoda M; Noureldin, Amal K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the gene polymorphisms in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) genes with susceptibility and severity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Egyptian patients. Interleukin-10 -592 A/C, -1082 G/A and IFN-γ +874 T/A genotypes were determined in 100 chronic HCV patients and 50 healthy controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) respectively. IL-10 -592 A/C polymorphism genotyping revealed that the frequency of CC genotype was significantly higher in chronic HCV patients than in controls (58% versus 30%, P IL-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism genotyping, a higher frequency of GG genotype was found in chronic HCV patients compared to controls (31% versus 10%, P IL-10 -592 A/C, -1082 G/A, and IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphisms had a strong association with susceptibility to HCV infection. However, no significant association was observed between the cytokines (IL-10 and IFN-γ) genotypes profile and HCV-liver cirrhosis risk in the studied population, except for the high frequency of IFN-γ +874 T allele in cirrhotic patients.

  15. Interleukin-10: Role in increasing susceptibility and pathogenesis of rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Toor, Devinder

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) causes rheumatic fever (RF) which later progresses towards rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in the susceptible individuals. RF and RHD both contribute towards increasing global burden of disease, especially in developing countries. RHD is one of the most common acquired heart diseases causing permanent damage to heart valves which ultimately leads to heart failure. In RHD, heart valve lesions are formed which are mediated by autoimmune reaction between streptococcal antigens (M protein and group A carbohydrate epitope GlcNAc) and heart tissues. On the other hand, inflammatory response generated by cytokines promotes chronicity of the disease. Varying concentrations of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients and controls are reported and are also found to be associated with IL-10 gene polymorphism in RF/RHD patients. Although the effect of IL-10 gene polymorphism on the functionality of IL-10 is unknown, many investigations suggest an important role of IL-10 and its polymorphism in immune regulation and progression of disease in RF/RHD. This review summarizes the studies based on association of interleukin-10 with RHD in different populations to understand the role of IL-10 in susceptibility and pathogenesis of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Angiopoietin-1 receptor Tie2 distinguishes multipotent differentiation capability in bovine coccygeal nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekari, Adel; Chan, Samantha C W; Sakai, Daisuke; Grad, Sibylle; Gantenbein, Benjamin

    2016-05-23

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) has limited self-healing potential and disc repair strategies require an appropriate cell source such as progenitor cells that could regenerate the damaged cells and tissues. The objective of this study was to identify nucleus pulposus-derived progenitor cells (NPPC) and examine their potential in regenerative medicine in vitro. Nucleus pulposus cells (NPC) were obtained from 1-year-old bovine coccygeal discs by enzymatic digestion and were sorted for the angiopoietin-1 receptor Tie2. The obtained Tie2- and Tie2+ fractions of cells were differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. Colony-forming units were prepared from both cell populations and the colonies formed were analyzed and quantified after 8 days of culture. In order to improve the preservation of the Tie2+ phenotype of NPPC in monolayer cultures, we tested a selection of growth factors known to have stimulating effects, cocultured NPPC with IVD tissue, and exposed them to hypoxic conditions (2 % O2). After 3 weeks of differentiation culture, only the NPC that were positive for Tie2 were able to differentiate into osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes as characterized by calcium deposition (p nucleus pulposus contains NPPC that are Tie2+. These cells fulfilled formally progenitor criteria that were maintained in subsequent monolayer culture for up to 7 days by addition of FGF2 or hypoxic conditions. We propose that the nucleus pulposus represents a niche of precursor cells for regeneration of the IVD.

  17. A bovine papillomavirus-1 based vector restores the function of the low-density lipoprotein receptor in the receptor-deficient CHO-ldlA7 cell line

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    Ustav Mart

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rationale of using bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1 derived vectors in gene therapy protocols lies in their episomal maintenance at intermediate to high copy number, and stable, high-level expression of the gene products. We constructed the BPV-1 based vector harbouring the human low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene cDNA and tested its ability to restore the function of the LDLR in the receptor-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7. Results The introduced vector p3.7LDL produced functionally active LDL receptors in the receptor-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7 during the 32-week period of observation as determined by the internalisation assay with the labelled LDL particles. Conclusion Bovine papillomavirus type-1 (BPV-1-derived vectors could be suitable for gene therapy due to their episomal maintenance at intermediate to high copy number and stable, high-level expression of the gene products. The constructed BPV-1 based vector p3.7LDL produced functionally active LDL receptors in the LDLR-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7 during the 32-week period of observation. In vivo experiments should reveal, whether 1–5% transfection efficiency obtained in the current work is sufficient to bring about detectable and clinically significant lowering of the amount of circulating LDL cholesterol particles.

  18. [Plasma levels of interleukin-10 and nitric oxide in response to two different desflurane anesthesia flow rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Dilek; Dikmen, Bayazit; Kaçmaz, Murat; Taşpınar, Vildan; Ornek, Dilşen; Turan, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated interleukin-10 and nitric oxide plasma levels following surgery to determine whether there is a correlation between these two variables and if different desflurane anesthesia flow rates influence nitric oxide and interleukin-10 concentrations in circulation. Forty patients between 18 and 70 years and ASA I-II physical status who were scheduled to undergo thyroidectomy were enrolled in the study. Patients were allocated into two groups to receive two different desflurane anesthesia flow rates: high flow (Group HF) and low flow (Group LF). Blood samples were drawn at the beginning (t0) and end (t1) of the operation and after 24h (t2). Plasma interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels were measured using an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay and a Griess reagents kit, respectively. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were assessed. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to interleukin-10 levels at the times of measurement. Interleukin-10 levels were increased equally in both groups at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations. For both groups, nitric oxide circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations. However, the nitric oxide value was lower for Group HF compared to Group LF at t2. No correlation was found between the IL-10 and nitric oxide levels. Clinical usage of two different flow anesthesia forms with desflurane may increase interleukin-10 levels both in Group HF and Group LF; nitric oxide levels circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations; however, at 24h postoperatively they were higher in Group LF compared to Group HF. No correlation was detected between interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma levels of interleukin-10 and nitric oxide in response to two different desflurane anesthesia flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycı, Dilek; Dikmen, Bayazit; Kaçmaz, Murat; Taşpınar, Vildan; Ornek, Dilşen; Turan, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated interleukin-10 and nitric oxide plasma levels following surgery to determine whether there is a correlation between these two variables and if different desflurane anesthesia flow rates influence nitric oxide and interleukin-10 concentrations in circulation. Forty patients between 18 and 70 years and ASA I-II physical status who were scheduled to undergo thyroidectomy were enrolled in the study. Patients were allocated into two groups to receive two different desflurane anesthesia flow rates: high flow (Group HF) and low flow (Group LF). Blood samples were drawn at the beginning (t0) and end (t1) of the operation and after 24h (t2). Plasma interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels were measured using an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay and a Griess reagents kit, respectively. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were assessed. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to interleukin-10 levels at the times of measurement. Interleukin-10 levels were increased equally in both groups at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations. For both groups, nitric oxide circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations. However, the nitric oxide value was lower for Group HF compared to Group LF at t2. No correlation was found between the IL-10 and nitric oxide levels. Clinical usage of two different flow anesthesia forms with desflurane may increase interleukin-10 levels both in Group HF and Group LF; nitric oxide levels circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations; however, at 24h postoperatively they were higher in Group LF compared to Group HF. No correlation was detected between interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Dengue Virus Infectivity by Interacting with Heparan Sulfate, Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor, and DC-SIGN

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    Jo-Mei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine lactoferrin (bLF presents in milk and has been shown to inhibit several viral infections. Effective drugs are unavailable for the treatment of dengue virus (DENV infection. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effect of bLF against DENV infection in vivo and in vitro. Bovine LF significantly inhibited the infection of the four serotypes of DENV in Vero cells. In the time-of-drug addition test, DENV-2 infection was remarkably inhibited when bLF was added during or prior to the occurrence of virus attachment. We also revealed that bovine LF blocks binding between DENV-2 and the cellular membrane by interacting with heparan sulfate (HS, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, and low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR. In addition, bLF inhibits DENV-2 infection and decreases morbidity in a suckling mouse challenge model. This study supports the finding that bLF may inhibit DENV infection by binding to the potential DENV receptors.

  1. Interleukin 10 is an essential modulator of mucoid metaplasia in a mouse otitis media model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Katsuyuki; Komori, Masahiro; Zheng, Qing Yin; Ferrieri, Patricia; Lin, Jizhen

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are involved in the development of mucus cell metaplasia/hyperplasia (MCM) in otitis media (OM). However, which cytokines play an essential role in MCM OM is not clear at the moment. In this study, we hypothesized that interleukin-10 (IL-10) played an indispensable role in MCM of bacterial OM and used IL-10 knockout mice to test this hypothesis. In wild-type mice, both S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae triggered the development of MCM in the middle ear mucosa. In IL-10 knockout mice, the number of goblet cells and mucin-producing cells in the middle ear was significantly reduced after bacterial middle ear infection compared with that in wild-type mice. We, therefore, concluded that IL-10 plays an essential role in MCM of bacterial OM. IL-10 is a potential target for the treatment of MCM in OM. PMID:18771082

  2. Association of Interleukin-10 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms in Saudi Patients with Vitiligo

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    Abdullah Abanmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The promoter region of human Interleukin −10 gene is highly polymorphic and has been associated with numerous autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have linked vitiligo with defective autoimmune system. This study is aimed to explore a possible association between IL-10 gene polymorphism and vitiligo in Saudi population. This case control study consisted of 184 Saudi subjects including 83 vitiligo patients (40 males, 43 females mean age 27.85 ± 12.43 years and 101 matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples of healthy controls and Vitiligo patients visiting out patient clinic of Department of Dermatology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, using QIA ampR DNA mini kit (Qiagen CA, USA. Interleukin-10 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using Arms primers to detect any polymorphism involved at positions −592, −819 and −1082.

  3. Role of interleukin-10 in prognosis of hepatitis B virus infection

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    WU Changhui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple etiological factors are integrally involved in the development of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is an essential cytokine of immune regulation, and IL-10 gene promoter polymorphism affects its mRNA transcription and serum level. IL-10 is related to the prognosis of HBV infection. This review briefly discusses the association of IL-10 gene polymorphism and its serum level with the prognosis of HBV infection, and summarizes the role of IL-10, as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, in host immune function, the prognosis and progression of HBV infection, and HBV-related complications. IL-10 gene polymorphism and its serum level are closely associated with inflammatory response after HBV infection, influence HBV clearance, and are related to the severity of HBV-related liver injury, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The determination of IL-10 gene and serum levels may provide a predictive marker for the prognosis of HBV infection.

  4. Role of Interleukin 10 Transcriptional Regulation in Inflammation and Autoimmune Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Shankar Subramanian; Cheng, Genhong

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties that plays a central role in limiting host immune response to pathogens, thereby preventing damage to the host and maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of IL-10 is associated with enhanced immunopathology in response to infection as well as increased risk for development of many autoimmune diseases. Thus a fundamental understanding of IL-10 gene expression is critical for our comprehension of disease progression and resolution of host inflammatory response. In this review, we discuss modes of regulation of IL-10 gene expression in immune effector cell types, including signal transduction, epigenetics, promoter architecture, and post-transcriptional regulation, and how aberrant regulation contributes to immunopathology and disease progression. PMID:22428854

  5. Wilms' tumor protein Wt1 regulates the Interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciesielski, Lina K; Kirschner, Karin M; Scholz, Holger; Persson, Anja Bondke

    2010-11-19

    We identified the Wilms' tumor protein, Wt1, as a novel transcriptional activator of the immunosuppressant cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Silencing of Wt1 by RNA interference reduced IL-10 mRNA levels by approximately 90%. IL-10 transcripts were increased more than 15-fold upon forced expression of Wt1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed a cis-element that was responsible for activation of the IL-10 promoter by Wt1 in murine macrophages. Mutation of the Wt1 binding motif abrogated stimulation of the IL-10 promoter by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). These results suggest a novel immune regulatory function of Wt1 in controlling IL-10 gene expression. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interleukin-10 gene rs1800896 polymorphism increases risk of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongmei; Liu, Ailing; Zhou, Bingzhi; Zhao, Cunxin; Jin, Guangjun

    2017-12-01

    The association between interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene rs1800896 polymorphism and susceptibility to acute pancreatitis (AP) has been investigated in several studies, but with contradictory findings. Therefore, a comprehensive meta-analysis is needed to assess the strength of such association. Literatures on PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI were searched to identify relevant studies. The strength of association between IL-10 gene rs1800896 polymorphism and AP risk was assessed using pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Totally 7 case-control studies involving 1527 cases and 1511 controls were identified. Analyses proved that IL-10 gene rs1800896 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of AP. Stratification analysis of ethnicity found such significant association only among Asians, but not Caucasians. IL-10 gene rs1800896 polymorphism increases the risk of AP.

  7. Localization of estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor B in bovine cervix and vagina during the follicular and luteal phases of the sexual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağsöz, H; Akbalik, M E; Saruhan, B G; Ketani, M A

    2011-08-01

    The localization and distribution of estrogen receptors (ERα) and progesterone receptors (PR-B) in the cervix and vagina of sexually mature bovines during the follicular and luteal phases of the sexual cycle were studied using immunohistochemistry. The estrous cycle stage of 23 Holstein bovines was assessed by gross and histological appearance of ovaries and blood steroid hormone values. Tissue samples from cervix and vagina were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for routine histological processing. Nuclear staining for ERα and PR-B was observed in the epithelial cells of the surface epithelium, stromal cells and smooth muscle cells. Generally, in the cervix, ERα immunoreactivity was more intense in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells during the follicular phase and in the epithelial cells during the luteal phase (p vagina, ERα and PR-B immunoreactivities were more intense in the epithelial cells than in the connective tissue cells and smooth muscle cells during the follicular and luteal phases (p vagina of bovines varied according to the cervical and vaginal cell types and the phases of the sexual cycle.

  8. Bovine lactoferrin counteracts Toll-like receptor mediated activation signals in antigen presenting cells.

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    Patrizia Puddu

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (LF, a key element in mammalian immune system, plays pivotal roles in host defence against infection and excessive inflammation. Its protective effects range from direct antimicrobial activities against a large panel of microbes, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, to antinflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we show that monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs generated in the presence of bovine LF (bLF fail to undergo activation by up-modulating CD83, co-stimulatory and major histocompatibility complex molecules, and cytokine/chemokine secretion. Moreover, these cells are weak activators of T cell proliferation and retain antigen uptake activity. Consistent with an impaired maturation, bLF-MD-DC primed T lymphocytes exhibit a functional unresponsiveness characterized by reduced expression of CD154 and impaired expression of IFN-γ and IL-2. The observed imunosuppressive effects correlate with an increased expression of molecules with negative regulatory functions (i.e. immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 and programmed death ligand 1, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3. Interestingly, bLF-MD-DCs produce IL-6 and exhibit constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation. Conversely, bLF exposure of already differentiated MD-DCs completely fails to induce IL-6, and partially inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR agonist-induced activation. Cell-specific differences in bLF internalization likely account for the distinct response elicited by bLF in monocytes versus immature DCs, providing a mechanistic base for its multiple effects. These results indicate that bLF exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity by skewing monocyte differentiation into DCs with impaired capacity to undergo activation and to promote Th1 responses. Overall, these bLF-mediated effects may represent a strategy to block excessive DC activation upon TLR-induced inflammation, adding

  9. Antiinflammatory Effect of Rosiglitazone via Modulation of mRNA Stability of Interleukin 10 and Cyclooxygenase 2 in Astrocytes.

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    Pankevich, E V; Astakhova, A A; Chistyakov, D V; Sergeeva, M G

    2017-11-01

    Investigation of molecular mechanisms of proinflammatory stimuli signaling in astrocytes is important for understanding their role in pathogenesis of central nervous system diseases as well as in functioning of the innate immunity system in non-immune cells. Here we show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of primary rat astrocytes led to conventional inflammatory response: increase in both proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor, TNFα; prostaglandin E 2 , PGE 2 ) and antiinflammatory marker (interleukin 10, IL-10) levels. The protein level of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) was also increased. Rosiglitazone strengthened LPS-induced mRNA expression of COX-2 and IL-10 but not TNFα. Rosiglitazone is an agonist of nuclear receptor PPARγ, but its impact on IL-10 expression was not influenced by a PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, suggesting PPARγ-independent effect of rosiglitazone. The degradation of mRNA is one of the steps of inflammation regulation and might be affected by small molecules. In experiments with actinomycin D, we found that mRNA half-lives of IL-10, COX-2, and TNFα in naive astrocytes were 70, 44, and 19 min, respectively. LPS stimulation caused 2-fold increase in IL-10 and COX-2 mRNA decay rates, whereas addition of rosiglitazone restored them to the initial level. TNFα decay rate was not changed by these stimulations. This suggests that mRNA decay rate could be regulated by small molecules. Moreover, rosiglitazone could be used as a substance stimulating the resolution of inflammation without influence on proinflammatory signals. These results open new perspectives in the search for inflammation resolution modulators.

  10. Co-purification of A1 adenosine receptors and guanine nucleotide-binding proteins from bovine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, R; Linden, J

    1989-09-05

    A1 adenosine receptors and guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) solubilized with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate have been co-purified from bovine cerebral cortex. A portion of solubilized receptors which displays high affinity GTP-sensitive agonist binding (40-50%) adheres tightly to agonist affinity columns composed of N6-aminobenzyladenosine-agarose. A1 adenosine receptors and G proteins are rapidly and selectively coeluted from agonist columns by the addition of 8-p-sulfophenyltheophylline, but only in combination with Mg2+-GTP or N-ethylmaleimide, agents which lower the affinity of receptors for agonists. Purified receptors and G protein alpha-subunits can be detected with the potent A1-selective antagonist radioligand, [125I]3-(4-amino-3-iodo)phenethyl-1-propyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (125I-BW-A844U) and [35S]guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate [( 35S]GTP gamma S), respectively. Pretreatment of solubilized receptors with 0.1 mM N-ethylmaleimide or 0.1 mM R-phenylisopropyladenosine abolishes adsorption of receptors and G proteins to affinity columns. Following removal of 8-p-sulfophenyltheophylline and GTP, purified receptors bind agonists (2 sites) and antagonists (1 site) with affinities similar to crude soluble receptors and typical of A1 receptors. Some receptors may be denatured as a result of purification since only 23% of the radioligand binding sites which adhere to the affinity column can be detected in the eluate. The Bmax of purified receptors, 820 +/- 100 pmol/mg protein (n = 3) is 1800-fold higher than crude soluble receptors. The specific activity of [35S]GTP gamma S binding sites in affinity column eluates is 4640 pmol/mg protein. Assuming a 1:1 stoichiometry, this specific activity indicates that receptor-G protein complexes are greater than 50% pure following affinity chromatography. The photoaffinity labeled purified receptor was identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a single band with a

  11. IgE mediates killing of intracellular Toxoplasma gondii by human macrophages through CD23-dependent, interleukin-10 sensitive pathway.

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    Ioannis Vouldoukis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to helminthic infections, elevated serum IgE levels were observed in many protozoal infections, while their contribution during immune response to these pathogens remained unclear. As IgE/antigen immune complexes (IgE-IC bind to human cells through FcεRI or FcεRII/CD23 surface molecules, the present study aimed to identify which functional receptor may be involved in IgE-IC interaction with human macrophages, the major effector cell during parasite infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with Toxoplasma gondii before being incubated with IgE-IC. IgE receptors were then identified using appropriate blocking antibodies. The activation of cells and parasiticidal activity were evaluated by mediator quantification and direct counting of infected macrophages. RNAs were extracted and cell supernatants were also collected for their content in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-10 (IL-10 and nitrites. Sera from symptomatic infected patients were also tested for their content of IgE, IL-10 and nitrites, and compared to values found in healthy donors. Results showed that IgE-IC induced intracellular elimination of parasites by human macrophages. IgE-mediated effect was FcεRI-independent, but required cross-linking of surface FcεRII/CD23, cell activation and the generation of nitric oxide (NO. Although TNF-α was shown to be produced during cell activation, this cytokine had minor contribution in this phenomenon while endogenous and exogenous IL-10 down-regulated parasite killing. Inverse relationship was found between IL-10 and NO expression by infected human macrophages at both mRNA and mediator levels. The relationship between these in vitro data and in vivo levels of various factors in T. gondii infected patients supports the involvement of CD23 antigen and IL-10 expression in disease control. CONCLUSION: Thus, IgE may be considered as immune mediator during

  12. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Bone Resorption: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Periodontitis and Other Bone Loss Diseases

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    Qian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  13. Interleukin-10 Genotype Correlated to Deficiency Syndrome in Hepatitis B Cirrhosis

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    Qing-Ya Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM syndrome is an important basis for TCM diagnosis and treatment. As Child-Pugh classification as well as compensation and decompensation phase in liver cirrhosis, it is also an underlying clinical classification. In this paper, we investigated the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of Interleukin-10 (IL-10 and TCM syndromes in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis (HBC. Samples were obtained from 343 HBC patients in China. Three SNPs of IL-10 (−592A/C, −819C/T, and −1082A/G were detected with polymerase chain-reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR. The result showed the SNP-819C/T was significantly correlated with Deficiency syndrome (P=0.031, but none of the 3 loci showed correlation either with Child-Pugh classification and phase in HBC patients. The logistic regression analysis showed that the Excess syndrome was associated with dizzy and spider nevus, and the Deficiency syndrome was associated with dry eyes, aversion to cold, IL-10-819C/T loci, and IL-10-1082A/G loci. The odds ratio (OR value at IL-10-819C/T was 4.022. The research results suggested that IL-10-819C/T locus (TC plus CC genotype is probably a risk factor in the occurrence of Deficiency syndrome in HBC patients.

  14. Significant elevation of a Th2 cytokine, interleukin-10, in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Wang, Po-Hui; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Ding-Bang; Lin, Yi-Jiun; Kuo, Dong-Yih; Lin, Long-Yau; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Lee, Sheuan; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the expressions and ratios of type 1 T helper cell (Th1) cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), as well as type 2 T helper cell (Th2) cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) patients. The human cytokine LINCOplex multiplex bead array was used to measure the plasma levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in 50 healthy controls, as well as in 41 PID patients before and after routine protocol treatment. Significantly increased expressions of Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma (p=0.004), as well as Th2 cytokine IL-5 (p=0.001), and dramatically increased IL-10 (p=0.0001), but significantly decreased expression of Th1 cytokine IL-2 (p=0.029) in PID patients were found after comparison to the control group. The ratio of IFN-gamma to IL-13 showed a significant increase, but the ratios of IFN-gamma to IL-10 and IL-2 to IL-10 was significantly decreased in PID patients before treatment compared to after treatment and controls. The results indicate that the imbalance and cross-regulation between Th1 and Th2 cytokines pathways is probably contributed to the mechanism of PID.

  15. Interleukin-10 inhibits bone resorption: a potential therapeutic strategy in periodontitis and other bone loss diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua; Guo, Jianbin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shouzhi; Yang, Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  16. Anti-inflammatory cytokines in asthma and allergy: interleukin-10, interleukin-12, interferon-γ

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    Fan Chung

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a cytokine derived from CD4+ T-helper type 2 (TH2 cells identified as a suppressor of cytokines from T-helper type 1(TH1 cells. Interleukin-12 (IL-12 is produced by B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, and primarily regulates TH1 cell differentiation, while suppressing the expansion of TH2 cell clones. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ is a product of TH1 cells and exerts inhibitory effects on TH2 cell differentiation. These cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergies. In this context, IL-12 and IFN-γ production in asthma have been found to be decreased, and this may reduce their capacity to inhibit IgE synthesis and allergic inflammation. IL-10 is a potent inhibitor of monocyte/macrophage function, suppressing the production of many pro-inflammatory cytokines. A relative underproduction of IL-10 from alveolar macrophages of atopic asthmatics has been reported. Therapeutic modulation of TH1/TH2 imbalance in asthma and allergy by mycobacterial vaccine, specific immunotherapy and cytoline-guanosine dinucleotide motif may lead to increases in IL-12 and IFN-γ production. Stimulation of IL-10 production by antigen-specific T-cells during immunotherapy may lead to anergy through inhibition of CD28-costimulatory molecule signalling by IL-10s anti-inflammatory effect on basophils, mast cells and eosinophils.

  17. Interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism predicts initial response of chronic hepatitis B to interferon alfa

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    Ma Weimin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to examine whether variation in interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism would predict the likelihood of sustain response of chronic hepatitis B to treatment with interferon alfa (IFN-α, the inheritance of 3 biallelic polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene promoter in patients with 52 chronic hepatitis B were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-bared techniques, restriction enzyme digestion or direct sequencing. The relationship to the outcome of antiviral therapy for chronic HBV infection was studied in 24 patients who had a virologically sustained response(SR and in 28 non-responder(NR to interferon alfa-2b and several IL-10 variants were more frequent among SR compared with NR. Carriage of the -592A allele, -592A/A genotype and -1082/-1819/-592 ATA haplotype was associated with SR. Our findings indicate that heterogeneity in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene has a role in determining the initial response of chronic hepatitis B to IFN-α therapy.

  18. Interleukin-10 overexpression promotes Fas-ligand-dependent chronic macrophage-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dru S Dace

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Demyelinating polyneuropathy is a debilitating, poorly understood disease that can exist in acute (Guillain-Barré syndrome or chronic forms. Interleukin-10 (IL-10, although traditionally considered an anti-inflammatory cytokine, has also been implicated in promoting abnormal angiogenesis in the eye and in the pathobiology of autoimmune diseases such as lupus and encephalomyelitis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overexpression of IL-10 in a transgenic mouse model leads to macrophage-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathy. IL-10 upregulates ICAM-1 within neural tissues, promoting massive macrophage influx, inflammation-induced demyelination, and subsequent loss of neural tissue resulting in muscle weakness and paralysis. The primary insult is to perineural myelin followed by secondary axonal loss. Infiltrating macrophages within the peripheral nerves demonstrate a highly pro-inflammatory signature. Macrophages are central players in the pathophysiology, as in vivo depletion of macrophages using clodronate liposomes reverses the phenotype, including progressive nerve loss and paralysis. Macrophage-mediate demyelination is dependent on Fas-ligand (FasL-mediated Schwann cell death. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings mimic the human disease chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP and may also promote further understanding of the pathobiology of related conditions such as acute idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP or Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  19. Genetically Modified Lactococcus lactis for Delivery of Human Interleukin-10 to Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge L. Huibregtse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-10 (IL-10 plays an indispensable role in mucosal tolerance by programming dendritic cells (DCs to induce suppressor Th-cells. We have tested the modulating effect of L. lactis secreting human IL-10 (L.  lactisIL-10 on DC function in vitro. Monocyte-derived DC incubated with L.  lactisIL-10 induced effector Th-cells that markedly suppressed the proliferation of allogenic Th-cells as compared to L. lactis. This suppressive effect was only seen when DC showed increased CD83 and CD86 expression. Furthermore, enhanced production of IL-10 was measured in both L.  lactisIL-10-derived DC and Th-cells compared to L. lactis-derived DC and Th-cells. Neutralizing IL-10 during DC-Th-cell interaction and coculturing L.  lactisIL-10-derived suppressor Th-cells with allogenic Th-cells in a transwell system prevented the induction of suppressor Th-cells. Only 130 pg/mL of bacterial-derived IL-10 and 40 times more exogenously added recombinant human IL-10 were needed during DC priming for the generation of suppressor Th-cells. The spatially restricted delivery of IL-10 by food-grade bacteria is a promising strategy to induce suppressor Th-cells in vivo and to treat inflammatory diseases.

  20. Interleukin-10 paradox: A potent immunoregulatory cytokine that has been difficult to harness for immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ankit; Khosraviani, Sam; Noel, Sanjeev; Mohan, Divya; Donner, Thomas; Hamad, Abdel Rahim A.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is arguably the most potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. It is produced by almost all the innate and adaptive immune cells. These cells also serve as its targets, indicating that IL-10 secretion and action is highly regulated and perhaps compartmentalized. Consistent with this notion, various efforts directed at systemic administration of IL-10 to modulate autoimmune diseases (type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis) have produced conflicting and largely inconsequential effects. On the other hand, IL-10 can promote humoral immune responses, enhancing class II expression on B cells and inducing immunoglobulin (Ig) production. Consequently, the high IL-10 level in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is considered pathogenic and its blockade ameliorates the disease. In this perspective, we review preclinical findings and results of recent clinical studies using exogenous IL-10 to treat the aforementioned autoimmune diseases. In addition, given the limited success of IL-10 supplementation, we suggest that future studies should be expanded beyond modulating the delivery modes to include developing new strategies to protect and replenish the endogenous sources of IL-10. As an example, we provide evidence that aberrant Fas-mediated deletion of IL-10-producing B cells subverts the immunoregulatory role of IL-10 in autoimmune diabetes and that modulation of the Fas pathway preserves the IL-10-producing B cells and completely protects NOD mice from developing the disease. PMID:25481648

  1. Selective growth of silica nanowires using an Au catalyst for optical recognition of interleukin-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Praveen K.; Ramgir, Niranjan S.; Joshi, Rakesh K.; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2008-06-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth procedure has been extended for the selective growth of silica nanowires on SiO2 layer by using Au as a catalyst. The nanowires were grown in an open tube furnace at 1100 °C for 60 min using Ar as a carrier gas. The average diameter of these bottom-up nucleated wires was found to be 200 nm. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates the amorphous nature of these nanoscale wires and suggests an Si-silica heterostructure. The localized silica nanowires have been used as an immunoassay template in the detection of interleukin-10 which is a lung cancer biomarker. Such a nanostructured platform offered a tenfold enhancement in the optical response, aiding the recognition of IL-10 in comparison to a bare silica substrate. The role of nanowires in the immunoassay was verified through the quenching behavior in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Two orders of reduction in PL intensity have been observed after completion of the immunoassay with significant quenching after executing every step of the protocol. The potential of this site-specific growth of silica nanowires on SiO2 as a multi-modal biosensing platform has been discussed.

  2. Interferon gamma and interleukin 10 polymorphisms in Chinese children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi; Hu, Shao-Yan; Xuan, Cheng-Min; Jin, Ming-Wei; Ji, Qiang; Wang, Yi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with the susceptibility of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in Chinese children without known family history of HLH. Forty children with HLH and 160 age- and gender-matched healthy controls from Xuzhou Children's Hospital were enrolled in the study. Serum IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay. Polymorphisms of the IFN-γ gene at position +874 and +2109, and IL-10 at position -1082 were analyzed by allele-specific PCR. Median serum concentrations of IFN -γ and IL-10 were significantly higher in children with HLH compared to healthy controls. The frequencies of IFN-γ +874 T/A and T/T genotypes, as well as T allele, were significantly higher in the HLH group compared with those in the control group. The frequencies of IL-10 -1082 G/A genotype and G allele were significantly increased in HLH patients compared with healthy controls. No significant difference was found in the distribution of IFN-γ +2109G/A genotypes between children with HLH and controls. This study presents preliminary evidence for the association between IFN +874 T/A, T/T, IL-10 -1082 A/G genotypes, and HLH susceptibility in Chinese children with HLH. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Why interleukin-10 supplementation does not work in Crohn’s disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Gareth J; van Gent, Dominique; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis are chronic intestinal disorders, which are on the increase in “Westernised” countries. IBD can be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that has been identified as being involved in several diseases including IBD. Studies have shown that polymorphisms in the promoter region reduce serum levels of IL-10 and this reduction has been associated with some forms of IBD. Mouse models have shown promising results with IL-10 supplementation, as such IL-10 supplementation has been touted as being a possible alternative treatment for CD in humans. Clinical trials have shown that recombinant human IL-10 is safe and well tolerated up to a dose of 8 μg/kg. However, to date, the results of the clinical trials have been disappointing. Although CD activity was reduced as measured by the CD activity index, IL-10 supplementation did not result in significantly reduced remission rates or clinical improvements when compared to placebo. This review discusses why IL-10 supplementation is not effective in CD patients currently and what can be addressed to potentially make IL-10 supplementation a more viable treatment option in the future. Based on the current research we conclude that IL-10 supplementation is not a one size fits all treatment and if the correct population of patients is chosen then IL-10 supplementation could be of benefit. PMID:23840137

  4. Premature mammary gland involution with repeated corticosterone injection in interleukin 10-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Woo-Sung; Bae, Ji-Hyun; Yeom, Su-Cheong

    2016-12-01

    Recently, we found that maternal stress could induce premature mammary gland involution in interleukin 10 knock out (IL-10 -/- ) mice. To elucidate correlation between stress, IL-10, and mammary gland involution, corticosterone was injected into the lactating wild type and IL-10-deficient mice and assessed mammary gland phenotype. Repetitive corticosterone injection developed premature mammary gland involution only in B6.IL-10 -/- mice; moreover, it induced alopecia in nursing pups. Corticosterone injection induced several typical changes such as mammary gland epithelial cell apoptosis, macrophage infiltration, fat deposition in adipocyte, STAT3 phosphorylation, and upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene in adrenal gland. Overall incidence of pup alopecia and mammary gland involution was relatively high in corticosterone than control B6.IL-10 -/- group (57% vs. 20%). Our finding demonstrates that IL-10 is important for stress modulation, and B6.Il-10 -/- with corticosterone has several advantage such as simple to establish, well-defined onset of mammary gland involution, high incidence, and inducing pup alopecia.

  5. Inhibitory mechanism of peptides with a repeating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residue pattern on interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Guoying; Wang, Yuejian; Cummins, Scott; Walton, Shelley; Mounsey, Kate; Liu, Xiaosong; Wei, Ming Q; Wang, Tianfang

    2017-03-04

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that is able to downregulate inflammation. Its overexpression is directly associated with the difficulty in the clearance of chronic viral infections, such as chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV infection, and infection-related cancer. IL-10 signaling blockade has been proposed as a promising way of clearing chronic viral infection and preventing tumor growth in animal models. Recently, we have reported that peptides with a helical repeating pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues are able to inhibit IL-10 significantly both in vitro and in vivo. 1 In this work, we seek to further study the inhibiting mechanism of these peptides using sequence-modified peptides. As evidenced by both experimental and molecular dynamics simulation in concert the N-terminal hydrophobic peptide constructed with repeating hydrophobic and hydrophilic pattern of residues is more likely to inhibit IL10. In addition, the sequence length and the ability of protonation are also important for inhibition activity.

  6. Selective growth of silica nanowires using an Au catalyst for optical recognition of interleukin-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhar, Praveen K; Ramgir, Niranjan S; Joshi, Rakesh K; Bhansali, Shekhar [Bio-MEMS and Microfabrication Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail: bhansali@eng.usf.edu

    2008-06-18

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth procedure has been extended for the selective growth of silica nanowires on SiO{sub 2} layer by using Au as a catalyst. The nanowires were grown in an open tube furnace at 1100 deg. C for 60 min using Ar as a carrier gas. The average diameter of these bottom-up nucleated wires was found to be 200 nm. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates the amorphous nature of these nanoscale wires and suggests an Si-silica heterostructure. The localized silica nanowires have been used as an immunoassay template in the detection of interleukin-10 which is a lung cancer biomarker. Such a nanostructured platform offered a tenfold enhancement in the optical response, aiding the recognition of IL-10 in comparison to a bare silica substrate. The role of nanowires in the immunoassay was verified through the quenching behavior in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Two orders of reduction in PL intensity have been observed after completion of the immunoassay with significant quenching after executing every step of the protocol. The potential of this site-specific growth of silica nanowires on SiO{sub 2} as a multi-modal biosensing platform has been discussed.

  7. Interaction of purified bovine brain A1-adenosine receptors with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins of human platelet membranes following reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, R; Linden, J

    1990-08-01

    A1-adenosine receptors and associated guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) have been co-purified from bovine cerebral cortex by agonist affinity chromatography [J. Biol. Chem. 264:14853-14859 (1989)]. In this study we have reconstituted purified bovine brain A1 receptors into human platelet membranes that contain A2- but no detectable A1-adenosine receptors. The recovery of reconstituted receptors was assessed from the binding of the antagonist radioligand [125I]3-(4-amino-3-iodo)phenethyl-1-propyl-8-cyclopentyl-xanthine and ranged from 32 to 84%. Coupling of reconstituted A1 receptors to platelet G proteins was evaluated by measurement of the high affinity binding of an agonist radioligand, 125I-aminobenzyladenosine, to receptor-G protein complexes and by stereospecific photoaffinity labeling of a 35,000-Da receptor polypeptide with the agonist photoaffinity label 125I-azidobenzyladenosine. Fifty percent of receptors reconstituted into platelet membranes bound agonists with high affinity, indicative of coupling to platelet G proteins. Reconstituted A1 receptors bound various ligands with affinities characteristic of A1 receptors of bovine brain. Although platelets contain both pertussis toxin-sensitive and -insensitive G proteins, reconstituted high affinity agonist binding was almost completely abolished by treatment of platelet membranes with guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate, pertussis toxin, N-ethylmaleimide, or heparin. Following reconstitution, A1 receptors could be resolubilized in complexes with platelet G proteins. The data suggest that marked species differences in the binding affinity of ligands to adenosine receptors result from differences in the receptors rather than membrane structure or G proteins and, further, that A1 receptors couple selectively and tightly to pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins.

  8. Identification and characterization of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptors in bovine adrenal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.M.; Kiess, W.; Beikler, T.; Simmler, P.; Reichel, M.; Adelmann, B.; Kessler, U.; Engelhardt, D. (Univ. of Munich (Germany))

    1994-03-01

    The authors have identified and characterized insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate (IGF-II/M6P) receptors in bovine adrenal cells. Iodine-125-labelled IGF-I ([[sup 125]I]IGF-I) binding was characteristic of the IGF-I receptor, and binding kinetics as well as receptor densities were similar in cortical and medullary membranes. Scatchard analysis of [[sup 125]I]IGF-I binding to cultured adrenocortical cells showed a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a K[sub d] of 1.4 nmol/l and an average of 150 000 binding sites/cell. Affinity cross-linking experiments displayed a band at an apparent molecular weight of 135 kD, corresponding to the size of the [alpha]-subunit of the IGF-I receptor. In analogy, the binding of [[sup 125]I]IGF-II to bovine adrenal membranes was characteristic of the IGF-II/M6P receptor and no differences between cortical and medullary membrane fractions were found. Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of high-affinity binding sites in adrenocortical cells with a K[sub d] of 1.1 nmol/l and an average of 280 000 binding sites/cell. The identity of the IGF-II/M6P receptor was confirmed by western blotting of adrenocortical membranes with an anti-IGF-II/M6P receptor antibody and by affinity cross-linking of adrenocortical cells with labeled IGF-II. In conclusion, the authors have identified and characterized IGF-I and IGF-II/M6P receptors in bovine adrenocortical as well as medullary cells. In both regions of the bovine adrenal gland the IGF-II/M6P receptor is much more abundant than the IGF-I receptor. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Disruption of the 37-kDa/67-kDa laminin receptor gene in bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... State Key Laboratories for Agrobiotechnology, Key Lab of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis, Ministry of Agriculture,. National Animal ... disease (CJD) in humans, scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in .... With the development of cloning techniques, transgenic animals can be ...

  10. Correlating interleukin-10 promoter gene polymorphisms with human cerebral infarction onset

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    Xin-hong Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that interleukin-10 (IL-10 deficiency exacerbates inflammation and worsens the outcome of brain ischemia. In view of the critical role of the single nucleotide polymorphic sites -1082 (A/G and -819 (C/T in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene, we hypothesized that they are associated with cerebral infarction morbidity in the Chinese Han population. We genotyped these allelic gene polymorphisms by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction methods in 181 patients with cerebral infarction (cerebral infarction group and 115 healthy subjects (control group. We identified significant differences in genotype distribution and allele frequency of the IL-10-1082 A/G allele between cerebral infarction and control groups (χ2 = 6.643, P = 0.010. The IL-10-1082 A allele frequency was significantly higher in the cerebral infarction group (92.3% than in the control group (86.1% (P = 0.015. Moreover, cerebral infarction risk of the AA genotype was 2-fold higher than with the AG genotype (OR = 2.031, 95%CI: 1.134-3.637. In addition, AA genotype together with hypertension was the independent risk factor of cerebral infarction (OR = 2.073, 95%CI: 1.278-3.364. No statistical difference in genotype distribution or allele frequency of IL-10-819 C/T was found between cerebral infarction and control groups (P > 0.05. These findings suggest that the IL-10-1082 A/G gene polymorphism is involved in cerebral infarction, and increased A allele frequency is closely associated with occurrence of cerebral infarction.

  11. Biliverdin Reductase A (BVRA Mediates Macrophage Expression of Interleukin-10 in Injured Kidney

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    Zhizhi Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biliverdin reductase A is an enzyme, with serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activation, converting biliverdin (BV to bilirubin (BR in heme degradation pathway. It has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect in monocytes and human glioblastoma. However, the function of BVRA in polarized macrophage was unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of BVRA on macrophage activation and polarization in injured renal microenvironment. Classically activated macrophages (M1macrophages and alternative activation of macrophages (M2 macrophages polarization of murine bone marrow derived macrophage was induced by GM-CSF and M-CSF. M1 polarization was associated with a significant down-regulation of BVRA and Interleukin-10 (IL-10, and increased secretion of TNF-α. We also found IL-10 expression was increased in BVRA over-expressed macrophages, while it decreased in BVRA knockdown macrophages. In contrast, BVRA over-expressed or knockdown macrophages had no effect on TNF-α expression level, indicating BVRA mediated IL-10 expression in macrophages. Furthermore, we observed in macrophages infected with recombinant adenoviruses BVRA gene, which BVRA over-expressed enhanced both INOS and ARG-1 mRNA expression, resulting in a specific macrophage phenotype. Through in vivo study, we found BVRA positive macrophages largely existed in mice renal ischemia perfusion injury. With the treatment of the regular cytokines GM-CSF, M-CSF or LPS, excreted in the injured renal microenvironment, IL-10 secretion was significantly increased in BVRA over-expressed macrophages. In conclusion, the BVRA positive macrophage is a source of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in injured kidney, which may provide a potential target for treatment of kidney disease.

  12. Relationship Between HIV Coinfection, Interleukin 10 Production, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Lymph Node Granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Collin R; O'Hern, Jennifer; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G; Allie, Nafiesa; Papier, Patricia; Meintjes, Graeme; Coussens, Anna K; Wainwright, Helen; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2016-11-01

     Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV)-infected persons are more susceptible to tuberculosis than HIV-uninfected persons. Low peripheral CD4 + T-cell count is not the sole cause of higher susceptibility, because HIV-infected persons with a high peripheral CD4 + T-cell count and those prescribed successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain more prone to active tuberculosis than HIV-uninfected persons. We hypothesized that the increase in susceptibility is caused by the ability of HIV to manipulate Mycobacterium tuberculosis-associated granulomas.  We examined 71 excised cervical lymph nodes (LNs) from persons with HIV and M. tuberculosis coinfection, those with HIV monoinfection, and those with M. tuberculosis monoinfection with a spectrum of peripheral CD4 + T-cell counts and ART statuses. We quantified differences in M. tuberculosis levels, HIV p24 levels, cellular response, and cytokine presence within granulomas.  HIV increased M. tuberculosis numbers and reduced CD4 + T-cell counts within granulomas. Peripheral CD4 + T-cell depletion correlated with granulomas that contained fewer CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, less interferon γ, more neutrophils, more interleukin 10 (IL-10), and increased M. tuberculosis numbers. M. tuberculosis numbers correlated positively with IL-10 and interferon α levels and fewer CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. ART reduced IL-10 production.  Peripheral CD4 + T-cell depletion correlated with increased M. tuberculosis presence, increased IL-10 production, and other phenotypic changes within granulomas, demonstrating the HIV infection progressively changes these granulomas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Treatment of Crohn's disease with recombinant human interleukin 10 induces the proinflammatory cytokine interferon γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilg, H; van Montfrans, C; van den Ende, A; Kaser, A; van Deventer, S J H; Schreiber, S; Gregor, M; Ludwiczek, O; Rutgeerts, P; Gasche, C; Koningsberger, J C; Abreu, L; Kuhn, I; Cohard, M; LeBeaut, A; Grint, P; Weiss, G

    2002-01-01

    Background: Interleukin 10 (IL-10) exerts anti-inflammatory actions by counteracting many biological effects of interferon γ (IFN-γ). Aims: To investigate this in humans, we studied the effects of human recombinant IL-10 administration on IFN-γ production by patient leucocytes. Furthermore, we assessed the IFN-γ inducible molecule neopterin and nitrite/nitrate serum levels, which are indicative of endogenous nitric oxide formation. Methods: As part of two placebo controlled double blind studies, we analysed patients with chronic active Crohn's disease (CACD) who received either subcutaneous recombinant human IL-10 (n=44) or placebo (n=10) daily for 28 days, and patients with mild to moderate Crohn's disease (MCD) treated with either subcutaneous IL-10 (n=52) or placebo (n=16) daily for 28 days. Neopterin and nitrite/nitrate concentrations were measured in serum, and ex vivo IFN-γ formation by lipopolysaccharide or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated whole blood cells were investigated before, during, and after IL-10 therapy. Results: In patients with CACD, the highest dose of 20 μg/kg IL-10 caused a significant increase in serum neopterin on days +15 and +29 of therapy compared with pretreatment levels. No changes were observed for nitrite/nitrate levels under either condition. In MCD, treatment with 20 μg/kg IL-10 resulted in a significant increase in PHA induced IFN-γ production. Conclusions: High doses of IL-10 upregulate the production of IFN-γ and neopterin. This phenomenon may be responsible for the lack of efficacy of high doses of IL-10 in the treatment of CACD and MCD. PMID:11788558

  14. Treatment of Crohn's disease with recombinant human interleukin 10 induces the proinflammatory cytokine interferon gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilg, H; van Montfrans, C; van den Ende, A; Kaser, A; van Deventer, S J H; Schreiber, S; Gregor, M; Ludwiczek, O; Rutgeerts, P; Gasche, C; Koningsberger, J C; Abreu, L; Kuhn, I; Cohard, M; LeBeaut, A; Grint, P; Weiss, G

    2002-02-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) exerts anti-inflammatory actions by counteracting many biological effects of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). To investigate this in humans, we studied the effects of human recombinant IL-10 administration on IFN-gamma production by patient leucocytes. Furthermore, we assessed the IFN-gamma inducible molecule neopterin and nitrite/nitrate serum levels, which are indicative of endogenous nitric oxide formation. As part of two placebo controlled double blind studies, we analysed patients with chronic active Crohn's disease (CACD) who received either subcutaneous recombinant human IL-10 (n=44) or placebo (n=10) daily for 28 days, and patients with mild to moderate Crohn's disease (MCD) treated with either subcutaneous IL-10 (n=52) or placebo (n=16) daily for 28 days. Neopterin and nitrite/nitrate concentrations were measured in serum, and ex vivo IFN-gamma formation by lipopolysaccharide or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated whole blood cells were investigated before, during, and after IL-10 therapy. In patients with CACD, the highest dose of 20 microg/kg IL-10 caused a significant increase in serum neopterin on days +15 and +29 of therapy compared with pretreatment levels. No changes were observed for nitrite/nitrate levels under either condition. In MCD, treatment with 20 microg/kg IL-10 resulted in a significant increase in PHA induced IFN-gamma production. High doses of IL-10 upregulate the production of IFN-gamma and neopterin. This phenomenon may be responsible for the lack of efficacy of high doses of IL-10 in the treatment of CACD and MCD.

