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Sample records for bovine hemoglobin decreases

  1. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  2. Studies on radiation induced changes in bovine hemoglobin type A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdzieczak, J.; Duda, W.; Leyko, W.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the structural and functional changes of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin are presented. Aqueous solutions/1%/of HbO 2 were irradiated in air with doses ranging from 1 to 4 Mrad. Isoelectric focusing indicated change of the charge of irradiated hemoglobin. The isoelectric point of hemoglobin was displaced towards more acid values with increasing doses, up from 1 Mrad. Fingerprint analysis and peptide column chromatography of irradiated hemoglobin demonstrated disturbances increasing with the dose. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis which showed that Cys, Met, Trp, His, Pro and Tyr residues were destroyed or modified following irradiation. At doses exceeding 1 Mrad the irradiated solutions of hemoglobin showed a decrease of heme-heme interaction and an increase of affinity for oxygen. Differences observed in oxygen-dissociation curves seem to be correlated with the radiation induced destruction of amino acid residues which are responsible for the functional properties of hemoglobin. (auth.)

  3. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13...

  4. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure and function of bovine hemoglobin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdzieczak, J.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish the nature of the radiation damage and to discuss the relationship between structural and functional changes of gamma irradiated hemoglobin. Bovine HbA has been irradiated in dilute aqueous solution with 60 Co-rays (1-4 Mrad). The microzonal electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing indicated changes in the electric charge of hemoglobin molecules. At the same time for the doses exceeding 2 Mrad disturbances in fingerprinting separation were found. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis. It was stated that His, Trp, Cys, Met, Tyr and Pro were the main residues affected. The decrease of amino acids content was accompanied by the lowering of heme-heme interaction and the increase of oxygen affinity. It is probably connected with the injuries of amino acids responsible for the functional properties of hemoglobin. (author)

  6. Study of the interaction between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of biphenyldicarboxylate by spectrofluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruiyong; Yin, Yujing; Wang, Ruiqiang; Xie, Yuanzhe; Ge, Baoyu; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhen; Shi, Jie; Chang, Junbiao

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of Biphenyldicarboxylate was investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet–vis absorbance, resonance light-scattering spectra and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra at pH 7.40. The quenching mechanism and binding constants were determined by the quenching of bovine hemoglobin fluorescence in presence of analogs. Results showed that the nature of the quenching was of static type. Both the van der Waals and hydrogen bonding played a major role in stabilizing the complex. The distance between donor and acceptors was obtained to be 2.11–2.25 nm according to Förster's theory. The influence of analogs on the conformation of bovine hemoglobin was investigated. -- Highlights: • The interactions between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of DDB have been investigated. • Results reveal that DDB has the strongest affinity for hemoglobin among four compounds. • The van der Waals and hydrogen bonding play major role in the binding process. • The influence of molecular structure on the binding aspects has been investigated

  7. Comparison of the binding of the dyes Sudan II and Sudan IV to bovine hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haoyu; Xia, Qing; Liu, Rutao, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2014-04-15

    Sudan dyes are widely used in industry, and sometimes illegally used as food additives despite their potential toxicity. In this work, the interactions of Sudan II and Sudan IV with bovine hemoglobin (BHb) were investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, resonance light scattering (RLS), UV–vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and molecular modeling techniques. Binding of Sudan dyes to BHb could cause static quenching of the fluorescence, indicating changes in the microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues. The binding constants estimated for Sudan II and IV were 1.84×10{sup 4} L mol{sup −1} and 2.54×10{sup 4} L mol{sup −1}, respectively, at 293 K (20 °C). Each protein molecule bound one Sudan molecule approximately. Sudan II and IV were held at the hydrophobic cavity of BHb mainly by hydrophobic interaction. The decrease of α-helix and the increase of β-sheet seen in the CD spectra revealed a conformational alteration of the protein. From all the results, we conclude that Sudan IV has a stronger impact on the structure and function of BHb than that of Sudan II. -- Highlights: • Spectroscopic results show interaction details of Sudan II and IV with BHb. • The interaction of BHb with Sudan dyes is spontaneous with a 1:1 stoichiometry. • Sudan II and IV are located at the hydrophobic cavity of the BHb, and form complexes via hydrophobic interaction. • A stronger influence of bovine hemoglobin is caused by Sudan IV than that of Sudan II.

  8. A probe to study the toxic interaction of tartrazine with bovine hemoglobin at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yating; Wei, Haoran; Liu, Rutao

    2014-03-01

    Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in food products, but tartrazine in the environment is potentially harmful. The toxic interaction between tartrazine and bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was investigated using fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular modeling techniques under simulated physiological conditions. The fluorescence data showed that tartrazine can bind with BHb to form a complex. The binding process was a spontaneous molecular interaction, in which van der Waals' forces and hydrogen bonds played major roles. Molecular docking results showed that the hydrogen bonds exist between the oxygen atoms at position 31 of tartrazine and the nitrogen atom NZ7 on Lys99, and also between the oxygen atoms at position 15 of tartrazine and the nitrogen atom NZ7 on Lys104, Lys105. The results of UV-vis and CD spectra revealed that tartrazine led to conformational changes in BHb, including loosening of the skeleton structure and decreasing α helix in the secondary structure. The synchronous fluorescence experiment revealed that tartrazine binds into the hemoglobin central cavity, and this was verified using a molecular modeling study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Obtaining antimicrobial peptides by controlled peptic hydrolysis of bovine hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adje, Estelle Yaba; Balti, Rafik; Kouach, Mostafa; Dhulster, Pascal; Guillochon, Didier; Nedjar-Arroume, Naïma

    2011-08-01

    Under standard conditions, the peptides and specially the active peptides were obtained from either the denatured hemoglobin that all structures are completely modified or either the native hemoglobin where all structures are intact. In these conditions, antibacterial peptides were isolated from a very complex peptidic hydrolysate which contains more than one hundred peptides having various sizes and characteristics, involving a complex purification process. The new hydrolysis conditions were obtained by using 40% methanol, 30% ethanol, 20% propanol or 10% butanol. These conditions, where only the secondary structure of hemoglobin retains intact, were followed in order to enrich the hydrolyzed hemoglobin by active peptides or obtain new antibacterial peptides. In these controlled peptic hydrolysis of hemoglobin, a selective and restrictive hydrolysate contained only 29 peptides was obtained. 26 peptides have an antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Listeria innocua, and Escherichia coli with MIC from 187.1 to 1 μM. Among these peptides, 13 new antibacterial peptides are obtained only in these new hydrolysis conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectrofluorometric and Molecular Modeling Studies on Binding of Nitrite Ion with Bovine Hemoglobin: Effect of Nitrite Ion on Amino Acid Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrakian, T.; Bagheri, H.; Afkhami, A.

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between nitrite ion and bovine hemoglobin was investigated by a spectrofluorometric technique. The experimental results indicated that the interaction causes a static quenching of the fluorescence of bovine hemoglobin, that the binding reaction is spontaneous, and that H-bonding interactions play a major role in binding of this ion to bovine hemoglobin. The formation constant for this interaction was calculated. Based on Förster's theory of nonradiative energy transfer, the binding distance between this ion and bovine hemoglobin was determined. Furthermore, the interaction of nitrite ion with tyrosine and tryptophan was investigated with synchronous fluorescence. There was no significant shift of the maximum emission wavelength with interactions of the mentioned ion with bovine hemoglobin, which implies that interaction of nitrite ion with bovine hemoglobin does not affect the microenvironment around the tryptophan and tyrosine residues. Furthermore, the effect of nitrite ion on amino acid residues of bovine hemoglobin was studied by a molecular docking technique.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of aba-type copolymers for encapsulation of bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Felipe F.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2012-01-01

    The use of biopolymers for the development of oxygen carriers has been extensively investigated. In this work, three different ABA triblock copolymers were synthesized and used to encapsulate purified bovine hemoglobin, using a double emulsion technique. The effect of polymer composition, homogenization velocity, and addition of a surfactant, on the protein entrapment was evaluated. These copolymers, which have a hydrophilic block, achieved higher values of encapsulation efficiency than the corresponding homopolymers. The increase in homogenization strength also promoted an increase in encapsulation efficiency. Capsules formation occurred even in the absence of PVA. (author)

  12. Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-08

    protein that transports oxygen in the body by binding oxygen from the air that is inhaled into the lungs, carrying it throughout the circulatory system ...hemoglobin in the tissues. This classic relationship between hemoglobin structure and function has become a model for the study of cooperative protein systems ...will be 6 required to define precisely the connection between hemoglobin structure and the thermodynamics of 02 binding. Thus, understanding the

  13. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles encapsulated in a bovine hemoglobin microgel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Puja J.

    This study shows the successful synthesis and characterization of a novel material that is composed of iron oxide particles within a protein gel. During the synthesis, bovine hemoglobin surrounds the forming Fe 3O4 nanoparticles, resulting in a biocompatible hydrogel, which has the potential to be used as a targeted drug delivery vehicle and as an MRI contrast agent. The structure, size, and thermal stability of these hydrogel complexes were analyzed using a range of techniques. Powder x-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy indicated the presence of Fe3O 4 and hemoglobin without significant interactions between particles in the solid state. Microscopy analysis determined the average size of these microgel complexes to be 4-9 mum2 in area (˜2-3 mum in diameter), and DSC analysis indicated that none of the microgels exhibited a denaturing or unfolding transition below 54°C regardless of the iron: hemoglobin ratio. Initial testing has been performed on the ability of these materials to act as magnetically activated drug delivery vehicles. Other pertinent tests (for magnetic properties and MRI applicability) are currently proceeding at external labs.

