WorldWideScience

Sample records for bovine herpesvirus type

  1. Search for the genome of bovine herpesvirus types 1, 4 and 5 in bovine semen

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. Morán; Favier, P.A.; Lomónaco, M.; Catena, M.C.; M.L. Chiapparrone; Odeón, A.C.; Verna, A.E.; S.E. Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory and reproductive disorders in cattle. Recently, bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) and bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) have been identified to be associated with genital disease. In this study, the presence of the genome of BoHV-1, BoHV-4 and BoHV-5 in bovine semen of Argentinean and international origin was analyzed by PCR assays. The most important finding of this study is the detection of the genome of BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 in semen of b...

  2. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  3. Cloning of Bovine herpesvirus type 1 and type 5 as infectious bacterial artifical chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann Mathias; Fraefel Cornel; Gabev Evgeni; Tobler Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine herpesviruses type 1 (BoHV1) and type 5 (BoHV5) are two closely related pathogens of cattle. The identity of the two viruses on the amino acid level averages 82%. Despite their high antigenetic similarities the two pathogens induce distinctive clinical signs. BoHV1 causes respiratory and genital tract infections while BoHV5 leads to severe encephalitis in calves. Findings The viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 were cloned as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes...

  4. Cloning of Bovine herpesvirus type 1 and type 5 as infectious bacterial artifical chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Mathias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesviruses type 1 (BoHV1 and type 5 (BoHV5 are two closely related pathogens of cattle. The identity of the two viruses on the amino acid level averages 82%. Despite their high antigenetic similarities the two pathogens induce distinctive clinical signs. BoHV1 causes respiratory and genital tract infections while BoHV5 leads to severe encephalitis in calves. Findings The viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 were cloned as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs. First, recombinant viruses carrying the genetic elements for propagation in bacteria were generated. Second, DNA from these recombinant viruses were transferred into prokaryotic cells. Third, DNA from these bacteria were transferred into eukaryotic cells. Progeny viruses from BAC transfections showed similar kinetics as their corresponding wild types. Conclusion The two viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 cloned as BACs are accessible to the tools of bacterial genetics. The ability to easily manipulate the viral genomes on a molecular level in future experiments will lead to a better understanding of the difference in pathogenesis induced by these two closely related bovine herpesviruses.

  5. Diagnóstico virológico de Herpesvirus bovino tipo-1 (Virological diagnostic of Bovine herpesvirus type-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila Sánchez, Mislay;

    2008-03-01

    such as: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV, complex bovine viral diarrhea/disease of the mucous and mamillitis, due to its similarity as for the clinical signs. The development reached by the cattle raising in the last years has stimulated the search of new diagnostic methods which guarantee a higher speed, specificity and sensitivity in the detection of the diseases affecting cattle. Among these diseases, those of viral origin are dangerous, since their rapid spread causes great economic damages. Bovine herpesvirus type-1 is IBR/IPV causal agent. The diagnostic of laboratory of this disease is carried out by the classical methods of the infectious agent detection such as the viral isolation and later identification by viral neutralization or immunohistochemistry. However, viral isolation requires cell culture and a lot of time to obtain the results. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR is a method based on the amplification in vitro of the nucleic acid. It is more sensitive, rapid, specific, less laborious and more economic than nucleic acid hybridization and than the traditional detection methods of this infectious agent. PCR allows detecting live and inactivated viruses, carrier and latently infected animals and it facilitates a later molecular characterization of isolates from the nucleic acid amplified.

  6. Detection of a Novel Bovine Lymphotropic Herpesvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Reyes, Richard A.; Baines, Joel D.; Parrish, Colin R.; Casey, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Degenerate PCR primers which amplify a conserved region of the DNA polymerase genes of the herpesvirus family were used to provide sequence evidence for a new bovine herpesvirus in bovine B-lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The sequence of the resultant amplicon was found to be distinct from those of known herpesvirus isolates. Alignment of amino acid sequences demonstrated 70% identity with ovine herpesvirus 2, 69% with alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, 65% with bovine h...

  7. Bovine herpesvirus type 4 infection modulates autophagy in a permissive cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnaro, Serena; Ciarcia, Roberto; Pagnini, Francesco; De Martino, Luisa; Puzio, Maria Valeria; Granato, Giovanna Elvira; Avino, Franca; Pagnini, Ugo; Iovane, Giuseppe; Giordano, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4), like other herpesviruses, induces a series of alterations in the host cell that modify the intracellular environment in favor of viral replication, survival and spread. This research examined the impact of BoHV-4 infection on autophagy in BoHV-4 infected Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Protein extracts of BoHV-4 infected and control MDBK cells were subjected to Western blot. The concentrations of the autophagy and apoptosis-related proteins Beclin 1, p21, PI3 kinase, Akt1/2, mTOR, phospho mTOR, p62 and the light chain three (LC3) were normalized to the actin level and expressed as the densitometric ratio. Western blot analysis of virus-infected cells revealed that autophagic degradation pathway was induced in the late phase of BoHV-4 infection. After 48 h post-infection the protein LC3II, which is essential for autophagy was found to be markedly increased, while infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-4 resulted in a depletion of p62 levels. Becline 1, PI3 kinase, Akt1/2 and p21 expression increased between 24 and 48 h post-infection. Surprisingly, mTOR and its phosphorylated form, which are negative regulators of autophagy, also increased after 24 h post-infection. In conclusion, our findings suggest that BoHV-4 has developed mechanisms for modulation of autophagy that are probably part of a strategy designed to enhance viral replication and to evade the immune system. Additional studies on the relationship between autophagy and BoHV-4 replication and survival, in both lytic and latent replication phases, are needed to understand the role of autophagy in BoHV-4 pathogenesis.

  8. Bovine Herpesvirus Type 4 Glycoprotein L Is Nonessential for Infectivity but Triggers Virion Endocytosis during Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Lété, Céline; Machiels, Bénédicte; Stevenson, Philip G.; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Gillet, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The core entry machinery of mammalian herpesviruses comprises glycoprotein B (gB), gH, and gL. gH and gL form a heterodimer with a central role in viral membrane fusion. When archetypal alpha- or betaherpesviruses lack gL, gH misfolds and progeny virions are noninfectious. However, the gL of the rhadinovirus murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) is nonessential for infection. In order to define more generally what role gL plays in rhadinovirus infections, we disrupted its coding sequence in bovine her...

  9. Pathogenesis of meningoencephalitis in rabbits by bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Adriana M. da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main aspects of bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5 neurologic infection and disease in rabbits, a candidate animal model for studying BHV-5 neuropathogenesis. Intranasal inoculation of weanling rabbits with a Brazilian BHV-5 isolate produced neurological disease and death in 78.8% (26/33 of the animals. Neurological signs started as early as 5 days post-inoculation and lasted from 10-12 hours up to several days. Most animals evolved to a moribund state or death within 24 (69.2% to 48 hours (88.5%. Neurological disease was characterized by excitability or depression, tremors, bruxism, walking or running in circles, backward arching of the head and body, incoordination, backward and sideways falling, paddling, profound depression and death. Moderate levels of infectivity were detected in several areas of the brain, most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere (in 16 out of 20 animals, anterior cerebrum (15/20, midbrain (11/20, dorso-lateral hemisphere (10/20 and pons (12/26. Infectious virus was also recovered from the olfactory bulb (9/20, medulla oblongata (10/26, cerebellum (7/20, posterior cerebrum (5/20 and trigeminal ganglia (4/20. No gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions were mild and consisted of non-suppurative meningitis, mononuclear perivascular cuffing and focal gliosis. These changes were observed most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere and anterior cerebrum. Passive immunity partially protected rabbits from BHV-5-induced encephalitis. Rabbits born to immunized dams showed a significative delay in the onset of clinical disease and reduced morbidity and mortality rates compared to rabbits born to unvaccinated dams. These results demonstrate that BHV-5-induced neurological disease can consistently be reproduced in rabbits and point towards the use of this species as an animal model to study BHV-5 neuropathogenesis.

  10. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  11. One year duration of immunity of the modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 and bovine herpesvirus-1 fractions of Vista® Once SQ vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio

    2016-03-18

    Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination. PMID:26859238

  12. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of inf

  13. A conformational epitope mapped in the bovine herpesvirus type 1 envelope glycoprotein B by phage display and the HSV-1 3D structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Greyciele R; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Cunha-Junior, Jair P; Bataus, Luiz A M; Japolla, Greice; Brito, Wilia M E D; Campos, Ivan T N; Ribeiro, Cristina; Souza, Guilherme R L

    2015-08-01

    The selected dodecapeptide (1)DRALYGPTVIDH(12) from a phage-displayed peptide library and the crystal structure of the envelope glycoprotein B (Env gB) from Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) led us to the identification of a new discontinuous epitope on the Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) Env gB. In silico analysis revealed a short BoHV-1 gB motif ((338)YKRD(341)) within a epitope region, with a high similarity to the motifs shared by the dodecapeptide N-terminal region ((5)YxARD(1)) and HSV-1 Env gB ((326)YARD(329)), in which the (328)Arg residue is described to be a neutralizing antibody target. Besides the characterization of an antibody-binding site of the BoHV-1 Env gB, we have demonstrated that the phage-fused peptide has the potential to be used as a reagent for virus diagnosis by phage-ELISA assay, which discriminated BoHV-1 infected serum samples from negative ones. PMID:26267086

  14. A four year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1 in adult cattle in 107 unvaccinated herds in south west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez-Villaescusa Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1 is an important pathogen of cattle that presents with a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR. A seroepidemiological study of BHV-1 antibodies was conducted in England from 2002 – 2004: 29,782 blood samples were taken from 15,736 cattle from 114 herds which were visited on up to three occasions. Antibody concentration was measured using a commercial ELISA. Farm management information was collected using an interview questionnaire, and herd size and cattle movements were obtained from the cattle tuberculosis testing database and the British Cattle Movement Service. Hierarchical statistical models were used to investigate associations between cattle and herd variables and the continuous outcome percentage positive (PP values from the ELISA test in unvaccinated herds. Results There were 7 vaccinated herds, all with at least one seropositive bovine. In unvaccinated herds 83.2% had at least one BHV-1 seropositive bovine, and the mean cattle and herd BHV-1 seroprevalence were 42.5% and 43.1% respectively. There were positive associations between PP value, age, herd size, presence of dairy cattle. Adult cattle in herds with grower cattle had lower PP values than those in herds without grower cattle. Purchased cattle had significantly lower PP values than homebred cattle, whereas cattle in herds that were totally restocked after the foot-and-mouth epidemic in 2001 had significantly higher PP values than those in continuously stocked herds. Samples taken in spring and summer had significantly lower PP values than those taken in winter, whereas those taken in autumn had significantly higher PP values than those taken in winter. The risks estimated from a logistic regression model with a binary outcome (seropositive yes/no were similar. Conclusion The prevalence of BHV-1 seropositivity in cattle and herds has increased since

  15. Comparison between DNA Detection in Trigeminal Nerve Ganglia and Serology to Detect Cattle Infected with Bovine Herpesviruses Types 1 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agustin; Torres, Fabrício Dias; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Maisonnave, Jacqueline; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesviruses (BoHVs) types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) are alphaherpesviruses of major importance to the bovine production chain. Such viruses are capable of establishing latent infections in neuronal tissues. Infected animals tend to develop a serological response to infection; however, such response—usually investigated by antibody assays in serum—may eventually not be detected in laboratory assays. Nevertheless, serological tests such as virus neutralization (VN) and various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are widely employed to check individual or herd status of BoHV infections. The correlation between detection of antibodies and the presence of viral nucleic acids as indicatives of infection in infected cattle has not been deeply examined. In order to investigate such correlation, 248 bovine serum samples were tested by VN to BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, as well as in a widely employed (though not type-differential) gB ELISA (IDEXX IBR gB X2 Ab Test) in search for antibodies to BoHVs. Immediately after blood withdrawal, cattle were slaughtered and trigeminal ganglia (TG) excised for DNA extraction and viral nucleic acid detection (NAD) by nested PCR. Neutralizing antibodies to BoHV-1 and/or BoHV-5 were detected in 44.8% (111/248) of sera, whereas the gB ELISA detected antibodies in 51.2% (127/248) of the samples. However, genomes of either BoHV-1, BoHV-5, or both, were detected in TGs of 85.9% (213/248) of the animals. These findings reveal that the assays designed to detect antibodies to BoHV-1 and/or BoHV-5 employed here may fail to detect a significant number of latently infected animals (in this study, 35.7%). From such data, it is clear that antibody assays are poorly correlated with detection of viral genomes in BoHV-1 and BoHV-5-infected animals. PMID:27224314

  16. Comparison between DNA Detection in Trigeminal Nerve Ganglia and Serology to Detect Cattle Infected with Bovine Herpesviruses Types 1 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Rodrigo; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Furtado, Agustin; Torres, Fabrício Dias; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Maisonnave, Jacqueline; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesviruses (BoHVs) types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) are alphaherpesviruses of major importance to the bovine production chain. Such viruses are capable of establishing latent infections in neuronal tissues. Infected animals tend to develop a serological response to infection; however, such response-usually investigated by antibody assays in serum-may eventually not be detected in laboratory assays. Nevertheless, serological tests such as virus neutralization (VN) and various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are widely employed to check individual or herd status of BoHV infections. The correlation between detection of antibodies and the presence of viral nucleic acids as indicatives of infection in infected cattle has not been deeply examined. In order to investigate such correlation, 248 bovine serum samples were tested by VN to BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, as well as in a widely employed (though not type-differential) gB ELISA (IDEXX IBR gB X2 Ab Test) in search for antibodies to BoHVs. Immediately after blood withdrawal, cattle were slaughtered and trigeminal ganglia (TG) excised for DNA extraction and viral nucleic acid detection (NAD) by nested PCR. Neutralizing antibodies to BoHV-1 and/or BoHV-5 were detected in 44.8% (111/248) of sera, whereas the gB ELISA detected antibodies in 51.2% (127/248) of the samples. However, genomes of either BoHV-1, BoHV-5, or both, were detected in TGs of 85.9% (213/248) of the animals. These findings reveal that the assays designed to detect antibodies to BoHV-1 and/or BoHV-5 employed here may fail to detect a significant number of latently infected animals (in this study, 35.7%). From such data, it is clear that antibody assays are poorly correlated with detection of viral genomes in BoHV-1 and BoHV-5-infected animals. PMID:27224314

  17. Biphasic activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection of MDBK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liqian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many viruses have been known to control key cellular signaling pathways to facilitate the virus infection. The possible involvement of signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 infection is unknown. This study indicated that infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induced an early-stage transient and a late-stage sustained activation of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways. Analysis with the stimulation of UV-irradiated virus indicated that the virus binding and/or entry process was enough to trigger the early phase activations, while the late phase activations were viral protein expression dependent. Biphasic activation of both pathways was suppressed by the selective inhibitor, Ly294002 for PI3K and U0126 for MAPK kinase (MEK1/2, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of MDBK cells with Ly294002 caused a 1.5-log reduction in virus titer, while U0126 had little effect on the virus production. In addition, the inhibition effect of Ly294002 mainly occurred at the post-entry stage of the virus replication cycle. This revealed for the first time that BoHV-1 actively induced both PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways, and the activation of PI3K was important for fully efficient replication, especially for the post-entry stage.

  18. Prolonged persistence of bovine herpesvirus in small cattle herds: a model-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollema, L; de Jong, M C M; van Boven, M

    2005-02-01

    Herpesviruses can remain dormant in once-infected hosts and, upon reactivation, cause such hosts to become infectious. This phenomenon of latency and reactivation may enable herpesviruses to persist for a long time in small host populations. To quantify the effect of reactivation on persistence, the time to extinction of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) in small cattle populations was calculated. For realistic parameter values the mean time to extinction is already more than 100 years in a population of 10 animals. In a population of 20 animals the time to extinction is approximately 2000 years. The effects of vaccination on persistence were also studied, revealing that continued vaccination of the whole population could result in much faster eradication. For instance, in an isolated herd of 20 animals BHV-1 could be eradicated in 44 years. PMID:15724721

  19. Serological evidences of bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in bovines of organized farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, M; Yadav, V; Chander, V

    2011-04-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle causing a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, a highly infectious disease of cattle and buffaloes, occurs throughout the world including India. The present study based on micro-serum neutralization test reports the sero-epidemiology of BHV-1 infection in cattle and buffaloes from different parts of India. Serum samples from cattle, bulls, buffalo bulls and yaks were screened for BHV-1 antibodies. A total of 1115 serum samples were screened, and a total of 437 (39.2%) serum samples were found positive and 678 (60.8%) serum samples were found negative. Overall 168 (38.0%) cattle, 17 (85.0%) buffalo, 212 (38.6%) bulls, 8 (13.5%) buffalo bulls and 32 (71.1%) yaks were found positive for BHV-1 antibodies. State wise, Assam had highest seropositivity of 71.1% for yaks, Madhya Pradesh had 68.9% for cattle and Meghalaya was negative for the presence of antibodies to BHV-1 in cattle. PMID:21156033

  20. Serological study of bovine herpesvirus type 1 and parainfluenza type 3 in cow farms of Qazvin provincebased on different ages and seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzi, A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Bovine herpes virus type 1 and parainfluenza type 3 in a non-vaccinated population cattle in the livestock region of Qazvin province. Totally 504 sera were randomly collected and tested from 8 industrial dairy farms in Qazvin province during March 2010-March 2011. The result of one way analysis of variance was used for the analysis data. Also Tukey Method was employed to detect pair wise differences among the ages determined that there were a significant differences among the average titer in 1 to 3, 1 to 4, 2 to 3 and 2 to 4 year cows (P<0.005, P<0.001, P<0.041, P<0.001. Due to the significance at the different titers, and comparing pair wise amongdifferent seasons Tukey,s method had been used and showed significant difference in summer with autumn (P<0.038 and winter (P<0.001. A chi-square test showed the significant differences among ages (P=0.001. The sero- prevalence of BHV-1 was estimated to be 7.1% with 1.2% standard error (SE. The result of PI3 showed the significance at the different titers comparing with the different seasons. Therefore Tukey,s method had been used and showed significant difference among seasons (P<0.001. The seroprevalenceof PI3 was estimated to be 95% with 1% SE.

  1. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 2 and bovine herpesvirus 4 DNA in trigeminal ganglia of naturally infected cattle by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Franco, A C; Oliveira, M T; Firpo, R; Strelczuk, G; Fontoura, F E; Kulmann, M I R; Maidana, S; Romera, S A; Spilki, F R; Silva, A D; Hübner, S O; Roehe, P M

    2014-06-25

    Establishment of latent infection within specific tissues in the host is a common biological feature of the herpesviruses. In the case of bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2), latency is established in neuronal tissues, while bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) latent virus targets on cells of the monocytic lineage. This study was conducted in quest of BoHV-2, BoHV-4 and OvHV-2 DNA in two hundred trigeminal ganglia (TG) specimens, derived from one hundred clinically healthy cattle, majority of them naturally infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5). Total DNA extracted from ganglia was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to amplify part of the genes coding for BoHV-2, and BoHV-4 glycoprotein B and, for OvHV-2, the gene coding for phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase-like protein. BoHV-2 DNA was detected in TG samples of two (2%) and BoHV-4 DNA in nine (9%) of the animals, whereas OvHV-2 DNA could not be detected in any of the TG DNA. The two animals in which BoHV-2 DNA was identified were also co-infected with BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Within the nine animals in which BoHV-4 DNA was detected, six were also co-infected with BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. This report provides for the first time evidence that viral DNA from BoHV-2 and BoHV-4 can be occasionally detected in TG of naturally infected cattle. Likewise, in this report we provided for the first time evidence that the co-infection of cattle with three distinct bovine herpesviruses might be a naturally occurring phenomenon.

  2. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  3. Simulation modelling to support national policy making in the control of bovine herpesvirus 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) is the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), a respiratory disease in cattle. Increased international legislation, together with a high prevalence of BHV1 infected cattle in The Netherlands, put pressure on Dutch livestock industry to

  4. Immediate-early transcription over covalently joined genome ends of bovine herpesvirus 1: the circ gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Fraefel, C.; Wirth, U V; Vogt, B; Schwyzer, M

    1993-01-01

    Herpesvirus genomes are linear molecules in virions. Prior to replication in host cells, they form circular templates by unknown mechanisms. Examining lytic infection with bovine herpesvirus 1, we observed immediate-early transcription over joined genome ends, which suggested that circles are present at the initial stage of infection. Among the transcripts was a spliced immediate-early RNA (1.5 kb) sharing exon 1 with previously described major immediate-early transcripts from the right genom...

  5. Serum neutralization with different types and subtypes of bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 Soroneutralização com diferentes tipos e subtipos de herpesvírus bovinos 1 e 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Lidiane Holz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The serum neutralization (SN test is the gold standard method to measure neutralizing antibodies to bovine herpesviruses. However, in view of the further subdivisions of bovine herpesviruses in types/subtypes, defining which virus to use at challenge in SN tests may be difficult. In view of that, this study was carried out to re-evaluate (SN sensitivity with different types/subtypes of bovine herpesviruses types 1 (BoHV-1 and 5 (BoHV-5 as challenge viruses. Bovine sera (n=810 were collected from two distinct geographic regions and tested by SN with three type 1 viruses (BoHV-1.1 strains "Los Angeles" and "EVI123/98"; BoHV-1.2a strain "SV265/96" and three type 5 viruses (BoHV-5a strain "EVI88/95"; BoHV-5b strain "A663" and BoHV-5c "ISO97/95". SN tests were performed with a 1 hour incubation of the serum-virus mixtures at 37ºC against 100 TCID50 of each of the viruses. SN sensitivity varied greatly depending on the challenge virus used in the test. The highest sensitivity (327 positive/810 total sera tested; 40.37% was attained when the positive results to the six viruses were added together. No association could be found between any particular type or subtype of virus and the sensitivity of the test. When positive results to each single strain were considered, SN sensitivity varied from 41.7% to 81.7%, depending on the virus and the geographic region of origin of the sera. Variation was detected even when challenge viruses belonged to the same subtype, where disagreement between positive results reached 41%. These results indicate that one hour incubation SN tests against single viruses, as performed here, may display a significantly low sensitivity (p=0.05; performing SN tests against a number of different viruses may increase considerably SN sensitivity. Furthermore, the choice of virus used for challenge is critical in SN tests. In addition, sera from different geographic regions may give rise to disagreeing results with different strains of

  6. Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5 in a calf with rabies Herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BHV-5 em bovino infectado pelo vírus da raiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando R. Spilki

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain of an one year old male calf which died with signs of neurological disease was submitted to the laboratory for rabies diagnosis. Microscopical findings included moderate mielitis, mild meningoencephalitis with perivascular cell cuffing and Negri inclusion bodies in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Rabies virus infection was further confirmed by the direct fluorescent antibody test as well as by mouse inoculation. In addition, a herpesvirus was isolated from brain tissues. The isolate was antigenic and genetically characterized as bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5. It was not possible to determine whether BHV-5 played an active role in the outcome of the infection, since, the virus might have been present in a latent form in neural tissues. This is the first report of a mixed rabies/ BHV-5 infection in calves.O encéfalo de um bezerro macho, de um ano de idade, que morreu com sinais de doença neurológica, foi submetido ao laboratório para diagnóstico de raiva. O exame histopatológico revelou mielite moderada, meningoencefalite leve com infiltração perivascular e corpúsculos de Negri nas células de Purkinje do cerebelo. A infecção pelo vírus rábico foi ainda confirmada por imunofluorescência direta e por inoculação em camundongos. Além disso, um herpesvírus foi isolado dos tecidos do encéfalo. O vírus isolado foi antigênica e geneticamente caracterizado como Herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BHV-5. Não foi possível determinar se o BHV-5 teve algum papel ativo no desfecho da enfermidade, uma vez que o vírus poderia estar presente em forma latente nos tecidos neurais. Este é o primeiro relato de uma infecção mista pelo vírus da raiva e BHV-5 em bovinos.

  7. Social isolation may influence responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Mars, M.H.; Leushuis, I.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was performed to develop a model to study the impact of stress on responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in veal calves. Social isolation after previous group-housing was used as a putatively stressful treatment. Group-housed specific pathogen-free veal calves (n=

  8. A proteomic study of the differential protein expression in MDBK cells after bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection (BHV-1) strain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Yang, Yanling; Liu, Linna; Liao, Peng; Wen, Yongjun; Wu, Hua; Cheng, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    Different BHV-1 strains, such as the virulent IBRV LN01/08 strains and the attenuated vaccine strain IBRV LNM, produces different clinical immune responses; however, the study of the differential protein expression in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells after BHV-1-infection still remains unclear. Here, we applied a comparative proteomic strategy, based on 2D and MALDI-TOF/MS platforms, to examine the differential expression of proteins in MDBK cells that were treated and not treated with virulent IBRV LN01/08 and attenuated IBRV LNM strains. A total of eight differential proteins, including pyruvate kinase, heat shock protein (HSP) 90 (HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1), annexin A, albumin (ALB), scinderin (SCIN), tubulin (alpha 1a) and vimentin (VIM), were identified. Among these proteins, pyruvate kinase, and HSP90 (HSP90AB1), tubulin and vimentin were identified in the virulent IBRV LN01/08 strain group, but were not identified in the attenuated IBRV LNM group. These results play an important role in tumor formation and development, cell migration, tumor cell line apoptosis, cell invasion and viral infection. The HSP90 (HSP90AA1) protein was identified in the control group and the attenuated IBRV LNM-infected group. Most studies have shown that HSP90 proteins were more of a cancer gene target, and inhibiting its function would result to oncogene degradation during cancer treatment. On the other hand, ALB is associated to cell differentiation, apoptosis, necrosis, cell death, viral infection, autophagy, interstitial tissue inflammation, and cell survival. These results provide a theoretical basis for the systematic understanding of BHV-1-infection mechanisms and BHV-1-induced immune responses.

  9. Comparison of humoral immune responses in dairy heifers vaccinated with 3 different commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesCôteaux, Luc; Cécyre, Dominique; Elsener, Johanne; Beauchamp, Guy

    2003-10-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the humoral immune response to 3 different commercial vaccines in dairy heifers housed in 3 different dairy farms in Quebec. All heifers were seronegative to type 1 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (Singer strain), type 2 BVDV (NVSL 125c strain), and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) at the beginning of the trial. In addition, control heifers in group 1 remained seronegative to the 2 viruses till the end of the trial. Significant differences in humoral immune responses occurred among the 3 commercial vaccines at 4 weeks and 6 months following vaccination. The vaccine in group 2 elicited higher mean antibody titers and seroconversion rates to both type 1 and type 2 BVDV than that in groups 3 or 4. Vaccines in groups 2 and 3 induced higher mean antibody titers to BHV-1 than did the vaccine in group 4.

  10. Bovine herpesvirus glycoprotein D: a review of its structural characteristics and applications in vaccinology

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Dummer, Luana; Pereira Leivas Leite, Fábio; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    International audience The viral envelope glycoprotein D from bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and -5), two important pathogens of cattle, is a major component of the virion and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of herpesviruses. Glycoprotein D is essential for virus penetration into permissive cells and thus is a major target for virus neutralizing antibodies during infection. In view of its role in the induction of protective immunity, gD has been tested in new vaccine develo...

  11. Soroprevalência de herpesvírus bovinos tipos 1 e/ou 5 no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Seroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus types 1 and/or 5 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine L. Holz

    2009-09-01

    . Esse fato deve ser levado em consideração quando estudos sorológicos para BoHV-1 e BoHV-5 forem realizados. Como a SN não é capaz de discriminar as respostas de anticorpos para BoHV-1 e BoHV-5, a prevalência tipo-específica permanece desconhecida.This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to bovine herpesviruses types 1(BoHV-1 and 5 (BoHV-5 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, by testing serum samples against different BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 strains. The sera examined were obtained from a larger sample designed to estimate the prevalence of bovine brucellosis within the state. All sera were collected from cows 24 months or older, not vaccinated to bovine herpesviruses, from both dairy and beef herds. The number of samples to be tested was calculated based on an estimated prevalence of infection of 33%, with an average standard deviation of £1% and a 95% limit of agreement. Sera from 2.200 cattle from 390 farms distributed in 158 counties were tested by serum neutralization (SN tests in search for antibodies to the following strains: BoHV-1.1 (strains EVI123/98 and Los Angeles, BoHV-5a (strain EVI88/95 and BoHV-5b (strain A663. The overall seroprevalence to BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 in the sampled herds was 29.2% (642/2.200; seropositive animals were detected in 225 (57.7% of the sampled farms. Prevalence estimates varied according to the virus used for challenge in SN tests. The highest prevalence and sensitivity were attained when positive SN results against the four different strains were added together. The use of only one virus for challenge in SN tests would lead to a loss in sensitivity from 20.4% to 34.6% when compared to the combined SN-positive results. These findings provide evidence that antibodies to BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 are largely spread in dairy and beef herds in RS, although prevalence in distinct geographic regions is quite variable. The results were strongly affected by the virus strains used for challenge in SN testing

  12. Investigations of presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum of calves prior to colostrum diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lazić Sava; Rogan Dragan; Petrović Tamaš; Bugarski Dejan; Lupulović Diana; Lazarević Miodrag

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations of the presence of the bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) in samples of blood serum from 106 cows and 107 of their calves (one cow had twins). Blood was sampled from the cows immediately after parturition, and from the calves before feeding on colostrum. The examined cows and their calves originated from 5 herds in which previous investigations had shown infection with the bovine herpesvirus-1. The determination of antibodies against BHV-1 was perfor...

  13. Serological diagnosis of infection with human herpesvirus type 6.

    OpenAIRE

    Irving, W L; Cunningham, A L

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify clinical consequences of acute human herpesvirus type 6 infection by hypothesising that the virus will induce similar clinical syndromes to cytomegalovirus. DESIGN--Examination of consecutive serum samples from patients with illnesses compatible with acute cytomegalovirus infection or exanthem subitum by indirect immunofluorescence for the presence of antibodies to human herpesvirus type 6. An IgG absorption step was included to avoid false positive and negative results...

  14. Serological evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 in cattle-breeding systems on Colombia’s high plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Bovine herpesvirus – 1 (BoHV- 1 and Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 neutralizing antibodies in herds on the Colombian high plains and their correlation with the level of cross-protection against both herpesviruses. Materials and methods. This study was carried out on cattle farms located around the towns of Puerto López and Puerto Gaitán in Colombia’s Meta department. Sampling was made by convenience. Twenty-three farms were involved in the study; 488 sera samples were taken by random sampling. Virus neutralization test were performed according to the protocols of the OIE. Each serum was evaluated independently for each virus, BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Results. The serological test confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infections in the Colombian bovine population in 100% and 73.9% respectively. However, crossreaction for both viruses was not evident in all farms evaluated. Conclusions. Alpha-herpesviruses are amongst the most significant infectious agents affecting cattle. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 is found throughout the whole world and is endemic in Colombian bovine population, whereas bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 has limited geographical distribution, mainly being reported in South-America (Brazil and Argentina, and we also confirmed the presence of BoHV-5 in Colombia.

  15. Microarray chip based identification of a mixed infection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea 2 from Indian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratta, Barkha; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVD2) are endemic in India although no mixed infection with these viruses has been reported from India. We report first mixed infection of these viruses in cattle during routine screening with a microarray chip. 62 of the 69 probes of BHV1 and 42 of the 57 BVD2 probes in the chip gave positive signals for the virus. The virus infections were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. We also discuss the implications of these findings.

  16. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  17. Genetic characterization of complete open reading frame of glycoprotein C gene of bovine herpesvirus 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Majumder

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize one of the major glycoprotein genes viz., glycoprotein C (gC; UL44, unique long region 44 of bovineherpesvirus 1(BoHV1 of Indian origin at genetic and phylogenetic level.Materials and Methods: A bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate viz., (BoHV1/IBR 216 II/ 1976/ India maintained at Division ofVirology, IVRI, Mukteswar was used for the current study. The DNA was extracted using commercial kit and the completeORF of gC gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced by conventional Sanger sequencing method. The sequence wasgenetically and phylogenetically analysed using various bioinformatic tools. The sequence was submitted in the Genbankwith accession number Kc756965.Results: The complete ORF of gC gene was amplified and sequenced. It showed 100% sequence homology with referencecooper strain of BoHV1 and divergence varied from 0% to 2.7% with other isolates of BoHV1. The isolate under study haddivergence of 9.2%, 13%, 26.6%, and 9.2% with BoHV5 (Bovine herpesvirus 5, CvHV1 (Cervid herpesvirus 1, CpHV1(Caprine herpesvirus 1, and BuHV1 (Bubaline herpesvirus 1, respectively.Conclusion: This is the first genetic characterization of complete open reading frame (ORF of glycoprotein C gene (UL44 ofIndian isolate of BoHV1. The gC gene of BoHV1 is highly conserved among all BoHV1 isolates and it can be used as a targetfor designing diagnostic primers for the specific detection of BoHV1.

  18. Sequencing of bovine herpesvirus 4 v.test strain reveals important genome features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillet Laurent

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a useful model for the human pathogenic gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus. Although genome manipulations of this virus have been greatly facilitated by the cloning of the BoHV-4 V.test strain as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC, the lack of a complete genome sequence for this strain limits its experimental use. Methods In this study, we have determined the complete sequence of BoHV-4 V.test strain by a pyrosequencing approach. Results The long unique coding region (LUR consists of 108,241 bp encoding at least 79 open reading frames and is flanked by several polyrepetitive DNA units (prDNA. As previously suggested, we showed that the prDNA unit located at the left prDNA-LUR junction (prDNA-G differs from the other prDNA units (prDNA-inner. Namely, the prDNA-G unit lacks the conserved pac-2 cleavage and packaging signal in its right terminal region. Based on the mechanisms of cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes, this feature implies that only genomes bearing left and right end prDNA units are encapsulated into virions. Conclusions In this study, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the BAC-cloned BoHV-4 V.test strain and identified genome organization features that could be important in other herpesviruses.

  19. Bovine herpesvirus 6 in buffaloes (Bubalus bulalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; de Oliveira, Fernanda Gonçalves; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; Galinari, Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino; Lima, Graciela Kunrath; Fonseca, Antônio Augusto; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson Pimenta

    2015-02-01

    This study presents the first description of Bovine herpesvirus 6 (BoHV-6) that was isolated from buffaloes of Amazon region in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the BoHV-6 Brazilian strains clustered with the sequence of BoHV-6 from elsewhere available at the GenBank. It was observed in some buffaloes with lymphoproliferative disease in one herd, thus the animals were also tested for Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which has been associated to lymphoma in bovines. All animals were negative to BLV. These results indicate that BoHV-6 is present in buffaloes in Brazil, but the importance and impact of this infection and its association with any illness is still undefined.

  20. Equid herpesvirus type 1 activates platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokol, Tracy; Yeo, Wee Ming; Burnett, Deborah; DeAngelis, Nicole; Huang, Teng; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Catalfamo, James

    2015-01-01

    Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease in horses. One of the main causes of these clinical syndromes is thrombosis in placental and spinal cord vessels, however the mechanism for thrombus formation is unknown. Platelets form part of the thrombus and amplify and propagate thrombin generation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EHV-1 activates platelets. We found that two EHV-1 strains, RacL11 and Ab4 at 0.5 or higher plaque forming unit/cell, activate platelets within 10 minutes, causing α-granule secretion (surface P-selectin expression) and platelet microvesiculation (increased small events double positive for CD41 and Annexin V). Microvesiculation was more pronounced with the RacL11 strain. Virus-induced P-selectin expression required plasma and 1.0 mM exogenous calcium. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced in factor VII- or X-deficient human plasma. Both P-selectin expression and microvesiculation were re-established in factor VII-deficient human plasma with added purified human factor VIIa (1 nM). A glycoprotein C-deficient mutant of the Ab4 strain activated platelets as effectively as non-mutated Ab4. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced by preincubation of virus with a goat polyclonal anti-rabbit tissue factor antibody. Infectious virus could be retrieved from washed EHV-1-exposed platelets, suggesting a direct platelet-virus interaction. Our results indicate that EHV-1 activates equine platelets and that α-granule secretion is a consequence of virus-associated tissue factor triggering factor X activation and thrombin generation. Microvesiculation was only partly tissue factor and thrombin-dependent, suggesting the virus causes microvesiculation through other mechanisms, potentially through direct binding. These findings suggest that EHV-1-induced platelet activation could contribute to the thrombosis that occurs in

  1. Equid herpesvirus type 1 activates platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Stokol

    Full Text Available Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease in horses. One of the main causes of these clinical syndromes is thrombosis in placental and spinal cord vessels, however the mechanism for thrombus formation is unknown. Platelets form part of the thrombus and amplify and propagate thrombin generation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EHV-1 activates platelets. We found that two EHV-1 strains, RacL11 and Ab4 at 0.5 or higher plaque forming unit/cell, activate platelets within 10 minutes, causing α-granule secretion (surface P-selectin expression and platelet microvesiculation (increased small events double positive for CD41 and Annexin V. Microvesiculation was more pronounced with the RacL11 strain. Virus-induced P-selectin expression required plasma and 1.0 mM exogenous calcium. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced in factor VII- or X-deficient human plasma. Both P-selectin expression and microvesiculation were re-established in factor VII-deficient human plasma with added purified human factor VIIa (1 nM. A glycoprotein C-deficient mutant of the Ab4 strain activated platelets as effectively as non-mutated Ab4. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced by preincubation of virus with a goat polyclonal anti-rabbit tissue factor antibody. Infectious virus could be retrieved from washed EHV-1-exposed platelets, suggesting a direct platelet-virus interaction. Our results indicate that EHV-1 activates equine platelets and that α-granule secretion is a consequence of virus-associated tissue factor triggering factor X activation and thrombin generation. Microvesiculation was only partly tissue factor and thrombin-dependent, suggesting the virus causes microvesiculation through other mechanisms, potentially through direct binding. These findings suggest that EHV-1-induced platelet activation could contribute to the thrombosis

  2. ELISA de bloqueio monoclonal para o diagnóstico sorológico de infecções pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BHV-1 A monoclonal blocking ELISA for the serological diagnosis of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1 infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie F.B. Teixeira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio imunoenzimático do tipo ELISA de bloqueio com anticorpo monoclonal (ELISA-M foi desenvolvido e padronizado para a detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus da Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina (Herpesvírus Bovino tipo 1; BHV-1. Foram utilizadas nesta avaliação 266 amostras de soros bovinos, sendo 148 negativos e 118 positivos em testes de soroneutralização (SN. Em comparação com este último, o ELISA-M demonstrou uma sensibilidade de 92,37%, especificidade de 92,56%, valor preditivo positivo de 90,83%, valor preditivo negativo de 93,83% e precisão de 92,48%. O índice de concordância (k entre os testes foi de 0,85. O ELISA-M apresentou como vantagens a rapidez e a praticidade de execução. Com base nestes resultados, o ELISA-M foi considerado uma alternativa apropriada para o diagnóstico sorológico de infecções pelo BHV-1. Entretanto, o teste não foi capaz de diferenciar anticorpos induzidos por BHV-1 ou BHV-5.A monoclonal antibody-based blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-M was developed and standardized for the detection of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (Bovine Herpesvirus type 1; BHV-1. A total of 266 samples of bovine sera (148 negative and 118 positive were tested and compared with the results of a standard serum neutralization (SN test. The ELISA-M was adjusted to 92.37% sensitivity, 92.56% especificity, 93.83% negative predictive value, 90.83% positive predictive value and to an accuracy of 92.48%, with an agreement index (k equal to 0.85. The main advantages presented by the ELISA-M were its practicality and rapidity in performance. This test was shown to be a suitable alternative to SN tests in the detection of BHV-1 antibodies in cattle. However, the ELISA was unable to discriminate between BHV-1 and bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5 antibodies.

  3. Cobaias como modelo para teste de vacinas inativadas contra o herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 e o vírus da diarréia viral bovina Guinea pigs as a model test of bovine herpesvirus type 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus inactivated vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Frizzo da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata a avaliação de cobaias como modelo para testes de imunogenicidade de vacinas inativadas contra o herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1 e o vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV. Para isso, cobaias (n=60 e bovinos (n=10 foram imunizados duas vezes, com intervalo de 28 dias, com uma vacina experimental contendo antígenos dos dois vírus, e testados para anticorpos neutralizantes 28 dias após a segunda dose. Os bovinos foram vacinados com a dose recomendada para a espécie (5mL; as cobaias foram distribuídas em seis grupos e imunizadas com doses fracionadas (0,005mL a 1,6mL. Os grupos de cobaias imunizadas com doses equivalentes a 1/16 (0,320mL e 1/8 (0,640mL da dose bovina desenvolveram títulos médios geométricos (GMTs de 6,46 e 7,56, respectivamente, estatisticamente semelhantes aos dos bovinos (GMT=8 (P>0,05. Uma alta correlação dose-resposta (R²=0,95 foi observada entre as doses vacinais e os títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes anti-BoHV-1 nos grupos de cobaias. Por outro lado, não foi possível o estabelecimento de uma dose vacinal que induzisse em cobaias uma resposta neutralizante anti-BVDV em níveis semelhantes à induzida em bovinos. Apenas as cobaias imunizadas com as doses maiores (0,640 e 1,6mL desenvolveram títulos neutralizantes de magnitude moderada (GMTs de 8 e 9, respectivamente, porém estatisticamente inferiores ao GMT dos bovinos (GMT=34,9 (PThe present study reports the use of guinea pigs as a model to study the immunogenicity of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV inactivated vaccines. To this purpose, guinea pigs (60 and calves (10 were immunized twice with a 28 day interval with an experimental vaccine containing antigens of both viruses and tested for virus neutralizing (VN antibodies 28 days after the second dose. Calves were immunized with the recommended dose (5mL, while the guinea pigs were distributed in six groups and immunized with

  4. Human herpesvirus type 6 reactivation after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagter, P.J. de; Schuurman, R.; Meijer, Ellen; Baarle, D. van; Sanders, E.A.M.; Boelens, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV6) is known to reactivate after hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and has been suggested to be associated with increased mortality and severe clinical manifestations, including graft versus host disease (GvHD). The exact etiological role of HHV6 reactivation

  5. Synthesis of bovine growth hormone in primates by using a herpesvirus vector.

    OpenAIRE

    Desrosiers, R C; Kamine, J; Bakker, A.; Silva, D; Woychik, R P; Sakai, D D; Rottman, F M

    1985-01-01

    A strain of herpesvirus saimiri containing a bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene under the control of the simian virus 40 (SV40) late-region promoter was constructed. This strain, bGH-Z20, was replication competent and stably harbored the bGH gene upon serial passage. Nonpermissive marmoset T cells persistently infected with bGH-Z20 produced a 0.9-kilobase RNA which contained all of the bGH exon sequences and appeared to initiate within the SV40 promoter region. However, in permissively infected...

  6. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Glycoprotein D Gene of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Strain Luojing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-chang; TONG Guang-zhi; QIU Hua-ji; ZHOU Yan-jun; XUE Qiang

    2003-01-01

    By means of PCR,the gene encoding gD of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) strain Luojing was amplified,cloned and sequenced.The nucleotide sequence of this gD gene was 1 251 bp,encoding 417 amino acids.Comparied with the published P8-2 strain,the homology of the necleotide sequence is 99.92%,and that of the deduced amino acid sequence is 100%.The results indicated that gD of BHV-1 was highly conservative.

  7. A glycoprotein E gene-deleted bovine herpesvirus 1 as a candidate vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 defective in glycoprotein E (gE was constructed from a Brazilian genital BoHV-1 isolate, by replacing the full gE coding region with the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene for selection. Upon co-transfection of MDBK cells with genomic viral DNA plus the GFP-bearing gE-deletion plasmid, three fluorescent recombinant clones were obtained out of approximately 5000 viral plaques. Deletion of the gE gene and the presence of the GFP marker in the genome of recombinant viruses were confirmed by PCR. Despite forming smaller plaques, the BoHV-1△gE recombinants replicated in MDBK cells with similar kinetics and to similar titers to that of the parental virus (SV56/90, demonstrating that the gE deletion had no deleterious effects on replication efficacy in vitro. Thirteen calves inoculated intramuscularly with BoHV-1△gE developed virus neutralizing antibodies at day 42 post-infection (titers from 2 to 16, demonstrating the ability of the recombinant to replicate and to induce a serological response in vivo. Furthermore, the serological response induced by recombinant BoHV-1△gE could be differentiated from that induced by wild-type BoHV-1 by the use of an anti-gE antibody ELISA kit. Taken together, these results indicated the potential application of recombinant BoHV-1 △gE in vaccine formulations to prevent the losses caused by BoHV-1 infections while allowing for differentiation of vaccinated from naturally infected animals.

  8. Molecular and in vitro Characterization of Field Isolates of Bovine Herpesvirus-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian Ruiz-Saenz; Jairo Jaime; Gloria Ramirez; Victor Vera

    2012-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is distributed worldwide and is a major pathogen in cattle,being the causal agent of a variety of clinical syndromes.The aim of this study was to isolate and to characterize (molecular and biological characterization) BoHV- 1 from 29 immunosuppressed animals.It was possible to obtain 18 isolates,each from a different animal,such as from the respiratory and reproductive tracts.In some cases the cytopathic effect was visible 12 hours post-inoculation,and became characteristic after 36-48 hours.Biological characteristics were evaluated and compared with Iowa and Colorado-1 reference strains,and differences were found in plaque size,virus titer measured by TCID50 and PFU/mL,and one step virus curves.These results showed that some isolates had a highly virulent-like behavior in vitro,compared to the reference strains,with shorter eclipse periods,faster release of virus into the supematants,and higher burst size and viral titer.There were no differences in glycoprotein expression of BoHV-1 isolates,measured by Western blot on monolayers.Moreover,using restriction endonucleases analysis,most of the viruses were confirmed as BoHV-1.1 and just one of them was confirmed as BoHV-1.2a subtype.These findings suggest that some wild-type BoHV-1 isolates could be useful as seeds to develop new monovalent vaccines.

  9. Transmission of bovine herpesvirus 1 within and between herds on an island with a BHV1 control programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.J.; Schukken, Y.H.; Schols, H.; Maris-Veldhuis, M.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Klaassen, C.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    Transmission of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) within and between herds was studied on the island of Ameland, The Netherlands. There were 50 herds with 3300 head of cattle on the island. Herds were divided into three groups: (1) only containing seronegative cattle, (2) containing seronegative cattle an

  10. Prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 in cattle and buffaloes in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 in cattle and buffaloes in the Punjab using PCR as diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 samples (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were processed for identification of BHV-1 using PCR. Results: From January 2007 to December 2010 (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were collected. The DNA was extracted from a total of 63 samples and subjected to PCR revealed that none of the sample positive for the BHV-1 infection. Conclusion: From the study it was concluded that the farms screened were free from BHV-1 infection. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 343-345

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J C; Zapata-Campos, C C; Jasso-Obregón, J O; Martinez-Burnes, J; López-Zavala, R

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico.

  14. Virus-Mediated Metalloproteinase 1 Induction Revealed by Transcriptome Profiling of Bovine Herpesvirus 4-Infected Bovine Endometrial Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Giulia; Jacca, Sarah; Montanini, Barbara; Capra, Emanuele; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Sala, Arianna; Stella, Alessandra; Castiglioni, Bianca; Ottonello, Simone; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    Viral infections can cause genital tract disorders (including abortion) in cows, and bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is often present in endometritis-affected animals. A major problem with cattle uterine viral infections in general, and BoHV-4 in particular, is our limited understanding of the pathogenic role(s) that these infections play in the endometrium. A similar lack of knowledge holds for the molecular mechanisms utilized, and the host cell pathways affected, by BoHV-4. To begin to fill these gaps, we set up optimized conditions for BoHV-4 infection of a pure population of bovine endometrial stromal cells (BESCs) to be used as source material for RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling. Many genes were found to be upregulated (417) or downregulated (181) after BoHV-4 infection. As revealed by enrichment functional analysis on differentially expressed genes, BoHV-4 infection affects various pathways related to cell proliferation and cell surface integrity, at least three of which were centered on upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and interleukin 8 (IL8). This was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR, Western-immunoblot analysis, and a luciferase assay with a bovine MMP1-specific promoter reporter construct. Further, it was found that MMP1 transcription was upregulated by the BoHV-4 transactivator IE2/RTA, leading to abnormally high metalloproteinase tissue levels, potentially leading to defective endometrium healing and unresolved inflammation. Based on these findings, we propose a new model for BoHV-4 action centered on IE2-mediated MMP1 upregulation and novel therapeutic interventions based on IFN gamma-mediated MMP1 downregulation. PMID:27281703

  15. Estimation of the diagnostic accuracy of the glyco-C and US9 gene-based polymerase chain reaction technique for the detection of bovine Herpesvirus type 5 DNA in decomposed brain suspension from a slaughter house using Bayesian analysis, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Tereza Cristina; Antello, Talita Fontes; Vieira, Flávia Volpato; Machado, Saulo Tarso Zacarias; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos

    2012-03-01

    Brazil represents the greatest beef producer among tropical countries, and the major obstacle for meat international trade is sanitary problems especially closely related to viral encephalitis. The goal of this study was to estimate the accuracy of the glycol and US9 gene-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for the detection of bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) from decomposed brain samples (n = 95). For this purpose, a latent-class (bayesian) approach was used. Sensitivity (Se) was estimated to be 70% (95% probability interval, 40-80) and specificity (Sp) 100% in the statistical analysis for both PCRs used. Accordingly, a minimum of ≥40% of the calves was estimated to harbor BoHV-5 DNA even after 72 h of decomposition at room temperature. It was concluded that US9 gene-based PCR could also be considered a cost-effective alternative in sanitary programmers. However, given the importance of veterinary diagnoses, PCR-positive samples should be further confirmed through in vitro isolation and/or sequencing. PMID:21786161

  16. Development of an Indirect ELISA for Serological Diagnosis of Bovine herpesvirus 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana A Dummer

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 are economically important pathogens, associated with a variety of clinical syndromes, including respiratory and genital disease, reproductive failure and meningoencephalitis. The standard serological assay to diagnose BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infections is the virus neutralization test (VNT, a time consuming procedure that requires manipulation of infectious virus. In the present study a highly sensitive and specific single dilution indirect ELISA was developed using recombinant glycoprotein D from BoHV-5 as antigen (rgD5ELISA. Bovine serum samples (n = 450 were screened by VNT against BoHV-5a and by rgD5ELISA. Compared with the VNT, the rgD5ELISA demonstrated accuracy of 99.8%, with 100% sensitivity, 96.7% specificity and coefficient of agreement between the tests of 0.954. The rgD5ELISA described here shows excellent agreement with the VNT and is shown to be a simple, convenient, specific and highly sensitive virus-free assay for detection of serum antibodies to BoHV-5.

  17. Development of an Indirect ELISA for Serological Diagnosis of Bovine herpesvirus 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fabrício S.; da Rosa, Matheus C.; Finger, Paula F.; de Oliveira, Patricia D.; Conceição, Fabricio R.; Fischer, Geferson; Roehe, Paulo M.; Leite, Fábio P. L.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5) are economically important pathogens, associated with a variety of clinical syndromes, including respiratory and genital disease, reproductive failure and meningoencephalitis. The standard serological assay to diagnose BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infections is the virus neutralization test (VNT), a time consuming procedure that requires manipulation of infectious virus. In the present study a highly sensitive and specific single dilution indirect ELISA was developed using recombinant glycoprotein D from BoHV-5 as antigen (rgD5ELISA). Bovine serum samples (n = 450) were screened by VNT against BoHV-5a and by rgD5ELISA. Compared with the VNT, the rgD5ELISA demonstrated accuracy of 99.8%, with 100% sensitivity, 96.7% specificity and coefficient of agreement between the tests of 0.954. The rgD5ELISA described here shows excellent agreement with the VNT and is shown to be a simple, convenient, specific and highly sensitive virus-free assay for detection of serum antibodies to BoHV-5. PMID:26866923

  18. Concurrent testing of breeding bulls for bovine herpesvirus 1 infection (BHV-1 in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintu Ravishankar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sera from 65 breeding and 19 training bulls from Uttar Pradesh State in north India were tested for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and virus neutralization test (VNT. The VNT test could detect 56 (86.15% and 9 (47.37% of the samples from breeding and training bulls as positive for BHV-1 antibodies whereas in ELISA 63 (96.92% and 10 (52.63% were found positive, respectively. Semen samples from the breeding bulls were simultaneously tested by the Taqman based real time PCR (qPCR. Of the 65 samples screened, only 40 (61.54% were found to contain BHV-1 DNA indicating that all the seropositive bulls are not shedding the virus in semen. When the RT-PCR positive samples were subjected to virus isolation on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cells, no virus isolates could be obtained. The advantages of concomitant testing of serum and semen of breeding bulls and measures for control of BHV-1 infections in bull farms are discussed.

  19. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)...

  20. Ovine herpesvirus type 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever in a heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arlington Headley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, pathological, and molecular findings due to malignant catarrhal fever lesions induced by ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2 are described in a 12-month-old, mixed-breed, heifer from northern Paraná, Brazil. The animal demonstrated clinical signs including manifestations of aggressive behavior, nystagmus, incoordination, decumbency, paddling movements, and death within 48 hours, after which was submitted for routine necropsy. Brain fragments were used in PCR assays for identification of infectious agents (OvHV-2; bovine herpesvirus-1 and -5; and Histophilus somni. Rabies was discarded in test done at official state diagnostic laboratory. Significant pathological alterations include disseminated vasculitis with lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate within the brain, kidneys, liver, and myocardium. PCR assay amplified the specific422base pair fragment of the OvHV-2 tegument protein gene from the brain; all other evaluations were negative. These findings confirm the participation of OvHV-2 in the etiopathogenesis of the disease observed in this mixed-breed heifer.

  1. Regulation of Innate Immune Responses by Bovine Herpesvirus 1 and Infected Cell Protein 0 (bICP0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton Jones

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 infected cell protein 0 (bICP0 is an important transcriptional regulatory protein that stimulates productive infection. In transient transfection assays, bICP0 also inhibits interferon dependent transcription. bICP0 can induce degradation of interferon stimulatory factor 3 (IRF3, a cellular transcription factor that is crucial for activating beta interferon (IFN-β promoter activity. Recent studies also concluded that interactions between bICP0 and IRF7 inhibit trans-activation of IFN-β promoter activity. The C3HC4 zinc RING (really important new gene finger located near the amino terminus of bICP0 is important for all known functions of bICP0. A recombinant virus that contains a single amino acid change in a well conserved cysteine residue of the C3HC4 zinc RING finger of bICP0 grows poorly in cultured cells, and does not reactivate from latency in cattle confirming that the C3HC4 zinc RING finger is crucial for viral growth and pathogenesis. A bICP0 deletion mutant does not induce plaques in permissive cells, but induces autophagy in a cell type dependent manner. In summary, the ability of bICP0 to stimulate productive infection, and repress IFN dependent transcription plays a crucial role in the BoHV-1 infection cycle.