  15. Exercise ameliorates high fat diet induced cardiac dysfunction by increasing interleukin 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesherwani, Varun; Chavali, Vishalakshi; Hackfort, Bryan T; Tyagi, Suresh C; Mishra, Paras K

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD) leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, 8 week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1 h/day for 5 days/week for 8 weeks). The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex) and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  16. Properdin Regulation of Complement Activation Affects Colitis in Interleukin 10 Gene-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Umang; Midgen, Craig A; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Stover, Cordula M; Stadnyk, Andrew W

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin 10-deficient mice (IL-10(-/-)) are a popular model used to dissect the mechanisms underlying inflammatory bowel diseases. The role of complement, a host defense mechanism that bridges the innate and adaptive immune systems, has not been described in this model. We therefore studied the effect of deficiency of properdin, a positive regulator of complement, on colitis in mice with the IL-10(-/-) background. For acute colitis, IL-10(-/-) and IL-10/properdin double knockout (DKO) or radiation bone marrow-reconstituted chimeric mice, had piroxicam added to their powdered chow for 14 days. For chronic colitis, 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate was added to the animals' water for 4 days then the mice were killed 8 weeks later. Colons were assessed for inflammation, cell infiltration, and cytokine and complement measurements. Bacterial translocation was measured by cultivating bacteria from organs on Luria broth agar plates. C3a and C5a levels and C9 deposition were all increased in piroxicam-fed IL-10(-/-) mice compared with mice not fed piroxicam. Piroxicam-fed DKO mice lacked increased C5a and C9 deposition combined with exacerbated colitis, reduced numbers of infiltrating neutrophils, and markedly higher local and systemic bacterial numbers compared with IL-10(-/-) mice. Bone marrow cells from IL-10(-/-) mice were sufficient to restore protection against the heightened colitis in piroxicam-fed DKO mice. Complement is activated in the IL-10(-/-) mouse mucosa in a properdin-dependent manner. In the absence of terminal complement activation, the inflammation is heightened, likely due to a lack of neutrophil control over microbes escaping from the intestines.

  17. Importance of Interleukin-10 in Genetic Susceptibility of Mice to Coccidioides immitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierer, Joshua; Walls, Lorraine; Eckmann, Lars; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Kirkland, Theo N.

    1998-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice vary in their susceptibility to Coccidioides immitis. We infected resistant DBA/2 (D2) mice and three susceptible strains of mice (C57BL/6 [B6], BALB/c, and CAST/Ei) by intraperitoneal injection of arthroconidia and determined the severity of infection based on colony counts of fungus in the spleens and lungs 14 days after infection. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure the amounts of cytokines made in the spleens and lungs of infected mice. Susceptible mice made 1,000-fold more interleukin-10 (IL-10) than resistant D2 mice and about 10-fold more IL-4. In contrast, D2 mice had more IL-12 p40 in their lungs than did B6 mice. Resistant and susceptible mice made equivalent amounts of gamma interferon, IL-6, and IL-2. In order to determine whether IL-10 adversely affected the response to C. immitis, we infected IL-10-deficient mice, and they were found to be as resistant as D2 mice. This result indicates that IL-10 plays a crucial role in determining susceptibility to C. immitis in inbred mice. Because IL-4 mRNA levels were higher in most strains of susceptible mice, we also infected IL-4-deficient B6 mice. They were more resistant than B6 controls but not as resistant as IL-10-deficient mice. Thus, both IL-10 and IL-4 adversely affect the ability of C57BL mice to resist infection with C. immitis, but IL-10 has a larger effect and is the cytokine that is consistently associated with susceptibility in all strains of inbred mice. PMID:9712793

  18. Genetic polymorphism of interleukin-10 (-A592C) among oral cancer with squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Kumar, Vijay; Gupta, Rajni; Kohli, Monica; Jain, Amita; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Bogra, Jaishri; Chandra, Girish

    2017-05-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine with either immunosuppressive or immunostimulative activities. It has been reported that in cancer, the promoter region polymorphism of IL-10 (-A592C) alters both the expression and serum levels of this cytokine. In the present study, we have addressed the question as to whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions -592 A/C in the IL-10 gene promoter, could predispose an individual to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We analyzed the genotype of the IL-10 (-A592C) gene, in 250 histopathologically confirmed OSCC patients and similar number of healthy volunteers taken as controls, in an Indian population by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Allele and genotype frequencies were analyzed by the Student's t-test and the chi-squared test, and strength of associations by the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. The genotype and allele distribution of IL-10 (-A592C) gene polymorphism was significantly different between OSCC cases and controls (genotype AA vs AC: OR 2.87; 95 % CI 1.50-5.48; p=0.0016 and AA vs CC: OR 4.08; 95 % CI 1.98-8.41; p=0.0002). The -592 C alleles were found to be significantly different among OSCC cases and controls (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.12-1.85, pIL-10 gene promoter region (-592) A/C polymorphism is significantly associated with reduced risk of OSCC. The OSCC group had a significantly greater frequency of genotype AA as compared to control group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated Interleukin-10: A New Cause of Dyslipidemia Leading to Severe HDL Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Andreas G; Freeman, Lita A; Shamburek, Robert D; Wesley, Robert; Wilson, Wyndham; Grant, Cliona M; Price, Susan; Demosky, Stephen; Thacker, Seth G; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Hornung, Ronald L; Pucino, Frank; Csako, Gyorgy; Yarboro, Cheryl; McInnes, Iain B; Kuroiwa, Takashi; Boumpas, Dimitrios; Rao, V. Koneti; Illei, Gabor G; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Investigating mechanisms underlying acquired severe HDL deficiency in noncritically ill patients (“Disappearing HDL Syndrome”) could provide new insights into HDL metabolism. OBJECTIVE To determine the cause of low HDL-C in patients with severe acquired HDL deficiency. METHODS AND RESULTS Patients with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL, n=2), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, n=1), and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS, n=1) presenting with markedly decreased HDL-C, low LDL-C and elevated triglycerides were identified. The abnormal lipoprotein profile returned to normal following therapy in all four cases. All cases were found to have markedly elevated serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels that also normalized following therapy. In a cohort of ALPS patients (n=93), IL-10 showed a strong inverse correlation with HDL-C (R2=0·3720, PIL-10 in inducing the observed changes in lipoproteins was established in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of recombinant human IL-10 (rhIL-10) in psoriatic arthritis patients (n=18). Within a week of initiating subcutaneous rhIL-10 injections, HDL-C precipitously decreased to near-undetectable levels. LDL-C also decreased by over 50% (PIL-10 therapy. CONCLUSION Increased IL-10 causes severe HDL-C deficiency, low LDL-C and elevated triglycerides. IL-10 is thus a potent modulator of lipoprotein levels, a potential new biomarker for B-cell disorders, and a novel cause of Disappearing HDL syndrome. PMID:25670364

  20. A Causal Role of Genetically Elevated Circulating Interleukin-10 in the Development of Digestive Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wenquan; Pang, Qing; Lin, Ting; Wang, Zhixin; Zhang, Jingyao; Tai, Minghui; Zhang, Lingqiang; Zhang, Li; Gu, Mingliang; Liu, Chang; Qu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have observed a high level of circulating interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients with digestive cancers, yet whether elevated IL-10 is causally associated with digestive cancers so far remained unresolved. We therefore meta-analyzed available observational studies with Mendelian randomization method to explore this causal association by employing IL-10 gene 3 variants (-592C>A, -819C>T, and -1082A>G) as instruments. Data were available from 52 articles encompassing 29,307 subjects. Subgroup analysis by cancer type indicated that -1082A>G was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–1.35; P = 0.006), and the association was reinforced for intestinal type gastric cancer (OR = 1.26; 95%CI: 1.09–1.44; P = 0.001). By ethnicity, risk estimate for -1082G allele carriers was increased by 21% for digestive cancers in East Asians (95%CI: 1.05–1.40; P = 0.009). As for the genotype–phenotype association, carriers of -1082G allele had an overall 20.21 pg/mL higher IL-10 level than those with -1082AA genotype (P = 0.023). In further Mendelian randomization analysis, the predicted OR for 10 pg/mL increment in IL-10 was 1.14 (95%CI: 1.01–16.99) in gastric cancer. Our findings provided evidence for a causal role of genetically elevated IL-10 in the development of gastric cancer, especially in East Asians and for intestinal type gastric cancer. PMID:26886630

  1. Transforming Growth Factor-β, Interleukin-10, and Serological Markers in EBV-associated Gastric Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachnia, Dariusz; Drop, Bartłomiej; Dworzańska, Anna; Kliszczewska, Ewa; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2017-09-01

    The association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric cancer (GC) has been reported by many researchers. Immunosuppressive cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), play an important role in the tumor process. The aim of the present study was to detect antibodies against EBV and explore the levels of TGFβ and IL-10 in Polish GC patients. Fifty patients with GC and 50 hospitalized individuals without GC (control group) were enrolled in the study. Frozen tumor tissue fragments were tested using nested PCR assay for EBV DNA detection. ELISA test was used to detect the presence of anti-VCA IgG, anti-EBNA IgG, anti-EA IgG, TGFβ and Il-10 in sera from all individuals. EBVCA was detected in 88.0%, EBNA in 90.0%, and EA in 72.0% of patients. Levels of TGFβ and IL-10 were significantly higher in patients with high levels of anti-EA antibodies (25.4 ng/ml; 7.8 pg/ml) compared to patients with low levels of anti-EA antibodies (12.61 ng/ml; 4.29 pg/ml). The significantly higher level of EA in patients' sera indicates EBV reactivation. TGFβ level was significantly higher in GC than in the control group, especially in EA-positive patients, indicating its possible role in gastric carcinogenesis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in regulation of GABAergic transmission and acute response to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayanan, A; Carter, J M; Landin, J D; Morrow, A L; Werner, D F; Spigelman, I

    2016-08-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that ethanol (EtOH) exposure activates neuroimmune signaling. Alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokines after acute and chronic EtOH exposure have been heavily investigated. In contrast, little is known about the regulation of neurotransmission and/or modulation by anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain after an acute EtOH exposure. Recent evidence suggests that interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is upregulated during withdrawal from chronic EtOH exposure. In the present study, we show that IL-10 is increased early (1 h) after a single intoxicating dose of EtOH (5 g/kg, intragastric) in Sprague Dawley rats. We also show that IL-10 rapidly regulates GABAergic transmission in dentate gyrus neurons. In brain slice recordings, IL-10 application dose-dependently decreases miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) area and frequency, and decreases the magnitude of the picrotoxin sensitive tonic current (Itonic), indicating both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. A PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (but not the negative control LY303511) ablated the inhibitory effects of IL-10 on mIPSC area and Itonic, but not on mIPSC frequency, indicating the involvement of PI3K in postsynaptic effects of IL-10 on GABAergic transmission. Lastly, we also identify a novel neurobehavioral regulation of EtOH sensitivity by IL-10, whereby IL-10 attenuates acute EtOH-induced hypnosis. These results suggest that EtOH causes an early release of IL-10 in the brain, which may contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability as well as disturbed sleep seen after binge exposure to EtOH. These results also identify IL-10 signaling as a potential therapeutic target in alcohol-use disorders and other CNS disorders where GABAergic transmission is altered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of interleukin 10 in human papilloma virus infection and progression to cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Fernanda Costa Brandão; Pereira, Ana Paula Lombardi; Cebinelli, Guilherme Cesar Martelossi; Trugilo, Kleber Paiva; Brajão de Oliveira, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Although Human Papillomavirus (HPV) exerts a vital influence on cervical carcinogenesis, other factors influence the development of a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) that may or not progress to cervical cancer. Among several cytokines, Interleukin 10 (IL-10) stands out as an important anti-inflammatory factor, leading to immune system evasion through an immunosuppressive state. In the cervical microenvironment, during different stages of HPV infection, IL-10 production can be induced and maintained by different cell sources, including infected keratinocytes, some subsets of dendritic cells (DC), tumor associated macrophages (TAM), T regulatory cells (Treg) and tumor cells. Further, a wide range of effects can be exerted by IL-10 on different cell populations, such as inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production, DCs differentiation, antigen presenting function and T-helper 1 (Th1) polarization. IL-10 is one of several cytokines involved in cancer development and sustenance, although its role in cancer is still controversial and poorly understood. However, cervical IL-10 levels tend to increase in parallel to SIL development and are even higher within cervical tumors. Accumulating data have shown that after HPV infection, IL-10 levels are enhanced as a result of HPV E2, E6 and E7 proteins action over IL-10 gene transcription, while IL-10 stimulates HPV E6 and E7 expression. Therefore, this interplay between HPV and IL-10 creates a vicious cycle that could favor an immunosuppressive microenvironment in the cervix, facilitating the progression of a simple HPV infection to SIL or cervical cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interleukin-10 -1082 G/A gene polymorphisms in Egyptian children with CAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Seham F.; Abdalhady, Mohamed A.; Elsaadany, Hosam F.; Elkomi, Mohamed A.; Elhindawy, Eman M.; Sarhan, Dina T.; Salam, Mohamed M.A.; Allah, Mayy A.N.; Emam, Ahmed A.; Noah, Maha A.; Abdelsalam, Nasser I.; Abdellatif, Sawsan H.; Rass, Anwar A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Gheith, Tarek; Aziz, Khalid A.; Hamed, Mohammed E.; Abdelrahman, Hind M.; Ahmed, Ahmed R.; Nabil, Rehab M.; Abdulmaksoud, Rehab S.; Yousef, Hala Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CAP. To date, only a few studies concerned the association of interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene polymorphisms with CAP. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the -1082(G/A) polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene is involved in susceptibility to and the outcome of CAP, and we also measured the serum level of IL-10 to assess its relation to such polymorphism. This was a case–control study included 100 patients with CAP, and matched with age, gender, and ethnicity of 100 healthy control children. IL-10 -1082(G/A) gene polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, while the serum IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA method. Compared to the controls subjects, the frequencies of the IL-10 -1082 AA genotype and A allele were observed to be overrepresented in patients with CAP (51%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–5.3 for the AA genotype; P IL-10 levels (46.7 ± 9.5 pg/mL) compared to those with AG genotype (21.8 ± 4.5 pg/mL) and AA genotype (11.5 ± 3.3 pg/mL); P IL-10 -1082 (G/A) gene polymorphism may contribute to susceptibility to CAP in Egyptian children. Moreover, we observed that the presence of a G allele or GG genotype at the -1082 position of the promoter region of the IL-10 gene constitute risk factors for developing severe sepsis, acute respiratory failure, and hospital mortality among patients with CAP. PMID:27368016

  5. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  6. Age, Segment, and Horn Disease Affect Expression of Cytokines, Growth Factors and Receptors in the Epidermis and Dermis of the Bovine Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in amounts of RNA expression for growth factors, cytokines and receptors in epidermal-dermal tissues of the bovine claw relative to host age, claw region and disease state of the horn. Epidermal-dermal tissues were collected from the coronette, wall, sole...

  7. Specific receptor-mediated inhibition by synthetic atrial natriuretic factor of hormone-stimulated steroidogenesis in cultured bovine adrenal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Léan, A; Racz, K; Gutkowska, J; Nguyen, T T; Cantin, M; Genest, J

    1984-10-01

    The effect of synthetic atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) on adrenal steroidogenesis has been studied in primary culture of bovine adrenal cells. ANF-(8-33) produced a potent 40-70% inhibition of angiotensin II-, ACTH-, PGE1-, and forskolin-stimulated secretion of aldosterone production from zona glomerulosa cells with an ED50 of 120 pM. An equipotent inhibitory effect of the natriuretic factor on cortisol production was also observed in cultured zona fasciculata cells. Nicotine-stimulated secretion of catecholamines from medullary cells was only slightly inhibited by the factor at doses above 10 nM. [125I]iodo-ANF-(8-33) binding to glomerulosa membranes displayed an apparent affinity of 100-150 pM for specific receptor sites and was not inhibited by angiotensin II or ACTH. Conversely, the natriuretic factor had no affinity for angiotensin II receptor sites. The results demonstrate that part of the natriuretic effect of this new factor might be due to inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis by action through a distinct receptor.

  8. Association of -1082 interleukin-10 gene polymorphism in Peruvian adults with chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambrone, Leandro; Ascarza, Amilcar; Guerrero, Maria E.; Pannuti, Claudio; de la Rosa, Manuel; Salinas-Prieto, Elmer

    2014-01-01

    words:According to MeSH documentation, chronic periodontitis, cytokines, genetic polymorphism, interleukin-10, periodontal disease. PMID:25129246

  9. A pilot study of daily subcutaneous interleukin-10 in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHutchison, J G; Giannelli, G; Nyberg, L; Blatt, L M; Waite, K; Mischkot, P; Pianko, S; Conrad, A; Grint, P

    1999-11-01

    The Th1/Th2 cytokine balance is important in persistence of infection and liver injury in chronic hepatitis C. The aim of this study was to administer the anti-inflammatory cytokine, recombinant human interleukin-10 (rHuIL-10), for 28 days in patients with chronic hepatitis C and to assess the safety and measure the effect on alanine aminotransferase (ALT, a marker of hepatic inflammation) levels and serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA values. Three treatment-naive and 13 interferon (IFN) nonresponder patients (total 16 patients) with compensated chronic HCV infection were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomized to receive rHuIL-10 at a dose of 4 or 8 microg/kg/day as a single daily subcutaneous injection for 28 days. ALT values and serum HCV RNA were measured at days 0, 1, 3, 8, 15, 22, and 28 during therapy and at follow-up 2 and 4 weeks after cessation of the 4-week treatment period. ALT values normalized in 9 of 16 patients during therapy and remained normal until the end of treatment in 8 patients. The decreases in ALT values occurred in both the 4 microg and 8 microg dosage groups and were seen in both IFN naive and nonresponder patients. Mean ALT values fell significantly during the study period but usually returned to pretreatment levels by the end of the 4-week follow-up period (p or =1.5 log during the study.) The drug was well tolerated, with no adverse symptoms noted. Platelet counts fell transiently to 73,000 and 63,000 in 2 patients. No other toxicity was observed, and no patients discontinued therapy. In chronic hepatitis C, short-term therapy with IL-10 was well tolerated and caused transient normalization of ALT values in 50% of patients, which returned to pretreatment levels on cessation of treatment. There were no significant changes observed in serum HCV RNA concentrations during the study. These immunomodulatory effects are similar to those observed with ribavirin monotherapy in chronic hepatitis C. Further study of rHuIL-10 alone or in

  10. Toll-like receptor 2 gene polymorphisms in Chinese Holstein cattle and their associations with bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Xue, Yun; Hu, Zhigang; Zhou, Feng; Ma, Beibei; Long, Ta; Xue, Qiao; Liu, Huisheng

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated whether there was an association between polymorphisms within the Toll-like receptor 2 gene (TLR2) of Chinese Holstein cattle and susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (BTB). In a case-control study including 210 BTB cases and 237 control cattle, we found only two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the entire coding region of the TLR2 gene, A631G (rs95214857) and T1707C (rs1388116488). Additionally, the allele and genotype distributions of A631G and T1707C were not different between case and control groups, indicated that these SNPs were not associated with susceptibility to BTB. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene might not play a significant role in the BTB risk in Chinese Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Schaut

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp or non-cytopathic (ncp effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs. Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp, noncytopathic (ncp, high (hv or low virulence (lv BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections.

  12. Repertoire of Escherichia coli agonists sensed by innate immunity receptors of the bovine udder and mammary epithelial cells

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    Porcherie Adeline

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Escherichia coli is a frequent cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. It has been shown that a prompt response of the mammary gland after E. coli entry into the lumen of the gland is required to control the infection, which means that the early detection of bacteria is of prime importance. Yet, apart from lipopolysaccharide (LPS, little is known of the bacterial components which are detected by the mammary innate immune system. We investigated the repertoire of potential bacterial agonists sensed by the udder and bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC during E. coli mastitis by using purified or synthetic molecular surrogates of bacterial agonists of identified pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs. The production of CXCL8 and the influx of leucocytes in milk were the readouts of reactivity of stimulated cultured bMEC and challenged udders, respectively. Quantitative PCR revealed that bMEC in culture expressed the nucleotide oligomerization domain receptors NOD1 and NOD2, along with the Toll-like receptors TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6, but hardly TLR5. In line with expression data, bMEC proved to react to the cognate agonists C12-iE-DAP (NOD1, Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/2, Pam2CSK4 (TLR2/6, pure LPS (TLR4, but not to flagellin (TLR5. As the udder reactivity to NOD1 and TLR5 agonists has never been reported, we tested whether the mammary gland reacted to intramammary infusion of C12-iE-DAP or flagellin. The udder reacted to C12-iE-DAP, but not to flagellin, in line with the reactivity of bMEC. These results extend our knowledge of the reactivity of the bovine mammary gland to bacterial agonists of the innate immune system, and suggest that E. coli can be recognized by several PRRs including NOD1, but unexpectedly not by TLR5. The way the mammary gland senses E. coli is likely to shape the innate immune response and finally the outcome of E. coli mastitis.

  13. Interleukin 10 Increases CCR5 Expression and HIV Infection in Human Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzani, Silvano; Ghezzi, Silvia; Iannolo, Gioacchino; Luini, Walter; Borsatti, Alessandro; Polentarutti, Nadia; Sica, Antonio; Locati, Massimo; Mackay, Charles; Wells, Timothy N.C.; Biswas, Priscilla; Vicenzi, Elisa; Poli, Guido; Mantovani, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    The immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 10 selectively upregulates the expression of the CC chemokine receptors CCR5, 2, and 1 in human monocytes by prolonging their mRNA half-life. IL-10–stimulated monocytes display an increased number of cell surface receptors for, and better chemotactic responsiveness to, relevant agonists than do control cells. In addition, IL-10–stimulated monocytes are more efficiently infected by HIV BaL. This effect was associated to the enhancement of viral entry through CCR5. These data add support to an emerging paradigm in which pro- and antiinflammatory molecules exert reciprocal and opposing influence on chemokine agonist production and receptor expression. PMID:9449724

  14. The endothelin ET(B) receptor agonist [125I]BQ-3020 binds predominantly to nerves in the bovine retractor penis muscle and penile artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkkisenniemi, U M; Palkama, A; Virtanen, I; Klinge, E

    2000-11-01

    Preliminary pharmacological experiments have suggested that in the bovine retractor penis muscle there are relaxation-mediating endothelin ET(B) receptors, at least part of which are located on the inhibitory nitrergic nerves. The present work was undertaken to test this hypothesis by means of receptor autoradiography and additional pharmacological experiments. In the retractor penis muscle and the penile artery, specific binding of the ETB receptor-selective agonist [125I]BQ-3020 took place predominantly to nerve trunks and minor nerve branches. The situation was the same in the dorsal metatarsal artery, that was included as a reference because of its different innervation. Throughout the nerves the silver grains were evenly distributed over the nuclei of Schwann cells and the spaces between them. In the retractor penis there was also a small amount of specific binding to smooth muscle. No specific endothelial binding was observed in any of the tissues examined. The pharmacological studies confirmed that the relaxation of the retractor penis muscle induced by the ET(B) receptor-selective agonist, sarafotoxin S6c, is susceptible to tetrodotoxin as well as to inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relaxation was also characterized by inconsistency, weakness and tachyphylaxis. The electrical field stimulation-induced submaximal relaxation of the retractor penis was unaffected by stimulation or blockade of ET(B) receptors. The autoradiography suggests that in all the three bovine tissues studied there are ET(B) receptors located on nerves independently of the type of efferent nerve. The pharmacological experiments do not support the concept that in the bovine retractor penis muscle neuronal ET(B) receptors exert important immediate effects on the functioning of the penile erection-mediating nitrergic nerves.

  15. Expression and localisation of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the bovine mammary gland during development, function and involution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schams, D; Kohlenberg, S; Amselgruber, W; Berisha, B; Pfaffl, M W; Sinowatz, F

    2003-05-01

    It is now well established that oestrogen and progesterone are absolutely essential for mammary gland development. Lactation can be induced in non-pregnant animals by sex steroid hormone treatment. Most of the genomic actions of oestrogens are mediated by two oestrogen receptors (ER)-alpha and ERbeta, and for gestagens in ruminants by the progesterone receptor (PR). Our aim was the evaluation of mRNA expression and protein (localisation and Western blotting) during mammogenesis, lactogenesis, galactopoiesis (early, middle and late) and involution (8, 24, 28, 96-108 h and 14-28 days after the end of milking) in the bovine mammary gland (total no. 53). During these stages, the mRNA was assessed by means of real-time RT-PCR (LightCycler). The protein for ERalpha, ERbeta and PR was localised by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The mRNA expression results indicated the existence of ERalpha, ERbeta and PR in bovine mammary gland. Both ERalpha and PR are expressed in fg/ micro g total RNA range. The highest mRNA expression was found for ERalpha and PR in the tIssue of non-pregnant heifers, followed by a significant decrease to a lower level at the time of lactogenesis with low concentrations remaining during lactation and the first 4 weeks of involution. In contrast, the expression of ERbeta was about 1000-fold lower (ag/ micro g total RNA) and showed no clear difference during the stages examined, with a significant increase only 2-4 weeks after the end of milking. Immunolocalisation for ERalpha revealed a strong positive staining in nuclei of lactocytes in non-pregnant heifers, became undetectable during pregnancy, lactogenesis and lactation, and was again detectable 14-28 days after the end of milking. In contrast, PR was localised in the nuclei of epithelial cells in the mammary tIssue of non-pregnant heifers, in primigravid animals, and during late lactation and involution. During lactogenesis, peak and mid lactation, fewer nuclei of epithelial cells were

  16. Impact of iron overload on interleukin-10 levels, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in patients with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Cavalcante Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of iron overload on the profile of interleukin-10 levels, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in sickle cell anemia patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed of 30 patients with molecular diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Patients were stratified into two groups, according to the presence of iron overload: Iron overload (n = 15 and Non-iron overload (n = 15. Biochemical analyses were performed utilizing the Wiener CM 200 automatic analyzer. The interleukin-10 level was measured by capture ELISA using the BD OptEIAT commercial kit. Oxidative stress parameters were determined by spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software (version 5.0 and statistical significance was established for p-values < 0.05 in all analyses. RESULTS: Biochemical analysis revealed significant elevations in the levels of uric acid, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, urea and creatinine in the Iron overload Group compared to the Non-iron overload Group and significant decreases in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL. Ferritin levels correlated positively with uric acid concentrations (p-value < 0.05. The Iron overload Group showed lower interleukin-10 levels and catalase activity and higher nitrite and malondialdehyde levels compared with the Non-iron overload Group. CONCLUSION: The results of this study are important to develop further consistent studies that evaluate the effect of iron overload on the inflammatory profile and oxidative stress of patients with sickle cell anemia.

  17. Pregnancy in postpartum estrus induces inflammatory milk production and catagen specific pup skin inflammation in interleukin-10 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Woo-Sung; Kim, Hyun-Il; Kim, You-Jeong; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Hak-Sun; Oh, Keun-Hee; Lee, Dong-Sup; Yeom, Su-Cheong

    2013-12-01

    The interleukin 10 deficient mice (IL-10(-/-)) showed high incidence of pup alopecia compared to other strains, and pup alopecia was caused by skin inflammation and was recoverable. Pup alopecia of B6.IL-10(-/-) might be related with maternal factor and interleukin-10 deficient phenotype. The objectives of this study were elucidating of maternal factors for inflammatory milk production and characterization of pup alopecia in IL-10(-/-) mice. Incidences of pup alopecia were analyzed with 13 breeding cases. Comparison between control and alopecia pups and its dams, were conducted with histological examination (H&E, TUNEL assay, immunohistochemistry for F4/80, iNOS, CD206, Gr-1, CD4, CD8, CD11c and CD326), fostering test, forced weaning test, qPCR for tyrosine hydroxylase, flow cytometry, IL-10 inhibition test, BMDM stimulation test and LC/MS analysis. Presence of pregnancy in postpartum estrus showed significant correlation with inflammatory milk production and mammary gland involution in B6.IL-10(-/-) mice. There were no different mass in inflammatory milk, but different ionization intensity was detected. Inflammatory milk directly induced hepatocyte steatosis, catagen stage specific hair breaking and alopeicia in pups. Histologically, hypertropy of outer root sheath and macrophage/neutrophil infiltration were typical. B6.IL-10(-/-) dam with stress such as PPE could produce untimely mammary gland involution and inflammatory milk production. Interleukin 10 is important for maternal stress regulation and protecting inflammatory milk production, also influence severity of pup skin inflammation and alopecia. Remarkably, inflammatory milk induced hepatocyte steatosis, and it could indicate there is abnormal lipid metabolism. This was first report for catagen specific alopecia in mouse. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on the glycoprotein nature of the thyrotropin receptor: interaction with lectins and purification of the bovine protein with the use of Bandeiraea (Griffonia) simplicifolia I affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, B C; Spiro, R G

    1986-03-01

    The TSH receptor from Triton-solubilized bovine microsomal membranes was found to bind to a substantial extent to columns of the immobilized lectins Bandeiraea (Griffonia) simplicifolia I, Ricinus communis I, wheat germ, and Concanavalin A, whereas it was not retained by Dolichos biflorus. Elution of TSH receptor activity from these lectins could be achieved with the appropriate saccharides in all cases except Concanavalin A. The most extensive adsorption of the receptor occurred on B. simplicifolia I-agarose (84%), and the terminal alpha-D-galactosyl specificity of this interaction was substantiated by its susceptibility to alpha-galactosidase treatment. Whereas TSH itself was not bound to this immobilized lectin, a complex of this hormone with its receptor did interact and could be eluted with methyl-alpha-D-galactoside. Purification (800-fold) of the bovine TSH receptor was achieved by a combination of TSH and B. simplicifolia I affinity chromatographies. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified TSH receptor after radioiodination revealed three major components with apparent mol wt of 316,000, 115,000, and 54,000.

  19. Co-transfection of decorin and interleukin-10 modulates pro-fibrotic extracellular matrix gene expression in human tenocyte culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbah, Sunny A.; Thomas, Dilip; Browne, Shane; O'Brien, Timothy; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I.

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix synthesis and remodelling are driven by increased activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). In tendon tissue repair, increased activity of TGF-β1 leads to progressive fibrosis. Decorin (DCN) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) antagonise pathological collagen synthesis by exerting a neutralising effect via downregulation of TGF-β1. Herein, we report that the delivery of DCN and IL-10 transgenes from a collagen hydrogel system supresses the constitutive expression of TGF-β1 and a range of pro-fibrotic extracellular matrix genes.

  20. Host immune responses to a viral immune modulating protein: immunogenicity of viral interleukin-10 in rhesus cytomegalovirus-infected rhesus macaques.

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    Meghan K Eberhardt

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence has accumulated that multiple viruses, bacteria, and protozoa manipulate interleukin-10 (IL-10-mediated signaling through the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R in ways that could enable establishment of a persistent microbial infection. This suggests that inhibition of pathogen targeting of IL-10/IL-10R signaling could prevent microbial persistence. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV and rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV express a viral interleukin-10 (cmvIL-10 and rhcmvIL-10, respectively with comparable immune modulating properties in vitro to that of their host's cellular IL-10 (cIL-10. A prior study noted that rhcmvIL-10 alters innate and adaptive immunity to RhCMV in vivo, consistent with a central role for rhcmvIL-10 during acute virus-host interactions. Since cmvIL-10 and rhcmvIL-10 are extremely divergent from the cIL-10 of their respective hosts, vaccine-mediated neutralization of their function could inhibit establishment of viral persistence without inhibition of cIL-10.As a prelude to evaluating cmvIL-10-based vaccines in humans, the rhesus macaque model of HCMV was used to interrogate peripheral and mucosal immune responses to rhcmvIL-10 in RhCMV-infected animals. ELISA were used to detect rhcmvIL-10-binding antibodies in plasma and saliva, and an IL-12-based bioassay was used to quantify plasma antibodies that neutralized rhcmvIL-10 function. rhcmvIL-10 is highly immunogenic during RhCMV infection, stimulating high avidity rhcmvIL-10-binding antibodies in the plasma of all infected animals. Most infected animals also exhibited plasma antibodies that partially neutralized rhcmvIL-10 function but did not cross-neutralize the function of rhesus cIL-10. Notably, minimally detectable rhcmvIL-10-binding antibodies were detected in saliva.This study demonstrates that rhcmvIL-10, as a surrogate for cmvIL-10, is a viable vaccine candidate because (1 it is highly immunogenic during natural RhCMV infection, and (2 neutralizing antibodies to

  1. Characterization of a specific somatomedin-c receptor on isolated bovine growth plate chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippel, S B; Van Wyk, J J; Foster, M B; Svoboda, M E

    1983-06-01

    The interaction of somatomedin (Sm) with growth plate chondrocytes (GPCs) is believed to be the primary stimulus of skeletal growth. Using techniques designed to disrupt as little as possible the phenotypic characteristics of GPCs, we have been able to obtain 3-4 x 10(8) viable cells from the major physes of one newborn calf. The availability of these cells plus essentially pure Sm-C/insulin-like growth factor I, the most GH-dependent Sm, has now made possible detailed studies of the interaction of this radiolabeled peptide with the GPC receptor and of the subsequent processing of this hormone by these cells. The enzymatic methods required to free GPCs from their matrix led to loss of receptors, followed by rapid receptor regeneration by de novo synthesis in suspension cultures. Binding of [125I]iodo-Sm-C to GPCs was time dependent and saturable, with optima at 15 C and pH 7.8. At 37 C, binding peaked at 90 min and declined thereafter. Multiplication-stimulating activity, insulin, and nerve growth factor were less potent than unlabeled Sm-C in competition with [125I]iodo-Sm-C for its receptor. Human GH, epidermal growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor failed to show competition even at 10(-6) M. Analysis of the fate of [125I]iodo-Sm-C bound to GPCs at 37 C provided evidence that this hormone is internalized and extruded from the cell in a partially degraded form. Scatchard analysis of [125I]iodo-Sm-C binding to GPCs and to chondrocytes isolated from articular cartilage revealed similar Ka values, but reproducibly 2-6 times more receptors on growth plate than on articular chondrocytes.

  2. Human Cytomegalovirus-Encoded Human Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Homolog Amplifies Its Immunomodulatory Potential by Upregulating Human IL-10 in Monocytes.

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    Avdic, Selmir; McSharry, Brian P; Steain, Megan; Poole, Emma; Sinclair, John; Abendroth, Allison; Slobedman, Barry

    2016-04-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL111A encodes cytomegalovirus-encoded human interleukin-10 (cmvIL-10), a homolog of the potent immunomodulatory cytokine human interleukin 10 (hIL-10). This viral homolog exhibits a range of immunomodulatory functions, including suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production and dendritic cell (DC) maturation, as well as inhibition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II. Here, we present data showing that cmvIL-10 upregulates hIL-10, and we identify CD14(+)monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages and DCs as major sources of hIL-10 secretion in response to cmvIL-10. Monocyte activation was not a prerequisite for cmvIL-10-mediated upregulation of hIL-10, which was dose dependent and controlled at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, cmvIL-10 upregulated expression of tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), which is a regulator of the positive hIL-10 feedback loop, whereas expression of a negative regulator of the hIL-10 feedback loop, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), remained unchanged. Engagement of the hIL-10 receptor (hIL-10R) by cmvIL-10 led to upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), an enzyme linked with suppression of inflammatory responses, and this upregulation was required for cmvIL-10-mediated upregulation of hIL-10. We also demonstrate an important role for both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and STAT3 in the upregulation of HO-1 and hIL-10 by cmvIL-10. In addition to upregulating hIL-10, cmvIL-10 could exert a direct immunomodulatory function, as demonstrated by its capacity to upregulate expression of cell surface CD163 when hIL-10 was neutralized. This study identifies a mechanistic basis for cmvIL-10 function, including the capacity of this viral cytokine to potentially amplify its immunosuppressive impact by upregulating hIL-10 expression. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that causes significant human disease, particularly in the

  3. Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl (Menispermaceae leaf extract induces interleukin-10-dependent inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi killing by macrophages

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    Alexandre-Moreira M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous fraction of the ethanolic extract (AFL of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl (Menispermaceae, popularly known as milona, has been shown to have both immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study we investigated the modulation of macrophage antimicrobicidal activity by in vitro treatment with the extract from C. sympodialis. Normal and thioglycolate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages were infected in vitro with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi DM28c clone. We observed that the AFL (used at doses ranging from 13 to 100 µg/ml increased T. cruzi growth and induced a 75% reduction in nitric oxide production. This inhibition could be mediated by the stimulation of macrophage interleukin-10 (IL-10 secretion since the in vitro treatment with the AFL stimulated IL-10 production by T. cruzi-infected macrophages. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of the AFL from C. sympodialis could be, at least in part, mediated by the inhibition of macrophage functions and that the inhibition of macrophage microbicidal activity induced by the C. sympodialis extract may be mediated by the decrease in macrophage function mediated by interleukin-10 production.

  4. Regulation of Toll-like receptors-mediated inflammation by immunobiotics in bovine intestinal epitheliocytes: role of signalling pathways and negative regulators

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    Julio eVillena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs detect bacterial and viral associated-molecular-patterns (MAMPs via germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs and are responsible for maintaining immunetolerance to the communities of resident commensal bacteria while being also capable to mount immune responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a major class of PRRs expressed on IECs and immune cells, which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. In the last decade, experimental and clinical evidence was generated to support the application of probiotics with immunoregulatory capacities (immunobiotics for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which TLRs exert a significant role. The majority of these studies were performed in mouse and human cell lines and, despite the growing interest in the bovine immune system due to the economic importance of cattle as livestock, only few studies have been conducted on cattle. In this regard, our group have established a bovine intestinal epithelial (BIE cell line originally derived from fetal bovine intestinal epitheliocytes and used this cell line to evaluate the impact of immunobiotics in TLR-mediated inflammation. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle. Especially we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response nd the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development.

  5. Cell-specific localization of progesterone receptors in the bovine ovary at different stages of the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haeseleer, M; Simoens, P; Van den Broeck, W

    2007-04-01

    This immunohistochemical study describes the localization of progesterone receptors (PR) in the bovine ovary of 23 cows at different stages of the oestrous cycle. In primordial, primary and secondary follicles the score for PR in the follicle cells increased progressively with the maturation of the follicle. In vital tertiary follicles and cystic atretic follicles a moderate score for PR was found, while in obliterative atretic follicles the score was much lower. Scores were high in corpora hemorrhagica, low in corpora lutea and still lower in corpora albicantia. Low PR scores were also found in the tunica albuginea and surface epithelium. Cyclic variations of PR immunoreactivity were manifest in most ovarian tissues. Follicular scores for PR were high in oestrus and decreased during the following stages, whereas scores in corpora lutea cells varied according to a characteristic pattern with high levels during oestrus and metoestrus. The variations in the scores for PR in the different ovarian cell types suggest a cell-specific and cycle-dependent influence of progesterone. A negative correlation was found between the PR scores and the plasma progesterone concentration.

  6. Comparison of efficacy of the disease-specific LOX1- and constitutive cytomegalovirus-promoters in expressing interleukin 10 through adeno-associated virus 2/8 delivery in atherosclerotic mice.

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    Hongqing Zhu

    Full Text Available The development of gene therapy vectors for treating diseases of the cardiovascular system continues at a steady pace. Moreover, in the field of gene therapy the utility of "disease-specific promoters" has strong appeal. Many therapeutic genes, including transforming growth factor beta 1 or interleukin 10, are associated to adverse effects. The use of a disease-specific promoter might minimize toxicity. The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 is a marker of cardiovascular disease and a potential therapeutic target. The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 is known to be up-regulated early during disease onset in a number of cell types at the sites where the disease will be clinically evident. In this study an adeno-associated virus-2 DNA vector (AAV2 using the AAV8 capsid, and containing the full length The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 promoter, was generated and assayed for its ability to express human interleukin 10 in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice on high cholesterol diet. The cytomegalovirus early promoter was used for comparison in a similarly structured vector. The two promoters were found to have equal efficacy in reducing atherogenesis as measured by aortic systolic blood velocity, aortic cross sectional area, and aortic wall thickness. This is the first head-to-head comparison of a constitutive with a disease-specific promoter in a therapeutic context. These data strongly suggest that the use of a disease-specific promoter is appropriate for therapeutic gene delivery.

  7. Coordinated Role of Toll-Like Receptor-3 and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I in the Innate Response of Bovine Endometrial Cells to Virus

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    Luisa C. Carneiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infect the uterus of cattle, often resulting in reduced fertility, or abortion of the fetus, respectively. Here, exposure of primary bovine endometrial cells to BoHV-4 or BVDV modulated the production of inflammatory mediators. Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs are detected via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs. However, the relative contribution of specific PRRs to innate immunity, during viral infection of the uterus, is unclear. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells constitutively express the PRR Toll-like receptor (TLR-3, but, the status of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a sensor of cytosolic nucleic acids, is unknown. Primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells had low expression of RIG-I, which was increased in stromal cells after 12 h transfection with the TLR3 ligand Poly(I:C, a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, short interfering RNA targeting TLR3, or interferon (IFN regulatory transcription factor 3, an inducer of type I IFN transcription, reduced Poly(I:C-induced RIG-I protein expression and reduced inflammatory mediator secretion from stromal cells. We conclude that antiviral defense of endometrial stromal cells requires coordinated recognition of PAMPs, initially via TLR3 and later via inducible RIG-I.

  8. Interleukin-10-regulated tumour tolerance in non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Vahl, Julius Malte; Friedrich, Juliane; Mittler, Susanne; Trump, Sonja; Heim, Lisanne; Kachler, Katerina; Balabko, Liubov; Fuhrich, Nicole; Geppert, Carol-Immanuel; Trufa, Denis Iulian; Sopel, Nina; Rieker, Ralf; Sirbu, Horia; Finotto, Susetta

    2017-11-21

    Lung cancer is the most life-threatening cancer type worldwide. Treatment options include surgery, radio- and chemotherapy, as well as the use of immunomodulatory antibodies. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an immunosuppressive cytokine involved in tumour immune escape. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) on human lung surgery tissue as well as human tumour cell line cultures, FACS analysis, real-time PCR and experimental lung cancer. Here we discovered a positive correlation between IL-10 and IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) expression in the lung with tumour diameter in patients with lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer), the most life-threatening cancer type worldwide. IL-10 and IL-10R were found induced in cells surrounding the lung tumour cells, and IL-10R was mainly expressed on the surface of Foxp-3 + T-regulatory lymphocytes infiltrating the tumour of these patients where its expression inversely correlated with programmed cell death 1. These findings were confirmed in translational studies. In a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, IL-10R was found induced under metabolic restrictions present during tumour growth, whereby IL-10 inhibited PDL1 and tumour cell apoptosis. These new findings suggest that IL-10 counteracts IFN-γ effects on PD1/PDL1 pathway, resulting in possible resistance of the tumour to anti-PD1/PDL1 immunotherapy.