  14. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of two bovine hemoglobin-based plasma expanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, C.L.; DeLoach, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carrier was successfully transfused into rats. An ultrapure lipid-free bovine Hb was prepared by hypotonic dialysis and ultrafiltration. The Hb was polymerized with glutaraldehyde and the P50 was 24.3 mm Hg. On the basis of immunological analysis, immuno blot, the Hb preparations were not antigenic. A second transfusion produced no adverse immunological side effects. A right shift in P50 was obtained by further treatment of polymerized Hb with inositol hexaphosphate; however, this Hb preparation was unsuitable for transfusion as all animals died within a few minutes. A 30% exchange transfusion in rats with the polymerized bovine Hb resulted in a 100% survival of all animals. P50 values of treated animals were reduced by about 2 mm Hg for 14 days. The Hb product circulated for 14 days as determined by 51 Cr labeling. Ultrapure bovine Hb has the potential to circulate and carry oxygen in rats and causes no immunological side effects

  15. Attributes of lipid oxidation due to bovine myoglobin, hemoglobin and hemolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, Wenjing; Richards, Mark P

    2017-11-01

    Bovine hemolysate was purified by size exclusion chromatography, and one high molecular weight protein was detected relative to the hemoglobin (Hb) fraction. Purified Hb promoted lipid oxidation in washed muscle slightly but significantly better than hemolysate, which may have been due to the absence of catalase and peroxiredoxin in the purified Hb. Purified Hb auto-oxidized to metHb more rapidly than Hb in the hemolysate (Poxidation in washed muscle more effectively compared to oxyMb (Poxidation more readily than oxidative forms of Mb that retain their protoporphyrin moiety. A 3:1 ratio of Mb:Hb promoted lipid oxidation similarly compared to adding a 1:1 ratio of Mb:Hb to washed muscle. Lipid oxidation products due to Hb-mediated lipid oxidation were elevated 60-fold at pH 6.3 compared to pH 6.7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on the Mechanism of Interaction between Phthalate Acid Esters and Bovine Hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhenxing; Zhao, Jing; You, Hong; Wang, Mingjing

    2016-08-03

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are widely used in plastic products as a series of chemical softeners. However, PAEs, which now exist in many environmental media such as the atmosphere, water, and soil, have been shown to be environmental endocrine disruptors. Hemoglobin is a functional protein that carries oxygen in the red blood cells of animals. This study aims at revealing the interactions between bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and PAEs using spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The results indicate that the selected representative PAEs-dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-can interact with BHb to form BHb-PAE complexes with one binding site, mainly relying on hydrophobic forces, with the affinity order DMP > DEP > DBP, opposite to the order of side-chain length. The binding of PAEs can cause conformational and micro-environmental changes in BHb, which may affect the physiological functions of Hb. Furthermore, molecular docking was applied to define the specific binding sites, the results of which show that all the three PAEs can bind into the central cavity of BHb. The study contributes to expound the toxic mechanism of PAEs in vivo from the point of hematological toxicology.

  17. Interactions of hemin with bovine serum albumin and human hemoglobin: A fluorescence quenching study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    The binding interactions between hemin (Hmi) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) or human hemoglobin (HHb), respectively, have been examined in aqueous solution at pH = 7.4, applying UV-vis absorption, as well as steady-state, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. Representative results received for both BSA and HHb intrinsic fluorescence proceeding from the interactions with hemin suggest the formation of stacking non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes in both the Hmi-BSA and Hmi-HHb systems, with highly possible concurrent formation of a coordinate bond between a group on the protein surface and the metal in Hmi molecule. All the values of calculated parameters, the binding, fluorescence quenching and bimolecular quenching rate constants point to the involvement of static quenching in both the systems studied. The blue shift in the synchronous fluorescence spectra imply the participation of both tryptophan and tyrosine residues in quenching of BSA and HHb intrinsic fluorescence. Depicted outcomes suggest that hemin is supposedly able to influence the physiological functions of BSA and HHb, the most important blood proteins, particularly in case of its overuse.

  18. Magnetic-graphene based molecularly imprinted polymer nanocomposite for the recognition of bovine hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junxia; Wang, Yuzhi; Liu, Yanjin; Zhang, Cenjin; Zhou, Yigang

    2015-11-01

    The protein imprinted technique combining surface imprinting and nanomaterials has been an attractive strategy for recognition and rapid separation of proteins. In this work, magnetic-graphene (MG) was chosen as the supporting substrate for the magnetic nanomaterials, which served to absorb the targeting imprinting molecules, bovine hemoglobin (BHb). Acryl amide (AAm) with a high affinity to BHb and N,N'- methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) were selected as the functional monomer and cross-linking agent, respectively. After in-situ polymerization, the proposed magnetic-graphene based molecularly imprinted polymer (MG-MIP) was obtained with a further extraction step of imprinted BHb. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), raman spectroscopy(RS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were employed to characterize the resulted MG-MIP. The maximum adsorption capability (Qmax) was determined by Langmuir Isotherm Plots and was 186.73 mg/g for imprinted nanomaterials (MIP) with an imprinting factor of 1.96. The selectivity of MG-MIP was investigated by using several proteins that are different in molecular mass and isoelectric points as the reference. The results showed that the shape memory effect of imprinted cavities, the size of proteins and the charge effect of proteins were the major factors for the selective recognition. The proposed method was also employed to specifically capture BHb from a binary protein mixture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of 9-hydroxy-artemisinin with artemisinin: interaction with bovine hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Mengsi; Yuan, Xiuxue; Xie, Wenli; Ge, Xuefeng [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Analysis and Testing Center, Key Laboratory of applied photochemistry, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Yanhuai [Department of Physical Science and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Lin, E-mail: zhoulin@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Analysis and Testing Center, Key Laboratory of applied photochemistry, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Jiahong, E-mail: zhoujiahong@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Analysis and Testing Center, Key Laboratory of applied photochemistry, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Shen, Jian [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Analysis and Testing Center, Key Laboratory of applied photochemistry, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-04-15

    In this article, the UV–vis absorption, steady state/time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence, circular dichrosim (CD) spectroscopy are used to investigate the interaction of artemisinin (QHS) and 9-hydroxy-artemisinin (9-OH QHS) with BHb, respectively. The UV–vis studies present that QHS and 9-OH QHS can disturb the structure of bovine hemoglobin (BHb). Fluorescence data presents that the binding constant of QHS and 9-OH QHS with BHb complex at 298 K is 4.32×10{sup 5} and 5.98×10{sup 5} M{sup −1}. CD spectra indicate QHS and 9-OH QHS can change the conformation of BHb. The comparison results suggest that the binding of BHb with 9-OH QHS is more stable and stronger than QHS, which means the structure modification of 9-OH QHS is meaningful. - Highlights: • QHS and 9-OH QHS both induce the heme group of BHb • QHS and 9-OH QHS both can change the polarity of BHb • The interaction between BHb and 9-OH QHS is stronger than QHS.

  20. Decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin required for physician notification reduces the rate of blood transfusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson EA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric A Larson,1 Paul A Thompson,1,2 Zachary K Anderson,3 Keith A Anderson,4 Roxana A Lupu,1 Vicki Tigner,5 Wendell W Hoffman6,7 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Fairview Health Services, Edina, MN, 4Department of Laboratory Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 5Medical Staff Services, 6Department of Infectious Disease, Sanford Health, Sanford USD Medical Center, 7Department of Infectious Disease, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, USAAbstract: Red blood cell transfusions have been cited as one of the most overused therapeutic interventions in the USA. Excessively aggressive transfusion practices may be driven by mandatory physician notification of critical hemoglobin values that do not generally require transfusion. We examined the effect of decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin from 8 to 7 g/dL at our institution. Along with this change, mandatory provider notification for readings between 7 and 8 g/dL was rescinded. Transfusion rates were compared retrospectively during paired 5-month periods for patients presenting in three key hemoglobin ranges (6.00–6.99, 7.00–7.99, and 8.00–8.99 g/dL. A change in transfusion practices was hypothesized in the 7–8 g/dL range, which was no longer labeled critical and for which mandated physician calls were rescinded. Transfusion rates showed a statistically significant 8% decrease (P≤0.0001 during the 5-month period post change in our transfusion practices. This decrease in the 7.00–7.99 g/dL range was significantly greater than the 2% decrease observed in either the 6–6.99 g/dL (P=0.0017 or 8–8.99 g/dL (P≤0.0001 range. Cost savings of up to $700,000/year were extrapolated from our results showing 491 fewer units of red blood cells transfused during the 5-month post change. These cost

  1. Magnetic silica-coated sub-microspheres with immobilized metal ions for the selective removal of bovine hemoglobin from bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Cheng, Dan; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic silica-coated magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) sub-microspheres with immobilized metal-affinity ligands are prepared for protein adsorption. First, magnetite sub-microspheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Then silica was coated on the surface of Fe(3)O(4) particles using a sol-gel method to obtain magnetic silica sub-microspheres with core-shell morphology. Next, the trichloro(4-chloromethylphenyl) silane was immobilized on them, reacted with iminodiacetic acid (IDA), and charged with Cu(2+). The obtained magnetic silica sub-microspheres with immobilized Cu(2+) were applied for the absorption of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and the removal of BHb from bovine blood. The size, morphology, and magnetic properties of the resulting magnetic micro(nano) spheres were investigated by using scanning microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The measurements showed that the magnetic sub-microspheres are spherical in shape, very uniform in size with a core-shell, and are almost superparamagnetic. The saturation magnetization of silica-coated magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) sub-microspheres reached about 33 emu g(-1). Protein adsorption results showed that the sub-microspheres had a high adsorption capacity for BHb (418.6 mg g(-1)), low nonspecific adsorption, and good removal of BHb from bovine blood. This opens a novel route for future applications in removing abundant proteins in proteomic analysis.

  2. Selective adsorption of bovine hemoglobin on functional TiO2 nano-adsorbents: surface physic-chemical properties determined adsorption activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shiguang; Zhang, Jianghua; Shao, Mingxue; Zhang, Xia; Liu, Yufeng; Xu, Junli; Meng, Hao; Han, Yide

    2015-04-01

    Surface functionalized nanoparticles are efficient adsorbents which have shown good potential for protein separation. In this work, we chose two different types of organic molecules, oleic acid (OA) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPTMS), to functionalize the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles, and we studied the effects of this modification on their surface physicochemical properties in correlation with their selective adsorption of proteins. The results showed that the surface zeta potential and the surface water wettability of the modified TiO2 were significantly changed in comparison with the original TiO2 nanoparticles. The adsorption activities of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on these functionalized TiO2 samples were investigated under different conditions, including pH values, contact time, ion strength, and initial protein concentration. In comparison with the non-specific adsorption of original TiO2, however, both the OA-TiO2 and GPTMS-TiO2 exhibited increased BHb adsorption and decreased BSA adsorption at the same time. Using a binary protein mixture as the adsorption object, a higher separation factor (SF) was obtained for OA-TiO2 under optimum conditions. The different adsorption activities of BHb and BSA on the modified TiO2 were correlated with different interactions at the protein/solid interface, and the chemical force as well as the electrostatic force played an important role in the selective adsorption process.