  2. Herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 no sêmen Bovine herpesvirus-1 in semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio Andrade Rocha

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (HVB-1 é o agente causador da rinotraqueíte infecciosa bovina, além de estar associado a doenças do trato genital em bovinos. A transmissão do HVB-1 através da inseminação artificial (IA pode ocasionar problemas reprodutivos nas vacas inseminadas, como endometrite, infertilidade, absorção embrionária e abortos. Animais infectados tornam-se portadores vitalícios do HVB-1 e podem apresentar episódios intermitentes de reexcreção viral. O HVB-1 poder ser encontrado no sêmen de touros, independente do desenvolvimento de anticorpos neutralizantes. Uma vez que os testes sorológicos não são suficientes para se estimar a presença do HVB-1 no sêmen e que as condições de processamento e armazenamento do sêmen são ideais para a preservação do vírus, somente o exame individual das partidas pode assegurar a comercialização de sêmen livre do vírus. Testes laboratoriais para detecção do HVB-1 no sêmen bovino e medidas adicionais para controlar a transmissão do vírus através da IA são apresentados.Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 is the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR and is also associated with genital disease in cattle. BHV-1 transmission by artificial insemination (AI may cause reproductive problems in inseminated cows, such as endometritis, infertility, embryonic absorption and abortion. Infected animals are lifelong reservoirs of BHV-1 and may go through intermittent episodes of virus reexcretion. It is important to note that conditions of semen storage are optimal for virus survival. Additionally, BHV-1 can be found in bovine semen despite of the development of neutralizing antibody. Since serological tests are not sufficient to ascertain the presence of the virus in semen, the laboratory testing of all semen batches for BHV-1 is the only way to ensure the BHV-1-free status of the semen for commercialization. Laboratory tests used for BHV-1 detection in bovine semen

  3. Isolation and characterisation of a ruminant alphaherpesvirus closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a free-ranging red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belák Sándor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Varicellovirus of the Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a cluster of viruses antigenically and genetically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1: namely bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5, bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV-1, caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1, cervid herpesviruses 1 (CvHV-1 and 2 (CvHV-2 and elk herpesvirus 1 (ElkHV-1. Considering the serological relationship between these ruminant alphaherpesviruses, several surveys have studied the occurrence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in wild and domestic ruminant species. In this way, a recent investigation has indicated, in Belgium, a high increase in the serological prevalence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in free-ranging red deer population. In this context, it has been decided to investigate the presence of an alphaherpesvirus spreading in the Belgian free-ranging red deer population. Results The current study reports the first isolation in a free-ranging red deer of a BoHV-1 closely related virus. The isolate was antigenically, genomically and genetically characterised by comparison with several ruminant alphaherpesvirus. Immunofluorescence assays revealed the isolate was antigenically distinct from bovine and caprine alphaherpesviruses. Similarly, BamHI and BstEII restriction analyses demonstrated the genomic difference between the isolate and the other ruminant alphaherpesviruses. Next, the sequencing of selected parts of UL27 and US8 genes showed a high degree of homologies between each BoHV-1 related ruminant alphaherpesvirus and the isolate. Besides the close relationship between all ruminant alphaherpesviruses, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate clustered with CvHV-1. Conclusion The first isolation of a virus closely related to BoHV-1 in a free-ranging red deer is reported. Data demonstrate that a CvHV-1 strain, named Anlier, circulates in wild red deer in continental Europe. Anlier strain show consistent differences

  4. Establishment of a Bovine Herpesvirus 4 based vector expressing a secreted form of the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus structural glycoprotein E2 for immunization purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donofrio Gaetano

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological characteristics of BoHV-4 make it a good candidate as a gene delivery vector for vaccination purposes. These characteristics include little or no pathogenicity, unlikely oncogenicity, the capability to accommodate large amounts of foreign genetic material, the ability to infect several cell types from different animal species, and the ability to maintain transgene expression in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Results A recombinant bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4CMV-IgKE2-14ΔTK expressing an enhanced secreted form of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV structural glycoprotein E2 (gE2-14, obtained by the removal of the putative transmembrane domain and addition of a 14 amino acids peptide at its carboxyl terminal and an immunoglobulin K signal peptide to the amino terminal, was successfully constructed using a Recombineering (recombination -mediated genetic engineering approach on BoHV-4 cloned as bacterial artificial chromosome. The galactokinase – based recombineering system was modified by the introduction of a kanamycin expression cassette and a kanamycin selection step that allowed a significant reduction of the untargeted background clones. BoHV-4CMV-IgKE2-14ΔTK infected cell lines highly expressed gE2-14, which maintained native antigenic properties in a serum neutralization inhibition test. When rabbits and sheep were immunized with BoHV-4CMV-IgKE2-14ΔTK, high levels of serum neutralized antibodies against BVDV were generated. Conclusion This work highlights the engineerization of BoHV-4 genome as a vector for vaccine purposes and may provide the basis for BVDV vaccination exploiting the BoHV-4- based vector that delivers an improved secreted version of the BVDV structural glycoprotein E2.

  5. Herpesviruses and Intermediate Filaments: Close Encounters with the Third Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hertel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments (IF are essential to maintain cellular and nuclear integrity and shape, to manage organelle distribution and motility, to control the trafficking and pH of intracellular vesicles, to prevent stress-induced cell death, and to support the correct distribution of specific proteins. Because of this, IF are likely to be targeted by a variety of pathogens, and may act in favor or against infection progress. As many IF functions remain to be identified, however, little is currently known about these interactions. Herpesviruses can infect a wide variety of cell types, and are thus bound to encounter the different types of IF expressed in each tissue. The analysis of these interrelationships can yield precious insights into how IF proteins work, and into how viruses have evolved to exploit these functions. These interactions, either known or potential, will be the focus of this review.

  6. Natural infection in ovarian structures by bovine herpesvirus 1: molecular and serological detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio César Martins Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to evaluate the presence of viral DNA in ovarian tissue, in the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC, follicular liquid, and blood of animals naturally infected with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1. The serum profile of the sampled animals was also evaluated. Samples of serum, blood, ovarian tissue, follicular liquid, and COC were collected from 147 slaughterhouse animals that were not vaccinated against BoHV-1. Contaminated or insufficient samples were disregarded. Serological tests allowed the identification of serum-positive animals with neutralizing antibodies against BoHV-1. Analysis of samples by PCR revealed the presence of viral DNA in 0.9% (1/115 of the COC samples, in 4.3% (5/117 of the ovarian tissue samples, and in 2.8% (3/108 of the blood samples. Viral DNA was not detected in any of the follicular liquid samples. In serological samples, a positivity of 83.6% (117/140 was observed for BoHV-1. All PCR-positive animals, regardless of the samples analyzed, showed positivity in the serum neutralization test for the detection of BoHV-1-specific antibodies. According to these results, a high prevalence of antibodies against BoHV-1 was detected in naturally infected animals from different herds, and the molecular tests revealed the presence of viral DNA in bovine ovarian tissue, providing evidence that this might be a site of BoHV-1 infection in naturally infected animals

  7. Bovine herpesvirus 1 in semen of bulls and the risk of transmission: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oirschot, J T

    1995-03-01

    Outbreaks of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) infections in artificial insemination centres can run a clinical or subclinical course. Clinical signs vary from mild to severe balanoposthitis and may be associated with a decrease in semen quality. After intranasal as well as intrapreputial infection, BHV1 can replicate in the preputial and penile mucosae, although the pattern of virus shedding in semen differs considerably per individual bull. Beyond the primary phase of a genital infection, BHV1 remains latent in sacral ganglia, and consequently a protracted course of intermittent virus excretion may follow. The seminal plasma rather than the sperm cells contains the BHV1. Diluting the semen before inoculating cell cultures appears to be the best method to neutralize its toxic activity and to achieve optimal virus isolation results. Detection of BHV1 in semen by polymerase chain reaction seems to be more sensitive than virus isolation. Not each extended semen straw contains virus when the virus titre in the ejaculate is low. The minimal dose to infect a cow by artificial insemination may be more than 32 infectious virus particles. Such an infection may lead to fertility disturbances, mainly endometritis. The risk of transmitting BHV1 to inseminated cows by using BHV1-seropositive bulls for artificial insemination is substantially reduced if two straws per semen batch are assayed for virus and if each positive batch is destroyed. PMID:7610554

  8. 对从大洋洲进口牛的疱疹病毒Ⅰ型五种检疫方案的评估%Study on the Quarantine Requirements of Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 for Cattle Importation from Oceania into China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国强; 张睿; 陈雷; 姜珊; 李静静; 周梅玲; 王凯民; 唐泰山

    2014-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1(BoHV-1)can cause infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis(IBR/IPV),the most common disease found in the cattle imported from Oceania into China. To prevent it more effectively,on the basis of analyzing the characteristics of the infection,its prevention and control measures,the epidemiology and prevention and control in Oceania,the current quarantine requirements of OIE and China,the risk of five quarantine requirements for cattle importation from Oceania into China was analyzed and it was proposed that“All the negative animals shall be vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine”in the current protocol should be amended as“All the negative animals shall be vaccinated with an inactivated gene deleted vaccine which can differentiating infected from vaccinated cattle.”%牛疱疹病毒Ⅰ型是引起牛传染性鼻气管炎和传染性脓疱性外阴阴道炎的病原,也是近十多年来我国从大洋洲大量进口奶牛以来,检出率最高的病原之一。为了更加有效地防范其传入,本文在分析其感染特点、防控措施、大洋洲流行特点、世界动物卫生组织和中国现行检疫要求的基础上,对中国从大洋洲进口牛时该病5种检疫方案进行了风险分析,提出了以接种能区分免疫和自然感染的基因缺失疫苗代替接种灭活疫苗为主要内容的检疫的新建议。

  9. Meningoencefalite por Herpesvirus bovino 5 em Minas Gerais: relato de caso clínico Meningoencephalitis by Bovine herpesvirus 5 in Minas Gerais state: clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Aquino Neto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de meningoencefalite causada por Herpesvirus bovino 5 (BoHV-5 heritabilityem uma vaca com cinco anos de idade. O animal manifestou quadro clínico inicial de síndrome medular baixa, caracterizada por incoordenação dos membros pélvicos, sinais estes ainda não descritos para a enfermidade. Dentro de pouco tempo a doença evoluiu para síndrome cerebral, e o óbito ocorreu seis dias após o inicio dos sintomas. Na histopatologia, evidenciou-se meningoencefalite difusa, não supurada, e a confirmação do diagnóstico foi feita por reação em cadeia de polimerase e sequenciamento do segmento parcial da glicoproteína G do vírus. O trabalho confirma a presença do BoHV-5 em Minas Gerais, descreve características clínicas novas para a enfermidade e ressalta sua importância no diagnóstico diferencial das neuropatias bovinas.A clinical case of meningoencephalitis by Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 in a five-year-old cow was reported. The disease began with low spinal cord signs, characterized by incoordination, and these symptoms had never been related to this illness before. Signs of a brain syndrome were observed and the cow died in six days. At the histopathology, a spread non-supurative meningoencephalitis was diagnosed, and the virus identification was made by PCR and partial sequence of the glycoprotein G. This study confirm the BoHV-5 presence in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, describes new clinic characteristics, and show the importance of the disease in the differentiate diagnosis with others bovine central nervous system affections.

  10. Investigations of presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum of calves prior to colostrum diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of the presence of the bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 in samples of blood serum from 106 cows and 107 of their calves (one cow had twins. Blood was sampled from the cows immediately after parturition, and from the calves before feeding on colostrum. The examined cows and their calves originated from 5 herds in which previous investigations had shown infection with the bovine herpesvirus-1. The determination of antibodies against BHV-1 was performed using the method of virus neutralization in culture of MDBK cells with 100 TCID/50 viruses (BHV-1, TN-41 Am. Bio Research, USA. Antibodies against BHV-1 were determined in all blood serum samples of cows and in 16 samples of precolostral blood serums of calves. The antibody titer values in cows ranged from 1:4 to 1:512, and in calves the determined values were from 1:2 to 1:16. The results indicate that cows that are seropositive to BHV-1 can deliver calves seropositive to BHV-1 in about 15% cases. This must be kept in mind in selecting cows for the production of breeding material, in particular bulls for reproduction centers, as well as in making a programme for the immunoprophylaxis of calves against BHV-1. .

  11. Detecção de ácidos nucléicos de Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., herpesvirus bovino e vírus da diarréia viral bovina, em fetos bovinos abortados e em animais mortos no perinatal Detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., bovine herpesvirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus nucleic acids in aborted fetuses and bovines dead perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 114 bovine fetuses and 10 calves, which dead in perinatal period, were examined for detection of DNA. The most common detected agent was Brucella spp. in 17 samples (13.7% followed by Leptospira spp. in 4 cases (3.2%,bovine herpesvirus (BHV and bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV in 3 animals (2.4% each, and 1 for the association of BVDV and BHV. In 77.4 % (96/124 of the samples it was not possible to detect any agent.

  12. Detecção de ácidos nucléicos de Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., herpesvirus bovino e vírus da diarréia viral bovina, em fetos bovinos abortados e em animais mortos no perinatal Detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., bovine herpesvirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus nucleic acids in aborted fetuses and bovines dead perinatal

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, A; Castro, A. M. G.; Heinemann, M. B.; R.M. Soares; R.C. Leite; E. Scarcelli; M.E. Genovez; A.A. Alfieri; Richtzenhain, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 114 bovine fetuses and 10 calves, which dead in perinatal period, were examined for detection of DNA. The most common detected agent was Brucella spp. in 17 samples (13.7%) followed by Leptospira spp. in 4 cases (3.2%),bovine herpesvirus (BHV) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) in 3 animals (2.4%) each, and 1 for the association of BVDV and BHV. In 77.4 % (96/124) of the samples it was not possible to detect any agent.

  13. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies against glycoprotein gE of bovine herpesvirus 1 allows differentiation between infected and vaccinated cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Maris-Veldhuis, M.A.; Weerdmeester, K.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detecting antibodies against glycoprotein gE (gE) of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1). The assay is based on the use of two monoclonal antibodies directed against different antigenic domains on gE. Sera from uninfected cattle and catt

  14. Antibodies against bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 5 may be differentiated from antibodies against BHV1 in a BHV1 glycoprotein E blocking ELISA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Mars, M.H.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    We examined whether antibodies against bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 5 cross-react with BHV1 antigens and whether they could interfere with BHV1 eradication programmes. Six calves were experimentally infected with different doses of BHV5 strain N569; homologous antibodies were ?rst detectable on day 11 p

  15. Herpesvirus Herpesvirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bascones-Martínez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El Herpesvirus (HSV destaca por ser el principal responsable de un gran número de infecciones de la región orofacial, así como de la región genital. El virus del herpes simple es el prototipo de una gran familia de virus de doble cadena de ADN, los herpesviridiae, que causan una gran morbilidad en humanos. La infección en las células de la mucosa epitelial da lugar a una serie de signos clínicos y a la infección latente a nivel de las neuronas sensoriales. Durante la fase de infección productiva se expresan múltiples proteínas virales mientras que en fases latentes apenas se expresan dichas proteínas. La reactivación del virus da lugar a infecciones recurrentes, desencadenando en lisis celular y múltiples cuadros con manifestaciones clínicas bien definidas y que desarrollaremos en esta revisión. Por otro lado analizaremos la evidencia disponible que relaciona ciertos virus de esta familia con la progresión de la enfermedad periodontal tanto en adultos como en niños.The HSV is a virus that causes of a great number of infections both in the orofacial and in the genital area. The herpes simple virus is the prototype of a big family of double DNA strand viruses, the herpesviridiae, which causes a great morbidity in humans. The infection of epithelial cells of the oral mucosa gives rise to a series of clinical signs and symptoms and to a latent infection of the sensitive neurons. During the active phase of infection, multiple viral proteins are expressed while in the latent phase they are barely expressed. When the virus is reactivated, recurrent infection starts, producing cell lisis and different clinical manifestations that we are will reviewed in this article. We will explain the. The fact that certain virus of the herpesvirus family might be related with the progression of periodontal diseases in adults and children which is gaining interest lately.

  16. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  17. LATENCIA DEL HERPESVIRUS BOVINO-1: EL PAPEL DE LOS TRANSCRITOS RELACIONADOS CON LATENCIA (RL Bovine Herpesvirus-1: The Role of Latency-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIÁN RUIZ

    Full Text Available El herpesvirus bovino-1 es un virus de distribución mundial causante de graves pérdidas económicas debidas principalmente a la disminución de la eficiencia y en los indicadores de salud y productividad de cualquier hato ganadero infectado. Luego de la infección inicial del tracto respiratorio de los animales, el virus establece un estado de latencia viral en las neuronas sensoriales del ganglio trigémino y en los centros germinales de las tonsilas faríngeas. Periódicamente, el virus es reactivado y excretado en secreciones a través de las cuales puede infectar a otros animales susceptibles. Durante dicho estado de latencia hay disminución dramática de la expresión de genes virales, llevando solo a la expresión de dos transcritos: El RNA codificado por el gen relacionado con latencia (RL y el ORF-E viral. Múltiples estudios demuestran como el RL y el ORF-E están involucrados en la regulación del complejo ciclo de latencia y reactivación de la infección. La presente revisión de literatura se enfocará en describir y analizar los distintos estudios que han llevado a dilucidar el papel jugado por el gen RL y el ORF-E, sus transcritos y sus productos proteicos en el establecimiento, mantenimiento y reactivación de la latencia del HVB-1.Bovine herpesvirus-1 is a world wide spread virus that causes significant economic losses due mainly to a decrease in the efficiency and in the health and productivity indicators in all the infected herds. After a primary infection of the respiratory tract of the animals, the virus establishes viral latency state in sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia and germinal centers of pharyngeal tonsils. Periodically, the virus reactivates from latency, is shed through secretions, and can infect other susceptible animals. During latency there is a dramatic reduction of viral gen expression; only two transcripts are abundantly expressed: the latency related (LR RNA and the viral ORF-E. Multiple studies have

  18. Deteksi Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Secara Immunohistokimia pada Membran Korioallantois Telur Ayam Berembrio (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY DETECTION OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1 IN CORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE OF CHICKEN EMBRYONATED EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Purwandari Kristianingrum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR is caused by Bovine Herpes virus-1 in the cattle. The clinicalsigns demonstrate depression, anorexia, swelling of the vulva, redness of the vestibule, pustule and ulceron the vaginal mucosal. Based on previous research, IBR virus from the nasal swab could be grown inchorio-allantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. This study aim was to confirm whether IBR virusin cattle could be grown in embryonated chicken eggs as a substitute for cell culture. A total of five nasalswab samples from the cows that were positive for IBR infection (diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reactionand cell culture were inoculated on the chorio-allantois membrane of embryonated chicken eggs.Observation of lesions performed at 3-5 days after inoculation. Re-inoculation (passage was done threetimes. Pock characteristic lesions were observed on the corioallantoic membrane with the size of 5-7 mm,rounded shape, opaque edge, with necrosis in the central area. Furthermore, pock lesions were processedfor hematoxylin and eosin staining and immuno-histochemistry. The result of hematoxylin and eosinstaining showed that the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies and vacuolization of the epithelial cellof membrane was observed. Immuno-histochemistry staining showed positive reaction for antibodiesagainst BHV-1 in the epithelial cells membrane. In conclusion, embryonated chicken eggs could be usedas a medium for detection of IBR.

  19. In vitro characterization of gE negative bovine herpesvirus types 1.1 (BHV-1.1 and 1.2a (BHV-1.2a Caracterização in vitro de herpes vírus bovino tipos 1.1 (BHV-1.1 e 1.2a (BHV-1.2a gE negativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando R. Spilki

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the in vitro growth characterization of a previously constructed Brazilian bovine herpesvirus 1.2a with a deletion in the glycoprotein E gene (BHV-1.2a gE-. The plaque sizes, penetration and growth kinetics of the Brazilian BHV-1.2a gE- were studied and compared with the parental virus, as well as with a BHV-1.1 gE- recombinant derived from an European BHV-1.1 strain. No statistical differences were observed between the gE- recombinants and the respective parental viruses penetration assays were performed. When single step growth curves were studied, no statistical differences were observed between gE- and parental viruses. However, it was observed that both gE- viruses were excreted from cells in significantly higher titres at 11 hours post infection in comparison with parental viruses. No statistical differences were observed when plaque sizes of parental viruses or gE- viruses we analyzed separately in each cell type. However, both gE- recombinants displayed a significantly reduced plaque areas on three different cell cultures, in comparison with parental viruses, indicating that the lack of gE had the same effect on both BHV-1 subtypes, manifested by a restricted cell-to-cell spread in infected cells.O presente estudo teve como objetivo a caracterização das propriedades de crescimento in vitro de uma amostra brasileira de herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2a que apresenta uma deleção no gene que codifica a glicoproteína E (BHV-1.2a gE-. Os tamanhos de placa, cinética de penetração e cinética de multiplicação do vírus BHV-1.2a gE- foram estudados e comparados com o vírus parental, bem como com um vírus BHV-1.1 gE- recombinante, o qual é derivado de uma amostra européia de BHV-1.1. Em termos de cinética de penetração, não foram observadas diferenças significativas quando comparados os vírus gE- com os parentais. A determinação da cinética de multiplicação não demonstrou diferenças significativas entre os

  20. Herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (HVB 1: inquérito soro-epidemiológico no rebanho leiteiro do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV 1: an epidemiological survey in the dairy herd of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Teresinha Lovato

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Soros de 7956 bovinos leiteiros foram testados pela técnica de soro-neutralização para determinar a prevalência de anticorpos contra o Herpesvírus Bovino Tipo 1 (HVB 1. As amostras provinham de 99 municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os municípios foram agrupados em nove bacias leiteiras conforme critérios da Cooperativa Central Gaúcha de Leite (CCGL. A prevalência de anticorpos encontrada foi de 18,8%. Dos 99 municípios testados 91 (91,9% apresentaram pelo menos um animal positivo e 8 (8,1% foram negativos. A maioria das bacias leiteiras apresentou uma prevalência semelhante à demonstrada pelo restante do Estado. A bacia 7, região de Passo Fundo apresentou a mais baixa prevalência (12% e a bacia 9, região de Quaraí, a mais alta (49,5%. As amostras foram divididas em quatro grupos etários: animais até 2 anos, 2 a 4, 4 a 6 e maior que 6 anos. Observou-se que a prevalência aumentou com a idade, com a maior diferença verificada entre o primeiro e o segundo grupo e que a infecção ocorre com maior frequência em animais com mais de 2 anos. Não foi verificada diferença significativa entre título de anticorpos e idade dos animais. A grande relevância dos resultados está na prevalência comprovada de 54,5 % de propriedades positivas representando 371 de um total de 685 testadas no Estado. Levando-se em consideração os resultados deste inquérito pode-se afirmar que o Herpesvírus Bovino Tipo 1 encontra-se disseminado no rebanho bovino gaúcho. Medidas de prevenção e controle devem ser adotadas com urgência para impedir a progressão da infecção.Sera samples of 7956 dairy catlle were tested with the serum neutralization test for antibody prevalence against Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV 1. The samples were collected in 99 counties of the Rio Grande do Sul State. The counties were grouped in 9 dairy regions as determined by the "Cooperativa Central Gaúcha de Leite" (CCGL. The antibody prevalence among the 7956 ser

  1. Expression of Ovine Herpesvirus -2 Encoded MicroRNAs in an Immortalised Bovine - Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Nightingale; Levy, Claire S.; John Hopkins; Finn Grey; Suzanne Esper; Dalziel, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infects most sheep, where it establishes an asymptomatic, latent infection. Infection of susceptible hosts e.g. cattle and deer results in malignant catarrhal fever, a fatal lymphoproliferative disease characterised by uncontrolled lymphocyte proliferation and non MHC restricted cytotoxicity. The same cell populations are infected in both cattle and sheep but only in cattle does virus infection cause dysregulation of cell function leading to disease. The mechanism...

  2. Produção e caracterização de anticorpos monoclonais contra uma cepa do herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 defectiva na glicoproteína C (gC Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to a bovine herpesvirus type 1 strain defective on the glycoprotein C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Reinoldo Winkelmann

    2007-08-01

    .Most monoclonal antibodies (MAbs already produced against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 react with glycoprotein C (gC, an abundant and immunodominant antigen present on the viral envelope. In order to obtain MAbs with other protein specificities, antigens of a BoHV-1 gC-negative strain were used to immunize BALB/c mice. After fusion and selection of 54 HAT-resistant hybridomas, three clones have been obtained (1F1, 2H4 and 4D7 that secrete IgG2a antibodies reacting to BoHV-1 antigens. These MAbs reacted with viral antigens in immunofluorescence (IFA and immunoperoxidase (IPX in dilutions up to 1:640 (hybridoma supernatants and 1:20.000 (ascitis fluid. The three MAbs showed a wide spectrum of reactivity, recognizing antigens of 14 herpesviruses isolated from respiratory or genital disease (supposedly BoHV-1 and with 17 isolates of neurological disease (likely BoHV-5 and displayed varied levels of neutralizing activity against all these viruses. The protein specificity could not be demonstrated directly as none of the MAbs bound to viral antigens in Western blot. On the other hand, the three MAbs reacted with cells infected with a BoHV-5 strain defective in glycoproteins gE and gI, demonstrating they are directed to other viral proteins. By exclusion (gC, gE and gI and due to their neutralizing activity, these MAbs are probably directed to conserved epitopes on other envelope glycoproteins harboring neutralizing epitopes: gB or gD. In this sense, besides being useful for diagnosis purposes, these MAbs may be very useful for mapping neutralizing epitopes in these glycoproteins.

  3. Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Protein bICP0 Represses the Transcription of bISG15 in Fetal Bovine Lung Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Liu; Xiao-hong Kong; Wen-tao Qiao; Yun-qi Geng

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like modifier bISG15 is an antiviral protein found in fetal bovine lung (FBL) cells.Bovine Herpesvirus 1(BHV-1),which is a viral pathogen of cattle,can infect FBL cells and induce cytopathic effects.Real-time PCR assays showed that BHV- 1 's infection could repress the basal or inducible transcription of bISG15 in FBL cells.It demonstrates that this repression effect depends on BHV-1 viral infection and new protein synthesis.Our previous work showed that bIRF-3 was the key factor in the stimulation of bISG 15 in FBL cells,so the effect of BHV-1 viral protein on bIRF-3 activating the promoter of bISG15 was confirmed.The luciferase assay showed the BHV-1 viral protein bICP0 inhibited the activation of bISG15 promoter stimulated by bIRF-3.Taken together,our work suggested that BHV-I had some molecular mechanism to resist the cellular bISG15'santiviral functions.

  4. Expression of bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins gI and gIII in transfected murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genes encoding two of the major glycoproteins of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), gI and gIII, were cloned into the eucaryotic expression vectors pRSVcat and pSV2neo and transfected into murine LMTK- cells, and cloned cell lines were established. The relative amounts of gI or gIII expressed from the two vectors were similar. Expression of gI was cell associated and localized predominantly in the perinuclear region, but nuclear and plasma membrane staining was also observed. Expression of gI was additionally associated with cell fusion and the formation of polykaryons and giant cells. Expression of gIII was localized predominantly in the nuclear and plasma membranes. Radioimmunoprecipitation in the presence or absence of tunicamycin revealed that the recombinant glycoproteins were proteolytically processed and glycosylated and had molecular weights similar to those of the forms of gI and gIII expressed in BHV-1 infected bovine cells. However, both recombinant glycoproteins were glycosylated to a lesser extent than were the forms found in BHV-1 infected bovine cells. For gI, a deficiency in N-linked glycosylated of the amino-terminal half of the protein was identified; for gIII, a deficiency in O-linked glycosylation was implicated. The reactivity pattern of a panel of gI- and gIII-specific monoclonal antibodies, including six which recognize conformation-dependent epitopes, was found to be unaffected by the glycosylation differences and was identical for transfected of BHV-1-infected murine cells. Use of the transfected cells as targets in immune-mediated cytotoxicity assays demonstrated the functional recognition of recombinant gI and gIII by murine antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocytes

  5. Genital immunization of heifers with a glycoprotein Edeleted, recombinant bovine herpesvirus 1 strain confers protection upon challenge with a virulent isolate Imunização genital de bezerras com uma cepa recombinante do herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 defectiva na glicoproteína E confere proteção frente a desafio com um isolado virulento

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Weiss; Fernanda S.F. Vogel; Mathias Martins; Rudi Weiblen; Paulo M Roehe; Ana Cláudia Franco; Eduardo Furtado Flores

    2010-01-01

    Venereal infection of seronegative heifers and cows with bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 (BoHV-1.2) frequently results in vulvovaginitis and transient infertility. Parenteral immunization with inactivated or modified live BoHV-1 vaccines often fails in conferring protection upon genital challenge. We herein report an evaluation of the immune response and protection conferred by genital vaccination of heifers with a glycoprotein E-deleted recombinant virus (SV265gE-). A group of six seronegative h...

  6. Role of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) during meningoencephalitis caused by Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida Silva Barbosa, Aline; Freitas Versiani, Alice; Fonseca da Cunha Sousa, Larissa; Silva de Miranda, Aline; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; Brant, Fátima; Silva, Daniele Gonçalves; Luisa Quintino-de-Carvalho, Iracema; Marianetti Soriani, Frederico; Guimarães da Fonseca, Flávio; César Vasconcelos, Anilton; da Silva Barcelos, Lucíola; Martins Teixeira, Mauro; Lúcio Teixeira, Antônio; Machado, Fabiana Simão; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga

    2016-08-01

    The role of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in meningoencephalitis caused by Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) was evaluated by intracranial infection in C57BL/6 wild-type mice (WT) and SOCS2 deficient mice (SOCS2(-/-)). Both infected groups presented weight loss, ruffled fur and hunched posture. Additionally, infected SOCS2(-/-) mice showed swollen chamfer and progressive depression. Infected WT animals developed mild meningitis, characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells. Moreover, viral DNA was detected in liver and lung from infected WT group. This group also showed elevated brain levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, CXCL1 and CCL5, when compared with non-infected WT animals. Brain inflammation was exacerbated in infected SOCS2(-/-) mice with widespread distribution of the virus and increased brain levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12, CXCL1 and CCL5, when compared with WT infected mice. Moreover, infected SOCS2 deficient mice exhibited reduced brain mRNA expression of IFNα and IFNβ and increased expression of mRNA of SOCS1, compared with infected WT mice. Taken together, our study provides an insight into the role of SOCS2 in modulating the immune response to BoHV-5 infection. PMID:27477504

  7. Bovine herpesvirus-1: Genetic diversity of field strains from cattle with respiratory disease, genital, fetal disease and systemic neonatal disease and their relationship to vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Dubovi, E J; Eberle, R

    2016-09-01

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) causes disease in cattle with varied clinical forms. In the U.S. there are two BoHV1 subtypes, BoHV-1.1 and BoHV-1.2b. Control programs in North America incorporate modified live (MLV) or killed (KV) viral vaccines. However, BoHV-1 strains continue to be isolated from diseased animals or fetuses after vaccination. It is possible to differentiate BoHV-1 wild-type from MLV vaccine strains by determining their single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns through either whole-genome sequencing or PCR sequencing of genomic regions containing vaccine-defining SNPs. To determine the BoHV-1 subtype in clinical isolates and their relationship to MLV strains, 8 isolates from varied clinical disease at three different laboratories in the U.S. were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Five samples were isolated within the past 5 years from New York and 3 were archived samples recovered 35 years prior from Oklahoma and Louisiana. Based on phylogenetic analysis, four of the cases appeared to be due to an MLV vaccine: 3 cases of aborted fetuses and one neonate with systemic BoHV-1 disease. One aborted fetus was from a herd with no reported history of MLV vaccination in two years. The remaining four isolates did not group with any MLV vaccines: two were associated with bovine respiratory disease, one with vulvovaginitis, and a fourth was determined to be a BoHV-1.2b respiratory isolate. Recovery of BoHV-1.1 that is very closely related to an MLV vaccine virus from a herd not receiving vaccines in an extended period prior to its isolation suggests that MLV viruses may remain latent or circulate within herds for long periods. PMID:27374060

  8. Molecular Characterization of the First Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 Strains Isolated from In Vitro Bovine Embryos production in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika González Altamiranda

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is increasingly considered as responsible for various problems of the reproductive tract. The virus infects mainly blood mononuclear cells and displays specific tropism for vascular endothelia, reproductive and fetal tissues. Epidemiological studies suggest its impact on reproductive performance, and its presence in various sites in the reproductive tract highlights its potential transmission in transfer-stage embryos. This work describes the biological and genetic characterization of BoHV-4 strains isolated from an in vitro bovine embryo production system. BoHV-4 strains were isolated in 2011 and 2013 from granulosa cells and bovine oocytes from ovary batches collected at a local abattoir, used as "starting material" for in vitro production of bovine embryos. Compatible BoHV-4-CPE was observed in the co-culture of granulosa cells and oocytes with MDBK cells. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR assays targeting three ORFs of the viral genome. The phylogenetic analyses of the strains suggest that they were evolutionary unlinked. Therefore it is possible that BoHV-4 ovary infections occurred regularly along the evolution of the virus, at least in Argentina, which can have implications in the systems of in vitro embryo production. Thus, although BoHV-4 does not appear to be a frequent risk factor for in vitro embryo production, data are still limited. This study reveals the potential of BoHV-4 transmission via embryo transfer. Moreover, the high variability among the BoHV-4 strains isolated from aborted cows in Argentina highlights the importance of further research on the role of this virus as an agent with the potential to cause reproductive disease in cattle. The genetic characterization of the isolated strains provides data to better understand the pathogenesis of BoHV-4 infections. Furthermore, it will lead to fundamental insights into the molecular aspects of the virus and the means by which these

  9. Meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5 Meningoencephalitis by bovine herpesvirus-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Rissi

    2007-07-01

    testar sorologicamente os bovinos a serem introduzidos nos rebanhos, minimizar situações de estresse, sobretudo no desmame, e isolamento dos bovinos afetados.Meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 (BoHV-5 is an often fatal, acute or subacute infectious disease that affects mainly young cattle under stressing conditions. The disease has been recognized in several Brazilian regions and in other parts of the world. BoHV-5 is a double stranded DNA virus member of the Herpesviridae family and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. The virus is characterized by rapid and lytic replication in cell cultures and by the ability to establish lifelong latent infection in sensory nerve ganglia of the host. BoHV-5 is transmitted mainly by direct and indirect contact and replicates acutely in the oral, nasal, oropharingeal or ocular mucosae. After primary replication, the virus invades nerve endings and is transported to the neuron cell bodies of the sensory ganglia where it replicates actively and/or establishes latency. Viral invasion of the brain may result in massive virus replication and production of neurological disease. Virtually all cattle developing neurological disease die of meningoencephalitis; yet the infection may be subclinical in some animals. These animals recover and become latently infected. Viral dissemination within a herd is facilitated by conditions such as crowding, introduction of cattle from other herds and weaning of calves in ages that coincide with decrease of passive immunity. Certain natural or induced conditions may reactivate the latent virus and favor its transmission and dissemination to other susceptible individuals. The disease may occur as outbreaks or as sporadic cases, with morbidity rates ranging of 0.05%-5%; lethality is almost always 100%. Clinical signs include depression, nasal and ocular discharge, grinding of teeth, circling, blindness, fever, paddling movements, disphagia, abdominal pain, nystagmus, muscle tremors, drooling

  10. Clinical observations and management of a severe equine herpesvirus type 1 outbreak with abortion and encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Jasmin; Seeh, Christoph; Fey, Kerstin; Bleul, U; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Latent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection is common in horse populations worldwide and estimated to reach a prevalence nearing 90% in some areas. The virus causes acute outbreaks of disease that are characterized by abortion and sporadic cases of myeloencephalopathy (EHM), both severe threats to equine facilities. Different strains vary in their abortigenic and neuropathogenic potential and the simultaneous occurrence of EHM and abortion is rare. In this report, we present clinical o...

  11. Neutralizing antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 in captive wild felids of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthner Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho; Kindlein Vicentini, Franco; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Rosado Spilki, Fernando; Ramos Silva, Jean Carlos; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2005-09-01

    Feline herpesvirus type 1 infection affects domestic cats, causing mainly upper respiratory tract diseases. Although this infection has been described in captive and free-ranging wild felids from Europe, Asia, North America, and Africa, no information is available on its occurrence among wild felids of Brazil. In this study, 250 serum samples of six species of Brazilian captive wild felids (Leopardus tigrinus, Leopardus wiedii, Herpailurus yaguarondi, Puma concolor, Leopardus pardalis, and Panthera onca) were examined for neutralizing antibodies to feline herpesvirus type 1. Positive sera were found in 72% of L. tigrinus samples, 15% of L. wiedii, 6% of L. pardalis, 8% of H. yaguarondi, 18% of P. concolor, and 14% of P. onca. The relatively low percentages of seropositivity and low antibody titers found among the last five species suggest that feline herpesvirus type 1 does not circulate extensively among these animals. Nevertheless, quarantine, serologic screening, and vaccination of newly introduced felids is recommended in zoos in order to prevent virus transmission and outbreaks of the disease among wild felids kept in captivity. PMID:17312763

  12. A review of antiviral drugs and other compounds with activity against feline herpesvirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasy, Sara M; Maggs, David J

    2016-07-01

    Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) is a common and important cause of ocular surface disease, dermatitis, respiratory disease, and potentially intraocular disease in cats. Many antiviral drugs developed for the treatment of humans infected with herpesviruses have been used to treat cats infected with FHV-1. Translational use of drugs in this manner ideally requires methodical investigation of their in vitro efficacy against FHV-1 followed by pharmacokinetic and safety trials in normal cats. Subsequently, placebo-controlled efficacy studies in experimentally inoculated animals should be performed followed, finally, by carefully designed and monitored clinical trials in client-owned animals. This review is intended to provide a concise overview of the available literature regarding the efficacy of antiviral drugs and other compounds with proven or putative activity against FHV-1, as well as a discussion of their safety in cats. PMID:27091747

  13. Sequence analysis of the 5′ third of glycoprotein C gene of South American bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine herpesviruses 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) share high genetic and antigenic similarities, but exhibit marked differences in tissue tropism and neurovirulence. The amino-terminal region of glycoprotein C (gC), which is markedly different in each of the viruses, is involved in virus binding to cellular receptors and in interactions with the immune system. This study investigated the genetic and antigenic differences of the 5′ region of the gC (5′ gC) gene (amino-terminal) of South American BoHV-1 (n=19) and BoHV-5 (n=25) isolates. Sequence alignments of 374 nucleotides (104 amino acids) revealed mean similarity levels of 97.3 and 94.2% among BoHV-1 gC (gC1), respectively, 96.8 and 95.6% among BoHV-5 gC (gC5), and 62 and 53.3% between gC1 and gC5. Differences included the absence of 40 amino acid residues (27 encompassing predicted linear epitopes) scattered throughout 5′ gC1 compared to 5′ gC5. Virus neutralizing assays testing BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 antisera against each isolate revealed a high degree of cross-neutralization between the viruses, yet some isolates were neutralized at very low titers by heterologous sera, and a few BoHV-5 isolates reacted weakly with either sera. The virus neutralization differences observed within the same viral species, and more pronounced between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, likely reflect sequence differences in neutralizing epitopes. These results demonstrate that the 5′ gC region is well conserved within each viral species but is divergent between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, likely contributing to their biological and antigenic differences

  14. Sequence analysis of the 5′ third of glycoprotein C gene of South American bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traesel, C.K.; Bernardes, L.M. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Spilki, F.R. [Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Weiblen, R.; Flores, E.F. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    Bovine herpesviruses 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) share high genetic and antigenic similarities, but exhibit marked differences in tissue tropism and neurovirulence. The amino-terminal region of glycoprotein C (gC), which is markedly different in each of the viruses, is involved in virus binding to cellular receptors and in interactions with the immune system. This study investigated the genetic and antigenic differences of the 5′ region of the gC (5′ gC) gene (amino-terminal) of South American BoHV-1 (n=19) and BoHV-5 (n=25) isolates. Sequence alignments of 374 nucleotides (104 amino acids) revealed mean similarity levels of 97.3 and 94.2% among BoHV-1 gC (gC1), respectively, 96.8 and 95.6% among BoHV-5 gC (gC5), and 62 and 53.3% between gC1 and gC5. Differences included the absence of 40 amino acid residues (27 encompassing predicted linear epitopes) scattered throughout 5′ gC1 compared to 5′ gC5. Virus neutralizing assays testing BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 antisera against each isolate revealed a high degree of cross-neutralization between the viruses, yet some isolates were neutralized at very low titers by heterologous sera, and a few BoHV-5 isolates reacted weakly with either sera. The virus neutralization differences observed within the same viral species, and more pronounced between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, likely reflect sequence differences in neutralizing epitopes. These results demonstrate that the 5′ gC region is well conserved within each viral species but is divergent between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, likely contributing to their biological and antigenic differences.

  15. Association between antibody status to bovine herpesvirus 1 and quality of milk in dairy herds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, J G; Larska, M; Grzeszuk, M; Rola, J

    2015-02-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) is one of the most important pathogens of cattle; however, its effect on somatic cell count and milk components is not completely understood. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of BoHV1 infection on quality of bovine bulk tank milk (BTM). A total of 1,790 individual blood samples collected at 28 dairy farms were used to determine the BoHV1 infection status of the herds with ELISA tests. The quality parameters of milk were evaluated by instrumental methods with BTM samples collected at monthly intervals from May 2011 to May 2012. The statistical analysis was performed to study the associations between BoHV1 herd status, quality of BTM, and herd-specific parameters. The risk factors influencing bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were estimated using the multivariable mixed-effects maximum likelihood regression model. The true prevalences of BoHV1 infection at the animal and herd levels were 49.3 and 64.6%, respectively. The average BMSCC differed significantly between the herds grouped accordingly to their BoHV1 infection status. Interestingly, the highest BMSCC was observed in the vaccinated herds (240.3×10(3) cells/mL). Additionally, the BoHV1 herd status had a significant effect on the fat content of BTM. The largest herds that were investigated had a BoHV1 seroprevalence over 30%. The herd status was considerably influenced by the numbers of cows in the herds. Besides, no significant differences in total bacterial count or protein content in milk from BoHV1-infected und uninfected herds were observed. An increase in BMSCC was observed during summer compared with the winter months regardless of the BoHV1 status of the herds. In the final multivariable regression model, the main risk factors associated with BMSCC were BoHV1 herd status, the percentage of BoHV1 infected animals in a herd, the number of cows in a herd, and the season. Our study suggests that BoHV1 infection may influence BMSCC levels, which are key

  16. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  17. Characterization of BoHV-5 field strains circulation and report of transient specific subtype of bovine herpesvirus 5 in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiry Julien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 is a member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae responsible for meningo-encephalitis in young cattle. The first case of bovine meningo-encephalitis associated with a herpesvirus infection was reported in Australia. The current geographical distribution of BoHV-5 infection is mainly restricted to South America, especially Brazil and Argentina. Outbreaks of BoHV-5 are regularly observed in Argentina suggesting the circulation of the virus in the bovine population. Results Seventeen field strains of BoHV-5 isolated from 1984 to now were confirmed by differential PCR and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis (REA. Viral DNA was cleaved with BstEII which allows the differentiation among subtypes a, b and non a, non b. According to the REA with BstEII, only one field strain showed a pattern similar to the Argentinean A663 strain (prototype of BoHV-5b. All other isolates showed a clear pattern similar to the Australian N569 strain (prototype of BoHV-5a consistent with the subtypes observed in Brazil, the other South-American country where BoHV-5 is known to be prevalent. The genomic region of subtype b responsible for the distinct pattern was determined and amplified by PCR; specifically a point mutation was identified in glycoprotein B gene, on the BstEII restriction site, which generates the profile specific of BoHV-5b. Conclusions This is the first report of circulation of BoHV-5a in Argentina as the prevailing subtype. Therefore the circulation of BoHV-5b was restricted to a few years in Argentina, speculating that this subtype was not able to be maintained in the bovine population. The mutation in the gB gene is associated with the difference in the restriction patterns between subtypes "a" and "b".

  18. DESARROLLO DE UN POXVIRUS RECOMBINANTE QUE EXPRESA LA GLICOPROTEÍNA D DEL HERPESVIRUS BOVINO-1 Development of a Recombinant Poxvirus Expressing Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Glycoprotein D

    OpenAIRE

    JULIÁN RUIZ SÁENZ; Osorio, Jorge E.; Víctor J. Vera

    2012-01-01

    El herpesvirus bovino-1 (BHV-1) es un virus de genoma DNA perteneciente a la familia Herpesviridae, el cual afecta al bovino en el que provoca un amplio espectro de manifestaciones clínicas y pérdidas económicas. El principal componente inmunogénico de su envoltura es la glicoproteína D (gD), la cual ha sido caracterizada y utilizada como inmunógeno en distintos sistemas de expresión. El objetivo de este trabajo fue generar un poxvirus recombinante (Raccoonpox [RCN]) que expresara una versión...

  19. Human herpesvirus 6 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in cell culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, J A; Landay, A.; Lennette, E T

    1990-01-01

    The SF strain of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6SF) isolated from the saliva of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual was shown to inhibit HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and purified CD4+ lymphocytes. This suppression of HIV-1 replication led to decreased cytopathic effects of HIV-1 and prolonged survival of CD4+ cells in culture. Even low levels of HHV-6 added to peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed an inhibitory effect on HIV-1 r...

  20. Transcriptional organization of bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, L W; Heilman, C A; Howley, P M

    1983-09-01

    Multiple bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1)-specific polyadenylated RNA species in a BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma were identified and mapped. All of the RNA species were transcribed from the same DNA strand of the BPV-1 genome. Five RNA species previously identified in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were also present in the bovine fibropapilloma. These five species measured 1,050, 1,150, 1,700, 3,800, and 4,050 bases, mapped within the 69% transforming segment of the BPV-1 genome, and shared a 3' coterminus at 0.53 map units (m.u.). The 5' ends of the bodies of these distinct transcripts were located at ca. 0.03, 0.09, 0.34, 0.39, and 0.41 m.u. Additional polyadenylated RNA species not present in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were specific for the BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma and measured 1,700, 3,700, 3,800, 6,700, and 8,000 bases. These wart-specific species shared a 3' coterminus at 0.90 m.u. The 5' termini of the bodies of the 1,700- and 3,800-base species mapped at 0.71 and 0.42 m.u., respectively. Exonuclease VII analysis failed to reveal any internal splicing in these two species; however, the presence of small remote 5' leader sequences could not be ruled out. The 3,700-base species hybridized to DNA fragments from the 69% transforming segment as well as from the 31% nontransforming segment of the BPV-1 genome; however, this species was not precisely mapped. The 5' termini of the two largest RNA species (6,700 and 8,000 bases in size) were located at ca. 0.01 and 0.90 m.u., respectively. Since the 5' ends of these mapped adjacent to a TATAAA sequence which could possibly serve as an element of a transcriptional promoter, it is possible that one or both of these species represent nonspliced precursor RNA molecules. PMID:6137574

  1. A thymidine kinase-negative bovine herpesvirus 5 is highly attenuated for rabbits, but is neuroinvasive and establishes latent infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Campos da Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutant viral strains deleted in non-essential genes represent useful tools to study the function of specific gene products in the biology of the virus. We herein describe an investigation on the phenotype of a bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 recombinant deleted in the gene encoding the enzyme thymidine kinase (TK in rabbits, with special emphasis to neuroinvasiveness and the ability to establish and reactivate latent infection. Rabbits inoculated with the parental virus (SV-507/99 (n=18 at a low titer (10(5.5TCID50 shed virus in nasal secretions in titers up to 10(4.5TCID50 for up to 12 days (average: 9.8 days [5-12] and 5/ 16 developed neurological disease and were euthanized in extremis. Rabbits inoculated with the recombinant BoHV-5TKΔ at a high dose (10(7.1TCID50 also shed virus in nasal secretions, yet to lower titers (maximum: 10(2.3TCID50 and for a shorter period (average: 6.6 days [2-11] and remained healthy. PCR examination of brain sections of inoculated rabbits at day 6 post-infection (pi revealed a widespread distribution of the parental virus, whereas DNA of the recombinant BoHV-5TKΔ-was detected only in the trigeminal ganglia [TG] and olfactory bulbs [OB]. Nevertheless, during latent infection (52pi, DNA of the recombinant virus was detected in the TGs, OBs and also in other areas of the brain, demonstrating the ability of the virus to invade the brain. Dexamethasone (Dx administration at day 65 pi was followed by virus reactivation and shedding by 5/8 rabbits inoculated with the parental strain (mean duration of 4.2 days [1 - 9] and by none of seven rabbits inoculated with the recombinant virus. Again, PCR examination at day 30 post-Dx treatment revealed the presence of latent DNA in the TGs, OBs and in other areas of the brain of both groups. Taken together, these results confirm that the recombinant BoHV-5TKΔ is highly attenuated for rabbits. It shows a reduced ability to replicate in the nose but retains the ability to invade

  2. A Brazilian glycoprotein E-negative bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BHV-1.2a mutant is attenuated for cattle and induces protection against wild-type virus challenge Um mutante gE-negativo de herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2a é atenuado para bovinos e induz proteção frente ao desafio com vírus de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Franco

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors previously reported the construction of a glycoprotein E-deleted (gE- mutant of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BHV-1.2a. This mutant, 265gE-, was designed as a vaccinal strain for differential vaccines, allowing the distinction between vaccinated and naturally infected cattle. In order to determine the safety and efficacy of this candidate vaccine virus, a group of calves was inoculated with 265gE-. The virus was detected in secretions of inoculated calves to lower titres and for a shorter period than the parental virus inoculated in control calves. Twenty one days after inoculation, the calves were challenged with the wild type parental virus. Only mild signs of infection were detected on vaccinated calves, whereas non-vaccinated controls displayed intense rhinotracheitis and shed virus for longer and to higher titres than vaccinated calves. Six months after vaccination, both vaccinated and control groups were subjected to reactivation of potentially latent virus. The mutant 265gE- could not be reactivated from vaccinated calves. The clinical signs observed, following the reactivation of the parental virus, were again much milder on vaccinated than on non-vaccinated calves. Moreover, parental virus shedding was considerably reduced on vaccinated calves at reactivation. In view of its attenuation, immunogenicity and protective effect upon challenge and reactivation with a virulent BHV-1, the mutant 265gE- was shown to be suitable for use as a BHV-1 differential vaccine virus.Em estudo prévio os autores reportaram a construção de um mutante do Vírus da Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina (IBR ou Herpesvírus Bovino tipo 1.2a (BHV-1.2a, do qual foi deletado o gene que codifica a glicoproteina E. Esse mutante (265gE- foi construído a partir de uma amostra autóctone do vírus, tendo como objetivo seu uso como amostra vacinal em vacinas diferenciais, capazes de permitir a diferenciação entre animais vacinados e infectados com v

  3. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

  4. Ensaio imunoenzimático comercial no diagnóstico sorológico das infecções por herpesvírus bovino 1 A commercial enzyme immune assay in serodiagnosis of bovine herpesvirus 1 infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlei Cristina Médici

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de um ensaio imunoenzimático, obtido de fonte comercial, na identificação de anticorpos contra herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BHV-1, induzidos tanto por infecção natural quanto por vacinação, em 1000 amostras de soros sangüíneos de bovinos. A análise comparativa dos resultados obtidos no sistema avaliado e na técnica padrão de soroneutralização mostrou uma concordância de 97,05% (K=0,94 entre as duas metodologias de diagnóstico sorológico.The performance of a commercial immune assay in the identification antibody of natural infection or vaccination against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1 in 1000 samples of bovine serum was evaluated. The comparative analysis from the result of the evaluated system and standard serum neutralization technique showed a rate of agreement of 97.05% (K=0.94 between the two serologic diagnotic methods.

  5. Distribuição de anticorpos para herpesvírus bovino 1 em rebanhos bovinos Distribution of antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1 in cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Melo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição de anticorpos neutralizantes para o herpesvirus bovino 1 (HVB 1 foi estudada em quatro faixas etárias de bovinos, em 21 rebanhos de leite e de corte. Os resultados da sorologia foram analisados e relacionados com as respostas de questionários aplicados aos responsáveis pelos rebanhos. As taxas de freqüência de anticorpos neutralizantes para o HVB 1 foram comparadas segundo a aptidão e a faixa etária. Fatores como tipo de manejo e idade dos animais influenciaram na distribuição de anticorpos para o HVB 1.The distribution of neutralizing antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1 was studied in 21 beef and dairy cattle herds, in four different age groups. The results were analyzed and related with answers given to a questionnaire proposed to the farmers. The frequency rates of neutralizing antibodies for the BHV 1 were compared according to the dairy or beef herds and age of the animals. The animal husbandry and age influenced the distribution of neutralizing antibodies to this virus.

  6. VACUNAS CONTRA EL HERPESVIRUS BOVINO-1: UNA MIRADA DESDE EL PASADO HACIA EL FUTURO DE LA INMUNIZACIÓN Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Vaccine’s: A Look From The Past To The Immunization Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIÁN RUIZ-SAENZ

    Full Text Available El herpesvirus Bovino-1 (BHV-1 es uno de los principales patógenos que afecta el ganado; la infección primaria se acompaña de varias manifestaciones clínicas tales como la rinotraqueitis, aborto, vulvovaginitis/balanopostitis pustular y en algunos casos, enfermedad neurológica. Luego de la recuperación, la infección persiste durante toda la vida del individuo en un estado de latencia en ganglios nervioso trigémino o sacro. La Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE reporta que la vacunación contra el BHV-1 puede ser efectiva en reducir las manifestaciones clínicas y en consecuencia las pérdidas económicas, pero no logra proteger completamente de la infección. Es por esto que durante los últimos años se han desarrollado gran cantidad de agentes vacunales que van desde las vacunas clásicas inactivadas hasta aquellas que usan tecnología de DNA recombinante. El presente artículo se enfoca en presentar una actualización acerca de las vacunas más usadas desde hace ya varios años y resumir los avances más importantes en la generación de nuevas vacunas contra el BHV-1; tratando así de abrir un nuevo panorama para la generación de vacunas en Colombia.Bovine herpesvirus-1 is one of the most important pathogens of cattle; the primary infection is characterized by clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis and in some cases, neurological signs. After recovering, the virus establishes viral latency in sensory neurons of trigeminal or sacral ganglia. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE reports that vaccination against BHV-1 could be useful to reduce the clinical manifestations and in consequence the economic looses, but it can not protect against the infection. Therefore, a huge amount of vaccines have been developed that includes from classic inactivation to recombinant DNA technologies. This paper makes an updated review about the most used vaccines

  7. Equine herpesvirus type 1 modulates inflammatory host immune response genes in equine endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Stephanie; Barsova, Jekaterina; Campos, Isabel; Frampton, Arthur R

    2016-08-30

    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a disease caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), is characterized by severe inflammation, thrombosis, and hypoxia in central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells, which can result in a spectrum of clinical signs including urinary incontinence, ataxia, and paralysis. Strains of EHV-1 that contain a single point mutation within the viral DNA polymerase (nucleotide A2254>G2254: amino acid N752→D752) are isolated from EHM afflicted horses at higher frequencies than EHV-1 strains that do not harbor this mutation. Due to the correlation between the DNA Pol mutation and EHM disease, EHV-1 strains that contain the mutation have been designated as neurologic. In this study, we measured virus replication, cell to cell spread efficacy, and host inflammatory responses in equine endothelial cells infected with 12 different strains of EHV-1. Two strains, T953 (Ohio 2003) (neurologic) and Kentucky A (KyA) (non-neurologic), have well described disease phenotypes while the remaining strains used in this study are classified as neurologic or non-neurologic based solely on the presence or absence of the DNA pol mutation, respectively. Results show that the neurologic strains do not replicate better or spread more efficiently in endothelial cells. Also, the majority of the host inflammatory genes were modulated similarly regardless of EHV-1 genotype. Analyses of host gene expression showed that a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, as well as CCL5, IL-6 and TNF-α were consistently up-regulated in endothelial cells infected with each EHV-1 strain. The identification of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells that are modulated by EHV-1 provides further insight into the factors that contribute to the immunopathology observed after infection and may also reveal new targets for disease intervention. PMID:27527764

  8. Emerging and endemic types of Ostreid herpesvirus 1 were detected in bivalves in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Changming; Wang, Chongming; Xia, Junyang; Sun, Hailin; Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Viral infection caused by Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) is one of the proximate causes of mass mortalities of cultivated bivalves around the world. The emergence and spread of different variants of OsHV-1 accompanied by different epidemiological characteristics have been reported frequently in different countries around the world. In this paper, we present a study of the detection of OsHV-1 DNA and their variations from 1599 samples over 18 species collected in 27 aquaculture sites and two food markets during 2001-2013 in China. All of the samples were examined by a nested PCR assay targeting the C2/C6 fragment of OsHV-1 followed by sequencing. Our results showed 338 individuals (21.1%) of seven species sampled from 14 (14/27=51.9%) sites and the two food markets were positive for viral DNA. Sequencing of 289 PCR products revealed 24 virus types. No shared virus type was found among different countries with 47 types (23 in Japan, 16 in France, 2 in South Korea and 1 in each country of Australia, USA, Ireland, New Zealand, Mexico and China) identified in previous studies. As previously reported, two main phylogenetic groups were identified by phylogenetic analysis based on the 71 virus types; within which 6 separate clades were identified. Our results also demonstrated that two clades were associated with abnormal mortalities of the scallop, Chlamys farrier and the calm, Scapharca broughtonii in China. These findings indicated that cultivated bivalves may face potential threats from OsHV-1 types found in our study. PMID:25483846

  9. Epidemiological status of felid herpesvirus type-1 and feline calicivirus infections in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Henzel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Feline calicivirus (FCV and felid herpesvirus type-1 (FeHV-1 are the main infectious agents of domestic and wild felines worldwide. The FCV and FeHV-1 viruses were isolated in Brazil in 1988 and 2012, respectively. Serology surveys were performed among domestic feline in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and among wild felines in central Brazilian States. Felines with acute or chronic infections may become carriers for both viruses and, viral transmission occurs mainly by ocular and nasal secretions. In addition, FCV may be transmitted by oropharyngeal secretion and fomites. The clinical signs commonly observed in cats are fever, sneezing, coughing and nasal and ocular discharge; however, oral lesions are restricted to FCV infection. A systemic syndrome showing hemorrhagic lesions, alopecia, facial edema and jaundice has been associated with FCV. Attenuated as well as inactivated vaccines against FCV and FeHV-1 were developed in the middle 1970s, and they are effective at reducing the presentation/development of the diseases, but they are not capable of eliminating the persistence of FCV and FeHV-1. This article presents a brief review of the main aspects of the FCV and FeHV-1 infections, with an emphasis in the current situation on the domestic feline population from Brazil.