  9. High leukocyte count and interleukin-10 predict high on-treatment-platelet-reactivity in patients treated with clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmancik, Pavel; Paulu, Petra; Tousek, Petr; Kocka, Viktor; Widimsky, Petr

    2012-05-01

    According to recent trials, a significant number of patients do not have a completely effective response to clopidogrel. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate of clopidogrel resistance in the context of important clinical characteristics and to specifically determine the relation between clopidogrel efficacy and biomarkers of inflammation. Consecutive non-selected patients following PCI were enrolled into the study. All patients received a loading dose of 600 mg of clopidogrel. The effect of clopidogrel was assessed using the VerifyNow assay 24 h after clopidogrel administration, clopidogrel resistance was defined as PRU ≥ 240. At the same time, standard parameters of biochemistry and hematology, the concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and of soluble CD40 ligand, were measured. 378 patients were enrolled. 243 (64.3%) patients were responders (R) and 135 patients (35.7%) were non-responders (NR). Non-responders were older (R 65.7 ± 13.3, NR 69.8 ± 11.5, P leukocyte count (R 9.8 ± 3.5, NR 11.7 ± 12.8, P leukocytes and IL-10 were associated with an increased risk for being a non-responder. Older, obese patients, especially women had a higher risk of high on-treatment-platelet-reactivity. Higher concentrations of leukocytes and interleukin-10 were also an important factor associated with the risk of low clopidogrel responsiveness.

  10. Inhibition of Interleukin-10 Signaling Induces Microbiota-Dependent Chronic Colitis in Apolipoprotein E Deficient Mice

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    Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Manish; Yeoh, Beng San; Xiao, Xia; Saha, Piu; Kennett, Mary J.; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2015-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) mediates potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties in addition to its roles in regulating cholesterol transport and metabolism. However, its role in the intestine, specifically during inflammation is largely unknown. Methods Mice [C57BL/6 or ApoE deficient (ApoE-KO) mice] were administered either single or four injections (weekly) of anti-interleukin (IL)-10 receptor monoclonal antibody (1.0 mg/mouse; intraperitoneally) and euthanized one week after the last injection. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed in fecal samples to analyze the gut bacterial load and its composition. Microbiota was ablated by administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics in drinking water. IL-10KO mice were cohoused with ApoE-KO mice or their WT littermates to monitor the colitogenic potential of gut microbiota harbored in ApoE-KO mice. Results ApoE-KO mice developed severe colitis upon neutralization of IL-10 signaling as assessed by every parameter analyzed. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the ApoE-KO mice display elevated and altered gut microbiota that were accompanied with impaired production of intestinal antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, microbiota ablation ameliorates the colitis development in ApoE-KO mice. Exacerbated and accelerated colitis was observed in IL-10KO mice when cohoused with ApoE-KO mice. Conclusions Our study highlights a novel interplay between ApoE and IL-10 in maintaining gut homeostasis and that such cross-talk may play a critical role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis. Gut sterilization and cohousing experiment suggests that microbiota play pivotal role in the development of IBD in mice lacking ApoE. PMID:26891260

  11. Human cytomegalovirus interleukin-10 enhances matrigel invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

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    Valle Oseguera, Cendy A; Spencer, Juliet V

    2017-01-01

    While some risk factors for breast cancer are well-known, the influence of other factors, particularly virus infection, remains unclear. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is widespread in the general population, and both molecular and epidemiological evidence has indicated links between HCMV and breast cancer. The HCMV protein cmvIL-10 is a potent suppressor of immune function that has also been shown to promote proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. In this study, the impact of cmvIL-10 on tumor cell invasion through a simulated basement membrane was investigated. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibited invasion through a matrigel layer that was significantly enhanced in the presence of either purified cmvIL-10 or supernatants from HCMV-infected cells containing secreted cmvIL-10. Transcriptional profiling revealed that cmvIL-10 altered expression of several genes implicated in metastasis. Exposure to cmvIL-10 resulted in higher MMP-3 mRNA levels, greater protein expression, and increased enzymatic activity. Treatment with cmvIL-10 also increased expression of both urokinase plasminogen receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which can stimulate MMP-3 activity and have previously been identified as poor prognostic markers in breast cancer patients. Finally, MDA-MB-231 cells treated with cmvIL-10 showed significant downregulation of metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1), a scaffolding protein that regulates cytoskeletal rearrangements and is frequently lost in metastatic tumors. HCMV, and in particular the secreted viral cytokine, cmvIL-10, can induce cellular changes that facilitate cell migration and invasion. These findings indicate that HCMV may be associated with promoting the malignant spread of breast cancer cells and suggest that antiviral treatment may be a useful complement to chemotherapy in some patients.

  12. Porphyromonas gingivalis-stimulated macrophage subsets exhibit differential induction and responsiveness to interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foey, Andrew D; Habil, Neama; Al-Shaghdali, Khalid; Crean, StJohn

    2017-01-01

    Oral mucosal macrophages (Mϕs) determine immune responses; maintaining tolerance whilst retaining the capacity to activate defences against pathogens. Mϕ responses are determined by two distinct subsets; pro-inflammatory M1- and anti-inflammatory/regulatory M2-Mϕs. Tolerance induction is driven by M2 Mϕs, whereas M1-like Mϕs predominate in inflammation, such as that exhibited in chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG) periodontal infection. Mϕ responses can be suppressed to benefit either the host or the pathogen. Chronic stimulation by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as LPS, is well established to induce tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the P. gingivalis-driven induction of and responsiveness to the suppressive, anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, by Mϕ subsets. M1- and M2-like Mϕs were generated in vitro from the THP-1 monocyte cell line by differentiation with PMA and Vitamin D 3 , respectively. Mϕ subsets were stimulated by PG-LPS in the presence or absence of IL-10. PG-LPS differentially induced IL-10 secretion and endogenous IL-10 activity in M1- and M2-like subsets. In addition, these subsets exhibited differential sensitivity to IL-10-mediated suppression of TNFα, where M2 Mϕs where sensitive to IL-10 and M1 Mϕs were refractory to suppression. In addition, this differential responsiveness to IL-10 was independent of IL-10-binding and expression of the IL-10 receptor signal transducing subunit, IL-10Rβ, but was in fact dependent on activation of STAT-3. P.gingivalis selectively tolerises regulatory M2 Mϕs with little effect on pro-inflammatory M1 Mϕs; differential suppression facilitating immunopathology at the expense of immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Altered Toll-Like Receptor 9 Signaling in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Infected Bovine Monocytes Reveals Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Ryan J.; Li, Yue; Maattanen, Pekka; Scruten, Erin; Doig, Kimberley; Potter, Andrew; Griebel, Philip; Kusalik, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle. The complex, multifaceted interaction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with its host includes dampening the ability of infected cells to respond to stimuli that promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. By disrupting host defenses, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis creates an intracellular environment that favors the establishment and maintenance of infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors that initiate innate immune responses to microbial challenge and are also immunotherapeutic targets. For example, TLR9 contributes to host defense against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and its agonists (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides [ODNs]) are under investigation for treatment of Johne's disease and other infections. Here we demonstrate that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection changes the responsiveness of bovine monocytes to TLR9 stimulation. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis inhibits classical TLR9-mediated responses despite a 10-fold increase in TLR9 expression and maintained uptake of CpG ODNs. Other TLR9-mediated responses, such as oxidative burst, which occur through noncanonical signaling, remain functional. Kinome analysis verifies that classic TLR9 signaling is blocked by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and that signaling instead proceeds through a Pyk2-mediated mechanism. Pyk2-mediated signaling does not hinder infection, as CpG ODNs fail to promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. Indeed, Pyk2 signaling appears to be an important aspect of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, as Pyk2 inhibitors significantly reduce the number of intracellular M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria. The actions of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on TLR9 signaling may represent a strategy to generate a host environment which is better suited for infection, revealing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID

  14. TLR2 and interleukin-10 are involved in Bacteroides fragilis-mediated prevention of DSS-induced colitis in gnotobiotic mice.

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    Yi-Chih Chang

    Full Text Available Bacteroides fragilis (BF are Gram-negative anaerobe symbionts present in the colon. Recent studies have reported the beneficial role of BF in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, stimulating host immunologic development, and preventing infectious colitis caused by pathogenic bacteria. Our previous studies showed that monocolonization of germ-free mice with BF significantly reduced colon inflammations and damage.In order to investigate the Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2, TLR4, and interleukin 10 (IL-10 molecular signaling pathways involved in BF-mediated prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The wild-type (WT, TLR4, TLR2, and IL-10 knockout (-/- germ-free mice grown were with or without BF colonization for 28 days, and then administered 1% DSS in drinking water for 7 day to induce acute ulcerative colitis.We compared phenotypes such as weight loss, disease activity, intestinal histological scores, and immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells. Unlike WT and TLR4-/- mice, the severity of DSS-colitis did not improve in TLR2-/- animals after BF colonization. The BF enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 expression and inhibited pro-inflammatory-related tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in both WT and TLR4-/- mice. In contrast, the failed to up-regulated IL-10 and down-regulated the TNF-α and IL-6 in BF colonization TLR2-/- mice. In addition, we further perform IL-10-/- mice to clarify whether the BF through TLR2 /IL-10 pathway to alleviate DSS-colitis. There were no significant differences in colitis severity and pro-inflammatory related genes expression in the IL-10-/- mice with or without BF colonization.These results indicate the disease-preventing effects of BF in acute DSS-induced colitis may occur through the TLR2/IL-10 signal pathway.

  15. Interleukin-10-induced gene expression and suppressive function are selectively modulated by the PI3K-Akt-GSK3 pathway

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    Antoniv, Taras T; Ivashkiv, Lionel B

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an immunosuppressive cytokine that inhibits inflammatory gene expression. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) -mediated signalling regulates inflammatory responses and can induce IL-10 production, but a role for PI3K signalling in cellular responses to IL-10 is not known. In this study we investigated the involvement of the PI3K-Akt-GSK3 signalling pathway in IL-10-induced gene expression and IL-10-mediated suppression of Toll-like receptor-induced gene expression in primary human macrophages. A combination of loss and gain of function approaches using kinase inhibitors, expression of constitutively active Akt, and RNA interference in primary human macrophages showed that expression of a subset of IL-10-inducible genes was dependent on PI3K-Akt signalling. The effects of PI3K-Akt signalling on IL-10 responses were mediated at least in part by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). In accordance with a functional role for PI3K pathways in contributing to the suppressive actions of IL-10, PI3K signalling augmented IL-10-mediated inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1, IL-8 and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression. The PI3K signalling selectively modulated IL-10 responses, as it was not required for inhibition of tumour necrosis factor expression or for induction of certain IL-10-inducible genes such as SOCS3. These findings identify a new mechanism by which PI3K-mediated signalling can suppress inflammation by regulating IL-10-mediated gene induction and anti-inflammatory function. PMID:21255011

  16. Local Induction of B Cell Interleukin-10 Competency Alleviates Inflammation and Bone Loss in Ligature-Induced Experimental Periodontitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pei; Hu, Yang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Kawai, Toshihisa; Taubman, Martin A; Li, Wei; Han, Xiaozhe

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing B cells (B10 cells) play a critical role in the immune system balance by negatively regulating inflammatory responses. This study was conducted to determine the effect of local B10 cell induction on periodontal inflammation and bone loss in ligature-induced experimental periodontitis in vivo Purified spleen B cells from C57BL/6J mice (8 to 10 weeks old) were cultured with CD40 ligand (CD40L) and the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist cytidine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) to determine effective IL-10 induction in vitro Silk ligatures (size 7-0) were tied around the mouse maxillary second molars on day 0, followed by the injection of CD40L and CpG into the palatal gingiva on days 3, 6, and 9. All the mice were sacrificed, and samples were collected on day 14. CD40L and CpG significantly increased the level of IL-10 production by B cells in vitro, although the frequencies of CD1d hi CD5 + and IL-10-producing (IL-10 + ) CD45 + cells were decreased. IL-10 was predominantly produced by the CD1d hi CD5 + subpopulation of B cells. In vivo, both IL-10 mRNA expression and the number of IL-10 + CD45 + cells were significantly increased after gingival injection of CD40L and CpG. Periodontal bone loss was significantly decreased and the gingival expression of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and RANKL was significantly reduced. The number of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells along the alveolar bone surface was significantly decreased after gingival injection of CD40L and CpG. This study indicates for the first time that the local induction of B10 cell activity could inhibit periodontal inflammation and bone loss. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. TLR2 and interleukin-10 are involved in Bacteroides fragilis-mediated prevention of DSS-induced colitis in gnotobiotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Chih; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Ju-Yun; Hung, Shao-Wen; Huang, Wen-Ching; Huang, Yen-Te; Chuang, Hsiao-Li

    2017-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis (BF) are Gram-negative anaerobe symbionts present in the colon. Recent studies have reported the beneficial role of BF in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, stimulating host immunologic development, and preventing infectious colitis caused by pathogenic bacteria. Our previous studies showed that monocolonization of germ-free mice with BF significantly reduced colon inflammations and damage. In order to investigate the Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and interleukin 10 (IL-10) molecular signaling pathways involved in BF-mediated prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. The wild-type (WT), TLR4, TLR2, and IL-10 knockout (-/-) germ-free mice grown were with or without BF colonization for 28 days, and then administered 1% DSS in drinking water for 7 day to induce acute ulcerative colitis. We compared phenotypes such as weight loss, disease activity, intestinal histological scores, and immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells. Unlike WT and TLR4-/- mice, the severity of DSS-colitis did not improve in TLR2-/- animals after BF colonization. The BF enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 expression and inhibited pro-inflammatory-related tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and IL-6 mRNA expression in both WT and TLR4-/- mice. In contrast, the failed to up-regulated IL-10 and down-regulated the TNF-α and IL-6 in BF colonization TLR2-/- mice. In addition, we further perform IL-10-/- mice to clarify whether the BF through TLR2 /IL-10 pathway to alleviate DSS-colitis. There were no significant differences in colitis severity and pro-inflammatory related genes expression in the IL-10-/- mice with or without BF colonization. These results indicate the disease-preventing effects of BF in acute DSS-induced colitis may occur through the TLR2/IL-10 signal pathway.

  18. Interactions of the bovine brain A1-adenosine receptor with recombinant G protein alpha-subunits. Selectivity for rGi alpha-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freissmuth, M; Schütz, W; Linder, M E

    1991-09-25

    The ability of the bovine brain A1-adenosine receptor to discriminate between different G protein subtypes was tested using G protein alpha-subunits synthesized in Escherichia coli (rG alpha-subunits). When combined with a 3-fold molar excess of beta gamma-subunit purified from bovine brain and used at high concentrations, all three subtypes of rGi alpha (rGi alpha-1, rGi alpha-2, and rGi alpha-3) and rGo alpha were capable of reconstituting guanine nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity binding of the agonist radioligand (-)-N6-3-[125I] (iodo-4-hydroxyphenylisopropyl) adenosine ([125I]HPIA) to the purified A1-adenosine receptor (Kd approximately 1.2 nM). Titration of the A1-adenosine receptor with increasing amounts of rG alpha revealed a approximately 10-fold higher affinity for rGi alpha-3 compared with rGi alpha-1, rGi alpha-2, and rGo alpha. This selectivity was also observed in the absence of beta gamma. Other alpha-subunits (rGs alpha-s, rGs alpha-L, rGs alpha PT, and rGz alpha) did not promote [125I]HPIA binding to the purified receptor. In N-ethylmaleimide-treated bovine brain membranes, rGi alpha-3 was the only rG alpha-subunit capable of reconstituting high-affinity agonist binding. Similarly, rGi alpha-3 competed potently with rGo alpha for activation by the agonist-liganded A1-adenosine receptor, whereas a approximately 50-fold molar excess of rGo alpha was required to quench the receptor-mediated release of [alpha-32P]GDP from rGi alpha-3. Hence, in spite of the extensive homology between alpha-subunits belonging to the Gi/Go group, the A1-adenosine receptor appears to discriminate between the subtypes. This specificity is likely to govern transmembrane signaling pathways in vivo.

  19. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine Toll-like receptor 1 gene and association with health traits in cattle

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    Russell Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine mastitis remains the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle worldwide. A complementary control measure to herd hygiene and vaccine development would be to selectively breed cattle with greater resistance to mammary infection. Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1 has an integral role for the initiation and regulation of the immune response to microbial pathogens, and has been linked to numerous inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the bovine TLR1 gene (boTLR1 are associated with clinical mastitis (CM. Selected boTLR1 SNPs were analysed within a Holstein Friesian herd. Significant associations were found for the tagging SNP -79 T > G and the 3'UTR SNP +2463 C > T. We observed favourable linkage of reduced CM with increased milk fat and protein, indicating selection for these markers would not be detrimental to milk quality. Furthermore, we present evidence that some of these boTLR1 SNPs underpin functional variation in bovine TLR1. Animals with the GG genotype (from the tag SNP -79 T > G had significantly lower boTLR1 expression in milk somatic cells when compared with TT or TG animals. In addition, stimulation of leucocytes from GG animals with the TLR1-ligand Pam3csk4 resulted in significantly lower levels of CXCL8 mRNA and protein. SNPs in boTLR1 were significantly associated with CM. In addition we have identified a bovine population with impaired boTLR1 expression and function. This may have additional implications for animal health and warrants further investigation to determine the suitability of identified SNPs as markers for disease susceptibility.

  20. Controlling neuropathic pain by adeno-associated virus driven production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10

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    Flotte Terence R

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite many decades of drug development, effective therapies for neuropathic pain remain elusive. The recent recognition of spinal cord glia and glial pro-inflammatory cytokines as important contributors to neuropathic pain suggests an alternative therapeutic strategy; that is, targeting glial activation or its downstream consequences. While several glial-selective drugs have been successful in controlling neuropathic pain in animal models, none are optimal for human use. Thus the aim of the present studies was to explore a novel approach for controlling neuropathic pain. Here, an adeno-associated viral (serotype II; AAV2 vector was created that encodes the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10. This anti-inflammatory cytokine is known to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Upon intrathecal administration, this novel AAV2-IL-10 vector was successful in transiently preventing and reversing neuropathic pain. Intrathecal administration of an AAV2 vector encoding beta-galactosidase revealed that AAV2 preferentially infects meningeal cells surrounding the CSF space. Taken together, these data provide initial support that intrathecal gene therapy to drive the production of IL-10 may prove to be an efficacious treatment for neuropathic pain.

  1. Resident Enteric Bacteria Are Necessary for Development of Spontaneous Colitis and Immune System Activation in Interleukin-10-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellon, Rance K.; Tonkonogy, Susan; Schultz, Michael; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Grenther, Wetonia; Balish, Ed; Rennick, Donna M.; Sartor, R. Balfour

    1998-01-01

    Mice with targeted deletion of the gene for interleukin-10 (IL-10) spontaneously develop enterocolitis when maintained in conventional conditions but develop only colitis when kept in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) environments. This study tested the hypothesis that enteric bacteria are necessary for the development of spontaneous colitis and immune system activation in IL-10-deficient mice. IL-10-deficient mice were maintained in either SPF conditions or germfree conditions or were populated with bacteria known to cause colitis in other rodent models. IL-10-deficient mice kept in SPF conditions developed colitis in all segments of the colon (cecum and proximal and distal colon). These mice exhibited immune system activation as evidenced by increased expression of CD44 on CD4+ T cells; increased mesenteric lymph node cell numbers; and increased production of immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG1, and IL-12 p40 from colon fragment cultures. Mice populated with bacterial strains, including Bacteroides vulgatus, known to induce colitis in other rodent models had minimal colitis. Germfree IL-10-deficient mice had no evidence of colitis or immune system activation. We conclude therefore that resident enteric bacteria are necessary for the development of spontaneous colitis and immune system activation in IL-10-deficient mice. PMID:9784526

  2. Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10 Gene Polymorphisms are not Predictors of Chronic Hepatitis C (Genotype-4) Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahgat, Nermine Ahmed; Kamal, Manal Mohamed; Abdelaziz, Ashraf Omar; Mohye, Mohamed Ahmed; Shousha, Hend Ibrahim; ahmed, Mae Mohamed; Elbaz, Tamer Mahmoud; Nabil, Mohamed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Immunoregulatory cytokines have an influence on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection outcome. This study aimed to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in IFN- γ and IL-10 genes are associated with susceptibility and/or are markers of prognosis regarding chronic hepatitis C outcomes. IFN γ (+874T/A) and IL-10 (-1082G/A) genotypes were determined in 75 HCV genotype 4 patients with different disease severities (chronic hepatitis, n=25, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on top of liver cirrhosis, n=50) and 25 healthy participants using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. No statistical differences in allele or genotype distributions of IFN γ and IL-10 genes were detected between patients and controls or between patientgroups. No significant difference in the frequency of IL-10 SNP at position -1082 or IFN-γ at position +874T/A was found between chronic HCV genotype 4 and with progression of disease severity in liver cirrhosis or HCC. In conclusion; interferon-γ and interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms are not predictors of disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C (Genotype-4).

  3. Comparison of systemic interleukin 10 concentrations in healthy dogs and those suffering from recurring and first time Demodex canis infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, A O C; Guiot, E G; Stein, M; Felix, S R; Silva, E F; Nobre, M O

    2013-03-31

    The objective of this study was to assess the interleukin 10 (IL-10) concentrations in the sera of dogs suffering from demodicosis. Twenty-six dogs were distributed into three groups: demodicosis groups G1, n=11 (recurring disease) and G2, n=6 (first time occurrence), and a control group, G3, n=9 (healthy dogs). All the animals were subjected to skin scrape tests and blood harvesting for serum extraction. In G1 and G2 only those animals with Demodex canis positive skin tests were included, while healthy dogs were included in G3. To assess IL-10 levels the commercial Quantikine Canine IL-10 Immunoassay(®) (R&D Systems) kit was used. The mean IL-10 level obtained for G1 was 269.4 pg/ml (sd=290.8 pg/ml), for G2 it was 28.5 pg/ml (sd=19.7 pg/ml) while the mean for G3 was 11.9 pg/ml (sd=2.3 pg/ml). There was a significant difference between G1 and the other two groups. According to our results, dogs with reoccurring demodicosis have higher IL-10 levels than healthy dogs and those suffering the disease for the first time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The association between the interleukin-10 cytokine and CC chemokine ligand 5 polymorphisms and mycetoma granuloma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhmoud, Najwa A; Fahal, Ahmed H; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2013-07-01

    Mycetoma is a progressive and destructive chronic granulomatous subcutaneous inflammatory disease caused by bacteria and fungi. The genetic determinants for susceptibility to and the development of mycetoma are unclear. Polymorphisms in genes encoding for cytokines and chemokines usually influence the efficiency of the immune response to infection and are associated with disease susceptibility and progression. Therefore, we hypothesized that polymorphisms of CC chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter regions might contribute to the initiation, susceptibility, and severity of eumycetoma. This case-control study included 149 mycetoma patients and 206 healthy matched controls. In the study population, three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CCL5 and two in IL-10 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Significant differences in allele distribution were demonstrated for CCL5 -28 C/G (P mycetoma patients and healthy controls. Elevated serum levels for both CCL5 and IL-10 were found in mycetoma patients and we describe that genetic differences in CCL5 and IL-10 are associated with the development of the mycetoma granuloma.

  5. Interleukin-10 blocks in vitro replication of human cytomegalovirus by inhibiting the virus-induced autophagy in MRC5 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Huiping; Qian, Jihong; Wang, Kanqing; Zhu, Jianxing

    2014-06-13

    Interleukin-10 is an important cytokine that regulates immune response. Previous studies have shown that human cytomegalovirus can trigger cell autophagy during the early stages of infection. To our knowledge, whether IL-10 inhibits HCMV-induced autophagy and virus replication has not been studied previously. We investigated whether IL-10 affects cell viability and autophagy under the conditions of starvation and HCMV infection by using the MRC5 cell line. We also explored the role of IL-10-mediated autophagy on HCMV replication. Our data showed that IL-10 inhibited the autophagic flux of the MRC5 cells irrespective of starvation or HCMV infection, and suppressed HCMV replication. The promotion of autophagy with either a pharmacological inducer (rapamycin), or a technique to over-express the BECN1 gene reversed the effect of IL-10 on virus replication. Furthermore, the PI3K/Akt signal pathway was activated when the cells were pretreated with IL-10. Our results indicated that IL-10 can suppress HCMV replication by inhibiting autophagy in host cells during the early stages of infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interleukin-10 plays a key role in the modulation of neutrophils recruitment and lung inflammation during infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Hernán F; Nieto, Pamela A; Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Torres, Javiera; Parga, María J; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major aetiological agent of pneumonia worldwide, as well as otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis and sepsis. Recent reports have suggested that inflammation of lungs due to S. pneumoniae infection promotes bacterial dissemination and severe disease. However, the contribution of anti-inflammatory molecules to the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae remains unknown. To elucidate whether the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is beneficial or detrimental for the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, we performed S. pneumoniae infections in mice lacking IL-10 (IL-10(-/-) mice). The IL-10(-/-) mice showed increased mortality, higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and an exacerbated recruitment of neutrophils into the lungs after S. pneumoniae infection. However, IL-10(-/-) mice showed significantly lower bacterial loads in lungs, spleen, brain and blood, when compared with mice that produced this cytokine. Our results support the notion that production of IL-10 during S. pneumoniae infection modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs. This feature of IL-10 is important to avoid excessive inflammation of tissues and to improve host survival, even though bacterial dissemination is less efficient in the absence of this cytokine. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Contribution of Reduced Interleukin-10 Levels to the Pathogenesis of Osteomyelitis in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almawi, Wassim Y.

    2015-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a significant complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), and several factors contribute to its pathogenesis, including altered expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In view of the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, we tested the notion that SCD osteomyelitis is associated with a reduction in IL-10 secretion and, hence, precipitation of a proinflammatory state. Study subjects comprised 52 SCD patients with confirmed diagnosis of osteomyelitis and 165 age- and gender-matched SCD patients with negative histories of osteomyelitis. Results obtained showed that IL-10 serum levels in SCD osteomyelitis patients were significantly lower than those of control SCD patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that altered IL-10 serum levels predicted the development of osteomyelitis, and the mean area under ROC curves of IL-10 was 0.810 among SCD patients with osteomyelitis. A systematic shift in IL-10 serum levels toward lower values was seen in osteomyelitis cases, with an increased osteomyelitis risk associated with decreased IL-10 levels. Multivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed the independent association of reduced IL-10 with osteomyelitis after controlling for sickle hemoglobin (HbS), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), platelet count, and white blood cell (WBC) count. These data support the strong association of decreased IL-10 levels with osteomyelitis, thereby supporting a role for IL-10 in osteomyelitis follow-up. PMID:26135971

  8. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits Borrelia burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production and attenuates IL-17-mediated Lyme arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Emily S; Medić, Velinka; Kuo, Joseph; Warner, Thomas F; Schell, Ronald F; Nardelli, Dean T

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that cells and cytokines associated with interleukin-17 (IL-17)-driven inflammation are involved in the arthritic response to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Here, we report that IL-17 is a contributing factor in the development of Lyme arthritis and show that its production and histopathological effects are regulated by interleukin-10 (IL-10). Spleen cells obtained from B. burgdorferi-infected, "arthritis-resistant" wild-type C57BL/6 mice produced low levels of IL-17 following stimulation with the spirochete. In contrast, spleen cells obtained from infected, IL-10-deficient C57BL/6 mice produced a significant amount of IL-17 following stimulation with B. burgdorferi. These mice developed significant arthritis, including erosion of the bones in the ankle joints. We further show that treatment with antibody to IL-17 partially inhibited the significant hind paw swelling and histopathological changes observed in B. burgdorferi-infected, IL-10-deficient mice. Taken together, these findings provide additional evidence of a role for IL-17 in Lyme arthritis and reveal an additional regulatory target of IL-10 following borrelial infection.

  9. Functionalized Scaffold-mediated Interleukin 10 Gene Delivery Significantly Improves Survival Rates of Stem Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Carolyn; Power, Karen; Sefton, Michael; O'Brien, Timothy; Gallagher, William M.; Pandit, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    While stem cell transplantation could potentially treat a variety of disorders, clinical studies have not yet demonstrated conclusive benefits. This may be partly because transplanted stem cells have low survival rates, potentially due to host inflammation. The system described herein used two different gene therapy techniques to improve retention of rat mesenchymal stem cells. In the first, stem cells were transfected with interleukin-10 (IL-10) before being loaded into a collagen scaffold. In the second, unmodified stem cells were loaded into a collagen scaffold along with polymer-complexed IL-10 plasmids. The scaffolds were surgically implanted into the dorsum of syngeneic rats. At each endpoint, the scaffolds were explanted and cell retention, IL-10 level and inflammatory response were quantified. All treatment groups had statistically significant increases in cell retention after 7 days, but the group treated with 2 µg of IL-10 polyplexes had a significant improvement even at 21 days. This cell retention was associated with increased IL-10 and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. The primary effect on the inflammatory response appeared to be on macrophage differentiation, encouraging the regulatory phenotype over the cytotoxic lineage. Improving cell survival may be an important step toward realization of the therapeutic potential of stem cells. PMID:21266957

  10. Interleukin-10 plays a key role in the modulation of neutrophils recruitment and lung inflammation during infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Hernán F; Nieto, Pamela A; Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Torres, Javiera; Parga, María J; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major aetiological agent of pneumonia worldwide, as well as otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis and sepsis. Recent reports have suggested that inflammation of lungs due to S. pneumoniae infection promotes bacterial dissemination and severe disease. However, the contribution of anti-inflammatory molecules to the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae remains unknown. To elucidate whether the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is beneficial or detrimental for the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, we performed S. pneumoniae infections in mice lacking IL-10 (IL-10−/− mice). The IL-10−/− mice showed increased mortality, higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and an exacerbated recruitment of neutrophils into the lungs after S. pneumoniae infection. However, IL-10−/− mice showed significantly lower bacterial loads in lungs, spleen, brain and blood, when compared with mice that produced this cytokine. Our results support the notion that production of IL-10 during S. pneumoniae infection modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs. This feature of IL-10 is important to avoid excessive inflammation of tissues and to improve host survival, even though bacterial dissemination is less efficient in the absence of this cytokine. PMID:26032199

  11. Antibiotics with a selective aerobic or anaerobic spectrum have different therapeutic activities in various regions of the colon in interleukin 10 gene deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoentjen, F; Harmsen, HJM; Braat, H; Torrice, CD; Mann, BA; Sartor, RB; Dieleman, LA

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: Multiple rodent models implicate resident intestinal bacteria in the pathogenesis of chronic immune mediated intestinal inflammation. Specific pathogen free (SPF) interleukin 10 gene deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice develop colitis, which does not occur in the germ free (GF) state.

  12. MiR-15a Decreases Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Viability and Lactation and Regulates Growth Hormone Receptor Expression

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    Xue-Jun Gao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level by transcript degradation or translational inhibition. The role of bta-miR-15a in bovine mammary gland hasn’t been reported. Using miRNAs prediction software, GHR gene was predicted to be a potential target of bta-miR-15a. In this study, bovine mammary epithelial cell line was used as an in vitro cell model to address the function of bta-miR-15a on bovine mammary epithelial cells. The expression changes of bta-miR-15a and Ghr after bta-miR-15a transfection were detected by qRT-PCR; the expression of GHR protein and casein was detected by western blotting. To determine whether bta-miR-15a can affect cell viability, cells were examined using an electronic Coulter counter (CASY-TT. In conclusion, bta-miR-15a inhibited the expression of casein of bovine mammary epithelial cells, and cell number and viability were reduced by bta-miR-15a expression. Bta-miR-15a inhibited the viability of mammary epithelial cells as well as the expression of GHR mRNA and protein level, therefore suggesting that bta-miR-15a may play an important role in mammary gland physiology.

  13. BVDV infection alters toll-like and TNF-alpha receptor signalling in bovine aortic endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) are readily available commercially and are used in many labs in a variety of experiments. However, most lots of BAEC are contaminated with BVDV. It was unknown what effect BVDV had on normal function of BAEC. Here, we examined the effect of BVDV infect...

  14. Estrogenic Activity of Some Phytoestrogens on Bovine Oxytocin and Thymidine Kinase-ERE Promoter through Estrogen Receptor-α in MDA-MB 231 Cells

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    Ehsan Zayerzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phytoestrogens, a group of plant-derived polyphenolic compounds have recently come into considerable attention due to the increasing information on their potential adverse effects in human health. Some of phytoestrogens show estrogenic activity that may be carcinogenic for human. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional effects of variety of phytoestrogens on the bovine oxytocin and the thymidine kinase-ERE promoter by estrogen receptor α in MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: Cells were seeded for transfections into 12- well plates at a density of 100000 cells per well were transfected with a total of 3 μg of plasmid DNA using calcium phosphate coprecipitation. Estrogen and some phytoestrogens (naringenin, 8-prenyl-naringenin and 6-( 1, 1 - dimethylallyl naringenin were used for the stimulation of transfected cells. Results: Findings of our study clearly demonstrated the subtype-selective activation of estrogen receptor (ERα and (ERβ by the p hytoestrogen naringenin (activating estrogen receptor β and its substituted forms 8-prenyl-naringenin and 6-( 1, 1 - dimethylallyl naringenin (activating estrogen receptor α , on the ERE-controlled promoter as well as on the oxytocin gene promoter. Conclusion: The study revealed that some p hytoestrogen s show estrogenic activity by classical or non-classical mechanisms as well as exhibit estrogenic activity by undetermined mechanisms in transfected MDA-MB 231 cell line.

  15. Interleukin-10 Polymorphisms in Association with Prognosis in Patients with B-Cell Lymphoma Treated by R-CHOP

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    Min Kyeong Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-10 (IL10 plays an important role in initiating and maintaining an appropriate immune response to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL. Previous studies have revealed that the transcription of IL10 mRNA and its protein expression may be infl uenced by several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter and intron regions, including rs1800896, rs1800871, and rs1800872. However, the impact of polymorphisms of the IL10 gene on NHL prognosis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the association between IL10 polymorphisms and NHL prognosis. This study involved 112 NHL patients treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea. The median age was 57 years, and 70 patients (62.5% were men. Clinical characteristics, including age, performance status, stage, and extra-nodal involvement, as well as cell lineage and International Prognostic Index (IPI, were evaluated. A total of four polymorphisms in IL10 with heterozygous alleles were analyzed for hazard ratios of overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was the most common histologic type (n = 83, followed by T-cell lymphoma (n = 18, mantle cell lymphoma (n = 6, and others (n = 5. Cell lineage, IPI, and extra-nodal involvement were predictors of prognosis. In the additive genetic model results for each IL10 polymorphism, the rs1800871 and rs1800872 polymorphisms represented a marginal association with OS (p = 0.09 and p = 0.06 and PFS (p = 0.05 and p = 0.08 in B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP. These findings suggest that IL10 polymorphisms might be prognostic indicators for patients with B-cell NHL treated with R-CHOP.

  16. Relationship Between Interleukin-10 Gene C-819T Polymorphism and Gastric Cancer Risk: Insights From a Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xigang; Huang, Qingxian; Li, Xianglin; Liu, Fang; Wang, Dan; Yan, Dong; Wang, Bin; Yang, Chunhua; Mi, Jia; Tian, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Background As a pleiotropic cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays a regulatory role in carcinogenesis and tumor growth. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the susceptibility of the IL-10 gene C-819T polymorphism to gastric cancer. Material/Methods Study identification and data extraction were independently completed by 2 authors. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated and summarized. Results In total, 11 articles including 1960 gastric cancer patients and 3705 controls were qualified. Overall analyses revealed a 13% reduced risk of gastric cancer conferred by the −819T allele relative to the −819C allele (OR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.77–0.97; P=0.016), without heterogeneity (I2=35.1%). In subgroup analyses, a significant difference was identified in East Asian populations (OR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.73–0.98; P=0.029, I2=43.6%), for gastric adenocarcinoma (OR=0.80; 95% CI: 0.66–0.96; P=0.017, I2=0.0%), and in population-based studies (OR=0.81; 95% CI: 0.70–0.93; P=0.003, I2=0.0%). The visual funnel plots and Egger’s tests suggested no evidence of publication bias. Conclusions Extending previous findings, we demonstrate a protective role of the IL-10 gene −819T allele in susceptibility to gastric cancer, and this role was more evident for gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:27516059

  17. Preliminary characterisation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 responses to Chlamydia pecorum infection in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Marina; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10), in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine.

  18. Preliminary characterisation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 responses to Chlamydia pecorum infection in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus.

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    Marina Mathew

    Full Text Available Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus. An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10, in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine.

  19. Relationship of serum interleukin-10 and its genetic variations with ischemic stroke in a Chinese general population.

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    Gaoqiang Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anti-inflammatory cytokine and its genetic variations may play an important role in the process of atherosclerosis. We assessed whether serum interleukin-10 (IL-10 and its genetic variations are associated with ischemic stroke in a Chinese general population. METHODS: An epidemiological survey on cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors was carried in a general population in Beijing in 2005. Serum IL-10, IL-6, p-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and C-reactive protein were analyzed using ELISA kits, while three IL-10 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP (rs1800872, rs1554286 and rs3021094 were genotyped in 1475 participants. RESULTS: A high serum IL-10 (top tertile was significantly associated with ischemic stroke (multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR =0.50; 95%CI 0.31-0.81. Rs1800872 (AA vs. AC+CC genotype, OR=1.60; 1.06-2.39, rs1554286(TT vs. CT+CC genotype, OR=1.59; 1.06-2.39, and rs3021094 (CC/CA vs. AA genotype, OR=1.64; 1.04-2.60 were all significantly associated with ischemic stroke even after controlling for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, glucose, body mass index and serum IL-10. The SNP score (a summary index of these SNPs and IL-10 (top tertile together significantly improved the discriminative power in predicting ischemic stroke by 3.3% (95%CI: 0.2-6.4, p=0.0398 compared to predictions based on conventional risk factors alone. CONCLUSIONS: The lower serum IL-10 concentration and its selected genetic variations were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of ischemic stroke in this cross-sectional study. Our results suggest that more prospective studies should be conducted to provide stronger evidence justifying the use of IL-10 and its SNPs as new biomarkers to identify a predisposition towards ischemic stroke.

  20. Interleukin 10 regulates inflammatory cytokine synthesis to protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced abortion and fetal growth restriction in mice.

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    Robertson, Sarah A; Care, Alison S; Skinner, Rebecca J

    2007-05-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL10) is a potent immune-regulating cytokine and inhibitor of inflammatory cytokine synthesis. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory role of IL10 in pregnancy, the response of genetically IL10-deficient mice to low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced abortion was examined. When IL10-null mutant C57Bl/6 (Il10(-/-)) and control (Il10(+/+)) mice were administered low-dose LPS on Day 9.5 of gestation, IL10 deficiency predisposed to fetal loss accompanied by growth restriction in remaining viable fetuses, with an approximately 10-fold reduction in the threshold dose for 100% abortion. After LPS administration, inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) and IL6 were markedly increased in serum, uterine, and conceptus tissues in Il10(-/-) mice compared with Il10(+/+) mice, with elevated local synthesis of Tnfa and Il6 mRNAs in the gestational tissues. IL1A and IL12p40 were similarly elevated in serum and gestational tissues, whereas interferon gamma (IFNG) and soluble TNFRII content were unchanged in the absence of IL10. Recombinant IL10 rescued the increased susceptibility to LPS-induced fetal loss in Il10(-/-) mice but did not improve outcomes in Il10(+/+) mice. IL10 genotype also influenced the responsiveness of mice to a TNFA antagonist, etanercept. Fetal loss in Il10(-/-) mice was partly alleviated by moderate or high doses of etanercept, whereas Il10(+/+) mice were refractory to high-dose etanercept, consistent with attenuation by IL10 status of TNFA bioavailability after etanercept treatment. These data show that IL10 modulates resistance to inflammatory stimuli by downregulating expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNFA, IL6, IL1A, and IL12, acting to protect against inflammation-induced pathology in the implantation site.

  1. Relevance of Gamma Interferon, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, and Interleukin-10 Gene Polymorphisms to Susceptibility to Mediterranean Spotted Fever ▿

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    Forte, Giusi Irma; Scola, Letizia; Misiano, Gabriella; Milano, Salvatore; Mansueto, Pasquale; Vitale, Giustina; Bellanca, Fiamma; Sanacore, Maria; Vaccarino, Loredana; Rini, Giovan Battista; Caruso, Calogero; Cillari, Enrico; Lio, Domenico; Mansueto, Serafino

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is characterized by dramatic changes in cytokine production patterns, clearly indicating their role in the immunomodulation of the response against the microorganism, and the differences in cytokine production seem to influence the extent and severity of the disease. In this study, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) −308G/A (rs1800629) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) −1087G/A (rs1800896), −824C/T (rs1800871), and −597C/A (rs1800872) and the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) T/A SNP at position +874 (rs2430561) were typed in 80 Sicilian patients affected by MSF and in 288 control subjects matched for age, gender, and geographic origin. No significant differences in TNF-α −308G/A genotype frequencies were observed. The +874TT genotype, associated with an increased production of IFN-γ, was found to be significantly less frequent in MSF patients than in the control group (odds ratio [OR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.06 to 0.51; P corrected for the number of genotypes [Pc], 0.0021). In addition, when evaluating the IFN-γ and IL-10 genotype interaction, a significant increase of +874AA/−597CA (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.37 to 11.88; Pc, 0.0027) combined genotypes was observed. In conclusion, our data strongly suggest that finely genetically tuned cytokine production may play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against rickettsial infection, therefore influencing the disease outcomes, ranging from nonapparent or subclinical condition to overt or fatal disease. PMID:19386798

  2. Interleukin 10-Dominant Immune Response and Increased Risk of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis After Natural Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Flies.

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    Carvalho, Augusto M; Cristal, Juqueline R; Muniz, Aline C; Carvalho, Lucas P; Gomes, Regis; Miranda, José C; Barral, Aldina; Carvalho, Edgar M; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2015-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites transmitted to the vertebrate host by infected sand flies. During transmission, the vertebrate host is also inoculated with sand fly saliva, which exerts powerful immunomodulatory effects on the host's immune response. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis to characterize the human immune response to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva in 264 individuals, from an area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. Antibodies were found in 150 individuals (56.8%); immunoglobulin G1 and G4 were the predominant subclasses. Recall responses to salivary gland sonicate showed elevated production of interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 13, interferon γ, CXCL9, and CCL2 compared with controls. CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, including Foxp3(+) cells, were the main source of IL-10. L. braziliensis replication was increased (P < .05) in macrophages cocultured with saliva-stimulated lymphocytes from exposed individuals and addition of anti-IL-10 reverted this effect. Positive correlation between antibody response to saliva and cellular response to Leishmania was not found. Importantly, individuals seropositive to saliva are 2.1 times more likely to develop CL (relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-4.2; P < .05). Exposure to L. intermedia sand flies skews the human immune response, facilitating L. braziliensis survival in vitro, and increases the risk of developing CL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Genes Influencing Resistance to Coccidioides immitis and the Interleukin-10 Response Map to Chromosomes 4 and 6 in Mice

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    Fierer, Joshua; Walls, Lorraine; Wright, Fred; Kirkland, Theo N.

    1999-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that is endemic in the southwestern United States. Infection is more severe in blacks and Filipinos, which suggests that there is a genetic basis for susceptibility to this infection in humans. We found that there is also a difference in resistance to Coccidioides immitis infection among inbred mouse strains: B6 mice are susceptible, while DBA/2 mice are resistant (T. N. Kirkland and J. Fierer, Infect. Immun. 40:912–916, 1983). In this paper we report the results of our efforts to map the genes responsible for resistance to this infection in mice. Mice were infected by intraperitoneal inoculation, and 15 days later the numbers of viable fungi in their lungs and spleens were enumerated. We also determined the amounts of interleukin-10 mRNA made in the infected lungs. These three phenotypes were mapped as quantitative traits by using the 26 available lines of recombinant inbred mice derived from a cross between B6 and DBA/2 mice. The best associations were those between the regions near the Lv locus on chromosome 4 and the Tnfr1 locus on chromosome 6. We then infected backcross mice [(B6 × DBA/2) × B6] and confirmed these associations; 14 of 16 (87%) mice that were heterozygous at both Lv and Tnfr1 were resistant to infection, whereas only 4 of 16 (25%) mice that were homozygous B6 at both loci were resistant. These are the first genetic loci to be associated with susceptibility to C. immitis, but there may be additional genes involved in murine resistance to this infection. PMID:10338499

  4. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) pathway: genetic variants and outcomes of HIV-1 infection in African American adolescents.

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    Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W; Aissani, Brahim; Song, Wei; Shendre, Aditi; Wilson, Craig M; Kaslow, Richard A; Tang, Jianming

    2010-10-14

    Immunological and clinical outcomes can vary considerably at the individual and population levels during both treated and untreated HIV-1 infection. Cytokines encoded by the interleukin-10 gene (IL10) family have broad immunomodulatory function in viral persistence, and several SNPs in the IL10 promoter sequence have been reported to influence pathogenesis or acquisition of HIV-1 infection. We examined 104 informative SNPs in IL10, IL19, IL20, IL24, IL10RA and IL10RB among 250 HIV-1 seropositive and 106 high-risk seronegative African American adolescents in the REACH cohort. In subsequent evaluation of five different immunological and virological outcomes related to HIV-1 infection, 25 SNPs were associated with a single outcome and three were associated with two different outcomes. One SNP, rs2243191 in the IL19 open reading frame (Ser to Phe substitution) was associated with CD4(+) T-cell increase during treatment. Another SNP rs2244305 in IL10RB (in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs443498) was associated with an initial decrease in CD4(+) T-cell by 23 ± 9% and 29 ± 9% every 3 months (for AA and AG genotypes, respectively, compared with GG) during ART-free period. These associations were reversed during treatment, as CD4(+) T-cell increased by 31 ± 0.9% and 17 ± 8% every 3 months for AA and AG genotype, respectively. In African Americans, variants in IL10 and related genes might influence multiple outcomes of HIV-1 infection, especially immunological response to HAART. Fine mapping coupled with analysis of gene expression and function should help reveal the immunological importance of the IL10 gene family to HIV-1/AIDS.