  3. Spectrophotometry of hemoglobin : Absorption spectra of bovine oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, WG; Buursma, A

    1997-01-01

    The absorptivity at 540 nm of bovine hemiglobincyanide (cyanmethemoglobin) was determined on the basis of the iron content and found to be equal to the established value for human hemiglobincyanide (11.0 L . mmol(-1).cm(-1)). On this basis the absorption spectra of the common derivatives were

  4. A new polyethyleneglycol-derivatized hemoglobin derivative with decreased oxygen affinity and limited toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolog, Oana; Mot, Augustin; Deac, Florina; Roman, Alina; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol is described for derivatization of hemoglobin with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via reaction of the unmodified native hemoglobin with an activated amine-reacting polyethylene glycol derivative which, unlike protocols previously described, leads to formation of a peptide bond between hemoglobin and PEG. Dioxygen binding and peroxide reactivities of the derivatized hemoglobin are examined, and found to be within reasonable limits, with the particular observation that, unlike with a few other derivatization protocols, the dioxygen affinity is slightly lower than that of native Hb. In cell culture tests (human umbilical vein epithelial cells, HUVEC), the derivatization protocol induces no toxic effect. These results show promise towards applicability for production of hemoglobin-based blood substitutes.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the α and β chains of bovine hemoglobin and globin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, W.

    1981-01-01

    Hemoglobin was obtained from the blood of lowland black and white cattle with HbA phenotype. Water solutions of hemoglobin (Hb) or globin (Gl) in 20 mM KH 2 PO 4 were γ-irradiated with a dose of 2 Mrad, and the amino acid composition of α and β chains of control and irradiated Hb and Gl was analyzed. Quantitative differences were found between the radiation sensitivities of α and β chains of Hb and Gl. A sequence of radiation sensitivity of individual amino acids in α and β chains of Hb and Gl was determined. In the β chains, amino acid destruction was considerably higher than in α chains. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis which showed that Cys, Met, Tyr, Arg, Ser, Thr, Pro, and His residues were most destroyed or modified following irradiation

  6. Calorimetric and spectroscopic properties of small globular proteins (bovine serum albumin, hemoglobin) after free radical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, N.; Belagyi, J.; Lorinczy, D.

    2003-01-01

    Mild oxidation of -SH-containing proteins (serum albumin, hemoglobin) by Ce(IV)-ions in the presence of the spin trap phenyl-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) resulted in the appearance of strongly immobilized nitroxide free radicals which evidences the formation of thiyl radicals on the thiol site of the proteins. In hydroxyl free radical generating system a fraction of strongly immobilized nitroxide radicals was also detected in these proteins, which implies that the oxidation of a fraction of the thiol groups was also involved in the free radical reaction. According to the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments the melting processes of the proteins were calorimetrically irreversible, therefore the two-state kinetic model was used to evaluate the experiments. The results support the view that site-specific interaction of SH-containing proteins with hydroxyl and thiyl free radicals is able to modify the internal dynamics of proteins and affect the conformation of large molecules

  7. EFFICIENCY OF PHARMACOTHERAPY IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS, AS EVALUATED BY DECREASED CONCENTRATIONS OF FREE HEMOGLOBIN IN NASAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mokronosova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Forty four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis and sensitization to the house dust mites were observed. All the patients have been examined in conformity with international diagnostic standards. The first group of observation included fifteen patients who received intranasal therapy by flutikasone propionate nasal spray at a dose of 200 mkg once a day for two weeks. The second group of observation included fourteen patients who received 10 inhalations of Affinoleukin® (a lyophilized complex of low molecular weight proteins from human leukocyte membranes with glycine, as aerosol, at a single dose of 2 units. Fifteen non-treated patients comprised a group of comparison. Eosinophil counts and concentrations of free hemoglobin (by immunometrical method in co-agglutination reaction were made in nasal secretions twice (before treatment and two weeks later. It was found that the increase of free hemoglobin levels, as well as increase in eosinophil count in nasal secretions represents a symptom typical of exacerbation in persistent allergic rhinitis and reflects severity of disease. The therapy led to significant clinical improvement, decrease in free hemoglobin levels and eosinophil counts in nasal secretions, corresponding to clinical effect of both therapeutic modes of topical pharmacotherapy, resp., in 73% and 79% of the patients with persisting allergic rhinitis. Decrease in free hemoglobin level has allowed for the first time to reveal the immunotherapeutic efficiency of treatment with Affinoleukin® aerosol during exacerbations of persisting allergic rhinitis.

  8. Cationic amylose-encapsulated bovine hemoglobin as a nanosized oxygen carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Sha, Baoyong; Zou, Wei; Liang, Xuan; Meng, Xiangzhong; Xu, Hao; Tang, Jun; Wu, Daocheng; Xu, Lixian; Zhang, Hui

    2011-12-01

    Nanosized hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers are one of the most promising blood substitutes. In the present study, a comprehensive strategy for the preparation of nanosized cationic amylose-encapsulated hemoglobins (NCAHbs) was developed. First, cationic amylase (CA) was synthesized from amylose and quaternary ammonium salt by an etherification reaction. The structure of CA was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrophotometry ((1)H NMR). The degree of substitution and the zeta potential were also measured. Then, the NCAHbs were prepared by electrostatic adhesion, reverse micelles and cross-linking. The UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the entrapment efficiency (EE%) and drug loading efficiency (DL%) of the NCAHbs. Transmission electron microscopy and Malvern Nano-zs 90 analyzer were used to observe the size distribution and morphology of particles. Chemical structure was determined from the FTIR spectrum. A Hemox analyzer was used to measure the P(50) and Hill coefficients. A lethal hemorrhagic shock model in rats was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the NCAHbs. The results showed that the combined methods improved the size, stability, EE%, DL%, and oxygen-carrying capacity of the NCAHbs. The average diameter of the NCAHbs was 92.53 ± 3.64 nm, with a narrow polydispersity index of 0.027. The EE% was 80.05% ± 1.56% and DL% was 61.55% ± 1.41%. The P(50) and Hill coefficient were equal to 28.96 ± 1.33 mmHg and 2.55 ± 0.22, respectively. The size of NCAHbs remained below 200 nm for six days in PBS solution. The NCAHbs could effectively prevent lung injury from progressing to lethal hemorrhagic shock because they acted as both a volume expander and an oxygen carrier. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bee Venom Decreases LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang Hee; Cheng, Wei Nee; Bae, Hyojin; Lee, Kyung Woo; Han, Sang Mi; Petriello, Michael C; Lee, Hong Gu; Seo, Han Geuk; Han, Sung Gu

    2017-10-28

    The world dairy industry has long been challenged by bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disease, which causes economic loss due to decreased milk production and quality. Attempts have been made to prevent or treat this disease with multiple approaches, primarily through increased abuse of antibiotics, but effective natural solutions remain elusive. Bee venom (BV) contains a variety of peptides ( e.g. , melittin) and shows multiple bioactivities, including prevention of inflammation. Thus, in the current study, it was hypothesized that BV can reduce inflammation in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T). To examine the hypothesis, cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/ml) to induce an inflammatory response and the anti-inflammatory effects of BV (2.5 and 5 μg/ml) were investigated. The cellular mechanisms of BV against LPS-induced inflammation were also investigated. Results showed that BV can attenuate expression of an inflammatory protein, COX2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Activation of NF-κB, an inflammatory transcription factor, was significantly downregulated by BV in cells treated with LPS, through dephosphorylation of ERK1/2. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with BV attenuated LPS-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species ( e.g. , superoxide anion). These results support our hypothesis that BV can decrease LPS-induced inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells through inhibition of oxidative stress, NF-κB, ERK1/2, and COX-2 signaling.

  10. Interaction of Cefpiramide sodium with bovine hemoglobin and effect of the coexistent metal ion on the protein-drug association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiaona; Liu, Baosheng, E-mail: lbs@hbu.edu.cn; Chong, Baohong; Cao, Shina

    2013-10-15

    The interaction between bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and cefpiramide sodium (CPMS) was investigated at different temperatures by fluorescence, UV absorption, and CD spectroscopy, as well as the effect of common metal ions (Mg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}) on the BHb–CPMS system. Results showed that CPMS could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BHb strongly, and the quenching mechanism was a static quenching process. The electrostatic force played an important role on the conjugation reaction between BHb and CPMS. The order of magnitude of binding constants (K{sub a}) was 10{sup 4}, the number of binding site (n) in the binary system was approximately equal to 1 and the binding distance (r) was about 3.08 nm. Besides, the values of Hill's coefficients were approximately equal to 1, which indicated there was almost no cooperativity in CPMS's binding with BHb. Synchronous spectra and CD spectra revealed that the microenvironment and the conformation of BHb were changed during the binding reaction. Studies on the interaction between BHb and drug will facilitate interpretation of the drug's metabolism and transporting process in the blood, and will help to explain the relationship between structures and functions of BHb. -- Highlights: • CPMS could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BHb strongly through a static quenching process. • Electrostatic force played an important role on the conjugation reaction between BHb and CPMS. • The microenvironment and conformation of BHb were changed during the binding reaction.

  11. Histopathologic Study Following Administration of Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin in the Normovolemic Rat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudolph, Alan

    1995-01-01

    ... bovine hemoglobin in the normovolemic rat. We have also examined the administration of the liposome vehicle, tetrameric bovine hemoglobin, and liposome encapsulated bovine hemoglobin that had been lyophilized with 300 mM trehalose...