  10. An Inactivated Vaccine from a Field Strain of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) has High Antigenic Mass and Induces Strong Efficacy in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian Ruiz-Sáenz; Jairo Jaime; Victor Vera

    2013-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is a DNA virus belonging to the family Herpesviridae,subfamily Alfaherpesvirinae;it is a worldwide pathogen,causing serious economic losses in livestock.In Colombia there have been multiple isolates of BoHV-1 that have been subjected to molecular characterization,classifying most of the country isolates as BoHV-1.1.In the present study we developed and evaluated an ethyleneimine binary inactivated isolate from the native BoHV-1 strain (Córdoba-2) in a rabbit model of vaccination and infection.The vaccine was evaluated in two phases,one of immunogenicity with vaccination and a booster after 21 days,and an evaluation phase of protection against challenge with a highly virulent reference strain.The results demonstrate optimum serum-conversion,with protective neutralizing antibody titers 28 days post vaccination and optimal protection against challenge with the reference strain with decreased clinical signs of infection,protection against the onset of fever and decrease of virus excretion post challenge.In conclusion,our results show the enormous potential that an immunogenic inactivated vaccine has produced from the native BoHV-1.1 strain,which produces a high antigen mass to the vaccine to induce optimal immunity and protection,and it is a strong candidate for evaluation and possible future use in different cattle populations.

  11. Serosurvey for Infections with Bovine herpesvirus type 1,Mycobacterium avium subsp.Paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Cattle in Guizhou Province%贵州省牛传染性鼻气管炎、副结核病和新孢子虫病血清学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮泉; 陈善忠; 洪尼宁

    2014-01-01

    用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)对采自贵州省内920份牛血清进行了牛疱疹病毒1型、副结核分支杆菌和犬新孢子虫抗体检测,结果显示,这3种病原体的血清抗体牛群阳性率分别为64.29%(18/28)、57.14%(16/28)和53.57%(15/28),血清样本总体阳性率分别为66.85%(615/920)、29.89%(275/920)和32.61%(300/920),调查表明,贵州省部分牛群存在不同程度的牛传染性鼻气管炎病毒、副结核分支杆菌或新孢子虫感染。%Serum samples from 920 cattle in Guizhou province were examined for antibodies against bovine hepervirus-1(BHV-1),Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (MAP)and Neospora caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The results showed that total positive rates of the three in-fectious agents were 66.85% (615/920),29.89% (275/920)and 32.61% (300/920),with the positive rates of herds at 64.29% (18/28),57.14% (16 /28)and 53.57% (15/28),respectively.The survey showed the prevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis,paratuberculosis or neosporosis in some cattle herds of Guizhou province.

  12. A novel corneal explant model system to evaluate antiviral drugs against feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Matthew R; Fort, Michael W; Ledbetter, Eric C; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2016-06-01

    Feline herpesvirus type-1 (FHV-1) is the most common viral cause of ocular surface disease in cats. Many antiviral drugs are used to treat FHV-1, but require frequent topical application and most lack well-controlled in vivo studies to justify their clinical use. Therefore, better validation of current and novel treatment options are urgently needed. Here, we report on the development of a feline whole corneal explant model that supports FHV-1 replication and thus can be used as a novel model system to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral drugs. The anti-herpes nucleoside analogues cidofovir and acyclovir, which are used clinically to treat ocular herpesvirus infection in cats and have previously been evaluated in traditional two-dimensional feline cell cultures in vitro, were evaluated in this explant model. Both drugs suppressed FHV-1 replication when given every 12 h, with cidofovir showing greater efficacy. In addition, the potential efficacy of the retroviral integrase inhibitor raltegravir against FHV-1 was evaluated in cell culture as well as in the explant model. Raltegravir was not toxic to feline cells or corneas, and most significantly, inhibited FHV-1 replication at 500 µM in both systems. Importantly, this drug was effective when given only once every 24 h. Taken together, our data indicate that the feline whole corneal explant model is a useful tool for the evaluation of antiviral drugs and, furthermore, that raltegravir appears a promising novel antiviral drug to treat ocular herpesvirus infection in cats. PMID:26959283

  13. Classic type of Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus 8 infection in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnur, P; Katano, H; Wang, Z H; Osakabe, Y; Kudo, M; Sata, T; Ebihara, Y

    2001-11-01

    We report 17 cases of the classic type of Kaposi's sarcoma in Xinjiang, which is located in the north-western area of China surrounded by Mongolia in the east, Russia in the north and Kazakhstan in the west. Fifteen of the patients were of the Uygur people. All patients were male and did not have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Most of the lesions were found in the lower and/or upper extremities, with 16 patients showing multiple lesions. Immunohistochemical examination of the lesions revealed that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen was expressed in the nuclei of spindle-shaped tumor cells. HHV-8 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in all seven cases examined. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that DNA sequences of the HHV-8-encoded K1 gene in the seven Kaposi's sarcoma cases were classified as subtype C that was common in the Mediterranean, the Middle East and East Asian countries. In addition, using immunofluorescence we investigated the seroprevalence of HHV-8 in 73 Uygur patients with diseases other than Kaposi's sarcoma. Surprisingly, the serological study revealed that 34 of the patients (46.6%) were positive for antibodies against HHV-8, suggesting that HHV-8 infection is widespread in Xinjiang area. The occurrence of the classic type of Kaposi's sarcoma with a high seropositivity rate implies that Xinjiang is the most endemic area for HHV-8 infection in the world known to date. Considering that Xinjiang is located at the middle point of the Silk Road that used to extend from Rome to China, these data imply that the virus may have been in circulation in this area due to the migration of the people via the Silk Road.

  14. An epidemiological and economic simulation model to evaluate the spread and control of infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitus in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A.; Buijtels, J.A.A.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Franken, P.; Stegeman, J.A.; Verhoeff, J.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type I (BHV1), causing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), was introduced in the Netherlands in 1971. In 1993, about 42% of the dairy cows had antibodies against BHV1. In the future, stricter requirements are anticipated regarding the health status of exported breeding cows a

  15. Serological study of bovine herpes virus type 1 in dairy herds of Hamedan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Bahari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study with a random cluster sampling design was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1 in non-vaccinated dairy herds in Hamedan province, west of Iran. Simple random sampling was used for selection of cattle in each herd. Informative data about each herd and selected animals were recorded by the farm manager in a provided questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from 492 animals in 41 industrial herds. A commercial indirect ELISA test was used to determine the seropositivity against BHV-1. The individual and herd seroprevalence for BHV-1 were 58.74% and 82.93%, respectively. The intra-herd prevalences were ranged from 16.70% to 100%. Geographical characteristics of Hamedan province may explain the high sero- prevalence rates found in this study compared to those of others obtained from different parts of the country. The proportion of seropositive cows were increased with age (p <0.05. Animals from large and moderate sized herds had higher odds of seropositivity than those of small size herds. These findings could be related to the presence of a considerable number of BHV-1 carriers in this region. The high herd and animal prevalence found in the present study suggested necessity of implementing an intensive control program for reducing BHV-1 infection rates.

  16. A retrospective evaluation of a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibody ELISA on bulk-tank milk samples for classification of the BHV-1 status of Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylin, Britta; Strøger, Ulla; Rønsholt, Leif

    2000-01-01

    Bulk-tank milk samples analysed in a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) blocking ELISA are still in use in the Danish BHV-1 programme as a tool to classify dairy herds as BHV-1 infected or BHV-1 free herds. in this retrospective study, we used data from the Danish BHV-1 eradication campaign to evaluate...... performance characteristics of the BHV-1 blocking ELISA in 1039 BHV-1-seropositive and 502 repeatedly BHV-1-negative dairy herds using the results of blood testing of the individual animals as the true infection status. At a cut-off value of 30% blocking reaction, the herd-level relative sensitivity...

  17. Imunogenicidade de isolados de herpesvírus bovino 5 como candidatos à vacina Immunogenicity of bovine herpesvirus 5 isolates as vaccine candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Lourenço de Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O herpesvírus bovino 5 (BoHV-5 é o agente da menigoencefalite herpética bovina. A doença neurológica, associada à infecção pelo BoHV-5, apresenta altas taxas de letalidade em bovinos jovens e está disseminada no Brasil. A prevenção das perdas causadas pela infecção pelo herpesvírus está baseada, principalmente, na imunização dos animais. Nesse sentido, foi delineada uma comparação entre isolados de BoHV-5, buscando selecionar o isolado mais antigênico para a formulação de vacinas. As formulações inativadas foram produzidas com os isolados ISO9898292, SV507, SV163, 1807 e EVI145 e administradas a cinco grupos de 10 ovelhas cada, que receberam duas doses vacinais por via intramuscular com intervalo de 21 dias. Foram realizadas coletas de sangue para análise de presença de anticorpos por soroneutralização e acompanhamento dos animais até o 63° dia após a primo-vacinação. Foram observados dois picos na curva de anticorpos, o primeiro no dia 14, após a vacinação, quando os títulos médios de anticorpos variaram entre 23,1 e 138,6. O segundo pico foi observado 14 dias após a revacinação, quando os títulos médios variaram entre 301,3 e 1017,5. No 42° dia após a revacinação, foi observada variação de título entre 82,4 e 305,9. A diferença entre as médias de títulos de anticorpos de cada grupo de animais sugere uma menor antigenicidade do isolado ISO9898292 em relação aos demais, demonstrando uma possível variação antigênica entre os isolados. Todos os isolados, com exceção do ISO9898292, mostraram-se imunogênicos para a indução de anticorpos.Herpesvirus bovine 5 (BoHV-5 is the agent of bovine herpetic menigoencephalitis. The neurological disease associated with the infection is highly lethal in young cattle and it is widespread in Brazil. Control of the clinical signs caused by herpesviruses is based mainly on the immunization of cattle. A comparative study was performed among Brazilian Bo

  18. Isolation and characterization of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 from a cow affected by post partum metritis and cloning of the genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a gammaherpesvirus with a Worldwide distribution in cattle and is often isolated from the uterus of animals with postpartum metritis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Virus strain adaptation to an organ, tissue or cell type is an important issue for the pathogenesis of disease. To explore the mechanistic role of viral strain variation for uterine disease, the present study aimed to develop a tool enabling precise genetic discrimination between strains of BoHV-4 and to easily manipulate the viral genome. Methods A strain of BoHV-4 was isolated from the uterus of a persistently infected cow and designated BoHV-4-U. The authenticity of the isolate was confirmed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing using the TK and IE2 loci as genetic marker regions for the BoHV-4 genome. The isolated genome was cloned as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC and manipulated through recombineering technology Results The BoHV-4-U genome was successfully cloned as a BAC, and the stability of the pBAC-BoHV-4-U clone was confirmed over twenty passages, with viral growth similar to the wild type virus. The feasibility of using BoHV-4-U for mutagenesis was demonstrated using the BAC recombineering system. Conclusion The analysis of genome strain variation is a key method for investigating genes associated with disease. A resource for dissection of the interactions between BoHV-4 and host endometrial cells was generated by cloning the genome of BoHV-4 as a BAC.

  19. The UL41-encoded virion host shutoff (vhs) protein and vhs-independent mechanisms are responsible for down-regulation of MHC class I molecules by bovine herpesvirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppers-Lalic, D; Rijsewijk, F A; Verschuren, S B; van Gaans-Van den Brink, J A; Neisig, A; Ressing, M E; Neefjes, J; Wiertz, E J

    2001-09-01

    The virion host shutoff (vhs) protein of alphaherpesviruses causes a rapid shutoff of host cell protein synthesis. We constructed a bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) deletion mutant in which the putative vhs gene, UL41, has been disrupted. Whereas protein synthesis is inhibited within 3 h after infection with wild-type BHV1, no inhibition was observed after infection with the BHV1(vhs-) deletion mutant. These results indicate that the BHV1 UL41 gene product is both necessary and sufficient for shutoff of host cell protein synthesis at early times post-infection. Using the vhs deletion mutant, we investigated the mechanism of BHV1-induced down-regulation of MHC class I cell surface expression. In contrast to BHV1 wild-type infection, the BHV1(vhs-) mutant allows detection of MHC class I molecules at much later time-points after infection. This illustrates the role the vhs protein plays in MHC class I down-regulation. However, even after infection with BHV1(vhs-), MHC class I cell surface expression is impaired. In BHV1(vhs-)-infected cells, MHC class I molecules are retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) is still blocked. Temporal control of viral protein expression using chemical inhibitors shows that viral protein(s) expressed within the early phase of BHV1 infection are responsible for ER retention of MHC class I molecules. These results indicate that multiple mechanisms are responsible for down-regulation of MHC class I molecules in BHV1-infected cells.

  20. Regulation of Notch-mediated transcription by a bovine herpesvirus 1 encoded protein (ORF2) that is expressed in latently infected sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yilin; Jones, Clinton

    2016-08-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily member that establishes life-long latency in sensory neurons. The latency-related RNA (LR-RNA) is abundantly expressed during latency. An LR mutant virus containing stop codons at the amino-terminus of open reading frame (ORF)2 does not reactivate from latency and replicates less efficiently in tonsils and trigeminal ganglia. ORF2 inhibits apoptosis, interacts with Notch family members, and interferes with Notch-dependent transcription suggesting ORF2 expression enhances survival of infected neurons. The Notch signaling pathway is crucial for neuronal differentiation and survival suggesting that interactions between ORF2 and Notch family members regulate certain aspects of latency. Consequently, for this study, we compared whether ORF2 interfered with the four mammalian Notch family members. ORF2 consistently interfered with Notch1-3-mediated transactivation of three cellular promoters. Conversely, Notch4-mediated transcription was not consistently inhibited by ORF2. Electrophoretic shift mobility assays using four copies of a consensus-DNA binding site for Notch/CSL (core binding factor (CBF)-1, Suppressor of Hairless, Lag-2) as a probe revealed ORF2 interfered with Notch1 and 3 interactions with a CSL family member bound to DNA. Additional studies demonstrated ORF2 enhances neurite sprouting in mouse neuroblastoma cells that express Notch1-3, but not Notch4. Collectively, these studies indicate that ORF2 inhibits Notch-mediated transcription and signaling by interfering with Notch interacting with CSL bound to DNA. PMID:26846632

  1. Divergent susceptibilities of human herpesvirus 6 variants to type I interferons

    OpenAIRE

    Jaworska, Joanna; Gravel, Annie; Flamand, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Two distinct human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) variants infect humans. HHV-6B is the etiologic agent of roseola and is associated with life-threatening neurological diseases, such as encephalitis, as well as organ transplant failure. The epidemiology and disease association for HHV-6A remain ill-defined. Specific anti-HHV-6 drugs do not exist and classic antiherpes drugs have secondary effects that are often problematic for transplant patients. Clinical trials using IFN were also performed with inc...

  2. Biochemical transformation of deoxythymidine kinase-deficient mouse cells with uv-irradiated equine herpesvirus type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, G.P.; McGowan, J.J.; Gentry, G.A.; Randall, C.C.

    1978-10-01

    A line of 3T3 mouse cells lacking deoxythymidine kinase (dTK/sup -/) was stably transformed to the dTK/sup +/ phenotype after exposure to uv-irradiated equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1). Biochemical transformants were isolated in a system selective for the dTK/sup +/ phenotype (Eagle minimal essential medium containing 10/sup -4/ M hypoxanthine, 6 x 10/sup -7/ M aminopterin, and 2 x 10/sup -5/ M deoxythymidine). Transformation was accompanied by the acquisition of a dTK activity with immunological, electrophoretic, and biochemical characteristics identical to those of the dTK induced by EHV-1 during productive infection. The transformed cells have been maintained in selective culture medium for more than 50 passages and have retained the capacity to express EHV-1-specific antigens. Spontaneous release of infectious virus has not been detected in the transformed lines, and the cells were not oncogenic for athymic nude mice. In contrast to normal dTK/sup +/ 3T3 cells, EHV-1 transformants were unable to grow in the presence of arabinosylthymine, a drug selectively phosphorylated by herpesvirus-coded dTK's. These results indicate that a portion of the EHV-1 genome is able to persist in the transformed cells for many generations and be expressed as an enzymatically active viral gene product.

  3. Comparison of type I and type II bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in swine.

    OpenAIRE

    Walz, P H; Baker, J. C.; Mullaney, T P; Kaneene, J B; Maes, R K

    1999-01-01

    Some isolates of type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are capable of causing severe clinical disease in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection has been reported in pigs, but the ability of these more virulent isolates of type II BVDV to induce severe clinical disease in pigs is unknown. It was our objective to compare clinical, virologic, and pathologic findings between type I and type II BVDV infection in pigs. Noninfected control and BVDV-infected 2-month-old pigs were used. A ...

  4. Genetic characterization of the unique short segment of phocid herpesvirus type 1 reveals close relationships among alphaherpesviruses of hosts of the order Carnivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTo further characterize phocid herpesvirus type 1 (PhHV-1) at the molecular level, a cluster of genes comprising the complete unique short (Us) region of PhHV-1 has been cloned and sequenced. Within this region, ORFs were detected that code for the equivalent of the Us 2- protein of herp

  5. Analysis of chromatin attachment and partitioning functions of bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroi, Aare; Ilves, Ivar; Kivi, Sirje; Ustav, Mart

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the tethering of viral genomes to host cell chromosomes could provide one of the ways to achieve their nuclear retention and partitioning during extrachromosomal maintenance in dividing cells. The data we present here provide firm evidence that the partitioning of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) genome is dependent on the chromatin attachment process mediated by viral E2 protein and its multiple binding sites. On the other hand, the attachment of E2 and the E2-mediated tethering of reporter plasmids to host chromosomes are not necessarily sufficient for efficient partitioning, suggesting that additional E2-dependent activities might be involved in the latter process. The activity of E2 protein in chromatin attachment and partitioning is more sensitive to the point mutations in the N-terminal domain than its transactivation and replication initiation functions. Therefore, at least part of the interactions of the E2 N-terminal domain with its targets during the chromatin attachment and partitioning processes are likely to involve specific receptors not involved in transactivation and replication activities of the protein. The mutational analysis also indicates that the binding of E2 to chromatin is not achieved through interaction of linear N-terminal subsequences of the E2 protein with putative receptors. Instead, the composite surface elements of the N-terminal domain build up the receptor-binding surface of E2. In this regard, the interaction of BPV1 E2 with its chromosomal targets clearly differs from the interactions of LANA1 protein from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated human herpesvirus and EBNA1 from Epstein-Barr virus with their specific receptors. PMID:14747575

  6. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against an attenuated vaccine strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H; Hübert, P H

    1988-09-01

    The production and differentiation of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the Rac-H strain of EHV-1 used as an attenuated live vaccine to prevent rhinopneumonitis and abortion is described. Seven different antigenic sites were detected by the 15 mabs produced. EHV-1 specific mabs as well as EHV-1 and -4 common mabs could be established, allowing easy typing of EHV isolates. One mab recognized the vaccine strain only. This reaction was used to investigate a possible involvement of the vaccine strain in cases of abortion. Common antigenic determinants with EHV-1,-3,-4 and BHV-1 could also be detected, indicating the presence of highly-conserved epitopes of alpha-herpesviruses.

  7. Identification of major cell types in paraffin sections of bovine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Pessa-Morikawa Tiina; Ekman Anna; Niku Mikael; Iivanainen Antti

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Identification of cell types in bovine tissue sections is complicated by the limited availability of anti-bovine antibodies, and by antigen retrieval treatments required for formalin-fixed tissue samples. We have evaluated an antibody and lectin panel for identifying major cell types in paraffin-embedded bovine tissue sections, and report optimized pretreatments for these markers. Results We selected 31 useful antibodies and lectins which can be used to identify cell types...

  8. Critical role of the lipid rafts in caprine herpesvirus type 1 infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

    2016-01-01

    The fusion machinery for herpesvirus entry in the host cells involves the interactions of viral glycoproteins with cellular receptors, although additional viral and cellular domains are required. Extensive areas of the plasma membrane surface consist of lipid rafts organized into cholesterol-rich microdomains involved in signal transduction, protein sorting, membrane transport and in many processes of viruses infection. Because of the extraction of cholesterol leads to disorganization of lipid microdomains and to dissociation of proteins bound to the lipid rafts, we investigated the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) on caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV.1) in three important phases of virus infection such as binding, entry and post-entry. MβCD treatment did not prejudice virus binding to cells, while a dose-dependent reduction of the virus yield was observed at the virus entry stage, and 30 mM MβCD reduced infectivity evidently. Treatment of MDBK after virus entry revealed a moderate inhibitory effect suggesting that cholesterol is mainly required during virus entry rather than during the post-entry stage. Alteration of the envelope lipid composition affected virus entry and a noticeable reduction in virus infectivity was detected in the presence of 15 mM MβCD. Considering that the recognition of a host cell receptor is a crucial step in the start-up phase of infection, these data are essential for the study of CpHV.1 pathogenesis. To date virus receptors for CpHV.1 have not yet been identified and further investigations are required to state that MβCD treatment affects the expression of the viral receptors.

  9. Detection of equine herpesvirus type 1 using a real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Ibrahim S; Hewitson, Glen; Wright, Lucia; Rodwell, Barry J; Corney, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) is a major disease of equids worldwide causing considerable losses to the horse industry. A variety of techniques, including PCR have been used to diagnose EHV1. Some of these PCRs were used in combination with other techniques such as restriction enzyme analysis (REA) or hybridisation, making them cumbersome for routine diagnostic testing and increasing the chances of cross-contamination. Furthermore, they involve the use of suspected carcinogens such as ethidium bromide and ultraviolet light. In this paper, we describe a real-time PCR, which uses minor groove-binding probe (MGB) technology for the diagnosis of EHV1. This technique does not require post-PCR manipulations thereby reducing the risk of cross-contamination. Most importantly, the technique is specific; it was able to differentiate EHV1 from the closely related member of the Alphaherpesvirinae, equid herpesvirus 4 (EHV4). It was not reactive with common opportunistic pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter agglomerans often involved in abortion. Similarly, it did not react with equine pathogens such as Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus equisimilis, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Taylorella equigenitalis and Rhodococcus equi, which also cause abortion. The results obtained with this technique agreed with results from published PCR methods. The assay was sensitive enough to detect EHV1 sequences in paraffin-embedded tissues and clinical samples. When compared to virus isolation, the test was more sensitive. This test will be useful for the routine diagnosis of EHV1 based on its specificity, sensitivity, ease of performance and rapidity. PMID:16137772

  10. Arrangement of repetitive sequences in the genome of herpesvirus Sylvilagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medveczky, M M; Geck, P; Clarke, C; Byrnes, J; Sullivan, J L; Medveczky, P G

    1989-02-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus is a lymphotropic (type gamma) herpesvirus of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). Analysis of virion DNA of herpesvirus sylvilagus has revealed that the genome consists of one stretch of about 120 kilobase pairs of internal, unique DNA flanked by a variable number of 553-base-pair tandem repeats. The G + C content of the repetitive DNA is extremely high (83%), as determined by sequencing. The organization of the herpesvirus sylvilagus genome is, therefore, similar to that of the primate lymphotropic viruses herpesvirus saimiri and herpesvirus ateles. PMID:2911114

  11. Meningoencefalite em bovinos causada por herpesvírus bovino-5 no Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo Meningoencephalitis in cattle caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 in Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro César Salvador

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinze focos de meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5 (BHV-5 foram diagnosticados entre agosto de 1993 e dezembro de 1996, sendo 14 provenientes do estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e um do estado de São Paulo. A doença ocorreu em diversos municípios e em diferentes épocas do ano. Foram afetados bovinos de 6 a 60 meses de idade, com uma morbidade de 0,05% a 5% e letalidade próxima a 100%. Os sinais clínicos foram exclusivamente nervosos e o curso da enfermidade variou de 1 a 15 dias. As principais lesões histológicas detectadas foram meningite e encefalite difusa com malacia do córtex cerebral e presença de corpúsculos de inclusão intranucleares em astrócitos e neurônios. O vírus foi isolado do cérebro de 11 de um total de 12 animais, e sua identidade confirmada por imunoperoxidase, utilizando-se anticorpos monoclonais específicos. Os surtos de encefalite por BHV-5 representam 5% dos diagnósticos realizados em bovinos pelo Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul. Os resultados deste trabalho evidenciam a importância da doença no Mato Grosso do Sul e indicam a necessidade de incluir a encefalite por BHV-5 no diagnóstico diferencial de outras doenças do sistema nervoso de bovinos frequentes no Estado.Fifteen outbreaks of bovine herpesvirus-type 5 (BHV-5 infection were diagnosed from August 1993 to December 1996. Fourteen outbreaks occurred in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and one in the State of São Paulo. Cattle 6 to 60 months old were affected. Morbidity reached 0.05% to 5% and case fatality rate was nearly 100%. The disease occurred in different municipalities and at different times of the year. Clinical signs were exclusively nervous, and the clinical course varied from 1 to 15 days. The main histologic lesions were meningitis, diffuse encephalitis and necrosis of the cerebral cortex with intranuclear inclusion bodies in astrocytes and neurons. BHV-5 was isolated from 11 out of 12 brains of

  12. Herpes simplex virus type 2 or human herpesvirus 8 infection and prostate cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Xiao; Shen, Peng

    2013-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed type of cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality among males worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and the risk of prostate cancer. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, CNKI and CBM. The association of HSV-2 or HHV-8 infection with the risk of prostate cancer was separately assessed. Estimates of the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled by the fixed- or random-effects model. A total of 11 articles with 2,996 cases and 3,875 controls were included in this meta-analysis. HSV-2 infection was associated with increased prostate cancer risk (OR=1.209; 95% CI, 1.003-1.456). Results of the stratified analysis suggested that such an association existed among participants from North and South America (OR=1.226; 95% CI, 1.000-1.503). No significant correlation was observed in the HHV-8 group (OR=1.106; 95% CI, 0.765-1.598). Further investigations and large-sample studies are required to elucidate the possible mechanism underlying viral carcinogenesis and the association between herpes virus infection and the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:24648964

  13. Arrangement of repetitive sequences in the genome of herpesvirus Sylvilagus.

    OpenAIRE

    Medveczky, M M; Geck, P; Clarke, C; Byrnes, J; Sullivan, J L; Medveczky, P G

    1989-01-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus is a lymphotropic (type gamma) herpesvirus of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). Analysis of virion DNA of herpesvirus sylvilagus has revealed that the genome consists of one stretch of about 120 kilobase pairs of internal, unique DNA flanked by a variable number of 553-base-pair tandem repeats. The G + C content of the repetitive DNA is extremely high (83%), as determined by sequencing. The organization of the herpesvirus sylvilagus genome is, therefore, simil...

  14. Sequence determination of a mildly virulent strain (CU-2) of Gallid herpesvirus type 2 using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Stephen J; Rue, Cary A

    2008-06-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the mildly virulent Gallid herpesvirus type 2 strain CU-2 was determined and consists of 176,922 bp with an overall gene organization typical of class E herpesviruses. Phylogenetically, this strain partitions in its own branch between the virulent strains RB-1B, Md11, and Md5, and the vaccine strain CVI988. Overall, the genome of CU-2 is more similar to that of CVI988, with identically sized unique short regions of 11,651 bp. As in CVI988, an insertion of 177 bp was identified in the overlapping genes encoding the Meq, RLORF6, and 23 kDa proteins within the repeat long region of the genome. A total of 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) common to both CU-2 and CVI988, and not occurring in virulent strains, were identified in the genes encoding UL29, UL45, UL50, UL52, LORF10, RLORF14a, RLORF12, Meq(RLORF7), 23kDa, ICP4, US3, and two hypothetical proteins MDV071.4 and MDV076.4. Each gene encoding UL29 and Meq contained two SNPs. Only one major open reading frame (ORF) encoding UL41, the virus host shutoff (VHS) ribonuclease, was disrupted in the CU-2 genome. An additional cytosine after the 25 codon is predicted to produce a truncated protein of 97 aa. Since GaHV-2 mutants lacking UL41 have been reported to retain their virulence, other factors are likely responsible for the low virulence of CU-2. It is largely suspected that SNPs in common with CVI988 along with the insertions in the Meq loci are responsible for its phenotype. Conversely, we identified 43 nonsynonymous mutations (within 23 genes) that may contribute to the virulence of CU-2. These SNPs are shared exclusively with all sequenced virulent strains (Md5, Md11, and RB-1B) and not present within the CVI988 genome. Although most occur in proteins of unknown function, a significant percentage is in proteins involved in virion assembly.

  15. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeota, Judith A; Napier, Julia E; Armstrong, Douglas L; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Rogers, Douglas G

    2009-07-01

    Seven juveniles and 3 adults from a closed group of 19 rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) housed in a zoo's indoor rock exhibit died or were euthanized after developing blepharoconjunctivitis and orofacial ulcers over a 2-week period. Histopathologic examination of dermal ulcers and ulcerated tongues revealed amphophilic to basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells bordering ulcers. Epithelial cells with inclusion bodies were often characterized by cytomegaly and karyomegaly, and many cells had formed syncytia. Examination of inclusion bodies in tongue epithelium by transmission electron microscopy revealed icosahedral nucleocapsids, approximately 80-95 nm in diameter, with morphologic features consistent with herpesvirus. Cytopathic effect (CPE) typical of alphaherpesvirus infection was seen in bovine turbinate, equine dermal, and Vero cell monolayers after inoculation with homogenates of the skin lesions, but CPE was not seen after inoculation onto Madin-Darby canine kidney or swine testicle cell monolayers. Polymerase chain reaction analysis using degenerate primers that targeted a portion of the herpesvirus polymerase gene generated a product of approximately 227 base pairs. The product was cloned, sequenced, and then analyzed using BLAST. At the nucleotide level, there was 86%, 77%, and 76% shared identity with Eidolon herpesvirus 1, Human herpesviruses 1 and 2, and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2, respectively. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes have not been characterized. The data presented in the current study suggest that a novel alphaherpesvirus caused the lesions seen in these rock hyraxes. The molecular characteristics of this virus would tentatively support its inclusion in the genus Simplexvirus.

  16. Koi Herpesvirus Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on Koi herpesvirus disease (KHV). KHV is caused by koi herpesvirus (or cyprinid herpesvirus-3) a double stranded DNA virus of the family Herpesviridae. KHV is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC and is notifiable in Ireland according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  17. Immunogenicity of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV1) and equine rhinovirus type 1 (ERhV1) following inactivation by betapropiolactone (BPL) and ultraviolet (UV) light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some kinetic data on the inactivation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV1) and equine rhinovirus type 1 (ERhV1) by betapropiolactone (BPL) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are reported. 0.25% BPL at 370C for 1 h reduced the titre of EHV1 by > 10sup(3.4) and of ERhV1 by > 10sup(4.1) TCID50/ml. UV irradiation (334 μW/cm2) produced similar reductions in titre after 2 min. These data were used as a basis for inactivating EHV1 and ERhV1 by the combined action of BPL and UV irradiation. Viruses were exposed to 0.1% BPL for 1 h at 40C with constant stirring, followed by UV irradiation for 2 min, followed by incubation for 3 h at 370C. Inactivated EHV1 elicted secondary immune responses only in horses whereas ERhV1 produced primary immune responses in mice (including athymic nu/nu mice), rabbits and probably in horses. (Auth.)

  18. ß-catenin, a transcription factor activated by canonical Wnt signaling, is expressed in sensory neurons of calves latently infected with bovine herpesvirus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many a-herpesvirinae subfamily members, bovine herpes virus 1 (BoHV-1) expresses an abundant transcript in latently infected sensory neurons: the latency-related (LR) RNA. LR-RNA encodes a protein (ORF2) that inhibits apoptosis, interacts with Notch family members, interferes with Notch mediate...

  19. Atividade de três drogas antivirais sobre os herpesvírus bovino tipos 1, 2 e 5 em cultivo celular Activity of three antiviral drugs against bovine herpesviruses 1, 2 and 5 in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dezengrini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de três fármacos antivirais (Aciclovir [ACV], Ganciclovir [GCV] e Foscarnet [PFA] foi testada in vitro frente aos herpesvírus bovino tipos 1 (BoHV-1, 2 (BoHV-2 e 5 (BoHV-5. Para isso, utilizou-se o teste de reducao de placas virais em cultivo celular, testando-se diferentes concentracoes dos farmacos frente a 100 doses infectantes para 50% dos cultivos celulares (DICC50 dos respectivos virus. Pelo teste de MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol- 2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, verificou-se que concentracoes inferiores a 200ƒÊg/mL dos tres antivirais resultaram em indices de viabilidade de celulas MDBK e Hep2 superiores a 80%. Com base na concentracao citotoxica para 50% das celulas (CC50 e na concentracao dos farmacos efetiva para inibir em 50% o numero de placas virais (EC50, calculou-se o indice de seletividade (IS dos antivirais para os tres herpesvirus. Assim, o ACV demonstrou ser moderadamente ativo frente ao BoHV-1 (EC50: 112,9ƒÊg/mL e IS: 4,5, ao BoHV-2 (EC50: 114,2 ƒÊg/mL e IS: 4,5 e BoHV-5 (EC50: 96,9ƒÊg/mL e IS: 5,3. O GCV apresentou atividade moderada frente ao BoHV-2 (EC50: 33,5ƒÊg/mL e IS: 16,6 e, em menor grau, contra o BoHV-5 (EC50: 123,2ƒÊg/mL e IS: 4,5, sendo ineficaz frente ao BoHV-1 (EC50: 335,8ƒÊg/mL e IS: 1,7. O PFA apresentou atividade antiviral mais pronunciada, sendo o unico farmaco que, na concentracao de 100ƒÊg/mL, inibiu completamente a producao de placas pelos tres virus testados. O PFA foi o mais efetivo in vitro frente ao BoHV-1 (EC50: 29,5ƒÊg/mL e IS: 42,2, ao BoHV-2 (EC50: 45,2ƒÊg/mL e IS: 27,6 e ao BoHV-5 (EC50: 7,8ƒÊg/mL e IS: 160,6. Portanto, os resultados obtidos indicam que o PFA pode se constituir em um candidato para terapia experimental de infeccoes pelos herpesvirus de bovinos in vivo.The activity of three anti-herpetic drugs (Acyclovir [ACV], Gancyclovir [GCV] and Foscarnet [PFA] was tested against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1, 2 (BoHV-2 and 5 (BoHV-5 in vitro using the

  20. Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Matsuura, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Shu, Yujing; Kurachi, Megumi; Kasai, Kazuo; Murayama, Yuichi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Onoe, Sadao; Hagiwara, Ken’ichi; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Sata, Tetsutaro; Mohri, Shirou

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported the intraspecies transmission of L-type atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). To clarify the peripheral pathogenesis of L-type BSE, we studied prion distribution in nerve and lymphoid tissues obtained from experimentally challenged cattle. As with classical BSE prions, L-type BSE prions accumulated in central and peripheral nerve tissues.

  1. Association between phage types and antimicrobial resistance among bovine isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in 10 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vintov, J.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Zinn, C. E.;

    2003-01-01

    associated with penicillin resistance in contrast to phage group I (P = 0.0023) and phage complex-80 (P = 0.0066). This study confirms that a large number of phage types of S. aureus cause bovine mastitis, but that some types predominate. In addition, these findings could indicate that the use of penicillin...... in the bovine environment has selected for specific types of S. aureus in countries with a high frequency of resistance. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......This study was conducted to investigate the diversity of phage types and associations between penicillin resistance and phage types among 815 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in nine European countries and USA. All isolates were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents...

  2. Association between phage types and antimicrobial resistance among bovine Staphylococcus aureus from 10 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vintov, J.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Zinn, C. E.;

    2003-01-01

    associated with penicillin resistance in contrast to phage group I (P = 0.0023) and phage complex-80 (P = 0.0066). This study confirms that a large number of phage types of S. aureus cause bovine mastitis, but that some types predominate. In addition, these findings could indicate that the use of penicillin...... in the bovine environment has selected for specific types of S. aureus in countries with a high frequency of resistance.......This study was conducted to investigate the diversity of phage types and associations between penicillin resistance and phage types among 815 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in nine European countries and USA. All isolates were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents...

  3. Antiviral activity of bovine type III interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferons (IFN) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Recently a new family of IFNs, type III, has been identified in humans, mice, swine and chickens. Here we report the identification and characterization of a member of the bovine type III IFN family, boIFN-lambda3, also known...

  4. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  5. Atividade antiviral de extratos de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente frente aos herpesvírus suíno e bovino Antiviral activity of commercially available medicinal plants on suid and bovine herpesviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Kaziyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo pesquisar a atividade antiviral in vitro de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente sobre herpesvírus suíno (SuHV-1 e bovino (BoHV-1. As espécies adquiridas foram Mikania glomerata, Cymbopogon citratus, Equisetum arvense, Peumus boldus, Solanum paniculatum, Malva sylvestris, Piper umbellatun e Solidago microglossa. A citotoxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada na linhagem celular MDBK pelas alterações morfológicas das células e obtenção da concentração máxima não citotóxica (CMNC de cada planta. A atividade antiviral foi realizada com os extratos em suas respectivas CMNC e avaliada com base na redução do título viral e expressos em porcentagem de inibição. Os extratos aquosos de Peumus boldus e Solanum paniculatum apresentaram atividade antiviral sobre o SuHV-1 com 98% de inibição viral enquanto o de Peumus boldus inibiu apenas o BoHV-1 em 99%.This paper aims to find commercially available medicinal plants showing antiviral activity in vitro on suid and bovine herpesviruses. The following species were tested: Mikania glomerata, Cymbopogon citratus, Equisetum arvense, Peumus boldus, Solanum paniculatum, Malva sylvestris, Piper umbellatun and Solidago microglossa. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by morphological changes in cells determining the maximum not cytotoxic concentration (MNCC. The antiviral activity was evaluated by viral title reduction. The extracts from Peumus boldus and Solanum paniculatum showed antiviral activity against SuHV-1 with 98% of inhibition. The extract of Peumus boldus also showed activity against BoHV-1 with 99% of inhibition.

  6. Phage types and antimicrobial resistance among Danish bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolates since the 1950s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vintov, Jan; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Zinn, C. E.;

    2003-01-01

    A total of 292 bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from the 1950s (86 isolates), 1992 (107 isolates), and 2000 (99 isolates) were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility and phage typing. The same types of S. aureus (80, 52, 3A, 3A/3C, 42E, 77) were found among the isolates from all...... three time periods, representing 43.3% of the typeable isolates. This indicates that the Danish S. aureus population related to bovine mastitis has remained relatively unchanged over the last 50 years. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance has remained low in Denmark in comparison to other...

  7. I型牛疱疹病毒通用型转移载体的构建%Construction of a Universal Bovine Herpesvirus I Transfer Vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继昌; 童光志; 仇华吉; 周艳君; 张桂红; 王柳; 刘忠贵

    2001-01-01

    将I型牛疱疹病毒(BHV-1)LA株DNA HindIII A片段中的SalI-SalI亚片段(含TK基因)克隆到载体质粒pBluescript SK中,再用BglII和SacI切去347 bp,获得含TK基因部分缺失的重组质粒pSdTK,然后用HindIII和XbaI切去其中的多克隆位点;将来源于pCR3-Uni的CMV启动子、多克隆位点和BGH polyA信号插入pSdTK的XhoI位点上,构建了BHV-1通用转移载体pSdTK-CMB,此载体可用来表达牛其它病毒的抗原基因,为开发二价或多价基因工程疫苗提供基础。%Bovine herpes irus-1 strain LA DNA HindIII A was digested by the restriction endonuclease SalI,The SalI subfragment of 2.7kb containing thymidine kinase(TK)gene was cloned into pBluescript SK,resulting in a recombinant pSTK,Then it was digested by BglII and SacI,the 5.31kb fragment was recovered and self-ligated,resulting in a recombinant pSdTK,the multiple colning sites were removed by HindIII and XbaI;A fragment containing the immediate early promoter of cytomegalovirus,multiple cloning sites and bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal derived from pCR3-Uni was amplified and inserted into the XhoI site of pSdTK.The resulting transfer vector pSdTK-CMB can be used to expess genes from other bovine viruses(i.e. BPIV3、BRSV、BVDV).

  8. Human herpesvirus 6.

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, D K; Dominguez, G.; Pellett, P E

    1997-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 variant A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus 6 variant B (HHV-6B) are two closely related yet distinct viruses. These visuses belong to the Roseolovirus genus of the betaherpesvirus subfamily; they are most closely related to human herpesvirus 7 and then to human cytomegalovirus. Over 95% of people older than 2 years of age are seropositive for either or both HHV-6 variants, and current serologic methods are incapable of discriminating infection with one variant from infection...

  9. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Kotler; Larry Hanson; Arnon Dishon

    2011-01-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to est...

  10. Analysis of the genome of leporid herpesvirus 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babra, Bobby; Watson, Gregory; Xu, Wayne; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Xu, Jia-Rong; Rockey, Daniel D; Rohrmann, George F; Jin, Ling

    2012-11-10

    The genome of a herpesvirus highly pathogenic to rabbits, leporid herpesvirus 4 (LHV-4), was analyzed using high-throughput DNA sequencing technology and primer walking. The assembled DNA sequences were further verified by restriction endonuclease digestion and Southern blot analyses. The total length of the LHV-4 genome was determined to be about 124 kb. Genes encoded in the LHV-4 genome are most closely related to herpesvirus of the Simplexvirus genus, including human herpesviruses (HHV-1 and HHV-2), monkey herpesviruses including cercopithicine (CeHV-2 and CeHV-16), macacine (McHV-1), bovine herpesvirus 2 (BHV-2), and a lineage of wallaby (macropodid) herpesviruses (MaHV-1 and -2). Similar to other simplexvirus genomes, LHV-4 has a high overall G+C content of 65-70% in the unique regions and 75-77% in the inverted repeat regions. Orthologs of ICP34.5 and US5 were not identified in the LHV-4 genome. This study shows that LHV-4 has the smallest simplexvirus genome characterized to date. PMID:22921533

  11. Evaluation of a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine expressing H3 haemagglutinin in the protection of dogs against canine influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Cristina; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Metzger, Stephan M; Hoelzer, Karin; Dubovi, Edward J; Kim, Sung G; Parrish, Colin R; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2008-05-01

    In 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) was identified as a respiratory pathogen of dogs for the first time and found to be closely related to H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV). We generated a recombinant vectored vaccine that expresses H3 of a recent isolate of EIV using equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) as the delivery vehicle. This EHV-1 vectored vaccine exhibited robust and stable EIV H3 expression and induced a strong influenza virus-specific response in both mice and dogs upon intranasal or subcutaneous administration. Furthermore, upon challenge with the recent CIV isolate A/canine/PA/10915-07, protection of vaccinated dogs could be demonstrated by a significant reduction in clinical sings, and, more importantly, by a significant reduction in virus shedding. We concluded that the EHV-1/H3 recombinant vector can be a valuable alternative for protection of dogs against clinical disease induced by CIV and can significantly reduce virus spread.

  12. Periparturient infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 causes hemorrhagic proctocolitis in a cow

    OpenAIRE

    Laureyns, Jozef; Pardon, Bart; Letellier, Carine; Deprez, Piet

    2011-01-01

    After 3 cows of a dairy herd had died from severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, a 4th sick cow was transported to the clinic. Blood analyses revealed the complete absence of white blood cells, the presence of a type 1b strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and seroconversion to BVDV.

  13. The Comparison of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Fish and Bovine using Multilocus Sequence Typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has greater utility for determining the recent ancestral lineage and the relatedness of individual strains. Group B streptococci (GBS is one of the major causes of subclinical mastitis of dairy cattle in several countries. GBS also sporadically causes epizootic infections in fish. The aim of this study was to compare the evolutionary lineage of fish and bovine isolates in relation to the S. agalactiae global population as a whole by comparing the MLST profiles. Twenty S. agalactiae isolates were obtained from dairy cattle and fish. PCR products were amplified with seven different oligonucleotide primer pairs designed from the NEM316 GBS genome sequence. Clone complexes demonstrated that bovine and fish isolates were separate populations. These findings lead us to conclude that fish S. agalactiae is not a zoonotic agent for bovine. MLST could help clarify the emergence of pathogenic clones and to decide whether the host acts as a reservoir for another pathogenic lineage.

  14. Typing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses Directly from Blood of Persistently Infected Cattle by Multiplex PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, S. A.; Burton, K. M.; Prins, S. E.; Deregt, D

    1999-01-01

    A nested multiplex PCR was developed for genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs). The assay could detect as little as 3 50% tissue culture infective doses of BVDV per ml and typed 42 out of 42 cell culture isolates. BVDV was also successfully typed, with or without RNA extraction, from all 27 whole-blood samples examined from 22 carriers or probable carriers and 5 experimentally infected cattle.

  15. A stochastic simulation model to determine the sample size of repeated national surveys to document freedom from bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwermer Heinzpeter

    2007-05-01

    importance than infection through animals of either import pathway. Conclusion The model estimated the pre-survey probability of freedom from infection accurately as was shown in the case of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR. With this model, a generic tool becomes available which can be adapted to changing conditions related to either importing or exporting countries.

  16. Efeitos do Foscarnet sobre a infecção pelos herpesvírus bovino tipos 1 e 5 em coelhos Effects of Foscarnet on the infection by bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dezengrini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito antiviral do Foscarnet (PFA foi demonstrado anteriormente em células de cultivo infectadas com três herpesvírus bovino (BoHV. No presente estudo, investigaram-se os seus efeitos sobre a infecção e doença causadas pelo BoHV-1 e BoHV-5 em coelhos infectados experimentalmente. Coelhos inoculados com o BoHV-5 pela via intraconjuntival (IC e tratados com o PFA (100mg/kg/dia a partir do dia 1 pós-inoculação (pi apresentaram uma redução nos títulos de vírus excretados entre os dias 2 e 6 pi em comparação com o grupo não-tratado; essa diferença foi significativa no dia 3 pi [F(9,108 = 2,23; PThe activity of Foscarnet (PFA against three bovine herpesviruses (BoHVs was previously demonstrated in cell culture. Herein we evaluated the effects of PFA on the infection and disease by BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 in a rabbit model. Rabbits inoculated with BoHV-5 in the conjunctival sac (IC and treated with PFA (100 mg/kg/day from day 1 to 17 post-inoculation (pi shed less virus between days 2 and 6 pi comparing to untreated controls; this difference was significant at day 3 pi [F(9,108 = 2,23; P<0.03]. The morbidity and mortality rates of rabbits inoculated with BoHV-5 IC or intranasally (IN were also significantly reduced in PFA-treated rabbits (50%; 11/22 comparing to untreated controls (95.4%; 21/22 (P<0.0008. In rabbits inoculated IC with BoHV-1, a reduction in virus shedding was observed in PFA-treated animals between days 1 and 4 pi; 6 and 7 pi. In addition, PFA-treated rabbits presented a longer incubation period and a shorter clinical course comparing to untreated controls (P<0.005 and P<0.04, respectively. The frequency and severity of ocular signs were also reduced in the PFA-treated group. These results demonstrate that PFA is effective against BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 in vivo and open the way towards its use in experimental therapy of herpetic infections in domestic animals.

  17. Multilocus sequence types of Finnish bovine Campylobacter jejuni isolates and their attribution to human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corander Jukka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to the sporadic nature of infection, sources often remain unknown. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has been successfully applied to population genetics of Campylobacter jejuni and mathematical modelling can be applied to the sequence data. Here, we analysed the population structure of a total of 250 Finnish C. jejuni isolates from bovines, poultry meat and humans collected in 2003 using a combination of Bayesian clustering (BAPS software and phylogenetic analysis. Results In the first phase we analysed sequence types (STs of 102 Finnish bovine C. jejuni isolates by MLST and found a high diversity totalling 50 STs of which nearly half were novel. In the second phase we included MLST data from domestic human isolates as well as poultry C. jejuni isolates from the same time period. Between the human and bovine isolates we found an overlap of 72.2%, while 69% of the human isolates were overlapping with the chicken isolates. In the BAPS analysis 44.3% of the human isolates were found in bovine-associated BAPS clusters and 45.4% of the human isolates were found in the poultry-associated BAPS cluster. BAPS reflected the phylogeny of our data very well. Conclusions These findings suggest that bovines and poultry were equally important as reservoirs for human C. jejuni infections in Finland in 2003. Our results differ from those obtained in other countries where poultry has been identified as the most important source for human infections. The low prevalence of C. jejuni in poultry flocks in Finland could explain the lower attribution of human infection to poultry. Of the human isolates 10.3% were found in clusters not associated with any host which warrants further investigation, with particular focus on waterborne transmission routes and companion animals.

  18. Analysis of Chromatin Attachment and Partitioning Functions of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Abroi, Aare; Ilves, Ivar; Kivi, Sirje; Ustav, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the tethering of viral genomes to host cell chromosomes could provide one of the ways to achieve their nuclear retention and partitioning during extrachromosomal maintenance in dividing cells. The data we present here provide firm evidence that the partitioning of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) genome is dependent on the chromatin attachment process mediated by viral E2 protein and its multiple binding sites. On the other hand, the attachment of E2 ...

  19. Equid herpesvirus (EHV-1) live vaccine strain C147: efficacy against respiratory diseases following EHV types 1 and 4 challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J R; Földi, J; Bateman, H; Williams, J; Didlick, S; Stark, R

    2003-03-20

    The temperature sensitive and host range mutant clone 147 of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) was assessed for its ability to protect conventional, susceptible adult horses against respiratory infection by EHV-1 and equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4). Intranasal (IN) vaccination with 5.2 log(10) TCID(50) did not cause adverse clinical reactions although a limited virus shedding and viraemia (leukocytes) was observed in 11 of 15 and 10 of 15 vaccinated horses respectively. All 15 vaccinated horses showed a significant seroresponse to both EHV-1 and EHV-4 for virus neutralising (VN) antibody. None of 14 control horses shed virus or became viraemic or seroconverted prior to challenge. EHV-1 challenge (dose 6.0 log(10)) 6 weeks after vaccination resulted in pyrexia in all eight control horses while eight vaccinated horses remained unaffected. Six control horses developed nasal discharge, five of which were mucopurulent nasal discharge (mean duration 3.2 days) which also occurred in four vaccinated horses for 1 day. All eight control horses shed challenge EHV-1 at a significantly higher level (group mean titre 2.6+/-0.4 log(10) TCID(50) per sample) and for much longer (mean duration 4.8+/-1.5 days) than that (group mean titre 1.4+/-0.8 log(10) TCID(50) per sample and mean duration 1.5+/-0.5 days) in six vaccinated horses. Furthermore, all eight control horses became viraemic (mean duration 2.9 days) but viraemia did not occur in eight vaccinated horses. Following EHV-1 challenge, all eight control horses showed a significant VN antibody rise to both EHV-1 and EHV-4 but this occurred in only one vaccinated horse and to EHV-4 only. In EHV-4 challenge (dose of 4.2 log(10) TCID(50)) of a separate pair of seven vaccinated and six control horses, 6 weeks after EHV-1 vaccination resulted in pyrexia (mean duration 2.3 days) and nasal discharge (mean duration 1.8 days) in three and five control horses respectively but the only reaction observed in the vaccinated group was nasal discharge

  20. Efeito do dimetildioctadecilamônio na resposta imune humoral e celular de cobaios inoculados com o herpesvírus bovino-1 inativado Effect of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium chloride on the humoral and cellular response to inactivated bovine herpesvirus-1 in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o potencial adjuvante do cloreto de dimetildioctadecilamônio (DDA cloreto em estimular as respostas imune humoral e celular, do tipo hipersensibilidade cutânea tardia (DTH, em cobaios que receberam preparações de antígeno contendo o herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BHV-1 inativado. Os animais foram vacinados com o BHV-1 em cinco diferentes formulações, representadas pelos grupos: A- adjuvante completo / incompleto de Freund, B- hidróxido de alumínio (Al(OH3, C- DDA cloreto, D- associação Al(OH3 / DDA cloreto e E- BHV-1 em solução aquosa sem adjuvante. Os animais do grupo F, grupo-controle negativo, foram inoculados apenas com meio de cultivo celular. Os maiores títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes do BHV-1, expressos em log2, foram obtidos nos grupos D, A e C, com títulos de 6,25, 6,0 e 5,25, respectivamente. Na avaliação da DTH, os maiores aumentos na espessura da dobra da pele foram observados nos grupos A (2,4mm, C (1,8mm e D (1,1mm. O DDA cloreto, utilizado tanto de forma isolada quanto em associação, determinou a potencialização das respostas imunológicas humoral e celular de cobaios imunizados com o BHV-1 inativado.The adjuvanticity of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium chloride (DDA chloride to induce humoral and cell mediated (delayed type hypersensitivity - DTH - immune responses was assessed in guinea pigs that received antigen preparations containing inactivated bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1. The animals were vaccinated with five different formulations, containing BHV-1 represented by groups: A- complete/incomplete Freund adjuvant, B- aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH3, C- DDA chloride, D- association Al(OH3/DDA and E- BHV-1 in aqueous solution without adjuvant. Group F was the negative control group and the animals received only cell culture medium. The higher titers of BHV-1 neutralizing antibodies, expressed in log2, were obtained in groups D, A and C with values of 6.25, 6.0 and 5.25, respectively. In the DTH

  1. A vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against EHV-1 and H3N8 equine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; May, Maeva A; Peters, Sarah T; Metzger, Stephan M; Rosas, Cristina T; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2010-01-22

    Vaccination is commonly used to control equine respiratory pathogens such as equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and equine influenza virus (EIV). Here, we describe the generation and characterization of a recombinant EHV-1 modified live virus vaccine (MLV) based on a recent abortogenic EHV-1 strain, NY03. The immunogenicity and efficacy of the MLV was tested in horses in an EHV-1 vaccination/challenge experiment using the highly virulent neurovirulent EHV-1 strain OH03. Induction of a robust EHV-1-specific immune response was observed. Upon challenge infection, vaccinated horses were partially protected against disease as demonstrated by a significant reduction in clinical signs, nasal shedding and viremia levels. In addition, the NY03-based MLV was used to express the EIV H3 protein and immunogenicity was tested in horses. Expression of H3 was readily detected in NY03-H3-infected cells in vitro. Vaccination of horses resulted in the induction of a robust serological immune responses against two recent but genetically distinct EIV representatives, VA05 and NY-99, which were above the threshold predicted to be protective against development of clinical disease.

  2. Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Stephen J; Volkening, Jeremy D; Mullis, Robert; Li, Fenglan; Mercado, John; Zsak, Laszlo

    2013-10-01

    Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspected in causing Runting Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens. Initial attempts to express the wild-type gene encoding the capsid protein VP2 of ChPV by insertion into the thymidine kinase gene of MeHV-1 were unsuccessful. However, transient expression of a codon-optimized synthetic VP2 gene cloned into the bicistronic vector pIRES2-Ds-Red2, could be demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Red fluorescence could also be detected in these transfected cells since the red fluorescent protein gene is downstream from the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Strikingly, fluorescence could not be demonstrated in cells transiently transfected with the bicistronic vector containing the wild-type or non-codon-optimized VP2 gene. Immunocytochemical staining of these cells also failed to demonstrate expression of wild-type VP2, indicating that the lack of expression was at the RNA level and the VP2 protein was not toxic to CEFs. Chickens vaccinated with a DNA vaccine consisting of the bicistronic vector containing the codon-optimized VP2 elicited a humoral immune response as measured by a VP2-specific ELISA. This VP2 codon-optimized bicistronic cassette was rescued into the MeHV-1 genome generating a vectored vaccine against ChPV disease.