  5. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter genotypes are associated with lung cancer risk in Taiwan males and smokers.

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    Hsia, Te-Chun; Chang, Wen-Shin; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Chen, Wei-Chun; Tu, Chih-Yen; Chen, Hung-Jen; Yang, Mei-Due; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Chin-Mu; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Bau, Da-Tian

    2014-12-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an immunosuppressive cytokine involved in carcinogenesis via immune escape. The present study aimed at evaluating the contribution of IL-10 promoter A-1082G (rs1800896), T-819C (rs3021097), A-592C (rs1800872) genetic polymorphisms to the risk of lung cancer in Taiwan. Associations of three IL-10 polymorphic genotypes with lung cancer risk were investigated among 358 lung cancer patients and 716 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. In addition, the genetic-lifestyle interaction was also examined. The results showed that the percentages of TT, TC and CC for IL-10 T-819C genotypes were differentially represented as 59.2%, 35.8% and 5.0% in the lung-cancer patient group and 52.0%, 37.0% and 11.0% in the non-cancer control group, respectively (p for trend=0.0025). The CC genotype carriers were of lower risk for lung cancer (OR=0.4, 95% CI=0.23-0.69, p=0.0005). Further stratification of the population by gender and smoking behavior showed that the IL-10 T-819C genotype conducted a protective effect on lung cancer susceptibility, which was obvious among males and smokers (p=0.0003 and 0.0004, respectively). The CC and TC genotypes of IL-10 T-819C compared to the TT genotype may have a protective effect on lung cancer risk in Taiwan, particularly among males and smokers. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms are associated with IL-10 production and clinical malaria in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guicheng; Manaca, Maria Nelia; McNamara-Smith, Michelle; Mayor, Alfredo; Nhabomba, Augusto; Berthoud, Tamara Katherine; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Wiertsema, Selma; Aguilar, Ruth; Barbosa, Arnoldo; Quintó, Llorenç; Candelaria, Pierre; Schultz, En Nee; Hayden, Catherine M; Goldblatt, Jack; Guinovart, Caterina; Alonso, Pedro L; Lesouëf, Peter N; Dobaño, Carlota

    2012-07-01

    The role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in malaria remains poorly characterized. The aims of this study were to investigate (i) whether genetic variants of the IL-10 gene influence IL-10 production and (ii) whether IL-10 production as well as the genotypes and haplotypes of the IL-10 gene in young children and their mothers are associated with the incidence of clinical malaria in young children. We genotyped three IL-10 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 240 children and their mothers from a longitudinal prospective cohort and assessed the IL-10 production by maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). Clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the children were documented until the second year of life. The polymorphism IL-10 A-1082G (GCC haplotype of three SNPs in IL-10) in children was associated with IL-10 production levels by CBMC cultured with P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (P = 0.043), with the G allele linked to low IL-10 production capacity. The G allele in children was also significantly associated with a decreased risk for clinical malaria infection in their second year of life (P = 0.016). Furthermore, IL-10 levels measured in maternal PBMCs cultured with infected erythrocytes were associated with increased risk of malaria infection in young children (P IL-10 polymorphisms and IL-10 production capacity were associated with clinical malaria infections in young children. High IL-10 production capacity inherited from parents may diminish immunological protection against P. falciparum infection, thereby being a risk for increased malaria morbidity.

  7. Correlation between serum levels of interleukins 10 and 12 and thrombocytopenia in hepatitis C cirrhotic (class A patients

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    N Abdallah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV patients commonly have low platelet counts; however, the exact role of HCV infection in thrombocytopenia is unknown. This work aimed to study the serum levels of interleukins (IL 10 and 12 in patients with mild and moderate thrombocytopenia associated with chronic hepatitis C infection. Our study included 15 patients with chronic HCV infection and newly diagnosed isolated autoimmune thrombocytopenia (Group I and 15 patients with chronic HCV infection and normal platelet count as controls (Group II. All patients were examined for personal history and clinical aspects, complete blood count, bone marrow aspiration, liver function tests, HCV antibody assay by ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, abdominal ultrasound, Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test, evaluation of serum levels of IL-10, IL-12 and platelet specific antibodies. Our results revealed that eight patients from Group l had mild thrombocytopenia and seven patients had moderate thrombocytopenia. Serum IL-10 level was significantly elevated (t = 9.301, p < 0.001 while serum IL-12 showed a significant decrease (t = 6.502, p < 0.001 in Group I compared to the control group. No correlation was detected between platelet counts and the serum levels of either IL-10 [r = 0.454, p = 0.089 (Group I, r = 0.038, p = 0.89 (Group II] or IL-12 [r = 0.497, p = 0.06 (Group I, r = 0.499, p = 0.058 (Group II]. However, in Group I, a significant correlation was present only between moderate thrombocytopenia and serum levels of either IL-10 (r = 0.794, p = 0.033 or IL-12 (r = 0.967, p = 0.001, while no correlation was detected between these interleukin parameters and mild thrombocytopenia (r = 0.311 and p = 0.453 for IL-10 and r = -0.08 and p = 0.851 for IL-12. Based on our data, we may conclude that interleukins 10 and 12 are involved in low platelet levels.

  8. [Roles of interleukin-10 differentiated dendritic cell of allergic asthma patients in T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian-feng; Guan, Shu-hong; Wang, Zhi-gang

    2012-10-30

    To explore the roles of interleukin (IL)-10 differentiated peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC-10) of allergic asthma patients in T-lymphocytes proliferation in vitro. From January to June 2011, 10 subjects with dust mite allergic asthma treated at Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were enrolled. Their peripheral blood monocytes were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque solution density gradient centrifugation and adherent method. And the adherent monocytes were routinely cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)+interleukin-4 (IL-4)+tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), stimulated with/without interleukin-10 (IL-10), pulsed with dust mite allergen and finally harvested. The cell surface molecules including CD80, CD83, CD86, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and immunoglobulin-like transcript 2 (ILT2) were detected by immunofluorescent labeling and flow cytometry. And cellular functions were estimated by detecting the capacities of DC uptake antigens with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran capturing assay. The IL-10 differentiation DC (DC-10) were cultured with autologous peripheral T cells (DC-10 group), either alone (DC-TNF group) or together (combined group) with autologous immunostimulatory DC (DC-TNF). And the impact of this treatment on T-cell responses was assessed for each donor by 3-(4, 5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3, 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay. The production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4, interleukin-5 (IL-5) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) were measured with the quantification of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. In DC-10, the levels of some mature DC's markers (CD80, CD83, CD86 & HLA-DR) decreased, ILT2 increased and there were the higher capacities of up-taking FITC-dextran particle (72.32%±2.93% vs 54.41%±2.95%, PDC-10 group (1.06±0.18) and that of the combined group (1.34±0.16) were significantly inhibited (PDC-10 group versus (3223±203), (149±19), (2465±183) and

  9. Viral and murine interleukin-10 are correctly processed and retain their biological activity when produced in tobacco

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    Avesani Linda

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, with therapeutic applications in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Oral administration of this cytokine alone, or in combination with disease-associated autoantigens could confer protection form the onset of a specific autoimmune disease through the induction of oral tolerance. Transgenic plants are attractive systems for production of therapeutic proteins because of the ability to do large scale-up at low cost, and the low maintenance requirements. They are highly amenable to oral administration and could become effective delivery systems without extensive protein purification. We investigated the ability of tobacco plants to produce high levels of biologically-active viral and murine IL-10. Results Three different subcellular targeting strategies were assessed in transient expression experiments, and stable transgenic tobacco plants were generated with the constructs that yielded the highest accumulation levels by targeting the recombinant proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. The best yields using this strategy in T1 plants were 10.8 and 37.0 μg/g fresh leaf weight for viral and murine IL-10, respectively. The recombinant proteins were purified from transgenic leaf material and characterized in terms of their N-glycan composition, dimerization and biological activity in in vitro assays. Both molecules formed stable dimers, were able to activate the IL-10 signaling pathway and to induce specific anti-inflammatory responses in mouse J774 macrophage cells. Conclusion Tobacco plants are able to correctly process viral and murine IL-10 into biologically active dimers, therefore representing a suitable platform for the production for these cytokines. The accumulation levels obtained are high enough to allow delivery of an immunologically relevant dose of IL-10 in a reasonable amount of leaf material, without extensive purification. This study paves the

  10. Association of interleukin-10 promoter haplotypes with disease susceptibility and IL-10 levels in Mexican patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox-Sánchez, Claudia Azucena; Oregon-Romero, Edith; Salazar-Camarena, Diana Celeste; Valle, Yeminia Maribel; Machado-Contreras, Jesús René; Cruz, Alvaro; Orozco-López, Mariana; Orozco-Barocio, Gerardo; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototype autoimmune rheumatic disease. The etiology of this disease is incompletely understood; however, environmental factors and genetic predisposition are involved. Cytokine-mediated immunity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SLE. We investigate the association of interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter polymorphisms and their haplotypes in SLE patients from the western Mexico. One hundred and twenty-five SLE patients fulfilling the 1997 ACR criteria and 260 unrelated healthy subjects (HS), both Mexican mestizos, were genotyped for IL-10 -1082A>G, -819C>T, and -592C>A polymorphisms. Haplotypes were inferred using the expectation-maximization algorithm, then allele and haplotype distributions were compared between patients and HS, as well as patients with different clinical variables. We identified at -1082, -819, and -592 four predominant haplotypes ACC (43.70 % in patients vs 46.55 % in HS), ATA (21.45 vs 22.97 %), GCC (16.28 vs 14.21 %), and GTA (14.12 vs 14.12 %). The ATC haplotype was more frequent in SLE respect to HS, suggesting a risk effect (3.23 vs 1.05 %; OR 3.55, CI 1.14-11.11; p = 0.0293). SLE patient carriers of -592 CC genotype as well as the dominant model of inheritance showed higher sIL-10 respect to AA genotype, suggesting that -592 C allele is associated with increased production of the cytokine (p IL-10 serum levels and higher values of Mexican version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index compared with the other haplotype carriers; however, no association was found regarding autoantibodies. Our data suggest that the IL-10 promoter haplotypes play an important role in the risk of developing SLE and influence the production of IL-10 in Mexican population. Nevertheless, further studies are required to analyze the expression of mRNA as well as to investigate the interacting epigenetic factors that could help to define the true contribution of this marker in SLE pathogenesis.

  11. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin receptors on cultured bovine adrenal fasciculata cells. Role of these peptides on adrenal cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penhoat, A; Chatelain, P G; Jaillard, C; Saez, J M

    1988-06-01

    We have characterized insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin receptors in cultured bovine adrenal cells by binding and cross-linking affinity experiments. At equilibrium the dissociation constant and the number of binding sites per cell for IGF-I were 1.4 +/- (SE) 0.3 x 10(-9) M and 19,200 +/- 2,100, respectively. Under reduction conditions, disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked [125I]iodo-IGF-I to one receptor complex with an Mr of 125,000. Adrenal cells also contain specific insulin receptors with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 10(-9) M. Under reduction conditions [125I]iodo-insulin binds to one band with an approximate Mr of 125,000. IGF-I and insulin at micromolar concentrations, but not at nanomolar concentrations, slightly stimulated DNA synthesis, but markedly potentiated the mitogenic action of fibroblast growth factor. Adrenal cells cultured in a serum-free medium containing transferrin, ascorbic acid, and insulin (5 micrograms/ml) maintained fairly constant angiotensin-II (A-II) receptor concentration per cell and increased cAMP release on response to ACTH and their steroidogenic response to both ACTH and A-II. When the cells were cultured in the same medium without insulin, the number of A-II receptors significantly decreased to 65% and the increased responsiveness was blunted. Treatment of such cells for 3 days with increasing concentrations of IGF-I (1-100 ng/ml) produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in A-II receptors and enhanced the cAMP response (3- to 4-fold) to ACTH and the steroidogenic response (4- to 6-fold) to ACTH and A-II. These effects were time and dose dependent (ED50 approximately equal to 10(-9) M). Insulin at micromolar concentrations produced an effect similar to that of IGF-I, but at nanomolar concentrations the effect was far less. The enhanced steroidogenic responsiveness of IGF-I and insulin-treated cells were related to an enhanced capacity to produce pregnenolone and an increased activity of several steroid

  12. B2 kinin receptor activation is the predominant mechanism by which trypsin mediates endothelium-dependent relaxation in bovine coronary arteries.

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    Drummond, Grant R; Selemidis, Stavros; Cocks, Thomas M

    2008-07-01

    The roles of kinin and protease-activated receptors (PAR) in endothelium-dependent relaxations to the serine protease, trypsin, were examined in rings of bovine left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Trypsin (0.01-30 U/ml) caused biphasic, endothelium-dependent relaxations-a high potency (0.01-0.3 U/ml), low efficacy relaxation [maximum relaxation (R (max)), 9.0 +/- 5.1%] followed by a lower potency (1-30 U/ml) but high efficacy (R (max), 90.4 +/- 5.5%) relaxation, which was abolished by aprotinin. Captopril (10 microM) caused an approximately 10-fold leftward shift of the second phase response such that the first phase was masked. The second phase relaxation to trypsin was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, non-surmountable manner by the B2 antagonist, HOE-140. At 3 nM HOE-140, the second phase response to trypsin was abolished unmasking the first phase. Kallikrein (0.0003-0.3 U/ml) caused monophasic, endothelium-dependent relaxations (R (max), 33.7 +/- 14.6%), which were potentiated by captopril (R (max), 94.2 +/- 1.0%) and abolished by HOE-140. In the presence of captopril, the second phase relaxation to trypsin was only minimally inhibited by either N(G)-nitro-L: -arginine (100 microM) or 67 mM [K(+)](o) alone but markedly reduced when these two treatments were combined (R (max), 26.1 +/- 11.6% versus 98.6 +/- 2.9% in controls). The PAR1-activating peptide, SFLLRN (0.1-30 microM), but not the PAR2-activating peptide, SLIGRL, caused concentration-dependent relaxations (pEC(50), 5.9 +/- 0.0%; R (max), 43.3 +/- 8.3%). In conclusion, trypsin causes endothelium-dependent relaxations in the bovine LAD predominantly via release of endogenous BK, which in turn activates endothelial B2 receptors. Only a minor role for PAR1-like receptors was evident in this tissue.

  13. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin receptors on cultured bovine adrenal fasciculata cells. Role of these peptides on adrenal cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penhoat, A.; Chatelain, P.G.; Jaillard, C.; Saez, J.M.

    1988-06-01

    We have characterized insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin receptors in cultured bovine adrenal cells by binding and cross-linking affinity experiments. At equilibrium the dissociation constant and the number of binding sites per cell for IGF-I were 1.4 +/- (SE) 0.3 x 10(-9) M and 19,200 +/- 2,100, respectively. Under reduction conditions, disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I to one receptor complex with an Mr of 125,000. Adrenal cells also contain specific insulin receptors with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 10(-9) M. Under reduction conditions (/sup 125/I)iodo-insulin binds to one band with an approximate Mr of 125,000. IGF-I and insulin at micromolar concentrations, but not at nanomolar concentrations, slightly stimulated DNA synthesis, but markedly potentiated the mitogenic action of fibroblast growth factor. Adrenal cells cultured in a serum-free medium containing transferrin, ascorbic acid, and insulin (5 micrograms/ml) maintained fairly constant angiotensin-II (A-II) receptor concentration per cell and increased cAMP release on response to ACTH and their steroidogenic response to both ACTH and A-II. When the cells were cultured in the same medium without insulin, the number of A-II receptors significantly decreased to 65% and the increased responsiveness was blunted. Treatment of such cells for 3 days with increasing concentrations of IGF-I (1-100 ng/ml) produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in A-II receptors and enhanced the cAMP response (3- to 4-fold) to ACTH and the steroidogenic response (4- to 6-fold) to ACTH and A-II. These effects were time and dose dependent (ED50 approximately equal to 10(-9) M). Insulin at micromolar concentrations produced an effect similar to that of IGF-I, but at nanomolar concentrations the effect was far less.

  14. Receptor-mediated release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and prostacyclin from bovine aortic endothelial cells is coupled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nucci, G.; Gryglewski, R.J.; Warner, T.D.; Vane, J.R. (William Harvey Research Institute, London (England))

    1988-04-01

    Bovine aortic endothelial cells were grown on microcarrier beads and were perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) was bioassayed on a cascade of four strips of rabbit aorta, and prostacyclin was analyzed by RIA of 6-oxo-prostaglandin F{sub 1{alpha}}. The endothelial cells released EDRF and prostacyclin when stimulated with bradykinin and its analogues, or with ADP, ATP, arachidonic acid, and phospholipase C. The detection of EDRF was potentiated by superoxide dismutase, and the relaxation of rabbit aortic strips induced by EDRF was antagonized by methylene blue. The release of EDRF and prostacyclin was inhibited by phorbol myristate acetate, R59022 (a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor), and gentamycin. The authors suggest that the release of EDRF and prostacyclin is coupled and the initial common step is activation of a phospholipase C.

  15. miR-27a controls triacylglycerol synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells by targeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K Q; Wang, Y N; Zan, L S; Yang, W C

    2017-05-01

    Growing evidence has revealed that microRNA are central elements in milk fat synthesis in mammary epithelial cells. A negative regulator of adipocyte fat synthesis, miR-27a has been reported to be involved in the regulation of milk fat synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells; however, the regulatory role of miR-27a in bovine milk fat synthesis remains unclear. In the present study, primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were harvested from mid-lactation cows and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F-12 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum, 5 μg/mL of insulin, 1 μg/mL of hydrocortisone, 2 μg/mL of prolactin, 1 μg/mL of progesterone, 100 U/mL of penicillin, and 100 μg/mL of streptomycin. We found that the overexpression of miR-27a significantly suppressed lipid droplet formation and decreased the cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) levels, whereas inhibition of miR-27a resulted in a greater lipid droplet formation and TAG accumulation in BMEC. Meanwhile, overexpression of miR-27a inhibited mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ), perilipin 2 (PLIN2), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3), whereas miR-27a downregulation increased PPARG, C/EBPβ, FABP3, and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) mRNA expression. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed the protein level of PPARG in miR-27a mimic and inhibitor transfection groups to be consistent with the mRNA expression response. Moreover, luciferase reporter assays verified that PPARG was the direct target of miR-27a. In summary, these results indicate that miR-27a has the ability to control TAG synthesis in BMEC via targeting PPARG, suggesting that miR-27a could potentially be used to improve beneficial milk components in dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The nonsteroidal mycoestrogen zearalenone and its five metabolites suppress LH secretion from the bovine anterior pituitary cells via the estradiol receptor GPR30 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Urara; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2015-11-01

    Picomolar concentrations of estradiol produce nongenomic suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion from the anterior pituitary (AP) of cattle via G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). Zearalenone (ZEN) is the nonsteroidal mycoestrogen produced by Fusarium fungi and has been detected in cereal grains, animal feed, and ruminant urine worldwide. Zearalenone has a prolonged blood half-life that results from enterohepatic cycling. There are five metabolites of ZEN: α-zearalanol (α-ZAL), β-zearalanol (β-ZAL), α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-zearalenol (β-ZOL), and zearalanone, which may persist for long periods in animals and humans after consumption of ZEN-contaminated feed. We recently reported that GPR30 bound with α-ZAL decreases cytoplasmic cAMP but not gene expression of LHα and LHβ subunits, and GPR30 bound with α-ZAL suppresses GnRH-induced LH release in bovine AP cells in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that GPR30 bound with ZEN or one of the four previously untested metabolites suppresses GnRH-induced LH release from the bovine AP cells in vitro. Anterior pituitary cells were cultured for 3 days under steroid-free conditions and were then incubated with various concentrations (0.001-10 nM) of estradiol or one of the ZEN analogs for 5 minutes before GnRH stimulation. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated LH secretion from AP cells was inhibited by all of the test concentrations of ZEN, 0.001 to 1 nM of α-ZAL, and 0.001 to 0.1 nM of the remaining four analogs. Pretreatment for 5 minutes with a GPR30-specific antagonist, G36, inhibited estradiol- and the ZEN analog-induced suppression of LH secretion from cultured AP cells. G36 alone had no significant effect on LH secretion. The estimated order of the nongenomic inhibiting effect was ZEN, α-ZAL, zearalanone, α-ZOL, β-ZOL, and β-ZAL, which is quite different from the reported order for their genomic effects. Therefore, ZEN and all of its metabolites suppress LH secretion from the bovine AP

  17. Characterization of specific antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV)-encoded interleukin 10 produced by 28 % of CMV-seropositive blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lemos Rieper, Carina; Galle, Pia Søndergaard; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has evolved multiple immunological evasion strategies, including the encoding of viral interleukin (IL)-10 homologues (cmvIL-10). In this study, cmvIL-10 bound avidly to the same receptors on blood mononuclear cells and was as bio-potent as native human IL-10. Seventeen...

  18. Cloning of Interleukin-10 from African Clawed Frog (Xenopus tropicalis), with the Finding of IL-19/20 Homologue in the IL-10 Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Zhitao; Zhang, Qihuan; Wang, Zisheng; Zhao, Weihong; Gao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in immune system. In the present study, the IL-10 gene of African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) was first cloned, and its expression pattern and 3D structure were also analyzed. The frog IL-10 mRNA encoded 172 amino acids which possessed several conserved features found in IL-10s from other species, including five-exon/four-intron genomic structure, conserved four cysteine residues, IL-10 family motif, and six ?-...

  19. Murine AIDS Protects Mice Against Experimental Cerebral Malaria: Down-Regulation by Interleukin 10 a T-Helper Type 1 CD4^+ Cell-Mediated Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckwalanga, Michel; Marussig, Myriam; Dias Tavares, Marisa; Bouanga, Jean Claude; Hulier, Elisabeth; Henriette Pavlovitch, Jana; Minoprio, Paola; Portnoi, Denis; Renia, Laurent; Mazier, Dominique

    1994-08-01

    The retrovirus LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus induces murine AIDS in C57BL/6 mice that has many similarities with human AIDS; Plasmodium berghei ANKA causes experimental cerebral malaria in the same strain of mice. The outcome of malaria infection was studied in mice concurrently infected with the two pathogens. The retrovirus significantly reduced the gravity of the neurological manifestations associated with Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection. The protection against experimental cerebral malaria induced by murine AIDS increased with duration of viral infection and, hence, with the severity of the immunodeficiency. Interleukin 10, principally from splenic T cells, was shown to play a crucial role in this protection.

  20. Size-exclusion chromatographic reconstitution of the bovine brain benzodiazepine receptor : Effects of lipid environment on the binding characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viel, G.T; Yang, Q; Lundahl, P; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R.A

    1997-01-01

    The benzodiazepine receptor from calf brain was solubilized with sodium deoxycholate (2 mg/ml) in the presence of 0.5 M KCl and protease inhibitors, and bound flunitrazepam with an equilibrium dissociation constant (K-d) of 2.7+/-1.2 nM and with 0.40+/-0.04 pmol binding sites per mg protein (B-max).

  1. Tr-1-like CD4+CD25-CD127-/lowFOXP3- cells are the main source of interleukin 10 in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Diego L; Cardoso, Tiago M; Queiroz, Adriano; Milanezi, Cristiane M; Bacellar, Olívia; Carvalho, Edgar M; Silva, João S

    2015-03-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells have long been shown to mediate susceptibility to Leishmania infection, mainly via interleukin 10 production. In this work, we showed that the main sources of interleukin 10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis are CD4(+)CD25(-)CD127(-/low)FOXP3(-) cells. Compared with uninfected controls, patients with CL had increased frequencies of circulating interleukin 10-producing CD4(+)CD25(-)CD127(-/low) cells, which efficiently suppressed tumor necrosis factor α production by the total PBMC population. Also, in CL lesions, interleukin 10 was mainly produced by CD4(+)CD25(-) cells, and interleukin 10 messenger RNA expression was associated with interleukin 27, interleukin 21, and interferon γ expression, rather than with FOXP3 or transforming growth factor β expressions. Active production of both interleukin 27 and interleukin 21, together with production of interferon γ and interleukin 10, was also detected in the lesions. Since these cytokines are associated with the differentiation and activity of Tr-1 cells, our results suggest that this cell population may play an important role in the immunomodulation of CL. Therefore, development of treatments that interfere with this pathway may lead to faster parasite elimination. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Inflammatory Cells, Interleukin-10, Interferon-γ and Histological of Kidney in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrauf A Mahmud Yousif

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence, suggest that, consumption of food additives monosodium glutamate (MSG, a flavor enhancer was unhealthy. Herbal medicine Nigella sativa (NS has antioxidant properties able to cure the toxic induced by MSG. This study aimed to evaluate the risks of excessive use of MSG and to study the role of NS to inhibit inflammation and renal damage. Treated rats (twenty four male wistar rats were divided into six group and analyzed by measuring the cells in blood, interleukin-10, interferon-γ serum levels by ELISA method and remove kidneys for histological examination. Histological of kidney for all groups except control, were showed different abnormalities include congestion of some blood vessels, hemorrhage between tubules, widening in the renal tubules, revealed severe dilatation of Bowman's capsule and shrinkage of glomeruli, and areas of huge vacuole, were observed compared with control. Interleukin-10 was reduced in Groups 2,3,4 and 5, whereas increase in NS group compared with control. Interferon-γ was increased in groups 2,3,4 and reduced in groups 5,6 compared with control. Eosinophil was increased in groups 2,5 and reduced in groups 3,4, 6 compared with control. This present study showed that administration of MSG to rats induced many changes effects on inflammatory cells, cytokines and histological of kidneys. NS has benefit in blood parameters, whereas harmful on kidney at these doses.

  3. Gene expression changes in the colon epithelium are similar to those of intact colon during late inflammation in interleukin-10 gene deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Russ

    Full Text Available In addition to their role in absorption and secretion, epithelial cells play an important role in the protection of the colon mucosa from the resident microbiota and are important for the maintenance of homeostasis. Microarray analysis of intact colon samples is widely used to gain an overview of the cellular pathways and processes that are active in the colon during inflammation. Laser microdissection of colon epithelial cells allows a more targeted analysis of molecular pathways in the mucosa, preceding and during inflammation, with potentially increased sensitivity to changes in specific cell populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular changes that occur in early and late inflammation stages in colon epithelium of a mouse model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Microarray analysis of intact colon samples and microdissected colon epithelial cell samples from interleukin-10 gene deficient and control mice at 6 and 12 weeks of age was undertaken. Results of gene set enrichment analysis showed that more immune-related pathways were identified between interleukin-10 gene deficient and control mice at 6 weeks of age in epithelial cells than intact colon. This suggests that targeting epithelial cells could increase sensitivity for detecting immune changes that occur early in the inflammatory process. However, in the later stages of inflammation, microarray analyses of intact colon and epithelium both provide a similar overview of gene expression changes in the colon mucosa at the pathway level.

  4. A tryptic hydrolysate from bovine milk αs1-casein enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice via the GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Peña, Irene Joy I; Kim, Hee Jin; de la Peña, June Bryan; Kim, Mikyung; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; You, Kyung Yi; Woo, Taeseon; Lee, Yong Soo; Jung, Jae-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-10-15

    Studies have shown that enzymatic hydrolysis of casein, the primary protein component of cow's milk, produces peptides with various biological activities, and some of these peptides may have sleep-promoting effects. In the present study, we evaluated the sedative and sleep-promoting effects of bovine αS1-casein tryptic hydrolysate (CH), containing a decapeptide αS1-casein known as alpha-casozepine. CH was orally administered to ICR mice at various concentrations (75, 150, 300, or 500mg/kg). An hour after administration, assessment of its sedative (open-field and rota-rod tests) and sleep-potentiating effects (pentobarbital-induced sleeping test and EEG monitoring) were conducted. Although a trend can be observed, CH treatment did not significantly alter the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor function of mice in the open-field and rota-rod tests. On the other hand, CH (150mg/kg, respectively) enhanced the sleep induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. It also promoted slow-wave (delta) EEG activity in rats; a pattern indicative of sleep or relaxation. These behavioral results indicate that CH has sleep-promoting effects, but no or has minimal sedative effects. To elucidate the probable mechanism behind the effects of CH, we examined its action on intracellular chloride ion influx in cultured human neuroblastoma cells. CH dose-dependently increased chloride ion influx, which was blocked by co-administration of bicuculline, a competitive GABAA receptor antagonist. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that CH has sleep-promoting properties which are probably mediated through the GABAA receptor-chloride ion channel complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. STIM1 positively regulates the Ca2+ release activity of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Béliveau

    Full Text Available The endothelium is actively involved in many functions of the cardiovascular system, such as the modulation of arterial pressure and the maintenance of blood flow. These functions require a great versatility of the intracellular Ca2+ signaling that resides in the fact that different signals can be encoded by varying the frequency and the amplitude of the Ca2+ response. Cells use both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ pools to modulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. In non-excitable cells, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R, located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, is responsible for the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular store. The proteins STIM1 and STIM2 are also located on the ER and they are involved in the activation of a store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE. Due to their Ca2+ sensor property and their close proximity with IP3Rs on the ER, STIMs could modulate the activity of IP3R. In this study, we showed that STIM1 and STIM2 are expressed in bovine aortic endothelial cells and they both interact with IP3R. While STIM2 appears to play a minor role, STIM1 plays an important role in the regulation of agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization in BAECs by a positive effect on both the SOCE and the IP3R-dependent Ca2+ release.

  6. STIM1 positively regulates the Ca2+ release activity of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Éric; Lessard, Vincent; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2014-01-01

    The endothelium is actively involved in many functions of the cardiovascular system, such as the modulation of arterial pressure and the maintenance of blood flow. These functions require a great versatility of the intracellular Ca2+ signaling that resides in the fact that different signals can be encoded by varying the frequency and the amplitude of the Ca2+ response. Cells use both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ pools to modulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. In non-excitable cells, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is responsible for the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular store. The proteins STIM1 and STIM2 are also located on the ER and they are involved in the activation of a store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Due to their Ca2+ sensor property and their close proximity with IP3Rs on the ER, STIMs could modulate the activity of IP3R. In this study, we showed that STIM1 and STIM2 are expressed in bovine aortic endothelial cells and they both interact with IP3R. While STIM2 appears to play a minor role, STIM1 plays an important role in the regulation of agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization in BAECs by a positive effect on both the SOCE and the IP3R-dependent Ca2+ release.

  7. High systemic levels of interleukin-10, interleukin-22 and C-reactive protein in Indian patients are associated with low in vitro replication of HIV-1 subtype C viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) accounts for almost 50% of all HIV-1 infections worldwide and predominates in countries with the highest case-loads globally. Functional studies suggest that HIV-1C is unique in its biological properties, and there are contradicting reports about its replicative characteristics. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether the host cytokine environment modulates the in vitro replication capacity of HIV-1C viruses. Methods A small subset of HIV-1C isolates showing efficient replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is described, and the association of in vitro replication capacity with disease progression markers and the host cytokine response was evaluated. Viruses were isolated from patient samples, and the corresponding in vitro growth kinetics were determined by monitoring for p24 production. Genotype, phenotype and co-receptor usage were determined for all isolates, while clinical category, CD4 cell counts and viral loads were recorded for all patients. Plasmatic concentrations of cytokines and, acute-phase response, and microbial translocation markers were determined; and the effect of cytokine treatment on in vitro replication rates was also measured. Results We identified a small number of viral isolates showing high in vitro replication capacity in healthy-donor PBMC. HIV-1C usage of CXCR4 co-receptor was rare; therefore, it did not account for the differences in replication potential observed. There was also no correlation between the in vitro replication capacity of HIV-1C isolates and patients' disease status. Efficient virus growth was significantly associated with low interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-22 (IL-22), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in plasma (p membranes. Conclusions These results indicate that high systemic levels of IL-10, CRP and IL-22 in HIV-1C-infected Indian patients are associated with low viral replication in vitro, and that the former two have direct inhibitory

  8. Insensitivity of Astrocytes to Interleukin-10 Signaling following Peripheral Immune Challenge Results in Prolonged Microglial Activation in the Aged Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Diana M.; Trojanowski, Paige J.; Walker, Frederick R.; Godbout, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Immune-activated microglia from aged mice produce exaggerated levels of cytokines. Despite high levels of microglial IL-10 in the aged brain, neuroinflammation was prolonged and associated with depressive-like deficits. Because astrocytes respond to IL-10 and, in turn, attenuate microglial activation, we investigated if astrocyte-mediated resolution of microglial activation was impaired with age. Here, aged astrocytes had a dysfunctional profile with higher GFAP, lower glutamate transporter expression, and significant cytoskeletal re-arrangement. Moreover, aged astrocytes had reduced expression of growth factors and IL-10 Receptor-1 (IL-10R1). Following in vivo LPS immune challenge, aged astrocytes had a molecular signature associated with reduced responsiveness to IL-10. This IL-10 insensitivity of aged astrocytes resulted in a failure to induce IL-10R1 and TGFβ and resolve microglial activation. Additionally, adult astrocytes reduced microglial activation when co-cultured ex vivo, while aged astrocytes did not. Consistent with the aging studies, IL-10RKO astrocytes did not augment TGFβ after immune challenge and failed to resolve microglial activation. Collectively, a major cytokine-regulatory loop between activated microglia and astrocytes is impaired in the aged brain. PMID:27318131

  9. HIV-1 Infection of Macrophages Dysregulates Innate Immune Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Inhibition of Interleukin-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Gillian S.; Bell, Lucy C. K.; Walker, Naomi F.; Tsang, Jhen; Brown, Jeremy S.; Breen, Ronan; Lipman, Marc; Katz, David R.; Miller, Robert F.; Chain, Benjamin M.; Elkington, Paul T. G.; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) both target macrophages, which are key cells in inflammatory responses and their resolution. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 may modulate macrophage responses to coinfection with M. tuberculosis. HIV-1 caused exaggerated proinflammatory responses to M. tuberculosis that supported enhanced virus replication, and were associated with deficient stimulus-specific induction of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)–10 and attenuation of mitogen-activated kinase signaling downstream of Toll-like receptor 2 and dectin-1 stimulation. Our in vitro data were mirrored by lower IL-10 and higher proinflammatory IL-1β in airway samples from HIV-1–infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis compared with those with non-tuberculous respiratory tract infections. Single-round infection of macrophages with HIV-1 was sufficient to attenuate IL-10 responses, and antiretroviral treatment of replicative virus did not affect this phenotype. We propose that deficient homeostatic IL-10 responses may contribute to the immunopathogenesis of active tuberculosis and propagation of virus infection in HIV-1/M. tuberculosis coinfection. PMID:24265436

  10. Interaction between interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms and dietary fibre in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjonneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: More than 50% of the colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology has been attributed to diet. Established or suspected dietary factors modifying risk of CRC are red meat, cereals, fish, and fibre. Diet and lifestyle may be linked to cancer through inflammation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti......-inflammatory cytokine. We wanted to test if dietary factors and IL10 polymorphisms interact in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: The functional IL10 polymorphism C-592A (rs1800872) and the marker rs3024505 were assessed in relation to diet and lifestyle in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases...... and 775 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. Genotyping data on the IL10 polymorphism C-592A, smoking and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) was retrieved from Vogel et al. (Mutat Res, 2007; 624: 88). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% Confidence Interval...

  11. Electronic effects in emission of core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots conjugated to anti-Interleukin 10 antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintos Vazquez, A.L. [ESIME—Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07738, México (Mexico); Torchynska, T.V., E-mail: ttorch@esfm.ipn.mx [ESFM–Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07738, México (Mexico); Casas Espinola, J.L. [ESFM–Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07738, México (Mexico); Jaramillo Gómez, J.A.; Douda, J. [UPIITA–Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07320, México (Mexico)

    2013-11-15

    The paper presents a comparative study of the photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering spectra of the core–shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in nonconjugated states and after the conjugation to anti-Interleukin 10 antibodies (anti-IL10). All optical measurements are performed on the dried droplets of the original solution of nonconjugated and bioconjugated QDs located on the Si substrate. CdSe/ZnS QDs with emission at 605 and 655 nm have been used. PL spectra of nonconjugated QDs are characterized by one Gaussian shape PL band related to the exciton emission in the CdSe core. PL spectra of bioconjugated QDs have changed essentially: the core PL band shifts into the high energy spectral range (“blue” sift) and becomes asymmetric. Additionally two new PL bands appear. A set of physical reasons has been proposed for the “blue” shift explanation for the core PL band in bioconjugated QDs. Then Raman scattering spectra have been studied with the aim to analyze the impact of elastic strains or the oxidation process at the QD bioconjugation. The variation of PL spectra versus excitation light intensities has been studied to analyze the exciton emission via excited states in QDs. Finally the PL spectrum transformation for the core emission in bioconjugated QDs has been attributed to the electronic quantum confined effects stimulated by the electric charges of bioconjugated antibodies. -- Highlights: • The conjugation of CdSe/ZnS QDs to anti-Interleukin 10 antibodies has been studied. • PL shift to high energy is detected in bioconjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs. • The PL energy shift in bioconjugated QDs is stimulated by antibody electric charges. • The reasons of PL energy shift in bioconjugated QDs have been discussed.

  12. Influence of Genetic Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 10 Genes on the Risk of Liver Cirrhosis in HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Corchado

    Full Text Available Analysis of the contribution of genetic (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP at position -238 and -308 of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and -592 of the interleukin-10 (IL-10 promotor genes and of classical factors (age, alcohol, immunodepression, antirretroviral therapy on the risk of liver cirrhosis in human immunodeficiency (HIV-hepatitis C (HCV virus coinfected patients.Ninety one HIV-HCV coinfected patients (50 of them with chronic hepatitis and 41 with liver cirrhosis and 55 healthy controls were studied. Demographic, risk factors for the HIV-HCV infection, HIV-related (CD4+ T cell count, antiretroviral therapy, HIV viral load and HCV-related (serum ALT concentration, HCV viral load, HCV genotype characteristics and polymorphisms at position -238 and -308 of the tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF- α and -592 of the interleukin-10 (IL-10 promotor genes were studied.Evolution time of the infection was 21 years in both patients' groups (chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The group of patients with liver cirrhosis shows a lower CD4+ T cell count at the inclusion in the study (but not at diagnosis of HIV infection, a higher percentage of individuals with previous alcohol abuse, and a higher proportion of patients with the genotype GG at position -238 of the TNF-α promotor gene; polymorphism at -592 of the IL-10 promotor gene approaches to statistical significance. Serum concentrations of profibrogenic transforming growth factor beta1 were significantly higher in healthy controls with genotype GG at -238 TNF-α promotor gene. The linear regression analysis demonstrates that the genotype GG at -238 TNF-α promotor gene was the independent factor associated to liver cirrhosis.It is stressed the importance of immunogenetic factors (TNF-α polymorphism at -238 position, above other factors previously accepted (age, gender, alcohol, immunodepression, on the evolution to liver cirrhosis among HIV-infected patients with established chronic

  13. Interleukin 10 and dendritic cells are the main suppression mediators of regulatory T cells in human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Sillas, A; Álvarez-Luquín, D D; Cárdenas, G; Casanova-Hernández, D; Fragoso, G; Hernández, M; Proaño Narváez, J V; García-Vázquez, F; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E; Adalid-Peralta, L

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium cysticerci in the central nervous system. It is considered that, during co-evolution, the parasite developed strategies to modulate the host's immune response. The action mechanisms of regulatory T cells in controlling the immune response in neurocysticercosis are studied in this work. Higher blood levels of regulatory T cells with CD4(+) CD45RO(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(high) and CD4(+) CD25(high) FoxP3(+) CD95(high) phenotype and of non-regulatory CD4(+) CD45RO(+) FoxP3(med) T cells were found in neurocysticercosis patients with respect to controls. Interestingly, regulatory T cells express higher levels of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR), suggesting a cell-to-cell contact mechanism with dendritic cells. Furthermore, higher IL-10 and regulatory T cell type 1 (Tr1) levels were found in neurocysticercosis patients' peripheral blood, suggesting that the action mechanism of regulatory T cells involves the release of immunomodulatory cytokines. No evidence was found of the regulatory T cell role in inhibiting the proliferative response. Suppressive regulatory T cells from neurocysticercosis patients correlated negatively with late activated lymphocytes (CD4(+) CD38(+) ). Our results suggest that, during neurocysticercosis, regulatory T cells could control the immune response, probably by a cell-to-cell contact with dendritic cells and interleukin (IL)-10 release by Tr1, to create an immunomodulatory environment that may favour the development of T. solium cysticerci and their permanence in the central nervous system. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  14. Interleukin-10 inhibits neuroinflammation-mediated apoptosis of ventral mesencephalic neurons via JAK-STAT3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Liu, Zhan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Interleukin (IL)-10 is one of the most important and best anti-inflammatory cytokines. The objective of this report is to investigate whether IL-10 has any role in protecting ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons in in vitro model of neuroinflammation. In this study, primary neuron-enriched culture was prepared from the VM tissues of E14 embryos of rats. The cells were pretreated with IL-10 (15 or 50ng/mL) for 1h followed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50ng/mL) application. We found LPS induced neuronal apoptosis and loss while pretreatment with IL-10 reduced neuronal damage after exposure of LPS toxicity. Furthermore, signal transduction pathways related to IL-10 in VM neurons were studied in inflammatory condition. We used both shRNA and pharmacologic inhibition to determine the role of the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) and its downstream signaling pathways in LPS-induced VM neuronal toxicity. Silence of the IL-10R gene in VM neurons abolished IL-10 mediated protection and the properties of anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis. IL-10 also induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 in VM neurons. Pretreatment with the specific Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor reduced STAT3 phosphorylation and blocked IL-10 mediated protection against LPS. These findings suggest that IL-10 provides neuroprotection by acting via IL-10R and its down-stream JAK-STAT3 signal pathways in VM neurons. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Protection against collagen-induced arthritis in mice afforded by the parasitic worm product, ES-62, is associated with restoration of the levels of interleukin-10-producing B cells and reduced plasma cell infiltration of the joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, David T; Pineda, Miguel A; McGrath, Mairi A; Al-Riyami, Lamyaa; Harnett, William; Harnett, Margaret M

    2014-03-01

    We have previously reported that ES-62, a molecule secreted by the parasitic filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, protects mice from developing collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Together with increasing evidence that worm infection may protect against autoimmune conditions, this raises the possibility that ES-62 may have therapeutic potential in rheumatoid arthritis and hence, it is important to fully understand its mechanism of action. To this end, we have established to date that ES-62 protection in CIA is associated with suppressed T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17 responses, reduced collagen-specific IgG2a antibodies and increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) production by splenocytes. IL-10-producing regulatory B cells have been proposed to suppress pathogenic Th1/Th17 responses in CIA: interestingly therefore, although the levels of IL-10-producing B cells were decreased in the spleens of mice with CIA, ES-62 was found to restore these to the levels found in naive mice. In addition, exposure to ES-62 decreased effector B-cell, particularly plasma cell, infiltration of the joints, and such infiltrating B cells showed dramatically reduced levels of Toll-like receptor 4 and the activation markers, CD80 and CD86. Collectively, this induction of hyporesponsiveness of effector B-cell responses, in the context of the resetting of the levels of IL-10-producing B cells, is suggestive of a modulation of the balance between effector and regulatory B-cell responses that may contribute to ES-62-mediated suppression of CIA-associated inflammation and inhibition of production of pathogenic collagen-specific IgG2a antibodies. © 2013 The Authors. Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Vitamin D3 Adjuvant Treatment Stimulate Interleukin-10 Expression in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome Without Affecting to Clinical Outcome and Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression

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    Husnul Asariati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS is the most glomerular disease that occurred in childhood with high rate morbidity. Glucocorticoid is drug of choice for INS and responsiveness to this drug determined prognosis.Glucocorticoid upregulate transcription of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-10. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and has multiple role in immune response include modulate Th1/Th2 response. Vitamin D3 interact with glucocorticoid signaling. Administered active form of vitamin D3 increase dexamethasone-induced IL-10 expression by regulatory T cells in steroid resistant asthmatic patient. Here we showed increase of CD4+ IL10+ expression after treatment both prednisone only and combination prednison with vitamin D3. Both in new-onset NS or rare relaps NS, combination treatment prednisone + vitamin D3 increase CD4+ IL10+ expression significantly compared to prednisone-only treated group (p= 0.003, which first group (new-onset nephrotic syndrome + prednisone and vitamin D3 treatment showed the most CD4+ IL10+ expression enhancement (9.53±3.89. However this study failed to show a correlation between CD4+ IL-10+ expression after prednisone and vitamin D3 treatment with clinical outcome (linear regression test, p= 0,125. This study also showed that there was a no correlation between CD4+ IL-10+ expression and CD3+ GR expression after prednison + vitamin D3 treatment (p= 0.088. CD4+ IL-10+ expression in new-onset and rarely relapsing nephrotic syndrome patients higher in prednisone + vitamin D3 treated group than prednisone-only treated group. There is no correlation between CD4+ IL-10+ expression and CD3+ GR expression nor CD4+ IL-10+ expression and clinical outcome.

  17. ABCA1 protein enhances Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-stimulated interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion through protein kinase A (PKA) activation.