  12. Heterozygote Hemoglobin G-Coushatta as the Cause of a Falsely Decreased Hemoglobin A1C in an Ion-Exchange HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtoğlu Ayşegül Uğur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is used for the assessment of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The presence of genetic variants of hemoglobin can profoundly affect the accuracy of HbA1c measurement. Here, we report two cases of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta (HBB:c.68A>C variant that interferes in the measurement of HbA1c by a cation-exchange HPLC (CE-HPLC method. HbA1c was measured by a CE-HPLC method in a Tosoh HLC-723 G7 instrument. The HbA1c levels were 2.9% and 4%. These results alerted us to a possible presence of hemoglobinopathy. In the hemoglobin variant analysis, HbA2 levels were detected as 78.3% and 40.7% by HPLC using the short program for the Biorad Variant II. HbA1c levels were measured by an immunoturbidimetric assay in a Siemens Dimension instrument. HbA1c levels were reported as 5.5% and 5.3%. DNA mutation analysis was performed to detect the abnormal hemoglobin variant. Presence of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta variant was detected in the patients. The Hb G-Coushatta variants have an impact on the determination of glycated hemoglobin levels using CEHPLC resulting in a false low value. Therefore, it is necessary to use another measurement method.

  13. SREBP-1c Gene Silencing can Decrease Lipid Deposits in Bovine Hepatocytes Cultured in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Deng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is a major metabolic disorder that occurs during early lactation in high-producing dairy cows. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c is an important transcription factor that regulates lipid synthesis by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism genes. Methods: In this study, we reduced the expression of SREBP-1c by adenovirus-mediated SREBP-1c with a low expression vector (AD-GFP-SREBP-1c to study the effects of SREBP-1c on lipid deposits in bovine hepatocytes. The expression levels and enzyme activities of SERBP-1c and its target genes were determined by real-time PCR, western blot, and ELISA. Results: These results showed that Ad-GFP-SREBP-1c could inhibit SREBP-1c expression. The expression of the lipid synthesis enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC was down-regulated. The expression levels of the lipid oxidation enzymes long-chain fatty acyl-COA synthetase (ACSL-1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase І (CPT-І, carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT- II, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA-DH (HADH were significantly elevated. Furthermore, the expression levels of factors involved in the assembly and transport of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs, such as apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB, apolipoprotein E (ApoE, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP were decreased comparison with the negative control and the blank control groups, but the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR was elevated. The concentrations of TG (triglyceride and VLDL were also reduced. Conclusion: These data suggest that low SREBP-1c expression can decrease lipid synthesis, increase lipid oxidation, and decrease the TG and VLDL content in bovine hepatocytes.

  14. Adsorption of bovine hemoglobin onto spherical polyelectrolyte brushes monitored by small-angle X-ray scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzler, Katja; Wittemann, Alexander; Breininger, Eugenia; Ballauff, Matthias; Rosenfeldt, Sabine

    2007-11-01

    The adsorption of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) onto colloidal spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPBs) is studied by a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The SPBs consist of a polystyrene core onto which long chains of poly(styrene sulfonic acid) are grafted. Hemoglobin is a tetrameric protein that disassembles at low pH's and high ionic strengths. The protein is embedded into the brush layer composed of strong polyacids. Thus, the protein is subjected to a pH and ionic strength that largely differs from the bulk solution. At low ionic strengths up to 650 mg of BHb per gram of SPB could be immobilized. The analysis of the particles loaded with protein by SAXS demonstrates that the protein enters deeply into the brush. A large fraction of hemoglobin is bound at the surface of the polystyrene core. We attribute this strong affinity to hydrophobic interactions between the protein and the polystyrene core. The other protein molecules are closely correlated with the polyelectrolyte chains. The secondary structure of the protein within the brush was studied by FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis revealed a significant disturbance of the secondary structure of the tetrameric protein. The content of alpha-helix is significantly lowered compared to the native conformation. Moreover, there is an increase of beta-sheet structure as compared to the native conformation. The partial loss of the structural integrity of the hydrophobic protein is due to hydrophobic interactions with the hydrophobic polystyrene core. Hydrophobic interactions with the phenyl groups of the poly(styrene sulfonate) chains influence the secondary structure as well. These findings indicate that changes of the secondary structure play a role in the uptake of hemoglobin into the poly(styrene sulfonate) brushes.

  15. Bovine lactoferrin decreases cholera-toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice by ganglioside interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton P Rivera

    Full Text Available Secretory diarrhea caused by cholera toxin (CT is initiated by binding of CT's B subunit (CTB to GM1-ganglioside on the surface of intestinal cells. Lactoferrin, a breast milk glycoprotein, has shown protective effect against several enteropathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of bovine-lactoferrin (bLF on CT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice, and the interaction between bLF and CT/CTB with the GM1-ganglioside receptor. Fluid accumulation induced by CT was evaluated in the mouse ileal loop model using 56 BALB/c mice, with and without bLF added before, after or at the same time of CT administration. The effect of bLF in the interaction of CT and CTB with GM1-ganglioside was evaluated by a GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. bLF decreased CT-induced fluid accumulation in the ileal loop of mice. The greatest effect was when bLF was added before CT (median, 0.066 vs. 0.166 g/cm, with and without bLF respectively, p<0.01. We conclude that bLF decreases binding of CT and CTB to GM1-ganglioside, suggesting that bLF suppresses CT-induced fluid accumulation by blocking the binding of CTB to GM1-ganglioside. bLF may be effective as adjunctive therapy for treatment of cholera diarrhea.

  16. Structural and oxygen-binding properties of divinyl-sulfone-reacted bovine hemoglobin as a function of protein ligation state and reactant concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, E

    1994-01-01

    Bovine hemoglobin (HbBv) was reacted with divinyl sulfone (DVS) at 2-4 degrees C and pH 7.4 for 24 h. Two procedures were employed: (1) low concentration (conc.) of oxygenated HbBv (ligand O2) and low molar ratio of DVS/oxyHbBv (25 ml of 8% oxyHbBv, 0.01 M DVS); (2) low conc. of deoxygenated HbBv (no ligand) and low DVS/deoxyHbBv molar ratio (25 ml of 8% deoxyHbBv, 0.01 M DVS). The nonpolymerized purified products of procedures 1 and 2 were designated oxyHbBv-DVS and HbBv-DVS. Utilizing a high conc. solution of oxyHbBv-DVS and a relatively high molar ratio of DVS/oxyHbBv-DVS (25 ml of 15% oxyHbBv-DVS, 0.03 M DVS) it was possible to aerobically polymerize the modified hemoglobin (procedure 3). Similarly it was possible to anaerobically polymerize HbBv-DVS (25 ml of 15% HbBv-DVS, 0.03 M DVS)(procedure 4). The polymerized products of procedures 3 and 4 were designated oxyPoly HbBv-DVS and Poly HbBv-DVS. The four isolated products were characterized structurally using SDS-PAGE and gel-permeation HPLC and functionally employing a Hemox-analyzer at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4 and 0.15 M Cl. Both oxyPoly HbBv-DVS (P50 = 13 mm Hg, n = 1.1) and Poly HbBv-DVS (P50 = 61 mm Hg, n = 1.6) were shown to be mixtures of intermolecularly-crosslinked hemoglobin. OxyHbBv-DVS (P50 = 13 mm Hg, n = 1.3) was shown to be an intramolecularly-crosslinked 64 kDa material, whereas HbBv-DVS (P50 = 52 mm Hg, n = 1.9) was found to be an intramolecularly-modified 64 kDa derivative, but not an intramolecularly-crosslinked one.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Recognition and determination of bovine hemoglobin using a gold electrode modified with gold nanoparticles and molecularly imprinted self-polymerized dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lu; Fan, Limei; Dai, Yunlong; Kan, Xianwen

    2015-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared by self-polymerization of dopamine in the presence of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and then deposited on the surface of an electrode modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and differential pulse voltammetry were employed to characterize the modified electrode using the hexacyanoferrate redox system as an electroactive probe. The effects of BHb concentration, dopamine concentration, and polymerization time were optimized. Under optimized conditions, the modified electrode selectively recognizes BHb even in the presence of other proteins. The peak current for hexacyanoferrate, typically measured at + 0.17 V (vs. SCE), depends on the concentration of BHb in the 1.0 × 10 −11 to 1.0 × 10 −2 mg mL −1 range. Due to the ease of preparation and tight adherence of polydopamine to various support materials, the present strategy conceivably also provides a platform for the recognition and detection of other proteins. (author)

  18. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  19. Hemoglobin and mean platelet volume predicts diffuse T1-MRI white matter volume decrease in sickle cell disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Choi

    2017-01-01

    Our findings suggest that there are diffuse white matter abnormalities in SCD patients, especially in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, that are associated with low hemoglobin levels and mean platelet volume. The pattern of brain loss suggests chronic microvascular insufficiency and tissue hypoxia as the causal mechanism. However, longitudinal studies of global and regional brain morphometry can help us give further insights on the pathophysiology of SCD in the brain.

  20. ITPA polymorphism effects on decrease of hemoglobin during sofosbuvir and ribavirin combination treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Kei; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Nakahara, Takashi; Nagaoki, Yuko; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Akira; Aikata, Hiroshi; Hayes, Clair Nelson; Makokha, Grace Naswa; Ochi, Hidenori; Amano, Hajime; Arataki, Keiko; Moriya, Takashi; Ito, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Keiji; Kohno, Hiroshi; Waki, Koji; Tamura, Toru; Nakamura, Toshio; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-06-01

    Polymorphisms in the inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene is associated with anemia induced by peg-interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the effect of ITPA polymorphism on sofosbuvir plus RBV treatment is unknown. Two hundred and forty-four patients with chronic HCV genotype 2 infection without decompensated liver cirrhosis were treated with sofosbuvir plus RBV for 12 weeks. The effects of ITPA polymorphism on hemoglobin levels and RBV dose reduction and treatment response were analyzed. ITPA (rs1127354) was genotyped using the Invader assay. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with sustained virological response (SVR). Overall, SVR12 was achieved in 231 (94.7%) patients, based on intention to treat analysis. During the therapy, reduction of hemoglobin levels was significantly greater in ITPA genotype CC patients than CA/AA patients. Therefore, the cumulative proportion of patients with RBV dose reduction was significantly higher and total dose of RBV was significantly lower in patients with CC genotype compared to CA/AA genotypes. SVR12 rates were similar between ITPA genotypes CC and CA/AA (94.7 and 94.4%, respectively, P = 0.933). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified FIB4 index <3.25 (odds ratio [OR], 9.388 for ≥3.25; P = 0.005) and low body weight (OR, 1.059, for high body weight; P = 0.017) as independent predictors for SVR12. ITPA polymorphism influences hemoglobin levels and incidence of RBV dose reduction during sofosbuvir plus RBV therapy. However, ITPA genotype CC patients can expect a curative effect equivalent to CA/AA patients for chronic HCV genotype 2 infection.