  3. MENINGOENCEFALITE NECROSANTE EM BOVINOS CAUSADA POR HERPESVÍRUS BOVINO NO ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO, BRASIL NECROTIZING MENINGO-ENCEPHALITIS IN CATTLE DUE TO BOVINE HERPESVIRUS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Moleta Colodel

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Achados epidemiológicos, clínicos, patológicos e microbiológicos de 13 casos de meningoencefalite necrosante pelo Herpesvírus Bovino (BHV, afetando 12 rebanhos bovinos ocorridos no período de março de 1999 a agosto de 2000 em 11 municípios do Estado de Mato Grosso são descritos. Onze surtos ocorreram em sistemas de criação extensiva, afetando com maior freqüência animais da raça nelore, e idade média de 24 meses com uma variação de dois a 72 meses. Os principais sinais clínicos descritos foram as alterações neurológicas, sendo relatados salivação profusa, descarga nasal e ocular serosa, depressão profunda, incoordenação, andar a esmo ou em círculo, cegueira, diminuição do tonus lingual, decúbito lateral com movimentos de pedalagem, opistótono e morte. Ausência de alterações foi o relato mais comum durante a necropsia. Em alguns casos, observou-se congestão encefálica difusa, hemorragias submeningeanas multifocais, achatamento de circunvoluções cerebrais e áreas focais de malacias. Os principais achados microscópicos foram meningoencefalite com corpúsculos de inclusão eosinofílicos, intranucleares em astrócitos. As áreas de malacia afetavam principalmente o córtex cerebral. Foi realizado isolamento e caracterização viral em três de um total de sete amostras encaminhadas Em um dos casos, dos que houve isolamento viral, o diagnóstico histopatológico foi de polioencefalomalacia não se observando meningoencefalite e corpúsculos de inclusão.The epidemiological, clinical, pathological and microbiological aspects of 13 cases of necrotizing meningo-encephalitis associated to bovine herpesvirus are described. The disease is described in 12 cattle herds from March 1999 to August 2000 at 11 counties of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The outbreaks were described in cattle raised on farms in which, mostly Zebu breeds were involved. The average age of the cattle affected was 24 months, ranging from two

  4. Emergence of a novel bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion from an atypical H-type BSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masujin, Kentaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Imamura, Morikazu; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The H-type of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) was serially passaged in bovinized transgenic (TgBoPrP) mice. At the fourth passage, most challenged mice showed a typical H-BSE phenotype with incubation periods of 223 ± 7.8 days. However, a different phenotype of BSE prion with shorter incubation periods of 109 ± 4 days emerged in a minor subset of the inoculated mice. The latter showed distinct clinical signs, brain pathology, and abnormal prion protein profiles as compared to H-BSE and other known BSE strains in mice. This novel prion was transmitted intracerebrally to cattle, with incubation periods of 14.8 ± 1.5 months, with phenotypes that differed from those of other bovine prion strains. These data suggest that intraspecies transmission of H-BSE in cattle allows the emergence of a novel BSE strain. Therefore, the continuation of feed ban programs may be necessary to exclude the recycling of H-BSE prions, which appear to arise spontaneously, in livestock. Such measures should help to reduce the risks from both novel and known strains of BSE. PMID:26948374

  5. Herpesvirus infections in childhood: 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathwani, D; Wood, M J

    Infections due to herpesviruses have received increasing attention over the past decade, culminating in the isolation in 1986 of human herpesvirus-6. This is the second of two articles in which we examine the clinical spectrum of acquired herpesvirus infections in children and review developments in our understanding of the molecular biology, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of these infections. PMID:8242213

  6. Typing of cytopathic and noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus reference and Canadian field strains using a neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Magar, R; Minocha, H C; Montpetit, C; Carman, P S; Lecomte, J.

    1988-01-01

    Cytopathic and noncytopathic reference strains as well as Canadian field isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus were analyzed by neutralization and immunofluorescence tests using a bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Results on reference strains indicated three major antigenic groups: I) NADL-like, II) New York 1-like and III) Oregon C24V-like. Field isolates could be segregated into groups I and II and none could be typed into the group III. It appears tha...

  7. Genetic characterization of Amazonian bovine papillomavirus reveals the existence of four new putative types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Flavio R C; Daudt, Cíntia; Streck, André F; Weber, Matheus N; Filho, Ronaldo V Leite; Driemeier, David; Canal, Cláudio W

    2015-08-01

    Papillomaviruses are small and complex viruses that belong to the Papillomaviridae family, which comprises 39 genera. The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) causes an infectious disease that is characterized by chronic and proliferative benign tumors that affect cattle worldwide. Different genotypes of BPVs can cause distinct skin and mucosal lesions and the immunity they raise has low cross-protection. This report aimed to genotype BPVs in cattle from Northern Brazil based on nucleotide partial sequences of the L1 ORF. Skin wart samples from 39 bovines clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as cutaneous papillomatosis from Acre and Rondônia States were analyzed. The results revealed four already reported BPV types (BPVs 1, 2, 11, and 13), nine putative new BPV subtypes and four putative new BPV types as well as two putative new BPV types that were already reported. To our knowledge, this is the first record of BPVs from the Brazilian Amazon region that identified new possible BPV types and subtypes circulating in this population. These findings point to the great genetic diversity of BPVs that are present in this region and highlight the importance of this knowledge before further studies about vaccination are attempted. PMID:26116287

  8. Role of transcriptional repressors in transformation by bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Zemlo, T R; Lohrbach, B; Lambert, P F

    1994-01-01

    Transformation of rodent cells by bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) has been shown to require the direct contribution of the viral oncogenes encoded by the E5, E6, and E7 translational open reading frames (ORFs). It is also known that the viral E1 and E2 ORFs contribute indirectly to cellular transformation through their transcriptional modulation of these viral oncogenes. A mutant BPV-1 disrupted in two of the proteins encoded by the E2 ORF, the E2 transcriptional repressors, has a comple...

  9. The E2 transactivator of bovine papillomavirus type 1 is expressed from multiple promoters.

    OpenAIRE

    Vaillancourt, P; Nottoli, T; Choe, J; Botchan, M R

    1990-01-01

    The E2 proteins of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) are a family of site-specific DNA-binding proteins which regulate viral transcription by repression and activation. Repressors E2-TR and E8/E2 are expressed from promoters P5 (P3080) and P3 (P890), respectively. Previous reports have provided evidence that the transcript for the 48-kilodalton transactivator is initiated from a promoter proximal to the open reading frame encoding this protein (P2440 or P4). Our studies extend these findin...

  10. Prevalence of Papillomaviruses, Polyomaviruses, and Herpesviruses in Triple-Negative and Inflammatory Breast Tumors from Algeria Compared with Other Types of Breast Cancer Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbex, Marilys; Bouzbid, Sabiha; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Aouras, Hayette; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Carreira, Christine; Lankar, Abdelaziz; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik

    2014-01-01

    Background The possible role of viruses in breast cancer etiology remains an unresolved question. We hypothesized that if some viruses are involved, it may be in a subgroup of breast cancers only. Epidemiological arguments drove our interest in breast cancer subgroups that are more frequent in Africa, namely inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and triple-negative breast cancer. We tested whether viral prevalence was significantly higher in these subgroups. Materials and Methods One hundred fifty-five paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumors were randomly selected at the pathology laboratory of the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria) to include one third of IBC and two thirds of non-IBC. They were tested for the presence of DNA from 61 viral agents (46 human papillomaviruses, 10 polyomaviruses, and 5 herpesviruses) using type-specific multiplex genotyping assays, which combine multiplex PCR and bead-based Luminex technology. Results Viral DNA was found in 22 (17.9%) of 123 tumors. The most prevalent viruses were EBV1 and HPV16. IBC tumors carried significantly more viruses (any type) than non-IBC tumors (30% vs. 13%, p<0.04). Similarly, triple-negative tumors displayed higher virus-positivity than non-triple-negative tumors (44% vs. 14%, p<0.009). Conclusions Our results suggest an association between the presence of viral DNA and aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (IBC, triple-negative). While preliminary, they underline the importance of focusing on subgroups when studying viral etiology in breast cancer. Further studies on viruses in breast cancer should be conducted in much larger samples to confirm these initial findings. PMID:25478862

  11. Prevalence of papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, and herpesviruses in triple-negative and inflammatory breast tumors from algeria compared with other types of breast cancer tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilys Corbex

    Full Text Available The possible role of viruses in breast cancer etiology remains an unresolved question. We hypothesized that if some viruses are involved, it may be in a subgroup of breast cancers only. Epidemiological arguments drove our interest in breast cancer subgroups that are more frequent in Africa, namely inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and triple-negative breast cancer. We tested whether viral prevalence was significantly higher in these subgroups.One hundred fifty-five paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumors were randomly selected at the pathology laboratory of the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria to include one third of IBC and two thirds of non-IBC. They were tested for the presence of DNA from 61 viral agents (46 human papillomaviruses, 10 polyomaviruses, and 5 herpesviruses using type-specific multiplex genotyping assays, which combine multiplex PCR and bead-based Luminex technology.Viral DNA was found in 22 (17.9% of 123 tumors. The most prevalent viruses were EBV1 and HPV16. IBC tumors carried significantly more viruses (any type than non-IBC tumors (30% vs. 13%, p<0.04. Similarly, triple-negative tumors displayed higher virus-positivity than non-triple-negative tumors (44% vs. 14%, p<0.009.Our results suggest an association between the presence of viral DNA and aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (IBC, triple-negative. While preliminary, they underline the importance of focusing on subgroups when studying viral etiology in breast cancer. Further studies on viruses in breast cancer should be conducted in much larger samples to confirm these initial findings.

  12. Amino acids critical for the functions of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, J L; Blanco, M; McBride, A A

    1996-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein is important for viral DNA replication, for transcriptional transactivation, and for interaction with the E1 protein. To determine which residues of this 200-amino-acid domain are important for these activities, single conservative amino acid substitutions have been generated in 17 residues that are invariant among all papillomavirus E2 proteins. The resulting mutated E2 proteins were tested for the ability to support viral DNA replication, activate transcription, and cooperatively bind to the origin of replication with the E1 protein. We identified five mutated proteins that were completely defective for transcriptional activation and either were defective or could support viral DNA replication at only low levels. However, several of these proteins could still interact efficiently with the E1 protein. In addition, we identified several mutated proteins that were unable to efficiently cooperatively bind to the origin with the E1 protein. Although a number of the mutated proteins demonstrated wild-type activity in all of the functions tested, only 3 out of 17 mutated viral genomes were able to induce foci in a C127 focus formation assay when the mutations were generated in the background of the entire bovine papillomavirus type 1 genome. This finding suggests that the E2 protein may have additional activities that are important for the viral life cycle. PMID:8523530

  13. Construction and characterization of a bovine herpesvirus 5 mutant with a deletion of the gI, gE and US9 genes Construção e caracterização de um mutante herpesvírus bovino 5 com uma deleção nos genes gI, gE e US9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 is a important cause of viral encephalitis in cattle in South America. Within the framework of developing a differential vaccine against BoHV-5, a deletion mutant was constructed based on a Brazilian BoHV-5 isolate. The target of the deletions were genes that code proteins implicated in the neurovirulence of BoHV-5, the glycoprotein I (gI, glycoprotein E (gE and membrane protein US9. To construct the deletion mutant of BoHV-5, the flanking regions of all three genes were cloned in a prokaryotic plasmid. This deletion fragment was co-transfected with the viral DNA into bovine cells. Identification of deletion mutants was performed by immunostaining with an anti-gE monoclonal antibody. One of the gE negative viral populations found was purified, amplified and further examined by restriction endonuclesase analysis of its genomic DNA. The plaque sizes and penetration kinetics of the deletion mutant and wild type viruses were compared. The plaque sizes of the deletion mutant were significantly smaller than those of the parental strain (p O herpesvírus bovino 5 (BoHV-5 é uma causa importante de encefalite viral em bovinos na América do Sul. Buscando o desenvolvimento de uma vacina diferencial contra o BoHV-5, um mutante deletado foi construído com base em um isolado brasileiro deste vírus. O alvo das deleções foram genes que codificam proteínas implicadas na neurovirulência do BoHV-5, a glicoproteína I (gI, a glicoproteína E (gE e a proteína de membrana US9. Para construir o mutante deletado de BoHV-5, as regiões flanqueadoras dos três genes foram clonadas em um plasmídeo procarioto. Este fragmento de deleção foi co-transfectado com o DNA viral em células de bovinos. A identificação dos mutantes deletados foi feita por meio da técnica de imunoperoxidase com um anticorpo monoclonal anti-gE. Uma das populacões virais gE negativas encontradas foi purificada, amplificada e seu genoma foi examinado por an

  14. Novel Bovine Papillomavirus Type Discovered by Rolling-Circle Amplification Coupled with Next-Generation Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudt, Cíntia; Weber, Matheus N.; Guimarães, Lorena L. B.; Streck, André F.; Mayer, Fabiana Q.; Roehe, Paulo M.; Canal, Cláudio W.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, fifteen bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types have been identified and classified into four genera: Deltapapillomavirus, Epsilonpapillomavirus, Dyoxipapillomavirus, and Xipapillomavirus. Here, the complete genome sequence of a new BPV type (BPV 04AC14) recovered from a papillomatous lesion is reported. The genome is 7,282 bp in length and exhibits the classic genetic organization and motifs of the members of Papillomaviridae. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed that BPV 04AC14 clusters with members of the Xipapillomavirus genus. The nucleotide sequence of the L1 capsid protein of the novel BPV is closely related to its counterpart, BPV3, with which it shares 79% similarity. These findings suggest that this virus is a new BPV type of the Xipapillomavirus genus. PMID:27606703

  15. Oral administration of famciclovir for treatment of spontaneous ocular, respiratory, or dermatologic disease attributed to feline herpesvirus type 1: 59 cases (2006-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasy, Sara M; Shull, Olivia; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Lim, Christine C; Freeman, Kate S; Strom, Ann R; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes for cats treated with orally administered famciclovir 3 times/d for clinical signs attributed to naturally occurring feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) infection and to assess variables related to owner satisfaction with the treatment. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 59 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify cats treated for presumed FHV-1 infection from 2006 through 2013 with ≥ 1 follow-up visit. Signalment, duration of clinical signs, prior treatment, examination findings, diagnostic test results, concurrent treatments, and outcome data were recorded. Owners were asked to complete a survey regarding patient- and treatment-related variables. Data were compared between cats that received low (approx 40 mg/kg [18 mg/lb]) and high (approx 90 mg/kg [41 mg/lb]) doses of famciclovir, PO, 3 times/d. RESULTS Patient age ranged from 0.03 to 16 years. Conjunctivitis (51/59 [86%]), keratitis (51 [86%]), blepharitis (19 [32%]), nasal discharge or sneezing (10 [17%]), and dermatitis (4 [7%]) were common findings. Clinical improvement was subjectively graded as marked in 30 (51%) cats, mild in 20 (34%), and nonapparent in 9 (15%). Median time to improvement was significantly shorter, and degree of improvement was significantly greater in the highdose group than in the low-dose group. Adverse effects potentially attributable to famciclovir administration were reported for 10 cats. On the basis of survey responses, most (29/32 [91%]) owners were satisfied with their cat's treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Famciclovir at the prescribed dosages was associated with improved clinical signs in cats with presumed FHV-1 infection, and few adverse effects were attributed to the treatment. Further studies are needed to assess whether a famciclovir dosage of 90 versus 40 mg/kg, PO, 3 times/d would result in increased efficacy and shorter treatment time. PMID:27556267

  16. A touchdown PCR for the differentiation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) field strains from the modified live vaccine strain RacH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterrieder, N; Hübert, P H; Brandmüller, C; Kaaden, O R

    1994-12-01

    More than 50 reference strains and field isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) were examined by a touchdown PCR. Primers for specific amplification of EHV-1 DNA were chosen from the terminal and internal repeat regions of the EHV-1 genome where the high-passaged live vaccine strain RacH displays symmetric 850 bp deletions. The positive strand and one negative strand primer were designed to encompass the deletions present in RacH, and the second negative strand primer was designed to hybridize within these deletions. Discrimination between field isolates and the vaccine strain was achieved by the generation of amplification products of different size: In all EHV-1 reference strains and field isolates, a 495 bp DNA fragment was amplified specifically, whereas a 310 bp fragment was amplified when DNA of the vaccine strain RacH was used as a template. PCR amplification was only obtained in the presence of 8-10% dimethylsulfoxide and when the primer annealing temperatures were decreased stepwise from 72 degrees C to 60 degrees C. Under these conditions as little as 100 fg template DNA, corresponding to about 100 genome equivalents, could be detected. The PCR assay allows fast and sensitive discrimination of the modified live vaccine strain RacH from field strains of EHV-1 since it is applicable to viral DNA extracted from organ samples and paraffin-embedded tissues. It may thus be helpful for examining the potential involvement of the RacH live vaccine strain in abortions of vaccinated mares.

  17. Quantitative determination of type I myosin heavy chain in bovine muscle with anti myosin monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, B; Leger, J; Robelin, J

    1994-01-01

    Bovine type I muscle fibers were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a monoclonal antibody specific for slow myosin heavy chains (MHC 1). Two bovine muscles, the Masseter and Cutaneus trunci, were analyzed by different complementary techniques: electrophoresis, immunoblotting and immunohistiology. The results showed that the two muscles have extreme characteristics. The Masseter contains only slow MHC and the Cutaneus trunci is composed solely of rapid MHC (MHC 2a and 2b). A standard for this ELISA was obtained by mixing the two muscles and was used as a reference in the determination of the percentage of MHC 1 in a given muscle. In this study, the Longissimus thoracis of 27 Charolais cattle were examined. The different conditions under which assays were carried out were described and the accuracy of the measurement was calculated. In view of the results, ELISA was chosen for the analysis of muscle fiber types in large numbers of animal specimens. This technique could be used in several research projects to study the muscle characteristics that determine beef quality. PMID:22061628

  18. Cryo-EM structures of two bovine adenovirus type 3 intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lingpeng; Huang, Xiaoxing; Li, Xiaomin [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Xiong, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Luo-jia-shan, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Sun, Wei; Yang, Chongwen; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Ying [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Hongrong [College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Huang, Xiaojun; Ji, Gang; Sun, Fei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zheng, Congyi, E-mail: cctcc202@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Luo-jia-shan, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Zhu, Ping, E-mail: zhup@ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Adenoviruses (Ads) infect hosts from all vertebrate species and have been investigated as vaccine vectors. We report here near-atomic structures of two bovine Ad type 3 (BAd3) intermediates obtained by cryo-electron microscopy. A comparison between the two intermediate structures reveals that the differences are localized in the fivefold vertex region, while their facet structures are identical. The overall facet structure of BAd3 exhibits a similar structure to human Ads; however, BAd3 protein IX has a unique conformation. Mass spectrometry and cryo-electron tomography analyses indicate that one intermediate structure represents the stage during DNA encapsidation, whilst the other intermediate structure represents a later stage. These results also suggest that cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during, rather than after, the DNA encapsidation process. Overall, our results provide insights into the mechanism of Ad assembly, and allow the first structural comparison between human and nonhuman Ads at backbone level. - Highlights: • First structure of bovine adenovirus type 3. • Some channels are located at the vertex of intermediate during DNA encapsidation. • Protein IX exhibits a unique conformation of trimeric coiled–coiled structure. • Cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during the DNA encapsidation process.

  19. Isolation, identification, and complete genome sequence of a bovine adenovirus type 3 from cattle in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yuan-Mao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3 belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae and is involved in respiratory and enteric infections of calves. The isolation of BAV-3 has not been reported prior to this study in China. In 2009, there were many cases in cattle showing similar clinical signs to BAV-3 infection and a virus strain, showing cytopathic effect in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, was isolated from a bovine nasal swab collected from feedlot cattle in Heilongjiang Province, China. The isolate was confirmed as a bovine adenovirus type 3 by PCR and immunofluorescence assay, and named as HLJ0955. So far only the complete genome sequence of prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain has been reported. In order to further characterize the Chinese isolate HLJ0955, the complete genome sequence of HLJ0955 was determined. Results The size of the genome of the Chinese isolate HLJ0955 is 34,132 nucleotides in length with a G+C content of 53.6%. The coding sequences for gene regions of HLJ0955 isolate were similar to the prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain, with 80.0-98.6% nucleotide and 87.5-98.8% amino acid identities. The genome of HLJ0955 strain contains 16 regions and four deletions in inverted terminal repeats, E1B region and E4 region, respectively. The complete genome and DNA binding protein gene based phylogenetic analysis with other adenoviruses were performed and the results showed that HLJ0955 isolate belonged to BAV-3 and clustered within the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae. Conclusions This is the first study to report the isolation and molecular characterization of BAV-3 from cattle in China. The phylogenetic analysis performed in this study supported the use of the DNA binding protein gene of adenovirus as an appropriate subgenomic target for the classification of different genuses of the family Adenoviridae on the molecular basis. Meanwhile, a large-scale pathogen and serological epidemiological

  20. Detection of Different Bovine Papillomavirus Types and Co-infection in Bloodstream of Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E U D; Silva, M A R; Pontes, N E; Coutinho, L C A; Paiva, S S L; Castro, R S; Freitas, A C

    2016-02-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is a diverse group of double-stranded DNA oncogenic viruses. BPVs are classically described as epitheliotropic, however, they have been detected in body fluids, such as blood and semen. The presence of BPV in these sites can have implications for the dissemination of BPV. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of BPV types in cattle blood. A total of 57 blood samples were analyzed by PCR using BPV type-specific primers to BPVs 1-6 and 8-10, and subsequent sequencing. Sequencing quality was determined using Staden package with Phred 20. Similarity analysis was performed with BioEdit and BLAST programs to assess the identity with known BPV types. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test. The results showed seven different types of BPVs in the blood, with the exception of BPV 5 and 9. This is the first study that demonstrates BPVs 3, 6, 8 and 10 DNA in cattle blood. BPVs 1 and 2 were the viral types most frequent in blood, while BPVs 4 and 10 were the least frequent types. All the samples showed co-infection by at least two BPV types. These data suggest that several BPV types may infect blood cells at the same time and demonstrate the possibility that the BPV infection in non-epithelial tissue can occur without restriction to one or two viral types. These results can contribute to future studies aimed at the control and prevention of papillomaviruses.

  1. Detection of primate herpesvirus antibodies including Herpesvirus simiae by enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichberg, J W; Heberling, R L; Guajardo, J E; Kalter, S S

    1980-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used for the detection of antibodies to Herpesvirus hominis type 1 and 2 (HVH-1 and HVH-2), SA8 and Herpesvirus simiae (HVB) in human and nonhuman primate sera. Optimal assay conditions were approximately the same for HVH-1, HVH-2, and SA8 but different for HVB. The recognized lethality of HVB required studies to determine whether or not inactivated HVB could be used in the EIA outside a biohazard safety cabinet. Ten percent buffered formalin destroyed infectivity of antigen coated discs after 5 minutes while retaining activity in the EIA. Antibody titers to HVB determined by serum neutralization were up to eightfold higher in the EIA. Using EIA to survey sera for antibodies to herpesviruses, it was determined that most humans reacted to HVH-1 (88%), HVH-2 (81%) and SA8 (94%), and 38% to HVB. Whereas baboons reacted almost exclusively to their indigenous herpesvirus SA8 (44%), rhesus monkeys demonstrated a high positive rate to HVH-1 (63%), SA8 (94%), and HVB (50%). These data indicate that EIA is rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and useful in the detection of antibodies to human and nonhuman primate herpesviruses but does not, at this point, resolve problems related to cross-reactivity among these viruses. PMID:6249690

  2. Human herpesviruses and MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove

    2007-01-01

    Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in MS pathogenesis; the human herpesviruses (HHV) are likely candidates for such factors. HHV share a number of properties: they are almost ubiquitous, they are highly prevalent worldwide, they all cause latent infections and...

  3. Transcriptional activation function is not required for stimulation of DNA replication by bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossel, M J; Sverdrup, F; Breiding, D E; Androphy, E J

    1996-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus type 1 replication was previously shown to require both the E1 initiator protein and the E2 transactivator protein. We show here that E1, in the absence of E2, is sufficient for low-level bovine papillomavirus type 1 DNA replication in C-33A cells. In addition, studies of genetically isolated E2 point mutants demonstrate that enhancement of replication by E2 does not require its transcriptional activation function. The uncoupling of the E2 functions suggests that stimula...

  4. Neuropatogênese experimental da infecção pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 em coelhos Experimental neuropathogenesis of bovine herpesvirus 5 infection in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Furtado Flores

    2009-01-01

    estudar diversos aspectos da infecção pelo BoHV-5.Several aspects of the biology of bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 have been studied in rabbits, which develop acute infection and neurological disease upon experimental inoculation. The acute infection is followed by the establishment of latent infection, which can be naturally or artificially reactivated. The first experiments in rabbits established a protocol for virus inoculation and monitoring the infection, and characterized the main virological, clinical and pathological aspects of the acute infection. The pathogenesis of acute infection, from the initial viral replication at site of inoculation, pathways and kinetics of viral transport to the brain, distribution and virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS, cellular and tissue tropism, clinical signs and CNS pathology have been extensively studied using this animal model. Subsequently, several biological and molecular aspects of latent BoHV-5 infection have also been elucidated upon inoculation of rabbits. Rabbits have also been used to investigate the phenotype (neuroinvasiveness, neurogrowth of field isolates and recombinant vaccine candidates, protection by passive immunity, vaccine protection, the efficacy of anti-viral drugs and support therapies for neurological disease. This animal model was also used to investigate the origin and distribution of electric impulses involved in seizures - a hallmark of BoHV-5 induced neurological infection - and also to test the efficacy of anti-convulsivants. In spite of the possible differences between rabbits and cattle - the natural host of the virus - the observations taken from this experimental model have greatly contributed to the knowledge of the biology of BoHV-5 infection. The present article presents a review of the main published and unpublished results and observations by our group, comprising more than a decade of studies on the pathogenesis of BoHV-5 infection in the rabbit model.

  5. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in four bovine species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Deng

    Full Text Available To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens, and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab and antigen (Ag detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379, 1.39% (14/1010, and 22.64% (146/645, respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333, 63.27% (248/392, 45.38% (236/520, and 14.18% (19/134, respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116, 0.77% (3/392, 0.82% (3/368, and 5.97% (8/134, respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131, 13.00% (26/200, 28.89% (52/180, and 19.40% (26/134, respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%, BVDV-1m (49.19%, or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%. Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  6. Molecular characterization and baculovirus expression of the glycoprotein B of a seal herpesvirus (phocid herpesvirus-1).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA glycoprotein B (gB) gene homologue was identified in a 5.4-kb BamHl genomic fragment of the phocid herpesvirus type-1 (PhHV-1) which represents a widespread and important pathogen of pinnipeds. Sequence analysis revealed a gB-specific open-reading frame comprising 881 amino acids. Phyl

  7. Distribution of tropomyosin isoforms in different types of single fibers isolated from bovine skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, M; Ojima, K; Nakajima, I; Chikuni, K; Shibata, M; Muroya, S

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the relationship between myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms and tropomyosin (TPM) isoforms in single fibers, 64 single fibers were isolated from each of bovine three muscles (masseter, semispinalis and semitendinosus). mRNA expressions of MyHC and TPM isoforms were analyzed by real-time PCR. All single fibers from the masseter expressed MyHC-slow. The fibers from the semispinalis expressed both MyHC-slow and 2a. The fibers from the semitendinosus expressed MyHC-slow, 2a and 2x. TPM-1 and TPM-2 were co-expressed in 2a and 2x type fibers, and TPM-2 and TPM-3 were co-expressed in slow type fibers. The expression pattern of TPM isoforms in each fiber type was similar between fibers isolated from different muscles. These results suggest that TPM-1 and TPM-3 isoforms correspond to the function of 2a or 2x type fibers and slow type fibers, respectively, with TPM-2 in common. Furthermore, the patterns of MyHC and TPM isoform combinations did not vary among single fibers isolated from the individual muscles examined. PMID:27105153

  8. Bovine Papillomavirus in Brazil: Detection of Coinfection of Unusual Types by a PCR-RFLP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is recognized as a causal agent of benign and malignant tumors in cattle. Thirteen types of BPV are currently characterized and classified into three distinct genera, associated with different pathological outcomes. The described BPV types as well as other putative ones have been demonstrated by molecular biology methods, mainly by the employment of degenerated PCR primers. Specifically, divergences in the nucleotide sequence of the L1 gene are useful for the identification and classification of new papillomavirus types. On the present work, a method based on the PCR-RFLP technique and DNA sequencing was evaluated as a screening tool, allowing for the detection of two relatively rare types of BPV in lesions samples from a six-year-old Holstein dairy cow, chronically affected with cutaneous papillomatosis. These findings point to the dissemination of BPVs with unclear pathogenic potential, since two relatively rare, new described BPV types, which were first characterized in Japan, were also detected in Brazil.

  9. Distribution of tropomyosin isoforms in different types of single fibers isolated from bovine skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, M; Ojima, K; Nakajima, I; Chikuni, K; Shibata, M; Muroya, S

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the relationship between myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms and tropomyosin (TPM) isoforms in single fibers, 64 single fibers were isolated from each of bovine three muscles (masseter, semispinalis and semitendinosus). mRNA expressions of MyHC and TPM isoforms were analyzed by real-time PCR. All single fibers from the masseter expressed MyHC-slow. The fibers from the semispinalis expressed both MyHC-slow and 2a. The fibers from the semitendinosus expressed MyHC-slow, 2a and 2x. TPM-1 and TPM-2 were co-expressed in 2a and 2x type fibers, and TPM-2 and TPM-3 were co-expressed in slow type fibers. The expression pattern of TPM isoforms in each fiber type was similar between fibers isolated from different muscles. These results suggest that TPM-1 and TPM-3 isoforms correspond to the function of 2a or 2x type fibers and slow type fibers, respectively, with TPM-2 in common. Furthermore, the patterns of MyHC and TPM isoform combinations did not vary among single fibers isolated from the individual muscles examined.

  10. Analysis of the ligand binding properties of recombinant bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolf, B; Oudenampsen-Krüger, E; Börchers, T;

    1995-01-01

    The coding part of the cDNA for bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and used for the construction of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system. The recombinant protein made up to 25% of the soluble E. coli proteins and could be isolated...... by a simple two step protocol combining ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Dissociation constants for binding of oleic acid, arachidonic acid, oleoyl-CoA, lysophosphatidic acid and the peroxisomal proliferator bezafibrate to L-FABP have been determined by titration calorimetry. All ligands were...... bound in a 2:1 stoichiometry, the dissociation constants for the first ligand bound were all in the micro molar range. Oleic acid was bound with the highest affinity and a Kd of 0.26 microM. Furthermore, binding of cholesterol to L-FABP was investigated with the Lipidex assay, a liposome binding assay...

  11. An investigation of the viral pathogenesis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. Lack of evidence for Epstein-Barr virus or human herpesvirus type 6 as the causative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, H C; Peiper, S C; Weiss, L M; Raffeld, M; Jaffe, E S

    1994-02-01

    Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis of Kikuchi and Fujimoto is a well-defined clinicopathologic entity of unknown cause. Both the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) have been suggested as potential etiologic agents. Twenty cases of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease were studied for the presence of EBV DNA and HHV-6 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in situ hybridization in the case of EBV. Cellular DNA from sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymph node tissue was amplified using the PCR technique and oligonucleotide primers to the EBV BamH1 W, lymphocyte-determined membrane antigen, or the EBNA-1 region. These studies were performed in three separate laboratories. In addition, 12 cases were examined by in situ hybridization, eight of which had shown at least one positive PCR signal for EBV. The presence of HHV-6 was assessed by PCR using primers to part of the pZVH14 sequence. Biopsy specimens from eight patients (40%) showed a strong positive signal for EBV in at least one laboratory, while an additional three specimens (15%) showed a weaker positive signal. Five cases studied showed rare positive cells by in situ hybridization, and one case had scattered positive cells. All samples lacked HHV-6 genomic templates. These findings indicate that HHV-6 does not play a role in the pathogenesis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease and do not implicate EBV as a causal agent for Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, since EBV was detected in only a fraction of cases with a low number of positive cells detected by in situ hybridization. Further, some discrepancies were identified in the positive results for EBV in samples studied by multiple laboratories. These results indicate that inconsistent results by PCR may occur with very low levels of viral genomes and that different laboratories perform DNA amplification at different efficiencies. Alternatively, laboratory contamination may give rise to false-positive results. Therefore, a positive result

  12. Enhanced Antiviral Activity Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by the Combination of Bovine Type 1 and 2 Interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of spread of the infection. Human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine interferon alpha (Ad5-pI...

  13. Stenting of Variant Left Carotid Artery Using Brachial Artery Approach in a Patient with Unusual Type of Bovine Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gürel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine aortic arch is the most frequently encountered variation in human aortic arch branching. A 63-year-old Asian male presented with symptomatic severe stenosis of left carotid artery originating from the brachiocephalic trunk. Selective engagement to the left carotid artery was unsuccessful using transfemoral approach. We reported on a successful left carotid artery stenting case using right brachial artery approach in a bovine aortic arch. This paper is worthy of reporting in terms of guiding physicians for interventional procedures in these types of challenging cases.

  14. Differentiation of ruminant transmissible spongiform encephalopathy isolate types, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy and CH1641 scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J G; Sauer, M; van Keulen, L J M; Tang, Y; Bossers, A; Langeveld, J P M

    2011-01-01

    With increased awareness of the diversity of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) strains in the ruminant population, comes an appreciation of the need for improved methods of differential diagnosis. Exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been associated with the human TSE, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, emphasizing the necessity in distinguishing low-risk TSE types from BSE. TSE type discrimination in ruminants such as cattle, sheep, goats and deer, requires the application of several prion protein (PrP)-specific antibodies in parallel immunochemical tests on brain homogenates or tissue sections from infected animals. This study uses in a single incubation step, three PrP-specific antibodies and fluorescent Alexa dye-labelled anti-mouse Fabs on a Western blot. The usual amount of brain tissue needed is 0.5 mg. This multiplex application of antibodies directed towards three different PrP epitopes enabled differential diagnosis of all established main features of classical scrapie, BSE and Nor98-like scrapie in sheep and goats, as well as the currently known BSE types C, H and L in cattle. Moreover, due to an antibody-dependent dual PrP-banding pattern, for the first time CH1641 scrapie of sheep can be reliably discriminated from the other TSE isolate types in sheep. PMID:20943889

  15. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  16. Application of a type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and -4) to horse populations inoculated with inactivated EHV-1 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, S; Maeda, K; Matsumura, T; Kondo, T; Kai, K

    2000-07-01

    A type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using equine herpesvirus types 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4) glycoprotein G was applied for sero-epizootiology of EHV infections in Japan. Recently, an inactivated EHV-1 vaccine has been administered to racehorses for prevention of upper respiratory disease. To examine the effect of the vaccination on the result of the ELISA, 6 horses were experimentally inoculated three times intramuscularly or intranasally with inactivated EHV-1 vaccine. Sera collected from these horses were used to the type-specific ELISA and complement-fixation (CF) test. Although the CF test detected a significant increase of antibody elicited by vaccination, the ELISA did not detect any antibody response. Next, sera collected from thirty-eight horses, which were intramuscularly inoculated with inactivated EHV-1 twice at an interval of four weeks, were used in the ELISA and CF test. The results also indicated that CF titers increased by vaccine inoculation, but ELISA titers did not. To examine epizootiology of EHVs serologically in racehorse populations at two Training Centers of the Japan Racing Association, the type-specific ELISA and CF test were carried out using paired sera collected from racehorses before and after the winter season. The results showed that the ELISA could distinguish EHV-1 and EHV-4 infections in vaccinated horses serologically. In conclusion, the type-specific ELISA is considered to be useful for sero-diagnosis and sero-epizootiological research on EHV-1 and EHV-4 infections not only in unvaccinated horses, but also in vaccinated horses in Japan.

  17. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1: First Report in Iraqi Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mohammed A; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M; Odisho, Shoni M; Yaseen, Nahi Y

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27413374

  18. Nuclear Egress of Herpesviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard J.Roller

    2008-01-01

    Herpesviruses assemble and fill their capsids in the infected cell nucleus,and must then move this enormous macromolecular assembly across the nuclear membrane and into the cytoplasm.Doing so is a complex,multi-step process that involves envelopment of the capsid at the inner nuclear membrane and de-envelopment by fusion with the outer nuclear membrane.This process is orchestrated by viral proteins,but requires the modification of cellular structures and mechanisms including the nuclear lamina.In this review I summarize recent research on the mechanism of nuclear envelopment and the viral and cellular systems involved in its execution.

  19. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  20. Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic methods for epidemiological typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, H. C.; Rosdahl, V. T.

    1995-01-01

    The value of five different typing methods (antibiogram typing, biotyping, phage typing, plasmid profiling and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (ribotyping)), in discriminating 105 Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine milk samples obtained...... (75%) of the 20 antibiotic resistant strains. Biotyping assigned the strains to 14 different types, with the most common type accounting for 25.7% of the strains. Ninety eight (93.3%) strains could be typed by phages, assigning them to 19 different phage types. The predominant phage type accounted...... for 31.4% of the strains. Eight different plasmid profiles was observed among 24 (23%) strains harbouring plasmids. Ribotyping yielded 30 different types, with the most common accounting far 29.5% of the strains. The single most discriminatory typing method was ribotyping (0.863) followed by biotyping (0...

  1. The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transactivator and repressor proteins use different nuclear localization signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadopoulos, M H; McBride, A A

    1996-02-01

    The E2 gene of bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes at least three nuclear phosphoproteins that regulate viral transcription and DNA replication. All three proteins have a common C-terminal domain that has DNA-binding and dimerization activities. A basic region in this domain forms an alpha helix which makes direct contact with the DNA target. In this study, it is shown that in addition to its role in DNA binding, this basic region functions as a nuclear localization signal both in the E2 DNA-binding domain and in a heterologous protein. Deletion of this signal sequence resulted in increased accumulation of the E2 transactivator and repressor proteins in the cytoplasm, but nuclear localization was not eliminated. In the full-length transactivator protein, another signal, present in the N-terminal transactivation domain, is used for transport to the nucleus, and the C-terminal nuclear localization signal(s) are masked. The use of different nuclear localization signals could potentially allow differential regulation of the subcellular localization of the E2 transactivator and repressor proteins at some stage in the viral life cycle. PMID:8551571

  2. Modeling of bovine type-I collagen fibrils: interaction with pickling and retanning agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulo, Rosa E; Siggel, Lorenz; Molnar, Ferenc; Weiss, Horst

    2007-02-12

    Bovine Type I collagen was investigated, building on a large scale computer model of a collagen fibril in water, and focusing on two stages of the leather manufacturing process. The effects of different salts (NaCl, CaCl(2), and Na(2)SO(4)) on the swelling behavior of collagen at low pH (the pickling process) were studied. The salts suppress the swelling of the fibrils at low pH and we find specific stabilizing influences for CaCl(2) and Na(2)SO(4), due to weak Ca(2+)/Cl(-) and strong SO(4) (2-)/lysine/arginine interactions, respectively. Using state-of-the-art sampling techniques, such as the metadynamics algorithm, to allow an efficient exploration of configuration space, we were able to investigate the effect of polyacrylate and poly(methyl acrylate) - two polymeric retanning agents - on the fibril. Both polymers interact with the ammonium groups on the surface, but polyacrylate shows significantly stronger interactions. We suggest that it is this stronger interaction that contributes to the reduced suitability of PAA as a tanning agent. PMID:17295396

  3. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 detection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila R Wosiacki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 involvement in the aetiology of chronic enzootic haematuria associated to bracken fern ingestion has been suggested for a long time. However, a few reports have shown the presence of the BPV-2 in urinary bladder tumors of cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the BPV-2 infection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria in Brazilian cattle herds. Sixty-two urinary bladders were collected from adult cattle in beef herds from the north region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. According to clinical and pathological finds the specimens were distributed in three groups: the group A was constituted by 22 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected at necropsy of cattle with clinical signs of chronic enzootic haematuria; the group B by 30 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected in a slaughterhouse of cows coming from bracken fern-endemic geographical region; and the group C (control by 10 urinary bladders without macroscopic lesions collected from asymptomatic cattle in a bracken fern-free geographical region. By a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, with an internal control, a fragment of the BPV-2 L1 gene with 386 bp length was amplified in 36 (58% urinary bladder. The rate of BPV-2 positive urinary bladders was 50% (11/22 for group A, 80% (24/30 for group B, and 10% (1/10 for group C (control. The rate of the positive results found in groups A and B that included urinary bladder samples with macroscopic lesions was 67% (35/52 and the detection of the BPV-2 in both groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05 than in the control group. RFLP with Rsa I and Hae III enzymes evaluated the specificity of the BPV-2 amplicons. The PCR internal control that amplified a 626 bp fragment of the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial genome was amplified in all analyzed samples and excluded false-negatives or invalid results in the semi

  4. Transmissibility of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Hamster PrP Transgenic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Okada

    Full Text Available Two distinct forms of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE can be distinguished from classical (C- BSE found in cattle based on biochemical signatures of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc. H-BSE is transmissible to wild-type mice-with infected mice showing a long survival period that is close to their normal lifespan-but not to hamsters. Therefore, rodent-adapted H-BSE with a short survival period would be useful for analyzing H-BSE characteristics. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility of H-BSE to hamster prion protein transgenic (TgHaNSE mice with long survival periods. Although none of the TgHaNSE mice manifested the disease during their lifespan, PrPSc accumulation was observed in some areas of the brain after the first passage. With subsequent passages, TgHaNSE mice developed the disease with a mean survival period of 220 days. The molecular characteristics of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (PrPres in the brain were identical to those observed in first-passage mice. The distribution of immunolabeled PrPSc in the brains of TgHaNSE mice differed between those infected with H-BSE as compared to C-BSE or L-BSE, and the molecular properties of PrPres in TgHaNSE mice infected with H-BSE differed from those of the original isolate. The strain-specific electromobility, glycoform profiles, and proteolytic cleavage sites of H-BSE in TgHaNSE mice were indistinguishable from those of C-BSE, in which the diglycosylated form was predominant. These findings indicate that strain-specific pathogenic characteristics and molecular features of PrPres in the brain are altered during cross-species transmission. Typical H-BSE features were restored after back passage from TgHaNSE to bovinized transgenic mice, indicating that the H-BSE strain was propagated in TgHaNSE mice. This could result from the overexpression of the hamster prion protein.

  5. The influence of salt type on the retention of bovine serum albumin in ion-exchange chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Jibbouri, Sattar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of the influence of the salt types, NaCl, NaCH"3COO, Na"2SO"4 and Na"3C"6H"5O"7, on the isocratic retention behaviour of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on two anion-exchangers media (Source 30Q and TSK Gel Super Q 5 PW) has been presented. The retention data demonstrated...

  6. Characterization of the Functional Activities of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein Single-Chain Heterodimers▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kurg, Reet; Tekkel, Helena; Abroi, Aare; Ustav, Mart

    2006-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses which establish persistent infection in the epithelial tissue of various animal species. Three papillomavirus proteins encoded by the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 open reading frame have a common C-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domain and function as dimeric proteins in the regulation of viral gene expression, genome replication, and maintenance. The full-length E2 protein, expressed usually at the lowest level of the three, is an activator, w...

  7. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 Genomes and the E2 Transactivator Protein Are Closely Associated with Mitotic Chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Alison A McBride

    1998-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transactivator protein is required for viral transcriptional regulation and DNA replication and may be important for long-term episomal maintenance of viral genomes within replicating cells (M. Piirsoo, E. Ustav, T. Mandel, A. Stenlund, and M. Ustav, EMBO J. 15:1–11, 1996). We have evidence that, in contrast to most other transcriptional transactivators, the E2 transactivator protein is associated with mitotic chromosomes in dividing cells. The shorter E2-T...

  8. Cooperative activation of transcription by bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 can occur over a large distance.

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry, F; Dostatni, N; Arnos, F; Yaniv, M

    1990-01-01

    The viral transcriptional factors encoded by the E2 open reading frame bind to the specific DNA sequence elements ACCGNNNNCGGT, allowing activation or repression of transcription. We have analyzed bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transactivation using recombinant genes containing E2-binding sites inserted at either 3' or 5' positions relative to the heterologous transcriptional initiation site of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. In these hybrid plasmids, strong transactivation r...

  9. Comparative pathogenicity of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 subtypes 1 (BHV-1.1 and 2a (BHV-1.2a Avaliação comparativa da patogenicidade de herpesvírus bovinos tipo 1 (BHV-1 subtipos 1 (BHV-1.1 e 2a (BHV-1.2a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rosado Spilki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to examine the capacity of two bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1 isolates of different subtypes (EVI 123/96, BHV-1.1; SV265/98, BHV-1.2a to induce respiratory disease in calves. These two isolates are representative of the BHV-1 subtypes prevalent in Brazil. Viral subtypes were confirmed by monoclonal antibody analysis and by restriction enzyme digestion of viral genomes. The viruses were inoculated intranasally into seven 3 months old calves (four with BHV-1.1, three with BHV-1.2a. Three other calves of identical age and condition were kept as uninfected controls. In both groups of infected calves, the clinical signs observed were consistent with typical infectious bovine rhinothracheitis (IBR, including pyrexia, apathy, anorexia, nasal and ocular mucopurulent discharges, erosions on the nasal mucosa, conjunctivitis, lachrymation, redness of nasal mucosa, dyspnoea, coughing, tracheal stridor and enlargement of retropharingeal, submandibular and cervical lymphnodes. No significant differences were observed between the clinical scores attributed to both groups. Virus shedding in nasal and ocular secretions were also similar, apart from a significant difference in nasal virus shedding on day 1 to 3 post-inoculation, which was higher for BHV-1.1 than for BHV-1.2a. Following corticosteroid induced reactivation of the latent infection, recrudescence of clinical signs was also observed, with no significant differences on both groups. It was concluded that both subtypes BHV-1.1 and BHV-1.2a were able to induce clinically undistinguishable respiratory disease in calves, either subsequent to a primary infection or following reactivation.O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar a capacidade de duas amostras de herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BHV-1 de diferentes subtipos (amostra EVI 123/96: BHV-1.1; amostra SV265/98: BHV-1.2a de induzir doença respiratória em bovinos. Estas duas amostras são representativas de subtipos de BHV-1

  10. Improvement of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for equine herpesvirus type 4 by using a synthetic-peptide 24-mer repeat sequence of glycoprotein G as an antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Manabu; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Maeda, Ken; Kondo, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    To increase the sensitivity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) that uses a 12-mer peptide of glycoprotein G (gG4-12-mer: MKNNPIYSEGSL) [4], we used a longer peptide consisting of a 24-mer repeat sequence (gG4-24-mer: MKNNPIYSEGSLMLNVQHDDSIHT) as an antigen. Sera of horses experimentally infected with EHV-4 reacted much more strongly to the gG4-24-mer peptide than to the gG4-12-mer peptide. We used peptide ELISAs to test paired sera from horses naturally infected with EHV-4 (n=40). gG4-24-mer ELISA detected 37 positive samples (92.5%), whereas gG4-12-mer ELISA detected only 28 (70.0%). gG4-24-mer ELISA was much more sensitive than gG4-12-mer ELISA.

  11. Recovery of Virulent and RNase-Negative Attenuated Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses from Infectious cDNA Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Christiane; von Freyburg, Martina; Elbers, Knut; Meyers, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Cloned cDNA derived from the genome of the virulent type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain NY'93/C was sequenced and served for establishment of the infectious cDNA clone pKANE40A. Virus recovered from pKANE40A exhibited growth characteristics similar to those of wild-type BVDV NY'93/C and proved to be clinically indistinguishable from the wild-type virus in animal experiments. A virus mutant in which the RNase residing in the viral glycoprotein Erns was inactivated, revealed an att...

  12. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrath, Devprabha; Shakya, Sanjay; Rawat, Nidhi; Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Singh, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1) from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test. PMID:27051213

  13. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devprabha Samrath

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1 from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test.

  14. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    OpenAIRE

    Sawbridge Tim; Wong Frank; Cocks Benjamin G; Savin Keith W; Cogan Noel; Savage David; Warner Simone

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of...

  15. A comparison of classical and H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism in wild type and EK211 cattle following intracranial inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamine amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although t...

  16. Development of cDNA probes for typing group A bovine rotaviruses on the basis of VP4 specificity.

    OpenAIRE

    Parwani, A V; Rosen, B I; McCrae, M A; Saif, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Dot and Northern (RNA) blot hybridization assays were developed for the P typing of group A bovine rotaviruses (BRV) by using cDNA probes prepared from gene segment 4. The probes were prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of hyperdivergent regions (nucleotides 211 to 686) of BRV strain UK, IND, NCDV, and Cr VP4 cDNA by using specific oligonucleotide primers. The probes were P type specific (VP4) and exhibited little or no cross-reactivity with double-stranded RNA from heterologo...

  17. Simian homologues of human herpesvirus 8.

    OpenAIRE

    Damania, B; Desrosiers, R C

    2001-01-01

    Gamma-herpesviruses can be found in most primates including Old World an New World monkeys. The gamma-herpesvirinae are grouped into two classes: lymphocryptoviruses (gamma1) and rhadinoviruses (gamma2). The lymphocryptoviruses include Epstein-Barr virus, lymphocryptovirus of rhesus monkeys, and Herpesvirus papio of baboons. Rhadinoviruses that infect New World monkeys include Herpesvirus saimiri, whose natural host is the squirrel monkey, and Herpesvirus ateles, which infects spider monkeys....

  18. Herpes bovino tipo 1 (BHV 1: I. Sorologia de rebanhos com problemas reprodutivos Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1: I. Sorologic survey in herds with reproductive problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Vidor

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de anticorpos neutralizantes contra o BHV-1, foi pesquisada pelo teste de soroneutralização (SN em 2.341 soros, dos quais 747 apresentaram resultado positivo, representando 31,9% de bovinos infectados pelo BHV-1. Os soros foram enviados de 112 propriedades da Região Sul, sendo na maioria rebanhos de gado de corte com problemas reprodutivos. Foram detectados bovinos sorologicamente positivos em 80 propriedades, representando 71,3%, demonstrando a expressiva disseminação do vírus nos rebanhos desta região.Serum antibodies against BHV-1 were studied, by the serum neutralization test, in cattle from Southem Brazil. Samples were collected from 2341 cattie from 112 farms that had reprodution problems. Positive results were obtained in 747 (31.9 cattie from 80 (71.31% farms, given evidence of the expressivo vírus dissemination in cattie from this region.

  19. Detection and Characterization of Genetic Recombination in Cytopathic Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ridpath, Julia F.; Neill, John D.

    2000-01-01

    In cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1 (BVDV1) isolates, insertions are reported at position A (amino acid [aa] 1535) and position B (aa 1589). Insertions at position B predominate. In this survey it was found that in BVDV2, insertions at position A predominate. Possible reasons for this difference in relative frequency are discussed.

  20. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawbridge Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of herpesviruses. Results We sequenced the genome of a neurotropic virus linked to a fatal ganglioneuritis devastating parts of a valuable wild abalone fishery in Australia. We show that the newly identified virus forms part of an ancient clade with its nearest relatives being a herpesvirus infecting bivalves (oyster and, unexpectedly, one we identified, from published data, apparently integrated within the genome of amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate. Predicted protein sequences from the abalone virus genome have significant similarity to several herpesvirus proteins including the DNA packaging ATPase subunit of (putative terminase and DNA polymerase. Conservation of amino acid sequences in the terminase across all herpesviruses and phylogenetic analysis using the DNA polymerase and terminase proteins demonstrate that the herpesviruses infecting the molluscs, oyster and abalone, are distantly related. The terminase and polymerase protein sequences from the putative amphioxus herpesvirus share more sequence similarity with those of the mollusc viruses than with sequences from any of the vertebrate herpesviruses analysed. Conclusions A family of mollusc herpesviruses, Malacoherpesviridae, that was based on a single virus infecting oyster can now be further established by including a distantly related herpesvirus infecting abalone, which, like many vertebrate viruses is neurotropic. The genome of Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus provides evidence for the

  1. Overexpression and purification of U24 from human herpesvirus type-6 in E. coli: unconventional use of oxidizing environments with a maltose binding protein-hexahistine dual tag to enhance membrane protein yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Suzana K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obtaining membrane proteins in sufficient quantity for biophysical study and biotechnological applications has been a difficult task. Use of the maltose binding protein/hexahistidine dual tag system with E.coli as an expression host is emerging as a high throughput method to enhance membrane protein yield, solubility, and purity, but fails to be effective for certain proteins. Optimizing the variables in this system to fine-tune for efficiency can ultimately be a daunting task. To identify factors critical to success in this expression system, we have selected to study U24, a novel membrane protein from Human Herpesvirus type-6 with potent immunosuppressive ability and a possible role in the pathogenesis of the disease multiple sclerosis. Results We expressed full-length U24 as a C-terminal fusion to a maltose binding protein/hexahistidine tag and examined the effects of temperature, growth medium type, cell strain type, oxidizing vs. reducing conditions and periplasmic vs. cytoplasmic expression location. Temperature appeared to have the greatest effect on yield; at 37°C full-length protein was either poorly expressed (periplasm or degraded (cytoplasm whereas at 18°C, expression was improved especially in the periplasm of C41(DE3 cells and in the cytoplasm of oxidizing Δtrx/Δgor mutant strains, Origami 2 and SHuffle. Expression of the fusion protein in these strains were estimated to be 3.2, 5.3 and 4.3 times greater, respectively, compared to commonly-used BL21(DE3 cells. We found that U24 is isolated with an intramolecular disulfide bond under these conditions, and we probed whether this disulfide bond was critical to high yield expression of full-length protein. Expression analysis of a C21SC37S cysteine-free mutant U24 demonstrated that this disulfide was not critical for full-length protein expression, but it is more likely that strained metabolic conditions favour factors which promote protein expression. This

  2. Effective Formation of the Segregation-Competent Complex Determines Successful Partitioning of the Bovine Papillomavirus Genome during Cell Division ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Silla, Toomas; Männik, Andres; Ustav, Mart

    2010-01-01

    Effective segregation of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated human herpesvirus type 8 (KSHV) genomes into daughter cells is mediated by a single viral protein that tethers viral genomes to host mitotic chromosomes. The linker proteins that mediate BPV1, EBV, and KSHV segregation are E2, LANA1, and EBNA1, respectively. The N-terminal transactivation domain of BPV1 E2 is responsible for chromatin attachment and subsequent viral geno...

  3. Tales from the crypt and coral reef: the successes and challenges of identifying new herpesviruses using metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Jane Houldcroft

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are ubiquitous double-stranded DNA viruses infecting many animals, with the capacity to cause disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Different herpesviruses have different cell tropisms, and have been detected in a diverse range of tissues and sample types.Metagenomics – encompassing viromics – analyses the nucleic acid of a tissue or other sample in an unbiased manner, making few or no prior assumptions about which viruses may be present in a sample. This approach has successfully discovered a number of novel herpesviruses. Furthermore, metagenomic analysis can identify herpesviruses with high degrees of sequence divergence from known herpesviruses and does not rely upon culturing large quantities of viral material.Metagenomics has had success in two areas of herpesvirus sequencing: firstly, the discovery of novel exogenous and endogenous herpesviruses in primates, bats and cnidarians; and secondly, in characterising large areas of the genomes of herpesviruses previously only known from small fragments, revealing unexpected diversity. This review will discuss the successes and challenges of using metagenomics to identify novel herpesviruses, and future directions within the field.

  4. Competitive binding of viral E2 protein and mammalian core-binding factor to transcriptional control sequences of human papillomavirus type 8 and bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, H. M.; Steger, G; Pfister, H

    1997-01-01

    The promoter P7535 of human papillomavirus type 8 and the promoter P7185 of bovine papillomavirus type 1 are negatively regulated by viral E2 proteins via the promoter proximal binding sites P2 and BS1, respectively. Mutations of these E2 binding sites can reduce basal promoter activity. This suggests binding of a transcription-stimulating factor and may indicate that repression by E2 is due to competitive binding of viral and cellular proteins. A computer search revealed putative binding sit...

  5. Amino-terminal domains of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 and E2 proteins participate in complex formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, J D; Howley, P M

    1995-01-01

    Interaction between the E1 and E2 papillomavirus proteins appear to play an important role in viral DNA replication, although the exact domains of each protein involved in this interaction have not been identified. Using bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) as a model for examining interactions between E1 and E2, we have used the two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion systems to map domains of BPV-1 E1 and E2 that interact in vivo and in vitro. In the two-hybrid system experime...

  6. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transcriptional regulators directly bind two cellular transcription factors, TFIID and TFIIB.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, N M; Lambert, P F

    1995-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E2 translational open reading frame encodes three proteins that regulate viral transcription and DNA replication: the E2 transcriptional activator (E2TA), the E2 transcriptional repressor (E2TR) and the E8/E2 transcriptional repressor (E8/E2TR). E2TA is a strong activator of papillomaviral promoters and is required for viral DNA replication. E2TR and E8/E2TR inhibit the activities of E2TA but also possess weak transactivational properties of their own....

  7. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in postweaned calves in a feedlot after vaccination and from fatal respiratory cases: isolation and differentiation of MLV BVDV and field strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral infections are important etiologies in BRD cases. Calves at stocker/feedlot entry usually receive modified live viral (MLV) vaccines containing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). In...