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    Ma, Loretta; Dong, Fumin; Zaid, Maryam; Kumar, Ashok; Zha, Xiaohui

    2012-11-23

    ABCA1 is known to suppress proinflammatory cytokines. ABCA1 activates PKA and up-regulates anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Elevated PKA transforms macrophages to M2-like phenotype. Disrupting lipid rafts by statins MCD, and filipin recuperates ABCA1 phenotype and likely functions downstream of ABCA1. By modulating cholesterol, ABCA1 activates PKA. This generates M2-like macrophages. ABCA1 does not simply suppress inflammatory response. It promotes M2-like activation and facilitates resolution. Nonresolving inflammatory response from macrophages is a major characteristic of atherosclerosis. Macrophage ABCA1 has been previously shown to suppress the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine. In the present study, we demonstrate that ABCA1 also promotes the secretion of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine critical for inflammation resolution. ABCA1(+/+) bone marrow-derived macrophages secrete more IL-10 but less proinflammatory cytokines than ABCA1(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages, similar to alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. We present evidence that ABCA1 activates PKA and that this elevated PKA activity contributes to M2-like inflammatory response from ABCA1(+/+) bone marrow-derived macrophages. Furthermore, cholesterol lowering by statins, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, or filipin also activates PKA and, consequently, transforms macrophages toward M2-like phenotype. Conversely, cholesterol enrichment suppresses PKA activity and promotes M1-like inflammatory response. As the primary function of ABCA1 is cholesterol removal, our results suggest that ABCA1 activates PKA by regulating cholesterol. Indeed, forced cholesterol enrichment in ABCA1-expressing macrophages suppresses PKA activation and elicits M1-like response. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel protective process by ABCA1-activated PKA in macrophages. They also suggest cholesterol lowering in extra-hepatic tissues by statins as an anti-inflammation strategy.

  18. Hydrodynamics-based transfection of rat interleukin-10 gene attenuates porcine serum-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells

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    HUANG, YUE-HONG; CHEN, YUN-XIN; ZHANG, LI-JUAN; CHEN, ZHI-XIN; WANG, XIAO-ZHONG

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the common pathological outcome for the majority of chronic liver diseases. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that downregulates proinflammatory responses and has a modulatory effect on liver fibrogenesis. However, little is known regarding the effect of rat interleukin-10 (rIL-10) gene by hydrodynamics-based transfection (HBT) on liver fibrosis in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the rIL-10 gene by HBT on the progression of liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum (PS) in rats and explore its possible mechanism. Plasmid-expressing rIL-10 was transferred into rats by HBT and immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the major organ expressing rIL-10. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of PS for 8 weeks. Plasmid pcDNA3-rIL-10 solution was administered weekly by HBT starting at the 5th week. Liver function and hepatic histology were examined. The possible molecular mechanisms of rIL-10 gene therapy were assessed in liver tissue and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) co-cultured with BRL cells (a hepatocyte line) in vitro. The results showed rIL-10 expression occurred mainly in the liver following rIL-10 gene transfer by HBT. Maintaining a stable expression of rIL-10 in serum was assessed by repeated administration. The rIL-10 gene treatment attenuated liver inflammation and fibrosis in PS-induced fibrotic rats, reduced the deposition of collagen and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in fibrotic rats. The in vitro experiment showed that the expression of a-SMA and procollagen type I in HSCs co-cultured with the BRL-transfected rIL-10 gene were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that rIL-10 gene therapy by HBT attenuates PS-induced liver fibrosis in rats and that its mechanism is associated with rIL-10 inhibiting the activation of HSCs and promoting the degeneration of collagen. PMID:24993843

  19. Changes in composition of caecal microbiota associated with increased colon inflammation in interleukin-10 gene-deficient mice inoculated with Enterococcus species.

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    Bassett, Shalome A; Young, Wayne; Barnett, Matthew P G; Cookson, Adrian L; McNabb, Warren C; Roy, Nicole C

    2015-03-11

    Human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disease where the resident microbiota contributes to disease development, yet the specific mechanisms remain unclear. Interleukin-10 gene-deficient (Il10-/-) mice develop inflammation similar to IBD, due in part to an inappropriate response to commensal bacteria. We have previously reported changes in intestinal morphology and colonic gene expression in Il10-/- mice in response to oral bacterial inoculation. In this study, we aimed to identify specific changes in the caecal microbiota associated with colonic inflammation in these mice. The microbiota was evaluated using pyrotag sequencing, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR. Microbiota profiles were influenced by genotype of the mice and by bacterial inoculation, and a strong correlation was observed between the microbiota and colonic inflammation scores. Although un-inoculated Il10-/- and C57 mice had similar microbiota communities, bacterial inoculation resulted in different changes to the microbiota in Il10-/- and C57 mice. Inoculated Il10-/- mice had significantly less total bacteria than un-inoculated Il10-/- mice, with a strong negative correlation between total bacterial numbers, relative abundance of Escherichia/Shigella, microbiota diversity, and colonic inflammation score. Our results show a putative causative role for the microbiota in the development of IBD, with potentially key roles for Akkermansia, or for Bacteroides, Helicobacter, Parabacteroides, and Alistipes, depending on the composition of the bacterial inoculum. These data support the use of bacterially-inoculated Il10-/- mice as an appropriate model to investigate human IBD.

  20. Cloning of Interleukin-10 from African Clawed Frog (Xenopus tropicalis, with the Finding of IL-19/20 Homologue in the IL-10 Locus

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    Zhitao Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in immune system. In the present study, the IL-10 gene of African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis was first cloned, and its expression pattern and 3D structure were also analyzed. The frog IL-10 mRNA encoded 172 amino acids which possessed several conserved features found in IL-10s from other species, including five-exon/four-intron genomic structure, conserved four cysteine residues, IL-10 family motif, and six α-helices. Real-time PCR showed that frog IL-10 mRNA was ubiquitous expressed in all examined tissues, highly in some immune related tissues including kidney, spleen, and intestine and lowly in heart, stomach, and liver. The frog IL-10 mRNA was upregulated at 24 h after LPS stimulation, indicating that it plays a part in the host immune response to bacterial infection. Another IL, termed as IL-20, was identified from the frog IL-10 locus, which might be the homologue of mammalian IL-19/20 according to the analysis results of the phylogenetic tree and the sequence identities.

  1. Dependency of B-1 Cells in the Maintenance of Splenic Interleukin-10 Producing Cells and Impairment of Macrophage Resistance in Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Angélica Fernandes; Nico, Dirlei; de Castro, Gabriellen Menezes Migliani; da Silva Fontes, Yasmin; Saltarelli, Paula; Decote-Ricardo, Debora; Nunes, Marise P; Ferreira-Pereira, Antônio; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G; Morrot, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoa parasites transmitted by infected sand fly vectors. This disease represents the second in mortality among tropical infections and is associated to a profound immunosuppression state of the host. The hallmark of this infection-induced host immunodeviation is the characteristic high levels of the regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine. In the present study, we investigated the role of B-1 cells in the maintenance of splenic IL-10 levels that could interfere with resistance to parasite infection. Using an experimental murine infection model with Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi we demonstrated an improved resistance of B-1 deficient BALB/XID mice to infection. BALB/XID mice developed a reduced splenomegaly with diminished splenic parasite burden and lower levels of IL-10 secretion of purified splenocytes at 30 days post-infection, as compared to BALB/c wild-type control mice. Interestingly, we found that resident peritoneal macrophages isolated from BALB/XID mice were more effective to control the parasite load in comparison to cells isolated from BALB/c wild-type mice. Our findings point to a role of B-1 cells in the host susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis.

  2. Dependency of B-1 Cells in the Maintenance of Splenic Interleukin-10 Producing Cells and Impairment of Macrophage Resistance in Visceral Leishmaniasis

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    Angélica Fernandes Arcanjo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoa parasites transmitted by infected sand fly vectors. This disease represents the second in mortality among tropical infections and is associated to a profound immunosuppression state of the host. The hallmark of this infection-induced host immunodeviation is the characteristic high levels of the regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10 cytokine. In the present study, we investigated the role of B-1 cells in the maintenance of splenic IL-10 levels that could interfere with resistance to parasite infection. Using an experimental murine infection model with Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi we demonstrated an improved resistance of B-1 deficient BALB/XID mice to infection. BALB/XID mice developed a reduced splenomegaly with diminished splenic parasite burden and lower levels of IL-10 secretion of purified splenocytes at 30 days post-infection, as compared to BALB/c wild-type control mice. Interestingly, we found that resident peritoneal macrophages isolated from BALB/XID mice were more effective to control the parasite load in comparison to cells isolated from BALB/c wild-type mice. Our findings point to a role of B-1 cells in the host susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis.

  3. Antihyperglycemic effect of Sesbania grandiflora seed decoction on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: Inflammatory status and the role of interleukin-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamroni, Ahmad; Widjanarko, Simon B.; Rifa'i, Muhaimin; Zubaidah, Elok

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases in the world: its prevalence is estimated to reach 642 million people, or one-tenth of adults will have diabetes by 2040. Traditional herbal exploration and investigation are needed in order to discover medicines that have potential anti-diabetic activity, with no or lower side effects than the medicines clinically used today. In this research, we investigated the anti-hyperglycemic activity of an aqueous decoction of Sesbania grandiflora seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and analyzed the immune responses that occurred during the counter balance process to reach blood glucose homeostasis. Our results revealed that administration of the aqueous decoction (2.5 g/kg BW) could lower the blood glucose levels of diabetic mice from an initial blood glucose level of 435 mg/dl to 213 mg/dl within 18 days of treatment. Analysis of inflammatory markers showed that there was no significant difference in the relative amounts of CD4+CD62L-, CD8+CD62L-, TNF-α or IFN-γ between the experimental groups, which revealed that there were no pro-inflammatory responses involved either in hyperglycemia or in the blood glucose lowering process. On the other hand, an increased amount of interleukin-10 in diabetic mice treated with an S. grandiflora seed decoction indicated a role for IL-10 in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis.

  4. Cloning of interleukin-10 from African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis), with the Finding of IL-19/20 homologue in the IL-10 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhitao; Zhang, Qihuan; Wang, Zisheng; Zhao, Weihong; Gao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in immune system. In the present study, the IL-10 gene of African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) was first cloned, and its expression pattern and 3D structure were also analyzed. The frog IL-10 mRNA encoded 172 amino acids which possessed several conserved features found in IL-10s from other species, including five-exon/four-intron genomic structure, conserved four cysteine residues, IL-10 family motif, and six α-helices. Real-time PCR showed that frog IL-10 mRNA was ubiquitous expressed in all examined tissues, highly in some immune related tissues including kidney, spleen, and intestine and lowly in heart, stomach, and liver. The frog IL-10 mRNA was upregulated at 24 h after LPS stimulation, indicating that it plays a part in the host immune response to bacterial infection. Another IL, termed as IL-20, was identified from the frog IL-10 locus, which might be the homologue of mammalian IL-19/20 according to the analysis results of the phylogenetic tree and the sequence identities.

  5. Molecular Characterization of the Onset and Progression of Colitis in Inoculated Interleukin-10 Gene-Deficient Mice: A Role for PPARα

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    Bianca Knoch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin-10 gene-deficient (Il10-/- mouse is a model of human inflammatory bowel disease and Ppara has been identified as one of the key genes involved in regulation of colitis in the bacterially inoculated Il10-/- model. The aims were to (1 characterize colitis onset and progression using a histopathological, transcriptomic, and proteomic approach and (2 investigate links between PPARα and IL10 using gene network analysis. Bacterial inoculation resulted in severe colitis in Il10-/- mice from 10 to 12 weeks of age. Innate and adaptive immune responses showed differences in gene expression relating to colitis severity. Actin cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity, and apoptosis-linked gene and protein expression data suggested a delayed remodeling process in 12-week-old Il10-/- mice. Gene expression changes in 12-week-old Il10-/- mice were related to PPARα signaling likely to control colitis, but how PPARα activation might regulate intestinal IL10 production remains to be determined.

  6. [Effect of coenzyme Q10 on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 in gingival tissue of experimental periodontitis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui-jiao; Xue, Yi; Chen, Guang; Wu, Zhong-yin

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of coenzyme Q10 on the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in gingival tissue of experimental periodontitis in rats. A total of 48 healthy Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 16 randomly, normal group, coenzyme Q10 treatment group (Q10 group) and periodontitis group.Normal group was fed with normal diet and water. Periodontitis models were established in other two groups.Q10 group received coenzyme Q10 for 12 weeks and periodontitis group was fed with the same dose of normal saline.Four rats in each group were sacrified before administration and 4, 8 and 12 weeks after administration. Gingival tissue samples from mandiblar first permanent molar were taken. The levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of TNF-α in periodontitis group [54.9% (52.9%, 57.3%)] was significantly higher than that in Q10 group [15.1% (12.7%, 17.5%)] at 12 weeks (P Q10 group [38.9% (38.0%, 40.4%)] (P Q10 group at 12th weeks (P Q10 group (P Coenzyme Q10 inhibits the expression of TNF-α and promotes the expression of IL-10 in periodontal tissues of experimental periodontitis rats. Coenzyme Q10 may play a role in treating periodontitis.

  7. Interleukin-10 but not transforming growth factor-β1 gene expression is up-regulated by vitamin D treatment in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsani, Zeinab Shirvani; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2015-03-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and autoimmune disease. Variety of different genetics and environmental factors are involved in MS pathology. The epidemiological studies demonstrated that vitamin D has immune and immunomodulating effects on MS disease. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of vitamin D treatment on the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) genes in MS patients. We found that, the expression level of IL-10 gene in treated patients was up-regulated 3.84 times more than before treatment, but the expression level of TGF-β1 was not affected by vitamin D treatment. Also, a significant relationship was observed between vitamin D level and EDSS in MS patients. Our results indicated that the increased level of serum vitamin D and IL-10 gene expression may be associated with the reduction of EDSS scores in MS patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Interleukin 10–Dominant Immune Response and Increased Risk of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis After Natural Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Flies

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    Carvalho, Augusto M.; Cristal, Juqueline R.; Muniz, Aline C.; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Gomes, Regis; Miranda, José C.; Barral, Aldina; Carvalho, Edgar M.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites transmitted to the vertebrate host by infected sand flies. During transmission, the vertebrate host is also inoculated with sand fly saliva, which exerts powerful immunomodulatory effects on the host's immune response. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis to characterize the human immune response to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva in 264 individuals, from an area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. Results. Antibodies were found in 150 individuals (56.8%); immunoglobulin G1 and G4 were the predominant subclasses. Recall responses to salivary gland sonicate showed elevated production of interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 13, interferon γ, CXCL9, and CCL2 compared with controls. CD4+CD25+ T cells, including Foxp3+ cells, were the main source of IL-10. L. braziliensis replication was increased (P < .05) in macrophages cocultured with saliva-stimulated lymphocytes from exposed individuals and addition of anti–IL-10 reverted this effect. Positive correlation between antibody response to saliva and cellular response to Leishmania was not found. Importantly, individuals seropositive to saliva are 2.1 times more likely to develop CL (relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–4.2; P < .05). Conclusions. Exposure to L. intermedia sand flies skews the human immune response, facilitating L. braziliensis survival in vitro, and increases the risk of developing CL. PMID:25596303

  9. Goat Milk Yoghurt by Using Lacto-B Culture Modulates the Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-10 in Malnourished Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurliyani; Kandarina, Bj Istiti; Kusuma, Sari; Trisnasari, Yunita Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Total spleen lymphocytes, lymphocyte proliferation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in spleen lymphocyte culture were studied in malnourished Wistar rats fed with goat milk yoghurt. Malnourished rats were created by using standard feed restriction as much as 50% of normal rats for 21 d. Goat milk yoghurt containing three types of microorganism e.g., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Sterptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium longum derived from Lacto-B culture in powder form. After 21 d, the rats continued to receive restricted feeding and supplemented with goat milk yoghurt for 7 d. Total splenocytes were counted by hemocytometer. Splenocytes proliferation was expressed as stimulation index, whereas the TNF-α and IL-10 of spleen lymphocyte culture were measured by ELISA technique. The total number of splenocytes and stimulation index of splenocytes in moderate malnourished and normal rats supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was not significantly different. The level of TNF-α in the rat supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was lower (p<0.05) than the control group, whereas the level of IL-10 in the rat supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was higher (p<0.05) than the control group. In conclusion, goat milk yoghurt supplementation in malnourished rats could decrease TNF-α as a representation of the proinflammatory cytokine, while it increases IL-10 as a representation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine.

  10. Changes of regulatory T cells, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10 in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yong-Chao; Shen, Jian; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Liang, Ling; Bo, Chao-Sheng; Sui, Yi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory T lymphocyte cells (Treg) associated with interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) have implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), yet the existing evidence remains unclear. Hereby we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the changes in T1DM patients. A total of 1407 T1DM patients and 1373 healthy controls from 40 case-control studies were eventually included in the pooling analysis. Compared with the controls, T1DM patients had decreased frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg (p=0.0003), CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg (p=0.020), and the level of TGF-β (p=0.030). Decrease in IL-10 (p=0.14) was not significant. All the changes remained significant when the studies with low NOS scores and publication bias were excluded. In conclusion, peripheral Treg and serum TGF-β are reduced in type 1 diabetes mellitus whereas changes in serum IL-10 are not significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational Modeling Predicts Interleukin-10 Control of Lesion Sterilization By Balancing Early Host-Immunity-Mediated Antimicrobial Responses With Caseation During Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilfone, Nicholas A.; Ford, Christopher B.; Marino, Simeone; Mattila, Joshua T.; Gideon, Hannah P.; Flynn, JoAnne L.; Kirschner, Denise E.; Linderman, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Although almost a third of the world’s population is infected with the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), our understanding of the functions of many immune factors involved in fighting infection is limited. Determining the role of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) at the level of the granuloma has proven difficult due to lesional heterogeneity and the limitations of animal models. Here we take an in silico approach and, through a series of virtual experiments, we predict several novel roles for IL-10 in TB granulomas: (1) decreased levels of IL-10 lead to increased numbers of sterile lesions, but at the cost of early increased caseation, (2) small increases in early antimicrobial activity cause this increased lesion sterility, (3) IL-10 produced by activated macrophages is a major mediator of early antimicrobial activity and early host-induced caseation and (4) increasing levels of infected macrophage derived IL-10 promotes bacterial persistence by limiting the early antimicrobial response and preventing lesion sterilization. Our findings, currently only accessible using an in silico approach, suggest that IL-10 at the individual granuloma scale is a critical regulator of lesion outcome. These predictions suggest IL-10 related mechanisms that could be used as adjunctive therapies during TB. PMID:25512604

  12. STAT3 activation is associated with cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-10 (IL-10) in primary central nervous system diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizowaki, Takashi; Sasayama, Takashi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Mizukawa, Katsu; Takata, Kumi; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirotomo; Nagashima, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Masamitsu; Hirose, Takanori; Itoh, Tomoo; Kohmura, Eiji

    2015-09-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) are activated by various cytokines and oncogenes; however, the activity and pathogenesis of STAT3 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the central nervous system have not been thoroughly elucidated. We investigated the phosphorylation levels of STAT3 in 40 specimens of primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS DLBCL) and analyzed the association between phsopho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) expression and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) or IL-6. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed that most of the specimens in PCNS DLBCL expressed pSTST3 protein, and a strong phosphorylation levels of STAT3 was statistically associated with high CSF IL-10 levels, but not with CSF IL-6 levels. Next, we demonstrated that recombinant IL-10 and CSF containing IL-10 induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 in PCNS DLBCL cells. Furthermore, molecular subtype classified by Hans' algorithm was correlated with pSTAT3 expression levels and CSF IL-10 levels. These results suggest that the STAT3 activity is correlated with CSF IL-10 level, which is a useful marker for STAT3 activity in PCNS DLBCLs.

  13. Interleukin-10 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide suppresses IL-10 expression and effects on proinflammatory cytokine responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2010-08-01

    Upregulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression has been suggested to be the mechanism by which the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suppresses the innate and adaptive immune response in infected pigs. In this study we evaluated the potential of phosphorothioate-modified IL-10 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide specific to the translation initiation region of porcine IL-10 mRNA (IL-10AS) in enhancing proinflammatory cytokine responses to PRRSV. Naïve peripheral blood mononuclear cells from eight PRRSV-seronegative pigs were transfected with IL-10AS in vitro prior to PRRSV inoculation and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin or concanavalin A stimulation. The effects of IL-10AS on mRNA expression of IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IFN-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-2, and IL-4 were tested by real-time PCR. The percentages of IFN-gamma-producing T-cell subsets were determined by flow cytometry. Compared to the controls, the levels of IL-10 and IL-2 mRNA were significantly reduced, while those of IFN-gamma mRNA were increased, and TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, and IL-4 mRNA were unchanged. An increase in the percentage of the IFN-gamma+ population was also observed in lymphocytes and CD8beta+ T cells. Our results suggest that IL-10AS has the potential to enhance proinflammatory cytokine responses to PRRSV infection.

  14. The regulation of regulation: interleukin-10 increases CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells but impairs their immunosuppressive activity in murine models with schistosomiasis japonica or asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Zhou, Sha; Qi, Qianqian; Chi, Ying; Zhu, Jifeng; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Xuefeng; Hoellwarth, Jason; Liu, Feng; Chen, Xiaojun; Su, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in maintaining immune homeostasis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), a cytokine with anti-inflammatory capacities, also has a critical role in controlling immune responses. In addition, it is well known that production of IL-10 is one of the suppression mechanisms of Treg cells. However, the action of IL-10 on Treg cells themselves remains insufficiently understood. In this study, by using a Schistosoma japonicum-infected murine model, we show that the elevated IL-10 contributed to Treg cell induction but impaired their immunosuppressive function. Our investigations further suggest that this may relate to the up-regulation of serum transforming growth factor (TGF-β) level but the decrease in membrane-bound TGF-β of Treg cells by IL-10 during S. japonicum infection. In addition, similar IL-10-mediated regulation on Treg cells was also confirmed in the murine model of asthma. In general, our findings identify a previously unrecognized opposing regulation of IL-10 on Treg cells and provide a deep insight into the precise regulation in immune responses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A three base pair gene variation within the distal 5'-flanking region of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene is related to the in vitro IL-10 production capacity of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieth, H.; Mormann, M.; Luty, J.F.; Assohou-Luty, C.A.; Roupelieva, M.; Kremsner, P.G.; Kube, D.

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an important multifunctional immunmodulator. There is evidence that IL-10 secretion is associated with certain genetic elements of the proximal IL-10 gene 5'-flanking region. The allelic and genotypic comparison of IL-10 expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- stimulated

  16. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and viral IL-10 strongly reduce antigen-specific human T cell proliferation by diminishing the antigen-presenting capacity of monocytes via downregulation of class II major histocompatibility complex expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal Malefyt, R.; Haanen, J.; Spits, H.; Roncarolo, M. G.; te Velde, Anje; Figdor, C.; Johnson, K.; Kastelein, R.; Yssel, H.; de Vries, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and viral IL-10 (v-IL-10) strongly reduced antigen-specific proliferation of human T cells and CD4+ T cell clones when monocytes were used as antigen-presenting cells. In contrast, IL-10 and v-IL-10 did not affect the proliferative responses to antigens presented by autologous

  17. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... products to revise the conditions for the importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines...

  18. Changes in Composition of Caecal Microbiota Associated with Increased Colon Inflammation in Interleukin-10 Gene-Deficient Mice Inoculated with Enterococcus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalome A. Bassett

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic intestinal disease where the resident microbiota contributes to disease development, yet the specific mechanisms remain unclear. Interleukin-10 gene-deficient (Il10-/- mice develop inflammation similar to IBD, due in part to an inappropriate response to commensal bacteria. We have previously reported changes in intestinal morphology and colonic gene expression in Il10-/- mice in response to oral bacterial inoculation. In this study, we aimed to identify specific changes in the caecal microbiota associated with colonic inflammation in these mice. The microbiota was evaluated using pyrotag sequencing, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and quantitative real-time PCR. Microbiota profiles were influenced by genotype of the mice and by bacterial inoculation, and a strong correlation was observed between the microbiota and colonic inflammation scores. Although un-inoculated Il10-/- and C57 mice had similar microbiota communities, bacterial inoculation resulted in different changes to the microbiota in Il10-/- and C57 mice. Inoculated Il10-/- mice had significantly less total bacteria than un-inoculated Il10-/- mice, with a strong negative correlation between total bacterial numbers, relative abundance of Escherichia/Shigella, microbiota diversity, and colonic inflammation score. Our results show a putative causative role for the microbiota in the development of IBD, with potentially key roles for Akkermansia, or for Bacteroides, Helicobacter, Parabacteroides, and Alistipes, depending on the composition of the bacterial inoculum. These data support the use of bacterially-inoculated Il10-/- mice as an appropriate model to investigate human IBD.

  19. Effect of scaling and root planing on serum interleukin-10 levels and glycemic control in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Balakrishna Acharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Chronic periodontal disease (CPD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM share common pathogenic pathways involving the cytokine network resulting in increased susceptibility to both diseases, leading to increased inflammatory destruction, insulin resistance, and poor glycemic control. Periodontal treatment may improve glycemic control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of scaling and root planing (SRP of T2DM patients with CPD on hyperglycemia and the levels of serum interleukin-10 (IL-10. Materials and Methods: Forty-five subjects were divided into three groups comprising 15 subjects each as Group 1 (healthy controls, Group 2 (CPD patients, and Group 3 (T2DM patients with CPD. Plaque index, gingival index (GI, probing pocket depths (PPD, clinical attachment loss (AL, bleeding on probing (BoP, random blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C, and serum IL-10 were measured at baseline; SRP was performed on Groups 2 and 3 and the selected parameters recorded again at 6 months. Results: Statistically significant (P < 0.05 differences were observed in the variables at baseline and 6 months after SRP between the three groups using one-way ANOVA. The paired samples t-test for PPD and AL in Group 3 was statistically significant. Group 3 revealed positive correlations between PPD and HbA1C, BoP and IL-10, respectively, at 6 months and a predictable association of HbA1C with PPD and GI, and IL-10 levels with BoP, respectively, at 6 months. Conclusion: Scaling and root planing is effective in reducing blood glucose levels in T2DM patient with pocket depths and effective in elevating systemic IL-10 levels in CPD patients and CPD patients with T2DM.

  20. Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells engineered to secrete Epstein-Barr virus interleukin-10 show enhanced immunosuppressive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Paola; Focosi, Daniele; Di Iesu, Marilena; Cursi, Chiara; Zucca, Alessandra; Curcio, Michele; Lapi, Simone; Boldrini, Linda; Stampacchia, Giulia; Paolicchi, Aldo; Scatena, Fabrizio; Freer, Giulia; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) modulate the immune response and represent a potential treatment for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that this feature could be potentiated by co-administering anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this article, we asked whether engineering of Wharton Jelly-derived human MSCs (WJ-hMSCs) to express an anti-inflammatory cytokine increases cell immunomodulatory properties without altering their native features. We used Epstein-Barr virus-derived interleukin-10 (vIL-10), which shares some immunosuppressive properties with human IL-10 but lacks immunostimulatory activity. Engineering was accomplished by transducing WJ-hMSCs with a self-inactivating feline immunodeficiency virus-derived vector co-expressing vIL-10 and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (TK). TK was added to allow future tracking of WJ-hMSC in vivo by positron electron tomography (PET). The results show that (i) expression of TK and/or vIL-10 does not change WJ-hMSC phenotypic and functional properties; (ii) vIL-10 is secreted, biologically active and enhances the immunosuppressing functions of WJ-hMSCs; (iii) v-IL10 and TK can be produced simultaneously by the same cells and do not interfere with each other. WJ-hMSCs engineered to secrete vIL-10 could be a powerful tool for adoptive cell therapy of immune-mediated diseases, and therefore, additional studies are warranted to confirm their efficacy in suitable animal disease models. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interleukin-10 Production by T and B Cells Is a Key Factor to Promote Systemic Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldyne A. Salazar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is a Gram-negative bacterium that produces disease in numerous hosts. In mice, oral inoculation is followed by intestinal colonization and subsequent systemic dissemination, which leads to severe pathogenesis without the activation of an efficient anti-Salmonella immune response. This feature suggests that the infection caused by S. Typhimurium may promote the production of anti-inflammatory molecules by the host that prevent efficient T cell activation and bacterial clearance. In this study, we describe the contribution of immune cells producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 to the systemic infection caused by S. Typhimurium in mice. We observed that the production of IL-10 was required by S. Typhimurium to cause a systemic disease, since mice lacking IL-10 (IL-10−/− were significantly more resistant to die after an infection as compared to wild-type (WT mice. IL-10−/− mice had reduced bacterial loads in internal organs and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum at 5 days of infection. Importantly, WT mice showed high bacterial loads in tissues and no increase of cytokines in serum after 5 days of S. Typhimurium infection, except for IL-10. In WT mice, we observed a peak of il-10 messenger RNA production in ileum, spleen, and liver after 5 days of infection. Importantly, the adoptive transfer of T or B cells from WT mice restored the susceptibility of IL-10−/− mice to systemic S. Typhimurium infection, suggesting that the generation of regulatory cells in vivo is required to sustain a systemic infection by S. Typhimurium. These findings support the notion that IL-10 production from lymphoid cells is a key process in the infective cycle of S. Typhimurium in mice due to generation of a tolerogenic immune response that prevents bacterial clearance and supports systemic dissemination.

  2. Differential interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-23 production by human blood monocytes and dendritic cells in response to commensal enteric bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuzak, Jennifer; Dillon, Stephanie; Wilson, Cara

    2012-08-01

    Human peripheral blood contains antigen-presenting cells (APC), including dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes, that may encounter microbes that have translocated from the intestine to the periphery in disease states like HIV-1 infection and inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated the response of DC and monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to a panel of representative commensal enteric bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., and Bacteroides fragilis. All three bacteria induced significant upregulation of the maturation and activation markers CD40 and CD83 on myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). However, only mDC produced cytokines, including interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12p40/70, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in response to bacterial stimulation. Cytokine profiles in whole PBMC differed depending on the stimulating bacterial species: B. fragilis induced production of IL-23, IL-12p70, and IL-10, whereas E. coli and Enterococcus induced an IL-10-predominant response. mDC and monocyte depletion experiments indicated that these cell types differentially produced IL-10 and IL-23 in response to E. coli and B. fragilis. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron did not induce levels of IL-23 similar to those of B. fragilis, suggesting that B. fragilis may have unique proinflammatory properties among Bacteroides species. The addition of recombinant human IL-10 to PBMC cultures stimulated with commensal bacteria abrogated the IL-23 response, whereas blocking IL-10 significantly enhanced IL-23 production, suggesting that IL-10 controls the levels of IL-23 produced. These results indicate that blood mDC and monocytes respond differentially to innate stimulation with whole commensal bacteria and that IL-10 may play a role in controlling the proinflammatory response to translocated microbes.

  3. Interleukin-10 repletion suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreases liver pathology without altering viral replication in murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-infected IL-10 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang-Feldman, Yajarayma J; Lochhead, G Raymond; Lochhead, Stephanie R; Yu, Cindy; Pomeroy, Claire

    2011-03-01

    To determine the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in protecting against the deleterious pro-inflammatory cytokine response to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), we studied the impact of IL-10 repletion in MCMV-infected IL-10 knockout (KO) mice. IL-10 KO mice were infected with a sub-lethal dose of MCMV and treated daily with 5 μg of mouse recombinant IL-10 (mrIL-10). Cytokine transcription, viral load, cytokine expression and liver histopathology were assessed in IL-10 treated and untreated mice. mrIL-10 repletion suppressed the exaggerated pro-inflammatory cytokine response observed in IL-10 KO mice (vs. control) both systemically and at the organ level, without affecting viral load. Levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA in livers of treated mice were ~50-70-fold lower than in untreated mice at day 5 post-infection (p ≤ 0.05). In spleens and sera, levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 were significantly lower in treated mice than in untreated mice at day 5-7 post-infection (p ≤ 0.05). IL-10 blunting of cytokine responses was accompanied by attenuation of inflammation in livers of treated mice. Repletion of IL-10 modulates the exaggerated pro-inflammatory cytokine responses that characterize IL-10 KO mice and protects against liver damage without altering viral load. IL-10 may be useful to control dysregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines responses during CMV infection.

  4. Virulence-dependent induction of interleukin-10-producing-tolerogenic dendritic cells by Mycobacterium tuberculosis impedes optimal T helper type 1 proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongmin; Kwon, Kee Woong; Kim, Woo Sik; Shin, Sung Jae

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits optimal T helper type 1 (Th1) responses during infection. However, the precise mechanisms by which virulent M. tuberculosis limits Th1 responses remain unclear. Here, we infected dendritic cells (DCs) with the virulent M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv or the attenuated strain H37Ra to investigate the phenotypic and functional alterations in DCs and resultant T-cell responses. H37Rv-infected DCs suppressed Th1 responses more strongly than H37Ra-infected DCs. Interestingly, H37Rv, but not H37Ra, impaired DC surface molecule expression (CD80, CD86 and MHC class II) due to prominent interleukin-10 (IL-10) production while augmenting the expression of tolerogenic molecules including PD-L1, CD103, Tim-3 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase on DCs in a multiplicity-of-infection (MOI) -dependent manner. These results indicate that virulent M. tuberculosis drives immature DCs toward a tolerogenic phenotype. Notably, the tolerogenic phenotype of H37Rv-infected DCs was blocked in DCs generated from IL-10 -/- mice or DCs treated with an IL-10-neutralizing monoclonal antibody, leading to restoration of Th1 polarization. These findings suggest that IL-10 induces a tolerogenic DC phenotype. Interestingly, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation predominantly mediates IL-10 production; hence, H37Rv tends to induce a tolerogenic DC phenotype through expression of tolerogenic molecules in the p38 MAPK-IL-10 axis. Therefore, suppressing the tolerogenic cascade in DCs is a novel strategy for stimulating optimal protective T-cell responses against M. tuberculosis infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. MicroRNA-9 plays a role in interleukin-10-mediated expression of E-cadherin in acute myelogenous leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Chie; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Pan, Bin; Xu, Kailin; Yokoyama, Akihito

    2017-04-01

    We previously showed that the CD82/signal transducer and activator of transcription/interleukin-10 (IL-10) axis is activated in CD34 + /CD38 - AML cells that favor the bone marrow microenvironment. The present study explored the novel biological function of IL-10 in regulation of expression of adhesion molecules in AML cells and found that exposing AML cells to IL-10 induced expression of E-cadherin, but not other adhesion molecules, including VLA4, CD29, and LFA1. Downregulation of E-cadherin with an siRNA suppressed the adhesion of leukemia cells to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and enhanced the anti-leukemia effect of cytarabine. A microRNA (miRNA) database search identified an miR-9 as a candidate miRNA binding onto the 3'-UTR of E-cadherin and regulating its expression. Notably, treatment of leukemia cells with IL-10 decreased miR-9 expression through hypermethylation of the miR-9 CpG islands. In addition, downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 3A by siRNAs decreased E-cadherin expression in parallel with an increase in levels of miR-9 in leukemia cells. Notably, short hairpin RNA-mediated IL-10 downregulation impaired engraftment of human AML cells and enhanced the anti-leukemia effect of cytarabine in conjunction with miR-9 upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation in a human AML xenograft model. Taken together, the IL-10/E-cadherin axis may be a promising therapeutic target for treating AML. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Dysfunction of CD24+CD38+ B cells in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with a lack of interleukin 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Qi, Yanhua; Wang, Hua; Jiang, Jue; Sun, Lei; Zhou, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is characterized by immune attacks on the person's own thyroid. Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a subtype of AITD and is a common cause of hypothyroidism and related symptoms. Regulatory B (Breg) cells can express interleukin 10 (IL-10) and have recently emerged as a critical participant in suppression pathogenic inflammation and promoting peripheral tolerance. The role of Breg cells in HT is not yet clear. In this study, we first examined the IL-10 production by B cells in healthy controls and HT patients, and found that the healthy control B cells demonstrated significantly higher IL-10 expression than HT B cells after CpG stimulation. In both groups, the IL-10-producing B cells were highly enriched in the CD24 + CD38 + compartment. However, compared to healthy controls, HT patients presented higher levels of circulating CD24 + CD38 + B cells, but lower percentage of IL-10 + cells in the CD24 + CD38 + B cell compartment. In healthy controls, we performed coculture experiments of T cells with autologous total B cells, CD24 + CD38 + B cells, and non-CD24 + CD38 + B cells, and found significantly lower T cell proliferation as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in cell cultures containing CD24 + CD38 + B cells. In contrast, the HT CD24 + CD38 + B cells demonstrated reduced capacity in suppressing T cell proliferation and did not suppress TNF and IFN-γ production. This lack of inhibitory activity in HT CD24 + CD38 + B cells was related to a lack of IL-10, since addition of exogenous IL-10 in CD24 + CD38 + B cell-T cell coculture significantly suppressed the proliferation of T cells and reduced proinflammatory cytokine secretion. Together, our study identified an upregulation of CD24 + CD38 + B cells but a downregulation in their regulatory activity in HT patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-Scale Modeling Predicts a Balance of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-10 Controls the Granuloma Environment during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilfone, Nicholas A.; Perry, Cory R.; Kirschner, Denise E.; Linderman, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are key anti- and pro-inflammatory mediators elicited during the host immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Understanding the opposing effects of these mediators is difficult due to the complexity of processes acting across different spatial (molecular, cellular, and tissue) and temporal (seconds to years) scales. We take an in silico approach and use multi-scale agent based modeling of the immune response to Mtb, including molecular scale details for both TNF-α and IL-10. Our model predicts that IL-10 is necessary to modulate macrophage activation levels and to prevent host-induced tissue damage in a granuloma, an aggregate of cells that forms in response to Mtb. We show that TNF-α and IL-10 parameters related to synthesis, signaling, and spatial distribution processes control concentrations of TNF-α and IL-10 in a granuloma and determine infection outcome in the long-term. We devise an overall measure of granuloma function based on three metrics – total bacterial load, macrophage activation levels, and apoptosis of resting macrophages – and use this metric to demonstrate a balance of TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations is essential to Mtb infection control, within a single granuloma, with minimal host-induced tissue damage. Our findings suggest that a balance of TNF-α and IL-10 defines a granuloma environment that may be beneficial for both host and pathogen, but perturbing the balance could be used as a novel therapeutic strategy to modulate infection outcomes. PMID:23869227

  8. Vaccinated C57BL/6 Mice Develop Protective and Memory T Cell Responses to Coccidioides posadasii Infection in the Absence of Interleukin-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Lopez, Natalia; Cole, Garry T.

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of lung tissue-associated interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine, correlate with susceptibility of mice to Coccidioides spp. infection. In this study, we found that macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells recruited to Coccidioides posadasii-infected lungs of nonvaccinated and vaccinated mice contributed to the production of IL-10. The major IL-10-producing leukocytes were CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in lungs of nonvaccinated mice, while both Foxp3+ and Foxp3− subsets of IL-10+ CD4+ T cells were significantly elevated in vaccinated mice. Profiles of the recruited leukocytes in lungs revealed that only CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in IL-10−/− knockout mice compared to their wild-type counterparts. Furthermore, ex vivo recall assays showed that CD4+ T cells isolated from vaccinated IL-10−/− mice compared to vaccinated wild-type mice produced significantly higher amounts of IL-2, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-6, and IL-17A in the presence of a coccidioidal antigen, indicating that IL-10 suppresses Th1, Th2, and Th17 immunity to Coccidioides infection. Analysis of absolute numbers of CD44+ CD62L− CD4+ T effector memory T cells (TEM) and IFN-γ- and IL-17A-producing CD4+ T cells in the lungs of Coccidioides-infected mice correlated with better fungal clearance in nonvaccinated IL-10−/− mice than in nonvaccinated wild-type mice. Our results suggest that IL-10 suppresses CD4+ T-cell immunity in nonvaccinated mice during Coccidioides infection but does not impede the development of a memory response nor exacerbate immunopathology of vaccinated mice over at least a 4-month period after the last immunization. PMID:24478103

  9. Expressions of toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and relative cellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IFN-γ (IFN- gamma), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with tuberculosis (TB) infection. Methods: Two groups of ...

  10. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in bovine transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) and solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (SLC40A1) genes and their association with beef iron content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Q; Tait, R G; Mayes, M S; Garrick, D J; Liu, Q; Van Eenennaam, A L; Mateescu, R G; Van Overbeke, D L; Garmyn, A J; Beitz, D C; Reecy, J M

    2012-04-01

    Beef is considered to be an excellent source of dietary iron. However, little is known about the genetic control of beef iron content. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) and solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (SLC40A1) could influence skeletal muscle iron content. The objective of this study was to use Angus cattle to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons and flanking regions of the bovine TFR2 and SLC40A1 genes and to evaluate the extent to which genetic variation in them was associated with bovine longissimus dorsi muscle iron content. Ten novel SNPs were identified in TFR2, of which one SNP tended to be associated (P  0.99), from which two haplotypes, TGC and CAT, were defined. Beef from individuals that were homozygous for the TGC haplotype had significantly (P < 0.001) higher iron content than did beef from CAT homozygous or heterozygous individuals. The estimated size of effect of the identified haplotypes was 0.3% of the phenotypic variance. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for genetic control of beef iron concentration. Moreover, SNPs identified in SLC40A1, rs134388440, rs136347850 and rs137555693 might be useful markers for the selection of Angus cattle for altered iron content. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Hydrodynamics-based transfection of rat interleukin-10 gene attenuates porcine serum-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue-Hong; Chen, Yun-Xin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is the common pathological outcome for the majority of chronic liver diseases. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that downregulates proinflammatory responses and has a modulatory effect on liver fibrogenesis. However, little is known regarding the effect of rat interleukin‑10 (rIL‑10) gene by hydrodynamics-based transfection (HBT) on liver fibrosis in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the rIL-10 gene by HBT on the progression of liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum (PS) in rats and explore its possible mechanism. Plasmid‑expressing rIL-10 was transferred into rats by HBT and immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the major organ expressing rIL-10. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of PS for 8 weeks. Plasmid pcDNA3-rIL-10 solution was administered weekly by HBT starting at the 5th week. Liver function and hepatic histology were examined. The possible molecular mechanisms of rIL-10 gene therapy were assessed in liver tissue and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) co-cultured with BRL cells (a hepatocyte line) in vitro. The results showed rIL-10 expression occurred mainly in the liver following rIL-10 gene transfer by HBT. Maintaining a stable expression of rIL-10 in serum was assessed by repeated administration. The rIL-10 gene treatment attenuated liver inflammation and fibrosis in PS-induced fibrotic rats, reduced the deposition of collagen and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in fibrotic rats. The in vitro experiment showed that the expression of a-SMA and procollagen type I in HSCs co-cultured with the BRL‑transfected rIL-10 gene were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that rIL-10 gene therapy by HBT attenuates PS-induced liver fibrosis in rats and that its mechanism is associated with rIL-10 inhibiting the activation of HSCs and promoting the degeneration of collagen.

  13. The impact of interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene 4 polymorphisms on peripheral blood IL-10 variation and prostate cancer risk based on published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Tingting; Yu, Cuicui; Wang, Dan; Liu, Fang; Li, Jingjing; Qi, Xiaoying; Yang, Chunhua; Jiang, Wenguo; Wei, Xiaodan; Li, Xuri; Wang, Bin; Mi, Jia; Tian, Geng

    2017-07-11

    This study purported to investigate the impact of interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene 4 polymorphisms (-1082G>A, -819T>C, -592A>C and 210T>C) on peripheral blood IL-10 variation and prostate cancer (PCa) risk, with a special consideration given to various origins of between-study heterogeneity. 2 researchers independently fulfilled literature retrieval, quality assessment and information collection. Sub-grouped analyses per ethnicity, continent, design type, control source, genotyping procedure, genotype validation, age-matched status, study sample size, quality score and controls' mean age were conducted, respectively. Total 17 unduplicated studies (patients/controls: 7561/8101) were assessable for PCa risk, and 4 unduplicated studies (1189 subjects) for peripheral blood IL-10 variation. Pooling all assessable studies identified a marginally significant association between the -1082A allele and increased PCa risk (odds ratio (OR)=1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 to 1.21) (Heterogeneity I2=64.3%), and no significance was detected in sub-grouped analyses of this polymorphism. Contrastingly, the -592C allele was significantly associated with reduced PCa risk in both prospective (OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.77 to 0.95) and population-based (OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.00) studies (Heterogeneity I2=0.0% and 18.1%). Moreover, carriers of combined -592CA/CC genotypes had a significant higher level of peripheral blood IL-10 than the -592AA genotype carriers (weighted mean difference=0.45 and 0.54 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.67 and 0.30 to 0.39). The above comparisons possessed a low probability of publication bias. In sum, our findings suggested that IL-10 gene -592A>C polymorphism may represent a promising candidate locus for the occurrence of PCa, and further signified a contributing role of this polymorphism in prostate carcinogenesis.