  1. Cerebral oxygen transport failure?: decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after ischemic stroke predict poor outcome and mortality: STroke: RelevAnt Impact of hemoGlobin, Hematocrit and Transfusion (STRAIGHT)--an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellert, Lars; Martin, Evgenia; Sykora, Marek; Bauer, Harald; Gussmann, Philipp; Diedler, Jennifer; Herweh, Christian; Ringleb, Peter A; Hacke, Werner; Steiner, Thorsten; Bösel, Julian

    2011-10-01

    Although conceivably relevant for penumbra oxygenation, the optimal levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) in patients with acute ischemic stroke are unknown. We identified patients from our prospective local stroke database who received intravenous thrombolysis based on multimodal magnet resonance imaging during the years 1998 to 2009. A favorable outcome at 3 months was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score≤2 and a poor outcome as a modified Rankin Scale score≥3. The dynamics of Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct), and other relevant laboratory parameters as well as cardiovascular risk factors were retrospectively assessed and analyzed between these 2 groups. Of 217 patients, 114 had a favorable and 103 a poor outcome. In a multivariable regression model, anemia until day 5 after admission (odds ratio [OR]=2.61; 95% CI, 1.33 to 5.11; P=0.005), Hb nadir (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.99; P=0.038), and Hct nadir (OR=0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.99; P=0.038) remained independent predictors for poor outcome at 3 months. Mortality after 3 months was independently associated with Hb nadir (OR=0.80; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.98; P=0.028) and Hb decrease (OR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.76; P=0.04) as well as Hct decrease (OR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.23; P=0.027). Poor outcome and mortality after ischemic stroke are strongly associated with low and further decreasing Hb and Hct levels. This decrease of Hb and Hct levels after admission might be more relevant and accessible to treatment than are baseline levels.

  2. 17β-Estradiol and progesterone decrease MDP induced NOD2 expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Gang; He, Xian-Jing; Wang, Jian-Fa; Yang, Bin; Sun, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Dong-Bo; He, Qian-Yu; Zhang, Xu; Wu, Rui

    2017-06-01

    During the periparturient period, many neuroendocrine changes develop in cows. Periparturient hormone fluxes may adversely affect mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility. 17β-Estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone (P 4 ) have been reported to function on immune regulation, and their concentration fluctuates dramatically during the perinatal period. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) mediate numerous aspects of innate immunity in humans and experimental animals. This study aimed to explore the effects of E 2 and P 4 on NOD2 expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). BMECs were isolated and purified from bovine mammary tissue and treated with E 2 /P 4 and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). After these treatments, the mRNA levels of NOD2, receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP) 2, interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) respectively, and the protein levels of NOD2 were analyzed by western blotting. The results showed that E 2 and P 4 decreased MDP-induced transcriptional expression of NOD2 and the downstream molecules. Moreover, E 2 reduced MDP-induced NOD2 protein expression levels. Our study suggests that down-regulation of NOD2 by E 2 and P 4 may be one of the reasons for mastitis susceptibility in periparturient dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phytoncide Extracted from Pinecone Decreases LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sukyung; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Hai Chon; Petriello, Michael C; Kim, Bae Yong; Do, Jeong Tae; Lim, Dae-Seog; Lee, Hong Gu; Han, Sung Gu

    2016-03-01

    Mastitis is a prevalent inflammatory disease that remains one of the main causes of poor quality of milk. Phytoncides are naturally occurring anti-inflammatory compounds derived from plants and trees. To determine if treatment with phytoncide could decrease the severity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses, mammary alveolar epithelial cells (MAC-T) were pretreated with phytoncide (0.02% and 0.04% (v/v)) followed by LPS treatment (1 and 25 μg/ml). The results demonstrated that phytoncide downregulated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Additionally, LPS-induced activation of ERK1/2, p38, and Akt was attenuated by phytoncide. Treatment of cells with known pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 (PD98059), p38 (SB203580), and Akt (LY294002) confirmed the association of these signaling pathways with the observed alterations in COX-2 expression. Moreover, phytoncide attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activation and superoxide production, and, finally, treatment with phytoncide increased Nrf2 activation. Results suggest that phytoncide can decrease LPS-induced inflammation in MAC-T cells.

  4. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Hałasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey. Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75% in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  5. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hałasa, Maciej; Maciejewska, Dominika; Baśkiewicz-Hałasa, Magdalena; Machaliński, Bogusław; Safranow, Krzysztof; Stachowska, Ewa

    2017-04-08

    Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey). Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test) and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75%) in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  6. Hemoglobin (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called ... exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance ...

  7. Hemoglobin electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003639.htm Hemoglobin electrophoresis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen in the blood. Hemoglobin electrophoresis measures the levels of the different types of ...

  8. Methylation of hemoglobin to enhance flocculant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive bioflocculant, bovine hemoglobin (Hb), has been covalently modified through methylation of the side chain carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid residues to improve its flocculation activity. Potentiometric titration of the recovered products showed approximately 28% degree of ...

  9. Decrease in the red cell cofactor 2,3-diphosphoglycerate increases hemoglobin oxygen affinity in the hibernating brown bear Ursus arctos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revsbech, Inge G; Malte, Hans; Fröbert, Ole; Evans, Alina; Blanc, Stéphane; Josefsson, Johan; Fago, Angela

    2013-01-01

    During winter hibernation, brown bears (Ursus arctos) reduce basal O(2) consumption rate to ∼25% compared with the active state, while body temperature decreases moderately (to ∼30°C), suggesting a temperature-independent component in their metabolic depression. To establish whether changes in O(2) consumption during hibernation correlate with changes in blood O(2) affinity, we took blood samples from the same six individuals of hibernating and nonhibernating free-ranging brown bears during winter and summer, respectively. A single hemoglobin (Hb) component was detected in all samples, indicating no switch in Hb synthesis. O(2) binding curves measured on red blood cell lysates at 30°C and 37°C showed a less temperature-sensitive O(2) affinity than in other vertebrates. Furthermore, hemolysates from hibernating bears consistently showed lower cooperativity and higher O(2) affinity than their summer counterparts, regardless of the temperature. We found that this increase in O(2) affinity was associated with a significant decrease in the red cell Hb-cofactor 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) during hibernation to approximately half of the summer value. Experiments performed on purified Hb, to which DPG had been added to match summer and winter levels, confirmed that the low DPG content was the cause of the left shift in the Hb-O(2) equilibrium curve during hibernation. Levels of plasma lactate indicated that glycolysis is not upregulated during hibernation and that metabolism is essentially aerobic. Calculations show that the increase in Hb-O(2) affinity and decrease in cooperativity resulting from decreased red cell DPG may be crucial in maintaining a fairly constant tissue oxygen tension during hibernation in vivo.

  10. Anemia intrahospitalaria y descenso de hemoglobina en pacientes internados Hospital-acquired anemia and decrease of hemoglobin levels in hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina V. Gianserra

    2011-06-01

    estadía hospitalaria prolongada, la presencia de leucocitosis, la hidratación parenteral y colocación de acceso venoso central fueron factores predictivos de descenso de hemoglobina = 2 g/dl.It is common to observe the development of anemia in hospitalized patients, especially in critical cases. Few studies have evaluated its prevalence and associated factors in patients in the general ward. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence, characteristics and associated clinical factors of hospital-acquired anemia and the drop of hemoglobin concentration in hospitalized patients. This is a cross-sectional, prospective and descriptive study. A total of 192 consecutive in-patients in the general ward were studied. Associated risk factors to the drop in hemoglobin by = 2g/dl were analyzed; 139 patients (72.4% presented anemia; 89 of them (46.4% had it at admission and 50 (26% developed hospital-acquired anemia, 47 out of 192 showed a drop in hemoglobin = 2 g/dl(24.48%. They also presented lower values of hematocrite and hemoglobin at discharge (p = 0.01, parenteral hydration at a higher volume (p = 0.01, and lengthier hospitalizations (p = 0.0001. In the univariate analysis, the following variables were statistically significant risk factors: leukocytosis = 11 000 mm³ (OR; IC95%: 2,02; 1.03-4; p = 0.01, hospitalization days = 7 (OR; IC95%:3.39; 1.62-7.09; p = 0.0006, parenteral hydration = 1500 ml/day (OR; IC95%: 2.47; 1.06-6.4; p = 0.01, central venous access (OR; IC95%:10.29; 1.75-108.07; p = 0.003 and hospital-acquired anemia (OR; IC95%: 7.06; 3.41-15.83; p = 0.00000004. In the multivariate analysis, the following variables were independent predictive factors of the hemoglobin decrease = 2 g/dl: leukocytosis = 11 000 mm³ (OR; IC95%: 2.45; 1.14-5,27; p = 0.02, hospitalization days = 7 (OR; IC95%:5.15; 2.19-12.07; p = 0.0002, parenteral hydration = 1500 ml/day (OR; IC95%: 2.95; 1.13-7.72; p = 0.02, central venous access (OR; IC95%:8.82; 1.37-56.82; p = 0

  11. Male bovine GH transgenic mice have decreased adiposity with an adipose depot-specific increase in immune cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benencia, Fabian; Harshman, Stephanie; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Householder, Lara; Al-Naeeli, Mawadda; Liang, Xiaoyu; Welch, Lonnie; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2015-05-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is composed of mature adipocytes and a stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains a variety of cells, including immune cells that vary among the different WAT depots. Growth hormone (GH) impacts immune function and adiposity in an adipose depot-specific manner. However, its effects on WAT immune cell populations remain unstudied. Bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice are commonly used to study the in vivo effects of GH. These giant mice have an excess of GH action, impaired glucose metabolism, decreased adiposity, increased lean mass, and a shortened lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the WAT depot-specific differences in immune cell populations in the presence of excess GH in vivo. Three WAT depots were assessed: inguinal (sc), epididymal (EPI), and mesenteric (MES). Subcutaneous and MES bGH WAT depots showed a significantly higher number of total SVF cells, yet only MES bGH WAT had higher leukocyte counts compared with control samples. By means of flow cytometry analysis of the SVF, we detected greater macrophage and regulatory T-cell infiltration in sc and MES bGH WAT depots compared with controls. However, no differences were observed in the EPI WAT depot. RNA-sequencing confirmed significant alterations in pathways related to T-cell infiltration and activation in the sc depot with fewer significant changes in the EPI bGH WAT depot. These findings collectively point to a previously unrecognized role for GH in influencing the distribution of WAT immune cell populations in a depot-specific manner.