  9. Efficacy of a gE-deleted, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 inactivated vaccine Eficácia de uma vacina inativada, gE-deletada, contra o herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra D. Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 is recognized as a major cause of economic losses in cattle. Vaccination has been widely applied to minimize losses induced by BoHV-1 infections. We have previously reported the development of a differential BoHV-1 vaccine, based on a recombinant glycoprotein E (gE-deleted virus (265gE-. In present paper the efficacy of such recombinant was evaluated as an inactivated vaccine. Five BoHV-1 seronegative calves were vaccinated intramuscularly on day 0 and boostered 30 days later with an inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccine containing an antigenic mass equivalent to 10(7.0 fifty per cent cell culture infectious doses (CCID50 of 265gE-. Three calves were kept as non vaccinated controls. On day 60 post vaccination both vaccinated and controls were challenged with the virulent parental strain. No clinical signs or adverse effects were seen after or during vaccination. After challenge, 2/5 vaccinated calves showed mild clinical signs of infection, whereas all non vaccinated controls displayed intense rhinotracheitis and shed virus for longer and to higher titres than vaccinated calves. Serological responses were detected in all vaccinated animals after the second dose of vaccine, but not on control calves. Following corticosteroid administration in attempting to induce reactivation of the latent infection, no clinical signs were observed in vaccinated calves, whereas non vaccinated controls showed clinical signs of respiratory disease. In view of its immunogenicity and protective effect upon challenge with a virulent BoHV-1, the oil adjuvanted preparation with the inactivated 265gE- recombinant was shown to be suitable for use as a vaccine.O Herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1 é reconhecido como um importante agente de perdas econômicas em bovinos. Vacinação tem sido amplamente empregada para minimizar as perdas conseqüentes a infecções com o BoHV-1. Reportamos previamente o desenvolvimento de uma vacina

  10. Field evaluation of safety during gestation and horizontal spread of a recombinant differential bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 vaccine Avaliação a campo da segurança para vacas prenhes e capacidade de disseminação horizontal de uma vacina diferencial recombinante contra o Herpes-vírus Bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando R. Spilki

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 is recognized as a major cause of respiratory, reproductive disease and abortion in cattle. Vaccination is widely applied to minimize losses induced by BoHV-1 infections; however, vaccination of dams during pregnancy with modified live virus (MLV vaccines has been occasionally associated to abortions. We have previously reported the development of a BoHV-1 recombinant virus, constructed with basis on a Brazilian BoHV-1 (Franco et al. 2002a from which the gene coding for glycoprotein E (gE was deleted (gE- by genetic manipulation. Such recombinant has been previously evaluated in its potential as a differential vaccine (gE- vaccine that allows differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals. Here, in the first part of the present study, the safety of the gE- vaccine during pregnancy was evaluated by the intramuscular inoculation of 10(7.4 tissue culture 50 % infective doses (TCID50 of the virus into 22 pregnant dams (14 BoHV-1 seronegative; 8 seropositive, at different stages of gestation. Other 15 pregnant dams were kept as non-vaccinated controls. No abortions, stillbirths or fetal abnormalities were seen after vaccination. Seroconversion was observed in both groups of previously seronegative vaccinated animals. In the second part of the study, the potential of the gE- vaccine virus to spread among beef cattle under field conditions was examined. Four heifers were inoculated intranasally with a larger amount (10(7,6 TCID50 of the gE- vaccine (to increase chances of transmission and mixed with other sixteen animals at the same age and body condition, in the same grazing area, at a population density equal to the average cattle farming density within the region (one cattle head per 10,000 m², for 180 days. All animals were monitored daily for clinical signs. Serum samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60 and 180 post-vaccination. Seroconversion was observed only in vaccinated heifers. These results

  11. Aspectos virológicos e clínico-patológicos da infecção genital aguda e latente pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2 em bezerras infectadas experimentalmente Virological and clinico-pathological features of acute vulvovaginitis and latent infection by bovine herpesvirus 1.2 in heifers experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Henzel

    2008-03-01

    and cows with bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 (BoHV-1.2 may result in vulvovaginitis and transient infertility. The acute infection is followed by the establishment of latent infection which can be periodically reactivated. We herein describe the virology and clinico-pathological aspects of acute and recrudescent vulvovaginitis in heifers inoculated with a Brazilian BoHV-1.2 isolate recovered from an outbreak of balanoposthitis. Genital inoculation of isolate SV-56/90 (10(8.1TCID50/animal in four eight-months-old heifers resulted in efficient virus replication in the genital mucosa and the development of moderate to severe vulvovaginitis. The inoculated heifers shed virus in genital secretions in titers up to 10(7.3TCID50/mL until day 10 pi and developed genital congestion, swelling, vesicles and pustules. The vesicles and pustules increased in size eventually coalesced and became covered with a yellowish exsudate. These signs appeared at day 2 pi, increased in severity up to days 5 - 8 pi and progressively subsided thereafter. Dexamethasone administration at day 55 pi resulted in virus shedding in vaginal secretions for up to 10 days. Virus reactivation in all animals was accompanied by clinical recrudescence of the disease, yet less severe than during acute infection. Examination of sacral ganglia and lymph nodes by PCR at day 36 post-reactivation revealed the presence of latent viral DNA in the pudendal (4/4, genito-femoral, sciatic and rectal caudal (3/4 and obturator nerve ganglia (1/4; in addition to several regional lymph nodes. These results demonstrate the virulence of isolate SV-56/90 for heifers and pave the way for its use in further pathogenesis studies and vaccine-challenge trials.

  12. Multiple sclerosis and herpesvirus interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sciascia do Olival

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and its etiology is believed to have both genetic and environmental components. Several viruses have already been implicated as triggers and there are several studies that implicate members of the Herpesviridae family in the pathogenesis of MS. The most important characteristic of these viruses is that they have periods of latency and exacerbations within their biological sanctuary, the central nervous system. The Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 viruses are the members that are most studied as being possible triggers of multiple sclerosis. According to evidence in the literature, the herpesvirus family is strongly involved in the pathogenesis of this disease, but it is unlikely that they are the only component responsible for its development. There are probably multiple triggers and more studies are necessary to investigate and define these interactions.

  13. Platelet aggregation responses and virus isolation from platelets in calves experimentally infected with type I or type II bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, P H; Bell, T G; Grooms, D L; Kaiser, L; Maes, R K; Baker, J C

    2001-10-01

    Altered platelet function has been reported in calves experimentally infected with type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The purpose of the present study was to further evaluate the ability of BVDV isolates to alter platelet function and to examine for the presence of a virus-platelet interaction during BVDV infection. Colostrum-deprived Holstein calves were obtained immediately after birth, housed in isolation, and assigned to 1 of 4 groups (1 control and 3 treatment groups). Control calves (n = 4) were sham inoculated, while calves in the infected groups (n = 4 for each group) were inoculated by intranasal instillation with 10(7) TCID50 of either BVDV 890 (type II), BVDV 7937 (type II), or BVDV TGAN (type I). Whole blood was collected prior to inoculation (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after inoculation for platelet function testing by optical aggregometry by using adenosine diphosphate and platelet activating factor. The maximum percentage aggregation and the slope of the aggregation curve decreased over time in BVDV-infected calves; however, statistically significant differences (Freidman repeated measures ANOVA on ranks, P infected with the type II BVDV isolates. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was not isolated from control calves, but was isolated from all calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates from days 4 through 12 after inoculation. In calves infected with type I BVDV, virus was isolated from 1 of 4 calves on days 4 and 12 after inoculation and from all calves on days 6 and 8 after inoculation. Altered platelet function was observed in calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates, but was not observed in calves infected with type I BVDV. Altered platelet function may be important as a difference in virulence between type I and type II BVDV infection.

  14. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  15. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 genomes and the E2 transactivator protein are closely associated with mitotic chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadopoulos, M H; McBride, A A

    1998-03-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transactivator protein is required for viral transcriptional regulation and DNA replication and may be important for long-term episomal maintenance of viral genomes within replicating cells (M. Piirsoo, E. Ustav, T. Mandel, A. Stenlund, and M. Ustav, EMBO J. 15:1-11, 1996). We have evidence that, in contrast to most other transcriptional transactivators, the E2 transactivator protein is associated with mitotic chromosomes in dividing cells. The shorter E2-TR and E8/E2 repressor proteins do not bind to mitotic chromatin, and the N-terminal transactivation domain of the E2 protein is necessary for the association. However, the DNA binding function of E2 is not required. We have found that bovine papillomavirus type 1 genomes are also associated with mitotic chromosomes, and we propose a model in which E2-bound viral genomes are transiently associated with cellular chromosomes during mitosis to ensure that viral genomes are segregated to daughter cells in approximately equal numbers. PMID:9499063

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Koi Herpesvirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurita, J.; Yuasa, K.; Ito, T.; Sano, M.; Hedrick, R.P.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Sunarto, A.; Kholidin, E.B.; Chou, H.Y.; Tung, M.C.; Pena, de la L.; Lio-Po, G.; Tu, C.; Way, K.; Iida, T.

    2009-01-01

    Three regions of koi herpesvirus (KHV) genomic DNA were compared for 34 samples from Japan, six from Indonesia, two from Taiwan, one from the Philippines, 13 from the Netherlands, one from the UK, one from the USA and one from Israel. The analyzed genomic regions included known PCR-detection targets

  17. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedman Herman

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major psychoactive cannabinoid compound of marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, has been shown to modulate immune responses and lymphocyte function. After primary infection the viral DNA genome of gamma herpesviruses persists in lymphoid cell nuclei in a latent episomal circular form. In response to extracellular signals, the latent virus can be activated, which leads to production of infectious virus progeny. Therefore, we evaluated the potential effects of THC on gamma herpesvirus replication. Methods Tissue cultures infected with various gamma herpesviruses were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of THC and the amount of viral DNA or infectious virus yield was compared to those of control cultures. The effect of THC on Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV replication was measured by the Gardella method and replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS of monkeys, murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (MHV 68, and herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1 was measured by yield reduction assays. Inhibition of the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter activity was measured by the dual luciferase method. Results Micromolar concentrations of THC inhibit KSHV and EBV reactivation in virus infected/immortalized B cells. THC also strongly inhibits lytic replication of MHV 68 and HVS in vitro. Importantly, concentrations of THC that inhibit virus replication of gamma herpesviruses have no effect on cell growth or HSV-1 replication, indicating selectivity. THC was shown to selectively inhibit the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter of KSHV and MHV 68. Conclusions THC specifically targets viral and/or cellular mechanisms required for replication and possibly shared by these gamma herpesviruses, and the endocannabinoid system is possibly involved in regulating gamma herpesvirus latency and lytic replication. The immediate early gene ORF 50 promoter activity was specifically inhibited by THC

  18. Herpesvirus BACs: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Warden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The herpesviridae are a large family of DNA viruses with large and complicated genomes. Genetic manipulation and the generation of recombinant viruses have been extremely difficult. However, herpesvirus bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs that were developed approximately 10 years ago have become useful and powerful genetic tools for generating recombinant viruses to study the biology and pathogenesis of herpesviruses. For example, BAC-directed deletion mutants are commonly used to determine the function and essentiality of viral genes. In this paper, we discuss the creation of herpesvirus BACs, functional analyses of herpesvirus mutants, and future applications for studies of herpesviruses. We describe commonly used methods to create and mutate herpesvirus BACs (such as site-directed mutagenesis and transposon mutagenesis. We also evaluate the potential future uses of viral BACs, including vaccine development and gene therapy.

  19. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure.

  20. O Herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BoHV-5 pode utilizar as rotas olfatória ou trigeminal para invadir o sistema nervoso central de coelhos, dependendo da via de inoculação Bovine herpesvirus 5 may use the olfactory and trigeminal pathways to invade the central nervous system of rabbits, depending upon the route of inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gustavo Diel

    2005-09-01

    resultados demonstram que tanto a via olfatória como a trigeminal podem servir de acesso para o BoHV-5 invadir o cérebro de coelhos inoculados experimentalmente, dependendo da via de inoculação. Inoculação IN resulta em um transporte rápido e eficiente pela via olfatória; com a via trigeminal servindo de acesso mais lento e menos eficiente. Inoculação IC resulta em transporte e invasão eficientes, porém mais tardios, provavelmente pela via trigeminal.Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 is a major etiological agent of meningoencephalitis in cattle. Following replication in the nasal mucosa, viral invasion of the brain is thought to occur mainly by the olfactory pathway. To address the role of this pathway in the pathogenesis of neurological infection in a laboratory model, 30 days old rabbits had the main olfactory bulbs (MOBs surgically removed and were subsequently inoculated intranasally (IN or conjunctivally (IC with a highly neurovirulent BoHV-5 strain (SV-507. Following IN inoculation, 10 out of 10 (100 % control rabbits developed neurological disease. The clinical onset ranged from day 5 to 10 post-inoculation (pi, average 7.5 days; nine being euthanized in extremis and one recovering after a mild clinical course. In contrast, only one rabbit (9.1 % of the group lacking the MOBs (n=11 developed neurological disease (onset at day 17 pi. Dexamethasone administration to the survivors (n=10 at day 50pi was followed by virus shedding in nasal and/or ocular secretions by 8 animals, demonstrating that the virus was able to reach the trigeminal ganglia (TG during acute infection. These results demonstrate that the olfactory route provides the main, yet not the sole access to the brain of rabbits following IN inoculation. To address the role of a second pathway, groups of control (n=12 or MOB-lacking rabbits (n=12 were inoculated into the conjunctival sac (IC, following which the virus would be expected to use the ophtalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve to reach the

  1. Genital immunization of heifers with a glycoprotein Edeleted, recombinant bovine herpesvirus 1 strain confers protection upon challenge with a virulent isolate Imunização genital de bezerras com uma cepa recombinante do herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 defectiva na glicoproteína E confere proteção frente a desafio com um isolado virulento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Weiss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Venereal infection of seronegative heifers and cows with bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 (BoHV-1.2 frequently results in vulvovaginitis and transient infertility. Parenteral immunization with inactivated or modified live BoHV-1 vaccines often fails in conferring protection upon genital challenge. We herein report an evaluation of the immune response and protection conferred by genital vaccination of heifers with a glycoprotein E-deleted recombinant virus (SV265gE-. A group of six seronegative heifers was vaccinated with SV265gE- (0,2mL containing 10(6.9TCID50 in the vulva submucosa (group IV; four heifers were vaccinated intramuscularly (group IM, 1mL containing 10(7.6TCID50 and four heifers remained as non-vaccinated controls. Heifers vaccinated IV developed mild, transient local edema and hyperemia and shed low amounts of virus for a few days after vaccination, yet a sentinel heifer maintained in close contact did not seroconvert. Attempts to reactivate the vaccine virus in two IV vaccinated heifers by intravenous administration of dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg at day 70 pv failed since no virus shedding, recrudescence of genital signs or seroconversion were observed. At day 70 pv, all vaccinated and control heifers were challenged by genital inoculation of a highly virulent BoHV-1.2 isolate (SV56/90, 10(7.1TCID50/animal. After challenge, virus shedding was detected in genital secretions of control animals for 8.2 days (8-9; in the IM group for 6.2 days (4-8 days and during 5.2 days (5-6 days in the IV group. Control non-vaccinated heifers developed moderate (2/4 or severe (2/4 vulvovaginitis lasting 9 to 13 days (x: 10.7 days. The disease was characterized by vulvar edema, vulvo-vestibular congestion, vesicles progressing to coalescence and erosions, fibrino-necrotic plaques and fibrinopurulent exudate. IM vaccinated heifers developed mild (1/3 or moderate (3/4 genital lesions, lasting 10 to 12 days (x: 10.7 days; and IV vaccinated heifers developed

  2. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) receptor type II expression and AMH activity in bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Daniel H; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Johnson, Alan L

    2016-09-15

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) produced by granulosa cells has previously been proposed to play a role in regulating granulosa cell differentiation and follicle selection. Although AMH receptor type II (AMHR2) dimerizes with a type I receptor to initiate AMH signaling, little is known about the regulation of AMHR2 expression in bovine granulosa cells and the role of AMH in follicle development. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize AMHR2 expression in granulosa cells during follicle development; (2) identify factors that regulate AMHR2 mRNA expression in granulosa cells; and (3) examine the role of AMH signaling in granulosa cell differentiation and proliferation. Bovine granulosa cells were isolated from 5- to 8-mm follicles before selection and deviation, as well as from 9- to 12-mm and 13- to 24-mm follicles after selection. Analyses revealed that expression of AMHR2 was greater in 5- to 8-mm follicles compared with 13- to 24-mm follicles (P AMH was greater in granulosa cells cultured with BMP2, BMP6, or BMP15 when compared with controls (P AMH, in vitro, inhibited CYP19A1 expression in a dose-related (10-100 ng/mL) fashion, and reduced granulosa cell proliferation at 48 and 72 hours (P AMH signaling plays a role in both regulating granulosa cell proliferation and preventing granulosa cells from 5- to 8-mm follicles from undergoing premature differentiation before follicle selection. PMID:27268296

  3. Economic assessment and pathogenic bacteria inhibition of bovine hide presoaking solutions formulated with enzymes that can remove adobe-type manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presoaking formulations that have recently been developed are effective in removing the damaging adobe type bovine manure and eco-friendly because the ingredients used are recycled and required only a quarter of the amount of biocide and surfactant that the industry is commonly using. The goal ...

  4. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V Papageorgiou

    Full Text Available Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154 isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively. The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease.

  5. The genome of turkey herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, C L; Tulman, E R; Lu, Z; Zsak, L; Rock, D L; Kutish, G F

    2001-01-01

    Here we present the first complete genomic sequence of Marek's disease virus serotype 3 (MDV3), also known as turkey herpesvirus (HVT). The 159,160-bp genome encodes an estimated 99 putative proteins and resembles alphaherpesviruses in genomic organization and gene content. HVT is very similar to MDV1 and MDV2 within the unique long (UL) and unique short (US) genomic regions, where homologous genes share a high degree of colinearity and their proteins share a high level of amino acid identity. Within the UL region, HVT contains 57 genes with homologues found in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), six genes with homologues found only in MDV, and two genes (HVT068 and HVT070 genes) which are unique to HVT. The HVT US region is 2.2 kb shorter than that of MDV1 (Md5 strain) due to the absence of an MDV093 (SORF4) homologue and to differences at the UL/short repeat (RS) boundary. HVT lacks a homologue of MDV087, a protein encoded at the UL/RS boundary of MDV1 (Md5), and it contains two homologues of MDV096 (glycoprotein E) in the RS. HVT RS are 1,039 bp longer than those in MDV1, and with the exception of an ICP4 gene homologue, the gene content is different from that of MDV1. Six unique genes, including a homologue of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2, are found in the RS. This is the first reported Bcl-2 homologue in an alphaherpesvirus. HVT long repeats (RL) are 7,407 bp shorter than those in MDV1 and do not contain homologues of MDV1 genes with functions involving virulence, oncogenicity, and immune evasion. HVT lacks homologues of MDV1 oncoprotein MEQ, CxC chemokine, oncogenicity-associated phosphoprotein pp24, and conserved domains of phosphoprotein pp38. These significant genomic differences in and adjacent to RS and RL regions likely account for the differences in host range, virulence, and oncogenicity between nonpathogenic HVT and highly pathogenic MDV1.

  6. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Ian B; Bosse, Jens B; Engel, Esteban A; Scherer, Julian; Hu, Jiun-Ruey; Del Rio, Tony; Enquist, Lynn W

    2015-11-01

    In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP), fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer. PMID:26610544

  7. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Hogue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP, fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus (PRV structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer.

  8. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Ian B.; Bosse, Jens B.; Engel, Esteban A.; Scherer, Julian; Hu, Jiun-Ruey; del Rio, Tony; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP), fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer. PMID:26610544

  9. Herpesvirus-associated central nervous system diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiqing Wu

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS are associated with encephalitis/myelitis and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised individuals. As of now, data of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases in transplant recipients is limited. Hence, in this prospective study, we investigated the incidence of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases and explored the diagnosis of these diseases in 281 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT recipients. Herpesvirus-DNA and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cells were sampled from 58 recipients with herpesvirus-associated diseases or with unexplainable CNS manifestations. Results showed that 23 patients were diagnosed as herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases, including 15 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated diseases (4 encephalitis and 11 lymphoproliferative diseases, 5 herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis, 2 cytomegalovirus encephalitis/myelitis and 1 varicella zoster virus encephalitis. The median time of diseases onset was 65 (range 22-542 days post-transplantation. The 3-year cumulative incidence of herpesvirus-associated encephalitis/myelitis and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD was 6.3% ± 1.9% and 4.1% ± 1.2%, respectively. Of the evaluable cases, CSF cells mainly consisted of CD19(+CD20(+ B cells (7/11 and had clonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes (3/11 in patients with CNS-PTLD. On the contrary, in patients with encephalitis/myelitis, CSF cells were comprised of different cell populations and none of the gene rearrangement was detected. Herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases are common in the early stages of allo-HSCT, wherein EBV is the most frequent causative virus. The immunophenotypic and clonal analysis of CSF cells might be helpful in the differential diagnosis between encephalitis and lymphoproliferative diseases.

  10. Development of an APC-targeted multivalent E2-based vaccine against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, A; Malacari, D A; Perez Aguirreburualde, M S; Bellido, D; Nuñez, M C; Dus Santos, M J; Escribano, J M; Wigdorovitz, A

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a multivalent subunit vaccine against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) based on the E2 virus glycoprotein belonging to genotypes 1a, 1b and 2a, immunopotentiated by targeting these antigens to antigen-presenting cells. The E2 antigens were expressed in insect cells by a baculovirus vector as fusion proteins with a single chain antibody, named APCH I, which recognizes the β-chain of the MHC Class II antigen. The three chimeric proteins were evaluated for their immunogenicity in a guinea pig model as well as in colostrum-deprived calves. Once the immune response in experimentally vaccinated calves was evaluated, immunized animals were challenged with type 1b or type 2b BVDV in order to study the protection conferred by the experimental vaccine. The recombinant APCH I-tE21a-1b-2a vaccine was immunogenic both in guinea pigs and calves, inducing neutralizing antibodies. After BVDV type 1b and type 2 challenge of vaccinated calves in a proof of concept, the type 1b virus could not be isolated in any animal; meanwhile it was detected in all challenged non-vaccinated control animals. However, the type 2 BVDV was isolated to a lesser extent compared to unvaccinated animals challenged with type 2 BVDV. Clinical signs associated to BVDV, hyperthermia and leukopenia were reduced with respect to controls in all vaccinated calves. Given these results, this multivalent vaccine holds promise for a safe and effective tool to control BVDV in herds. PMID:26279338

  11. Human herpesvirus 6 infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fu-Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a lymphotropic virus mainly infecting T lymphocytes but also other types of cells. Seroepidemiological studies have shown that more than 90% of individuals older than 2 years are seropositive for HHV-6. There are two variants (A and B) of HHV-6, and variant B has been much more often coupled to diseases than variant A. The prevalence of the two variants is still not known since the serological responses can not be differentiated by currently av...

  12. Epidemiology, disease and control of infections in ruminants by herpesviruses - an overview : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Patel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 16 recognised herpesviruses that naturally infect cattle, sheep, goats and various species of deer and antelopes. Six of the viruses are recognised as distinct alphaherpesviruses and 9 as gammaherpesviruses. Buffalo herpesvirus (BflHV and ovine herpesvirus-1 (OvHV-1 remain officially unclassified. The prevalence of ruminant herpesviruses varies from worldwide to geographically restricted in distribution. Viruses in both subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae cause mild to moderate and severe disease in respective natural or secondary ruminant hosts. Accordingly, the economic and ecological impact of the viruses is also variable. The molecular characteristics of some members have been investigated in detail. This has led to the identification of virulence-associated genes and construction of deletion mutants and recombinant viruses. Some of the latter have been developed as commercial vaccines. This paper aims to give an overview of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection by these viruses, immuno-prophylaxis and mechanisms of recovery from infection. Since there are 128 ruminant species in the family Bovidae, it is likely that some herpesviruses remain undiscovered. We conclude that currently known ruminant alphaherpesviruses occur only in their natural hosts and do not cross stably into other ruminant species. By contrast, gammaherpesviruses have a much broader host range as evidenced by the fact that antibodies reactive to alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 have been detected in 4 subfamilies in the family Bovidae, namely Alcelaphinae, Hippotraginae, Ovibovinae and Caprinae. New gammaherpesviruses within these subfamilies are likely to be discovered in the future.

  13. Herpesviruses 6, 7 and 8 in HIV- and non-HIV-associated periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardirossian, A; Contreras, A; Navazesh, M; Nowzari, H; Slots, J

    2000-10-01

    Human herpesviruses, especially cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus type-1, occur with higher frequency in subgingival specimens from periodontitis lesions than from healthy/gingivitis sites. Little or no information is available on the relationship between herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and periodontal disease. This study determined the periodontal occurrence of HHV-6, HHV-7 and HHV-8 in 21 HIV-seropositive and 14 HIV-negative adults affected by periodontitis. Gingival biopsy specimens and paper-point samples of subgingival plaque were collected from sites showing 5 mm or more in probing depth. Nested polymerase chain reaction methodology was employed in herpesvirus identification. In the HIV-seropositive periodontitis group, 90% of gingival biopsies and 62% of subgingival plaque samples revealed at least one of the test viruses. HHV-6 occurred in 71%, HHV-7 in 67% and HHV-8 in 24% of gingival biopsies. In the HIV-negative adult periodontitis group, 43% of gingival biopsies showed at least 1 of the test viruses, with HHV-6 present in 21% and H HV-7 in 29% of gingival biopsies and with no detection of HHV-8. The combined occurrence of the 3 test herpesviruses was significantly higher in HIV-seropositive than in HIV-negative adult periodontitis patients (p = 0.008). The human periodontium might constitute a site of infection or reservoir for HHV-6, -7, -8.

  14. Properties of Frankfurter-type Sausages with Pork Back-fat Replaced with Bovine Heart Surimi-like Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yum, Hyeon-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of bovine heart surimi-like material (BHSM) used as a back fat replacer, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Frankfurter-type sausage with added BHSM had a higher moisture content and lower fat content than the control. In addition, the samples with added BHSM had higher pH, cooking loss and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value and lower water exudation than the control. The sausage formulation with 40% BHSM was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation without affecting cooking loss compared to the 60% BHSM treatment sample. Results showed that hardness values increased upon replacement with BHSM, and sausages manufactured with 40% BHSM had higher lightness and lower redness values. Panelists found there were no differences in color, odor, and tenderness scores and the overall acceptability score found that treatment samples containing 20% and 40% BHSM were preferable to the control after storage for 14 d. These results indicate that fat replacement with BHSM was beneficial to the quality of frankfurter-type sausages, and acceptable reduced-fat products can be produced when back fat is replaced with up to 40% BHSM. PMID:27621694

  15. Properties of Frankfurter-type Sausages with Pork Back-fat Replaced with Bovine Heart Surimi-like Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yum, Hyeon-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of bovine heart surimi-like material (BHSM) used as a back fat replacer, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Frankfurter-type sausage with added BHSM had a higher moisture content and lower fat content than the control. In addition, the samples with added BHSM had higher pH, cooking loss and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value and lower water exudation than the control. The sausage formulation with 40% BHSM was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation without affecting cooking loss compared to the 60% BHSM treatment sample. Results showed that hardness values increased upon replacement with BHSM, and sausages manufactured with 40% BHSM had higher lightness and lower redness values. Panelists found there were no differences in color, odor, and tenderness scores and the overall acceptability score found that treatment samples containing 20% and 40% BHSM were preferable to the control after storage for 14 d. These results indicate that fat replacement with BHSM was beneficial to the quality of frankfurter-type sausages, and acceptable reduced-fat products can be produced when back fat is replaced with up to 40% BHSM. PMID:27621694

  16. Activation of PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signal pathways is required for the induction of lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by herpes simplex virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is causally linked to several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL and a subset of multicentric Castleman's disease. Regulation of viral lytic replication is critical to the initiation and progression of KS. Recently, we reported that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 was an important cofactor that activated lytic cycle replication of KSHV. Here, we further investigated the possible signal pathways involved in HSV-1-induced reactivation of KSHV. Results By transfecting a series of dominant negative mutants and protein expressing constructs and using pharmacologic inhibitors, we found that either Janus kinase 1 (JAK1/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 or JAK1/STAT6 signaling failed to regulate HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. However, HSV-1 infection of BCBL-1 cells activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (PKB, also called AKT pathway and inactivated phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β. PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway was found to be involved in HSV-1-induced KSHV reactivation. Additionally, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway also partially contributed to HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. Conclusions HSV-1 infection stimulated PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signaling pathways that in turn contributed to KSHV reactivation, which provided further insights into the molecular mechanism controlling KSHV lytic replication, particularly in the context of HSV-1 and KSHV co-infection.

  17. The prevalence of ovine herpesvirus-2 in 4 sheep breeds from different regions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.W. Bremer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available About 90% of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF PCR-positive cases in South Africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1 and the other 10 % by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2. The prevalence of OvHV-2 in different sheep breeds in South Africa was determined in order to investigate whether the lower incidence of BMCF caused by OvHV-2 in comparison with AlHV-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. A single-tube hemi-nested PCR was developed, evaluated and applied to detect OvHV-2 DNA. The prevalence of the virus in 4 sheep breeds from various regions in South Africa was shown to be 77 %. No statistically significant difference was found amongst the sheep breeds tested.

  18. Effects of two types of anorganic bovine bone on bone regeneration: a histological and histomorphometric study of rabbit calvaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Paknejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two types of bone substitutes, Bio-Oss and NuOss, for repair of bone defects.This study was performed on the calvaria of 14 New Zealand rabbits. The 6mm critical size defect (CSD models of bone regeneration were used. Three CSDs were created in each surgical site. The first defect was filled with NuOss, the second one with Bio-Oss and the third one remained unfilled as the control. After healing periods of one and two months (seven animal for each time point, histological and histomorphometric analyses were carried out to assess the amount of new bone formation, presence of inflammation, foreign body reaction and type of new bone. Qualitative variables were analyzed by multiple comparisons, Wilcoxon, Friedman and Mann Whitney tests. Quantitative variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. Level of statistical significance was set at 0.05.The level of inflammation was not significantly different at four and eight weeks in the Bio-Oss (P=0.944, NuOss (P=1.000 and control groups (P=0.71. At four weeks, foreign body reaction was not observed in Bio-Oss, NuOss and control groups. There was no significant difference in the type of the newly formed bone at four and eight weeks in any group (P=0.141 for Bio-Oss, P=0.06 for NuOss and P=0.389 for the control group.Deproteinized bovine bone mineral can be used as a scaffold in bone defects to induce bone regeneration.

  19. Intranuclear Inclusions in Renal Tubular Epithelium in Immunodeficient Mice Stain with Antibodies for Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 L1 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McInnes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys from six immunodeficient mice examined by Cerberus Sciences and the Animal Resources Centre, displayed karyomegaly with pale eosinophilic, intranuclear inclusions upon histopathological examination. Electron microscopy performed on kidney tissue from 5/6 mice demonstrated margination of the chromatin in large nuclei. Laboratory tests were used to detect nucleic acid of papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, circoviruses and anelloviruses (4/6 mice, a specific PCR was used to detect murine polyomavirus (1/6, and a panel of serological tests was used to detect seroconversion to major murine pathogens (1/6. All molecular and serological tests were negative. Immunohistochemistry using polyclonal anti-bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 L1 antibody, Camvir monoclonal anti-papillomavirus antibody (directed against the seven amino acids GFGAMDF found in human papillomavirus (HPV 16 L1 protein, a commercially available mixture of two monoclonal antibodies, anti-BPV-1 L1/1H8 + Camvir antibodies, and a monoclonal anti-Hsc70 antibody revealed specific, positive staining of murine renal tubular epithelial intranuclear inclusions in 6/6 mice using the anti-BPV-1 L1 containing antibodies only. Methyl pyronin green, PAS and Feulgen histochemical reactions revealed that the intranuclear inclusions did not consist of RNA, DNA or carbohydrate. An immunohistochemical method now exists that can be used to confirm and evaluate suspected cases of murine inclusion body nephropathy.

  20. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn Catry

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal defined daily dose (TIADD and (actually used daily dose (TIUDD. Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable. Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001 and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012. These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance.

  1. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen; Maes, Dominiek; Pardon, Bart; Callens, Benedicte; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Opsomer, Geert; de Kruif, Aart; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds) for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type) and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal) defined daily dose (TIADD) and (actually) used daily dose (TIUDD). Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds) and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only) isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant) and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable). Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001) and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012). These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance. PMID:26820134

  2. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection and a Series of Mesenchymal Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Martano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the histopathology of two hundred and fifty-three mesenchymal tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle grazing on lands rich in bracken fern. Approximately 80% were hemangiomas and angiosarcomas. Hemangioma (capillary, cavernous, and large vessels was the most frequent mesenchymal tumor and was more common than angiosarcoma. Although the appearance of endothelial cells can vary remarkably, epithelioid angiosarcomas, often containing multinucleated cells, were the most frequent malignant vascular tumors. Hemangiopericytoma and tumors of muscle and soft connective tissue origin, alone and/or in association with tumor-like lesions, were less frequently seen. Furthermore, forty-five cases of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH, a lesion not previously reported in the urinary bladder of cattle, were also described. Bovine papillomavirus type-2 DNA was amplified in tumor samples. Forty vascular tumors were investigated by dual-labeling immunofluorescence, and, for the first time, a coexpression of E5 and platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR was shown to occur. The results show that the BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein binds to the activated form of the PDGFβ receptor thus playing an important role in mesenchymal as well as epithelial carcinogenesis of the urinary bladder. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that BPV-2 infects both epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

  3. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection and Microscopic Patterns of Urothelial Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in Water Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Maiolino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic patterns of thirty-four urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of water buffaloes from the Marmara and Black Sea Regions of Turkey are here described. All the animals grazed on lands rich in bracken fern. Histological diagnosis was assessed using morphological parameters recently suggested for the urinary bladder tumors of cattle. Papillary carcinoma was the most common neoplastic lesion (22/34 observed in this study, and low-grade carcinoma was more common (seventeen cases than high-grade carcinoma (five cases. Papilloma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP, and invasive carcinomas were less frequently seen. Carcinoma in situ (CIS was often detected associated with some papillary and invasive carcinomas. De novo (primary CIS was rare representing 3% of tumors of this series. A peculiar feature of the most urothelial tumors was the presence in the tumor stroma of immune cells anatomically organized in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs. Bovine papillomavirus type-2 (PV-2 E5 oncoprotein was detected by molecular and immunohistochemistry procedures. Early protein, E2, and late protein, L1, were also detected by immunohistochemical studies. Morphological and molecular findings show that BPV-2 infection contributes to the development of urothelial bladder carcinogenesis also in water buffaloes.

  4. Increase in proto-oncogene mRNA transcript levels in bovine lymphoid cells infected with a cytopathic type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2008-08-01

    Infection of susceptible animals with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) can result in an array of disease symptoms that are dependent in part on the strain of infecting virus and the physiological status of the host. BVDV are lymphotrophic and exist as two biotypes. Cytopathic BVDV kill cells outright while noncytopathic strains can readily establish persistent infections. The molecular mechanisms behind these different affects are unknown. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of disease, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), a powerful method for global gene expression analysis, was employed to examine gene expression changes in BVDV-infected BL3 cells, a bovine B-cell lymphosarcoma cell line. SAGE libraries were constructed from mRNA derived from BL3 cells that were noninfected or infected with the cytopathic BVDV2 strain 296c. Annotation of the SAGE data showed the expression of many genes that are characteristic of B cells and integral to their function. Comparison of the SAGE databases also revealed a number of genes that were differentially expressed. Of particular interest was the increased numbers of transcripts encoding proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, junB, junD) in 296c-infected cells, all of which are constituents of the AP-1 transcriptional activation complex. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed these results and indicated that the actual increases were larger than that predicted by SAGE. In contrast, there was no corresponding increase in protein levels, but instead a significant decrease of c-jun and junB protein levels in the infected BL3 cells was observed. Rather than an increase in transcription of these genes, it appeared that these proto-oncogenes transcripts accumulated in the BVDV2-infected cells.

  5. The first genome sequence of a metatherian herpesvirus: Macropodid herpesvirus 1

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Paola K.; Timothy J Mahony; Hartley, Carol A.; Fowler, Elizabeth V.; Ficorilli, Nino; Sang W. Lee; Gilkerson, James R.; Browning, Glenn F.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background While many placental herpesvirus genomes have been fully sequenced, the complete genome of a marsupial herpesvirus has not been described. Here we present the first genome sequence of a metatherian herpesvirus, Macropodid herpesvirus 1 (MaHV-1). Results The MaHV-1 viral genome was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer, de novo assembly was performed and the genome was annotated. The MaHV-1 genome was 140 kbp in length and clustered phylogenetically with the primate simplexvir...

  6. In vitro susceptibility of T lymphocytes from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6): a potential animal model to study the interaction between HHV-6 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Lusso, P.; Markham, P D; DeRocco, S E; Gallo, R C

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of several nonhuman primate species to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated. Only peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were found permissive to productive infection by HHV-6, indicating that the host range of HHV-6, albeit limited, may not be restricted to Homo sapiens. However, natural HHV-6 infection in chimpanzees, as well as in the other species tested, could not be documented by serological analysis. As previously obser...

  7. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Maidana, Silvina S; Lomonaco, Patricia M; Combessies, Gustavo; Craig, María I; Diodati, Julian; Rodriguez, Daniela; Parreño, Viviana; Zabal, Osvaldo; Konrad, José L; Crudelli, Gustavo; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne; Romera, Sonia A

    2012-01-01

    Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analy...

  8. The Telomeric Repeats of Human Herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) Are Required for Efficient Virus Integration.

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Wallaschek; Anirban Sanyal; Fabian Pirzer; Annie Gravel; Yasuko Mori; Louis Flamand; Kaufer, Benedikt B

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and 6B (HHV-6B) are ubiquitous betaherpesviruses that infects humans within the first years of life and establishes latency in various cell types. Both viruses can integrate their genomes into telomeres of host chromosomes in latently infected cells. The molecular mechanism of viral integration remains elusive. Intriguingly, HHV-6A, HHV-6B and several other herpesviruses harbor arrays of telomeric repeats (TMR) identical to human telomere sequences at the ends of...

  9. Tales from the crypt and coral reef: the successes and challenges of identifying new herpesviruses using metagenomics.

    OpenAIRE

    Houldcroft, Charlotte J.; Breuer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses are ubiquitous double-stranded DNA viruses infecting many animals, with the capacity to cause disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Different herpesviruses have different cell tropisms, and have been detected in a diverse range of tissues and sample types. Metagenomics—encompassing viromics—analyses the nucleic acid of a tissue or other sample in an unbiased manner, making few or no prior assumptions about which viruses may be present in a sample. This app...

  10. The role of herpesviruses (BoHV-1 and BoHV-4) and pestiviruses (BVDV and BDV) in ruminant abortion cases in western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer-Göktuna, Pelin; Alpay, Gizem; Öner, Eda Baldan; Yeşilbağ, Kadir

    2016-06-01

    The economic impact of abortions in ruminant breeders is one of the biggest problems in livestock. Of the infectious agents, viruses, especially herpesviruses and pestiviruses, are the most important causative agents of abortion in ruminants. In the present study, the role of herpesviruses (bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4)) and pestiviruses (bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), border disease virus (BDV)) was investigated in cases of ruminant abortion between 2007 and 2015 in western Turkey. Out of 81 aborted fetal samples (60 calves, 19 lambs, and 2 kids), 42 were positive, which included 31 calves, 9 lambs, and 2 goats; 39 aborted fetal samples were negative for the pestivirus antigen ELISA. BoHV-1 antigen ELISA was positive in 3 cases which included 2 calves and 1 lamb; the remainder 78 cases were negative. Pestivirus and BoHV-1 were positive in 51.85 and 3.70 %, respectively, of the samples. According to PCR analysis, BoHV-4 was not encountered in any of the tested samples. In one of the calf fetus samples, both BVDV and BoHV-1 were positive; in one of the lamb fetus samples, BoHV-1 was positive. There was a much higher level of pestivirus antigen than the other viral agents evaluated in the study (p viral cause of ruminant abortions in the examined area. PMID:27038195

  11. Human herpesvirus-6 infection in liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    HÀrmÀ, Maiju

    2007-01-01

    Rejection and infections are the two most common complications after liver transplantation. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) belongs to the betaherpesviruses, together with its close relatives cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7). The impact of CMV in liver transplantation is well characterized, but the roles of the other two betaherpesviruses have been acknowledged only recently. Although, HHV-6 reactivation after transplantation is usually asymptomatic, the virus may infect the ...

  12. Animal models of human herpesvirus 6 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Joséphine eReynaud; Branka eHorvat

    2013-01-01

    Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A and HHV-6B are two enveloped DNA viruses of β-herpesvirus family, infecting over 90% of the population and associated with several diseases, including exanthema subitum (for HHV-6B), multiple sclerosis and encephalitis, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. Animal models are highly important to better understand the pathogenesis of viral infections. Naturally developed neutralizing antibodies to HHV-6 or a related virus were found in different species of monkey...

  13. Herpesvirus BACs: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Warden; Qiyi Tang; Hua Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The herpesviridae are a large family of DNA viruses with large and complicated genomes. Genetic manipulation and the generation of recombinant viruses have been extremely difficult. However, herpesvirus bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that were developed approximately 10 years ago have become useful and powerful genetic tools for generating recombinant viruses to study the biology and pathogenesis of herpesviruses. For example, BAC-directed deletion mutants are commonly used to determ...

  14. Repertoire of bovine miRNA and miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs expressed upon viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A Glazov

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA and other types of small regulatory RNAs play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Several distinct classes of small regulatory RNAs have been discovered in recent years. To extend the repertoire of small RNAs characterized in mammals and to examine relationship between host miRNA expression and viral infection we used Illumina's ultrahigh throughput sequencing approach. We sequenced three small RNA libraries prepared from cell line derived from the adult bovine kidney under normal conditions and upon infection of the cell line with Bovine herpesvirus 1. We used a bioinformatics approach to distinguish authentic mature miRNA sequences from other classes of small RNAs and short RNA fragments represented in the sequencing data. Using this approach we detected 219 out of 356 known bovine miRNAs and 115 respective miRNA* sequences. In addition we identified five new bovine orthologs of known mammalian miRNAs and discovered 268 new cow miRNAs many of which are not identifiable in other mammalian genomes and thus might be specific to the ruminant lineage. In addition we found seven new bovine mirtron candidates. We also discovered 10 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA loci that give rise to small RNA with possible miRNA-like function. Results presented in this study extend our knowledge of the biology and evolution of small regulatory RNAs in mammals and illuminate mechanisms of small RNA biogenesis and function. New miRNA sequences and the original sequencing data have been submitted to miRNA repository (miRBase and NCBI GEO archive respectively. We envisage that these resources will facilitate functional annotation of the bovine genome and promote further functional and comparative genomics studies of small regulatory RNA in mammals.

  15. Molecular identification of three novel herpesviruses found in Australian farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and Australian captive freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Timothy H; Shilton, Catherine M; Wellehan, James F X; Davis, Steven; Isberg, Sally R; Phalen, David; Melville, Lorna

    2015-12-31

    As part of a larger investigation into three emerging disease syndromes highlighted by conjunctivitis and pharyngitis, systemic lymphoid proliferation and encephalitis, and lymphonodular skin infiltrates in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and one emerging syndrome of systemic lymphoid proliferation in captive freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni), cytopathic effects (CPE), including syncytial cell formation, were observed in primary crocodile cell lines exposed to clarified tissue homogenates from affected crocodiles. Ten cell cultures with CPE were then screened for herpesviruses using two broadly-reactive herpesvirus PCRs. Amplicons were obtained from 9 of 10 cell cultures and were sequenced. Three novel herpesviruses were discovered and the phylogenetic analysis of these viruses showed there was a 63% Bayesian posterior probability value supporting these viruses clustering with the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, and 100% posterior probability of clustering with a clade containing the Alphaherpesvirinae and other unassigned reptile herpesviruses. It is proposed that they are named Crocodyline herpesvirus (CrHV) 1, 2 and 3. CrHV1 and 2 were only isolated from saltwater crocodiles and CrHV3 was only isolated from freshwater crocodiles. A duplex PCR was designed that was able to detect these herpesviruses in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, a sample type that neither of the broadly-reactive PCRs was able to detect these herpesviruses in. This work describes the isolation, molecular detection and phylogeny of these novel herpesviruses but the association that they have with the emerging disease syndromes requires further investigation. PMID:26475649

  16. Genomic and Evolutionary Analysis of Two Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky Sequence Types Isolated from Bovine and Poultry Sources in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Bradd J.; Kim, Seon Woo; Pettengill, James; Luo, Yan; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky is frequently isolated from healthy poultry and dairy cows and is occasionally isolated from people with clinical disease. A genomic analysis of 119 isolates collected in the United States from dairy cows, ground beef, poultry and poultry products, and human clinical cases was conducted. Results of the analysis demonstrated that the majority of poultry and bovine-associated S. Kentucky were sequence type (ST) 152. Several bovine-associated (n = 3) and food product isolates (n = 3) collected from the United States and the majority of human clinical isolates were ST198, a sequence type that is frequently isolated from poultry and occasionally from human clinical cases in Northern Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that both STs are more closely related to other Salmonella serovars than they are to each other. Additionally, there was strong evidence of an evolutionary divergence between the poultry-associated and bovine-associated ST152 isolates that was due to polymorphisms in four core genome genes. The ST198 isolates recovered from dairy farms in the United States were phylogenetically distinct from those collected from human clinical cases with 66 core genome SNPs differentiating the two groups, but more isolates are needed to determine the significance of this distinction. Identification of S. Kentucky ST198 from dairy animals in the United States suggests that the presence of this pathogen should be monitored in food-producing animals. PMID:27695032

  17. Quantitative analysis of infiltrating immune cells and bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2-positive cells in equine sarcoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisshüsler, H; Marti, E; Stoffel, M H; Kühni, K; Stojiljkovic, A; von Tscharner, C; Vidondo, B; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2016-10-01

    Sarcoids are the most frequently observed skin tumours in equids and consist of cutaneous accumulations of transformed fibroblasts. Their aetiopathogenesis is closely linked to a presumably abortive infection by bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2. In cattle, dermal fibropapillomas induced by BPV1/2 usually regress spontaneously due to a local, cell-mediated, immune response; however, equids appear to lack an effective immune response to BPV1/2 and mechanisms of immune evasion have been postulated. As a consequence, equine sarcoids tend to persist and are prone to recur. In this study, cryosections were analysed by immunofluorescent staining and a high content analysis system to determine the presence and distribution of CD4(+), CD8(+), FoxP3(+), RORγt(-), CD206(+) and CD14(+) cells, along with expression of the BPV1 early regulatory protein E2. A higher density of cells was positive for BPV1 E2(+) within the transformed tissue than in perilesional tissue or normal skin of horses with sarcoids and control horses. The proportion of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells was significantly increased in perilesional and lesional tissues, whereas CD4(+) T helper cells were present in higher density only in lesional tissue compared to normal skin from horses with and without sarcoids. The proportion of pro-inflammatory CD4(+)FoxP3(+)RORγt(+) regulatory T cells was decreased in sarcoid tissue compared to perilesional, distant and control tissue. There were no significant differences in densities of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) RORγt(-) regulatory T cells between sarcoids and control tissues. Equine sarcoids are characterised by infiltrations of CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells, with decreased representation by pro-inflammatory CD4(+)FoxP3(+)RORγt(+) regulatory T cells. PMID:27687925

  18. Productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in the placenta of pregnant cows affected with urinary bladder tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses (PVs are believed to be highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within stratified epithelia. In vitro, various PVs appear to complete their entire life-cycle in different trophoblastic cell lines. In this study, infection by and protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 in the uterine and chorionic epithelium of the placenta has been described in four cows suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. E5 oncoprotein was detected both by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemically. It appears to be complexed and perfectly co-localized with the activated platelet-derived growth factor ß receptor (PDGFßR by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The activated PDGFßR might be involved in organogenesis and neo-angiogenesis rather than in cell transformation during pregnancy. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection has been detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the uterine and chorionic epithelium. Trophoblastic cells appear to be the major target for L1 protein expression. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be expressed during a productive infection, has been detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected viral particles in nuclei of uterine and chorionic epithelium. This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the placenta of pregnant cows can occur in vivo.

  19. EXPRESSION OF GLYCOPROTEIN gD AND EVALUATION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE OF BOVINE HERPES VIRUS TYPE-1 IN BUFFALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpes Virus type-1 (BoHV-1 causes a multitude of clinical symptoms in cattle, buffaloes and small ruminants. No effective live attenuated or killed vaccine is currently available and extensive research work in progress towards the development of the subunit and genetically engineered vaccine. Since DNA vaccine is currently regarded as most important breakthrough in vaccinology, the present work was aimed at construction of DNA vaccine using most immunogenic glycoprotein gD and studying its immune response and protection in buffalo. gD specific DIG labelled probe was used to screen gD specific clones from cDNA library. The gD specific cloned plasmid was purified for eukaryotic expression. The SDS-PAGE & Western blot analysis showed the transient expression of the expected 71 kDa gD following transfection in COS-7 cells. Four seronegative buffalo calves were immunized at 0, 30 and 60 days with recombinant purified plasmid and two calves were kept as control. The result of SNT, ELISA and MTT indicate gene specific seroconversion and CMI response following immunization with plasmid. At 86 days of post first vaccination, animals were challenged with virulent BoHV-1 (216/IBR. Hematological picture of the control animals showed leucopenia and that was due to destruction of lymphocytes shown by TLC and apoptosis study. Vaccinated animals showed reduced virus shedding in terms of days post challenge as well as titers compared to the controls. Based on the above findings, we concluded that DNA based vaccine induces specific and protective immune responses to the buffalo.

  20. Effects of bovine cytochrome P450 single-nucleotide polymorphism, forage type and body condition on production traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M A; Larson, M J; Reiter, S T; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Looper, M L; Coffey, K P; Rosenkrans, C F

    2012-08-01

    Relating single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to cows with acceptable productivity could benefit cattle breeders in areas where tall fescue is the predominant forage. This study aimed to (i) identify SNPs in bovine cytochrome P450 3A28 (CYP3A28) and (ii) determine the associations between SNP genotype, forage and cow body condition (BC). Genotype (CC, CG or GG) and forage [Kentucky-31 wild-type endophyte-infected tall fescue (KY+) vs. bermudagrass] effects on milk volume and quality were determined in Herd 1 cows (123 cows); in Herd 2 (99 cows), genotype and BC (low vs. moderate) effects on ovarian follicle size, calving date and calving per cent were determined; and in Herd 3 (114 cows), effects of genotype and fescue cultivar [KY+ vs. non-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (HiMag4)] were related to calving per cent, calving date and weaning weights of both cow and her calf. A cytosine (C) to guanine (G) transversion at base 994 (C994G) in CYP3A28 was identified. There was a genotype × forage type interaction (p milk protein in Herd 1 cows; CC cows grazing bermudagrass had greater milk protein percentage in relation to other cows in the herd. In Herd 2, BC and genotype × BC tended (p < 0.10) to influence follicle size and Julian calving date respectively. Diameter of the largest follicle tended to be larger in moderate BC than in low-BC cows; whereas, CC and CG cows in moderate BC and homozygous (CC and GG) cows in low BC tended to calve 14 days earlier in relation to CG cows in low BC. In Herd 3, there was a genotype × forage type interaction (p < 0.05) on calving per cent, Julian calving date and calf weaning weight. In this study, genetic alterations (G allele at C994G) coupled with nutritional factors (low BC and toxic tall fescue) resulted in overall lower productivity in cows.

  1. Feline herpesvirus infection in a group of semi-captive cheetahs : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Vuuren

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical disease caused by feline herpesvirus type-1 in wild felid species is similar to that in domestic cats. Herpesviruses are endemic in free-ranging lions in South Africa but actual clinical disease due to them has not been reported in free-ranging felids. The first reports of feline herpesvirus infection associated with clinical disease in wild felids came fromAustralia and the USA in 1970. Subsequent reports of clinical disease in cheetahs and other wild felid species were limited to captive animals. This report deals with clinical disease in a group of semi-captive cheetahs in which 18 animals were affected, and included 12 adult males, 4 adult females and 2 subadults. No mortalities occurred in this group, the most common clinical signs being sneezing, nasal discharge and loss of appetite.

  2. Recent developments in anti-herpesvirus drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hugh J; Vere Hodge, R Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpesviruses notably establish lifelong infections, with latency and reactivation. Many of the known human herpesviruses infect large proportions of the population worldwide. Treatment or prevention of herpes infections and recurrent disease still pose a challenge in the 21st century. Sources of data Original papers and review articles, meeting abstracts, a book (Clinical Virology; DD Richman, RJ Whitley & FG Hayden eds) and company web sites. Areas of agreement For herpes simplex types 1 and 2 and for varicella zoster, acyclovir (ACV; now increasingly replaced by its prodrug valacyclovir, VACV) and famciclovir (FCV) have greatly reduced the burden of disease and have established a remarkable safety record. Drug-resistance, in the otherwise healthy population, has remained below 0.5% after more that 20 years of antiviral use. In immunocompromised patients, drug resistance is more common and alternative drugs with good safety profiles are desirable. For human cytomegalovirus disease, which occurs in immunocompromised patients, ganciclovir and increasingly its prodrug valganciclovir are the drugs of choice. However, alternative drugs, with better safety, are much needed. Areas of controversy Various questions are highlighted. Should the new 1-day therapies for recurrent herpes labialis and genital herpes replace the current standard multi-day therapies? The marked differences between VACV and FCV (e.g. triphosphate stability, effect on latency) may not yet be fully exploited? Do current antivirals reduce post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN)? For immunocompromised patients with varicella zoster virus (VZV) disease, should the first-line treatment be FCV, not ACV or VACV? Should there be more support to explore new avenues for current antivirals, for example in possibly reducing herpes latency or Alzheimer's disease (AD)? Should primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) disease in adolescents be treated with antivirals? How can new compounds be progressed when the

  3. Analysis of the genome of leporid herpesvirus 4

    OpenAIRE

    Babra, Bobby; Watson, Gregory; Xu, Wayne; Jeffrey, Brendan; Xu, Jia-Rong; Rockey, Dan; Rohrmann, George; Jin, Ling

    2012-01-01

    The genome of a herpesvirus highly pathogenic to rabbits, leporid herpesvirus 4 (LHV-4), was analyzed using high-throughput DNA sequencing technology and primer walking. The assembled DNA sequences were further verified by restriction endonuclease digestion and Southern blot analyses. The total length of the LHV-4 genome was determined to be about 124 kb. Genes encoded in the LHV-4 genome are most closely related to herpesvirus of the Simplexvirus genus, including human herpesviruses (HHV -1 ...

  4. Activation of cell signaling pathways is dependant on the biotype of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is an economically important cattle pathogen with a world wide distribution. Besides the segregation into two distinct species (BVDV1 / BVDV2) two different biotypes, a cytopathic (cp) and a noncytopathic (ncp) biotype, are...

  5. Enhanced antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus by the combination of bovine type 1 and 2 interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. In emergency control of outbreaks, it is fundamental to develop rapid protection to prevent spread of the infection. It has been shown that inoculation of 10^10 pfu of human aden...

  6. H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy-complex molecular featrues and similarities with some human prion diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biacabe, A.G.; Jacobs, J.G.; Bencsik, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Baron, T.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that some cattle affected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) showed distinct molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in Western blot, with a 1-2 kDa higher apparent molecular mass of the unglycosylated PrPres associated with labelling by anti

  7. Comparison of the Immune Response Between a Pair of NCP and CP Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Type 1 Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle causing severe respiratory and reproductive disease. BVDV vaccines remain an important part of the control strategy. Previous work has described higher antibody responses in animals infected with a noncytopathic (NCP) BVDV when ...

  8. Characterization of phocid herpesvirus-1 and -2 as putative alpha- and gamma-herpesviruses of North American and European pinnipeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); M. Harder; H. Vos; K. Kulonen; S. Kennedy-Stoskopf; B. Liess; M.J.G. Appel (Max); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo study the relationships between herpesvirus recently isolated from different pinniped species, antigenic and genetic analyses were performed. First, herpesviruses isolated from North American harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), a Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and a Europea

  9. Molecular gymnastics at the herpesvirus surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Félix A

    2006-01-01

    This review analyses recent structural results that provide clues about a possible molecular mechanism for the transmission of a fusogenic signal among the envelope glycoproteins of the herpes simplex virus on receptor binding by glycoprotein gD. This signal triggers the membrane-fusion machinery of the virus—contained in glycoproteins gB, gH and gL—to induce the merging of viral and cellular membranes, and to allow virus entry into target cells. This activating process parallels that of γ-retroviruses, in which receptor binding by the amino-terminal domain of the envelope protein activates the fusogenic potential of the virion in a similar way, despite the different organization of the envelope complexes of these two types of viruses. Therefore, the new structural results on the interaction of gD with its receptors might also provide insights into the mechanism of fusogenic signal transmission in γ-retroviruses. Furthermore, the fusion activation parallels with retroviruses, together with the recently reported structural homology of gB with the rhabdovirus envelope glycoprotein indicate that the complex entry apparatus of herpesviruses appears to be functionally related to that of simpler enveloped viruses. PMID:17016458

  10. Fatal Infection of a Pet Monkey with Human herpesvirus 1

    OpenAIRE

    Huemer, Hartwig P.; Larcher, Clara; Czedik-Eysenberg, Thomas; Nowotny, Norbert; Reifinger, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about pet monkeys as a potential threat to humans. We report the opposite situation, a danger to pets that arises from humans. Similar to herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1), which endangers humans but not its host species, Human herpesvirus 1 can act as a “killer virus” when crossing the species barrier to New World monkeys.