  14. Interaction between interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms and dietary fibre in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2012-05-17

    More than 50% of the colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology has been attributed to diet. Established or suspected dietary factors modifying risk of CRC are red meat, cereals, fish, and fibre. Diet and lifestyle may be linked to cancer through inflammation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We wanted to test if dietary factors and IL10 polymorphisms interact in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis. The functional IL10 polymorphism C-592A (rs1800872) and the marker rs3024505 were assessed in relation to diet and lifestyle in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 775 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. Genotyping data on the IL10 polymorphism C-592A, smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) was retrieved from Vogel et al. (Mutat Res, 2007; 624:88). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. No associations were found between the IL10 rs3024505 polymorphism and risk of CRC. There was interaction between rs3024505 and dietary fibre (P-value for interaction = 0.01). IL10 rs3024505 homozygous wildtype carriers were at 27% reduced risk of CRC per 10 g fibre per day (95% CI: 0.60-0.88) whereas variant carriers had no risk reduction by fibre intake. Also, interaction between IL10 C-592A and intake of fibre was found (P-value for interaction = 0.02). Among those eating <17.0 grams of fibre per day, carriers of an C-592A variant allele had a statistically significantly higher risk of colorectal cancer compared to homozygous wildtypes. No significant differences in colorectal cancer risk were observed between the reference group (CC and <17.0 g/day) and carriers of one C-592A variant allele eating 17.0 or more grams of dietary fibre per day. This suggests that the increased risk due to carrying the variant allele can be overcome by higher fibre intake. No interactions between IL10 polymorphisms and dietary meat, cereal, or fish intake, or

  15. Evidence for Prohypertensive, Proinflammatory Effect of Interleukin-10 During Chronic High Salt Intake in the Condition of Elevated Angiotensin II Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Purnima; Castillo, Alexander; Islam, M Toriqul; Majid, Dewan S A

    2017-10-01

    IL-10 (interleukin-10) has been suggested to play a protective role in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiovascular disorders. This study examined the role of endogenous IL-10 in salt-sensitive hypertension and renal injury induced by AngII. Responses to chronic AngII (400 ng/min per kilogram body weight; osmotic minipump) infusion were evaluated in IL-10 gene knockout mice fed with either normal salt diet (0.3% NaCl) or high salt (HS; 4% NaCl) diet, and these responses were compared with those in wild-type mice. Normal salt diets or HS diets were given alone for the first 2 weeks and then with AngII treatment for an additional 2 weeks (n=6 in each group). Arterial pressure was continuously monitored by implanted radio-telemetry, and a 24-hour urine collection was performed by metabolic cages on the last day of the experimental period. Basal mean arterial pressure was lower in IL-10 gene knockout mice than in wild-type (98±3 versus 113±3 mm Hg) mice. Mean arterial pressure responses to normal salt/HS alone or to the AngII+normal salt treatment were similar in both strains. However, the increase in mean arterial pressure induced by the AngII+HS treatment was significantly lower in IL-10 gene knockout mice (15±5% versus 37±3%) compared with wild-type mice. Renal tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (≈3-folds) and urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites, nitrate/nitrite (1.2±0.1 versus 0.2±0.02 µmol/L/24 hours) were higher in IL-10 gene knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that an increase in nitric oxide production helps to mitigate salt-sensitive hypertension induced by AngII and suggest that a compensatory interaction between IL-10 and nitric oxide exists in modulating AngII-induced responses during HS intake. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Interaction between interleukin-10 (IL-10 polymorphisms and dietary fibre in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Vibeke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 50% of the colorectal cancer (CRC etiology has been attributed to diet. Established or suspected dietary factors modifying risk of CRC are red meat, cereals, fish, and fibre. Diet and lifestyle may be linked to cancer through inflammation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We wanted to test if dietary factors and IL10 polymorphisms interact in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods The functional IL10 polymorphism C-592A (rs1800872 and the marker rs3024505 were assessed in relation to diet and lifestyle in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 775 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. Genotyping data on the IL10 polymorphism C-592A, smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID was retrieved from Vogel et al. (Mutat Res, 2007; 624:88. Incidence rate ratios (IRR and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI were calculated. Results No associations were found between the IL10 rs3024505 polymorphism and risk of CRC. There was interaction between rs3024505 and dietary fibre (P-value for interaction = 0.01. IL10 rs3024505 homozygous wildtype carriers were at 27% reduced risk of CRC per 10 g fibre per day (95% CI: 0.60-0.88 whereas variant carriers had no risk reduction by fibre intake. Also, interaction between IL10 C-592A and intake of fibre was found (P-value for interaction = 0.02. Among those eating IL10 polymorphisms and dietary meat, cereal, or fish intake, or between IL10 rs3024505 and smoking or NSAID use were found. Conclusions In this northern Caucasian cohort we found interaction between IL10 and dietary fibre in CRC carcinogenesis. High intake of fibre seems to protect against CRC among individuals with IL10 related genetic susceptibility to CRC. This finding should be evaluated in other prospective and population-based cohorts with different ethnic groups.

  17. Neutralization of Interleukin-10 Significantly Enhances Gamma Interferon Expression in Peripheral Blood by Stimulation with Johnin Purified Protein Derivative and by Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Experimentally Infected Cattle with Paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Joram J.; Hikono, Hirokazu; Mori, Yasuyuki; Nagata, Reiko; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Shu, Yujing; Tsuji, Noriko M.; Momotani, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody neutralization of interleukin-10 (IL-10) increased Johnin purified protein derivative-induced whole-blood gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion 23-fold and also increased IFN-γ secretion ninefold following in vitro Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results demonstrate the suppressive effect of IL-10 on immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle. PMID:15039374

  18. Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in bovine placentomes from implantation until term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfarrer, C.D.; Ruziwa, S.D.; Winther, H.

    2006-01-01

    ). To determine the role of VEGF in bovine implantation and placentation, placentomes and interplacentomal areas from 33 cows from early implantation until near term were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. VEGF immunoreactivity was detected in fetal and maternal blood vessel tissues during implantation until near...... term were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. VEGF immunoreactivity was detected in fetal and maternal blood vessel tissues during implantation and throughout gestation, and in preimplantatory trophoblast cells and uterine epithelium. After implantation the immunoreaction was confined to TGC and uterine......, facilitating feto-maternal exchange via paracrine action, (3) chemotactic activity on capillary endothelium, and (4) an autocrine influence on TGC migratory activity....

  19. [The interrelation between the secretory function of the bovine udder and the amount of prolactin receptors on the membranes of the milk fat globules during lactogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, M M; Tumanova, E B; Popova, A A

    1995-07-01

    The prolactin receptors number reaches its maximal level in proestrus. The data obtained suggest a correlation between high-affinity prolactin receptors concentration on the milk fat globule membranes during proestrus and the cow milk yield. The membranes may provide a model for assessing the functional state and secretory activity of the cow mammary gland.

  20. Effects of bamboo vinegar powder on growth performance and mRNA expression levels of interleukin-10, interleukin-22, and interleukin-25 in immune organs of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjiu Huo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effects of bamboo vinegar powder on growth performance, diarrhea situation and mRNA expression levels of cytokines i.e., interleukin-10 (IL-10, interleukin-22 (IL-22, and interleukin-25 (IL-25 in immune organs of weaned piglets, and to accumulate theoretical data for the application of bamboo vinegar powder in weaned piglet production. Forty-five crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, all male weaned piglets with similar body weight (6.74 ± 0.17 kg at 31 days of age were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment and 3 piglets in each replicate. The five treatments were as follows: CON (a basal diet, ANT (the basal diet + 0.12% antibiotics, BV1 (the basal diet + 0.1% bamboo vinegar powder, BV5 (the basal diet + 0.5% bamboo vinegar powder, BV10 (the basal diet + 1.0% bamboo vinegar powder. This experiment lasted 35 days. The growth performance and diarrhea situation were recorded. The relative mRNA expression levels of IL-10, IL-22 and IL-25 in liver, spleen, duodenum and mesenteric lymph nodes were detected by real-time PCR. Feed: gain of BV5 was significantly lower than that of CON (P < 0.05. In comparison with CON, diarrhea rate and diarrhea index of BV1 and BV5 all tended to decrease (P < 0.1. Compared with CON, mRNA expression level of IL-10 in liver of ANT tended to be lower (P < 0.1 and these of BV1, BV5 and BV10 were significantly reduced (P < 0.05. The mRNA expression levels of IL-10 in duodenum of ANT, BV1, BV5 and BV10 were all lower than those of CON, of which BV10 had significantly decreased IL-10 mRNA expression in duodenum (P < 0.05. The mRNA expression levels of IL-22 in duodenum of ANT, BV1, BV5 and BV10 all tended to be inhibited compared with CON (P < 0.1. With the increase of bamboo vinegar powder dosage, mRNA expression levels of IL-25 in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of BV1, BV5 and BV10 tended to be up-regulated. Overall

  1. Expression levels of mRNA for insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, IGF receptors and IGF binding proteins in in vivo and in vitro grown bovine follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Emanuela L; Costa, José J N; Passos, Maria J; Silva, Anderson W B; Rossi, Rodrigo O D S; van den Hurk, Robert; Silva, José R V

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated mRNA levels for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) IGF1 (IGF-I) and IGF2 (IGF-II), IGF receptors (IGF1R and IGF2R), and binding proteins (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2. IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5 and IGFBP-6) in bovine follicles of 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0 mm in diameter. mRNA expression levels in in vitro cultured follicles that reached approximately 0.5 mm were compared with that of in vivo grown follicles. IGF1R and IGF2R expression levels in 0.5 mm in vivo follicles were higher than in 1.0 or 0.2 mm follicles, respectively. IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2. IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5 and IGFBP-6 showed variable expression in the follicular size classes analyzed. In vitro grown follicles had significantly reduced expression levels for IGF1, IGF1R, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-5 and IGFBP-6 mRNA when compared with 0.2 mm follicles, but, when compared with in vivo grown follicles (0.5 mm), only IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-6 showed a reduction in their expression. In conclusion, IGFs, their receptors and IGFBPs showed variable expression of mRNA levels in the follicular size classes analyzed.

  2. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is caused by a number of Mycobacterium species, of which Mycobacterium bovis, causing 'bovine tuberculosis' is ... KEY WORDS: Mycobacterium bovis, Zoonosis, Holeta, Ethiopia causing 'bovine tuberculosis ..... isolation of infected animals in which communal grazing and watering practiced.

  3. Osteopontin is highly susceptible to cleavage in bovine milk and the proteolytic fragments bind the αVβ3-integrin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Brian Søndergaard; Sørensen, Esben Skipper

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific and partial proteolysis of milk proteins can both alter and increase their biological activity. The milk protein osteopontin (OPN) is a highly phosphorylated integrin-binding molecule present in most tissues and body fluids. Osteopontin is a biological substrate for matrix...... a substantial effect on the functionality of OPN. Bovine milk OPN (bOPN) exists in both intact full-length and cleaved forms, and in this study, 6 N-terminal bOPN fragments originating from proteolytic cleavage were purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. These fragments were generated by cleavage...... at the Lys145-Ser146, Arg147-Ser148, Lys149-Lys150, Phe151-Arg152, Arg152-Arg153, and Arg153-Ser154 peptide bonds. The principal protease in milk, plasmin, appeared to cleave 3 of these sites. However, the major cleavage site was observed to be at the Phe151-Arg152 bond, which does not match the specificity...

  4. Intrahepatic synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-alpha related to cardiac surgery is inhibited by interleukin-10 via the Janus kinase (Jak)/signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Ma; Nimmesgern, Ariane; Heinrich, Peter C; Schumacher, Kathrin; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F; Hess, John; von Bernuth, Götz; Seghaye, Marie-Christine

    2003-12-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory shift of the cytokine balance due to hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN Experimental animal study. SETTING Department of experimental surgery of a university hospital. SUBJECTS Young pigs. INTERVENTIONS Animals underwent normothermic (37 degrees C) or hypothermic (28 degrees C) cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 6 each). Samples of liver tissue were taken before and 6 hrs after cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Intrahepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and/or Western blotting. Concentrations of the inhibitory protein of nuclear factor-kappaB, IkappaB, and of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 were measured by Western blotting. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB and STAT-3 was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. Liver cell necrosis and apoptosis were assessed by histology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, respectively. Pigs operated on in hypothermia showed significantly higher intrahepatic concentrations of interleukin-10 and lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha than the others. They also showed a lower percentage of hepatic cell necrosis but not of apoptosis. This anti-inflammatory reaction observed in the hypothermic group was associated with a higher expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and with increased activation of STAT-3. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, however, were not significantly different between both groups. CONCLUSION Our results show that hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass up-regulates interleukin-10 via STAT-3 activation, which in turn leads to the attenuation of tumor

  5. Association Between the Interleukin-10-1082G/A, -592C/A, -819C/T Gene Polymorphism and HIV-1 Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Caixiao; Liu, Shujun; Liu, Shuxia; Li, Zhanzhan; Chen, Peng; Chen, Lizhang

    2017-01-01

    The Interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene polymorphism influences the pathogenesis and evolution of HIV-1 disease. Many studies in this regard have evaluated the association between this polymorphism and HIV-1 susceptibility, yet, the exact relationship between them remains ambiguous and contradictory. A systematic literature search was conducted and the found case-control studies assessing the association between IL-10-1082G/A, -592C/A, -819C/T gene polymorphism and HIV-1 susceptibility were analyzed. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by a fixed effect model. In general, no significant relationship was found between IL-10-1082G/A gene polymorphism and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection (A vs. G genotype model: OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.81-1.23, p = .775; GG vs. AA+AG model: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.76-1.27, p = .867; GG+AG vs. AA model: OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.70-1.35, p = .852; GG vs. AA model: OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.67-1.15, p = .348; AG vs. AA model: OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.67-1.37, p = .811; GG+AA vs. AG model: OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.74-1.43, p = .886). IL-10-529C/A gene polymorphism might lead to a decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (A vs. G genotype model: OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.73-1.06, p = .166; GG vs. AA+AG model: OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.80-1.11, p = .447; GG+AG vs. AA model: OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61-0.92, p = .005; GG vs. AA model: OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57-0.93, p = .012; AG vs. AA model: OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.60-0.92, p = .0.007; GG+AA vs. AG model: OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.72-1.71, p = .641). IL-10-819C/T gene polymorphism might lead to an increased risk of HIV-1 infection (A vs. G genotype model: OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04-1.50, p = .019; GG vs. AA+AG model: OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.81-2.01, p = .278; GG+AG vs. AA model: OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.05-1.93, p = .023; GG vs

  6. Enhancement of Bovine oocyte maturation by leptin is accompanied by an upregulation in mRNA expression of leptin receptor isoforms in cumulus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Helena T A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871817; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072455993; Colenbrander, Ben; Roelen, Bernard A J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/109291859

    In this study, the mechanisms of supposed leptin action on oocyte maturation were examined. Expression of leptin mRNA, as determined with RT-PCR, was present in oocytes but not in cumulus cells. The long isoform of the leptin receptor (ObR-L) was expressed exclusively in cumulus cells after 7 and 23

  7. Active G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2/9), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are necessary for trenbolone acetate-induced alterations in protein turnover rate of fused bovine satellite cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, K J; Kamanga-Sollo, E; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2016-06-01

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, increases protein synthesis and decreases protein degradation in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures. However, the mechanism through which TBA alters these processes remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that androgens improve rate and extent of muscle growth through a nongenomic mechanism involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). We hypothesized that TBA activates GPCR, resulting in activation of MMP2/9 that releases hbEGF, which activates the EGFR and/or erbB2. To determine whether the proposed nongenomic pathway is involved in TBA-mediated alterations in protein turnover, fused BSC cultures were treated with TBA in the presence or absence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R, and resultant protein synthesis and degradation rates were analyzed. Assays were replicated at least 9 times for each inhibitor experiment utilizing BSC cultures obtained from at least 3 different steers that had no previous exposure to steroid compounds. As expected, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n TBA exhibited increased ( GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R suppressed ( GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R in the presence of 10 n TBA each had no ( > 0.05) effect on TBA-mediated decreases in protein degradation. However, inhibition of both EGFR and erbB2 in the presence of 10 n TBA resulted in decreased ( GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, and IGF-1R. However, the mechanism through which TBA mediates changes in protein degradation is different and appears to involve only the EGFR and erbB2. Furthermore, it appears the protein kinase B pathway is involved in TBA's effects on fused BSC cultures.

  8. Neonatal levels of adiponectin, interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 are associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes in childhood and adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Steffen U.; Pipper, Christian B.; Eising, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    alpha, transforming growth factor beta 1 (active form), leptin, adiponectin, c-reactive protein, mannose-binding lectin and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 were measured by using a flowmetric Luminex xMAP® technology. We tested two models both including a number of possible......BACKGROUND/AIM: An in-depth understanding of the early phase of type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis is important for targeting primary prevention. We examined if 14 preselected mediators of immune responses differed in neonates that later developed T1D compared to control neonates. METHODS...

  9. Synergistic interaction of catecholamine hormones and Mycobacterium avium results in the induction of interleukin-10 mRNA expression by murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Boomershine, C; Wang, T; Lafuse, W P; Zwilling, B S

    1999-01-01

    The results of this investigation provides evidence that catecholamine hormones interact with macrophages that are infected with Mycobacterium avium resulting in the induction of IL-10 mRNA and protein. The effect of catecholamine hormones was prevented by treating the cells with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol but not by alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. The effect of catecholamine stimulation was mimicked by the addition of beta-2 adrenergic agonists and by the addition of cAMP to the infected macrophage cultures. These observations suggest that sympathetic nervous system activation together with microbial infection results in a synergistic interaction that could result in the control of inflammatory processes.

  10. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  11. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing on...

  12. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule document...

  13. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  14. Effect of a four-week course of interleukin-10 on cytokine production in a placebo-controlled study of HIV-1-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Gregory B; Sailer, Carrie A; Porat, Reuven; Peskind, Robert L; Fuchs, Amy C; Angel, Jonathan B; Skolnik, Paul R; Jacobson, Mark A; Giordano, Michael F; Lebeaut, Alexandre; Grint, Paul C; Dinarello, Charles A; Shapiro, Leland

    2007-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 suppresses synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, IL-1beta, and interferon (IFN)gamma. Since pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the production of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), cytokine synthesis in whole blood cultures were determined during a 4-week course of subcutaneous IL-10 injections in 33 HIV-1-infected patients. Patients were randomized into four groups: placebo (nine), IL-10 at 1 microg/kg/day (nine), IL-10 at 4 microg/kg/day (six) and IL-10 at 8 microg/kg three times per week (nine). Whole blood was obtained at the beginning and conclusion of the study and was stimulated for 24 hours with the combination of IL-18 plus lipopolysaccharide. TNFalpha production in stimulated whole blood was reduced three and six hours after the first injection of IL-10 compared to subjects injected with the placebo. After four weeks of treatment, production of IFNgamma was suppressed in a greater number of patients in the IL-10 treatment groups compared to subjects in the placebo group. Similarly, IL-1beta production was lower in the IL-10 treatment groups compared to subjects receiving placebo. In contrast, after four weeks of IL-10, circulating levels of the anti-inflammatory TNF soluble receptor p55 increased dose-dependently compared to placebo subjects. Patient heterogeneity and small sample size presented difficulties in establishing statistical significance. Although the cytokine changes in our study did not demonstrate statistically significant changes, the data nevertheless reveal that four weeks of IL-10 therapy in HIV-1 infected subjects produced the anticipated suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  15. The study on secretion of cytokine interleukin-4, interleukin-10 and interferon-γ in peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yan QIAO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS is a mainly cell-mediated autoimmune demyelinating disease in central nervous system (CNS, characterized by inflammatory demyelinating and infiltration of mononuclear cells around microvessels in CNS. It has been shown that MS is caused by the imbalance between T helper cell 1 (Th1 and Th2 or between inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, the profile of cytokine according to the published data is contradictory. This study is to evaluate the status of cytokines from mononuclear T cells in MS patients and try to provide clues for clinical diagnosis and treatment.  Methods Enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT was used to test the spontaneous and antigen-specific [concanavalin A (ConA, myelin basic protein (MBP and acetyleholine receptor (AChR] Th1-related cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ and Th2-related cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-10 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells in MS patients, who had not received any immunological treatment over the last 3 months.  Results Compared with normal controls and patients with non-immune neurological diseases, MBP specific IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ of MS patients increased significantly (P = 0.000, for all. In addition, MBP specific IFN-γ level of MS patients increased signicantly in acute or exacerbating phase when compared with that in stable phase (P = 0.002, while MBP specific IL-4 and IL-10 levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, for all.  Conclusions The examinations of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ cytokines using ELISPOT are helpful for the differential diagnosis and the disease course of MS. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.008

  16. Increased miR-223 expression in T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis leads to decreased insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated interleukin-10 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M-C; Yu, C-L; Chen, H-C; Yu, H-C; Huang, H-B; Lai, N-S

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesized that the aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) T cells was involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The expression profile of 270 human miRNAs in T cells from the first five RA patients and five controls were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Twelve miRNAs exhibited potentially aberrant expression in RA T cells compared to normal T cells. After validation with another 22 RA patients and 19 controls, miR-223 and miR-34b were over-expressed in RA T cells. The expression levels of miR-223 were correlated positively with the titre of rheumatoid factor (RF) in RA patients. Transfection of Jurkat cells with miR-223 mimic suppressed insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and transfection with miR-34b mimic suppressed cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) protein expression by Western blotting. The protein expression of IGF-1R but not CREB was decreased in RA T cells. The addition of recombinant IGF-1-stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 production by activated normal T cells, but not RA T cells. The transfection of miR-223 mimic impaired IGF-1-mediated IL-10 production in activated normal T cells. The expression levels of SCD5, targeted by miR-34b, were decreased in RA T cells after microarray analysis. In conclusion, both miR-223 and miR-34b were over-expressed in RA T cells, but only the miR-223 expression levels were correlated positively with RF titre in RA patients. Functionally, the increased miR-223 expression could impair the IGF-1-mediated IL-10 production in activated RA T cells in vivo, which might contribute to the imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  17. Differential involvement of trigeminal transition zone and laminated subnucleus caudalis in orofacial deep and cutaneous hyperalgesia: the effects of interleukin-10 and glial inhibitors

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    LaGraize Stacey C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to caudal subnucleus caudalis (Vc of the spinal trigeminal complex, recent studies indicate that the subnuclei interpolaris/caudalis (Vi/Vc transition zone plays a unique role in processing deep orofacial nociceptive input. Studies also suggest that glia and inflammatory cytokines contribute to the development of persistent pain. By systematically comparing the effects of microinjection of the antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-10 and two glial inhibitors, fluorocitrate and minocycline, we tested the hypothesis that there was a differential involvement of Vi/Vc and caudal Vc structures in deep and cutaneous orofacial pain. Results Deep or cutaneous inflammatory hyperalgesia, assessed with von Frey filaments, was induced in rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA into the masseter muscle or skin overlying the masseter, respectively. A unilateral injection of CFA into the masseter or skin induced ipsilateral hyperalgesia that started at 30 min, peaked at 1 d and lasted for 1-2 weeks. Secondary hyperalgesia on the contralateral site also developed in masseter-, but not skin-inflamed rats. Focal microinjection of IL-10 (0.006-1 ng, fluorocitrate (1 μg, and minocycline (0.1-1 μg into the ventral Vi/Vc significantly attenuated masseter hyperalgesia bilaterally but without an effect on hyperalgesia after cutaneous inflammation. Injection of the same doses of these agents into the caudal Vc attenuated ipsilateral hyperalgesia after masseter and skin inflammation, but had no effect on contralateral hyperalgesia after masseter inflammation. Injection of CFA into the masseter produced significant increases in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor NR1 serine 896 phosphorylation and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP levels, a marker of reactive astrocytes, in Vi/Vc and caudal Vc. In contrast, cutaneous inflammation only produced similar increases in the Vc. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis

  18. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  19. SELECTIVITY PROFILE OF SOME RECENT MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS IN BOVINE AND GUINEA-PIG TRACHEA AND HEART

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; HAMSTRA, JJ; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The functional affinities of some recently developed subtype-selective muscarinic antagonists towards bovine tracheal smooth muscle muscarinic M(3) receptors were established and compared to binding affinities for bovine cardiac M(2) and functional affinities for guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle

  20. Fetal bovine serum and human constitutive androstane receptor: Evidence for activation of the SV23 splice variant by artemisinin, artemether, and arteether in a serum-free cell culture system

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    Lau, Aik Jiang; Chang, Thomas K.H., E-mail: thomas.chang@ubc.ca

    2014-06-01

    The naturally occurring SV23 splice variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR-SV23) is activated by di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which is detected as a contaminant in fetal bovine serum (FBS). In our initial experiment, we compared the effect of dialyzed FBS, charcoal-stripped, dextran-treated FBS (CS-FBS), and regular FBS on the basal activity and ligand-activation of hCAR-SV23 in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In transfected HepG2 cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% FBS, basal hCAR-SV23 activity varied with the type of FBS (regular > dialyzed > CS). DEHP increased hCAR-SV23 activity when 10% CS-FBS, but not regular FBS or dialyzed FBS, was used. With increasing concentrations (1–10%) of regular FBS or CS-FBS, hCAR-SV23 basal activity increased, whereas in DEHP-treated cells, hCAR-SV23 activity remained similar (regular FBS) or slightly increased (CS-FBS). Subsequent experiments identified a serum-free culture condition to detect DEHP activation of hCAR-SV23. Under this condition, artemisinin, artemether, and arteether increased hCAR-SV23 activity, whereas they decreased it in cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% regular FBS. By comparison, FBS increased the basal activity of the wild-type isoform of hCAR (hCAR-WT), whereas it did not affect the basal activity of the SV24 splice variant (hCAR-SV24) or ligand activation of hCAR-SV24 and hCAR-WT by 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). The use of serum-free culture condition was suitable for detecting CITCO activation of hCAR-WT and hCAR-SV24. In conclusion, FBS leads to erroneous classification of pharmacological ligands of hCAR-SV23 in cell-based assays, but investigations on functional ligands of hCAR isoforms can be conducted in serum-free culture condition. - Highlights: • FBS leads to erroneous pharmacological classification of hCAR-SV23 ligands. • Artemisinin, artemether, and arteether activate h

  1. The Effect of Turmeric (Curcuma longa Extract on the Functionality of the Solute Carrier Protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4 and Interleukin-10 (IL-10 Variants Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Mark J. McCann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual’s capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152 and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896 associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, −1082A. The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions.

  2. Canine distemper virus infection leads to an inhibitory phenotype of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro with reduced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and increased interleukin-10 transcription.

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    Visar Qeska

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs, responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen presenting function in dogs. In order to testify the hypothesis that CDV-infection leads to an impairment of professional antigen presenting cells, canine DCs have been generated from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and infected with CDV. Virus infection was confirmed and quantified by transmission electron microscopy, CDV-specific immunofluorescence, and virus titration. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a significant down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in CDV-infected DCs, indicative of disturbed antigen presenting capacity. Molecular analyses revealed an increased expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin-10 in DCs following infection. Results of the present study demonstrate that CDV causes phenotypical changes and altered cytokine expression of DCs, which represent potential mechanisms to evade host immune responses and might contribute to immune dysfunction and virus persistence in canine distemper.

  3. The effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract on the functionality of the solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Mark J; Johnston, Sarah; Reilly, Kerri; Men, Xuejing; Burgess, Elaine J; Perry, Nigel B; Roy, Nicole C

    2014-10-13

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual's capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152) and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896) associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F) and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, -1082A). The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions.

  4. Macrophage Subsets Within Granulomatous Intestinal Lesions in Bovine Paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M; Benavides, J; Castaño, P; Elguezabal, N; Fuertes, M; Muñoz, M; Royo, M; Ferreras, M C; Pérez, V

    2017-01-01

    Animals infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis show a variety of granulomatous lesions that range from focal forms, seen in the subclinical stages, to diffuse lesions associated with clinical signs. The aim of this study was to phenotypically characterize the macrophages present in the different lesion types using immunohistochemical methods. Lesions from a total of 23 animals with bovine paratuberculosis, natural and experimental, were examined by immunohistochemistry. Antibodies against inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), CD163, interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp-1), calprotectin, Ki-67, CD68, lysozyme, and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) molecules were employed. Samples were scored semiquantitatively using a complete histological score (H-score), reflecting the staining intensity and the percentage of immunolabeled macrophages. Differences in the H-score were seen depending on the lesion type. In focal lesions, with none or few acid-fast bacilli (AFB), macrophages were polarized toward M1 phenotype, with high H-scores for iNOS and TNF-α. Diffuse multibacillary lesions showed M2 differentiation, with high expression of CD163, IL-10, and TGF-β as well as Nramp-1 and MHC class II antigens. Macrophages in diffuse paucibacillary forms showed high H-scores for iNOS but low ones for TNF-α. Diffuse lesions, either multibacillary or paucibacillary, showed high calprotectin and low Ki-67 expression, suggesting a progressive character, while focal forms, with low H-scores for these antigens, would be consistent with latency. Lysozyme and CD68 expression were related to the amount of AFB. H-score for Iba-1 antibody was similar among all types. The findings of this study provide insights into the polarization status of macrophages and lesion development in

  5. Enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, L

    1978-09-02

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is associated with infection by bovine leucosis virus. The incubation period is measured in years and a minority of infected animals develop clinical signs. The disease is widespread in Europe and elsewhere and can cause significant economic loss. The epidemiology is incompletely understood and findings from one cattle production system may not be directly applicable to another. Major control programmes exist in Denmark and West Germany and control schemes are being developed elsewhere. Eradication of enzootic bovine leucosis has been established as a goal in the EEC and research is revealing the ways in which this goal may be attained. To be effective, control and epidemiological monitoring must be interactive. Recently introduced serological tests, of improved sensitivity, provide a valuable tool.

  6. Effect of repeated alcohol exposure during the third trimester-equivalent on messenger RNA levels for interleukin-1β, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, and interleukin 10 in the developing rat brain after injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Lauren A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Microglia undergo maturation during the third trimester of human development (equivalent to the first 1-2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents), during which these cells may be particularly sensitive to insult. Alcohol exposure during this period can activate the neuroimmune system, an effect that may contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Here, we investigated whether repeated alcohol exposure during the third trimester-equivalent in rats has a priming effect on the neuroimmune response to injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pups were exposed to alcohol in vapor chambers for 4 h daily from postnatal day (PD)2 to PD16 (peak blood alcohol concentrations ∼150 mg/dL). On PD17, rats were injected with either saline or LPS (50 μg/kg) and the frontal cortex, cerebellar vermis, and dentate gyrus were collected 2 h later. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for the pro-inflammatory agents interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 2 (CCL2), as well as levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10), were measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. LPS consistently increased IL-1β and CCL2 mRNA levels in the dentate gyrus, frontal cortex, and cerebellum of both male and female rats. Furthermore, the LPS-induced increase of IL-1β mRNA levels was significantly blunted in the frontal cortex of alcohol-exposed female rats. Conversely, LPS only minimally affected IL-10 mRNA expression and there were no significant differences between air- and alcohol-exposed rats. Taken together with the literature regarding the effect of third-trimester alcohol exposure on the neuroimmune system, our findings suggest that chronic exposure to lower levels is less disruptive to the neuroimmune system than binge-like exposure to high doses of alcohol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma concentrations and placental immunostaining of interleukin-10 and tumornecrosis factor-α as predictors of alterations in the embryo-fetal organism and the placental development of diabetic rats

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    Y.K. Sinzato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-10 (IL-10 appears to be the key cytokine for the maintenance of pregnancy and inhibits the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. However, there are no studies evaluating the profile of these cytokines in diabetic rat models. Thus, our aim was to analyze IL-10 and TNF-α immunostaining in placental tissue and their respective concentrations in maternal plasma during pregnancy in diabetic rats in order to determine whether these cytokines can be used as predictors of alterations in the embryo-fetal organism and in placental development. These parameters were evaluated in non-diabetic (control; N = 15 and Wistar rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes (N = 15. At term, the dams (100 days of life were killed under anesthesia and plasma and placental samples were collected for IL-10 and TNF-α determinations by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The reproductive performance was analyzed. Plasma IL-10 concentrations were reduced in STZ rats compared to controls (7.6 ± 4.5 vs 20.9 ± 8.1 pg/mL. The placental scores of immunostaining intensity did not differ between groups (P > 0.05. Prevalence analysis showed that the IL-10 expression followed TNF-α expression, showing a balance between them. STZ rats also presented impaired reproductive performance and reduced plasma IL-10 levels related to damage during early embryonic development. However, the increased placental IL-10 as a compensatory mechanism for the deficit of maternal regulation permitted embryo development. Therefore, the data suggest that IL-10 can be used as a predictor of changes in the embryo-fetal organism and in placental development in pregnant diabetic rats.

  8. Polymorphisms of transporter associated with antigen presentation, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 and their implications for protection and susceptibility to severe forms of dengue fever in patients in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anira N Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To date, a clear understanding of dengue disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Some infected individuals display no symptoms while others develop severe life-threatening forms of the disease. It is widely believed that host genetic factors influence dengue severity. Aims: This study evaluates the relationship between certain polymorphisms and dengue severity in Sri Lankan patients. Settings and Design: Polymorphism studies are carried out on genes for; transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP, promoter of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and promoter of interleukin-10 (IL-10. In other populations, TAP1 (333, TAP2 (379, TNF-α (−308, and IL-10 (−1082, −819, −592 have been associated with dengue and a number of different diseases. Data have not been collected previously for these polymorphisms for dengue patients in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: The polymorphisms were typed by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction in 107 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF patients together with 62 healthy controls. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson′s Chi-square contingency table analysis with Yates′ correction. Results: Neither the TAP nor the IL-10 polymorphisms considered individually can define dengue disease outcome with regard to severity. However, the genotype combination, IL-10 (−592/−819/−1082 CCA/ATA was significantly associated with development of severe dengue in these patients, suggesting a risk factor to developing DHF. Also, identified is the genotype combination IL-10 (−592/−819/−1082 ATA/ATG which suggested a possibility for protection from DHF. The TNF-α (−308 GG genotype was also significantly associated with severe dengue, suggesting a significant risk factor. Conclusions: The results reported here are specific to the Sri Lankan population. Comparisons with previous reports imply that data may vary from population to population.

  9. Effect of interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphisms -1082 G/A and -592 C/A on response to therapy in children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Karaksy, Hanaa M; Sharaf, Sahar A; Mandour, Iman A; Mogahed, Engy A; Rady, Normeen H; El-Mougy, Fatma A

    2016-12-01

    Studying predictors of response to therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children may help avoid the inappropriate use of currently available costly therapy associated with numerous adverse effects. We tested the hypothesis that inheritance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter gene might influence response to HCV treatment. The impact of SNPs, -1082 G/A and -592 C/A, in the promoter region of IL-10 gene, on response to HCV therapy was assessed in a cohort of 40 children treated with a combination of pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) α2b and ribavirin. Sustained virological response was achieved in 48.7%. High viral load was associated with non-response to therapy. There was no association between histopathological degree of inflammation or fibrosis and response to therapy. There was no direct statistically significant association between polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene (-1082G/A and -592 C/A) as regards inflammation or response to therapy in children. As for the SNP -592 C/A; there was a statistically significant association with the score of fibrosis (P<0.004), concluding that the A allele was protective from moderate and severe fibrosis. Meanwhile the SNP -1082G/A did not show any association with the fibrosis score. We could not associate response to therapy for HCV with IL-10 polymorphisms -1082 G/A and -592 C/A. For the SNP -592 C/A, the A allele protected from moderate and severe fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Latency-Associated Viral Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Encoded by Human Cytomegalovirus Modulates Cellular IL-10 and CCL8 Secretion during Latent Infection through Changes in the Cellular MicroRNA hsa-miR-92a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Emma; Avdic, Selmir; Hodkinson, Jemima; Jackson, Sarah; Wills, Mark; Slobedman, Barry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The UL111A gene of human cytomegalovirus encodes a viral homologue of the cellular immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin 10 (cIL-10), which, due to alternative splicing, results in expression of two isoforms designated LAcmvIL-10 (expressed during both lytic and latent infection) and cmvIL-10 (identified only during lytic infection). We have analyzed the functions of LAcmvIL-10 during latent infection of primary myeloid progenitor cells and found that LAcmvIL-10 is responsible, at least in part, for the known increase in secretion of cellular IL-10 and CCL8 in the secretomes of latently infected cells. This latency-associated increase in CCL8 expression results from a concomitant LAcmvIL-10-mediated suppression of the expression of the cellular microRNA (miRNA) hsa-miR-92a, which targets CCL8 directly. Taking the data together, we show that the previously observed downregulation of hsa-miR-92a and upregulation of CCL8 during HCMV latent infection of myeloid cells are intimately linked via the latency-associated expression of LAcmvIL-10. IMPORTANCE HCMV latency causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals, yet HCMV is carried silently (latently) in 50 to 90% of the population. Understanding how HCMV maintains infection for the lifetime of an infected individual is critical for the treatment of immunocompromised individuals suffering with disease as a result of HCMV. In this study, we analyze one of the proteins that are expressed during the “latent” phase of HCMV, LAcmvIL-10, and find that the expression of the gene modulates the microenvironment of the infected cell, leading to evasion of the immune system. PMID:25253336

  11. Short-term effect of high-dose vitamin D on the level of interleukin 10 in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtari, Fereshteh; Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Mansourian, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Vitamin D has been related to the prevention of MS and to modulating its course. Recent studies have shown the safety of high-dose vitamin D in MS. This study compared the effects of high-dose vitamin D on interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels in MS patients in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Ninety-four patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) were randomized into a treatment and a placebo group. Both groups received conventional MS treatment. The intervention group received 50,000 IU of vitamin D every 5 days for 3 months. IL-10 was measured at baseline and after 3 months. Serum levels of IL-10 were (median ± IQR): 12.58 ± 11.97 and 10.97 ± 9.97 pg/ml in the intervention and placebo groups, respectively, at baseline (p = 0.161); after 3 months, these levels were 13.76 ± 18.95 and 11.31 ± 19.63 pg/ml, respectively (p = 0.158). The IL-10 level increased significantly after receiving high-dose vitamin D for 3 months (β = 0.737, p = 0.015 and R2 = 0.91). IL-10 levels increased significantly in RRMS patients after taking high-dose vitamin D3 for 3 months. High-dose vitamin D might be useful in promoting an anti-inflammatory state in RRMS patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effects of escitalopram, R-citalopram, and reboxetine on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, and depression-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chao; Zhang, Ji-chun; Yao, Wei; Ren, Qian; Yang, Chun; Ma, Min; Han, Mei; Saito, Ryo; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram, its inactive enantiomer R-citalopram, and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine, show anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in an inflammation-induced model of depression. Pretreatment with escitalopram (1, 3, or 10mg/kg, i.p.) markedly blocked an increase in the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), after a single administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.5mg/kg). Furthermore, escitalopram (3 or 10mg/kg) significantly increased the serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) by a single administration of LPS. In contrast, pretreatment with R-citalopram (10mg/kg, i.p.) or reboxetine (10mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect the alterations in serum levels of TNF-α and IL-10 after LPS administration. Co-administration of reboxetine with escitalopram did not show anti-inflammatory effects. Pretreatment with escitalopram (10mg/kg) significantly attenuated LPS-induced increase of the immobility time in the tail-suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST). In contrast, pretreatment with R-citalopram (10mg/kg), or reboxetine (10mg/kg) did not alter LPS-induced increase of immobility time of TST and FST. Interestingly, co-administration of reboxetine with escitalopram did not show antidepressant effect in this model. These findings suggest that escitalopram, but not R-citalopram and reboxetine, has anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in LPS-treated model of depression, and that reboxetine can antagonize the effects of escitalopram in the inflammation model. Therefore, it is likely that serotonergic system plays a key role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasmids expressing interleukin-10 short hairpin RNA mediate IL-10 knockdown and enhance tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma expressions in response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2012-04-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been suggested to exploit interleukin-10 (IL-10) to suppress immune defense of infected pigs. The present study constructed plasmids encoding selected short hairpin RNA specific to porcine IL-10 mRNA (pIL-10sh) to knockdown IL-10 transcription and investigated the suppressive effect of PRRSV-induced IL-10 on various immune marker expressions. Naïve blood monocytes from eight PRRSV-seronegative pigs were transfected with pIL-10sh and pNeg (plasmid vector) prior to PRRSV inoculation and subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The mRNA expressions of IL-10, IL-1β, IL-12p40, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interferon gamma (IFNγ), transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), CD80, and CD86 were evaluated by real-time PCR. The IL-10, TNFα, and IFNγ protein productions were determined by ELISA. Compared with non-transfected monocyte control, transfection with selected pIL-10sh (pIL-10sh1), but not other pIL-10sh nor pNeg, significantly reduced IL-10 expression and significantly enhanced TNFα and IFNγ expressions. Slight increases in IL-1β, IL-12p40, CD80, and CD86 expressions were also observed. Neither pIL-10sh1 nor pNeg transfection affected TGFβ expression. Our results indicate that PRRSV does exploit IL-10 to suppress the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly TNFα and IFNγ, and co-stimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interleukin 10 (IL-10)-producing CD1dhi regulatory B cells from Schistosoma haematobium-infected individuals induce IL-10-positive T cells and suppress effector T-cell cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vlugt, Luciën E P M; Zinsou, Jeannot F; Ozir-Fazalalikhan, Arifa; Kremsner, Peter G; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Adegnika, Ayola A; Smits, Hermelijn H

    2014-10-15

    Chronic schistosome infections are associated with T-cell hyporesponsiveness and a strong regulatory network. Murine studies have shown that schistosome infections can induce regulatory CD1d(hi) B cells, which inhibit inflammatory responses. Here, we evaluated the influence of regulatory B cells (Bregs) on T-cell cytokines in vitro in human schistosomiasis. Gabonese young adults were recruited from areas where Schistosoma haematobium (S.h) infections were high or low endemic. The study participants were categorized as infected or uninfected from an high endemic area or uninfected from a low endemic (nonendemic) area. Their B cells were studied for Breg subset markers and cocultured with allogenic anti-CD3-stimulated CD4(+) T cells, followed by T-cell cytokine analysis. A greater percentage of B cells from S. haematobium-infected donors expressed cytoplasmic interleukin 10 (IL-10) and membrane-bound latency-associated peptide/transforming growth factor β1, compared with uninfected donors. T cells produced less interferon γ, interleukin 4, and interleukin 17 upon coculture with B cells from schistosome-infected individuals only, while the conversion to CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) and the percentage of IL-10(+) T cells was enhanced. Interestingly, depletion of the prominent IL-10-producing B-cell subset, CD1d(hi) cells, resulted in less IL-10(+) T cells in the S. haematobium-infected group, while levels of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells remained unaffected. Schistosomes can induce functional Bregs in humans that may be instrumental in general T-cell hyporesponsiveness and may contribute to the increased regulatory milieu found in schistosomiasis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Alteration in the concentrations of Interleukin-7 (IL-7), Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) in alcohol-dependent individuals without liver disease, during detoxification therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikou, Thomas; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Zoga, Margarita; Tzavellas, Elias; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas; Magana, Maria; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Nikolaou, Chryssoula; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos

    2016-06-01

    The course of Interleukin-7 (IL-7), Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) was investigated in alcohol-dependent individuals without liver disease in order to ascertain the use of these cytokines as markers for the follow-up testing and the outcome of the detoxification treatment. Forty-eight alcohol-dependent individuals were admitted for alcohol detoxification. Blood was obtained upon admission, two weeks later and after the completion of the detoxification period (4-5 weeks). Serum IL-7, IL-10 and G-CSF were measured with a commercially available sandwich enzyme immunoassay. IL-7 concentration was steadily high from admission up to two weeks later and then showed a fall, yet still remaining significantly higher than in the control group at the end of the detoxification treatment. IL-10 concentration was significantly low on admission, presenting a linear increase during therapy and remained insignificantly low at the end. G-CSF was significantly elevated on admission and presented a linear fall ending up in almost normal values at the end of the detoxification therapy. The alterations in the concentration of IL-7, IL-10 and G-CSF and their trend to normalization during the detoxification therapy are indicative of the generalized immune system disorder, caused by alcohol abuse. Further studies will help in further elucidating the pathophysiology of the immune system function in alcohol abuse, while immunological parameters might serve as biological markers and diagnostic tools for the assessment of the course and the outcome of the detoxification therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Latency-associated viral interleukin-10 (IL-10) encoded by human cytomegalovirus modulates cellular IL-10 and CCL8 Secretion during latent infection through changes in the cellular microRNA hsa-miR-92a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Emma; Avdic, Selmir; Hodkinson, Jemima; Jackson, Sarah; Wills, Mark; Slobedman, Barry; Sinclair, John

    2014-12-01

    The UL111A gene of human cytomegalovirus encodes a viral homologue of the cellular immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin 10 (cIL-10), which, due to alternative splicing, results in expression of two isoforms designated LAcmvIL-10 (expressed during both lytic and latent infection) and cmvIL-10 (identified only during lytic infection). We have analyzed the functions of LAcmvIL-10 during latent infection of primary myeloid progenitor cells and found that LAcmvIL-10 is responsible, at least in part, for the known increase in secretion of cellular IL-10 and CCL8 in the secretomes of latently infected cells. This latency-associated increase in CCL8 expression results from a concomitant LAcmvIL-10-mediated suppression of the expression of the cellular microRNA (miRNA) hsa-miR-92a, which targets CCL8 directly. Taking the data together, we show that the previously observed downregulation of hsa-miR-92a and upregulation of CCL8 during HCMV latent infection of myeloid cells are intimately linked via the latency-associated expression of LAcmvIL-10. HCMV latency causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals, yet HCMV is carried silently (latently) in 50 to 90% of the population. Understanding how HCMV maintains infection for the lifetime of an infected individual is critical for the treatment of immunocompromised individuals suffering with disease as a result of HCMV. In this study, we analyze one of the proteins that are expressed during the "latent" phase of HCMV, LAcmvIL-10, and find that the expression of the gene modulates the microenvironment of the infected cell, leading to evasion of the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Poole et al.