  12. Further decrease in glycated hemoglobin following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet for 10 weeks compared to 5 weeks in people with untreated type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Mary C; Hoover, Heidi; Nuttall, Frank Q

    2010-07-29

    We previously determined that a weight-maintenance, non-ketogenic diet containing 30% carbohydrate (CHO), 30% protein, 40% fat, (30:30:40) (LoBAG30) decreased glycated hemoglobin (%tGHb) from 10.8 to 9.1% over a 5 week period in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes. Both the fasting glucose and postprandial glucose area were decreased. Our objective in the present 10-week study was to determine: 1) whether the above results could be maintained, or even improved (suggesting a metabolic adaptation) and 2) whether the subjects would accept the diet for this longer time period. In addition, protein balance, and a number of other blood and urine constituents were quantified at 5 and at 10 weeks on the LoBAG30 diet to address metabolic adaptation. Eight men with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied over a 10-week period. Blood was drawn and urine was collected over a 24 hour period at the beginning of the study with subjects ingesting a standard diet of 55% CHO, 15% protein, 30% fat, and at the end of 5 and 10 weeks following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet. Body weight was stable. Fasting glucose decreased by 19% at week 5 and 28% at week 10; 24-h total glucose area decreased by 27% at week 5 and 35% at week 10 compared to baseline. Insulin did not change. Mean %tGHb decreased by 13% at week 5, 25% at week 10, and was still decreasing linearly, indicating that a metabolic adaptation occurred. Serum NEFA, AAN, uric acid, urea, albumin, prealbumin, TSH, Total T3, free T4, B12, folate, homocysteine, creatinine, growth hormone and renin did not differ between weeks 5 and 10. IGF-1 increased modestly. Urinary glucose decreased; urinary pH and calcium were similar. A LoBAG30 diet resulted in continued improvement in glycemic control. This improvement occurred without significant weight loss, with unchanged insulin and glucagon profiles, and without deterioration in serum lipids, blood pressure or kidney function. Extending the duration of time on a LoBAG30 diet from 5 to 10

  13. Further decrease in glycated hemoglobin following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet for 10 weeks compared to 5 weeks in people with untreated type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoover Heidi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously determined that a weight-maintenance, non-ketogenic diet containing 30% carbohydrate (CHO, 30% protein, 40% fat, (30:30:40 (LoBAG30 decreased glycated hemoglobin (%tGHb from 10.8 to 9.1% over a 5 week period in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes. Both the fasting glucose and postprandial glucose area were decreased. Our objective in the present 10-week study was to determine: 1 whether the above results could be maintained, or even improved (suggesting a metabolic adaptation and 2 whether the subjects would accept the diet for this longer time period. In addition, protein balance, and a number of other blood and urine constituents were quantified at 5 and at 10 weeks on the LoBAG30 diet to address metabolic adaptation. Methods Eight men with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied over a 10-week period. Blood was drawn and urine was collected over a 24 hour period at the beginning of the study with subjects ingesting a standard diet of 55% CHO, 15% protein, 30% fat, and at the end of 5 and 10 weeks following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet. Results Body weight was stable. Fasting glucose decreased by 19% at week 5 and 28% at week 10; 24-h total glucose area decreased by 27% at week 5 and 35% at week 10 compared to baseline. Insulin did not change. Mean %tGHb decreased by 13% at week 5, 25% at week 10, and was still decreasing linearly, indicating that a metabolic adaptation occurred. Serum NEFA, AAN, uric acid, urea, albumin, prealbumin, TSH, Total T3, free T4, B12, folate, homocysteine, creatinine, growth hormone and renin did not differ between weeks 5 and 10. IGF-1 increased modestly. Urinary glucose decreased; urinary pH and calcium were similar. Conclusions A LoBAG30 diet resulted in continued improvement in glycemic control. This improvement occurred without significant weight loss, with unchanged insulin and glucagon profiles, and without deterioration in serum lipids, blood pressure or kidney function

  14. The Reaction of Oxy Hemoglobin with Nitrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hathazi, Denisa; Scurtu, Florina; Bischin, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    -peroxynitrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support this latter assignment. The reaction allows for differentiating between the reactivities of various chemically modified hemoglobins, including candidates for blood substitutes. Polymerization of hemoglobin slows the nitrite-induced oxidation, in sharp...... contrast to oxidative-stress type reactions which are generally accelerated, not inhibited. Sheep hemoglobin is found to be distinctly more resistant to reaction with nitrite compared to bovine Hb, at large nitrite concentrations (stopped-flow experiments directly observing the oxy + nitrite reaction...

  15. Enhancement of Salinity Tolerance during Rice Seed Germination by Presoaking with Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. In this report, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed presoaking by bovine hemoglobin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, on salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa plants. The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. Further analyses showed that application of hemoglobin not only increased the HO-1 gene expression, but also differentially induced catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities or transcripts, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating rice seeds subjected to salt stress. Compared with non-hemoglobin treatment, hemoglobin presoaking also increased the potassium (K to sodium (Na ratio both in the root and shoot parts after salinity stress. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination.

  16. [Solid phase reaction of hemoglobin with spillover hydrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, Iu A; Dadaian, A K; Ziganshin, R Kh; Borisov, Iu A; Kozik, V S; Dorokhova, E M; Vas'kovskiĭ, B V; Miasoedov, N F

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of high-temperature solid-state catalytic isotope exchange (HSCIE) between bovine hemoglobin and spillover hydrogen (SH) was studied. It was shown that, in the field of subunit contact, there is a significant decrease in ability for hydrogen exchange by SH. A comparison of the distribution of the isotope label in the hemoglobin alpha-subunit was carried out for the HSCIE reaction with the hemoglobin complex and with the free alpha-subunit. To this end, enzymatic hydrolysis of protein under the action of trypsin was carried out. The separation of tritium-labeled tryptic peptides was achieved by HPLC. Changes in availability of polypeptide chain fragments caused by complex formation were calculated using a molecular model. The formation of the protein complex was shown to lead to a decrease in the ability of fragments of alpha-subunits MFLSFPTTK (A(32-40)) and VDPVNFK (A(93-99)) for hydrogen replacement by tritium by almost an order of magnitude; hence, their availability to water (1.4 A) twice decreased on the average. The decrease in ability to an exchange of hydrogen by spillover tritium on the formation of hemoglobin complex was shown to be connected with a reduction in availability of polypeptide chain fragments participating in spatial interactions of subunits with each other. Thus, the HSCIE reaction can be used not only for the preparative obtaining of tritium-labeled compounds, but also for determining the contact area in the formation of protein complexes.

  17. Glycosylated hemoglobin is associated with decreased endothelial function, high inflammatory response, and adverse clinical outcome in non-diabetic STEMI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Filipe A; Figueiredo, Valeria N; Teles, Bruna S B S; Barbosa, Meyrianne A; Pereira, Lara R; Costa, Ana P R; Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Cintra, Riobaldo M R; Almeida, Osório L R; Quinaglia E Silva, Jose C; Nadruz Junior, Wilson; Sposito, Andrei C

    2015-11-01

    Chronic dysglycemia was recently identified as a predictor for adverse outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by percutaneous coronary intervention. Data for non-diabetic patients who underwent thrombolysis is scarce. In this context, we aimed to study the effect of HbA1c on cardiovascular outcome after STEMI. A prospective cohort of 326 non-diabetic STEMI individuals was used for the analyses. We measured plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) upon admission and five days after STEMI (D5). Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was performed 30 days after STEMI. During clinical follow-up, we assessed patients for incident diabetes (progression to HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of fatal and non-fatal MI, sudden cardiac death, and angina requiring hospitalization. Using ROC-curve analysis, a 5.8% HbA1c best predicted MACE with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 53% (AUC 0.673, p = 0.001). Patients were categorized as high HbA1c if ≥ 5.8% and low HbA1c if <5.8%. Compared with patients with low HbA1c, those with high HbA1c presented with 20% higher CRP-D5 (p = 0.009) and 19% higher ΔCRP (p = 0.01), a 32% decrease in ΔNOx (p < 0.001), and 33% lower FMD (p < 0.001). After a median follow-up of 1.9 (1.1-2.8) years, patients with high HbA1c had more incident diabetes (HR 2.3 95% CI 1.01-5.2; p = 0.048) and MACE (HR 3.32 95% CI 1.09-10.03; p = 0.03). Non-diabetic STEMI patients with high HbA1c present with decreased endothelial function and increased inflammatory response and long-term risk of MACE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sericin accelerates the production of hyaluronan and decreases the incidence of polyspermy fertilization in bovine oocytes during in vitro maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoe, Misa; Yoshida, Nao; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Teramoto, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Toru; Niimura, Sueo

    2014-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been widely used as a supplement in the maturation medium of bovine oocytes in vitro. However, serum contains many undefined factors and is potentially infectious to humans and animals. As a serum replacement, we evaluated the feasibility of using the silk protein, sericin, derived from the cocoons of silkworm. To examine the rates of oocyte maturation and fertilization, cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% or 0.15% sericin or 5% FBS. The sizes of the perivitelline space that might relate to polyspermy, the expressions of Has2 and CD44 mRNA, the amount of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid: HA) contained in the oocytes and the rates of blastocyst formation following insemination were then compared between the oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin and 5% FBS, because the polyspermy rates in oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin were significantly lower than in those cultured with 5% FBS. After in vitro maturation (IVM), the mean size of the perivitelline space was significantly greater in oocytes cultured with sericin than in those cultured with FBS, although the rates of nuclear maturation, fertilization and blastocyst formation of oocytes under both IVM conditions were not significantly different. The expression of HAS2 and CD44 mRNA and the amount of HA in the denuded oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin were significantly greater than in those cultured with FBS. These results indicate the feasibility of sericin as an alternative protein supplement for IVM in bovine oocytes.