  11. Dissecting the host response to a gamma-herpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doherty, P C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Belz, G T;

    2001-01-01

    with various -/- mice and monoclonal antibody depletion protocols have shown very clearly that type I interferons (IFNs) are essential for the early control of MHV-68 replication, while CD4+ T cells producing IFN-gamma function to limit the consequences of viral persistence. Virus-specific CD8+ effectors...... cells, which is apparently MHC independent, could represent some sort of 'smoke screen' used by MHV-68 to subvert immunity. Although MHV-68 is neither Epstein-Barr virus nor human herpesvirus-8, the results generated from this system suggest possibilities that may usefully be addressed with these human...

  12. Early Transcriptional Responses of Bovine Chorioallantoic Membrane Explants to Wild Type, ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Juliana P. S.; Costa, Erica A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Sun, Yao-Hui; Tsolis, Reneé M.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Santos, Renato L.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308), ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; P<0.05) were functionally classified, and transcripts related to defense and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Infection with wild type B. abortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ΔvirB2 or the ΔbtpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ΔvirB and ΔbtpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion. PMID:25259715

  13. Early transcriptional responses of bovine chorioallantoic membrane explants to wild type, ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P S Mol

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308, ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; P<0.05 were functionally classified, and transcripts related to defense and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Infection with wild type B. abortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ΔvirB2 or the ΔbtpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ΔvirB and ΔbtpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion.

  14. Complete Genomic Sequence and an Infectious BAC Clone of Feline Herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) is classified under the genus Varicellovirus within the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, and is a major cause of upper respiratory infection in cats. In this report, we present the first complete genomic sequence of FHV-1, as well as a bacterial artificial chromosome (...

  15. HERPESVIRUS INFECTIONS: MYTHS AND REALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenko VD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available millennia, and its main symptoms described by Hippocrates more. But our time HVI remains mysterious and before the end of the unknown. Among the issues are not sufficiently clarified latency of infection and persistence of herpes viruses, the causes of the frequent occurrence of the disease in the form of subclinical forms, high infection rate of the world population, and others. Note that virologists and clinicians are showing in the last 20 years to the HVI, is associated with a variety of everincreasing role Herpesviridae in infectious pathology of human and social importance of diseases caused by them. It is now known 8 herpesviruses pathogenic for humans. Because of the difference in a number of biological properties, the nature of replication in cell cultures, the clinical picture and the pathogenesis of diseases caused by all herpesviruses are distributed according to the recommendations of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, in three subfamilies (α, β, γ. Activators of herpes simplex virus can be endogenous and exogenous factors: reduction of immunoreactivity of the organism (immunodeficiency, interferon failure, physical and emotional stress, overheating or overcooling, hormonal disorders, ultraviolet irradiation, corticosteroids treatment, cytotoxic drugs. It is important to understand that the HVI is a disease of the whole body with lesions in varying degrees, all organs and systems (immune, hematopoietic, lymphatic, CNS, which is responsible for the homeostasis of the human body. These data give reason to believe HVI systemic disease, mainly affecting a particular organ. However, more is still not widely used etiopathogenetical and "topical" diagnosis, indicating the loss of any one body. Due to the fact that the clinical forms of HVI are characterized by marked polymorphism, the timely establishment of the etiologic diagnosis is a difficult task and is based on the use of specific molecular genetic, virological

  16. Isolation of a cDNA clone for the type I regulatory subunit of bovine cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, D C; Carmichael, D F; Krebs, E G; McKnight, G S

    1983-01-01

    A cDNA clone for the type I regulatory subunit (RI) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP:protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37) was isolated from bovine testis by a differential screening method. mRNA coding for RI was enriched 50- to 100-fold by polysome immunoadsorption chromatography with affinity-purified rabbit anti-RI and protein A-Sepharose. Poly(A)+ RNA from these polysomes was utilized to construct a cDNA library in pBR322, and this library was screened for hybridization to 32P-la...

  17. Both viral E2 protein and the cellular factor PEBP2 regulate transcription via E2 consensus sites within the bovine papillomavirus type 4 long control region.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M E; Campo, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV4) long control region (LCR) contains three consensus binding sites, E2(1), E2(2), and E2(3) (ACCN6GGT), for the viral E2 transcription factor and a fourth degenerate site, dE2 (ATCN6GGT), which lies 3 bp upstream of E2(3). The E2(2) site was found to bind the cellular transcription factor PEBP2, and mutations at this site reduced basal promoter activity by as much as 60%, indicating an important role for PEBP2 in LCR function. Mutation of the E2(3) or dE2...

  18. Human herpesvirus-8: beyond Kaposi's .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimar, Doron; Rimar, Yossi; Keynan, Yoav

    2006-07-01

    Today, more than 10 years and 2000 articles since human herpesvirus 8 was first described by Chang et al., novel insights into the transmission and molecular biology of HHV-8 have unveiled a new spectrum of diseases attributed to the virus. The association of HHV-8 with proliferative disorders--including Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman disease and primary effusion lymphoma--is well established. Other aspects of HHV-8 infection are currently the subject of accelerated research. Primary HHV-8 infection may manifest as a mononucleosis-like syndrome in the immunocompetent host, or in various forms in the immunocompromised host. The association of HHV-8 with primary pulmonary hypertension was observed by Cool et al. in 2003, but six clinical trials evaluating the role of HHV-8 in pulmonary hypertension have not been able to replicate this intriguing observation. It has been speculated that HHV-8 may secondarily infect proliferating endothelium in patients with pulmonary hypertension. HHV-8 epidemiology, modes of transmission, new spectrum of disease and treatment are presented and discussed. PMID:16889165

  19. Genome structure of cottontail rabbit herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian, J; Berthelot, N; Laithier, M

    1989-02-01

    The genome structure of a herpesvirus isolated from primary cultures of kidney cells from the cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus was elucidated by using electron microscopy and restriction enzyme analysis. The genome, which was about 150 kilobase pairs long and which had an average G + C composition of 45%, consisted of two regions with unique base sequences (54 and 47 kilobase pairs) enclosed by reiterations of a 925-base-pair sequence with a variable copy number. The internal repeats were in opposite polarity with respect to the terminal repeats, and both unique regions underwent inversion. The nucleotide sequence of the repeat unit was determined, and virion DNA termini were precisely localized within this sequence. Elements showing homology with the cleavage-packaging signals common to other herpesviruses were detected. The data indicate that this virus is different from the previously described herpesvirus sylvilagus. PMID:2911115

  20. DNA of herpesvirus pan, a third member of the Epstein-Barr virus-Herpesvirus papio group.

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, M.; Gerber, P; Kieff, E

    1982-01-01

    The DNA of herpesvirus pan, a primate B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, shares about 40% well-conserved sequence relatedness with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and herpesvirus papio DNAs. Labeled cloned fragments from the EBV recombinant DNA library were cross hybridized to blots of EcoRI, XbaI, and BamHI restriction endonuclease fragments of herpesvirus pan DNA to identify and map homologous sequences in the herpesvirus pan genome. Regions of colinear homology were demonstrated between 6 x 10(6) dalton...

  1. Transient viral DNA replication and repression of viral transcription are supported by the C-terminal domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, M C; McBride, A A

    1998-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein is important for viral DNA replication and transcriptional repression. It has been proposed that the full-length E1 protein consists of a small N-terminal and a larger C-terminal domain. In this study, it is shown that an E1 polypeptide containing residues 132 to 605 (which represents the C-terminal domain) is able to support transient viral DNA replication, although at a level lower than that supported by the wild-type protein. This domain can also repress E2-mediated transactivation from the P89 promoter as well as the wild-type E1 protein can. PMID:9420289

  2. The equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein gp21/22a, the herpes simplex virus type 1 gM homolog, is involved in virus penetration and cell-to-cell spread of virions.

    OpenAIRE

    Osterrieder, N.; Neubauer, A.; Brandmuller, C; Braun, B.; Kaaden, O R; Baines, J D

    1996-01-01

    Experiments to analyze the function of the equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) glycoprotein gM homolog were conducted. To this end, an Rk13 cell line (TCgM) that stably expressed EHV-1 gM was constructed. Proteins with apparent M(r)s of 46,000 to 48,000 and 50,000 to 55,000 were detected in TCgM cells with specific anti-gM antibodies, and the gM protein pattern was indistinguishable from that in cells infected with EHV-1 strain RacL11. A viral mutant (L11deltagM) bearing an Escherichia coli lacZ gen...

  3. Pathogenesis of a genotype C strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Cai, Hong; Ma, Lei; Wang, Shu; Yan, Hao; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-08-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important of the known viral respiratory tract agents of both young and adult cattle and widespread among cattle around the world. Up to present, three genotypes A, B and C of BPIV3 have been described on the basis of genetic and phylogenetic analysis and only limited studies on the pathogenesis of the genotype A of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have been performed. The report about experimental infections of the genotypes B and C of BPIV3 in laboratory animals and calves was scant. Therefore, an experimental infection of guinea pigs with the Chinese BPIV3 strain SD0835 of the genotype C was performed. Sixteen guinea pigs were intranasally inoculated with the suspension of SD0835, while eight control guinea pigs were also intranasally inoculated with the same volume of supernatant from uninfected MDBK cells. The virus-inoculated guinea pigs displayed a few observable clinical signs that were related to the respiratory tract disease and two of the sixteen experimentally infected guinea pigs died at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (PI), respectively, and apparent gross pneumonic lesions were observed at necropsy. The gross pneumonic lesions in guinea pigs inoculated with SD0835 consisted of dark red, slightly depressed, irregular areas of consolidation in the lung lobes from the second to 9th day of infection at necropsy, and almost complete consolidation and atelectasis of the lung lobes were seen at 7 days PI. Histopathological changes including alveoli septa thickening and focal cellulose pneumonia were also observed in the lungs of guinea pigs experimentally infected with SD0835. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in the respiratory tissues of guinea pigs as early as 24h after intranasal inoculation with SD0835. The results of virus isolation and titration showed that guinea pigs were permissive for

  4. trans activation by the full-length E2 proteins of human papillomavirus type 16 and bovine papillomavirus type 1 in vitro and in vivo: cooperation with activation domains of cellular transcription factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Ushikai, M; Lace, M J; Yamakawa, Y.; Kono, M; Anson, J; Ishiji, T; Parkkinen, S; Wicker, N.; Valentine, M E; Davidson, I

    1994-01-01

    Papillomaviral E2 genes encode proteins that regulate viral transcription. While the full-length bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E2 peptide is a strong trans activator, the homologous full-length E2 product of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) appeared to vary in function in previous studies. Here we show that when expressed from comparable constructs, the full-length E2 products of HPV-16 and BPV-1 trans activate a simple E2- and Sp1-dependent promoter up to approximately 100-fold i...

  5. Meningitis caused by human herpesvirus-6.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, L M; Lee, C Y; Lee, P I; J. M. Chen; Wang, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Since the discovery of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) the illnesses associated with it have increased steadily. Two infants with meningitis are reported: both suffered a mild meningitis and serological studies confirmed an acute HHV-6 infection. This report supports a role of HHV-6 in nervous system disease.

  6. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Henry J. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  7. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  8. Detection of human herpesvirus type 7 infection in patients with drug eruptions%药疹患者人类疱疹病毒7型感染的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 陈官芝; 朱桂芝; 汤占利; 陈宏泉; 郭小燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of human herpesvirus type 7 (HHV-7) in the development of drug eruptions.Methods Venous blood samples were collected from 35 patients with mild drug eruptions at acute stage,15 patients with severe drug eruptions at both acute stage and remission stage,as well as 50 healthy human controls.PCR was performed to detect HHV-7 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs),and enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the titer of anti-HHV-7 IgM antibody in serum.Statistical analysis was carried out by t test,one way analysis of variance,Chi-square test and q test.Results The detection rate of HHV-7 DNA was significantly higher in these patients with drug eruptions than in the healthy controls (82.00% (41/50) vs.62.00% (31/50),x2 =4.96,P < 0.05),different among patients with severe drug eruptions (93.33% (14/15)),patients with mild drug eruptions (77.14% (27/35)) and the healthy controls (x2 =6.32,P < 0.05),higher in the patients with severe drug eruptions than in the healthy controls (q =3.50,P < 0.05),but not significantly different between the patients with severe drug eruptions at acute stage and those at remission stage (73.33%(11/15),P > 0.05).The anti-HHV-7 IgM antibody titer was significantly increased in the patients with drug eruptions compared with the healthy controls ((69.319 0 ± 25.289 7) ng/L vs.(59.785 3 ± 22.438 2) ng/L,t =1.99,P < 0.05),but no significant difference was observed among the patients with severe drug eruptions (74.340 7 ±31.411 2) ng/L),patients with mild drug eruptions ((65.479 1 ± 21.326 1) ng/L) and healthy controls (P > 0.05) or between HHV-7 DNA-positive patients ((63.748 1 ± 27.239 1) ng/L) and-negative patients ((65.580 2 ± 36.258 4) ng/L,P > 0.05).Conclusions Active HHV-7 infection exists in patients with drug eruptions,and may be associated with the development and aggravation of this entity.%目的 探讨人类疱疹病毒7型(HHV-7)感染在

  9. The cyclin encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus stimulates cdk6 to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein and histone H1.

    OpenAIRE

    Godden-Kent, D; Talbot, Simon; Boshoff, C; Chang, Y.; Moore, P.; Weiss, R A; Mittnacht, S

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8) is a novel gammaherpesvirus implicated in the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma and certain malignancies of lymphatic origin. One of the candidate genes possibly involved in promoting tumor development is an open reading frame (ORF) with sequence similarity to human type D cyclin genes. This cyclin-like gene, when expressed in tissue culture cells, promotes phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pro...

  10. Clinical and laboratory features of human herpesvirus 6 chromosomal integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D A

    2016-04-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) comprises two separate viruses, HHV-6A and HHV-6B, although this distinction is not commonly made. HHV-6B is ubiquitous in the population with primary infection usually occurring in early childhood, and often resulting in febrile illness. HHV-6B is also recognized as a pathogen in the immunocompromised host, particularly in transplant recipients. HHV-6A is less well characterized and may have a more restricted prevalence. Both viruses are unique among the human herpesviruses in that the entire viral genome can be found integrated into the telomeric regions of host cell chromosomes. Approximately 1% of persons have inherited integrated viral sequences through the germline, and these individuals characteristically have very high viral loads in blood and other sample types. Emerging evidence suggests that HHV-6A and HHV-6B chromosomal integration may not just be an uncommon biological observation, but more likely a characteristic of the replication properties of these viruses. The integrated viral genome appears capable of excision from the chromosomal site and potentially allows viral replication. The clinical consequences of inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 have yet to be fully appreciated. PMID:26802216

  11. Productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in the urothelial cells of naturally occurring urinary bladder tumors in cattle and water buffaloes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Papillomaviruses (PVs are highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within squamous epithelia of the skin, the anogenital tract and the oral cavity. In this study, early (E and late (L protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 in the urothelium of the urinary bladder is described in cows and water buffaloes suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the BPV-2, was detected in all tumors. L1 DNA was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced and confirmed to be L1 DNA. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection was detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the neoplastic urothelium. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be a pivotal factor for both productive and persistent infection, was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected electron dense particles, the shape and size of which are consistent with submicroscopic features of viral particles, in nuclei of neoplastic urothelium. CONCLUSION: This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the urothelium of the bovine and bubaline urinary bladder can occur in vivo.

  12. Herpesvirus sylvilagus infects both B and T lymphocytes in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Kramp, W J; Medveczky, P; Mulder, C; Hinze, H C; Sullivan, J L

    1985-01-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied as a model of herpesvirus-induced lymphoproliferative disorders. Leukocytosis, splenomegaly, proliferation of T cells and virus production by lymphocytes characterized this infectious mononucleosis-like disease. Approximately two copies of circular herpesvirus sylvilagus genomes per cell were detected in spleen cells at 2 weeks postinfection, and circular genomes could still be observed after 4 months. ...

  13. Toll-like receptor sensing of human herpesvirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    John A West; Gregory, Sean M.; Damania, Blossom

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved pathogen sensors that constitute the first line of defense in the human immune system. Herpesviruses are prevalent throughout the world and cause significant disease in the human population. Sensing of herpesviruses via TLRs has only been documented in the last 10 years and our understanding of the relationship between these sentinels of the immune system and herpesvirus infection has already provided great insight into how the host cell...

  14. Identification of New Herpesvirus Gene Homologs in the Human Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Holzerlandt, Ria; Orengo, Christine; Kellam, Paul; Albà, M. Mar

    2002-01-01

    Viruses are intracellular parasites that use many cellular pathways during their replication. Large DNA viruses, such as herpesviruses, have captured a repertoire of cellular genes to block or mimic host immune responses, apoptosis regulation, and cell-cycle control mechanisms. We have conducted a systematic search for all homologs of herpesvirus proteins in the human genome using position-specific scoring matrices representing herpesvirus protein sequence domains, and pair-wise sequence comp...

  15. Three novel herpesviruses of endangered Clemmys and Glyptemys turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Newton, Alisa L; Chang, Tylis Y; Zarate, Brian; Whitlock, Alison L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The rich diversity of the world's reptiles is at risk due to significant population declines of broad taxonomic and geographic scope. Significant factors attributed to these declines include habitat loss, pollution, unsustainable collection and infectious disease. To investigate the presence and significance of a potential pathogen on populations of critically endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) as well sympatric endangered wood (G. insculpta) and endangered spotted (Clemmys guttata) turtles in the northeastern United States, choanal and cloacal swabs collected from 230 turtles from 19 sites in 5 states were screened for herpesvirus by polymerase chain reaction. We found a high incidence of herpesvirus infection in bog turtles (51.5%; 105/204) and smaller numbers of positive wood (5) and spotted (1) turtles. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed three previously uncharacterized alphaherpesviruses. Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 was the predominant herpesvirus detected and was found exclusively in bog turtles in all states sampled. Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 was found only in wood turtles. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was found in a small number of bog turtles and a single spotted turtle from one state. Based on these findings, Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 appears to be a common infection in the study population, whereas Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 and Emydid herpesvirus 2 were not as frequently detected. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was the only virus detected in more than one species. Herpesviruses are most often associated with subclinical or mild infections in their natural hosts, and no sampled turtles showed overt signs of disease at sampling. However, infection of host-adapted viruses in closely related species can result in significant disease. The pathogenic potential of these viruses, particularly Emydid herpesvirus 2, in sympatric chelonians warrants additional study in order to better understand the relationship of these viruses with their endangered hosts.

  16. Protection of newborn calves against fatal multisystemic infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by feeding colostrum from vaccinated cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechor, G D; Rousseaux, C G; Radostits, O M; Babiuk, L A; Petrie, L

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether consumption of colostrum with high levels of serum neutralizing antibody to bovine herpesvirus 1 would protect neonatal calves from the frequently fatal multisystemic form of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Holstein calves were fed for 48 h after birth with either pooled colostrum from seropositive vaccinated cows or colostrum from seronegative unvaccinated cows. The serum neutralizing antibody achieved in the former calves was between 64 and 256 and the titer in the latter calves was below 8. At 48 h of age the calves were challenged by aerosolization with bovine herpesvirus 1. All five seronegative calves died or were euthanized in a moribund state between days 5 and 7 of the trial, whereas all five seropositive animals remained healthy throughout the study. Twice daily clinical examination revealed significantly lower scores in the seronegative group from 60 h postinfection. Relative lung weights were greater in the seronegative group, associated with a severe acute necrotizing bronchiolitis with fibrin exudation. The seronegative group of calves also demonstrated an acute necrotizing rumenitis, pharyngitis, glossitis, esophagitis, laryngitis and tracheitis. The seropositive animals had only small areas of subacute necrotizing fibrinopurulent rhinitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1 virus was isolated from all nasal passages of all calves but isolation of virus in the seronegative calves was made from the trachea (5/5), lung (4/5), bronchial lymph nodes (4/5), spleen (4/5), thymus (3/5), liver (2/5), rumen (2/5) and brain (1/5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2839276

  17. Coexistence of two forms of disease-associated prion protein in extracerebral tissues of cattle infected with H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Masujin, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE in aged cattle. H-BSE is characterized by the presence of two proteinase K-resistant forms of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)), identified as PrP(Sc) #1 and PrP(Sc) #2, in the brain. To investigate the coexistence of different PrP(Sc) forms in the extracerebral tissues of cattle experimentally infected with H-BSE, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses were performed by using N-terminal-, core-region- and C-terminal-specific anti-prion protein antibodies. Our results demonstrated that two distinct forms of PrP(Sc) coexisted in the various extracerebral tissues. PMID:27010466

  18. Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rona; Plinston, Chris; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Suardi, Silvia; Ruggerone, Margherita; Moda, Fabio; Graziano, Silvia; Sbriccoli, Marco; Cardone, Franco; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Ingrosso, Loredana; Baron, Thierry; Richt, Juergen; Andreoletti, Olivier; Simmons, Marion; Lockey, Richard; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2012-07-01

    The association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health and raises the possibility that other ruminant TSEs may be transmissible to humans. In recent years, several novel TSEs in sheep, cattle and deer have been described and the risk posed to humans by these agents is currently unknown. In this study, we inoculated two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and H-type BSE), a chronic wasting disease (CWD) isolate and seven isolates of atypical scrapie into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP). Upon challenge with these ruminant TSEs, gene-targeted Tg mice expressing human PrP did not show any signs of disease pathology. These data strongly suggest the presence of a substantial transmission barrier between these recently identified ruminant TSEs and humans. PMID:22495232

  19. Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rona; Plinston, Chris; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Suardi, Silvia; Ruggerone, Margherita; Moda, Fabio; Graziano, Silvia; Sbriccoli, Marco; Cardone, Franco; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Ingrosso, Loredana; Baron, Thierry; Richt, Juergen; Andreoletti, Olivier; Simmons, Marion; Lockey, Richard; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2012-07-01

    The association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health and raises the possibility that other ruminant TSEs may be transmissible to humans. In recent years, several novel TSEs in sheep, cattle and deer have been described and the risk posed to humans by these agents is currently unknown. In this study, we inoculated two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and H-type BSE), a chronic wasting disease (CWD) isolate and seven isolates of atypical scrapie into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP). Upon challenge with these ruminant TSEs, gene-targeted Tg mice expressing human PrP did not show any signs of disease pathology. These data strongly suggest the presence of a substantial transmission barrier between these recently identified ruminant TSEs and humans.

  20. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1, type 2 and HoBi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Viviana; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Eleonora; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    HoBi-like pestiviruses are emerging pestiviruses that infect cattle causing clinical forms overlapping to those induced by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 and 2. As a consequence of their widespread distribution reported in recent years, molecular tools for rapid discrimination among pestiviruses infecting cattle are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, based on the TaqMan technology, for the rapid and unambiguous characterisation of all bovine pestiviruses, including the emerging HoBi-like strains. The assay was found to be sensitive, specific and repeatable, ensuring detection of as few as 10(0)-10(1) viral RNA copies. No cross-reactions between different pestiviral species were observed even in samples artificially contaminated with more than one pestivirus. Analysis of field samples tested positive for BVDV-1, BVDV-2 or HoBi-like virus by a nested PCR protocol revealed that the developed TaqMan assay had equal or higher sensitivity and was able to discriminate correctly the viral species in all tested samples, whereas a real-time RT-PCR assay previously developed for HoBi-like pestivirus detection showed cross-reactivity with few high-titre BVDV-2 samples. PMID:26709100

  1. Novel MicroRNAs (miRNAs) Encoded by Herpesvirus of Turkeys: Evidence of miRNA Evolution by Duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Y; Zhao, Y.; Smith, L. P.; Watson, Mick; Nair, V.

    2009-01-01

    Herpesviruses account for 134 out of the 140 virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) known today. Here we report the identification of 11 novel miRNAs encoded by herpesvirus of turkey (HVT), a virus used as a live vaccine in poultry against the highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus type 1. Ten of these miRNAs were clustered together within the repeat long region of the viral genome, demonstrating some degree of positional conservation with other mardiviruses. Close sequence and phylogenetic relatio...

  2. Branch specificity of bovine colostrum CMP-sialic acid: Galβ 1→4GlcNAc-Rα2→6-sialyl-transferase. Sialylation of bi-, tri-, and tetraantennary oligosaccharides and glycopeptides of the N-acetyllactosamine type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Joziasse, D.H.; Schiphorst, W.E.C.M.; Eijnden, D.H. van den; Kuik, J.A. van; Halbeek, H. van

    1987-01-01

    Using 500-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy we have investigated the branch specificity that bovine colostrum CMP-NeuAc:Galβ1→4GlcNAc-Rα2→6-sialyltransferase shows in its sialylation of bi-, tri-, and tetraantennary glycopeptides and oligosaccharides of the N- acetyllactosamine type. The enzyme appears to hig

  3. Human herpesvirus 6 infections after liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Massih, Rima Camille; Razonable, Raymund R.

    2009-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infections occur in > 95% of humans. Primary infection, which occurs in early childhood as an asymptomatic illness or manifested clinically as roseola infantum, leads to a state of subclinical viral persistence and latency. Reactivation of latent HHV-6 is common after liver transplantation, possibly induced and facilitated by allograft rejection and immunosuppressive therapy. Since the vast majority of humans harbor the virus in a latent state, HHV-6 infections aft...

  4. Genome structure of cottontail rabbit herpesvirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Cebrian, J; Berthelot, N; Laithier, M

    1989-01-01

    The genome structure of a herpesvirus isolated from primary cultures of kidney cells from the cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus was elucidated by using electron microscopy and restriction enzyme analysis. The genome, which was about 150 kilobase pairs long and which had an average G + C composition of 45%, consisted of two regions with unique base sequences (54 and 47 kilobase pairs) enclosed by reiterations of a 925-base-pair sequence with a variable copy number. The internal repeats w...

  5. IL-10 gene polymorphism and herpesvirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurme, M; Haanpää, M; Nurmikko, T; Wang, X-Y; Virta, M; Pessi, T; Kilpinen, S; Hulkkonen, J; Helminen, M

    2003-01-01

    Genetics has an important role in resistance to various infections and it also may modify the clinical picture of an infectious disease. Here, we briefly review our recent data demonstrating that the polymorphism of the IL-10 gene is associated with resistance to some common herpesviruses and, additionally, that this same gene is involved in the regulation of the severity of the infection and in the reactivation process. PMID:12627487

  6. A Comparison of Classical and H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated with E211K Prion Protein Polymorphism in Wild-Type and EK211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. Jo; West Greenlee, M. Heather; Smith, Jodi D.; Vrentas, Catherine E.; Nicholson, Eric M.; Greenlee, Justin J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamate amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele may be predisposed to rapid onset of BSE-H when exposed or to the potential development of a genetic BSE. This study was conducted to better understand the relationship between the K211 polymorphism and its effect on BSE phenotype. BSE-H from the US 2006 case was inoculated intracranially (IC) in one PRNP wild-type (EE211) calf and one EK211 calf. In addition, one wild-type calf and one EK211 calf were inoculated IC with brain homogenate from a US 2003 classical BSE case. All cattle developed clinical disease. The survival time of the E211K BSE-H inoculated EK211 calf (10 months) was shorter than the wild-type calf (18 months). This genotype effect was not observed in classical BSE inoculated cattle (both 26 months). Significant changes in retinal function were observed in H-type BSE challenged cattle only. Cattle challenged with the same inoculum showed similar severity and neuroanatomical distribution of vacuolation and disease-associated prion protein deposition in the brain, though differences in neuropathology were observed between E211K BSE-H and classical BSE inoculated animals. Western blot results for brain tissue from challenged animals were consistent with the inoculum strains. This study demonstrates that the phenotype of E211K BSE-H remains stable when transmitted to cattle without the K211 polymorphism, and exhibits a number of features that differ from classical BSE in both wild-type and heterozygous EK211 animals.

  7. Polymorphic Amplified Typing Sequences and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Yield Comparable Results in the Strain Typing of a Diverse Set of Bovine Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira T. Kudva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic amplified typing sequences (PATS, a PCR-based Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157 strain typing system, targets insertions-deletions and single nucleotide polymorphisms at XbaI and AvrII restriction enzyme sites, respectively, and the virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, hlyA in the O157 genome. In this study, the ability of PATS to discriminate O157 isolates associated with cattle was evaluated. An in-depth comparison of 25 bovine O157 isolates, from different geographic locations across Northwest United States, showed that about 85% of these isolates shared the same dendogram clade by PATS and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, irrespective of the restriction enzyme sites targeted. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r, calculated at about 0.4, 0.3, and 0.4 for XbaI-based, AvrII-based and combined-enzymes PATS and PFGE similarities, respectively, indicating that these profiles shared a good but not high correlation, an expected inference given that the two techniques discriminate differently. Isolates that grouped differently were better matched to their locations using PATS. Overall, PATS discriminated the bovine O157 isolates without interpretive biases or sophisticated analytical software, and effectively complemented while not duplicating PFGE. With its quick turnaround time, PATS has excellent potential as a convenient tool for early epidemiological or food safety investigations, enabling rapid notification/implementation of quarantine measures.

  8. Esophagitis and enteritis caused by herpesvirus in pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egobol, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The pigeon squabs, aged 5-26 day-old, showed clinical signs of dullness, anorexia, indigestion, reten-tion of feed in crop, progressive emaciation then died. The morbidity rate and mortality rate were 7.14% (50/700. The adult pigeons did not show any signs of disease. From pathological finding, pharyngitis, esophagitis were found with diphtheritic membrane covering necrotic ulcers on the mucosa of pharynx, esophagus and crop. From histopathological findings, esophagitis with epithelial hyperplasia and sloughed, lamina propria mucosa edema with lymphoid cells infiltration were found in duodenum and jejunum. The intranuclear inclusion body, Cowdry type A, was found in epithelial mucosa of esophagus, enterocyte of jejunum and lymphoid cells in spleen. FA test to duck virus enteritis and inoculation to ducklings showed negative results. Electron microscopic study revealed electron dense core sized 146-167 nm., which was identified as herpesvirus.

  9. Efficacy of an aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract against herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, P; Schneider, S; Stintzing, F C; Carle, R; Reichling, J

    2008-12-01

    The compounds of an aqueous root extract of the African medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides were analysed by LC-MS spectroscopy and the antiviral effect of this extract against herpes simplex virus was examined in cell culture. Besides predominant coumarins, simple phenolic structures as well as flavonoid and catechin derivatives were identified as major constituents in the Pelargonium extract. The inhibitory activity of this extract against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay and exhibited high antiviral activity against both herpesviruses in viral suspension tests. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.00006% and 0.000005% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the extract, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 99.9% for HSV-1 and HSV-2 and a clear concentration-dependent antiviral activity against HSV could be demonstrated for this extract. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, the extract was added at different times to the cells or viruses during the infection cycle. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when pretreated with the plant extract or when the extract was added during the adsorption phase, whereas acyclovir demonstrated antiviral activity only intracellularly during replication of HSV. These results indicate that P. sidoides extract affected the virus before penetration into the host cell and reveals a different mode of action when compared to the classical drug acyclovir. Hence this extract is capable of exerting an antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus and might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as antiviral drug both in labial and genital herpes infection.

  10. Influenza-associated encephalopathy: no evidence for neuroinvasion by influenza virus nor for reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 or 7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeijl, J.H.; Bakkers, J.; Wilbrink, B.; Melchers, W.J.; Mullaart, R.A.; Galama, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    During 2 consecutive influenza seasons we investigated the presence of influenza virus, human herpesvirus (HHV) type 6, and HHV-7 in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 9 white children suffering from influenza-associated encephalopathy. We conclude that it is unlikely that neuroinvasion by influenza v

  11. Development and validation of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of anguillid herpesvirus 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, S J; Voorbergen-Laarman, M A; Roozenburg, I; van Tellingen, J; Haenen, O L M; Engelsma, M Y

    2015-01-01

    Anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV1) causes a haemorrhagic disease with increased mortality in wild and farmed European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.) and Japanese eel Anguilla japonica, Temminck & Schlegel). Detection of AngHV1 is currently based on virus isolation in cell culture, antibody-based typing a

  12. Temporal kinetics of Marek's disease herpesvirus: integration occurs early after infection in both B and T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic a-herpesvirus that induces Marek's disease characterized by fatal lymphomas in chickens. Here, we explored the timing during pathogenesis when the virus integrates into the host genome, the cell type involved, the role of viral integration on cellular tran...

  13. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  14. T-cell immunity to herpesviruses in immune disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherrenburg, J.

    2009-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) are wide-spread herpesviruses, which establish life-long persistence in the host upon primary infection. Primary infection with herpesviruses causes usually only mild symptoms, however in some situations, such as during immunosuppression or human im

  15. Herpesvirus infection of eye and brain in HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R.; Howard, M; Frith, P.; Perrons, C.; Pecorella, I.; Lucas, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To compare histological with genome detection methods for diagnosis of herpesvirus infection in eye and brain of HIV infected patients undergoing necropsy and to correlate these findings with both antemortem clinical findings and postmortem evidence of extraocular herpesvirus infection, especially in the CNS.

  16. Clinical manifestations associated with human herpesvirus 7 infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Torigoe, S.; Kumamoto, T; Koide, W; Taya, K; Yamanishi, K

    1995-01-01

    Twenty two cases of human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) infection are described. HHV-7 infection occurred later than human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection and induced exanthem subitum in 47.1% of the children. HHV-7 infection was associated with exanthem subitum and the other symptoms that were observed in HHV-6 infection.

  17. Biofilm formation and genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis isolates: Evidence for lack of penicillin-resistance in Agr-type II strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchior, M.B.; Osch, M.H.J.; Graat, R.; Duijkeren, van E.; Mevius, D.J.; Nielen, M.; Gaastra, W.; Fink, J.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing evidence for a role of biofilm formation in bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus led to further investigations on biofilm formation by S. aureus isolates from mastitis in two growth media (TSBg and bovine milk serum). The ability of 99 S. aureus strains that were recently i

  18. Biofilm formation and genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis isolates: evidence for lack of penicillin-resistance in Agr-type II strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchior, M.B.; van Osch, M.H.J.; Graat, R.M.; van Duijkeren, E.; Mevius, D.J.; Nielen, M.; Gaastra, W.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing evidence for a role of biofilm formation in bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus led to further investigations on biofilm formation by S. aureus isolates from mastitis in two growth media (TSBg and bovine milk serum). The ability of 99 S. aureus strains that were recently i

  19. Etiologic diagnosis of bovine infectious abortion by PCR Diagnóstico etiológico de aborto infeccioso bovino por PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Teane Milagres Augusto da Silva; Raquel Gonzaga de Oliveira; Juliana Pinto da Silva Mol; Mariana Noyma Xavier; Tatiane Alves da Paixão; Adriana Cortez; Marcos Bryan Heinemann; Leonardo José Richtzenhain; Andrey Pereira Lage; Renato de Lima Santos

    2009-01-01

    Infectious abortion is a significant cause of reproductive failure and economic losses in cattle. The goal of this study was to detect nucleic acids of several infectious agents known to cause abortion including Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Bovine Herpesvirus 1, Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, Chlamydophila abortus, Leptospira sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Neospora caninum, and Tritrichomonas foetus. Tissue homo...

  20. Herpesvirus sylvilagus infects both B and T lymphocytes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, W J; Medveczky, P; Mulder, C; Hinze, H C; Sullivan, J L

    1985-10-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied as a model of herpesvirus-induced lymphoproliferative disorders. Leukocytosis, splenomegaly, proliferation of T cells and virus production by lymphocytes characterized this infectious mononucleosis-like disease. Approximately two copies of circular herpesvirus sylvilagus genomes per cell were detected in spleen cells at 2 weeks postinfection, and circular genomes could still be observed after 4 months. Circular viral genomes were found in both B and T lymphocytes. Small amounts of linear viral DNA (0.1 to 0.3 copies per cell) were also detected in both B and T cells. These results indicated that the virus did not replicate in the majority of lymphocytes in vivo. Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection in cottontail rabbits could be useful as a model for studying the complex virus-host relationships of lymphotropic herpesviruses and perhaps as an animal model for Epstein-Barr virus infection in humans. PMID:2993667

  1. Radiofrequency ablation using a new type of internally cooled electrode with an adjustable active tip: An experimental study in ex vivo bovine and in vivo porcine livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jihoon [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-sun, E-mail: youngskim@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K.; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Min Woo [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of radiofrequency (RF) ablation using a new type of internally cooled RF electrode with an adjustable active tip in an ex vivo bovine liver model and to determine if adjustment of the active tip length makes a significant difference in the size of ablation zone in an in vivo porcine liver model. Materials and methods: We performed ex vivo experiments by producing 100 RF ablation zones in 40 extracted bovine livers using a new type of RF electrode that had an adjustable active tip (adjustable electrode) (n = 50) and a conventional internally cooled electrode (conventional electrode) (n = 50). We also performed an in vivo study with the induction of 30 RF ablation zones in ten living porcine livers using the adjustable electrode with 2 cm (n = 15) and 3 cm (n = 15) active tip adjustments. The size (three perpendicular diameters), volume and ratio of the two axes of the ablation zone were macroscopically evaluated and were compared. Results: For the ex vivo study using a 2 cm and 3 cm active tip, there was no significant difference in ablation performance between the use of conventional and adjustable electrodes. For the use of the conventional and adjustable electrodes with 2 cm active tip, respectively, the volume was 10.75 {+-} 3.43 cm{sup 3} versus 10.64 {+-} 3.25 cm{sup 3} and the ratio of the two axes was 1.24 {+-} 0.16 versus 1.30 {+-} 0.17; p > 0.05. For the use of the conventional and adjustable electrodes with 3 cm active tip, respectively, the volume was 21.17 {+-} 4.09 cm{sup 3} versus 21.48 {+-} 3.51 cm{sup 3} and the ratio of the two axes was 1.28 {+-} 0.12 versus 1.28 {+-} 0.07; p > 0.05. For the in vivo study using the adjustable electrode, the ablation volume with the 2 cm adjustment was significantly smaller as compared to the 3 cm adjustment (5.29 {+-} 2.22 cm{sup 3} versus 13.44 {+-} 4.25 cm{sup 3}; p < 0.05) with no statistical difference for the ratio of the two axes (1.44 {+-} 0

  2. The truncated form of glycoprotein gp2 of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) vaccine strain KyA is not functionally equivalent to full-length gp2 encoded by EHV-1 wild-type strain RacL11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Einem, Jens; Wellington, Janet; Whalley, J Millar; Osterrieder, Kerstin; O'Callaghan, Dennis J; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2004-03-01

    Most equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) strains, including the naturally occurring virulent RacL11 isolate, encode a large glycoprotein, gp2 (250 kDa), which is expressed from gene 71. Besides other alterations in the viral genome, the avirulent strain KyA harbors an in-frame deletion of 1,242 nucleotides in gene 71. To examine the contributions of gp2 variation to virus growth and virulence, mutant RacL11 and KyA viruses expressing full-length or truncated gp2 were generated. Western blot analyses demonstrated expression of a 250-kDa gp2 in cells infected with RacL11 virus or a mutant KyA virus harboring full-length gene 71, whereas a 75- to 80-kDa gp2 was detected in cells infected with KyA or mutant RacL11 virus expressing KyA gp2. The RacL11 gp2 precursor of 250 kDa in size and its truncated KyA counterpart of 80 kDa, as well as the 42-kDa carboxy-terminal gp2 subunit, were incorporated into virus particles. Absence of gp2 in RacL11 resulted in a 6-fold reduction of extracellular virus titers and a 13% reduction of plaque diameters, whereas gp2-negative KyA exhibited a 55% reduction in plaque diameter and a 51-fold decrease in extracellular virus titers. The massive growth defects of gp2-negative KyA could be restored by reinsertion of the truncated but not the full-length gp2 gene. The virulence of the generated gp2 mutant viruses was compared to the virulence of KyA and RacL11 in a murine infection model. RacL11 lacking gp2 was apathogenic for BALB/c mice, and insertion of the truncated KyA gp2 gene into RacL11 was unable to restore virulence. Similarly, replacement in the KyA genome of the truncated with the full-length RacL11 gene 71 did not result in the generation of virulent virus. From the results we conclude that full-length and truncated EHV-1 gp2 are not functionally equivalent and cannot compensate for the action of their homologues in allogeneic virus backgrounds.

  3. Bovine type III interferon significantly delays and reduces the severity of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Although type I and II IFNs have proven effective to inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in swine, a similar approach has had only limited efficacy in cattle. Recently, a new family of IFNs, type III IFN o...

  4. СHROMOSOMALLY INTEGRATED HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nikolskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review focuses on the problem of chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 (CIHHV-6. The main features of CIHHV-6 are wide prevalence (near 1% of population, ability to inheritance, which leads to problems of diagnostics of acute HHV-6 infection. Also there is the opportunity of activation CIHHV-6, linked to immunodeficiency and conditions after transplantation. Potentially CIHHV-6 can be associated with the abnormalities of nervous system development, autoimmune disorders and conditions, related to damage of telomere. 

  5. Development and evaluation of two truncated recombinant NP antigen-based indirect ELISAs for detection of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 antibodies in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Feng-Xue; Sun, Na; Cao, Li; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Guo, Li; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2015-09-15

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important viral respiratory pathogens in both young and adult cattle. Nucleocapsid protein (NP) is the most abundant viral protein and the main regulator of virus replication and transcription. In this study, amino acid sequence data of BPIV3 NP was used to identify potential linear epitopic regions, which were subsequently used to design truncated recombinant NP antigens. The amino-terminal region (aa 9-157, NP-N) and the carboxy-terminal region (aa 391-500, NP-C) were selected, and these two truncated recombinant BPIV3 NP proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli based on the results of prediction studies. Furthermore, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were established using the truncated recombinant BPIV3-N proteins as antigens, and 154 clinical samples were used to evaluate the newly established ELISA systems in comparison with a virus neutralisation test (VNT) as a reference. The results showed that a high coincidence rate was observed for the data that were obtained by the two methods. The sensitivity of NP-N ELISA and NP-C ELISA were 98.4% and 94.6%, respectively, and the specificity of both ELISAs was 100% with reference to the VNTs. Our data indicated that both ends of NP have high immunogenicity during BPIV3 infection and that they were good targets for serodiagnosis. The ELISAs based on the two truncated proteins were especially suitable for use in large-scale epidemiological investigations.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and SCCmec types of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from subclinical bovine mastitis in Hatay, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslantaş Özkan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-nine isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS of eight species from subclinical bovine mastitis were screened for the phenotypic and genotypic methicilline-resistance. In addition, all methicillin-resistant (MR isolates indicating the mecA gene were examined by PCR for the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec types were also determined by multiplex PCR. A total of 21 (23.6% CoNS isolates were found to be resistant to oxacillin in broth microdilution assay. All isolates phenotypically resistant to oxacillin did not have the mecA gene, which was only found in 14.6% (13 of the isolates. Most MR-CoNS isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin (92.3%, fusidic acid (84.6%, penicillin (76.9%, and rifampycin (61.5%, and susceptible to mupirocin (100%, tetracycline (100%, vancomycin (100%, clindamycin (92.3%, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (69.2%. In conclusion, a high rate of antimicrobial resistance among MR-CoNS isolated from food producing animals emphasises the need for periodic surveillance of their resistance.

  7. E2 polypeptides encoded by bovine papillomavirus type 1 form dimers through the common carboxyl-terminal domain: transactivation is mediated by the conserved amino-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, A A; Byrne, J C; Howley, P M

    1989-01-01

    The E2 open reading frame (ORF) of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) encodes positive- and negative-acting factors that regulate viral gene expression. The full-length ORF encodes a transactivator, and two transcriptional repressors are expressed from the 3' half of the ORF. Previous analysis has shown that a conserved C-terminal region of 101 amino acids, which is shared by E2 transactivator and repressor proteins, contains the specific DNA binding activity. Further analysis of the E2 transactivator shows that a conserved N-terminal domain of approximately 220 amino acids is crucial for the transcriptional activation function, whereas the variable internal region is not required. The E2 proteins bind to a sequence, ACCGN4CGGT, several copies of which are sufficient to constitute an E2-dependent enhancer. By using a gel retardation assay and proteins derived by in vitro transcription and translation, we were able to show that the E2 polypeptides bind as dimers to a single DNA binding site. The dimeric E2 proteins are stable in the absence of DNA and dimerization is mediated through the DNA binding domain. This may reveal an additional mechanism of repression that could potentially result from the formation of inactive heterodimers between transactivator and repressor species. PMID:2536165

  8. Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizman, Eran A.; Pogranichniy, Roman M.; Levy, Michel; Negron, Maria; Van Alstine, William

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally infect calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer. Twelve colostrum-deprived male Holstein calves were used. Eight were inoculated intranasally with a BVDV type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer, and the other four were inoculated with the cell culture medium only and served as a control group. Whole blood, saliva, and nasal and rectal secretions were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 after inoculation for virus isolation and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On days 14 and 21, 4 calves in the infected group and 2 in the control group were euthanized; multiple tissue samples were collected for histopathologic study. Histopathologic changes included thymic atrophy and lymphoid depletion of the Peyer’s patches in all 8 infected calves. The RT-PCR gave positive results with the buffy coat of all 8 infected calves, the nasal samples of 7, and the saliva samples of 2. Virus neutralization testing of the serum gave positive results for 4 of the 8 infected calves, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the serum gave positive results for 3. All of the samples from the control calves yielded negative results. PMID:21461198

  9. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in enzootic haematuria aetiology/ Papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 na etiologia da hematúria enzoótica bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine enzootic haematuria (EH occurs worldwide and is endemic in regions with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum infested grassland. EH is chronic disease that is characterized by clinical signs of intermitent haematuria, anemia and progressive emaciation and haemorragic, hyperplasic and neoplasic lesions of urinary bladder. Although bracken fern intoxication has been related to EH, most recent bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 infection has been also assessed. Some researches has shown that the presence of BPV-2 in association with bracken fern carcinogenic compound leads to the malignant progression of urinary bladder lesions that cause the clinical signs of EH. In this review the major evidence of BPV-2 involviment in the aetiology of EH is presented along with diagnostic methods and prophylaxis of this disease that causes considerable economic losses in brazilian cattle breeding.A hematúria enzoótica (HE bovina é de ocorrência mundial e apresenta caráter endêmico em regiões com pastagens infestadas com samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. A HE é uma doença crônica caracterizada por sinais clínicos de hematúria intermitente, anemia e emagrecimento progressivo e por lesões hemorrágicas, hiperplásicas e neoplásicas da mucosa da bexiga. Apesar da intoxicação pela samambaia estar relacionada à etiologia da HE, mais recentemente a infecção pelo papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 (BPV-2 também tem sido avaliada. Estudos demonstram que a presença do BPV-2, associada à ação dos compostos carcinogênicos da samambaia, leva à progressão maligna das lesões na mucosa vesical responsáveis pelos quadros clínicos observados na HE. Nesta revisão são apresentadas as principais evidências do envolvimento do BPV-2 na etiologia da HE, bem como métodos de diagnóstico e profilaxia desta doença que ocasiona prejuízos econômicos consideráveis à pecuária bovina brasileira.

  10. Effects of Two Types of Melatonin-Loaded Nanocapsules with Distinct Supramolecular Structures: Polymeric (NC) and Lipid-Core Nanocapsules (LNC) on Bovine Embryo Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Remião, Mariana Härter; Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Domingues, William Borges; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Jornada, Denise Soledade; Deschamps, João Carlos; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Bordignon, Vilceu; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Collares, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been used as a supplement in culture medium to improve the efficiency of in vitro produced mammalian embryos. Through its ability to scavenge toxic oxygen derivatives and regulate cellular mRNA levels for antioxidant enzymes, this molecule has been shown to play a protective role against damage by free radicals, to which in vitro cultured embryos are exposed during early development. In vivo and in vitro studies have been performed showing that the use of nanocapsules as active substances carriers increases stability, bioavailability and biodistribution of drugs, such as melatonin, to the cells and tissues, improving their antioxidant properties. These properties can be modulated through the manipulation of formula composition, especially in relation to the supramolecular structures of the nanocapsule core and the surface area that greatly influences drug release mechanisms in biological environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two types of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules with distinct supramolecular structures, polymeric (NC) and lipid-core (LNC) nanocapsules, on in vitro cultured bovine embryos. Embryonic development, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mRNA levels of genes involved in cell apoptosis, ROS and cell pluripotency were evaluated after supplementation of culture medium with non-encapsulated melatonin (Mel), melatonin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (Mel-NC) and melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Mel-LNC) at 10−6, 10−9, and 10−12 M drug concentrations. The highest hatching rate was observed in embryos treated with 10−9 M Mel-LNC. When compared to Mel and Mel-NC treatments at the same concentration (10−9 M), Mel-LNC increased embryo cell number, decreased cell apoptosis and ROS levels, down-regulated mRNA levels of BAX, CASP3, and SHC1 genes, and up-regulated mRNA levels of CAT and SOD2 genes. These findings indicate that nanoencapsulation with LNC increases the protective effects of

  11. Features of Human Herpesvirus-6A and -6B Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Maeki; Yasuko Mori

    2012-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a T lymphotropic herpesvirus belonging to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. HHV-6 was long classified into variants A and B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B); however, recently, HHV-6A and HHV-6B were reclassified as different species. The process of herpesvirus entry into target cells is complicated, and in the case of HHV-6A and HHV-6B, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated, although both viruses are known to enter cells via endocytosis. In this paper, (1) findings...

  12. Adenovirus and herpesvirus diversity in free-ranging great apes in the Sangha region of the Republic Of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracie A Seimon

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV. We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV and lymphocryptovirus (LCV were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.

  13. Adenovirus and herpesvirus diversity in free-ranging great apes in the Sangha region of the Republic Of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Tracie A; Olson, Sarah H; Lee, Kerry Jo; Rosen, Gail; Ondzie, Alain; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Patricia; Anthony, Simon J; Joly, Damien O; Karesh, William B; McAloose, Denise; Lipkin, W Ian

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region. PMID:25781992

  14. The size and conformation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) DNA in infected cells and virions.

    OpenAIRE

    Renne, R; Lagunoff, M; Zhong, W.; Ganem, D

    1996-01-01

    The genome of a novel human herpesvirus has been detected in specimens of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and in several AIDS-related lymphoproliferative disorders. Here we examine the size and genomic conformation of the DNA of this virus (known as KS-associated herpesvirus or human herpesvirus 8) in latently and lytically infected cells and in virions. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of viral DNA shows that the viral genome is similar in size to those of other gammaherpesviruses (160 to 170 kb). As ...

  15. Effects of Two Types of Anorganic Bovine Bone on Bone Regeneration: A Histological and Histomorphometric Study of Rabbit Calvaria

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Paknejad; Amir Reza Rokn; Siamak Yaghobee; Pantea Moradinejad; Mohadeseh Heidari; Ali Mehrfard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two types of bone substitutes, Bio-Oss and NuOss, for repair of bone defects. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on the calvaria of 14 New Zealand rabbits. The 6mm critical size defect (CSD) models of bone regeneration were used. Three CSDs were created in each surgical site. The first defect was filled with NuOss, the second one with Bio-Oss and the third one remained unfilled as the control. After healing peri...

  16. THE ROLE OF REPRESENTATIVES IN OPHTHALMIC PATHOLOGY HERPESVIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashpur NV,

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal was to establish a place of herpesviruses (HSV1, HSV2, HHV6, SMV, VZV, EBV in the etiological structure of the eye’s diseases. The study involved 35 patients diagnosed with recurrent keratitis (15 patients and viral uveitis (n = 20. Was carried out virological examination, including a study using fluorescent antibody scrapings from the cornea and conjunctiva for the presence of herpesvirus antigen in leukocytes and determination of the blood antigens of viruses with the calculation of the fluorescence index (FI. Set of different herpesvirus persistence in leukocytes of blood in 95% of patients with viral uveitis and 32% of patients with keratitis. In the each second patient with viral uveitis (10 detected association of three or more herpesvirus antigens in blood leukocytes. Most often these associations are found antigens of viruses EBV, SMV, and HHV6.

  17. Pathogenesis of Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection in cottontail rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselton, R. M.; Yang, W.C.; Medveczky, P; Sullivan, J L

    1988-01-01

    Experimental infection with Herpesvirus sylvilagus produces clinical and histopathologic changes in its natural host, the cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), similar to those observed in humans acutely infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Twenty-seven seronegative cottontail rabbits were infected with Herpesvirus sylvilagus and all developed antibodies within 10 days. Neutralizing antibody was detected as early as 7 days after infection. Virus was isolated from blood mononuclear cel...

  18. Human herpesvirus 8 – A novel human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelman Daniel C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1994, Chang and Moore reported on the latest of the gammaherpesviruses to infect humans, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 1. This novel herpesvirus has and continues to present challenges to define its scope of involvement in human disease. In this review, aspects of HHV-8 infection are discussed, such as, the human immune response, viral pathogenesis and transmission, viral disease entities, and the virus's epidemiology with an emphasis on HHV-8 diagnostics.

  19. Substrate modulation of enzyme activity in the herpesvirus protease family

    OpenAIRE

    Lazic, Ana; Goetz, David H.; Nomura, Anson M.; Marnett, Alan B.; Craik, Charles S.

    2007-01-01

    The herpesvirus proteases are an example in which allosteric regulation of an enzyme activity is achieved through the formation of quaternary structure. Here, we report a 1.7 Å resolution structure of Kaposi’s Sarcoma herpesvirus protease in complex with a hexapeptide transition state analogue that stabilizes the dimeric state of the enzyme. Extended substrate binding sites are induced upon peptide binding. In particular, 104 Å2 of surface are buried in the newly formed S4 pocket when tyrosin...

  20. Human herpesvirus 8 – A novel human pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman Daniel C

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In 1994, Chang and Moore reported on the latest of the gammaherpesviruses to infect humans, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) 1. This novel herpesvirus has and continues to present challenges to define its scope of involvement in human disease. In this review, aspects of HHV-8 infection are discussed, such as, the human immune response, viral pathogenesis and transmission, viral disease entities, and the virus's epidemiology with an emphasis on HHV-8 diagnostics.

  1. Molecular evolution of herpesviruses: genomic and protein sequence comparisons.

    OpenAIRE

    Karlin, S; Mocarski, E S; Schachtel, G A

    1994-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction of herpesvirus evolution is generally founded on amino acid sequence comparisons of specific proteins. These are relevant to the evolution of the specific gene (or set of genes), but the resulting phylogeny may vary depending on the particular sequence chosen for analysis (or comparison). In the first part of this report, we compare 13 herpesvirus genomes by using a new multidimensional methodology based on distance measures and partial orderings of dinucleotide re...

  2. Autophagy in herpesvirus immune control and immune escape

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, G. S.; Mautner, J.; Münz, C

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy delivers cytoplasmic constituents for lysosomal degradation, and thereby facilitates pathogen degradation and pathogen fragment loading onto MHC molecules for antigen presentation to T cells. Herpesviruses have been used to demonstrate these novel functions of autophagy, which previously has been primarily appreciated for its pro-survival role during starvation. In this review, we summarize recent findings how macroautophagy restricts herpesvirus infections directly, how macroautoph...

  3. A Herpesvirus Encoded Deubiquitinase Is a Novel Neuroinvasive Determinant

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joy I.; Sollars, Patricia J.; Baver, Scott B.; Gary E Pickard; Mindy Leelawong; Smith, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    The neuroinvasive property of several alpha-herpesviruses underlies an uncommon infectious process that includes the establishment of life-long latent infections in sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Several herpesvirus proteins are required for replication and dissemination within the nervous system, indicating that exploiting the nervous system as a niche for productive infection requires a specialized set of functions encoded by the virus. Whether initial entry into the nerv...

  4. Proteomic characterization of murid herpesvirus 4 extracellular virions.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Vidick; Baptiste Leroy; Leonor Palmeira; Bénédicte Machiels; Jan Mast; Sylvie François; Ruddy Wattiez; Alain Vanderplasschen; Laurent Gillet

    2013-01-01

    Gammaherpesvirinae, such as the human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are highly prevalent pathogens that have been associated with several neoplastic diseases. As EBV and KSHV are host-range specific and replicate poorly in vitro, animal counterparts such as Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) have been widely used as models. In this study, we used MuHV-4 in order to improve the knowledge about proteins that compose gammaherpesviruses virions. To this...

  5. Conserved Cysteine Residue in the DNA-Binding Domain of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein Confers Redox Regulation of the DNA- Binding Activity in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Alison A.; Klausner, Richard D.; Howley, Peter M.