  17. Interleukin-10-Overexpressing Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induce a Series of Regulatory Effects in the Inflammatory System and Promote the Survival of Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenfei; Lv, Dan; Zhang, Xiaobin; Ni, Zhu-Ang; Sun, Xiaofan; Zhu, Changqing

    2018-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening inflammatory conditions with no effective pharmacological treatment. Previous studies suggested that mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) infusion resulted in better survival in mouse ALI models and presented low toxicity in human subjects. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possibility of treating a murine model of ALI using MSCs with constant interleukin-10 overexpression (IL-10-MSC) by retroviral infection. ALI in mice was induced by intratracheal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) instillation. After 96 h, 80% of mice receiving IL-10-MSCs survived, whereas the survival rate of the mice receiving other treatments was only 20-50%. Mice receiving IL-10-MSCs also demonstrated significantly less weight loss (p IL-10-MSCs given to mice 3 and 1 day before ALI induction still conferred significant protection against ALI. While direct IL-10 transfusion resulted in an intensive, but transient peak in serum IL-10 level, IL-10-MSCs provided a milder, but more persistent increase in serum IL-10 level, together with significantly higher levels of IL-10-producing T cells and B cells, both in the spleen and in the lung. IL-10-MSCs given 3 days before LPS challenge resulted in higher pulmonary infiltration of IL-10-producing T cells and B cells in mice. On average, mice that survived the LPS challenge for 96 h presented higher pulmonary infiltration of IL-10-producing T cells and B cells than mice that deceased within the experimental period. Together, these results demonstrated that IL-10-MSCs offered superior protection against LPS-induced ALI when given before or at the time of ALI induction, and significantly increased the frequencies of IL-10-expressing T cells and B cells. IL-10-MSCs may thus represent a promising new treatment option in ALI/ARDS.

  18. Betulinic acid and fluvastatin exhibits synergistic effect on toll-like receptor-4 mediated anti-atherogenic mechanism in type II collagen induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Limi Elizabeth; Rajagopal, Vrinda; A, Helen

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major problem during rheumatoid arthritis which leads to morbidity and mortality in arthritic patients. So the present study emphasizes combinatorial effect of Betulinic acid, a triterpenoid and fluvastatin, an HMG CoA reductase inhibitor on atherogenesis during arthritis. Arthritis was induced by bovine type II collagen dissolved in 0.01M acetic acid at a concentration of 4mg/mL and emulsified in equal volume of incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Betulinic acid (2mg/kg) and fluvastatin (5mg/kg) alone and in combination was administered orally from day 14 to 60. At the end of 60days, tissues and blood were isolated for evaluation of biochemical parameters. Treatment with betulinic acid and fluvastatin showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in Arthritic index, Rheumatoid factor, C-reactive protein (CRP), total lipids and anti-CCP (cyclic citrullinated peptide) antibody. Anti-inflammatory enzyme activities and oxidative stress were significantly decreased in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells by the administration of both betulinic acid and fluvastatin than alone treatments. Combination therapy was found to be a potential enhancer of the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 whereas it significantly blocked the expression of Toll-like receptors-2 and 4, inflammatory markers such as interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, Interferon-γ, cell adhesion molecules and nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B in aorta than drug alone treated groups. So the present study summarizes a combination therapy of betulinic acid and fluvastatin that reduces the risk of both rheumatoid arthritis and CVD by modulating the expression of various inflammatory mediators through Toll-like receptors-4-NF-κB downstream signaling pathway, atherogenic index and oxidative stress in collagen induced arthritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  20. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  1. Dominant bovine ovarian follicular cysts express increased levels of messenger RNAs for luteinizing hormone receptor and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase delta(4),delta(5) isomerase compared to normal dominant follicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calder, M D; Manikkam, M; Salfen, B E; Youngquist, R S; Lubahn, D B; Lamberson, W R; Garverick, H A

    2001-01-01

    ...-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Delta(4),Delta(5) isomerase, LH, and FSH receptors and estrogen receptor-beta in ovaries of cows with dominant and nondominant ovarian follicular cysts and in normal dominant follicles...

  2. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  3. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  4. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  6. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Díaz Ismael Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  7. Resident Bacteria-Stimulated Interleukin-10-Secreting B Cells Ameliorate T-Cell-Mediated Colitis by Inducing T-Regulatory-1 Cells That Require Interleukin-27 SignalingSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Mishima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The regulatory roles of interleukin-10 (IL10-producing B cells in colitis are not fully understood, so we explored the molecular mechanisms by which these cells modulate mucosal homeostasis. Methods: CD4+ T cells from wild-type (WT, Il10−/−, or Il27ra−/− mice were cotransferred with B cells from specific pathogen-free (SPF or germ-free (GF WT or Il10−/− mice into Rag2−/−Il10−/−(double-knockout mice, and the severity of colitis and intestinal regulatory T-cell populations were characterized. In vitro, WT or Il10−/− B cells were cocultured with unfractionated, naïve or regulatory T cells plus Il10−/− antigen-presenting cells and stimulated with cecal bacterial lysate (CBL with or without IL27 or anti-IL10R blockade. Gene expressions, cytokines in the supernatant and cell populations were assessed. Results: WT but not Il10−/− B cells attenuated T helper cell TH1/TH17-mediated colitis in double-knockout mice that also received WT but not Il10−/− T cells. In vitro, CBL-stimulated WT B cells secrete abundant IL10 and suppress interferon-γ (IFNγ and IL17a-production by T cells without requiring cell contact. Although both WT and Il10−/− B cells induced Foxp3+CD4+ T-regulatory cells, only WT B cells induced IL10-producing (Foxp3-negative T regulatory-1 (Tr-1 cells both in vivo and in vitro. However, IL10-producing B cells did not attenuate colitis or induce Tr-1 cells in the absence of T cell IL27 signaling in vivo. WT B cell-dependent Tr-1 induction and concomitant decreased IFNγ-secretion were also mediated by T-cell IL27-signaling in vitro. Conclusions: IL10-secreting B cells activated by physiologically relevant bacteria ameliorate T-cell-mediated colitis and contribute to intestinal homeostasis by suppressing effector T cells and inducing Tr-1 cells via IL27-signaling on T cells. Keywords: Experimental

  8. The interleukin 10 -819C/T polymorphism and cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis of 73 studies including 15,942 cases and 22,336 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhibin; Liu, Qing; Huang, Chen; Wu, Minghua; Li, Guiyuan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the interleukin 10 (IL-10) -819C/T (rs1800871) polymorphism and cancer risk. A total of 73 studies, including 15,942 cancer cases and 22,336 controls, were identified in this meta-analysis. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Overall, no significant association was identified between the IL-10 -819C/T polymorphism and cancer risk. In the subgroup analyses, the T allele and TT genotype were associated with a moderately reduced cancer risk in the Asian population (T allele vs. C allele: OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.87, 0.99; TT vs. CC: OR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.76, 0.98; TT vs. CT/CC: OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.82, 0.98). Individuals who were homozygous for the T allele (TT) were found to be associated with significantly reduced gastric cancer risk in the Asian population. The heterozygous variant (CT) and the dominant model (TT/CT vs. CC) were associated with an increased risk for cervical and ovarian cancer. However, the IL-10 -819C/T polymorphism was not significantly associated with breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate cancer, lymphoma, or melanoma. The depressed cancer risk of the TT genotype occurred in the studies of hospital-based case-control studies and the studies recruited less than 500 subjects, but no statistically significant results were found in the stratified analyses using genotyping method. The results suggest that the IL-10 -819TT genotype may be a protective factor for cancer in Asians, especially gastric cancer. In contrast, the CT genotype and the dominant model could be risk factors for cervical and ovarian cancer. The importance of stratifying by ethnicity, cancer type, study design, and sample size needs to be standardized in future studies, together with considering the association between the IL-10 -819C/T polymorphism and cancer risk. Furthermore, the linkage

  9. [In vitro study of the interactions between bovine herpesvirus 4 and the bovine host cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplasschen, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was devoted to the study of the interactions between bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) and bovine cells in vitro. It led to the discovery of two interesting properties of BVH-4 replication cycle: first, the cellular receptor heparan sulfate was proven to mediate BVH-4 binding to target cells. This is the first description of the implication of heparan sulfate in the binding process of a gammaherpesvirus. Second, using synchronised cells, the replication of BVH-4 DNA was proven to be dependent on the S phase of the cell cycle. This dependence could explain some properties of BVH-4 infection in vitro and could play an important role in the biology of the infection in vivo. Finally, in order to produce monoclonal antibodies against BVH-4 IE1 and IE2 proteins, the genes coding for these proteins were cloned and expressed in prokaryotic cells.

  10. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  11. Effects of N-acetylimidazole on oxytocin binding in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.; Gorewit, R.C.; Currie, W.B. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of N-acetylimidazole on specific binding of oxytocin to microsomal fractions of bovine mammary gland were studied. N-acetylimidazole suppressed oxytocin binding, with time and concentration dependence. Decreased oxytocin binding activity appeared to be due to decreased affinity of the hormone for its receptor. Acetylation of oxytocin, rather than of oxytocin receptors, seemed to be responsible for the decreased binding.

  12. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parainfluenza Virus 3 Blocks Antiviral Mediators Downstream of the Interferon Lambda Receptor by Modulating Stat1 Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Kirsten C; McGill, Jodi L; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Sacco, Randy E

    2015-12-30

    Parainfluenza viruses are known to inhibit type I interferon (IFN) production; however, there is a lack of information regarding the type III IFN response during infection. Type III IFNs signal through a unique heterodimeric receptor, IFN-λR1/interleukin-10R2 (IL-10R2), which is primarily expressed by epithelial cells. Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) infection is highly restricted to the airway epithelium. We therefore sought to examine type III IFN signaling pathways during PIV-3 infection of epithelial cells. We used three strains of PIV-3: human PIV-3 (HPIV-3), bovine PIV-3 (BPIV-3), and dolphin PIV-1 (Tursiops truncatus PIV-1, or TtPIV-1). Here, we show that message levels of IL-29 are significantly increased during PIV-3 infection, yet downstream antiviral signaling molecules are not upregulated to levels similar to those of the positive control. Furthermore, in Vero cells infected with PIV-3, stimulation with recombinant IL-29/-28A/-28B does not cause upregulation of downstream antiviral molecules, suggesting that PIV-3 interferes with the JAK/STAT pathway downstream of the IFN-λR1/IL-10R2 receptor. We used Western blotting to examine the phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat2 in Vero cells and the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. In Vero cells, we observed reduced phosphorylation of the serine 727 (S727) site on Stat1, while in BEAS-2B cells Stat1 phosphorylation was decreased at the tyrosine 701 (Y701) site during PIV-3 infection. PIV-3 therefore interferes with the phosphorylation of Stat1 downstream of the type III IFN receptor. These data provide new evidence regarding strategies employed by parainfluenza viruses to effectively circumvent respiratory epithelial cell-specific antiviral immunity. Parainfluenza virus (PIV) in humans is associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia and can be especially problematic in infants and the elderly. Also seen in cattle, bovine PIV-3 causes respiratory infections in young calves. In addition, PIV-3 is one of a

  14. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the bovine neuropeptide Y, growth hormone receptor, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor 2, and uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 genes and their associations with measures of growth, performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, E L; Nkrumah, J D; Murdoch, B M; Li, C; Wang, Z; Fu, A; Moore, S S

    2008-01-01

    Genes that regulate metabolism and energy partitioning have the potential to influence economically important traits in farm animals, as do polymorphisms within these genes. In the current study, SNP in the bovine neuropeptide Y (NPY), growth hormone receptor (GHR), ghrelin (GHRL), uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3), IGF2, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and GH genes were evaluated for associations with growth, feed efficiency, and carcass merit in beef steers. In total, 24 SNP were evaluated for associations with these traits and haplotypes were constructed within each gene when 2 or more SNP showed significant associations. An A/G SNP located in intron 4 of the GHR gene had the largest effects on BW of the animals (dominance effect P feed efficiency (allele substitution effect P feed conversion ratio (FCR; P residual feed intake, FCR, and partial efficiency of growth (P changes, these SNP could be linked to other yet to be detected causative mutations or nearby QTL. It will be very important to verify these results in other cattle populations.

  15. Dominant bovine ovarian follicular cysts express increased levels of messenger RNAs for luteinizing hormone receptor and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase delta(4),delta(5) isomerase compared to normal dominant follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, M D; Manikkam, M; Salfen, B E; Youngquist, R S; Lubahn, D B; Lamberson, W R; Garverick, H A

    2001-08-01

    The objective was to compare ovarian steroids and expression of mRNAs encoding cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage, cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase, cytochrome P450 aromatase, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Delta(4),Delta(5) isomerase, LH, and FSH receptors and estrogen receptor-beta in ovaries of cows with dominant and nondominant ovarian follicular cysts and in normal dominant follicles. Estradiol-17 beta, progesterone, and androstenedione concentrations were determined in follicular fluid using specific RIAs. Dominant cysts were larger than young cysts or dominant follicles, whereas nondominant cysts were intermediate. Estradiol-17 beta (ng/ml) and total steroids (ng/follicle) were higher in dominant cysts than in dominant follicles. Expression of LH receptor and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNAs was higher in granulosa cells of dominant cysts than in dominant follicles. Nondominant cysts had higher follicular concentrations of progesterone, lower estradiol-17 beta concentrations, and lower expression of steroidogenic enzyme, gonadotropin receptor, and estrogen receptor-beta mRNAs than other groups. In summary, increased expression of LH receptor and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNAs in granulosa and increased follicular estradiol-17 beta concentrations were associated with dominant cysts compared to dominant follicles. Study of cysts at known developmental stages is useful in identifying alterations in follicular steroidogenesis.

  16. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  17. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  18. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 gene and relation to phenotype in patients with ulcerative colitis Polimorfismos del gen de la IL-10 y su relación con los diferentes fenotipos de la colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Mendoza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: interleukin-10 (IL-10 has a key role in regulating mucosal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. In our population of Spanish ulcerative colitis (UC patients, we have previously demostrated that two polymorphisms (IL-10.G14 microsatellite allele and homozygous for the -1082G alelle (guanine at position -1082 in the IL-10 gene were susceptibility markers for disease. No data exist regarding the relationship of these IL-10 polymorphims with phenotypic subpopulations in UC. Therefore, this study sought to examine the contribution of IL-10 polymorphims to phenotypical variability in UC. Material and methods: a cohort of 215 Spanish unrelated patients with UC recruited in a single center was studied. All patients were rigorously phenotyped and followed for at least 3 years (mean time: 11.8 years. The clinical phenotype was established before genotyping. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. Results: patiens with UC included 129 (60% men and 89 (40% women. Mean age at diagnosis was 38 years, with a range of 8-83. Disease extent included 127 (59.1% left-side patients and 88 (40.9% extensive patients. Neither UC phenotype variable was associated with the presence of susceptibility polymorphims (10G14 microsatellite and -1082G alelle. Conclusions: in Madrid's Spanish population of UC patients, the carrying of the ILG14 microsatellite or -1082G polymorphism in the IL-10 gene was not associated with phenotype of disease.Introducción y objetivo: el gen de la interleuquina 10 (IL-10 tiene un papel clave en la regulación de la inflamación intestinal en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. Recientemente hemos descubierto que dos polimorfismos del gen de la IL-10, el microsatélite IL-10.G14 y ser homocigoto -1082G (guanina en la posición 1082 del gen promotor de la IL-10 son marcadores de susceptibilidad para padecer colitis ulcerosa (CU. No existen datos que demuestren si estos

  19. Interleukin-10 Enhances the Intestinal Epithelial Barrier in the Presence of Corticosteroids through p38 MAPK Activity in Caco-2 Monolayers: A Possible Mechanism for Steroid Responsiveness in Ulcerative Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Lorén

    Full Text Available Glucocorticosteroids are the first line therapy for moderate-severe flare-ups of ulcerative colitis. Despite that, up to 60% of patients do not respond adequately to steroid treatment. Previously, we reported that low IL-10 mRNA levels in intestine are associated with a poor response to glucocorticoids in active Crohn's disease. Here, we test whether IL-10 can favour the response to glucocorticoids by improving the TNFα-induced intestinal barrier damage (assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance in Caco-2 monolayers, and their possible implications on glucocorticoid responsiveness in active ulcerative colitis. We show that the association of IL-10 and glucocorticoids improves the integrity of TNFα-treated Caco-2 cells and that p38 MAPK plays a key role. In vitro, IL-10 facilitates the nuclear translocation of p38 MAPK-phosphorylated thereby modulating glucocorticoids-receptor-α, IL-10-receptor-α and desmoglein-2 expression. In glucocorticoids-refractory patients, p38 MAPK phosphorylation and membrane desmoglein-2 expression are reduced in colonic epithelial cells. These results suggest that p38 MAPK-mediated synergism between IL-10 and glucocorticoids improves desmosome straightness contributing to the recovery of intestinal epithelium and reducing luminal antigens contact with lamina propria in ulcerative colitis. This study highlights the link between the intestinal epithelium in glucocorticoids-response in ulcerative colitis.

  20. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  1. Specific insulin binding in bovine chromaffin cells; demonstration of preferential binding to adrenalin-storing cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serck-Hanssen, G.; Soevik, O.

    1987-12-28

    Insulin binding was studied in subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells enriched in adrenalin-producing cells (A-cells) or noradrenalin-producing cells (NA-cells). Binding of /sup 125/I-insulin was carried out at 15/sup 0/C for 3 hrs in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled hormone. Four fractions of cells were obtained by centrifugation on a stepwise bovine serum albumin gradient. The four fractions were all shown to bind insulin in a specific manner and the highest binding was measured in the cell layers of higher densities, containing mainly A-cells. The difference in binding of insulin to the four subpopulations of chromaffin cells seemed to be related to differences in numbers of receptors as opposed to receptor affinities. The authors conclude that bovine chromaffin cells possess high affinity binding sites for insulin and that these binding sites are mainly confined to A-cells. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. Increased bovine Tim-3 and its ligand expressions during bovine leukemia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okagawa Tomohiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The immunoinhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3 and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9, are involved in the immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. However, there is no report concerning the role of Tim-3 in diseases of domestic animals. In this study, cDNA encoding for bovine Tim-3 and Gal-9 were cloned and sequenced, and their expression and role in immune reactivation were analyzed in bovine leukemia virus (BLV-infected cattle. Predicted amino acid sequences of Tim-3 and Gal-9 shared high homologies with human and mouse homologues. Functional domains, including tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif in the intracellular domain of Tim-3 were highly conserved among cattle and other species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that bovine Tim-3 mRNA is mainly expressed in T cells such as CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while Gal-9 mRNA is mainly expressed in monocyte and T cells. Tim-3 mRNA expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was upregulated during disease progression of BLV infection. Interestingly, expression levels for Tim-3 and Gal-9 correlated positively with viral load in infected cattle. Furthermore, Tim-3 expression level closely correlated with up-regulation of IL-10 in infected cattle. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA was upregulated when PBMC from BLV-infected cattle were cultured with Cos-7 cells expressing Tim-3 to inhibit the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway. Moreover, combined blockade of the Tim-3/Gal-9 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways significantly promoted IFN-γ mRNA expression compared with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway alone. These results suggest that Tim-3 is involved in the suppression of T cell function during BLV infection.

  3. Cytokines in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats: persistent mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and absent expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Lorentzen, J C; Mustafa, M I

    1996-01-01

    . This model enables studies of mechanisms related to chronicity and demyelination, two hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we have investigated, in situ, the dynamics of cytokine mRNA expression in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral lymphoid organs (lymph node cells and splenocytes......) of diseased DA rats. We demonstrate that peripheral lymphoid cells stimulated in vitro with encephalitogenic peptides 69-87 and 87-101 of myelin basic protein responded with high mRNA expression for proinflammatory cytokines; interferon-gamma, interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumour necrosis factors alpha and beta, IL......-1 beta and cytolysin. A high expression of mRNA for these proinflammatory cytokines was also observed in the CNS where it was accompanied by classical signs of inflammation such as expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II, CD4, CD8 and IL-2 receptor. The expression of m...

  4. Signaling Pathways Used by Ergot Alkaloids to Inhibit Bovine Sperm Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids exert their toxic or pharmaceutical effects through membrane receptor-mediated activities. This study investigated the signaling pathways involved in the in vitro inhibitory effects of both ergotamine (ET) and dihydroergotamine (DEHT) on bovine sperm motility using specific inhibitor...

  5. Porcine circovirus type 2 increases interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10 production via the MyD88-NF-kappa B signaling pathway in porcine alveolar macrophagesin vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyuan; Zhang, Shuxia; Zhang, Yaqun; Chen, Mengmeng; Lv, Yingjun

    2017-06-30

    Porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) represent the first line of defense in the porcine lung after infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) via the respiratory tract. However, PCV2 infection impairs the microbicidal capability of PAMs and alters cytokine production and/or secretion. At present, the reason for the imbalance of cytokines has not been fully elucidated, and the regulatory mechanisms involved are unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression levels and regulation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-10 in PAMs following incubation with PCV2 in vitro. Levels of IL-1β and IL-10 increased in PAM supernatants, and the distribution of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65staining in nucleus, expression of MyD88 and p-IκB in cytoplasm, and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB increased after incubation with PCV2, while p65 expression in PAM cytoplasm decreased. However, when PAMs were co-incubated with PCV2 and small interfering RNA targeting MyD88, those effects were reversed. Additionally, mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptors (TLR)-2, -3, -4, -7, -8, and -9 increased when PAMs were incubated with PCV2. These results show that PCV2 induces increased IL-1β and IL-10 production in PAMs, and these changes in expression are related to the TLR-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  6. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  7. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general

  8. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-14

    A cattle dashboard has recently been developed to share surveillance information gathered from submissions to the Great Britain veterinary diagnostic network. Data relating to Scotland come from the SAC C VS. This article, by Tim Geraghty, relates to cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland, as summarised on the APHA Cattle Dashboard. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Identification of lactoferrin in bovine tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1996-09-01

    To determine whether bovine tear film contains the iron-binding glycoprotein, lactoferrin. 40 Adult Hereford, Angus, and Simmental cattle. Protein analysis: pooled bovine tears were used for protein analysis (size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] fractionation). HPLC was used for tear analysis. A diode array detector was used (215 and 280 microns) for chromatogram analysis and comparisons. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE): protein electrophoresis was performed, using 7.5% running gels with 4% stacking gels. Molecular weight of proteins in the unknown samples was determined as recommended by the manufacturer of the standards. Protein sequencing: amino acid sequencing, using automated Edman degradation of HPLC purified protein, was performed. The sequence obtained was compared with the known protein sequence of bovine lactoferrin. HPLC analysis of whole bovine tears resulted in a consistent chromatogram. Peak collection was performed to recover a protein from the bovine tear film with chromatogram characteristics nearly identical to purified bovine lactoferrin. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE of this peak revealed a band with molecular mass consistent with bovine lactoferrin (estimated mass of 78 kd). The first 13 amino acid residues of this protein were identical to the amino acid sequence of bovine lactoferrin. Analysis of whole bovine tears, using size exclusion HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and amino acid sequencing, provided evidence that bovine tears contain lactoferrin. Lactoferrin probably exerts a bacteriostatic effect in bovine tear film. Locally produced lactoferrin may bathe the ocular surface and sequester iron from potential pathogens.

  10. Study of the role of tumor necrosis factor-α (-308 G/A) and interleukin-10 (-1082 G/A) polymorphisms as potential risk factors to acute kidney injury in patients with severe sepsis using high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashad, Doaa I; Elsayed, Eman T; Helmy, Tamer A; Elawady, Samier M

    2017-11-01

    Septic acute kidney injury (AKI) is a prevalent complication in intensive care units with an increased incidence of complications. The aim of the present study was to assess the use of high-resolution melting curve (HRM) analysis in investigating whether the genetic polymorphisms; -308 G/A of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and -1082 G /A of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) genes may predispose patients diagnosed with severe sepsis to the development of AKI. One hundred and fifty patients with severe sepsis participated in the present study; only sixty-six developed AKI. Both polymorphisms were studied using HRM analysis. The low producer genotype of both studied polymorphism of TNF-α and IL-10 genes was associated with AKI. Using logistic regression analysis, the low producer genotypes remained an independent risk factor for AKI. A statistically significant difference was detected between both studied groups as regards the low producer genotype in both TNF-α (-308 G/A) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) (-1082 G/A) polymorphisms being prevalent in patients developing AKI. Principle conclusions: The low producer genotypes of both TNF-α (-308 G/A) and IL-10 (-1082 G/A) polymorphisms could be considered a risk factor for the development of AKI in critically ill patients with severe sepsis, thus management technique implemented for this category should be modulated rescuing this sector of patients from the grave deterioration to acute kidney injury. Using HRM for genotyping proved to be a highly efficient, simple, cost-effective genotyping technique that is most appropriate for the routine study of large-scale samples.

  11. Bovine leukemia virus: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliarena MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marcela Alicia Juliarena,1 Clarisa Natalia Barrios,1 Claudia María Lützelschwab,1 Eduardo Néstor Esteban,2 Silvina Elena Gutiérrez1 1Department of Animal Health and Preventive Medicine, Veterinary Research Center of Tandil (CIVETAN, CIC-CONICET, Faculty of Veterinary Science, National University of the Center of Buenos Aires Province, Tandil, Argentina; 2BIOALPINA Program (GENIAL/COTANA, Colonia Alpina, Argentina Abstract: Enzootic bovine leukosis, caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, is the most common neoplasm of dairy cattle. Although beef and dairy cattle are susceptible to BLV infection and BLV-associated lymphosarcoma, the disease is more commonly detected in dairy herds, mostly because of the management practices in dairy farms. The pathogenicity of BLV in its natural host, the bovine, depends mainly on the resistance/susceptibility genetics of the animal. The majority of infected cattle are asymptomatic, promoting the extremely high dissemination rate of BLV in many bovine populations. The important productive losses caused by the BLV, added to the health risk of maintaining populations with a high prevalence of infection with a retrovirus, generates the need to implement control measures. Different strategies to control the virus have been attempted. The most effective approach is to identify and cull the totality of infected cattle in the herd. However, this approach is not suitable for herds with high prevalence of infection. At present, no treatment or vaccine has proven effective for the control of BLV. Thus far, the genetic selection of resistant animals emerges as a natural strategy for the containment of the BLV dissemination. In natural conditions, most of the infected, resistant cattle can control the infection, and therefore do not pass the virus to other animals, gradually decreasing the prevalence of the herd. Keywords: bovine leukemia virus, control, genetic resistance, BoLA-DRB3

  12. The expression and potential function of bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 in bovine trophectoderm

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington Kathleen A; Ealy Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were first described for their roles in bone formation, but they now also are known to possess additional activities, including those relating to embryogenesis. The objectives of this work were to 1) determine if peri-attachment bovine conceptuses and bovine trophoblast cells (CT1) contain transcripts for BMP2 and 4, an innate inhibitor noggin (NOG), and BMP2/4 receptors (BMPRII, ACVR1, BMPR1A, BMPR1B), and 2) determine if BMP2 or 4 suppl...

  13. Regulation of Brain Muscarinic Receptors by Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-21

    229, 1990. 25. Fryer, A.D., E.E. El-Fakahany and D.B. Jacoby: Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Reduces the Affinity of Agonists for Muscarinic Receptors in...Abdallah, M. Evinger, C. Forray and E.E. El-Fakahany: The Presence of an M4 Subtype Muscarinic Receptor in the Bovine Adrenal Medulla Revealed by mRNA and

  14. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  15. Interaction of Bovine Peripheral Blood Polymorphonuclear Cells and Leptospira Species; Innate Responses in the Natural Bovine Reservoir Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Frank, Ami T.; Hornsby, Richard L.; Olsen, Steven C.; Alt, David P.

    2016-01-01

    with bovine PMNs did not affect Leptospira viability as measured by limiting dilution culture. This is in contrast to previously reported results of innate inflammatory activation by Leptospira in human and other animal models, or the activation and interaction of bovine PMNs with Escherichia coli and other bacterial pathogens. While it could be hypothesized that variations in innate receptor recognition, specifically variance in toll-like receptor 2, could underlie the observed reduction of activation in bovine PMNs, additional studies would be needed to explore this possibility. Reduction in neutrophil responses may help to establish nearly asymptomatic chronic Leptospira infection of cattle. This study emphasizes the importance of studying host-pathogen relationships in the appropriate species as extrapolation from other animal models may be incorrect and confounded by differences in the host responses. PMID:27486445

  16. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Leptospira strains with bovine PMNs did not affect Leptospira viability as measured by limiting dilution culture. This is in contrast to previously reported results of innate inflammatory activation by Leptospira in human and other animal models, or the activation and interaction of bovine PMNs with Escherichia coli and other bacterial pathogens. While it could be hypothesized that variations in innate receptor recognition, specifically variance in toll-like receptor 2, could underlie the observed reduction of activation in bovine

  17. Bovine CCL28 Mediates Chemotaxis via CCR10 and Demonstrates Direct Antimicrobial Activity against Mastitis Causing Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyler B Pallister

    Full Text Available In addition to the well characterized function of chemokines in mediating the homing and accumulation of leukocytes to tissues, some chemokines also exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. Little is known of the potential role of chemokines in bovine mammary gland health and disease. The chemokine CCL28 has previously been shown to play a key role in the homing and accumulation of IgA antibody secreting cells to the lactating murine mammary gland. CCL28 has also been shown to act as an antimicrobial peptide with activity demonstrated against a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Here we describe the cloning and function of bovine CCL28 and document the concentration of this chemokine in bovine milk. Bovine CCL28 was shown to mediate cellular chemotaxis via the CCR10 chemokine receptor and exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bovine mastitis causing organisms. The concentration of bovine CCL28 in milk was found to be highly correlated with the lactation cycle. Highest concentrations of CCL28 were observed soon after parturition, with levels decreasing over time. These results suggest a potential role for CCL28 in the prevention/resolution of bovine mastitis.

  18. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  19. Chromium propionate enhances adipogenic differentiation of bovine intramuscular adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eTokach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiments were performed to determine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium propionate on mRNA and protein abundance of different enzymes and receptors. Intramuscular and subcutaneous preadipocytes and bovine satellite cells were isolated from the longissimus muscle to determine the effect of treatment on glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and GLUT4 protein abundance. Preadipocyte cultures were treated with differentiation media plus either sodium propionate or different concentrations of chromium propionate (CrPro for 96, 120, and 144 h before harvest. This study indicated adipogenesis of the bovine intramuscular adipocytes were more sensitive to the treatment of chromium propionate as compared to subcutaneous adipocytes. Enhancement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and GLUT4 mRNA by CrPro treatment may enhance glucose uptake in intramuscular adipocytes. Chromium propionate decreased GLUT4 protein levels in muscle cell cultures suggesting those cells have increased efficiency of glucose uptake due to exposure to increased levels of CrPro. In contrast, each of the two adipogenic lines had opposing responses to the CrPro. It appeared that CrPro had the most stimulative effect of GLUT4 response in the intramuscular adipocytes as compared to subcutaneous adipocytes. These findings indicated opportunities to potentially augment marbling in beef cattle fed chromium propionate during the finishing phase.

  20. Isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus specific bovine antibody fragments from phage display libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Joo; Lebreton, Françoise; Kaiser, Claude; Crucière, Catherine; Rémond, Michelle

    2004-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important veterinary pathogen which can cause widespread epidemics. Due to the high antigenic variability of FMDV, it is important to undertake mutation analysis under immunological pressure. To study the bovine antibody response at a molecular level, phage display technology was used to produce bovine anti-FMDV Fabs. CH1-VH chains with FMDV specific binding could be isolated after selection from a library made from vaccinated cattle. Though their involvement in the bovine immune response remains to be ascertained, it is planned to express the five different selected VH domains in bacterial or insect systems as sequence homologies with integrin beta6 chain could shed light on the basis of FMDV type receptor specificities.

  1. Structural elements of the signal propagation pathway in squid rhodopsin and bovine rhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Minoru; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Suwa, Makiko

    2011-05-19

    Squid and bovine rhodopsins are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate Gq- and Gt-type G-proteins, respectively. To understand the structural elements of the signal propagation pathway, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of squid and bovine rhodopsins plus a detailed sequence analysis of class A GPCRs. The computations indicate that although the geometry of the retinal is similar in bovine and squid rhodopsins, the important interhelical hydrogen bond networks are different. In squid rhodopsin, an extended hydrogen bond network that spans ∼13 Å to Tyr315 on the cytoplasmic site is present regardless of the protonation state of Asp80. In contrast, the extended hydrogen bond network is interrupted at Tyr306 in bovine rhodopsin. Those differences in the hydrogen bond network may play significant functional roles in the signal propagation from the retinal binding site to the cytoplasmic site, including transmembrane helix (TM) 6 to which the G-protein binds. The MD calculations demonstrate that the elongated conformation of TM6 in squid rhodopsin is stabilized by salt bridges formed with helix (H) 9. Together with the interhelical hydrogen bonds, the salt bridges between TM6 and H9 stabilize the protein conformation of squid rhodopsin and may hinder the occurrence of large conformational changes that are observed upon activation of bovine rhodopsin. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  3. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo ...

  4. Interleukin 10 gene promoter polymorphism and risk of diffuse large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roba M. Talaat

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... ulation and proliferation [4,8,9]. IL-10 has been found to act as an autocrine growth factor which up-regulates apoptosis regu- lator Bcl-2 expression in some B-cell malignancies [10,11]. Some evidences suggest that IL-10 might be associated with the progression of T-cell NHLs and in the pathogenesis of.

  5. Interleukin 10 gene promoter polymorphism and risk of diffuse large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roba M. Talaat

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... Abstract. Purpose: Given the importance of understanding the genetic variations involved in the pathogen- esis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), this work was designed to study the impact of IL-10. (А1082 G/A; rs1800896 and А819 C/T; rs1800871) gene promoter polymorphism on susceptibility.

  6. Interleukin 10 gene promoter polymorphism and risk of diffuse large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Given the importance of understanding the genetic variations involved in the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), this work was designed to study the impact of IL-10 (1082 G/A; rs1800896 and 819 C/T; rs1800871) gene promoter polymorphism on susceptibility of Egyptians to diffuse large B cell ...

  7. Pharmacokinetics and leukocyte responses of recombinant human interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanski, E; Chakraborty, A; Van Wart, S; Huhn, R D; Cutler, D L; Affrime, M B; Jusko, W J

    1998-12-01

    To study the pharmacokinetics and ex vivo leukocyte responses of recombinant human IL-10 (rHuIL-10) following single s.c. and i.v. dosing. A randomized two-way cross-over study was undertaken in 17 healthy volunteers in which rHuIL-10 was administered as 25 microg/kg s.c. and i.v. doses. Blood samples were collected for 48 hr after dosing to determine serum IL-10 concentrations. Inhibitory activity of IL-10 on ex vivo production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) by LPS-treated peripheral blood cells were measured over 96 hr. A physiologically-relevant modeling approach was developed to determine the pharmacokinetics for two routes of administration (s.c. and i.v.). The i.v. dose showed polyexponential disposition with CL of 65 mL/kg/hr, Vss of 70 mL/kg, and t1/2 of 1.94 hr. Absolute bioavailability averaged 42% for s.c. dosing which produced lower but sustained concentrations. Substantial and prolonged suppression of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta production was achieved during IL-10 treatment. The Hill Function was used to account for the joint concentration-dependent immunosuppressive action of rHuIL-10 after both i.v. and s.c. doses. The IC50 values were about 0.03 ng/ml and Imax values were about 0.85 for both TNF-alpha and IL-1beta suppression. The degree of change as well as the duration of leukocyte response was greater after s.c. administration than after i.v. administration. rHuIL-10 shows favorable PKPD characteristics especially by the s.c. route of administration which produced prolonged suppression of cytokine production (ex vivo) which may be applicable in various immune-related disorders.

  8. Interleukin-10-based therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, Henri; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Hommes, Daan W.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially Crohn's disease (CD), is caused by a loss of tolerance against the autologous bacterial flora of the intestine. Tolerance against the indigenous flora requires optimal recognition of antigens by pattern

  9. Interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphism as a potential host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Brattig NW, Niemann S, Rüsch-Gerdes S, Horstmann RD, Meyer CG. (2009). IL10 Haplotype Associated with Tuberculin Skin Test. Response but Not with Pulmonary TB. PLoS ONE. 4: e5420. Trajkov D, Trajchevska M, Arsov T, Petlichkovski A, Strezova A,. Efinska-Mladenovska O, Sandevski A, Spiroski M ...

  10. Interleukin-10 gene polymorphism in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialecka, Monika; Klodowska-Duda, Gabriela; Kurzawski, Mateusz; Slawek, Jarosław; Opala, Grzegorz; Bialecki, Piotr; Safranow, Krzysztof; Droździk, Marek

    2007-11-01

    The etiology of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) is not well established. Recent studies revealed that inflammatory processes might also play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. We hypothesized that genetically determined differences in the immune response, especially in anti-inflammatory cytokines production, might influence the risk of sporadic PD development and/or onset. To prove this hypothesis, two DNA polymorphisms at IL-10 promoter (-1082 and -519) were examined in sporadic PD patients. The study enrolled 341 patients with diagnosed idiopathic PD. All cases of secondary parkinsonism were excluded from the study. For the purpose of this study the patients were also divided into two subgroups: group 1: patients with onset of Parkinson's disease, i.e., 50 years of age (late onset) comprising 281 subjects. Control samples were from 315 randomly selected healthy individuals from the same geographical region who were free from signs of parkinsonism as evaluated by consultant neurologists. PCR-RFLP methods were used for genotyping. No statistically significant differences between PD patients and controls were found in the frequency of a single locus (-1082, -519) of IL-10 promoter. Likewise, haplotype analysis did not demonstrate any significant differences between evaluated groups. The frequency of the evaluated IL-10 genotypes was also similar in EOPD and LOPD patients. Results from our study revealed that the IL-10 (-1082G>A, -592C>A) polymorphism is not a risk factor of sporadic Parkinson's disease in a Polish population.

  11. Analysis of Interleukin-10 polymorphic variants in Pakistani population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... human diseases. IL-10 plasma levels vary inter-individually and three-quarters of this variability is contributed by genetic factors. For analysis of pattern of inheritance of ... difference in inheritance pattern based on ethnicity may contribute to human diseases outcomes. ... mast cells (Lin and Befus, 1997).

  12. Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 10 gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... static environment of the central nervous system. The key phenomenon in cytokine contribution to ischemic ... polymorphisms; ischemic stroke; south Indian population. Journal of Genetics, Vol. ..... TNF(-308) promoter polymorphism and stroke risk in children with sickle cell anemia. Stroke 38, 2241–2246.

  13. Interleukin-10 regulates hepcidin in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Honglei

    2014-02-10

    Background: Acute malarial anemia remains a major public health problem. Hepcidin, the major hormone controlling the availability of iron, is raised during acute and asymptomatic parasitemia. Understanding the role and mechanism of raised hepcidin and so reduced iron availability during infection is critical to establish evidence-based guidelines for management of malaria anemia. Our recent clinical evidence suggests a potential role of IL-10 in the regulation of hepcidin in patients with acute P. falciparum malaria. Methods: We have measured secretion of hepcidin by primary macrophages and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 stimulated with IL-10, IL-6 and Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Findings: We have observed that IL-10 and IL-6 production increased in primary macrophages when these cells were co-cultured with Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. We found that IL-10 induced hepcidin secretion in primary macrophages in a dose-dependent manner but not in HepG2 cells. These effects were mediated through signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3-phosphorylation and completely abrogated by a specific STAT3 inhibitor. Conclusion: IL-10 can directly regulate hepcidin in primary macrophages but not in HepG2 cells. This effect can be modulated by Plasmodium falciparum. The results are consistent with a role for IL-10 in modulating iron metabolism during acute phase of infection. 2014 Huang et al.

  14. Interleukin-10 Gene Transfer in Rat Limbal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Claude; Mortimer, Lauren A; Brereton, Helen M; Irani, Yazad D; Parker, Douglas Ga; Anson, Donald S; Bachmann, Lucas M; Williams, Keryn A

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the gene transfer of the interleukin (IL)-10 cytokine as a treatment modality for prolonging limbal allograft survival in a rat model. Adenoviral (AV) and lentiviral (LV) vectors were produced for ex vivo gene transfer into limbal graft tissue prior to orthotopic transplantation. Experimental groups comprised unmodified isografts, unmodified allografts, allografts transfected with a reporter gene, and allografts transfected with IL-10. The functional effects of the transgenes were determined by clinical assessment and by following donor cell survival in the recipient animal. Group comparisons were made using survival analysis and tested with the log-rank test. Differences in mean rejection times between groups were tested using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Isografts survived during the entire observation period of 56 days. Allografts underwent clinical rejection at a mean of 6.7 days (standard deviation 2.0) postoperatively, irrespective of the presence of transgenes (p IL-10 with allografts transfected with reporter gene alone (p = 0.011 and p IL-10, leading to delayed rejection compared to the controls.

  15. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  16. Chemerin is a novel regulator of lactogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Haga, Satoshi; Katoh, Daiki; So, Kyoung-ha; Choi, Ki-choon; Jung, U-suk; Lee, Hong-gu; Katoh, Kazuo; Roh, Sang-gun

    2015-10-23

    Chemerin is a chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) produced by adipocytes and hepatocytes; it regulates insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chemerin on the expression of genes related to lactogenesis and the regulators of chemerin signaling in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T). Two types of chemerin receptors, chemokine like-receptor 1 (CMKLR1) and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 2 (CCRL2), were detected in cultured MAC-T cells, whereas chemerin was not detected. G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1), another receptor of chemerin, was undetectable in MAC-T cells. Chemerin upregulated transcript expression of CMKLR1, CCRL2, and genes associated with fatty acid synthesis, glucose uptake, insulin signaling, and casein synthesis in MAC-T cells. Lactogenic hormones (insulin, growth hormone, and prolactin) downregulated the expression of CMKLR1 in MAC-T cells. Adiponectin suppressed CMKLR1 expression. TNF-α suppressed CMKLR1, but induced CCRL2 expression. These data suggest chemerin is a novel regulator of lactogenesis via its own receptor in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  18. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five bovine...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  1. NEGATIVE REGULATORY EFFECTS OF PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL3-KINASE PATHWAY ON PHAGOCYTOSIS AND MACROPINOCYTOSIS IN BOVINE MONOCYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Mais G; Harris, Autumn N; Stokes, John V; Bailey, Richard H; Pinchuk, Lesya M

    2014-08-31

    Recent studies have shown that monocytes and macrophages not only present antigens to effector T cells and stimulate and shape T cell-mediated immune responses, but they also prime naïve T cells, thus initiating adaptive immune responses. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase functions at an early phase of toll-like receptor signaling pathways, modulates the magnitude of the primary immune responses, and is involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton during macropinocytic and phagocytic antigen uptakes, important early steps in triggering adaptive immune responses. We assessed by flow cytometry the endocytic capacities of bovine monocytes by using endocytic tracers and Salmonella transformed with a green fluorescence plasmid GFP to evaluate macropinocytosis, mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis, and phagocytosis in bovine professional antigen presenting cells, respectively. Our data reveal that wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway, significantly increased macropinocytosis and phagocytosis but did not affect the mannose receptor-mediated antigen uptake in bovine monocytes. Protein expression data support these findings by showing decreased levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the presence of wortmannin during macropinocytosis. We expanded further the key role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase as an endogenous suppressor of primary immune responses, suggesting a novel mechanism of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase antigen uptake modulation that may provide a unique therapeutic target for controlling excessive inflammation.

  2. Bone Regeneration Is Promoted by Orally Administered Bovine Lactoferrin in a Rabbit Tibial Distraction Osteogenesis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyang; Zhu, Songsong; Hu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b. In addition, RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses suggested that bovine lactoferrin treatment induced a lower receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK) ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) ratio in the distracted callus. The results of our study suggest that bovine lactoferrin treatment could promote bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit. The results indicate that the OPG/RANKL/RANK system might be a major mechanism for increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption in distraction osteogenesis with bovine lactoferrin treatment. Oral administration of bovine lactoferrin may provide a feasible approach for promoting osteogenesis during distraction osteogenesis.