  19. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  20. Effect of hemolysis and free hemoglobin on optical hematocrit measurements in the extracorporeal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kellner, Josef; Elshehabi, Morad; Schneditz, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Clinically significant hemolysis is a rare but serious problem in dialysis. Because hemolysis affects red blood cell count and optical density of plasma it has been speculated whether techniques used for online blood volume monitoring would be useful to detect hemolysis. In this study the influence of free hemoglobin on hematocrit and relative blood volume changes measured by optical means (CritLine, HemaMetrics, Kaysville, UT) were examined using an in vitro model with bovine blood. Free hemoglobin solutions were added in steps to circulating whole blood at baseline hematocrits covering a range from 30% to 60% and at blood flows of approximately 200 and 400 ml/min. The free hemoglobin concentration reached was in the range of 2 to 3 g/dl. The presence of free hemoglobin led to a relative increase in hematocrit in the range of 0.3% per 0.1 g of free hemoglobin per dl (+3% dl/g). As an increase in hematocrit is interpreted as a decrease in blood volume, this change referred to an apparent decrease in relative blood volume in the same order of magnitude (-3% dl/g). Effects were more pronounced at low baseline hematocrit. Thus, although optical hematocrit readings are affected by the presence of free hemoglobin the changes at levels associated with clinical symptoms appear to be too small to be accurately detected in the in vivo situation where the hematocrit and the resulting optical signal is affected by various physiological processes and therefore much noisier.

  1. Hemoglobin C disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical hemoglobin C ... Hemoglobin C is an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It is ... Americans. You are more likely to have hemoglobin C disease if someone in your family has had ...

  2. Anemia: friend or foe? Low hemoglobin is associated with decreased survival, loco-regional control and late complications: a secondary analysis of RTOG 85-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. Robert; Berkey, B.; Marcial, V.; Fu, K.K.; Cooper, J. S.; Vikram, B.; Coia, L.R.; Rotman, M.; Ortiz, H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Classical teaching holds that hypoxia reduces the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Many reports have correlated low hemoglobin (Hgb) levels with reduced loco-regional control (LRC) following radiotherapy (RT) suggesting that anemia may be associated with tumor hypoxia. If hypoxia protects tumors from the lethal effects of ionizing radiation then it might protect normal tissues in a similar fashion. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of Hgb level on the LRC, survival and late complications in patients with advanced head and neck cancer treated with conventional radiotherapy with or without a hypoxic cell sensitizer. Methods: From March 1988 to September 1991, 521 patients with Stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were entered onto a randomized trial examining the addition of etanidazole (SR 2508) to conventional RT (66 Gy in 33 fractions to 74 Gy in 37 fractions, 5 days a week). Hgb levels were stratified as high (≥ 14.5 grams-percent for men, ≥ 13.0 grams-percent for women) or low (<14.5 for men, <13.0 for women). Loco-regional failure rates were calculated using the cumulative incidence approach. Overall survival was estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Late RT toxicity was scored according to the RTOG morbidity scale. Differences in rates of LRC, survival and late complications were tested by the Cox proportional hazard model. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 57 months with a range of 1-7.5 years. Results: Of 504 eligible patients, 451 had Hgb measured prior to the second week of RT. One hundred and sixty-two patients (35.9%) were classified as having a high Hgb (HH) and 289 (64.1%) patients were classified as having a low Hgb (LH). Patients in the LH group had significantly lower survival and a trend towards lower LRC and late RT complications (see Table). Conclusion: Low Hgb levels are associated with a statistically significant reduction in survival and a trend towards

  3. A prebiotic, Celmanax™, decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of bovine cells and feed-associated cytotoxicity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juba Jean

    2011-04-01

    expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood clot blocking the jejunum. Mycotoxin analysis of the corn crop confirmed the presence of fumonisin, NIV, ZEAR, DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NEO, DAS, HT-2 and T-2. Feed extracts were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% Celmanax™ removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on feed-extract activity in vitro. Fumonisin, T-2, ZEAR and DON were toxic to bovine cells and 0.1% Celmanax™ removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. Celmanax™ also directly decreased E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a colonic cell line in a dose-dependent manner. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice™ paste on E. coli O157:H7 colonization in vitro. The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease. Conclusion The current study confirmed an association between mycotoxigenic fungi in the feed and the development of JHS in cattle. This association was further expanded to include mycotoxins in the feed and mixtures of STECs colonizing the severely hemorrhaged tissues. Future studies should examine the extent of involvement of the different STEC in the infection process. The prebiotic, Celmanax™, acted as an anti-adhesive for STEC colonization and a mycotoxin binder in vitro. Future studies should determine the extent of involvement of the prebiotic in altering disease.

  4. Methods for examination of antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lin; Zhang Yadong; Bu Fengrong; Zhang Jingang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To choose and establish the methods for examination of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin in order to offer the reference for evaluating the antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin against human. Methods: Antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin was examined for hypersensitivity, cell-mediated immunity reaction, humoral immunity reaction and cross-reaction of antigen. Results: The rabbit and guinea pig did not give rise to hypersensitivity. In immunized rabbits, the level of serum total IgG was normal, but the level of serum specific IgG was high. The examination of B lymphocytes showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in comparison with control. Cross-reaction of antigen proved that bovine hemoglobin had cross-reaction with human hemoglobin. Suggesting that they may be homologous, the level of the serum specific antibody is high in the immunized animal. According to the immunology theories, the polymerized hemoglobin has antigenicity. (authors)

  5. Antagonism of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A Receptor Results in Decreased Contractile Response of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein to Tall Fescue Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  6. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  7. Site-Selective Glycosylation of Hemoglobin on Cys β93

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yalong; Bhatt, Veer S.; Sun, Guoyong; Wang, Peng G.; Palmer, Andre F.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a novel glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) with high oxygen affinity as a potential Hb-based oxygen carrier. Site-selective glycosylation of bovine Hb was achieved by conjugating a lactose derivative to Cys 93 on the β subunit of Hb. LC-MS analysis indicates that the reaction was quantitative, with no unmodified Hb present in the reaction product. The glycosylation site was identified by chymotrypsin digestion of the glycosylated bovin...

  8. Hemoglobin Variants in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Raymond A.

    1965-04-22

    Variability among mammalian hemoglobins was observed many years ago (35). The chemical basis for differences among hemoglobins from different species of mammals has been studied by several investigators (5, 11, 18, 48). As well as interspecies differences, hemoglobin variants are frequently found within a species of mammals (2, 3, 7, 16) The inheritance of these intraspecies variants can be studied, and pedigrees indicate that the type of hemoglobin synthesized in an individual is genetically controlled (20). Several of the variant human hemoglobins are f'unctionally deficient (7, 16). Such hemoglobin anomalies are of basic interest to man because of the vital role of hemoglobin for transporting oxygen to all tissues of the body.

  9. A metal ion charged mixed matrix membrane for selective adsorption of hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Levisson, M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we developed a mixed matrix membrane by incorporating 20–40 μm size iminodiacetic acid modified immobeads within porous Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL) polymer matrix. The MMM were charged with copper ions for selective adsorption of bovine hemoglobin in presence of bovine serum albumin.

  10. Enhanced virulence of sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent is revealed by decreased polymorphism barriers in prion protein conversion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priem, Jan; Langeveld, Jan P M; van Keulen, Lucien J M; van Zijderveld, Fred G; Andreoletti, Olivier; Bossers, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be efficiently transmitted to small ruminants (sheep and goats) with certain prion protein (PrP) genotypes. Polymorphisms in PrP of both the host and donor influence the transmission efficiency of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in general. These polymorphisms in PrP also modulate the PrP conversion underlying TSE agent replication. Here we demonstrate that single-round protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) can be used to assess species and polymorphism barriers at the molecular level. We assessed those within and between the ovine and bovine species in vitro using a variety of natural scrapie and experimentally generated cross-species BSE agents. These BSE agents include ovBSE-ARQ isolates (BSE derived from sheep having the ARQ/ARQ PrP genotype), and two unique BSE-derived variants: BSE passaged in VRQ/VRQ sheep and a cow BSE agent isolate generated by back-transmission of ovBSE-ARQ into its original host. PMCA allowed us to quantitatively determine PrP conversion profiles that correlated with known in vivo transmissibility and susceptibility in the two ruminant species in which strain-specific molecular signatures, like its molecular weight after protease digestion, were maintained. Furthermore, both BSE agent isolates from ARQ and VRQ sheep demonstrated a surprising transmission profile in which efficient transmissions to both sheep and bovine variants was combined. Finally, all data support the notion that ARQ-derived sheep BSE points to a significant increase in virulence compared to all other tested scrapie- and BSE-derived variants reflected by the increased conversion efficiencies of previously inefficient convertible PrP variants (including the so-called "resistant" sheep ARR variant). Prion diseases such as scrapie in sheep and goats, BSE in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans are fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by prions. BSE is known to be transmissible to a

  11. The Hemoglobin E Thalassemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Weatherall, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobin E (HbE) is an extremely common structural hemoglobin variant that occurs at high frequencies throughout many Asian countries. It is a β-hemoglobin variant, which is produced at a slightly reduced rate and hence has the phenotype of a mild form of β thalassemia. Its interactions with different forms of α thalassemia result in a wide variety of clinical disorders, whereas its coinheritance with β thalassemia, a condition called hemoglobin E β thalassemia, is by far the most common severe form of β thalassemia in Asia and, globally, comprises approximately 50% of the clinically severe β-thalassemia disorders. PMID:22908199

  12. Controle da anemia ferropriva em pré-escolares por meio da fortificação de alimento com concentrado de Hemoglobina Bovina (estudo preliminar Iron deficiency anemia control in pre-school children by food fortification with Bovine Hemoglobin (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir N. Nogueira

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da introdução de biscoitos fortificados com ferro hemínico no estado de nutrição de ferro de pré-escolares foi avaliado em um estudo piloto que inclui 16 crianças, com idade entre 2 e 4 anos, de uma creche pública do estado do Piauí. A fonte de ferro utilizada foi o sangue bovino seco pelo processo de leito de jorro, uma alternativa para a secagem em spray, adaptada para a secagem de sangue. À primeira tomada de amostra, detectou-se anemia (Hb The effect of hemoglobin-fortified cookies on hemoglobin (Hb levels of 16 children (2 to 4 years of age were evaluated The children were attending a day nursery managed under the Social Welfare Service of the State of Piauí (northeast Brazil. All children were iron deficient according to the average transferrin saturation of 7.1 + 3,7 %, and 12 (75% of them were anemic (Hb < 11 g/dL. The average Hb concentration was 9.4 + 2,6 g/dL. Cookies fortified with 3% bovine concentrate (dried by the sponted bed technique were offered to the children over the course of 90 days (5 cookies (4mg Fe/child/d, with total iron intake of approximately 8 mg Fe/d. After the experimental period the levels of Hb in all children had risen to levels above 11.0 g/dL (average 13,2 + 0,2 g/dL. The results demonstrate the possibility of using dried Hb concentrate in food-fortification programs aimed at meeting daily iron requirements for pre-school and school children in Brazil.