    1992-08-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 open reading frame encodes three proteins involved in viral DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. These polypeptides share a carboxyl-terminal domain with a specific DNA-binding activity; through this domain the E2 polypeptides form dimers. In this study, we demonstrate the inhibition of E2 DNA binding in vitro by reagents that oxidize or otherwise chemically modify the free sulfydryl groups of reactive cysteine residues. However, these reagents had no effect on DNA-binding activity when the E2 polypeptide was first bound to DNA, suggesting that the free sulfydryl group(s) may be protected by DNA binding. Sensitivity to sulfydryl modification was mapped to a cysteine residue at position 340 in the E2 DNA-binding domain, an amino acid that is highly conserved among the E2 proteins of different papillomaviruses. Replacement of this residue with other amino acids abrogated the sensitivity to oxidation-reduction changes but did not affect the DNA-binding property of the E2 protein. These results suggest that papillomavirus DNA replication and transcriptional regulation could be modulated through the E2 proteins by changes in the intracellular redox environment. Furthermore, a motif consisting of a reactive cysteine residue carboxyl-terminal to a lysine residue in a basic region of the DNA-binding domain is a feature common to a number of transcriptional regulatory proteins that, like E2, are subject to redox regulation. Thus, posttranslational regulation of the activity of these proteins by the intracellular redox environment may be a general phenomenon.

  6. A Chimeric Human-Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Expressing Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Is Attenuated for Replication but Is Still Immunogenic in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Surman, Sonja R.; Riggs, Jeffrey M.; Collins, Peter L.; Murphy, Brian R.

    2001-01-01

    The chimeric recombinant virus rHPIV3-NB, a version of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) that is attenuated due to the presence of the bovine PIV3 nucleocapsid (N) protein open reading frame (ORF) in place of the HPIV3 ORF, was modified to encode the measles virus hemagglutinin (HA) inserted as an additional, supernumerary gene between the HPIV3 P and M genes. This recombinant, designated rHPIV3-NBHA, replicated like its attenuated rHPIV3-NB parent virus in vitro and in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of rhesus monkeys, indicating that the insertion of the measles virus HA did not further attenuate rHPIV3-NB in vitro or in vivo. Monkeys immunized with rHPIV3-NBHA developed a vigorous immune response to both measles virus and HPIV3, with serum antibody titers to both measles virus (neutralizing antibody) and HPIV3 (hemagglutination inhibiting antibody) of over 1:500. An attenuated HPIV3 expressing a major protective antigen of measles virus provides a method for immunization against measles by the intranasal route, a route that has been shown with HPIV3 and respiratory syncytial virus vaccines to be relatively refractory to the neutralizing and immunosuppressive effects of maternally derived virus-specific serum antibodies. It should now be possible to induce a protective immune response against measles virus in 6-month-old infants, an age group that in developing areas of the world is not responsive to the current measles virus vaccine. PMID:11581420

  7. Herpesviruses: latency and reactivation – viral strategies and host response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Grinde

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight members of the Herpesviridae family commonly infect humans, and close to 100% of the adult population is infected with at least one of these. The five that cause the most health concerns are: herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 and 2, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, cytomegalovirus (CMV, and varicella zoster virus (VZV. In addition, there are human herpes virus (HHV types 6–8. The review starts by introducing possible viral strategies in general. The particular biology and host relationship of the various human herpesviruses, including their pathology, are examined subsequently. Factors that contribute to the maintenance of latency and reactivation of viral replication are discussed. There will be special reference to how these viruses exploit and contribute to pathology in the oral cavity. Reactivation does not necessarily imply clinical symptoms, as reflected in the asymptomatic shedding of EBV and CMV from oral mucosa. The immune response and the level of viral output are both important to the consequences experienced.

  8. A Heparan-Dependent Herpesvirus Targets the Olfactory Neuroepithelium for Host Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Milho; Bruno Frederico; Stacey Efstathiou; Stevenson, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Herpesviruses are supremely successful mammalian parasites. Yet their infections rarely present until well established, so how new hosts are first infected has been unclear. Understanding this is likely to be crucial for infection control. Using Murid Herpesvirus-4, a relative of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus, we identified the olfactory neuroepithelium as a major portal of host entry. Heparan sulfate (HS) binding, which is common to many herpesviruses, played a k...

  9. Preliminary mapping of non-conserved epitopes on envelope glycoprotein E2 of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, H.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs together with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV) to the genus Pestivirus in the Flaviviridae family. BVDV has been subdivided into two different species, BVDV1 and BVDV2 based on phylogenetic analysis. Subsequent characterizat

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated Myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes clinical signs in cattle ranging from mild to severe acute infection which can lead to increased susceptibility to secondary bacteria. In this study we examined the effects of BVDV genotype 2 (BVDV2) infection on the ability of myeloid lineage cells derived...

  11. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analyses of Bovine Rhinovirus Type 2 Shows it is Closely Related to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinovirus 2 (BRV2), a causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle, is currently an unclassified species tentatively assigned to the genus rhinovirus in the family Picornaviridae. A nearly full-length cDNA of the BRV2 genome was cloned and the nucleotide sequence from the poly(C) to the ...

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 impairs macrophage responsiveness to toll-like receptor ligation with the exception of toll-like receptor 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviradae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. In addition, BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2...

  13. Comparison of nested PCR and real time PCR of Herpesvirus infections of central nervous system in HIV patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolone Rosaria; Giuliani Giuseppe; De Vecchi Elena; Lombardi Alessandra; Drago Lorenzo; Gismondo Maria

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Molecular detection of herpesviruses DNA is considered as the reference standard assay for diagnosis of central nervous system infections. In this study nested PCR and real time PCR techniques for detection of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in cerebrospinal fluid of HIV patients were compared. Methods Forty-six, 85 and 145 samples previously resulted positive for HSV-1, CMV and EBV by nested PCR and 150 randomly chos...

  14. Efficacy of Suvaxyn CSF Marker (CP7_E2alf) in the presence of pre-existing antibodies against Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dräger, Carolin; Schröder, Charlotte; König, Patricia; Tegtmeyer, Birthe; Beer, Martin; Blome, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs worldwide and outbreaks are notifiable to the OIE. The different control options also include (emergency) vaccination, preferably with a vaccine that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). Recently, the chimeric pestivirus "CP7_E2alf" (Suvaxyn® CSF Marker, Zoetis) was licensed as live attenuated marker vaccine by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). In the context of risk assessments for an emergency vaccination scenario, the question has been raised whether pre-existing anti-pestivirus antibodies, especially against the vaccine backbone Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), would interfere with "CP7_E2alf" vaccination and the accompanying DIVA diagnostics. To answer this question, a vaccination-challenge-trial was conducted with Suvaxyn® CSF Marker and the "gold-standard" of live-modified CSF vaccines C-strain (RIEMSER® Schweinepestvakzine) as comparator. Pre-existing antibodies against BVDV-1 were provoked in a subset of animals through intramuscular inoculation of a recent field isolate from Germany (two injections with an interval of 2weeks). Twenty-seven days after the first injection, intramuscular vaccination of pre-exposed and naïve animals with either "CP7_E2alf" or C-strain "Riems" was performed. Seven days later, all vaccinated animals and two additional controls were oro-nasally challenged with highly virulent CSF virus (CSFV) strain Koslov. It was demonstrated that pre-existing BVDV-1 antibodies do not impact on the efficacy of live attenuated vaccines against CSF. Both C-strain "Riems" and marker vaccine "CP7_E2alf" were able to confer full protection against highly virulent challenge seven days after vaccination. However, slight interference was seen with serological DIVA diagnostics accompanying the vaccination with CP7_E2alf. Amended sample preparation and combination of test systems was able to resolve most cases

  15. Effective formation of the segregation-competent complex determines successful partitioning of the bovine papillomavirus genome during cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Toomas; Männik, Andres; Ustav, Mart

    2010-11-01

    Effective segregation of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated human herpesvirus type 8 (KSHV) genomes into daughter cells is mediated by a single viral protein that tethers viral genomes to host mitotic chromosomes. The linker proteins that mediate BPV1, EBV, and KSHV segregation are E2, LANA1, and EBNA1, respectively. The N-terminal transactivation domain of BPV1 E2 is responsible for chromatin attachment and subsequent viral genome segregation. Because E2 transcriptional activation and chromatin attachment functions are not mutually exclusive, we aimed to determine the requirement of these activities during segregation by analyzing chimeric E2 proteins. This approach allowed us to separate the two activities. Our data showed that attachment of the segregation protein to chromatin is not sufficient for proper segregation. Rather, formation of a segregation-competent complex which carries multiple copies of the segregation protein is required. Complementation studies of E2 functional domains indicated that chromatin attachment and transactivation functions must act in concert to ensure proper plasmid segregation. These data indicate that there are specific interactions between linker molecules and transcription factors/complexes that greatly increase segregation-competent complex formation. We also showed, using hybrid E2 molecules, that restored segregation function does not involve interactions with Brd4. PMID:20810736

  16. Fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo herpesvírus bovino 1 em rebanhos bovinos da região Oeste do Estado do Paraná Risk factors for bovine herpesvirus 1 infection in cattle herds in the West region of Parana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Dias

    2008-03-01

    information regarding the selected farms, were the same employed in the study of bovine brucellosis for Parana State in the context of National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis. The sampling was performed in two stages. Blood samples were collected from 1930 females aged >24 months from 295 non vaccinated herds. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 using an indirect ELISA. The epidemiological questionnaire was applied on all the selected farms and aimed to obtain epidemiological data. Hundred ninety of the 295 herds were positive for BoHV-1, presenting prevalence of positive herds of 64.41% [58.65-69.87%]. The number (>23 of females aged 24 months (OR=2.22; IC: 1.09-4.51, purchased cattle (OR=2.68; IC: 1.48-4.82, use of common grass (OR=5.93; IC: 1.31-26.82, history of abortion in the last 12 months (OR=2.37; IC: 1.09-5.16 and presence of wildlife animals (OR=8.86; IC: 1.11-70.73 were identified as risk factors for BoHV-1 infection in the multivariate logistic regression. These results indicate that BoHV-1 infection is widespread in the studied region and that factors related to the herd characteristic and management are associated with the infection.

  17. Interaction of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transcriptional control protein with the viral enhancer: purification of the DNA-binding domain and analysis of its contact points with DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Moskaluk, C A; Bastia, D

    1988-01-01

    The E2 gene of bovine papillomavirus type 1 positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional enhancer located in the long control region of the viral genome. The DNA-binding domain of the E2 gene product was suspected to interact with the DNA sequence motif ACCN6GGT. We have shown that the carboxy-terminal 126 amino acids of the E2 protein constitute the DNA-binding domain. In this paper we described the expression of the E2 carboxy terminus in Escherichia coli and its subsequent purif...

  18. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in reproductive tract and gametes of slaughtered bovine females Detecção de papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 em trato reprodutivo e gametas de fêmeas bovinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir de Carvalho

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses are described selectively infecting epithelial tissues and are associated with many forms of cancer in different species. Considering the widespread dissemination of papillomatosis in livestock, interest is being centred on possible forms of viral transmission and respective mechanisms. In the present study, we report the detection of bovine papillomavirus (BPV DNA sequences in female reproductive tract tissues, fluids and oocytes from slaughtered bovines not afflicted by cutaneous papillomatosis. BPV-2 DNA sequences were found in ovarian and uterine tissues as well as in oocytes, cumulus cells and uterine flushings. The presence of papillomavirus sequences in reproductive organ tissues and fluids shows that viral infection in organisms can be verified in others tissues, not only in epithelial ones. The present findings alert to the possibility of BPV transmission in embryo transfer programs and assisted fertilization procedures.Os vírus do papiloma bovino, descritos como agentes infectantes específicos do epitélio, têm sido associados a diversas formas de câncer em diferentes espécies animais. Dada a intensa disseminação da papilomatose nos rebanhos, a investigação de diferentes formas de transmissão e seus respectivos mecanismos tem exigido especial atenção. No presente estudo, é relatada a detecção de seqüências genômicas do papilomavirus bovino (BPV em ovócitos e tecidos do trato reprodutivo oriundos de fêmeas abatidas comercialmente, não apresentando papilomatose cutânea. A presença de DNA de BPV-2 em tecidos do trato reprodutivo, lavado uterino, ovócitos e células do cumulus traz evidências de que a infecção viral pode se desenvolver fora do tecido epitelial. Esses achados alertam para a possibilidade de transmissão do BPV através dos procedimentos de transferência de embriões e de fertilização in vitro.

  19. E1 Protein of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 Interferes with E2 Protein-Mediated Tethering of the Viral DNA to Mitotic Chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Voitenleitner, Christian; Botchan, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Eukaryotic viruses can maintain latency in dividing cells as extrachromosomal plasmids. It is therefore of vital importance for viruses to ensure nuclear retention and proper segregation of their viral DNA. The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E2 enhancer protein plays a key role in these processes by tethering the viral DNA to the host cell chromosomes. Viral genomes that harbor phosphorylation mutations in the E2 gene are transformation defective, and for these mutant genomes, neither the viral ...

  20. Features of Human Herpesvirus-6A and -6B Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Maeki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 is a T lymphotropic herpesvirus belonging to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. HHV-6 was long classified into variants A and B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B; however, recently, HHV-6A and HHV-6B were reclassified as different species. The process of herpesvirus entry into target cells is complicated, and in the case of HHV-6A and HHV-6B, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated, although both viruses are known to enter cells via endocytosis. In this paper, (1 findings about the cellular receptor and its ligand for HHV-6A and HHV-6B are summarized, and (2 a schematic model of HHV-6A’s replication cycle, including its entry, is presented. In addition, (3 reports showing the importance of lipids in both the HHV-6A envelope and target-cell membrane for viral entry are reviewed, and (4 glycoproteins involved in cell fusion are discussed.

  1. Immunological methods for the detection of porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotzki, Elena; Keller, Martina; Ehlers, Bernhard; Denner, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV-1, -2, and -3) are widespread in pigs and closely related to the human pathogenic gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (human herpesvirus 4, HHV-4) and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (HHV-8). In minipigs, PLHV-1 causes a porcine post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after experimental transplantations. Porcine PTLD comes with clinical symptoms similar to those of human PTLD, a serious complication of solid organ and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation linked to HHV-4. Since PLHVs may be transmitted from donor pigs to the human recipient of xenotransplants (pig cells, tissues or organs), sensitive and specific methods should be developed to detect and eliminate PLHVs. Here we describe an ELISA and a Western blot assay using recombinant glycoprotein B of PLHV-1. Using both assays, the presence of specific antibodies in different pig breeds as well as in German slaughterhouse workers was analysed. Antibodies were detected in some animals, but not in human subjects. PMID:27036503

  2. A Genomic Approach to Unravel Host-Pathogen Interaction in Chelonians: The Example of Testudinid Herpesvirus 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco C Origgi

    Full Text Available We report the first de novo sequence assembly and analysis of the genome of Testudinid herpesvirus 3 (TeHV3, one of the most pathogenic chelonian herpesviruses. The genome of TeHV3 is at least 150,080 nucleotides long, is arranged in a type D configuration and comprises at least 102 open reading frames extensively co-linear with those of Human herpesvirus 1. Consistently, the phylogenetic analysis positions TeHV3 among the Alphaherpesvirinae, closely associated with Chelonid herpesvirus 5, a Scutavirus. To date, there has been limited genetic characterization of TeHVs and a resolution beyond the genotype was not feasible because of the lack of informative DNA sequences. To exemplify the potential benefits of the novel genomic information provided by this first whole genome analysis, we selected the glycoprotein B (gB gene, for detailed comparison among different TeHV3 isolates. The rationale for selecting gB is that it encodes for a well-conserved protein among herpesviruses but is coupled with a relevant antigenicity and is consequently prone to accumulate single nucleotide polymorphisms. These features were considered critical for an ideal phylogenetic marker to investigate the potential existence of distinct TeHV3 genogroups and their associated pathology. Fifteen captive tortoises presumptively diagnosed to be infected with TeHVs or carrying compatible lesions on the basis of either the presence of intranuclear inclusions (presumptively infected and/or diphtheronecrotic stomatitis-glossitis or pneumonia (compatible lesions were selected for the study. Viral isolation, TeHV identification, phylogenetic analysis and pathological characterization of the associated lesions, were performed. Our results revealed 1 the existence of at least two distinct TeHV3 genogroups apparently associated with different pathologies in tortoises and 2 the first evidence for a putative homologous recombination event having occurred in a chelonian herpesvirus. This

  3. Comparison of Virulence Gene Identification, Ribosomal Spacer PCR, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Cases of Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Pamela R F; Middleton, John R; Fox, Lawrence K

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in dairy cattle worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine if recently described S. aureus genotype B was present among previously characterized isolates from cases of bovine intramammary infection in the United States and to compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the combination of ribosomal spacer PCR (RS-PCR) and virulence gene identification for typing of S. aureus strains. The hypothesis was that isolates that were previously characterized as contagious would be identified as genotype B and that the results of the two strain-typing methods would be comparable. Isolates were selected from a collection of S. aureus isolates from eight dairy farms. Mammary quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) and N-acetyl-β-d-gluconaminidase (NAGase) activity data were known and used to evaluate strain pathogenicity. RS-PCR was performed with conventional gel electrophoresis, and PCR was used for toxin gene identification. RS-PCR patterns were associated with a specific virulence gene pattern, as previously reported. Five RS-PCR banding patterns were identified. None of the isolates were characterized as genotype B. No association between RS-PCR types and milk SCC was found; however, NAGase activity was significantly higher in milk from mammary glands infected with RS-PCR banding type 1 (RSP type 1) than in milk from those infected with RSP type 2. The discriminatory power values were 1.0 and 0.46 for PFGE and RS-PCR, respectively. These data suggest that genotype B may have a limited geographic distribution and that PFGE is more discriminatory than RS-PCR performed with conventional gel electrophoresis for typing of S. aureus isolates of bovine origin.

  4. Comparison of Virulence Gene Identification, Ribosomal Spacer PCR, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Cases of Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Pamela R F; Middleton, John R; Fox, Lawrence K

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in dairy cattle worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine if recently described S. aureus genotype B was present among previously characterized isolates from cases of bovine intramammary infection in the United States and to compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the combination of ribosomal spacer PCR (RS-PCR) and virulence gene identification for typing of S. aureus strains. The hypothesis was that isolates that were previously characterized as contagious would be identified as genotype B and that the results of the two strain-typing methods would be comparable. Isolates were selected from a collection of S. aureus isolates from eight dairy farms. Mammary quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) and N-acetyl-β-d-gluconaminidase (NAGase) activity data were known and used to evaluate strain pathogenicity. RS-PCR was performed with conventional gel electrophoresis, and PCR was used for toxin gene identification. RS-PCR patterns were associated with a specific virulence gene pattern, as previously reported. Five RS-PCR banding patterns were identified. None of the isolates were characterized as genotype B. No association between RS-PCR types and milk SCC was found; however, NAGase activity was significantly higher in milk from mammary glands infected with RS-PCR banding type 1 (RSP type 1) than in milk from those infected with RSP type 2. The discriminatory power values were 1.0 and 0.46 for PFGE and RS-PCR, respectively. These data suggest that genotype B may have a limited geographic distribution and that PFGE is more discriminatory than RS-PCR performed with conventional gel electrophoresis for typing of S. aureus isolates of bovine origin. PMID:27194685

  5. Probable herpesvirus infection in an eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S P; Bates, G N; Lewandoski, P J

    1992-10-01

    One wild eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) from Milwaukee County, Wisconsin was necropsied. The lungs contained numerous multifocal, circumscribed, tan foci; the spleen was markedly enlarged and had a mottled reddish tan color; and the brain had a red to tan friable tract in the left hemisphere. Microscopically, the lung had a severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The bronchiolitis was characterized by epithelial cells containing eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. The encephalomalacia of the left cerebral cortex featured tissue disruption and astrocytes or neurons containing intranuclear inclusion bodies. Herpesvirus particles were found within the bronchiolar epithelial cells. Based on histopathological and ultrastructural findings, a herpesvirus seemed the most likely etiologic agent. PMID:1335521

  6. Human Herpesvirus-6A/B Binds to Spermatozoa Acrosome and Is the Most Prevalent Herpesvirus in Semen from Sperm Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspersen, Maja D; Peter B Larsen; Emil Kofod-Olsen; Jens Fedder; Jesper Bonde; Per Höllsberg

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of all known human herpesviruses has not previously been reported on sperm from normal donors. Using an array-based detection method, we determined the cross-sectional frequency of human herpesviruses in semen from 198 Danish sperm donors. Fifty-five of the donors had at least one ejaculate that was positive for one or more human herpesvirus. Of these 27.3% (n = 15) had a double herpesvirus infection. If corrected for the presence of multiple ejaculates from some donors, the adjus...

  7. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379... 92, 93, 94, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine...

  8. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin...

  9. Immunohistochemical detection of the latent nuclear antigen-1 of the human herpesvirus type 8 to differentiate cutaneous epidemic Kaposi sarcoma and its histological simulators Detecção imuno-histoquímica do antígeno nuclear latente-1 do herpesvirus tipo 8 para diferenciar o sarcoma de Kaposi epidêmico cutâneo de seus simuladores histológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fonseca Pereira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common neoplasia diagnosed in AIDS patients and the expression of the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8 latent nuclear antigen-1 has been useful for its histological diagnosis. The aim of this study is to confirm that immunohistochemistry is a valuable tool for differentiating KS from its simulators in skin biopsies of HIV patients. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses were performed in 49 Kaposi's sarcoma skin biopsies and 60 of its histological simulators. Positivity was present in the 49 Kaposi's sarcoma skin biopsies and no staining was observed in the 60 simulators analyzed, resulting in sensibility and specificity of 100%. HHV-8 immunohistochemical detection is an effective tool for diagnosing Kaposi's sarcoma, especially in early lesions in which neoplastic features are not evident. It also contributes to its histological differential diagnosis.O sarcoma de Kaposi é a neoplasia mais diagnosticada em pacientes com SIDA e a expressão do antígeno nuclear latente-1 do herpesvírus humano tipo-8 (HHV-8 tem se mostrado útil no seu diagnóstico histológico. O objetivo deste estudo é confirmar que o método imuno-histoquímico é uma ferramenta útil para diferenciar o sarcoma de Kaposi cutâneo de seus simuladores histológicos em pacientes HIV positivos. Análise histológica e imuno-histoquímica foram realizadas em 49 casos de sarcoma de Kaposi cutâneo e 60 casos de seus simuladores histológicos. Positividade à imuno-histoquímica para o antígeno nuclear latente 1 do HHV-8 foi observada nos 49 casos de sarcoma de Kaposi e nenhuma reação foi detectada nos 60 simuladores analisados, resultando em 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade. A detecção do HHV-8 por imuno-histoquímica é uma ferramenta útil para o diagnóstico de sarcoma de Kaposi, especialmente na lesão inicial cujo caráter neoplásico não é evidente, e contribui para seu diagnóstico diferencial histológico.

  10. Human herpesvirus-8/Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is a new transmissible virus that infects B cells

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Herpesviral DNA fragments isolated from AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tissue (KSHV-DNA) share homology with two lymphotropic oncogenic gamma-herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Herpesvirus saimiri, and are present in the lesions of more than 95% of HIV and non- HIV-associated forms of KS, AIDS-related body cavity-based lymphomas, and AIDS-related multicentric Castleman's disease. Here we show that BC- 1, a KSHV-DNA-positive, body cavity-based lymphoma cell line, produces infective h...

  11. Human herpesvirus 6 in hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Masao

    2009-11-01

    Pathogenetic roles of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 in lymphoproliferative diseases have been of continued interest. Many molecular studies have tried to establish a pathogenic role for HHV-6 in lymphoid malignancies. However, whether HHV-6 plays a role in these pathologies remains unclear, as positive polymerase chain reaction results for HHV-6 in those studies may reflect latent infection or reactivation rather than presence of HHV-6 in neoplastic cells. A small number of studies have investigated HHV-6 antigen expression in pathologic specimens. As a result, the lack of HHV-6 antigen expression on neoplastic cells argues against any major pathogenic role of HHV-6. The role of HHV-6 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has also been of interest but remains controversial, with 2 studies documenting higher levels of HHV-6 antibody in ALL patients, and another 2 large-scale studies finding no significant differences in HHV-6 seroprevalences between ALL patients and controls. Alternatively, HHV-6 is increasingly recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen. HHV-6 reactivation is common among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), and is linked to various clinical manifestations. In particular, HHV-6 encephalitis appears to be significant, life-threatening complication. Most HHV-6 encephalitis develops in patients receiving transplant from an unrelated donor, particularly cord blood, typically around the time of engraftment. Symptoms are characterized by short-term memory loss and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging typically shows limbic encephalitis. Prognosis for HHV-6 encephalitis is poor, but appropriate prophylactic measures have not been established. Establishment of preventive strategies against HHV-6 encephalitis represents an important challenge for physicians involved with SCT.

  12. Human herpesvirus 6 infections after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rima Camille Abdel Massih; Raymund R Razonable

    2009-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infections occur in > 95% of humans. Primary infection, which occurs in early childhood as an asymptomatic illness or manifested clinically as roseola infantum, leads to a state of subclinical viral persistence and latency. Reactivation of latent HHV-6 is common after liver transplantation, possibly induced and facilitated by allograft rejection and immunosuppressive therapy. Since the vast majority of humans harbor the virus in a latent state, HHV-6 infections after liver transplantation are believed to be mostly due to endogenous reactivation or superinfection (reactivation in the transplanted organ). In a minority of cases, however,primary HHV-6 infection may occur when an HHV-6 negative individual receives a liver allograft from an HHV-6 positive donor. The vast majority of documented HHV-6 infections after liver transplantation are asymptomatic. In a minority of cases, HHV-6 has been implicated as a cause of febrile illness with rash and myelosuppression, hepatitis, pneumonitis, and encephalitis after liver transplantation. In addition,HHV-6 has been associated with a variety of indirect effects such as allograft rejection, and increased predisposition and severity of other infections including cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis C virus, and opportunistic fungi. Because of the uncommon nature of the clinical illnesses directly attributed to HHV-6, there is currently no recommended HHV-6- specific approach to prevention. However, ganciclovir and valganciclovir, which are primarily intended for the prevention of CMV disease, are also active against HHV-6 and may prevent its reactivation after transplantation. The treatment of established HHV-6 disease is usually with intravenous ganciclovir, cidofovir,or foscarnet, complemented by reduction in the degree of immunosuppression. This article reviews the current advances in the pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis, and therapeutic modalities against HHV6 in the setting of liver transplantation.

  13. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  14. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  15. CNS Complications of Primary Human Herpesvirus-6 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system manifestations of primary human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 are described in 9 children, ages 3 to 24 months, with HHV-6 DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid, in a prospective study at the University of Helsinki, and other centers in Finland.

  16. Novel Human Herpesvirus 8 Subtype D Strains in Vanuatu, Melanesia

    OpenAIRE

    Cassar, Olivier; Afonso, Philippe V; Bassot, Sylviane; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Duprez, Renan; Capuano, Corinne; Abel, Myriam; Martin, Paul M V; Gessain, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    International audience We show human herpesvirus 8 with diverse molecular subtype D variants to be highly endemic among the Ni-Vanuatu population. Most K1 genes were nearly identical to Polynesian strains, although a few clustered with Australian or Taiwanese strains. These results suggest diverse origins of the Ni-Vanuatu population and raise questions about the ancient human population movements in Melanesia.

  17. Primeiro relato no Brasil de mastite necrótica bovina por Clostridium perfringens tipo A First report in Brazil of bovine necrotic mastitis due to Clostridium perfringens type A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Aramuni Gonçalves

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o primeiro caso no Brasil de mastite bovina por Clostridium perfringens tipo A. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por necrose da papila mamária e porção ventral do quarto afetado. O agente foi isolado em cultura pura e identificado como tipo A por PCR a partir do leite do quarto mamário afetado.This report describes a case of bovine mastitis due to Clostridium perfringens type A for first time in Brazil. The unical case showed necrosis of papilla mammary and ventral portion of the affected quarter. The microorganism was isolated in pure culture and identified as type A by PCR from milk of the affected mammary quarter.

  18. 不同新生牛血清对体外培养BHK-21细胞的影响%Effect of various types of newborn bovine sera on culture in vitro of BHK-21 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙招金; 陈柄企; 王玲; 叶贺佳; 童菊芸; 罗开健

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较不同新生牛血清对体外培养的BHK-21细胞的影响.方法 以不同厂家和同一厂家不同批次的共6种新生牛血清培养BHK-21细胞,观察细胞传代后在不同血清培养条件下的形态、增长倍数和细胞维持时间.结果 6号血清培养的细胞生长状态最好,增长倍数最高,维持细胞存活时间最长;3号血清培养效果次之;2号、4号和5号血清培养的细胞至第4天仍未长满单层;1号血清培养的细胞基本未生长.结论 不同厂家和同一厂家不同批次的新生牛血清对BHK-21细胞体外培养的效果存在差异.%Objective To compare the effect of various types of newborn bovine sera on culture in vitro of BHK-21 cells. Methods BHK-21 cells were cultured with six kinds of newborn bovine sera,manufactured by various manufacturers or of different batches manufactured by the same manufacturer,respectively,and observed for morphology,increased fold in quantity,and survival time after subculture. Results The cells cultured with serum No. 6 grew well,of which the increased fold in quantity was high and survival time was long as compared with those cultured with other newborn bovine sera. The culture efficacy of cells with serum No. 3 was only second to that with serum No.6. However,no monolayer was formed in the cells on day 4 after culture with sera No. 2,4 and 5,and little growth was observed in the cells cultured with serum No.l. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in culture efficacies of BHK-21 cells with newborn bovine sera manufactured by various manufacturers or of different batches manufactured by the same manufacturer.

  19. Human Herpesviruses as Copathogens of HIV Infection, Their Role in HIV Transmission, and Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawwar, Arshi; Singh, Sarman

    2016-01-01

    Of eight human herpesviruses (HHVs), often, only herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) find mention in medical literature as both of these viruses are commonly associated with genital lesions and oral ulcers, commonly known as cold sores. However, role of human herpesviruses as copathogens and in aggravation and in the transmission of other human diseases, especially the Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has only very recently been recognized. Therefore, screening and treating subclinical HHV infections may offer slowing of HIV infection, disease progression, and its transmission. Beside HSV-1 and HSV-2, HHV-3 a causative agent of herpes zoster remained one of the first manifestations of HIV disease before the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HHV-5 also known as human Cytomegalovirus infection remains a significant risk factor for HIV-associated mortality and morbidity even in HAART era. It is proposed that Cytomegalovirus viremia could be a better predictor of HIV disease progression than CD4+ T-lymphocyte count. The role of HHV-4 or Epstein-Burr virus and HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8 is still being investigated in HIV disease progression. This review provides insight into the current understanding about these 8 HHVs, their co-pathogenesis, and role in HIV/AIDS disease progression. The review also covers recent literature in favor and against administering anti-HHV treatment along with HAART for slower AIDS progression and interrupted sexual transmission. PMID:27013807

  20. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  1. Development of a polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Anguillid herpesvirus DNA in eels based on the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Pritz-Verschuren, S.B.E.; Kerkhoff, S.; Botter, A.; Willemsen, M.; Nieuwstadt, A.; Haenen, O.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Anguillid herpesvirus (AnHV, also known as Herpesvirus anguillae or HVA) is found in both Japanese and European eels. Based on restriction enzyme analysis a small number of differences were found between AnHV isolated from Japanese eels and from European eels. The total genome size of both is about

  2. Antibodies against six human herpesviruses in relation to seven cancers in black South Africans: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruff P

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with certain human herpesviruses have been established as risk factors for some cancer types. For example, Epstein-Barr Virus is considered a cause of Burkitt's lymphoma and other immunosuppression related lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal cancer. Several other human herpesviruses have been linked to cancers but the totality of evidence is inconclusive. Methods We conducted a systematic sub-study from within an ongoing case control study of adult black South Africans to investigate the relationship between antibodies to six human herpesviruses and seven cancer groups that may be caused by infectious agents. Subjects had incident cancers of the oral cavity(n = 88, the cervix(n = 53, the prostate(n = 66, Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 83, non-Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 80, multiple myeloma(n = 94 or leukaemia(n = 203. For comparison, patients with other cancers(n = 95 or cardiovascular disease(n = 101 were randomly selected from within the study. Patients were interviewed and their blood was tested for IgG antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV-EBNA, CMV and HHV-6 using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Because these viruses are highly prevalent in this population, optical density results from the assays were used as an indirect, quantitative measure of antibody level. Results There was significant variation in the mean log antibody measures for HSV-2, VZV, CMV and HHV-6 between the disease groups. However, none of the specific cancer groups had significantly higher mean log antibody measures for any of the viruses compared to either control group. In a more detailed examination of seven associations between cancers and herpesviruses for which there had been prior reports, two statistically significant associations were found: a decreasing risk of myeloid leukaemia and an increasing risk of oral cancer with increasing tertiles of antibodies against HHV-6 compared to all other patients (p-trend = 0.03 and 0

  3. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  4. Molecular characterization of encephalitic bovine listeriosis from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn A; Fritzen, Juliana T T; Queiroz, Gustavo R; Oliveira, Rodrigo A M; Alfieri, Alice F; Di Santis, Giovana W; Lisbôa, Júlio A N; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2014-01-01

    Reports of bovine listeriosis in Brazil are uncommon, being restricted to citations within retrospective studies, resulting in scarce documented information of this important disease of cattle. This manuscript describes the molecular findings associated with spontaneous encephalitic listeriosis in two steers from distinct herds within the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Both animals demonstrated altered consciousness suggestive of brain stem dysfunctions and died a few days after the initial onset of disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were designed to target specific genes of infectious neurological agents of cattle. These included bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5), ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), Listeria monocytogenes, and Histophilus somni. Rabies virus was discarded in evaluations done at the official state diagnostic laboratory. Gross alterations were insignificant; histopathology demonstrated rhombencephalitis associated with macrophage-predominant, multifocal to coalescing microabscesses and extensive perivascular cuffings in both steers. The L. monocytogenes PCR assay amplified the 172-bp amplicon of the listeriolysin gene from the brain stem of both animals and from the telencephalon, thalamus, and cerebellum of one of them. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the strains derived from this study clustered with known strains of L. monocytogenes lineage I. The BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, OvHV-2, and H. somni PCR assays were negative. These results confirm the participation of L. monocytogenes lineage I in the etiopathogenesis of the neurological disease herein described and represent the first complete description of encephalitic listeriosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23832703

  5. On the role of feral ruminants in the transmission of bovine herpesvirus 1 to domestic cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, E.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate in The Netherlands between farmer organisations, conservationists and government about whether the health status of feral animals jeopardises the health status of domestic cattle. In this respect, BHV1 is the most prominent acute problem. Although the compulsory eradicatio

  6. 25-Hydroxycholesterol exerts both a cox-2-dependent transient proliferative effect and cox-2-independent cytotoxic effect on bovine endothelial cells in a time- and cell-type-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantarutti Alyssa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC is a product of oxidation of dietary cholesterol present in human plasma. 25-OHC and other oxidized forms of cholesterol are implicated in modulating inflammatory responses involved in development of atherosclerosis and colon carcinogenesis. Methods Primary lymphatic, venous and arterial endothelial cells isolated from bovine mesentery (bmLEC, bmVEC, bmAEC were treated with 25-OHC and tested for several different cellular parameters. Results We found 25-OHC to be a potent inducer of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2, prostaglandin G-H synthase-2 expression in bovine mesenteric lymphatic, venous, and arterial endothelial cells. The induction of Cox-2 expression in endothelial cells by 25-OHC led to an initial increase in cellular proliferation that was inhibited by the Cox-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex. Prolonged exposure to 25-OHC was cytotoxic. Furthermore, endothelial cells induced to express Cox-2 by 25-OHC were more sensitive to the effects of the Cox-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex. These results suggest that some effects of 25-OHC on cells may be dependent on Cox-2 enzymatic activity. Conclusions Cox-2 dependent elevating effects of 25-OHC on endothelial cell proliferation was transient. Prolonged exposure to 25-OHC caused cell death and enhanced celecoxib-induced cell death in a cell-type dependent manner. The lack of uniform response by the three endothelial cell types examined suggests that our model system of primary cultures of bmLECs, bmVECs, and bmAECs may aid the evaluation of celecoxib in inhibiting proliferation of different types of tumour-associated endothelial cells.

  7. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Schaut

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp or non-cytopathic (ncp effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs. Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp, noncytopathic (ncp, high (hv or low virulence (lv BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections.

  8. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaut, Robert G; Ridpath, Julia F; Sacco, Randy E

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs). Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp), noncytopathic (ncp), high (hv) or low virulence (lv) BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ) result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections. PMID:27420479

  9. Relationship between incidence of multiple human herpesviruses in saliva and CD4 lymphocyte count from HIV type-infected persons%HIV感染者唾液人类疱疹病毒感染与CD4淋巴细胞的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承文; 史会萍; 祁燕伟; 李榕; 夏志刚; 白劲松; 段开文

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨HIV感染者唾液常见人类疱疹病毒感染情况及其与CD4淋巴细胞计数的关系.方法 利用PCR方法对245例HIV感染者唾液疱疹病毒1~4型即HSV-1、HSV-2、VZV和EBV DNA的存在情况进行检测,并分析检出率与CD4细胞的关系.结果 HIV感染者唾液HSV-1、HSV-2、VZV和EBV检出率分别为29%、3.3%、4.1%和82%.CD4淋巴细胞计数小于200个/μl时患者的唾液中更容易检测到HSV-1、VZV和EBV.CD4淋巴细胞计数与HSV-1和EBV同时存在明显相关(P=0.0001).CD4淋巴细胞计数低于200个/μl的患者比CD4淋巴细胞计数大于400个/μl的患者唾液中同时检测到HSV-1和EBV的几率高,即CD4淋巴细胞计数越低,多种疱疹病毒同时检出几率越高.结论 HIV感染者唾液中人类疱疹病毒1型和4型检出率高,与免疫指标CD4有关.%OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and EBV in the saliva of human immunodeficiency virus type (HIV) -infected persons, and their correlation with CD4 lymphocyte count. METHODS Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or nested PCR was used to investigate the presence of salivary HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and EBV from 245 HIV-seropositive individuals from The Third Affiliated Hospital, Kunming Medical University. CD4 lymphocyte count were also collected. Relationship between incidences of these human herpesviruses and CD4 count was analyzed. RESULTS In the HIV-seropositive person, the most prevalent viral DNA was EBV 82.0% (201/245) , followed by HSV-1 29.0% (71/245), VZV 4.1% (10/245), and HSV-2 3.3% (8/245). When CD4 lymphocyte count less than 200/μl, the saliva of patients more easily detected HSV-1, VZV and EBV. CD4 lymphocyte count and HSV-1 and EBV presence had significantly negative correlated (P = 0.000 1). The detection rate of HSV-1 and EBV in saliva in the group of CD4 lymphocyte count below 200/μl simultaneously was higher than CD4 lymphocyte count over 400/μl. CD4 lymphocyte count

  10. Activation of the Epstein-Barr virus replicative cycle by human herpesvirus 6.

    OpenAIRE

    Flamand, L.; Stefanescu, I.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA); Ablashi, D V; Menezes, J.

    1993-01-01

    One common attribute of herpesviruses is the ability to establish latent, life-long infections. The role of virus-virus interaction in viral reactivation between or among herpesviruses has not been studied. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory had indicated that infection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome-positive human lymphoid cell lines with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) results in EBV reactivation in these cells. To further our knowledge of this complex phenomenon, we investigated the...

  11. Histone Deacetylases in Herpesvirus Replication and Virus-Stimulated Host Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Cristea, Ileana M.; Diner, Benjamin A.; Budayeva, Hanna G.; Guise, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence highlights a critical role for protein acetylation during herpesvirus infection. As prominent modulators of protein acetylation, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are essential transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. Not surprisingly, viruses have evolved a wide array of mechanisms to subvert HDAC functions. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying HDAC regulation during herpesvirus infection. We next discuss the roles of acetylation in host defense against herpesvirus infect...

  12. Differential protein partitioning within the herpesvirus tegument and envelope underlies a complex and variable virion architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannon, Kevin Patrick; Jun, Yonggun; Gross, Steven P.; Smith, Gregory Allan

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinvasive herpesviruses cause diseases in humans ranging from cold sores to central nervous system infections. Unlike most icosahedral viruses, herpesvirus capsids are surrounded by protein layers that lack polyhedral architecture. The outer layers are critical for herpesvirus infectivity. Although the disorganized layers are visible by electron microscopy, the protein topography of these layers remains unclear. We fused fluorophores to virus proteins and pinpointed their positions within...

  13. A novel mechanism inducing genome instability in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Brian R.; Marko Noerenberg; Adrian Whitehouse

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with multiple AIDS-related malignancies. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV has a biphasic life cycle and both the lytic and latent phases are required for tumorigenesis. Evidence suggests that KSHV lytic replication can cause genome instability in KSHV-infected cells, although no mechanism has thus far been described. A surprising link has recently been suggested between mRNA export, genome instability and canc...

  14. Alpha-Herpesvirus Infection Induces the Formation of Nuclear Actin Filaments

    OpenAIRE

    Becket Feierbach; Silvia Piccinotti; Margaret Bisher; Winfried Denk; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2006-01-01

    Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in the nuclei of infected cells. Spatial control of viral replication and assembly in the host nucleus is achieved by the establishment of nuclear compartments that serve to concentrate viral and host factors. How these compartments are established and maintained remains poorly understood. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an alpha-herpesvirus often used to study herpesvirus invasion and spread in the nervous system. Here, we report...

  15. Herpesvirus-Associated Central Nervous System Diseases after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Meiqing Wu; Fen Huang; Xinmiao Jiang; Zhiping Fan; Hongsheng Zhou; Can Liu; Qianli Jiang; Yu Zhang; Ke Zhao; Li Xuan; Xiao Zhai; Fuhua Zhang; Changxin Yin; Jing Sun; Ru Feng

    2013-01-01

    Herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with encephalitis/myelitis and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised individuals. As of now, data of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases in transplant recipients is limited. Hence, in this prospective study, we investigated the incidence of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases and explored the diagnosis of these diseases in 281 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. Herpesv...

  16. Identification and localization of the structural proteins of anguillid herpesvirus 1

    OpenAIRE

    van Beurden Steven J; Leroy Baptiste; Wattiez Ruddy; Haenen Olga LM; Boeren Sjef; Vervoort Jacques JM; Peeters Ben PH; Rottier Peter JM; Engelsma Marc Y; Vanderplasschen Alain F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Many of the known fish herpesviruses have important aquaculture species as their natural host, and may cause serious disease and mortality. Anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV-1) causes a hemorrhagic disease in European eel, Anguilla anguilla. Despite their importance, fundamental molecular knowledge on fish herpesviruses is still limited. In this study we describe the identification and localization of the structural proteins of AngHV-1. Purified virions were fractionated into a capsid-t...

  17. Murine Gamma-Herpesvirus 68 Hijacks MAVS and IKKβ to Initiate Lytic Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaonan Dong; Hao Feng; Qinmiao Sun; Haiyan Li; Ting-Ting Wu; Ren Sun; Tibbetts, Scott A; Chen, Zhijian J; Pinghui Feng

    2010-01-01

    Upon viral infection, the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS)-IKKbeta pathway is activated to restrict viral replication. Manipulation of immune signaling events by pathogens has been an outstanding theme of host-pathogen interaction. Here we report that the loss of MAVS or IKKbeta impaired the lytic replication of gamma-herpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68), a model herpesvirus for human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus. gammaHV68 infection activated IKKbeta in a MAVS...

  18. A novel herpesvirus in the sanctuary chimpanzees on Ngamba Island in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mugisha, Lawrence; Leendertz, Fabian; Opuda-Asibo, John; Olobo, J.O.; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies in non-human primates have led to the discovery of novel primate herpesviruses. In order to get more information on herpesvirus infections in apes, we studied wild born captive chimpanzees. Methods: Chimpanzees of the Ngamba island sanctuary, Uganda, were analyzed with pan-herpes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene and the glycoprotein B gene. The obtained sequences were connected by long-distance PCR, and analyzed phylogen...

  19. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, behave differently in water buffaloes than in cattle or in their respective reservoir species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina B J Stahel

    Full Text Available The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2. On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats.

  20. Herpesvirus telomerase RNA (vTR with a mutated template sequence abrogates herpesvirus-induced lymphomagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt B Kaufer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT and telomerase RNA (TR represent the enzymatically active components of telomerase. In the complex, TR provides the template for the addition of telomeric repeats to telomeres, a protective structure at the end of linear chromosomes. Human TR with a mutation in the template region has been previously shown to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. In this report, we examined the effects of a mutation in the template of a virus encoded TR (vTR on herpesvirus-induced tumorigenesis in vivo. For this purpose, we used the oncogenic avian herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV as a natural virus-host model for lymphomagenesis. We generated recombinant MDV in which the vTR template sequence was mutated from AATCCCAATC to ATATATATAT (vAU5 by two-step Red-mediated mutagenesis. Recombinant viruses harboring the template mutation replicated with kinetics comparable to parental and revertant viruses in vitro. However, mutation of the vTR template sequence completely abrogated virus-induced tumor formation in vivo, although the virus was able to undergo low-level lytic replication. To confirm that the absence of tumors was dependent on the presence of mutant vTR in the telomerase complex, a second mutation was introduced in vAU5 that targeted the P6.1 stem loop, a conserved region essential for vTR-TERT interaction. Absence of vTR-AU5 from the telomerase complex restored virus-induced lymphoma formation. To test if the attenuated vAU5 could be used as an effective vaccine against MDV, we performed vaccination-challenge studies and determined that vaccination with vAU5 completely protected chickens from lethal challenge with highly virulent MDV. Taken together, our results demonstrate 1 that mutation of the vTR template sequence can completely abrogate virus-induced tumorigenesis, likely by the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, and 2 that this strategy could be used to generate novel vaccine candidates

  1. The genome of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 harbors atypical genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mathias; Koriabine, Maxim; Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lewis, Teresa D.; Schetle, Nelli; Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Balazs, George H.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV; ChHV5) is believed to be the causative agent of fibropapillomatosis (FP), a neoplastic disease of marine turtles. While clinical signs and pathology of FP are well known, research on ChHV5 has been impeded because no cell culture system for its propagation exists. We have cloned a BAC containing ChHV5 in pTARBAC2.1 and determined its nucleotide sequence. Accordingly, ChHV5 has a type D genome and its predominant gene order is typical for the varicellovirus genus within the alphaherpesvirinae. However, at least four genes that are atypical for an alphaherpesvirus genome were also detected, i.e. two members of the C-type lectin-like domain superfamily (F-lec1, F-lec2), an orthologue to the mouse cytomegalovirus M04 (F-M04) and a viral sialyltransferase (F-sial). Four lines of evidence suggest that these atypical genes are truly part of the ChHV5 genome: (1) the pTARBAC insertion interrupted the UL52 ORF, leaving parts of the gene to either side of the insertion and suggesting that an intact molecule had been cloned. (2) Using FP-associated UL52 (F-UL52) as an anchor and the BAC-derived sequences as a means to generate primers, overlapping PCR was performed with tumor-derived DNA as template, which confirmed the presence of the same stretch of "atypical" DNA in independent FP cases. (3) Pyrosequencing of DNA from independent tumors did not reveal previously undetected viral sequences, suggesting that no apparent loss of viral sequence had happened due to the cloning strategy. (4) The simultaneous presence of previously known ChHV5 sequences and F-sial as well as F-M04 sequences was also confirmed in geographically distinct Australian cases of FP. Finally, transcripts of F-sial and F-M04 but not transcripts of lytic viral genes were detected in tumors from Hawaiian FP-cases. Therefore, we suggest that F-sial and F-M04 may play a role in FP pathogenesis.

  2. The genome of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 harbors atypical genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mathias; Koriabine, Maxim; Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lewis, Teresa D.; Schetle, Nelli; Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Balazs, George H.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV; ChHV5) is believed to be the causative agent of fibropapillomatosis (FP), a neoplastic disease of marine turtles. While clinical signs and pathology of FP are well known, research on ChHV5 has been impeded because no cell culture system for its propagation exists. We have cloned a BAC containing ChHV5 in pTARBAC2.1 and determined its nucleotide sequence. Accordingly, ChHV5 has a type D genome and its predominant gene order is typical for the varicellovirus genus within thealphaherpesvirinae. However, at least four genes that are atypical for an alphaherpesvirus genome were also detected, i.e. two members of the C-type lectin-like domain superfamily (F-lec1, F-lec2), an orthologue to the mouse cytomegalovirus M04 (F-M04) and a viral sialyltransferase (F-sial). Four lines of evidence suggest that these atypical genes are truly part of the ChHV5 genome: (1) the pTARBAC insertion interrupted the UL52 ORF, leaving parts of the gene to either side of the insertion and suggesting that an intact molecule had been cloned. (2) Using FP-associated UL52 (F-UL52) as an anchor and the BAC-derived sequences as a means to generate primers, overlapping PCR was performed with tumor-derived DNA as template, which confirmed the presence of the same stretch of “atypical” DNA in independent FP cases. (3) Pyrosequencing of DNA from independent tumors did not reveal previously undetected viral sequences, suggesting that no apparent loss of viral sequence had happened due to the cloning strategy. (4) The simultaneous presence of previously known ChHV5 sequences and F-sial as well as F-M04 sequences was also confirmed in geographically distinct Australian cases of FP. Finally, transcripts of F-sial and F-M04 but not transcripts of lytic viral genes were detected in tumors from Hawaiian FP-cases. Therefore, we suggest that F-sial and F-M04 may play a role in FP pathogenesis

  3. Identification and RAPD Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Gansu Area%甘肃地区牛源金黄色葡萄球菌分子鉴定及RAPD分型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海平; 蒲万霞; 梁剑平; 倪春霞; 孟晓琴

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains causing bovine mastitis in Gansu province,and investigate genotype of this strains. 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA sequence was used for PCR identification on S. aureus isolate from milk samples of bovine mastitis. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was utilized to research genotype of these strains. The results showed that 100 S. aureus strains were isolated and identified from 310 mastitis milk samples. All of the 100 S. aureus strains produced vivid fingerprint and number of electrophoresis strip was 2-7 with different banding pattern after RAPD. The S. aureus strains were separated to 11 genotype according to the cluster analysis and 4 strains were type I ,4 strains were typeⅡ, 10 strains were typeⅢ ,13 strains were type IV, 7 strains were typeV , 24 strains were type Ⅵ ,16 strains were typeVII ,6 strains were typeⅧ ,4 strains were type IX, 10 strains were type X and 2 strains were type XI. The preponderant genotype of S. aureus strains in this area was TypeⅥ. Distribution of different genotype S. aureus strains were obvious difference in different cattle farm. Environment and factor of cultivation of the cattle farm had a distinct effect on transmission of pathogenic bacteria. These results provide a reliable theory evi-dence for preventive treatment of regional bovine mastitis.%本研究目的是分离鉴定引起甘肃地区奶牛乳房炎的金黄色葡萄球菌,掌握其基因型情况.利用16S、23SrRNA保守序列PCR扩增对乳房炎奶样中的金黄色葡萄球菌进行鉴定,并进行RAPD基因分型.结果表明,310份奶样中共分离出金黄色葡萄球菌100株,RAPD结果显示这100株金黄色葡萄球菌均可得到清晰的RAPD指纹图谱,扩增产物在2~7条带之间,具有多种带型组成.通过聚类分析100株菌产生11个基因型,其中Ⅰ型4株,Ⅱ型4株,Ⅲ型10株,Ⅳ型13株,Ⅴ型7株,Ⅵ型24株,Ⅶ型16株,Ⅷ型6

  4. A simple method for purification of herpesvirus DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Normann, Preben

    1992-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method for purification of herpesvirus DNA from cell cultures is described. The method is based on the isolation of virus particles and/or nucleocapsids by differential centrifugation and exploits the solubilizing and denaturing capabilities of cesium trifluoroacetate during ...... isopycnic centrifugation, so that phenol/chloroform extractions can be omitted. The method was used for the purification of DNA from several members of the Alfaherpesvirinae subfamily.......A rapid and reliable method for purification of herpesvirus DNA from cell cultures is described. The method is based on the isolation of virus particles and/or nucleocapsids by differential centrifugation and exploits the solubilizing and denaturing capabilities of cesium trifluoroacetate during...

  5. Restriction enzyme maps of the macropodid herpesvirus 2 genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Whalley, J M

    1987-01-01

    The DNA of macropodid herpesvirus 2 (dorcopsis wallaby herpesvirus) was analysed using restriction enzymes and molecular cloning techniques. Sets of EcoRI and SalI clones were prepared which represented approximately 85 per cent of the genome, and these clones were used to map the DNA by double-digestion and hybridization experiments. Data on uncloned regions were obtained by analysing fragments excised from agarose gels, and terminal fragments were identified by exonuclease III digestion. The genome was shown to be approximately 135 kilobases (kb) long. It has a long unique sequence (95 kb) bounded by repeat sequences (5.5 kb) and joined at one end to a short unique sequence (15 kb) also bounded by repeat sequences (7.0 kb) in a manner similar to that of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2. PMID:2889444

  6. Herpesvirus glycoproteins undergo multiple antigenic changes before membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Glauser

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus entry is a complicated process involving multiple virion glycoproteins and culminating in membrane fusion. Glycoprotein conformation changes are likely to play key roles. Studies of recombinant glycoproteins have revealed some structural features of the virion fusion machinery. However, how the virion glycoproteins change during infection remains unclear. Here using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies we show in situ that each component of the Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 entry machinery--gB, gH/gL and gp150--changes in antigenicity before tegument protein release begins. Further changes then occurred upon actual membrane fusion. Thus virions revealed their final fusogenic form only in late endosomes. The substantial antigenic differences between this form and that of extracellular virions suggested that antibodies have only a limited opportunity to block virion membrane fusion.

  7. Refinement of herpesvirus B-capsid structure on parallel supercomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z H; Chiu, W; Haskell, K; Spears, H; Jakana, J; Rixon, F J; Scott, L R

    1998-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy and icosahedral reconstruction are used to obtain the three-dimensional structure of the 1250-A-diameter herpesvirus B-capsid. The centers and orientations of particles in focal pairs of 400-kV, spot-scan micrographs are determined and iteratively refined by common-lines-based local and global refinement procedures. We describe the rationale behind choosing shared-memory multiprocessor computers for executing the global refinement, which is the most computationally intensive step in the reconstruction procedure. This refinement has been implemented on three different shared-memory supercomputers. The speedup and efficiency are evaluated by using test data sets with different numbers of particles and processors. Using this parallel refinement program, we refine the herpesvirus B-capsid from 355-particle images to 13-A resolution. The map shows new structural features and interactions of the protein subunits in the three distinct morphological units: penton, hexon, and triplex of this T = 16 icosahedral particle.

  8. Infection of primary human fetal astrocytes by human herpesvirus 6.

    OpenAIRE

    He, J.; Mccarthy, M.; Zhou, Y.; Chandran, B; Wood, C.

    1996-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a lymphotropic betaherpesvirus which productively infects human CD4+ T cells and monocytes. HHV-6 is the etiologic agent for exanthem subitum (roseola), and it is well-known that central nervous system complications occur frequently during the course of HHV-6-associated disease. In addition, HHV-6 has been associated with encephalitis or encephalopathy. However, very little is known about its tropism for neural cells. There are reports that HHV-6 may infect some...

  9. Human CD4+ T Cell Response to Human Herpesvirus 6

    OpenAIRE

    Nastke, Maria-D.; Becerra, Aniuska; Yin, Liusong; Dominguez-Amorocho, Omar; Gibson, Laura; Stern, Lawrence J.; Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Following primary infection, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) establishes a persistent infection for life. HHV-6 reactivation has been associated with transplant rejection, delayed engraftment, encephalitis, muscular dystrophy, and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. The poor understanding of the targets and outcome of the cellular immune response to HHV-6 makes it difficult to outline the role of HHV-6 in human disease. To fill in this gap, we characterized CD4 T cell responses to HHV-6 using...

  10. Update on Human Herpesvirus 6 Biology, Clinical Features, and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    de Bolle, Leen; Naesens, Lieve; De Clercq, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a betaherpesvirus that is closely related to human cytomegalovirus. It was discovered in 1986, and HHV-6 literature has expanded considerably in the past 10 years. We here present an up-to-date and complete overview of the recent developments concerning HHV-6 biological features, clinical associations, and therapeutic approaches. HHV-6 gene expression regulation and gene products have been systematically characterized, and the multiple interactions between HHV-6...