  3. Proteome analysis of early lineage specification in bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demant, Myriam; Deutsch, Daniela R; Fröhlich, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J

    2015-02-01

    During mammalian embryo development, the zygote undergoes embryonic cleavage in the oviduct and reaches the uterus at the morula stage, when compaction and early lineage specification take place. To increase knowledge about the associated changes of the embryonic protein repertoire, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of in vitro produced bovine morulae and blastocysts (six biological replicates), using an iTRAQ-based approach. A total of 560 proteins were identified of which 502 were quantified. The abundance of 140 proteins was significantly different between morulae and blastocysts, among them nucleophosmin (NPM1), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (EIF5A), receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (GNB2L1/RACK1), and annexin A6 (ANXA6) with increased, and glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (GSTM3), peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), and aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1) with decreased abundance in blastocysts. Seventy-three percent of abundance altered proteins increased, reflecting an increase of translation activity in this period. This is further supported by an increase in the abundance of proteins involved in the translation machinery and the synthesis of ATP. Additionally, a complementary 2D saturation DIGE analysis led to the detection of protein isoforms, e.g. of GSTM3 and PRDX2, relevant for this period of mammalian development, and exemplarily verified the results of the iTRAQ approach. In summary, our systematic differential proteome analysis of bovine morulae and blastocysts revealed new molecular correlates of early lineage specification and differentiation events during bovine embryogenesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  5. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  6. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  7. A repetitive probe for FISH analysis of bovine interphase nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to generate repetitive DNA sequence probes for the analysis of interphase nuclei by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH. Such probes are useful for the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine preimplanted embryos. Of the seven probes (E1A, E4A, Ba, H1A, W18, W22, W5 that were generated and partially sequenced, five corresponded to previously described Bos taurus repetitive DNA (E1A, E4A, Ba, W18, W5, one probe (W22 shared no homology with other DNA sequences and one (H1A displayed a significant homology with Rattus norvegicus mRNA for secretin receptor transmembrane domain 3. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation was performed on metaphase bovine fibroblast cells and showed that five of the seven probes hybridised most centromeres (E1A, E4A, Ba, W18, W22, one labelled the arms of all chromosomes (W5 and the H1A probe was specific to three chromosomes (ch14, ch20, and ch25. Moreover, FISH with H1A resulted in interpretable signals on interphase nuclei in 88% of the cases, while the other probes yielded only dispersed overlapping signals.

  8. Apicomplexan profilins in vaccine development applied to bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, Florencia C; Capozzo, Alejandra V

    2017-12-01

    Neospora caninum, an intracellular protozoan parasite from the phylum Apicomplexa, is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a disease considered as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs. Bovine neosporosis has a great economic impact in both meat and dairy industries, related to abortion, premature culling and reduced milk yields. Although many efforts have been made to restrain bovine neosporosis, there are still no efficacious control methods. Many vaccine-development studies focused in the apicomplexan proteins involved in the adhesion and invasion of the host cell. Among these proteins, profilins have recently emerged as potential vaccine antigens or even adjuvant candidates for several diseases caused by apicomplexan parasites. Profilins bind Toll-like receptors 11 and 12 initiating MyD88 signaling, that triggers IL-12 and IFN-γ production, which may promote protection against infection. Here we summarized the state-of-the-art of novel vaccine development based on apicomplexan profilins applied as antigens or adjuvants, and delved into recent advances on N. caninum vaccines using profilin in the mouse model and in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-01-01

    ...) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV...

  10. Virome of US bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Yugo, Danielle M; Phan, Tung Gia; Deng, Xutao; Kanevsky, Isis; Opriessnig, Tanja; Woolums, Amelia R; Hurley, David J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Delwart, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Using viral metagenomics we analyzed four bovine serum pools assembled from 715 calves in the United States. Two parvoviruses, bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) and a previously uncharacterized parvovirus designated as bosavirus (BosaV), were detected in 3 and 4 pools respectively and their complete coding sequences generated. Based on NS1 protein identity, bosavirus qualifies as a member of a new species in the copiparvovirus genus. Also detected were low number of reads matching ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, bovine hepacivirus, and several papillomaviruses. This study further characterizes the diversity of viruses in calf serum with the potential to infect fetuses and through fetal bovine serum contaminate cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolism and Calcification of Bovine Tooth Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    高木, 亨; 田上, 順次; 中村, 聡; Tohru, Takagi; Junji, TAGAMI; Satoshi, Nakamura; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 生化学講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 歯科保存学第1講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 医用器材研究所; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Institute of Medical and Dental Engineering, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mineralization mechanism in developing enamel using pH staining. Unerupted bovine teeth were used for the expriment. The activity of a proteolytic enzyme was evaluated against enamel protein obtainedfrom bovine enamel. Crystals in developing enamel, which were classlfied into neutral zone 1 and 2, acid zone 1 and 2, were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and power X-ray diffractometry. Proteolytic enzyme showed the hig...

  12. Interactions between bovine cornea proteoglycans and collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Speziale, P.; Bardoni, A; Balduini, C.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of proteoglycan subunits were obtained from bovine cornea, the first mainly composed of proteochondroitin sulphate and the second of proteokeratan sulphate. These two fractions can be obtained from the tissue as an aggregate, and are able to recombine each other after separation, to re-form the original structure. In order to investigate collagen-proteoglycan interactions, type-I collagen was isolated from bovine cornea by pepsin digestion followed by 3.5% (w/v) NaCl precipitation, ...

  13. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat-Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat-bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  15. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals. PMID:28638381

  16. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okagawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1, is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2 was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV. Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  17. Susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial cells to bovine herpesviruses and pseudocowpox virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Jongejan, F.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial (BUE) cells to bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1, BHV2, BHV4 and BHV5, and to pseudocowpox virus. the detection limits and growth curves of these viruses in BUE cells were compared with those in Vero,

  18. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all t...

  19. Interactions of Rodent Coronaviruses with Cellular Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-08

    canine coronavirus, CCV), cats (feline coronavirus, FIPV and FeCV), cattle (bovine coronavirus, BCV), and rats 11 (rat coronavirus, PRCV, SDAV and...porcine transmissible gastroenteris vi rus; Cell , canine coronavi rus; FECI/ , feline enteric coronavlrus; FIPV. fel ine infectious peritonitis...different types of cells viral replication may be blocked at any stage of the virus life cycle . Therefore, cell receptors are not the only

  20. Bovine colostrum increases pore-forming claudin-2 protein expression but paradoxically not ion permeability possibly by a change of the intestinal cytokine milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Bodammer

    Full Text Available An impaired intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Several nutritional factors are supposed to be effective in IBD treatment but scientific data about the effects on the intestinal integrity remain scarce. Bovine colostrum was shown to exert beneficial effects in DSS-induced murine colitis, and the present study was undertaken to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot revealed increased claudin-2 expression in the distal ileum of healthy mice after feeding with colostrum for 14 days, whereas other tight junction proteins (claudin-3, 4, 10, 15 remained unchanged. The colostrum-induced claudin-2 induction was confirmed in differentiated Caco-2 cells after culture with colostrum for 48 h. Paradoxically, the elevation of claudin-2, which forms a cation-selective pore, was neither accompanied by increased ion permeability nor impaired barrier function. In an in situ perfusion model, 1 h exposure of the colonic mucosa to colostrum induced significantly increased mRNA levels of barrier-strengthening cytokine transforming growth factor-β, while interleukine-2, interleukine-6, interleukine-10, interleukine-13, and tumor-necrosis factor-α remained unchanged. Thus, modulation of the intestinal transforming growth factor-β expression might have compensated the claudin-2 increase and contributed to the observed barrier strengthening effects of colostrum in vivo and in vitro.

  1. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  2. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  3. Influence of omega-3 fatty acids on bovine luteal cell plasma membrane dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewes, Michele R; Burns, Patrick D; Hyslop, Richard M; George Barisas, B

    2017-12-01

    Fish oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids which disrupt lipid microdomain structure and affect mobility of the prostaglandin F2α (FP) receptor in bovine luteal cells. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of individual omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on 1) membrane fatty acid composition, 2) lipid microdomain structure, and 3) lateral mobility of the FP receptor in bovine luteal cells. Ovaries were collected from a local abattoir (n=5/experiment). The corpus luteum was resected and enzymatically digested using collagenase to generate a mixed luteal cell population. In all experiments, luteal cells were treated with 0, 1, 10 or 100μM EPA or DHA for 72h to allow incorporation of fatty acids into membrane lipids. Results from experiment 1 show that culturing luteal cells in the presence of EPA or DHA increased these luteal fatty acids. In experiment 2, both EPA and DHA increased spatial distribution of lipid microdomains in a dose-dependent manner. Single particle tracking results from experiment 3 show that increasing both EPA and DHA concentrations increased micro- and macro-diffusion coefficients, increased domain size, and decreased residence time of FP receptors. Collectively, results from this study demonstrate similar effects of EPA and DHA on lipid microdomain structure and lateral mobility of FP receptors in cultured bovine luteal cells. Moreover, only 10μM of either fatty acid was needed to mimic the effects of fish oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bovine Eimeria species in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W

    2012-05-01

    Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from

  5. Identification of unprecedented anticancer properties of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (HMW-bLf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Ebrahim

    Full Text Available With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (≥250 kDa, from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo lactoferrin (∼78-80 kDa, retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01 of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further.

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of ...

  7. Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factors for human infection with bovine tuberculosis among dairy and non-dairy farming neighbour households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  8. Molecular aspects of bovine cystic ovarian disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo H; Marelli, Belkis E; Rey, Florencia; Amweg, Ayelen N; Díaz, Pablo U; Stangaferro, Matías L; Salvetti, Natalia R

    2015-06-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is one of the main causes of reproductive failure in cattle and causes severe economic loss to the dairy farm industry because it increases both days open in the post partum period and replacement rates due to infertility. This disease is the consequence of the failure of a mature follicle to ovulate at the time of ovulation in the estrous cycle. This review examines the evidence for the role of altered steroid and gonadotropin signaling systems and the proliferation/apoptosis balance in the ovary with cystic structures. This evidence suggests that changes in the expression of ovarian molecular components associated with these cellular mechanisms could play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of COD. The evidence also shows that gonadotropin receptor expression in bovine cystic follicles is altered, which suggests that changes in the signaling system of gonadotropins could play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of conditions characterized by altered ovulation, such as COD. Ovaries from animals with COD exhibit a disrupted steroid receptor pattern with modifications in the expression of coregulatory proteins. These changes in the pathways of endocrine action would trigger the changes in proliferation and apoptosis underlying the aberrant persistence of follicular cysts. Free Spanish abstract: A Spanish translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/149/6/R251/suppl/DC1. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  9. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  10. Protection against bovine leukosis virus infection in sheep with the BL 20 bovine lymphoblastoid cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Sands, J; Wibberley, G

    1982-11-01

    The bovine lymphoblastoid BL 20 cell line derived from a case of sporadic bovine leukosis when inoculated into sheep did not induce an antibody response directed against bovine leukosis virus (BLV) structural proteins. Sheep were inoculated twice with the BL 20 cell line and then challenged with BLV infected lymphocytes. Three out of four sheep challenged four weeks after BL 20 inoculation did not develop BLV antibodies. Of the 12 sheep challenged later, three sheep did not develop BLV antibodies. BLV was isolated from all the seropositive animals and from none of the seronegative animals.

  11. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's Solution...

  12. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  13. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cultures for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine...

  14. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  15. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine...

  16. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  17. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vs 17.67, 15.68, 16.53). In conclusion in this experiment, melatonin cannot improve cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes. When concentrations is high, melatonin may affect bovine oocytes meiotic maturation at metaphase-1 stage, but it is improbable melatonin be toxic for bovine oocytes.

  18. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public meetings...

  19. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  20. Interactions of multiplication-stimulating activity with bovine endothelium: comparative studies in primary, passaged, and cloned cultures from the pulmonary and systemic circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, R S; Goldsmith, J C; Rechler, M M; Peacock, M L; Nissley, S P

    1982-03-01

    Endothelial cells were prepared from adult bovine pulmonary and systemic vessels and maintained as primary cultures, passaged cultures, and cloned cell strains. All cultures were shown to contain endothelial cells on the basis of several endothelial-specific and endothelial-associated traits. Both primary and passaged cells demonstrated specific receptors for the insulin-like growth factor, multiplication-stimulating activity (MSA). [125I]Iodo-MSA binding was greatest in cells derived from aortas, least in pulmonary venous cells, and intermediate in pulmonary arterial cells. When compared to MSA receptors on primary endothelial cell cultures derived from human umbilical veins or arteries, the bovine cells bound 4-10 times more MSA per cell. In all bovine cells, insulin competed weakly or not at all with [125I]iodo-MSA binding. The presence of MSA receptors on primary and passaged cells from five different vascular sources (three bovine and two human) suggests that receptors for the insulin-like growth factors may be an intrinsic component of the vascular endothelium.

  1. Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Jagdish K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Desai, Sajjad A; Sabale, Rajendra N; Naik, Sameer P; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2014-08-11

    A bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) containing rotavirus human-bovine (UK) reassortant strains of serotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 has been developed by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA. The vaccine underwent animal toxicity studies and Phase I and II studies in adults, toddlers and infants. It has been found safe and immunogenic and will undergo a large Phase III study to assess efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic......, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard...

  3. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  4. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in reproductive tract and gametes of slaughtered bovine females

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Claudemir de; Freitas,Antonio Carlos de; Brunner,Olga; Góes,Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Cavalcante,Andréa Yaguiu; Beçak,Willy; Santos,Rita de Cassia Stocco dos

    2003-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are described selectively infecting epithelial tissues and are associated with many forms of cancer in different species. Considering the widespread dissemination of papillomatosis in livestock, interest is being centred on possible forms of viral transmission and respective mechanisms. In the present study, we report the detection of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA sequences in female reproductive tract tissues, fluids and oocytes from slaughtered bovines not afflicted by cu...

  5. Prototheca zopfii isolated from bovine mastitis induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yanan; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Deng, Youtian; Sabir, Naveed; Su, Jingliang; Han, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Bovine protothecal mastitis results in considerable economic losses worldwide. However, Prototheca zopfii induced morphological alterations and oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is not comprehensively studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this current study was to investigate the P. zopfii induced pathomorphological changes, oxidative stress and apoptosis in bMECs. Oxidative stress was assessed by evaluating catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxi...

  6. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  7. Developing a vaccine for eradicating contagious bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) — also known as lung plague — is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP kills up to 50% of infected animals, when newly introduced into a population, and many cattle.

  8. Activities for leptin in bovine trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C K; Xie, M M; McCoski, S R; Ealy, A D

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h. Transcript profiles were examined from extracted RNA. Leptin supplementation did not affect abundance of the maternal recognition of pregnancy factor, interferon-tau (IFNT), but leptin increased (P leptin. Transcript abundance of the remodeling factor, metalloprotease 2 (MMP2), was greater (P leptin-treated cells at 24 h but not at 6 h. The 24 h MMP2 response was greatest (P leptin treatment. In a separate set of studies, cell proliferation assays were completed. Leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell line proliferation at any dose tested. In conclusion, leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell proliferation or IFNT expression, but leptin increases CSH2 and MMP2 transcript abundance. Both of these factors are involved with peri-implantation and postimplantation placental development and function, and this implicates leptin as a potential mediator of early placental development and function in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Seroprevalence Study Of Bovine Brucellosis In Extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of bovine brucellosis was measured in cross sectional study in Jimma zone, Western Ethiopia using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBT) and CFT from October 2003 to April 2004. The study animals consisted of 1305 local breed found in extensive system in five districts of in the zone. The overall individual animal ...

  10. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  11. Hydrophobic interactions of phenoxazine modulators with bovine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The binding of phenothiazine drugs to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied 1. Although most of the authors obtained total binding constants of the same order of magnitude, the number of binding sites varied considerably. It has been found 2 that the number of binding sites on BSA for promazine and ...

  12. Transmission of new bovine prion to mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, T.G.M.; Biacabe, A.G.; Bencsik, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6

  13. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  14. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  15. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology and cha...

  16. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  17. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in Sokoto Metropolitan Abattoir in Nigeria. JE Onu. Abstract. No Abstract. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol.

  18. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  19. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  20. The effects of quercetin on microRNA and inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bovine neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsakorn Chuammitri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate gene expression of microRNA (miRNA milieus (MIRLET7E, MIR17, MIR24-2, MIR146A, and MIR181C, inflammatory cytokine genes (interleukin 1β [IL1B], IL6, CXCL8, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF], and the pathogen receptor toll-like receptor (TLR4 in bovine neutrophils under quercetin supplementation. Materials and Methods: Isolated bovine neutrophils were incubated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide under quercetin treatment or left untreated. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of the miRNAs and messenger RNA (mRNA transcripts in neutrophils. Results: Quercetin-treated neutrophils exhibited a remarkable suppression in MIR24-2, MIR146A, and MIR181C expression. Similarly, mRNA expression of IL1B, IL6, CXCL8, TLR4, and TNF genes noticeably declined in the quercetin group. Many proinflammatory genes (IL1B, IL6, and CXCL8 and the pathogen receptor TLR4 had a negative correlation with MIR146A and MIR181C as revealed by Pearson correlation. Conclusion: Interaction between cognate mRNAs and miRNAs under quercetin supplementation can be summarized as a positive or negative correlation. This finding may help understand the effects of quercetin either on miRNA or gene expression during inflammation, especially as a potentially applicable indicator in bovine mastitis.

  1. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P. (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine (USA))

    1991-07-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 (11-2-((2-(diethylaminomethyl)- 1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one), hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of (3H)quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of (3H)-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated.

  2. Atypical SCH23390 binding sites are present on bovine adrenal medullary membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmer, M K; Senogles, S E

    2000-03-01

    D1-selective dopamine receptor agonists inhibit secretagogue-stimulated catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. The purpose of the studies reported here was to use the radiolabeled D1-selective dopamine receptor antagonist, SCH23390, to characterize putative D1-like dopamine receptors responsible for this effect. Characterization of SCH23390 binding sites demonstrated an unusual pharmacological profile inconsistent with classical D1-like receptors. [125I]SCH23390 bound to adrenal medullary membranes was competed for by nonradioactive iodo-SCH23390 (Kd = 490 +/- 50 nM), but not by (+)butaclamol. Other classical D1 antagonists had little, if any, effect. Competition with dopamine receptor agonists demonstrated a relative rank order of potency profile characteristic of D1-like dopamine receptors, however, K(i)s were higher than those found in other tissues. The K(i)s for competition of [125I]SCH23390 binding by Cl-APB and SKF38393 (16 and 118 microM, respectively) are nearly identical to the IC(50)s previously observed for inhibition of secretion (9 and 100 microM, respectively). Combined these data suggest that adrenal medullary membranes contain a novel SCH23390 binding site involved in the inhibition of secretion by D1-selective agonists.

  3. Identification of dopamine transporter in bovine pineal gland using [3H]GBR 12935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govitrapong, P; Vilaipun, P; Ebadi, M

    2003-08-01

    The mammalian pineal gland contains several neurotransmitters and receptors for amino acids, biogenic amines, and peptides. Some of these, such as D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, have been previously identified and characterized in the bovine pineal gland by our group. As a matter of fact, the density of D1 dopamine receptors in the pineal gland is higher than that of corpus striatum, suggesting that this organ must possess a high affinity dopamine transporter, which has been identified in this study by using [3H]GBR 12935 as a radiological ligand and nomifensine to determine non-specific binding. The association rate of [3H]GBR 12935 binding to the pineal membrane was examined as a function of time. The binding reached equilibrium within 45 min of incubation at 25 degrees C. The specific binding was reversible and saturable. The dissociation time course of the specific [3H]GBR 12935 binding from the bovine pineal membrane was also studied. A half-life (t1/2) of 14-min was obtained. The saturation analysis of the [3H]GBR 12935 binding revealed a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 6.0 +/- 0.9 nm and a receptor density (Bmax) of 6.9 +/- 0.3 pmol/mg protein, which were comparable with those values obtained from bovine striatum and frontal cortex. In competitive experiments, the concentrations of drugs required to inhibit 50% of the binding (IC50) were in descending order GBR 12909 > GBR 12935 > trans-flupenthixol > nomifensine > cis-flupenthixol > amitriptyline > imipramine > desipramine > dopamine > fluoxetine > fuvoxamine > d-amphetamine. However, nisoxetine, SCH 23390, norepinephrine, and serotonin were unable to displace [3H]GBR binding. These results show that drugs capable of blocking dopamine transporters were effective in displacing [3H]GBR binding; whereas specific norepinephrine and serotonin transporter inhibitors were less effective or ineffective. In addition, the dopamine transporter is ion-dependent as sodium increased [3H]GBR binding in a

  4. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  5. Bovine oocytes in secondary follicles grow in medium containing bovine plasma after vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Takajo, Asuka; Bao, Rong-Mei; Hamawaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Motoichi; Miyano, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    There has been no culture system that supports the growth of bovine oocytes for more than 2 weeks. In the present study, bovine secondary follicles were cultured for 4 weeks, and the effects of supplemented protein components and FSH in the culture medium on the growth of the oocytes were examined. The effect of vitrification of secondary follicles on the subsequent oocyte growth was also examined. Secondary follicles (150 to 200 µm in diameter) containing growing oocytes (approximately 60 µm in diameter) were dissected from ovaries and cultured in a medium supplemented with FSH (0, 25 or 50 ng/ml) and one of the following four kinds of protein components: bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine plasma (BPL), fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine follicular fluid (BFF). In BSA- and BPL-supplemented media with 0 or 25 ng/ml FSH, more than 50% of follicles showed no degenerative signs during culture, and oocytes significantly increased in size after 4 weeks (Pbovine secondary follicles for 4 weeks, even after vitrification and warming of the follicles.

  6. Bovine serum albumin: survival and osmolarity effect in bovine spermatozoa stored above freezing point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nang, C F; Osman, K; Budin, S B; Ismail, M I; Jaffar, F H F; Mohamad, S F S; Ibrahim, S F

    2012-05-01

    Liquid nitrogen preservation in remote farms is a limitation. The goal of this study was to determine optimum temperature above freezing point for bovine spermatozoa preservation using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a supplementation. Pooled semen sample from three ejaculates was subjected to various BSA concentration (1, 4, 8 and 12 mg ml(-1)), before incubation in different above freezing point temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C). Viability assessment was carried out against time from day 0 (fresh sample) until all spermatozoa become nonviable. Optimal condition for bovine spermatozoa storage was at 4 °C with 1 mg ml(-1) BSA for almost 7 days. BSA improved bovine spermatozoa viability declining rate to 44.28% at day 4 and 57.59% at day 7 compared to control, with 80.54% and 98.57% at day 4 and 7 respectively. Increase in BSA concentration did not improve sperm viability. Our results also confirmed that there was a strong negative correlation between media osmolarity and bovine spermatozoa survival rate with r = 0.885, P freezing point. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polineni, Pavana; Aragonda, Prathyusha; Xavier, Suresh R; Furuta, Richard; Adelson, David L

    2006-06-05

    Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling) in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL) populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle) QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  8. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  9. Evolution of the bovine TLR gene family and member associations with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen A Fisher

    Full Text Available Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2≥0.50 between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to

  10. Phenotypic, ultra-structural, and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Sei

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c-. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC, and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle.

  11. Papillomatosis of the bovine teat (mammary papilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R O; Olson, C; Easterday, B C

    1982-12-01

    A 4th of 667 cattle examined at a Wisconsin abattoir had teat papillomas. Excised teat papillomas were sorted by gross morphologic characteristics into 3 groups: (i) atypical filiform, (ii) atypical flat, and (iii) typical fibropapilloma. Bovine papilloma virus capsid antigen was detected in thin-section slides of the 3 groups of teat papillomas by peroxidase-antiperoxidase assay. The bovine papilloma virus involved with the atypical papillomas could not be characterized by molecular hybridization, because enough pure virus could not be harvested. Homogenates of the 3 groups of teat papillomas were inoculated on 2 ponies and 4 calves. Typical fibropapillomas were produced on the 4 calves, and fibromas, on the 2 ponies. Atypical papillomas were produced only in 2 heifers.

  12. Contribution of the Purinergic Receptor P2X7 to Development of Lung Immunopathology during Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Leyva-Grado

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An exacerbated immune response is one of the main causes of influenza-induced lung damage during infection. The molecular mechanisms regulating the fate of the initial immune response to infection, either as a protective response or as detrimental immunopathology, are not well understood. The purinergic receptor P2X7 is an ionotropic nucleotide-gated ion channel receptor expressed on immune cells that has been implicated in induction and maintenance of excessive inflammation. Here, we analyze the role of this receptor in a mouse model of influenza virus infection using a receptor knockout (KO mouse strain. Our results demonstrate that the absence of the P2X7 receptor results in a better outcome to influenza virus infection characterized by reduced weight loss and increased survival upon experimental influenza challenge compared to wild-type mice. This effect was not virus strain specific. Overall lung pathology and apoptosis were reduced in virus-infected KO mice. Production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10, gamma interferon (IFN-γ, and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2 was also reduced in the lungs of the infected KO mice. Infiltration of neutrophils and depletion of CD11b+ macrophages, characteristic of severe influenza virus infection in mice, were lower in the KO animals. Together, these results demonstrate that activation of the P2X7 receptor is involved in the exacerbated immune response observed during influenza virus infection.

  13. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a...... in aqueous compartments. - Bojesen, I. N., and H. S. Hansen. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin....

  14. Mycoplasma bovis escapes bovine neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondaira, Satoshi; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Nishi, Koji; Iwano, Hidetomo; Nagahata, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a significant pathogen in bovine infections including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis and otitis media, and is the cause of large economic losses in beef and dairy farms. During infection with M. bovis, recruited neutrophils are not sufficient to eradicate M. bovis from the infection site. The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is one of the innate immune responses of neutrophils but the effect of M. bovis on NET formation by bovine neutrophils has not yet been clarified. The objective of our research was to examine the effect of M. bovis on NET formation and the killing activity of bovine neutrophils. We showed that NETs were not detected following stimulation of neutrophils by M. bovis alone or with Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetat (PMA). Reactive oxygen species production is essential for NET formation but the levels in neutrophils stimulated with M. bovis at multiplicity of infections of 10, 100, and 1000 were similar to those of unstimulated cells. NET formation induced by PMA stimulated neutrophils disappeared following the addition of M. bovis but this phenomenon was not observed when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was added. M. bovis colony forming units were significantly decreased by the addition of EDTA in the presence of NETs. Our results suggested that M. bovis infection alone did not induce NETs and that M. bovis nucleases, as hypothesis-based, contributed to resistance against the killing activity of NETs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  16. Synthesis and assembly of infectious bovine papillomavirus particles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Stenzel, D J; Sun, X Y; Frazer, I H

    1993-04-01

    Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) virions were produced in vitro using vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants expressing the BPV-1 L1 and L2 capsid proteins. Particles morphologically resembling papillomaviruses were observed in the nucleus of cells infected with a VV recombinant for the BPV-1 L1 protein, and greater numbers of similar particles were seen in the nuclei of cells infected with a VV double recombinant for L1 and L2. Virus-like particles (VLPs) assembled in cells infected with the VV double recombinant for BPV-1 L1 and L2, and not those assembled in cells infected with the VV recombinant for BPV-1 L1 alone, were able to package BPV-1 DNA. Transcription of the BPV-1 E1 viral open reading frame was observed after a mouse fibroblast cell line was exposed to VLPs produced using a BPV-1 L1/L2 VV recombinant in a cell line containing episomal BPV-1 DNA. E1 transcription was not observed when the VLPs were pre-incubated with antibodies to the capsid protein of BPV-1. This system should allow an in vitro approach to the definition of the BPV-1 cellular receptor.

  17. Gangliosides are essential for bovine adeno-associated virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Chiorini, John A

    2006-06-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising gene therapy vectors. We have recently identified a bovine adeno-associated virus (BAAV) that demonstrates unique tropism and transduction activity compared to primate AAVs. To better understand the entry pathway and cell tropism of BAAV, we have characterized the initial cell surface interactions required for transduction with BAAV vectors. Like a number of AAVs, BAAV requires cell surface sialic acid groups for transduction and virus attachment. However, glycosphingolipids (GSLs), not cell surface proteins, were required for vector entry and transduction. Incorporation of gangliosides, ceramide-based glycolipids containing one or more sialic acid groups, into the cytoplasmic cell membranes of GSL-depleted COS cells partially reconstituted BAAV transduction. The dependency of BAAV on gangliosides for transduction was further confirmed by studies with C6 cells, a rat glioma cell line that is deficient in the synthesis of complex gangliosides. C6 cells were resistant to transduction by BAAV. Addition of gangliosides to C6 cells prior to transduction rendered the cells susceptible to transduction by BAAV. Therefore, gangliosides are a likely receptor for BAAV.

  18. Theca Cell INSL3 and Steroids Together Orchestrate the Growing Bovine Antral Follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhenzi Dai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3 and its specific receptor RXFP2 are both expressed by theca interna cells of the growing antral follicle where they form an essential regulatory element in the production of the steroid precursor androstenedione. Using primary cultures of bovine theca cells from the mid follicular phase together with steroid agonists and antagonists we have examined how ovarian steroids modulate INSL3 expression. Transcript analysis shows that these cells express estrogen receptors α and β, androgen and progesterone receptors, besides the orphan nuclear receptors SF1 and nur77. Whereas, exogenous androgens have little or no effect, the androgen antagonist bicalutamide stimulates INSL3 production. In contrast, estrogen receptor agonists, as also progesterone, are stimulatory. Importantly, estrogen receptor signaling is convergent with the protein kinase A signaling pathway activated by LH, such that the estrogen receptor antagonist can inhibit the mild stimulatory effect of LH, and vice versa the PKA antagonist H89 blocks stimulation by estradiol. A significant finding is that the major steroid metabolite androstenedione appears to act predominantly as an estrogen and not an androgen in this system. Transfection of INSL3 gene promoter-reporter constructs together with various steroid receptor expression plasmids supports these findings and shows that steroid action uses non-classical pathways not requiring canonical steroid-responsive elements in the proximal promoter region. Together, the results indicate that increasing estrogens in the follicular phase stimulate a feedforward loop driving INSL3 signaling and thereby promoting steroidogenesis in the growing antral follicle until the LH surge which effectively switches off INSL3 expression.

  19. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    search algorithms, and molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with limited experimental evidence, the model suggests that the substrate binds in an extended conformation with charged residues on either side of the scissile bond playing an important role in stabilizing the binding pose. Lys111......Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational......) is found to be important for stabilizing the binding pose. The catalytic site (including the catalytic water molecule) is stable in the starting conformation of the previously proposed general acid/base catalytic mechanism for 18 ns of molecular dynamics simulations...

  20. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of carbohydrate structures and the distribution of the newly identified mucin MUC15, a highly glycosylated protein associated with the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Distribution of MUC15 was investigated in various fractions of bovine milk......-containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......-linked glycans were shown to contain mainly hybrid-type N-glycans. In addition, the N-glycans were shown to be sialylated and contain terminal poly-lactosamine structures. The O-linked glycans were found to constitute some unsubstituted Core-1 structures and a substantial number of sialylated Core-1 O...

  1. Molecular Mechanism of Dioxin Action: Molecular Cloning of the Ah Receptor Using a DNA Recognition Site Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-13

    subunit), affinity labeled with [1 2 5 I]-2-azido-3- iodo -7,8- dibromodibenzo-p-dioxin, a high affinity agonist for the AhR, has recently been reported...hydrocarbon receptor. BSA, bovine serum albumin. DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide. DRE, dioxin responsive element. DTT, dithiothreitol. HEDG, 25 mM Hepes, pH 7.5, 1...method of Bradford (1976) using bovine serum albumin as the standard. Synthetic Oligonucleotides A complementary pair of synthetic DNA fragments

  2. Microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel in roselle extract solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, M. T.; Noerdin, A.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of roselle extract solution on the microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel. Ten bovine teeth and a 5% concentration of roselle extract solution were prepared. Immersions of each bovine tooth in roselle extract solution were conducted up to 60 minutes. The bovine enamel surface was characterized in hardness and microscopy. It was apparent that the initial hardness was 328 KHN, and after immersion in 15 and 60 min, the values decrease to 57.4 KHN and 11 KHN, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changes in enamel rods after immersion in the roselle extract solution.

  3. Neurogenic vasodilatation in isolated bovine and canine penile arteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Bowman; J S Gillespie

    1983-01-01

    Field stimulation of isolated, perfused bovine or canine penile arteries produced dilatation, after the adrenergic motor component of the response had been blocked with guanethidine and the vessels...

  4. Morphologic and mechanical characteristics of engineered bovine arteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niklason, Laura E; Abbott, William; Gao, Jinming; Klagges, Brian; Hirschi, Karen K; Ulubayram, Kezban; Conroy, Nancy; Jones, Rosemary; Vasanawala, Ami; Sanzgiri, Seema; Langer, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... Engineered vessels were cultured from bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells that were seeded onto biodegradable polymer scaffolds and cultured under physiologically pulsatile conditions...

  5. Possible Roles of CC- and CXC-Chemokines in Regulating Bovine Endometrial Function during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Sakumoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the possible roles of chemokines in regulating bovine endometrial function during early pregnancy. The expression of six chemokines, including CCL2, CCL8, CCL11, CCL14, CCL16, and CXCL10, was higher in the endometrium at 15 and 18 days of pregnancy than at the same days in non-pregnant animals. Immunohistochemical staining showed that chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CXCR3 were expressed in the epithelial cells and glandular epithelial cells of the bovine endometrium as well as in the fetal trophoblast obtained from a cow on day 18 of pregnancy. The addition of interferon-τ (IFNT to an endometrial tissue culture system increased CCL8 and CXCL10 expression in the tissues, but did not affect CCL2, CCL11, and CCL16 expression. CCL14 expression by these tissues was inhibited by IFNT. CCL16, but not other chemokines, clearly stimulated interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 and myxovirus-resistance gene 1 (MX1 expression in these tissues. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 expression decreased after stimulation with CCL8 and CCL14, and oxytocin receptor (OTR expression was decreased by CCL2, CCL8, CCL14, and CXCL10. Collectively, the expression of chemokine genes is increased in the endometrium during early pregnancy. These genes may contribute to the regulation of endometrial function by inhibiting COX2 and OTR expression, subsequently decreasing prostaglandin production and preventing luteolysis in cows.

  6. Effects of resin or charcoal treatment on fetal bovine serum and bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhimin; West, Clint; Norton-Wenzel, Carol S; Rej, Robert; Davis, Faith B; Davis, Paul J; Rej, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal- or resin-stripping of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or bovine calf serum (BCS) intended for supplementation of cell culture media is widely practiced to remove a variety of endogenous compounds, including steroid, peptide, and thyroid hormones. The possibility that stripping removes other biologically relevant factors from serum may not be appreciated. In this report, standardized clinical laboratory testing methods were used to assess the effects of resin- and charcoal-stripping on content in FBS and BCS of more than 25 analytes in the sera. In addition to hormones, the serum constituents affected by stripping are certain vitamins, electrolytes, enzyme activities, and metabolites.

  7. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shailja Katoch; Shweta Dohru; Mandeep Sharma; Vikram Vashist; Rajesh Chahota; Prasenjit Dhar; Aneesh Thakur; Subhash Verma

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The sam...

  8. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, interleukin (IL) 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1) are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition.

  9. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  10. Effect of newborn bovine serum on cryopreservation of adult bovine testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J Y; Sun, Y X; Wang, A B; Che, G Y; Hu, T J; Zhang, X M

    2014-04-01

    Bovine serum is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. However, its cryoprotective effects on the cells and tissues are ambiguous and controversial. To test the effects of newborn calf serum (NCS) on cryopreservation of bovine testis tissue, NCS of 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% (v/v) was added into minimum essential medium + 10% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)-based medium according to our previous report. Interestingly, the testicular cell viabilities and spermatogonia percentages from four groups were very close. The results indicated that an increase in the concentration of NCS in freezing medium to 20% has no significant effect on survival of both testicular cells and spermatogonia, and 10% DMSO-based freezing medium can maintain the testicular cell viability and spermatogonia percentage at a relatively high level (83.4 ± 0.7 and 56.5 ± 2.2 respectively). Taken together, NCS is dispensable for cryopreservation of adult bovine testis tissue. Our results provide an evidence for cutting down the costs in cryopreservation research of bovine testis tissue by reducing or giving up the use of serum. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other

  12. Alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (. cap alpha. -hANP) specific binding sites in bovine adrenal gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, K.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.I.; Ibayashi, H.; Matsuo, H.

    1986-06-13

    The effects of synthetic ..cap alpha..-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (..cap alpha..-hANP) on steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical cells in primary monolayer culture were investigated. ..cap alpha..-hANP did not inhibit basal aldosterone secretion. ..cap alpha..-hANP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of basal levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion and also of aCTH (10/sup -8/M)-stimulated increases in aldosterone, cortisol and DHEA secretion. Visualization of (/sup 125/I) ..cap alpha..-hANP binding sites in bovine adrenal gland by an in vitro autoradiographic technique demonstrated that these sites were highly localized in the adrenal cortex, especially the zona glomerulosa. These results suggest that the adrenal cortex may be a target organ for direct receptor-mediated actions of ..cap alpha..-hANP.

  13. Discovery of a bovine enterovirus in alpaca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasta D McClenahan

    Full Text Available A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs, viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1, but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.

  14. Discovery of a bovine enterovirus in alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L; Krause, Philip R; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.

  15. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  16. Bovine neosporosis: clinical and practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almería, S; López-Gatius, F

    2013-10-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a wide host range but with a preference for cattle and dogs. Since the description of N. caninum as a new genus and species in 1988, bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. This review focuses on the epidemiology of the disease and on prospects for its control in cattle. Finally, based on the implications of clinical findings reported to date, a set of recommendations is provided for veterinarians and cattle farmers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fatty acids in bovine milk fat

    OpenAIRE

    Lindmark Månsson, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Milk fat contains approximately 400 different fatty acid, which make it the most complex of all natural fats. The milk fatty acids are derived almost equally from two sources, the feed and the microbial activity in the rumen of the cow and the lipids in bovine milk are mainly present in globules as an oil-in-water emulsion. Almost 70% of the fat in Swedish milk is saturated of which around 11% comprises short-chain fatty acids, almost half of which is butyric acid. Approximately 25% of the fa...

  18. Bluetongue virus infection of bovine monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetter, L E; Maclachlan, N J; Gebhard, D H; Heidner, H W; Moore, P F

    1989-07-01

    Cultures of adherent and non-adherent bovine blood mononuclear cells were infected with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10. Production of BTV proteins in mononuclear cell cultures was detected by immune precipitation of viral proteins from [35S]methionine-labelled extracts of these cells, by immunofluorescence staining of cells using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to BTV proteins VP7 and NS2, and by flow cytometry with MAbs to VP2, VP7, NS1 and NS2. BTV-infected cells were most numerous in cultures of adherent mononuclear cells; infected cells were initially identified as monocytes on the basis of their morphology, and size and scatter characteristics as determined by analysis with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). The majority of adherent mononuclear cells with these scatter characteristics were confirmed to be monocytes by FACS analysis with a MAb specific for bovine monocytes. Identification of BTV-infected adherent mononuclear cells as monocytes was further established by double immunofluorescent labelling, as infected adherent cells reacted with the MAb specific for bovine monocytes, and with another MAb specific for class II antigen. Infection of adherent mononuclear cells was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, as BTV virions and tubules were present in lysates of cultures of BTV-infected adherent mononuclear cells and within the cytoplasm of adherent cells. In contrast, BTV proteins were detected in few cells identified as lymphocytes on the basis of their scatter characteristics, and mean fluorescence of such cells was considerably less than that of BTV-infected monocytes. Viraemia persisted until 35 days after inoculation of a colostrum-deprived calf inoculated with BTV. Virus was isolated from blood mononuclear cells at 1 week after infection of the calf, but not thereafter. BTV infection of blood mononuclear cells was demonstrated until 9 days after inoculation by indirect immunofluorescence staining of mononuclear cells. In

  19. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  20. Isolation of new serotypes of bovine rotavirus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, T; Samejima, T; Kuwahara, H; Tajima, M

    1983-01-01

    Two cytopathogenic bovine rotavirus strains were isolated. The infectivity of both isolates was relatively stable at pH 3.0 and resistant to ether. Their replication was not affected by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. The new isolates shared immunofluorescent antigen with the Lincoln strain of bovine rotavirus. By neutralization test, however, these strains were clearly distinguished from one another.

  1. Prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in a municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12 month cross-sectional study was carried out at Lafenwa Abattoir Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria from July, 2011 to June, 2012. This was to determine the prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in this abattoir. A total of 928 cases of bovine tuberculosis out of 52,273 cattle slaughtered during this period ...

  2. Prevalence of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL) in the Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, a commercial immuno enzymatic assay (blocking- ELISA), were used to detect BLV antibodies in bovine serum using two monoclonal antibodies against the viral gp51 from bovines of two major districts namely, Waqoyi Galbed, and Togdheer of northern Somalia (Somaliland). Out of 468 tested cows ...

  3. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune responses by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. Since different alleles favor the ...

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis and most Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, information on the epidemiology of the disease especially bovine tuberculosis is still very scanty. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) was carried out on 113 tissue samples to have an idea of not only the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis but also the most common ...

  5. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, M.; Hilchie, A.L.; Haney, E.F.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Hyndman, M.E.; Hancock, R.E.W.; Vogel, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits

  6. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope ...

  7. Study on Seroprevalence of Bovine Brucellosis and Abortion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried on bovine brucellosis from November 2008 to March 2009 to determine the sero-prevalence and distribution of bovine brucel osis in selected sites of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. A total of 950 animals (541 female and 409 male) were examined serologically by using RBPT as ...

  8. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soveri T

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  9. Preliminary study on the impact of Bovine Tuberculosis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was conducted on 100 (50 bovine TB positive and 50 negative) dairy cows to determine the effect of bovine tuberculosis (TB) on reproductive efficiency and productivity of Holstein dairy cows. In order to achieve this, five year records of reproductive/ productive variables including age at puberty, age at ...

  10. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  11. Research Article: Food Animal Practice Bovine Papillomatosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six cases of bovine papillomatosis were reported to the University of Nairobi veterinary clinic. Diagnosis was based on presented clinical signs and histopathology of affected skin lesions. The histological samples of the warts confirmed the diagnosis of papillomatosis. An autogenous formalin killed bovine specific wart ...

  12. Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxytétracycline LA) dans le traitement des bovins atteints de péripneumonie contagieuse bovine (PPCB) et de déterminer le risque de transmission de la maladie à partir d'animaux traités. Une transmission expérimentale a été conduite par la mise ...

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...

  14. Computational identification of fertility functions of bovine Reprimo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domain structure of bovine RPRM protein was predicted using simple modular architecture research tool (SMART). Protein tertiary structures (3D structures) of bovine RPRM gene and other cattle fertility genes were predicted with Phyre2 software. To have structural and functional similarity, it has been found that protein ...

  15. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  16. Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis in single and pooled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff-Jørgensen, R

    1990-12-01

    Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis is based on detection of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, BLV. Some ELISA modifications have proved sensitive enough for use in the examination of pooled blood samples from slaughterhouses, milk and pooled milk samples. Suggestions for the standardisation of different ELISA modifications using a common reference serum are presented.

  17. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review | Zhao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the pathogen of Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a powerful means to control the virus. Here, the review described the currently available knowledge regarding to the advance in the field of BoHV-1 ...

  18. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of

  19. Role of CXC chemokine receptor type 4 as a lactoferrin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Yoshiharu; Aoki, Reiji; Uchida, Ryo; Tajima, Atsushi; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin exerts its biological activities by interacting with receptors on target cells, including LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1/CD91), intelectin-1 (omentin-1), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the effects mediated by these receptors are not sufficient to fully explain the many functions of lactoferrin. C-X-C-motif cytokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a ubiquitously expressed G-protein coupled receptor for stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12). Lactoferrin was found to be as capable as SDF-1 in blocking infection by an HIV variant that uses CXCR4 as a co-receptor (X4-tropic HIV), suggesting that lactoferrin interacts with CXCR4. We addressed whether CXCR4 acts as a lactoferrin receptor using HaCaT human keratinocytes and Caco-2 human intestinal cells. We found that bovine lactoferrin interacted with CXCR4-containing lipoparticles, and that this interaction was not antagonized by SDF-1. In addition, activation of Akt in response to lactoferrin was abrogated by AMD3100, a small molecule inhibitor of CXCR4, or by a CXCR4-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that CXCR4 functions as a lactoferrin receptor able to mediate activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Lactoferrin stimulation mimicked many aspects of SDF-1-induced CXCR4 activity, including receptor dimerization, tyrosine phosphorylation, and ubiquitination. Cycloheximide chase assays indicated that turnover of CXCR4 was accelerated in response to lactoferrin. These results indicate that CXCR4 is a potent lactoferrin receptor that mediates lactoferrin-induced activation of Akt signaling.

  20. Characterization of a novel /sup 3/H-5-hydroxytryptamine binding site subtype in bovine brain membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuring, R.E.; Peroutka, S.J.

    1987-03-01

    /sup 3/H-5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) binding sites were analyzed in bovine brain membranes. The addition of either the 5-HT1A-selective drug 8-OH-DPAT (100 nM) or the 5-HT1C-selective drug mesulergine (100 nM) to the assay resulted in a 5-10% decrease in specific /sup 3/H-5-HT binding. Scatchard analysis revealed that the simultaneous addition of both drugs decreased the Bmax of /sup 3/H-5-HT binding by 10-15% without affecting the KD value (1.8 +/- 0.3 nM). Competition studies using a series of pharmacologic agents revealed that the sites labeled by /sup 3/H-5-HT in bovine caudate in the presence of 100 nM 8-OH-DPAT and 100 nM mesulergine appear to be homogeneous. 5-HT1A selective agents such as 8-OH-DPAT, ipsapirone, and buspirone display micromolar affinities for these sites. RU 24969 and (-)pindolol are approximately 2 orders of magnitude less potent at these sites than at 5-HT1B sites which have been identified in rat brain. Agents displaying nanomolar potencies for 5-HT1C sites such as mianserin and mesulergine are 2-3 orders of magnitude less potent at the /sup 3/H-5-HT binding sites in bovine caudate. In addition, both 5-HT2- and 5-HT3-selective agents are essentially inactive at these binding sites. These /sup 3/H-5-HT sites display nanomolar affinity for 5-carboxyamidotryptamine, 5-methoxytryptamine, metergoline, and 5-HT. Apparent Ki values of 10-100