  11. Human herpesvirus 6 infection impairs Toll-like receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Ochi Toshiki; Suemori Koichiro; An Jun; Fujiwara Hiroshi; Tanimoto Kazushi; Murakami Yuichi; Hasegawa Hitoshi; Yasukawa Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) has a tropism for immunocompetent cells, including T lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) suggesting that HHV-6 infection affects the immunosurveillance system. Toll-like receptor (TLR) system plays an important role in innate immunity against various pathogens. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HHV-6 infection on the expression and intracellular signaling of TLRs in DCs. Although expression levels of TLRs were no...

  12. Detection and Heterogeneity of Herpesviruses Causing Pacheco's Disease in Parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaszewski, Elizabeth; Wilson, Van G.; Wigle, William L.; Phalen, David N

    2001-01-01

    Pacheco's disease (PD) is a common, often fatal, disease of parrots. We cloned a virus isolate from a parrot that had characteristic lesions of PD. Three viral clones were partially sequenced, demonstrating that this virus was an alphaherpesvirus most closely related to the gallid herpesvirus 1. Five primer sets were developed from these sequences. The primer sets were used with PCR to screen tissues or tissue culture media suspected to contain viruses from 54 outbreaks of PD. The primer sets...

  13. Proteomic analysis of pathogenic and attenuated alcelaphine herpesvirus 1

    OpenAIRE

    Dry, Inga; Haig, David M; Inglis, Neil F.; Imrie, Lisa; Stewart, James P; Russell, George C.

    2008-01-01

    The gammaherpesvirus alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) causes malignant catarrhal fever in susceptible ungulates but infects its natural host, wildebeest, without obvious clinical signs. In tissue culture, AlHV-1 is initially predominantly cell associated and virulent but on extended culture becomes cell-free and attenuated. We wanted to determine what changes in protein composition had taken place during the transition from virulent to attenuated virus in culture. Purified virus preparation...

  14. First Description of Infection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) in Goats in Mainland France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suavet, Florence; Champion, Jean-Luc; Bartolini, Luc; Bernou, Maryline; Alzieu, Jean-Pierre; Brugidou, Roland; Darnatigues, Séverine; Reynaud, Gaël; Perrin, Cécile; Adam, Gilbert; Thiéry, Richard; Duquesne, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of the caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in nine districts in mainland France, mostly in the south, near Italy or Spain, where high seroprevalence has been observed. Two more central areas were also included in the study. The serosurvey was carried out in 9564 goats (275 herds) using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein B and E ELISAs. To confirm the presence of specific CpHV-1 antibodies, some of the samples were tested in neutralization assay. Results demonstrate, for the first time, CpHV-1 infection in goat herds on the French mainland. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence). Moreover, in the Alpes-Maritimes district, the seroprevalence seemed to be higher in older goats (79.45% of animals 6 years old or more) than in younger animals (40.99% of one-year-olds). This result suggests frequent virus re-excretion and circulation in herds. Results analysis also shows that the seroprevalence was higher when the herd size increased. In addition, the first French CpHV-1 strain was isolated from nasal swabs taken on an infected goat. The data reported herein demonstrate that CpHV-1 circulates in mainland France, which should henceforth be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained abortion in goats. PMID:26861403

  15. Recombinant Murine Gamma Herpesvirus 68 Carrying KSHV G Protein-Coupled Receptor Induces Angiogenic Lesions in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Junjie Zhang; Lining Zhu; Xiaolu Lu; Feldman, Emily R.; Keyes, Lisa R.; Yi Wang; Hui Fan; Hao Feng; Zanxian Xia; Jiya Sun; Taijiao Jiang; Shou-Jiang Gao; Tibbetts, Scott A; Pinghui Feng

    2015-01-01

    Human gamma herpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are capable of inducing tumors, particularly in in immune-compromised individuals. Due to the stringent host tropism, rodents are resistant to infection by human gamma herpesviruses, creating a significant barrier for the in vivo study of viral genes that contribute to tumorigenesis. The closely-related murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (γHV68) efficiently infects laboratory mouse strai...

  16. Herpesvirus Ateles Tio Can Replace Herpesvirus Saimiri StpC and Tip Oncoproteins in Growth Transformation of Monkey and Human T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Jens-Christian; Biesinger, Brigitte; Müller-Fleckenstein, Ingrid; Lengenfelder, Doris; Schmidt, Monika; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Ensser, Armin

    2004-01-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri group C strains are capable of transforming human and simian T-lymphocyte populations to permanent antigen-independent growth. Two viral oncoproteins, StpC and Tip, that are encoded by a single bicistronic mRNA, act in concert to mediate this phenotype. A closely related New World monkey herpesvirus, herpesvirus ateles, transcribes a single spliced mRNA at an equivalent genome locus. The encoded protein, Tio, has sequence homologies to both StpC and Tip. We inserted the ti...

  17. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  18. Bovine Colostrum Contains Immunoglobulin G Antibodies against Intimin, EspA, and EspB and Inhibits Hemolytic Activity Mediated by the Type Three Secretion System of Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilte, Daniel A.; Larzábal, Mariano; Cataldi, Ángel A.; Mercado, Elsa C.

    2008-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the main cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome, an endemic disease in Argentina which had an incidence in 2005 of 13.9 cases per 100,000 children younger than 5 years old. Cattle appear to be a major reservoir of EHEC, and a serological response to EHEC antigens has been demonstrated in natural and experimental infections. In the current study, antibodies against proteins implicated in EHEC's ability to form attaching and effacing lesions, some of which are exported to the host cell via a type three secretion system (TTSS), were identified in bovine colostrum by Western blot analysis. Twenty-seven (77.0%) of the 35 samples examined contained immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the three proteins assayed in this study: EspA, EspB, and the carboxy-terminal 280 amino acids of γ-intimin, an intimin subtype associated mainly with O157:H7 and O145:H- serotypes. Every colostrum sample was able to inhibit, in a range between 45.9 and 96.7%, the TTSS-mediated hemolytic activity of attaching and effacing E. coli. The inhibitory effect was partially mediated by IgG and lactoferrin. In conclusion, we found that early colostrum from cows contains antibodies, lactoferrin, and other unidentified substances that impair TTSS function in attaching and effacing E. coli strains. Bovine colostrum might act by reducing EHEC colonization in newborn calves and could be used as a prophylactic measure to protect non-breast-fed children against EHEC infection in an area of endemicity. PMID:18562563

  19. Recombinant Bovine/Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 (B/HPIV3) Expressing the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) G and F Proteins Can Be Used To Achieve Simultaneous Mucosal Immunization against RSV and HPIV3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander C.; McAuliffe, Josephine M.; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 (rB/HPIV3), a recombinant bovine PIV3 (rBPIV3) in which the F and HN genes were replaced with their HPIV3 counterparts, was used to express the major protective antigens of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in order to create a bivalent mucosal vaccine against RSV and HPIV3. The attenuation of rB/HPIV3 is provided by the host range restriction of the BPIV3 backbone in primates. RSV G and F open reading frames (ORFs) were placed under the control of PIV3 transcription signals and inserted individually into the rB/HPIV3 genome in the promoter-proximal position preceding the nucleocapsid protein gene. The recombinant PIV3 expressing the RSV G ORF (rB/HPIV3-G1) was not restricted in its replication in vitro, whereas the virus expressing the RSV F ORF (rB/HPIV3-F1) was eightfold restricted compared to its rB/HPIV3 parent. Both viruses replicated efficiently in the respiratory tract of hamsters, and each induced RSV serum antibody titers similar to those induced by RSV infection and anti-HPIV3 titers similar to those induced by HPIV3 infection. Immunization of hamsters with rB/HPIV3-G1, rB/HPIV3-F1, or a combination of both viruses resulted in a high level of resistance to challenge with RSV or HPIV3 28 days later. These results describe a vaccine strategy that obviates the technical challenges associated with a live attenuated RSV vaccine, providing, against the two leading viral agents of pediatric respiratory tract disease, a bivalent vaccine whose attenuation phenotype is based on the extensive host range sequence differences of BPIV3. PMID:11312329

  20. Herpesvirus Genome Recognition Induced Acetylation of Nuclear IFI16 Is Essential for Its Cytoplasmic Translocation, Inflammasome and IFN-β Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Mairaj Ahmed Ansari; Sujoy Dutta; Mohanan Valiya Veettil; Dipanjan Dutta; Jawed Iqbal; Binod Kumar; Arunava Roy; Leela Chikoti; Vivek Vikram Singh; Bala Chandran

    2015-01-01

    The IL-1β and type I interferon-β (IFN-β) molecules are important inflammatory cytokines elicited by the eukaryotic host as innate immune responses against invading pathogens and danger signals. Recently, a predominantly nuclear gamma-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) involved in transcriptional regulation has emerged as an innate DNA sensor which induced IL-1β and IFN-β production through inflammasome and STING activation, respectively. Herpesvirus (KSHV, EBV, and HSV-1) episomal dsDNA...

  1. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  2. The Role of microRNAs in the Pathogenesis of Herpesvirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Piedade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs important in gene regulation. They are able to regulate mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity. Cellular miRNAs have been involved in the regulation of nearly all cellular pathways, and their deregulation has been associated with several diseases such as cancer. Given the importance of microRNAs to cell homeostasis, it is no surprise that viruses have evolved to take advantage of this cellular pathway. Viruses have been reported to be able to encode and express functional viral microRNAs that target both viral and cellular transcripts. Moreover, viral inhibition of key proteins from the microRNA pathway and important changes in cellular microRNA pool have been reported upon viral infection. In addition, viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to avoid being targeted by cellular microRNAs. This complex interaction between host and viruses to control the microRNA pathway usually favors viral infection and persistence by either reducing immune detection, avoiding apoptosis, promoting cell growth, or promoting lytic or latent infection. One of the best examples of this virus-host-microRNA interplay emanates from members of the Herperviridae family, namely the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, and the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV. In this review, we will focus on the general functions of microRNAs and the interactions between herpesviruses, human hosts, and microRNAs and will delve into the related mechanisms that contribute to infection and pathogenesis.

  3. [Simplified identification and differentiation of feline, canine and phocine herpesvirus isolates using monoclonal antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, T C; Lebich, M; Liess, B

    1994-10-01

    Infections by alpha-herpesviruses of dogs (canid herpesvirus, CHV) and cats (felid herpesvirus, FHV) are widespread in these species and are of significant clinical relevance. Immunologically closely related herpesviruses have been isolated from harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) showing respiratory disease, hepatitis and/or encephalitis. These isolates are currently referred to as phocid herpesviruses (PhHV). The host spectrum of CHV and FHV, respectively, appears to be restricted to members of the Canidae and Felidae families. Seal herpesviruses, in contrast, cross species barriers, at least in vitro where they productively replicate also in cells of felid origin. Whether cats are susceptible to natural PhHV-infections remains to be elucidated. A reliable etiological diagnosis of acute herpesvirus-associated infections should be desirable especially in breeding kennels and zoos where hosts susceptible for FHV, CHV oder PhHV are reared. For a rapid and unambiguous identification and differentiation of herpesvirus isolates derived from felids, canids and pinnipedia a simple enzyme immunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies is presented. PMID:7855845

  4. Characterization of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease syndrome primarily of ruminant species, caused by gammaherpesviruses in the genus Macavirus. Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2),carried by sheep,causes sheep-associated MCF worldwide,while Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1)...

  5. Pneumonia and gastritis in a cat caused by feline herpesvirus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Glenna F; Sheehan, Karen; Simko, Elemir

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of fatal respiratory and gastric herpesvirus infection in a vaccinated, adult cat with no known immunosuppression or debilitation. The disease was characterized by severe necrotizing bronchopneumonia, fibrinonecrotic laryngotracheitis, and multifocal necrotizing gastritis associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies and a large amount of feline herpesvirus-1 antigen detected with immunohistochemistry.

  6. Novel γ-2-Herpesvirus of the Rhadinovirus 2 Lineage in Gibbons

    OpenAIRE

    Duprez, Renan; Boulanger, Emmanuelle; Roman, Yannick; Gessain, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    We obtained 475 nucleotides of the DNA polymerase gene of a novel human herpesvirus 8 homolog sequence in a gibbon. The finding of this new gibbon virus, which clusters with a related chimpanzee virus in the rhadinovirus 2 genogroup, suggests the existence of a novel γ-2-herpesvirus in humans.

  7. Pesquisa de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes para pestivirus y herpesvirus en ovinos, caprinos y camélidos sudamericanos de Chile Survey for antibodies to pestivirus and herpesvirus in sheep, goats, alpacas (Lama pacos, llamas (Lama glama guanacos (Lama guanicoe and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Celedón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos por dilución punto final seroneutralizante (DPFSN para pestivirus (cepa NADL del virus de la diarrea viral bovina y para herpesvirus (cepa Los Angeles del virus herpes bovino 1, en muestras de sueros de 321 ovinos, 322 caprinos, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , procedentes de diferentes regiones del país. Para pestivirus se detectó reacción serológica positiva en 60 (18,7% ovinos, en 21 (6,5% caprinos, en 8 (10,8% alpacas y en 6 (14% llamas. Los guanacos y vicuñas fueron seronegativos para pestivirus. Para herpesvirus, la seropositividad se obtuvo en 8 (2,5% ovinos y 62 (19,3% caprinos. No se detectaron anticuerpos para herpesvirus en las muestras de camélidos. Según la distribución geográfica los mayores porcentajes de positividad resultaron ser: para pestivirus en ovinos de 2/3 predios de la XII Región (con positividad de 66,7% y 82,1%, con rangos de títulos de 16 a 710 y, para herpesvirus en caprinos de 5/6 predios de la IV Región (con positividad de 4,2%, 13,3%, 28,6%, 61,5% y 66,7%, con rango de títulos de 2 a 45. Las alpacas y llamas serorreaccionantes a pestivirus se encontraban ubicadas en la Región Metropolitana, en confinamiento en conjunto con otras especies de rumiantes, en cambio que las especies silvestres, guanacos y vicuñas fueron muestreadas en sus lugares de origen. Se confirma que en Chile existe infección por pestivirus en ovinos, caprinos, llamas y alpacas y por herpesvirus en ovinos y caprinosMicrotitration serum virus-neutralization tests were used to determine antibody titres for pestivirus: bovine viral diarrhea virus (NADL strain and herpesvirus: bovine herpes virus 1 (Los Angeles strain in 321 sheep, 322 goats, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , from several Regions of Chile. Antibodies to pestivirus were found

  8. Expression in a Recombinant Murid Herpesvirus 4 Reveals the In Vivo Transforming Potential of the K1 Open Reading Frame of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, J; Dutia, B; Rhind, S.; Stewart, James P; Talbot, S J

    2004-01-01

    Murid herpesvirus 4 (commonly called MHV-68) is closely related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and provides an excellent model system for investigating gammaherpesvirus-associated pathogenesis. MHV-76 is a naturally occurring deletion mutant of MHV-68 that lacks 9,538 bp of the left end of the unique portion of the genome encoding nonessential pathogenesis-related genes. The KSHV K1 protein has been shown to transform rodent fibroblasts in vitro and common marmoset T lympho...

  9. The Major Portal of Entry of Koi Herpesvirus in Cyprinus carpio Is the Skin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, B.; Raj, V. Stalin; Michel, B.; Fournier, G.; Thirion, M.; Gillet, L.; Mast, J.; Lieffrig, F.; Bremont, M.; Vanderplasschen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV), recently designated Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we investigated the portal of entry of KHV in carp by using bioluminescence imaging. Taking advantage of the recent cloning of the KHV genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), we produced a recombinant plasmid encoding a firefly luciferase (LUC) expression cassette inserted in the intergenic region between open reading frame (ORF) 136 and ORF 137. Two viral strains were then reconstituted from the modified plasmid, the FL BAC 136 LUC excised strain and the FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain, including a disrupted and a wild-type thymidine kinase (TK) locus, respectively. In vitro, the two recombinant strains replicated comparably to the parental FL strain. The FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain was shown in vitro to induce a bioluminescent signal allowing the detection of single positive cells as early as 24 h postinfection, while in vivo, it induced KHV infection in carp that was indistinguishable from that induced by the parental FL strain. To identify the KHV portal of entry, carp were analyzed by bioluminescence imaging at different times postinfection with the FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain. These analyses demonstrated that the skin of the fish covering the fins and also the body is the major portal of entry for KHV in carp. Finally, to further demonstrate the role of the skin as the KHV portal of entry, we constructed an original system, nicknamed “U-tube,” to perform percutaneous infection restricted to the posterior part of the fish. All the data obtained in the present study demonstrate that the skin, and not the gills, is the major portal of entry for KHV in carp. PMID:19153228

  10. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramos-da-Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS became a critical health issue with the emergence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in the 1980s. Four clinical-epidemiological forms of KS have been described: classical KS, endemic KS, iatrogenic KS, and AIDS-associated KS. In 1994, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus type 8 was identified by Chang and colleagues, and has been detected worldwide at frequencies ranging from 80 to 100%. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of KSHV infection in KS lesions from HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Brazil, as well as to review the current knowledge about KS transmission and detection. For these purposes, DNA from 51 cases of KS was assessed by PCR: 20 (39.2% cases of classical KS, 29 (56.9% of AIDS-associated KS and 2 (3.9% of iatrogenic KS. Most patients were males (7.5:1, M/F, and mean age was 47.9 years (SD = ± 18.7 years. As expected, HIV-positive KS patients were younger than patients with classical KS. On the other hand, patients with AIDS-associated KS have early lesions (patch and plaque compared to classical KS patients (predominantly nodular lesions. This is assumed to be the result of the early diagnose of KS in the HIV-positive setting. KSHV infection was detected by PCR in almost all cases (48/51; 94.1%, irrespectively of the clinical-epidemiological form of KS. These results show that KSHV is associated with all forms of KS in Brazilian patients, a fact that supports the role of this virus in KS pathogenesis.

  11. Temporal and spatial patterns of bovine Escherichia coli O157 prevalence and comparison of temporal changes in the patterns of phage types associated with bovine shedding and human E. coli O157 cases in Scotland between 1998-2000 and 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low J Christopher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli O157 is an important cause of acute diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and, especially in children, haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS. Incidence rates for human E. coli O157 infection in Scotland are higher than most other United Kingdom, European and North American countries. Cattle are considered the main reservoir for E. coli O157. Significant associations between livestock related exposures and human infection have been identified in a number of studies. Results Animal Studies: There were no statistically significant differences (P = 0.831 in the mean farm-level prevalence between the two studies (SEERAD: 0.218 (95%CI: 0.141-0.32; IPRAVE: 0.205 (95%CI: 0.135-0.296. However, the mean pat-level prevalence decreased from 0.089 (95%CI: 0.075-0.105 to 0.040 (95%CI: 0.028-0.053 between the SEERAD and IPRAVE studies respectively (P P Human Cases: Contrasting the same time periods, there was a decline in the overall comparative annual reported incidence of human cases as well as in all the major PT groups except 'Other' PTs. For both cattle and humans, the predominant phage type between 1998 and 2004 was PT21/28 comprising over 50% of the positive cattle isolates and reported human cases respectively. The proportion of PT32, however, was represented by few (P = 0.002. Conclusion There was no significant decrease in the mean farm-level prevalence of E. coli O157 between 1998 and 2004 in Scotland, despite significant declines in mean pat-level prevalence. Although there were declines in the number of human cases between the two study periods, there is no statistically significant evidence that the overall rate (per 100,000 population of human E. coli O157 infections in Scotland over the last 10 years has altered. Comparable patterns in the distribution of PTs 21/28 and 32 between cattle and humans support a hypothesized link between the bovine reservoir and human infections. This emphasizes the need to apply and

  12. Effect of copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation on the performance, clinical signs, and mineral status of calves following exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b and subsequent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B K; Vazquez-Anon, M; Step, D L; Moyer, K D; Haviland, C L; Maxwell, C L; O'Neill, C F; Gifford, C A; Krehbiel, C R; Richards, C J

    2016-03-01

    Research has indicated that trace mineral (TM) supplementation may alter immune function and reduce morbidity associated with bovine respiratory disease. The objective of this experiment was to determine the influence of dietary Cu, Mn, and Zn supplementation on the performance, clinical signs, and TM balance of calves following a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and (MH) combination respiratory pathogen challenge. Steers ( = 16; 225 ± 20 kg BW) from a single ranch were processed, weaned, and randomly pairwise assigned to either the TM-supplemented (MIN) or the control (CON) experimental treatments. The MIN calves received an additional 150 mg of Cu, 130 mg of Mn, and 320 mg of Zn daily and the CON calves received the basal diet with no additional Cu, Mn, or Zn supplementation. The basal diet contained sufficient Mn and Zn but inadequate Cu based on published nutrient requirements. After 46 d on the experimental treatments, all calves were naturally exposed to a heifer persistently infected with BVDV type 1b for 4 d and then subsequently intratracheally challenged with MH. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with sampling time serving as a repeated measure and calf serving as the experimental unit. The respiratory challenge was validated via increased BVDV type 1b antibody concentrations, MH whole cell and leukotoxin antibody concentrations, rectal temperatures (TEMP), and subjective clinical severity scores (CS). Calf performance ( ≥ 0.48) was not affected by TM supplementation. Mineral supplementation also did not impact the CS or TEMP of calves ( ≥ 0.53). There was a treatment × time ( < 0.001) interaction observed for liver Cu concentrations. The concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe within the liver; Cu, Mn, and Zn within the muscle; and Cu, Zn, and Fe within the serum were all impacted by time ( ≤ 0.03). Calves receiving the MIN treatment had greater ( < 0.01) liver Cu and Mn concentrations compared with CON calves. In contrast

  13. Sero-prevalence of bovine Johne's disease in buffaloes and cattle population of North India using indigenous ELISA kit based on native Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis 'Bison type' genotype of goat origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Singh, R; Sharma, S; Shukla, N; Misra, S; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S; Kumar, H; Patil, P K; Misra, P; Sandhu, K S

    2008-09-01

    Present pilot study is the first attempt in the country to estimate sero-prevalence of Bovine Johne's disease (BJD) by screening cattle and buffaloes representing large population belonging to farmer's and farm herds in the home tracts (Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Punjab) of Hariana cattle and Murrah buffaloes in North India. Indigenous and in-house plate ELISA kit (using protoplasmic antigen from native Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 'Bison type' strain of goat origin), originally developed for goats and sheep was standardized in bovines and used for screening. For this study, 33 villages of south and west UP were randomly selected and surveyed from 2001 to 2003. There were 7943 farmer's families having 38,251 livestock, including cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep (per family 4.8% livestock). Numerically, buffaloes and cattle were 54.7% and 22.1%, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 726 animals (4.2% of 16, 981 livestock with 4375 farmer's families) located in 33 randomly surveyed villages. Serum samples (699), submitted to Epidemiology Department of Veterinary College (Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana), in the year 2004 by farmer's and organized farm herds (Buffaloes, 372, Cattle, 327), were screened by this ELISA kit. Soluble protoplasmic antigen was prepared from Map (S 5) 'Bison type' strain isolated from a terminally sick goat with Johne's disease. Of the total 1425 bovine (Buffaloes and cattle) serum samples screened using indigenous ELISA kit, sero-prevalence of Johne's disease was 29.0% (28.6% in buffalo and 29.8% in cattle) in Northern India. State-wise sero-prevalence was 31.9% and 23.3% in UP and Punjab, respectively. In UP, of the 601 randomly sampled buffaloes, sero-prevalence was 40.3% (16.6% in young and 40.9% adults) and 25.5% (10.5% in young and 26.3% adults) in south and west UP, respectively. Of the 125 cattle screened, sero-prevalence was 42.6% (nil in young and 44.4% adults) and 30.0% (nil in young and 30.6% adults

  14. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., ``Analysis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk to the U.S. Cattle Population from Importation of... final rule did not limit the importation of bovine-derived meat from Canada to that derived from cattle... meat from bovines 30 months of age or older while continuing to prohibit the importation of live...

  15. Human herpesviruses 6 and 7 in cervixes of pregnant women.

    OpenAIRE

    Okuno, T; Oishi, H.; Hayashi, K; Nonogaki, M; Tanaka, K.; Yamanishi, K

    1995-01-01

    We looked for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and HHV-7 genomes in the cervixes of pregnant women in the late stages of their pregnancies. Of 72 samples collected with cervical swabs and amplified by nested PCR, we found that 14 (19.4%) and 2 (2.7%) contained detectable HHV-6 and HHV-7 genomes, respectively. The two samples in which HHV-7 DNA was detected also contained HHV-6 genomes. Hybridization of HHV-6 DNA amplified by PCR with variant-specific probes revealed that all of these DNA samples b...

  16. Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6: questions and answers

    OpenAIRE

    Pellett, Philip E.; Ablashi, Dharam V.; Ambros, Peter F.; Agut, Henri; Caserta, Mary T.; Descamps, Vincent; Flamand, Louis; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès; Hall, Caroline B.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Kuehl, Uwe; Lassner, Dirk; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Loomis, Kristin S.; Luppi, Mario

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 (ciHHV-6) is a condition in which the complete HHV-6 genome is integrated into the host germ line genome and is vertically transmitted in a Mendelian manner. The condition is found in less than 1% of controls in the USA and UK, but has been found at a somewhat higher prevalence in transplant recipients and other patient populations in several small studies. HHV-6 levels in whole blood that exceed 5.5 log10 copies/ml are strongly suggestive ...

  17. Temporal Mapping of Transcripts in Herpesvirus 6 Variants

    OpenAIRE

    Mirandola, Prisco; Menegazzi, Paola; Merighi, Stefania; Ravaioli, Tullia; Cassai, Enzo; Di Luca, Dario

    1998-01-01

    To define the molecular features characteristic of the early stages of infection of lymphocytes with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) variant A or B, we studied the temporal regulation of expression of selected sets of viral genes. Thus, U42, U94, U89-U90, U73, and U39 are α genes since their transcripts (i) were made in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis and (ii) were detected 3 h after infection of untreated cells. U41, U53, U31, and U19 are β genes since their expression is inhibit...

  18. Identification and Function of MicroRNAs Encoded by Herpesviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qing Bai; Xiu-fen Lei; Lin-ding Wang; Shou-jiang Gao

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in eukaryotes,plants and some viruses.It is increasingly clear that miRNAs-encoded by viruses can affect the viral life cycle and host physiology.Viral miRNAs could repress the innate and adaptive host immunity,modulate cellular signaling pathways,and regulate the expression of cellular and viral genes.These functions facilitate viral acute and persistent infections,and have profound effects on the host cell survival and disease progression.Here,we discuss the miRNAs encoded by herpesviruses,and their regulatory roles involved in virus-host interactions.

  19. Establishment of the SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time PCR for detection of equine herpesvirus type 1%马疱疹病毒1型SYBR Green Ⅰ荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王征; 郭巍; 姬媛媛; 曲娟娟; 赵立平; 李红梅; 相文华

    2012-01-01

    为建立马疱疹病毒Ⅰ型(EHV-1)的检测方法,本研究以EHV-1 gB基因的一段保守区域(1207 bp~1509 bp)作为检测的目的片段设计引物,通过对其反应条件的优化,建立了特异性检测EHV-1的SYBR Green I 荧光定量PCR方法.实验结果表明:该方法检测目的基因的灵敏度下限为10拷贝/μL,比常规PCR方法高100倍;与马疱疹病毒4型(EHV-4)及其他马传染病病原体无交叉反应;组内及组间的变异系数均小于2%.该方法检测速度快及高敏感性的特点为马鼻肺炎的防制提供了有力保障,同时也为进一步开展马鼻肺炎相关的研究提供了有效的辅助检测方法技术.%Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is one of the pathogens which causes equine rhinopneumonitis in horses. To establish a method for EHV-1 detection, the SYBR Green I real-time PCR was developed with primers targeting the conserved sequence of gB gene of EHV-1. The limit detection of real-time PCR was about 10 copies for EHV-1 which was 100 times higher than normal PCR, and no cross-reaction to equine herpesvirus-4, equine influenza virus, equine arteritis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus. The repeatability tests indicated that the coefficient of variation were less than 2% in both intra-assay and inter-assay. These results demonstrated the established real-time PCR was suitable for rapid detection of EHV-1 and for the further study for EHV-1.

  20. A novel herpesvirus associated with respiratory disease in Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H L; Phalen, D N

    2012-12-01

    A novel herpesvirus infection in nine Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii, formerly Neophema bourkii) housed in an outdoor aviary comprised of multiple species of birds was diagnosed based on histopathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical signs in the parrots included anorexia, ruffled feathers, depression, loss of weight and respiratory distress. The most common gross lesions were moderately congested and oedematous lungs and a mild fibrinous exudate in the air sacs and lumen of the trachea. Histological examination revealed mild to severe bronchopneumonia and airsacculitis with syncytial cells containing eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in most birds. Other less frequent changes included tracheitis, syringitis, sinusitis, rhinitis, otitis media and conjunctivitis. Attempts to culture the virus in chicken embryos and chicken embryo liver cells were unsuccessful. Examination by transmission electron microscopy of syncytial cells from the lungs of two birds revealed intranuclear virus particles typical of the family Herpesviridae. DNA from a novel herpesvirus was amplified from lung tissue by PCR using degenerate primers derived from conserved avian herpesvirus sequences. The virus belongs in the genus Iltovirus of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. It is not closely related to Psittacid herpesvirus 1 that causes Pacheco's disease but does group phylogenetically with a clade of herpesviruses that cause respiratory disease in a number of avian species. The proposed name for this herpesvirus is Psittacid herpesvirus 3.

  1. A novel herpesvirus associated with respiratory disease in Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H L; Phalen, D N

    2012-12-01

    A novel herpesvirus infection in nine Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii, formerly Neophema bourkii) housed in an outdoor aviary comprised of multiple species of birds was diagnosed based on histopathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical signs in the parrots included anorexia, ruffled feathers, depression, loss of weight and respiratory distress. The most common gross lesions were moderately congested and oedematous lungs and a mild fibrinous exudate in the air sacs and lumen of the trachea. Histological examination revealed mild to severe bronchopneumonia and airsacculitis with syncytial cells containing eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in most birds. Other less frequent changes included tracheitis, syringitis, sinusitis, rhinitis, otitis media and conjunctivitis. Attempts to culture the virus in chicken embryos and chicken embryo liver cells were unsuccessful. Examination by transmission electron microscopy of syncytial cells from the lungs of two birds revealed intranuclear virus particles typical of the family Herpesviridae. DNA from a novel herpesvirus was amplified from lung tissue by PCR using degenerate primers derived from conserved avian herpesvirus sequences. The virus belongs in the genus Iltovirus of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. It is not closely related to Psittacid herpesvirus 1 that causes Pacheco's disease but does group phylogenetically with a clade of herpesviruses that cause respiratory disease in a number of avian species. The proposed name for this herpesvirus is Psittacid herpesvirus 3. PMID:23237365

  2. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  3. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  4. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  5. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other importan

  6. Replication characteristics of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 3: comparative analysis using ex vivo tissue cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Negussie, Haileleul; Li, Yewei; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    International audience AbstractReplication kinetics and invasion characteristics of equine herpesvirus-1 and -3 (EHV-1/-3) in nasal and vaginal mucosae were compared using explants. The explants were cultured during 96 h with little change in viability. The tissues were inoculated with EHV-1 03P37 (neuropathogenic), 97P70 (abortigenic) and EHV-3 04P57, collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (pi) and stained for viral antigens. Both EHV-1 and EHV-3 replicated in a plaquewise manne...

  7. Preparation and preliminary application of monoclonal antibody against nucleocapsid protein of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3%牛副流感病毒3型NP单抗的制备及初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕闯; 朱远茂; 董秀梅; 蔡红; 于作; 高欲燃; 薛飞

    2011-01-01

    To prepare monoclonal antibody (Mab) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3), BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant NP (Rnp) expressed by E. Coli and a hybridoma secreting Mab was screened from fusing the SP2/0 cells with the spleen cells of the immunized BALB/c mice by indirect ELISA coated with BPIV3. The titers of Mab in ascites were 2 x 106 and 1.28 x 105 as detected by Rnp and BPIV3 coated ELISA, respectively. The Mab was specifically reacted with BPIV3 identified by indirect ELISA, western blot, immunofluroescence assay. The specific tests indicated the Mab had no reaction with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The BPIV3 was detected in experimentally infected animals in immunohistochemical test with the Mab. Therefore, this Mab could be used to establish diagnosis method for BPIV3 and further study on the structure and function of NP.%为制备牛副流感病毒3型(BPIV3)核衣壳蛋白(NP)单克隆抗体(MAb),本研究利用原核表达并纯化的重组NP (rNP)免疫BALB/c小鼠,取免疫后小鼠脾细胞与骨髓瘤细胞SP2/0融合.采用以BPIV3为检测抗原的间接ELISA方法筛选阳性细胞克隆,经3次克隆纯化后获得1株稳定分泌抗NP特异性MAb的杂交瘤细胞株(5E5)并制备腹水,采用rNP及BPIV3包被的ELISA效价分别是2×106和1.28×105.间接ELISA、western blot、IFA试验表明该MAb具有良好的反应性和特异性.经抗体亚类鉴定该MAb亚类为IgGl/κ.特异性试验表明该MAb不与牛传染性鼻气管炎病毒、牛病毒性腹泻病毒反应.免疫组化试验表明该MAb可以检测BPIV3感染动物体内的病原.该MAb还可用于建立检测BPIV3病原及抗体的诊断方法,同时为研究NP的结构和功能提供了条件.

  8. CD134 is a cellular receptor specific for human herpesvirus-6B entry

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Huamin; Serada, Satoshi; KAWABATA, Akiko; Ota, Megumi; Hayashi, Emi; Naka, Tetsuji; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) is a T lymphotropic β-herpesvirus that is clearly distinct from human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) according to molecular biological features. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses recently classified HHV-6B as a separate species. The primary HHV-6B infection causes exanthem subitum and is sometimes associated with severe encephalopathy. More than 90% of the general population is infected with HHV-6B during childhood, and the virus remains throughout life...

  9. Prevention and control of herpesvirus diseases. Part 2. Epidemiology and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This is the second of two articles summarizing the information currently available on herpes virus diseases. The first described the different members of the herpesvirus group, clinical expression of infection, laboratory diagnosis, and chemotherapy. This article dealing with the epidemiological and immunological aspects of herpesvirus infections also brings up the special problems caused by virus latency and risks associated with congenital infection and immunodeficiency or immunodepressive treatment. The prospects of preventing herpesvirus infections by vaccination and treatment with immune sera are also discussed. PMID:2994897

  10. Myeloid infection links epithelial and B cell tropisms of Murid Herpesvirus-4.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Frederico; Ricardo Milho; May, Janet S.; Laurent Gillet; Stevenson, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-herpesviruses persist in lymphocytes and cause disease by driving their proliferation. Lymphocyte infection is therefore a key pathogenetic event. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) is a rhadinovirus that like the related Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus persists in B cells in vivo yet infects them poorly in vitro. Here we used MuHV-4 to understand how virion tropism sets the path to lymphocyte colonization. Virions that were highly infectious in vivo showed a severe post-binding block...

  11. Bovine Papillomavirus Clastogenic Effect Analyzed in Comet Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Araldi, R. P.; Melo, T. C.; N. Diniz; J. Mazzuchelli-de-Souza; R.F. Carvalho; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus related to serious livestock diseases. Oncoproteins encoded by BPV are involved in several steps of cellular transformation and have been reported as presenting clastogenic effects in peripheral lymphocytes and primary culture cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clastogenic potential of BPV types 1, 2, and 4 by comet assay. Peripheral blood was collected from 37 bovines, 32 infected with different levels of papillomatosis (12 anim...

  12. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Abdelgawad

    Full Text Available Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM, a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls.

  13. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with human herpesvirus-6 reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man, on carbamazepine for the past 3 months, was referred as a case of atypical measles. On examination, he had high-grade fever, generalized itchy rash, cough, vomiting and jaundice. A provisional diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity syndrome to carbamazepine was made with a differential diagnosis of viral exanthema with systemic complications. Laboratory investigations revealed leukocytosis with eosnophilia and elevated liver enzymes. Real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR on throat swab and blood was suggestive of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6. Measles was ruled out by PCR and serology. The diagnosis of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS was confirmed, which could explain all the features manifested by the patient. HHV-6 infects almost all humans by age 2 years. It infects and replicates in CD4 T lymphocytes and establishes latency in human peripheral blood monocytes or macrophages and early bone marrow progenitors. In DIHS, allergic reaction to the causative drug stimulates T cells, which leads to reactivation of the herpesvirus genome. DIHS is treated by withdrawal of the culprit drug and administration of systemic steroids. Our patient responded well to steroids and HHV-6 was negative on repeat real-time multiplex PCR at the end of treatment.

  14. Pathogenesis of Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection in cottontail rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselton, R M; Yang, W C; Medveczky, P; Sullivan, J L

    1988-12-01

    Experimental infection with Herpesvirus sylvilagus produces clinical and histopathologic changes in its natural host, the cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), similar to those observed in humans acutely infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Twenty-seven seronegative cottontail rabbits were infected with Herpesvirus sylvilagus and all developed antibodies within 10 days. Neutralizing antibody was detected as early as 7 days after infection. Virus was isolated from blood mononuclear cells, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, kidneys, lung, and liver as early as 3 days after infection. Infected animals showed leucocytosis, monocytosis, and lymphocytosis with the appearance of atypical lymphocytes. Peripheral blood abnormalities peaked at 10-14 days after infection, and returned to normal by 28 days after infection, with the exception of atypical lymphocytosis that persisted in some animals for more than 2 years after experimental infection. More severe histopathologic changes were seen in virus-infected juvenile rabbits than adult rabbits; these changes included viral myocarditis, interstitial pneumonia, and lymphocytic myositis. Reactive hyperplasia and subsequent lymphocytic depletion of spleen and lymph nodes were reminiscent of that seen in virus-associated hemophagocytosis syndrome. Prominent lymphoid hyperplasia of many nonlymphoid organs, most notably the kidney and lungs, was observed. The development of these lymphoproliferative lesions and other lymphoid changes during H. sylvilagus infection suggest that this system may be a model to study similar lesions induced by EBV infection in humans. PMID:2849303

  15. Proteomic characterization of murid herpesvirus 4 extracellular virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vidick

    Full Text Available Gammaherpesvirinae, such as the human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and the Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV are highly prevalent pathogens that have been associated with several neoplastic diseases. As EBV and KSHV are host-range specific and replicate poorly in vitro, animal counterparts such as Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 have been widely used as models. In this study, we used MuHV-4 in order to improve the knowledge about proteins that compose gammaherpesviruses virions. To this end, MuHV-4 extracellular virions were isolated and structural proteins were identified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches. These analyses allowed the identification of 31 structural proteins encoded by the MuHV-4 genome which were classified as capsid (8, envelope (9, tegument (13 and unclassified (1 structural proteins. In addition, we estimated the relative abundance of the identified proteins in MuHV-4 virions by using exponentially modified protein abundance index analyses. In parallel, several host proteins were found in purified MuHV-4 virions including Annexin A2. Although Annexin A2 has previously been detected in different virions from various families, its role in the virion remains controversial. Interestingly, despite its relatively high abundance in virions, Annexin A2 was not essential for the growth of MuHV-4 in vitro. Altogether, these results extend previous work aimed at determining the composition of gammaherpesvirus virions and provide novel insights for understanding MuHV-4 biology.

  16. Phenotypic complementation of genetic immunodeficiency by chronic herpesvirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDuff, Donna A; Reese, Tiffany A; Kimmey, Jacqueline M; Weiss, Leslie A; Song, Christina; Zhang, Xin; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Carrero, Javier A; Boisson, Bertrand; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Israel, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Colonna, Marco; Edelson, Brian T; Sibley, L David; Stallings, Christina L; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Virgin, Herbert W

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the presentation of hereditary immunodeficiencies may be explained by genetic or environmental factors. Patients with mutations in HOIL1 (RBCK1) present with amylopectinosis-associated myopathy with or without hyper-inflammation and immunodeficiency. We report that barrier-raised HOIL-1-deficient mice exhibit amylopectin-like deposits in the myocardium but show minimal signs of hyper-inflammation. However, they show immunodeficiency upon acute infection with Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii or Citrobacter rodentium. Increased susceptibility to Listeria was due to HOIL-1 function in hematopoietic cells and macrophages in production of protective cytokines. In contrast, HOIL-1-deficient mice showed enhanced control of chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis or murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68), and these infections conferred a hyper-inflammatory phenotype. Surprisingly, chronic infection with MHV68 complemented the immunodeficiency of HOIL-1, IL-6, Caspase-1 and Caspase-1;Caspase-11-deficient mice following Listeria infection. Thus chronic herpesvirus infection generates signs of auto-inflammation and complements genetic immunodeficiency in mutant mice, highlighting the importance of accounting for the virome in genotype-phenotype studies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04494.001 PMID:25599590

  17. Human herpesvirus 6 in cerebrospinal fluid of patients infected with HIV: frequency and clinical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossolasco, S.; Marenzi, R.; Dahl, H.; Vago, L.; Terreni, M. R.; Broccolo, F.; Lazzarin, A.; Linde, A.; Cinque, P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the frequency of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) DNA detection in the CSF of patients infected with HIV and its relation to brain disease and systemic HHV-6 infection.
 Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyse CSF samples from 365 consecutive HIV infected patients with neurological symptoms. When available, plasma and brain tissues from patients whose CSF was HHV-6 positive were also studied.
 HHV-6 was found in the CSF of eight of the 365 patients (2.2%): two had type A and four type B; the HHV-6 variant could not be defined in the remaining two. All eight patients had neurological symptoms and signs related to concomitant opportunistic brain diseases, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis in five patients whose CSF was also positive for CMV-DNA. Opportunistic infections but no other unexplained lesions were also found in the brain of all of the four patients who underwent neuropathological examination. Both HHV-6 and CMV were also detected in the plasma of respectively five and seven of seven patients whose CSF was HHV-6 positive.
 In conclusion, HHV-6 type A or B DNA was infrequently found in the CSF of HIV infected patients, in association with both CMV brain infection and systemic HHV-6 replication. However, no certain relation between HHV-6 and brain disease was found.

 PMID:10567500

  18. Bovine Mastitis Associated with Prototheca blaschkeae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Júlio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A. R.; Thompson, Gertrude

    2008-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates ...

  19. Presence of human herpesviruses in young children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinogami, Masanobu; Ishibashi, Toshio

    2004-02-01

    Some herpesviruses have been detected in middle ear fluid (MEF) of patients with acute otitis media (AOM), but their role in middle ear disease is unknown. We examined 73 middle ear fluid samples from 73 children with acute otitis media for the presence of four major herpesviral DNA, respiratory viral genomes, and bacterial DNA by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Herpesviruses were detected in 16 specimens (22%), with 18 viral infections were identified overall. Respiratory viruses were detected in 35 specimens (48%), 39 viral infections overall. Bacterial DNA was detected in 51 specimens (70%), 60 bacterial infections overall. Clinical outcome was compared in patients with and without herpesvirus DNA, respiratory viral genomes, or bacterial DNA. Progression to otitis media with effusion (OME) was more common when herpesviral DNA was present. Presence of herpesvirus DNA may reflect an immunocompromised state that may make it difficult to eliminate bacteria from the middle ear after infection.

  20. Systemic herpesvirus and morbillivirus co-infection in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, S; González, B; Willoughby, K; Maley, M; Olvera, A; Kennedy, S; Marco, A; Domingo, M

    2012-01-01

    During 2007 a dolphin morbillivirus epizootic affected the western Mediterranean and several striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the Catalonian coasts. One of those animals had severe lymphoid depletion, necrosis and syncytial formation in lymph nodes and spleen, with large basophilic nuclear inclusions compatible with herpesvirus detected by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination. Non-suppurative encephalitis with associated morbillivirus antigen and morbillivirus antigen within alveolar macrophages were also observed. A pan-herpesvirus nested polymerase chain reaction amplified a sequence virtually identical to two cetacean herpesvirus sequences previously identified in systemic infections in an Atlantic Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) and in a Mediterranean striped dolphin. The herpesviral infection was probably secondary to the immunosuppression caused by the morbillivirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cetacean co-infected by dolphin morbillivirus and herpesvirus with evidence of lesions attributable to both viruses.

  1. Emydid herpesvirus 1 infection in northern map turtles (Graptemys geographica) and painted turtles (Chrysemys picta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Newton, Alisa L; Seimon, Tracie A; Moore, Robert P; McAloose, Denise

    2015-05-01

    A captive, juvenile, female northern map turtle (Graptemys geographica) was found dead following a brief period of weakness and nasal discharge. Postmortem examination identified pneumonia with necrosis and numerous epithelial, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies, consistent with herpesviral pneumonia. Similar intranuclear inclusions were also associated with foci of hepatocellular and splenic necrosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening of fresh, frozen liver for the herpesviral DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene yielded an amplicon with 99.2% similarity to recently described emydid herpesvirus 1 (EmyHV-1). Molecular screening of turtles housed in enclosures that shared a common circulation system with the affected map turtle identified 4 asymptomatic, EmyHV-1 PCR-positive painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) and 1 asymptomatic northern map turtle. Herpesvirus transmission between painted and map turtles has been previously suggested, and our report provides the molecular characterization of a herpesvirus in asymptomatic painted turtles that can cause fatal herpesvirus-associated disease in northern map turtles.

  2. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Gary L

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST and bacterial artificial chromosome (BACsequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum of 216 (366 informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum of 55 (191 informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other

  3. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages via the Alternative Pathway in Herpesvirus-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Ana L.; Torres-González, Edilson; Rojas, Mauricio; Corredor, Claudia; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey; Xu, Jianguo; Roman, Jesse; Brigham, Kenneth; Stecenko, Arlene

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unknown. Because viral pathogenesis of IPF has been suggested, we have established a murine model of progressive pulmonary fibrosis by infecting IFN-γR–deficient mice (IFN-γR−/−) with the murine γ-herpesvirus 68. Because alveolar macrophages in humans with IPF have been implicated in driving the profibrotic response, we studied their role in our model. Chronic herpesvirus infection of the lung was associated with recruitment of alveolar m...

  4. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Rucha Shah; Dhoom Singh Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque in...

  5. Prevention and control of herpesvirus diseases: Part 2. Epidemiology and immunology*

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    This is the second of two articles summarizing the information currently available on herpes virus diseases. The first described the different members of the herpesvirus group, clinical expression of infection, laboratory diagnosis, and chemotherapy. This article dealing with the epidemiological and immunological aspects of herpesvirus infections also brings up the special problems caused by virus latency and risks associated with congenital infection and immunodeficiency or immunodepressive ...

  6. Recent advances in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Dissinger, Nathan J.; Blossom Damania

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic human herpesvirus. KSHV is associated with three cancers in the human population: KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD). KS is the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals. In this review, we discuss the most recent discoveries behind the mechanisms of KSHV latency maintenance and lytic replication. We also review current therapies for KSHV-associated cancers.

  7. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L.; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; John H Robinson; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon ...

  8. Association of two newly recognized herpesviruses with interstitial pneumonia in donkeys (Equus asinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiboeker, Steven B; Schommer, Susan K.; Johnson, Philip J.; Ehlers, Bernhard; Turnquist, Susan E.; Boucher, Magalie; Kreeger, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Over a period of 6 years, antemortem and postmortem examinations were performed on a number of donkeys suffering from respiratory disease. For many cases, initial diagnostic efforts failed to identify an etiology consistent with the pathologic findings. However, retrospective examination of these cases using consensus primer polymerase chain reaction, designed to recognize herpesviruses from all 3 subfamilies of the Herpesviridae, amplified a fragment of the highly conserved herpesvirus DNA p...

  9. Systematic identification of cellular signals reactivating Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuqu Yu; Harada, Josephine N.; Brown, Helen J.; Hongyu Deng; Moon Jung Song; Ting-Ting Wu; Juran Kato-Stankiewicz; Nelson, Christian G; Jeffrey Vieira; Fuyuhiko Tamanoi; Chanda, Sumit K.; Ren Sun

    2007-01-01

    The herpesvirus life cycle has two distinct phases: latency and lytic replication. The balance between these two phases is critical for viral pathogenesis. It is believed that cellular signals regulate the switch from latency to lytic replication. To systematically evaluate the cellular signals regulating this reactivation process in Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus, the effects of 26,000 full-length cDNA expression constructs on viral reactivation were individually assessed in primary e...

  10. An In Vitro System for Studying Murid Herpesvirus-4 Latency and Reactivation

    OpenAIRE

    May, Janet S.; Bennett, Neil J; Stevenson, Philip G.

    2010-01-01

    The narrow species tropisms of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and the Kaposi's Sarcoma -associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) have made Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) an important tool for understanding how gammaherpesviruses colonize their hosts. However, while MuHV-4 pathogenesis studies can assign a quantitative importance to individual genes, the complexity of in vivo infection can make the underlying mechanisms hard to discern. Furthermore, the lack of good in vitro MuHV-4 latency/reactivation systems w...

  11. Herpesvirus-Associated Acute Urticaria: An Age Matched Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arianna Mareri; Adler, Stuart P.; Giovanni Nigro

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute and recurrent acute urticaria are often associated with multiple factors including infections and recent data suggest a role for herpesviruses. OBJECTIVE: To test the null hypothesis, that is, there is no association of herpesvirus infections with urticaria. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients between one month and 15 years of age were age matched to 37 controls who were healthy or had mild acute respiratory infections but without urticaria. Patients and controls were followed fo...

  12. Cellular mechanisms of alpha herpesvirus egress: live cell fluorescence microscopy of pseudorabies virus exocytosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hogue, Ian B.; Jens B Bosse; Jiun-Ruey Hu; Thiberge, Stephan Y.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2014-01-01

    Egress of newly assembled herpesvirus particles from infected cells is a highly dynamic process involving the host secretory pathway working in concert with viral components. To elucidate the location, dynamics, and molecular mechanisms of alpha herpesvirus egress, we developed a live-cell fluorescence microscopy method to visualize the final transport and exocytosis of pseudorabies virus (PRV) particles in non-polarized epithelial cells. This method is based on total internal reflection fluo...

  13. Epidemiology and fitness effects of wood mouse herpesvirus in a natural host population

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Sarah L.K.; Fenton, Andy; Pedersen, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    Rodent gammaherpesviruses have become important models for understanding human herpesvirus diseases. In particular, interactions between murid herpesvirus 4 and Mus musculus (a non-natural host species) have been extensively studied under controlled laboratory conditions. However, several fundamental aspects of murine gammaherpesvirus biology are not well understood, including how these viruses are transmitted from host to host, and their impacts on host fitness under natural conditions. Here...

  14. Non-Human Primate Model of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Heesoon Chang; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Pearson, Christine B.; Jong-Soo Lee; Hye-Ra Lee; Steven H Lee; Jeffrey Vieira; Keith G Mansfield; Jung, Jae U.

    2009-01-01

    Since Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8) was first identified in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions of HIV-infected individuals with AIDS, the basic biological understanding of KSHV has progressed remarkably. However, the absence of a proper animal model for KSHV continues to impede direct in vivo studies of viral replication, persistence, and pathogenesis. In response to this need for an animal model of KSHV infection, we have explored whether common marmosets c...

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in a Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cell Line Stimulates Lytic-Phase Replication of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Varthakavi, Vasundhara; Browning, Philip J.; Spearman, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) coinfect many individuals in North America and in parts of Africa. Infection with HIV is a leading risk factor for the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HIV infection of common or adjacent cells would stimulate replication and spread of KSHV. Infection of a primary effusion lymphoma cell line by vesicular stomatitis virus type G-pseudotyped HIV type 1 led to a...

  16. Effects of forage type, body condition and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine cytochrome P450 regulatory region on cow productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M A; Murphy, K Y; Reiter, S T; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Looper, M L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2013-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the coding sequence of cytochrome p450 (CYP3A28) have been associated with milk yield and composition, and calving traits in cows. In this study, we aimed to determine whether (i) the CYP3A28 regulatory region was polymorphic and (ii) SNP genotype, forage type, body condition and their interactions affect cow productivity. Primers for CYP3A28 promoter were designed to amplify a 483-bp segment by PCR. Amplicon sequences revealed seven SNP (T-318C, T-113A, C-189T, T-78G, A6G, G17A and T21C) in Brahman (38 cows), Brahman x Angus reciprocal crosses (47 cows) and crossbreds (98 cows). Angus cows (n = 41) appeared to be fixed at those SNP locations. Genotype and forage {endophyte-infected tall fescue [KY+; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire] vs. bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]} effects on lifetime (8-years) calving rate, and calf weaning weights and heights were determined in Herd 1 (126 cows); genotype and BC (low vs. moderate) effects on calving date and calving percent were determined in Herd 2 (98 cows). Four SNP (T-318C, T-113A, A06G and T21C) appeared to be related to cattle productivity, CC cows at T-318C having a lower (p Brahman-influenced cows are associated with cattle productivity. PMID:22054297

  17. Human Oncogenic Herpesvirus and Post-translational Modifications – Phosphorylation and SUMOylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Ching; Campbell, Mel; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens, especially viruses, evolve abilities to utilize cellular machineries to facilitate their survival and propagation. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), especially phosphorylation and SUMOylation, that reversibly modulate the function and interactions of target proteins are among the most important features in cell signaling pathways. PTM-dependent events also serve as one of the favorite targets for viruses. Among the seven unambiguous human oncogenic viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), human papillomavirus (HPV), Human T lymphotrophic virus-1 (HTLV-1), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), two are herpesviruses. The life cycle of herpesviruses consists of latent and lytic phases and the rapid switch between these states includes global remodeling of the viral genome from heterochromatin-to-euchromatin. The balance between lytic replication and latency is essential for herpesvirus to maintain a persistent infection through a combination of viral propagation and evasion of the host immune response, which consequently may contribute to tumorigenesis. It is no surprise that the swift reversibility of PTMs, especially SUMOylation, a modification that epigenetically regulates chromatin structure, is a major hijack target of the host for oncogenic herpesviruses. In this brief review, we summarize the varied ways in which herpesviruses engage the host immune components through PTMs, focusing on phosphorylation and SUMOylation. PMID:27379086

  18. A heparan-dependent herpesvirus targets the olfactory neuroepithelium for host entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Milho

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are ubiquitous pathogens that cause much disease. The difficulty of clearing their established infections makes host entry an important target for control. However, while herpesviruses have been studied extensively in vitro, how they cross differentiated mucus-covered epithelia in vivo is unclear. To establish general principles we tracked host entry by Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4, a lymphotropic rhadinovirus related to the Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus. Spontaneously acquired virions targeted the olfactory neuroepithelium. Like many herpesviruses, MuHV-4 binds to heparan sulfate (HS, and virions unable to bind HS showed poor host entry. While the respiratory epithelium expressed only basolateral HS and was bound poorly by incoming virions, the neuroepithelium also displayed HS on its apical neuronal cilia and was bound strongly. Incoming virions tracked down the neuronal cilia, and either infected neurons or reached the underlying microvilli of the adjacent glial (sustentacular cells and infected them. Thus the olfactory neuroepithelium provides an important and complex site of HS-dependent herpesvirus uptake.

  19. Inverted repeat nucleotide sequences in the genomes of Marek disease virus and the herpesvirus of the turkey.

    OpenAIRE

    Cebrian, J; Kaschka-Dierich, C; Berthelot, N; Sheldrick, P

    1982-01-01

    The DNAs of two herpesvirus, the oncogenic Marek disease virus and the serologically related herpesvirus of the turkey, were studied by electron microscopy. On the basis of fold-back molecules observed in single-stranded DNA from both viruses, structures have been derived from the overall nucleotide sequence arrangement in their genomes. Although differing in molecular weight, the genomes of Marek disease virus and turkey herpesvirus are both constructed according to the same plan--two region...

  20. Development of one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR for quantifying bovine viral diarrhea virus type-1 and its comparison with conventional RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Sai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a worldwide pathogen in cattle and acts as a surrogate model for hepatitis C virus (HCV. One-step real-time fluorogenic quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay based on SYBR Green I dye has not been established for BVDV detection. This study aims to develop a quantitative one-step RT-PCR assay to detect BVDV type-1 in cell culture. Results One-step quantitative SYBR Green I RT-PCR was developed by amplifying cDNA template from viral RNA and using in vitro transcribed BVDV RNA to establish a standard curve. The assay had a detection limit as low as 100 copies/ml of BVDV RNA, a reaction efficiency of 103.2%, a correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.995, and a maximum intra-assay CV of 2.63%. It was 10-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and can quantitatively detect BVDV RNA levels from 10-fold serial dilutions of titrated viruses containing a titer from 10-1 to 10-5 TCID50, without non-specific amplification. Melting curve analysis showed no primer-dimers and non-specific products. Conclusions The one-step SYBR Green I RT-PCR is specific, sensitive and reproducible for the quantification of BVDV in cell culture. This one-step SYBR Green I RT-PCR strategy may be further optimized as a reliable assay for diagnosing and monitoring BVDV infection in animals. It may also be applied to evaluate candidate agents against HCV using BVDV cell culture model.