  13. Human hemoglobin denaturation as an alternative to the Draize test for predicting eye irritancy of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjans, Montserrat; Infante, M Rosa; Vinardell, M Pilar

    2008-11-01

    Quantification of eye irritancy has been a problem for both the consumer product industry and ophthalmic researchers because of the need to predict the toxic potential of preparations that may come into contact with the ocular surface. The Draize rabbit eye test has been used for 60 years in attempts to predict human ocular irritancy based on topical instillation of the potential irritant and subjective scoring of ocular inflammation by direct visualization of the rabbit eye. The inadequacies of the Draize test have led to efforts in several laboratories to develop alternatives. We propose an alternative to the Draize eye irritation test, using human hemoglobin rather than bovine hemoglobin and studying the protein denaturation induced by potential irritants. Among the factors that affect eye irritation, protein denaturation has been reported as one of the most important factors that can result in corneal opacity. Human protein denaturation was measured as indicative of eye irritation. We studied different known irritant and non-irritant compounds to establish the predictability of the method. The compounds considered as irritants in vivo had the greatest effect in terms of decreased human hemoglobin absorbance. The proposed method is able to easily differentiate between irritant and non-irritants products in an easy manner. The method is easy, rapid, economical, and provides enough information about the potential eye irritant action of different surfactants.

  14. Moessbauer study of hemoglobin of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aiguo; Ni Xinbo; Cai Yingwen; Zhang Guilin; Zhang Hongde; Ge Yongxin

    2000-01-01

    The hemoglobins from normal adults (Gly-Hb 5%), people infected with diabetes (Gly-Hb 10%) and serious diabetics (Gly-Hb 15%) were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy at liquid nitrogen temperature. All the experimental spectra of hemoglobin are composed of three doublets corresponding to oxy-hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) and low-spin hemo-chrome (Ls-Hemo) respectively. It is found that Oxy-Hb is decreasing but Deoxy-hb increasing for diabetes. Experimental results also indicate that the line-width of Moessbauer spectra of Oxy-Hb for diabetics is narrower than that for normal adults, showing that while Fe on Oxy-Hb exists in pile-up of some similar states for normal adults, but it becomes in single state for serious diabetes

  15. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Christensen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms.The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates.The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and vertebrates.

  16. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ana B; Herman, Joseph L; Elphick, Maurice R; Kober, Kord M; Janies, Daniel; Linchangco, Gregorio; Semmens, Dean C; Bailly, Xavier; Vinogradov, Serge N; Hoogewijs, David

    2015-01-01

    Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms. The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates. The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and vertebrates.

  17. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  18. Development of Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin (LEH) and Studies of Hemorrhagic Shock by Use of Imaging Studies with Oxygen-15 and Other Radiotracers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, William T; Goins, Beth; Awasthi, Vibhudutta

    2004-01-01

    .... Encapsulating hemoglobin inside a protective lipid membrane, which mimics a red blood cell, has the advantages of decreasing the toxicity of the free hemoglobin, increasing its circulation time...

  19. Hemoglobins, programmed cell death and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert D; Huang, Shuanglong; Stasolla, Claudio

    2013-10-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a universal process in all multicellular organisms. It is a critical component in a diverse number of processes ranging from growth and differentiation to response to stress. Somatic embryogenesis is one such process where PCD is significantly involved. Nitric oxide is increasingly being recognized as playing a significant role in regulating PCD in both mammalian and plant systems. Plant hemoglobins scavenge NO, and evidence is accumulating that events that modify NO levels in plants also affect hemoglobin expression. Here, we review the process of PCD, describing the involvement of NO and plant hemoglobins in the process. NO is an effector of cell death in both plants and vertebrates, triggering the cascade of events leading to targeted cell death that is a part of an organism's response to stress or to tissue differentiation and development. Expression of specific hemoglobins can alter this response in plants by scavenging the NO, thus, interrupting the death process. Somatic embryogenesis is used as a model system to demonstrate how cell-specific expression of different classes of hemoglobins can alter the embryogenic process, affecting hormone synthesis, cell metabolite levels and genes associated with PCD and embryogenic competence. We propose that plant hemoglobins influence somatic embryogenesis and PCD through cell-specific expression of a distinct plant hemoglobin. It is based on the premise that both embryogenic competence and PCD are strongly influenced by cellular NO levels. Increases in cellular NO levels result in elevated Zn(2+) and reactive-oxygen species associated with PCD, but they also result in decreased expression of MYC2, a transcription factor that is a negative effector of indoleacetic acid synthesis, a hormone that positively influences embryogenic competence. Cell-specific hemoglobin expression reduces NO levels as a result of NO scavenging, resulting in cell survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  20. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  1. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs.

  2. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs

  3. Mass Spectra and Ion Collision Cross Sections of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Terrier, Peran; Douglas, D. J.

    2011-02-01

    Mass spectra of commercially obtained hemoglobin (Hb) show higher levels of monomer and dimer ions, heme-deficient dimer ions, and apo-monomer ions than hemoglobin freshly prepared from blood. This has previously been attributed to oxidation of commercial Hb. Further, it has been reported that that dimer ions from commercial bovine Hb have lower collision cross sections than low charge state monomer ions. To investigate these effects further, we have recorded mass spectra of fresh human Hb, commercial human and bovine Hb, fresh human Hb oxidized with H2O2, lyophilized fresh human Hb, fresh human Hb both lyophilized and chemically oxidized, and commercial human Hb oxidized with H2O2. Masses of α-monomer ions of all hemoglobins agree with the masses expected from the sequences within 3 Da or better. Mass spectra of the β chains of commercial Hb and oxidized fresh human Hb show a peak or shoulder on the high mass side, consistent with oxidation of the protein. Both commercial proteins and oxidized fresh human Hb produce heme-deficient dimers with masses 32 Da greater than expected and higher levels of monomer and dimer ions than fresh Hb. Lyophilization or oxidation of Hb both produce higher levels of monomer and dimer ions in mass spectra. Fresh human Hb, commercial human Hb, commercial bovine Hb, and oxidized commercial human Hb all give dimer ions with cross sections greater than monomer ions. Thus, neither oxidation of Hb or the difference in sequence between human and bovine Hb make substantial differences to cross sections of ions.

  4. Flocculation of kaolin and lignin by bovine blood and hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeric flocculants are used extensively for water purification, inhibition of soil erosion, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Production of highly active, renewable polymeric flocculants to replace synthetic flocculants is a priority. Using suspensions of kaolin, flocculation ...

  5. Hemoglobin e syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichinsky, Elliott

    2007-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is one of the world's most common and important mutations. It results in a heterogeneous group of disorders whose phenotype range from asymptomatic to severe. Hb E trait and Hb EE are mild disorders. The combination of Hb E and Hb S (Hb SE) results in a sickle cell disease syndrome similar to sickle beta(+) thalassemia. It is important to distinguish Hb E disorders diagnostically because of this marked difference in clinical course among different genotypes. Screening tests, including hemoglobin electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), may suggest other mutations, unless one is familiar with the findings. E beta-thalassemia, the most serious form of E syndromes, affects a million people worldwide and is increasing in North America. Its phenotype ranges from mild anemia to severe transfusion-dependent thalassemia major. Several genetic modifiers affect the phenotype, including the type of beta-thalassemia mutation, Hb F levels, and co-inheritance of alpha-thalassemia. However, the cause of the phenotypic variability is largely unknown. A prospective natural history study of E beta-thalassemia in Sri Lanka suggests that environmental modifiers are prognostically important. The clinical course of E beta-thalassemia is punctuated by acute and chronic complications that may cause serious morbidity and mortality. Recent studies indicate these patients are at high risk for thromboembolism secondary to a hypercoagulable state increased by splenectomy. Morbidity from iron overload in nontransfused patients secondary to increased gastrointestinal iron absorption is common. Cardiopulmonary disease, including pulmonary hypertension, requires ongoing monitoring and is secondary to iron overload, thromboembolism, and hemolysis-induced nitric oxide deficiency. These patients are excellent candidates for Hb F-modulating agents because moderate changes in hemoglobin may result in marked improvement in phenotype. Recent studies with

  6. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  7. Increased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma/IL-2 and decreased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma production by central memory T cells are associated with protective responses against bovine tuberculosis following BCG vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central memory T cells (Tcm’s) and polyfunctional CD4 T responses contribute to vaccine-elicited protection with both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB); however, their combined role in protective immunity to TB is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated polyfunctional cytokine responses by ...

  8. Individualized anemia management reduces hemoglobin variability in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaweda, Adam E; Aronoff, George R; Jacobs, Alfred A; Rai, Shesh N; Brier, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA doses guided by the Smart Anemia Manager algorithm (treatment) or by a standard protocol (control). Dose recommendations, performed on a monthly basis, were validated by an expert physician anemia manager. The primary outcome was the percentage of hemoglobin concentrations between 10 and 12 g/dl over the follow-up period. A total of 258 of 356 (72.5%) hemoglobin concentrations were between 10 and 12 g/dl in the treatment group, compared with 208 of 336 (61.9%) in the control group; 42 (11.8%) hemoglobin concentrations were hemoglobin concentrations were >12 g/dl in the treatment group compared with 46 (13.4%) in the control group. The median ESA dosage per patient was 2000 IU/wk in both groups. Five participants received 6 transfusions (21 U) in the treatment group, compared with 8 participants and 13 transfusions (31 U) in the control group. These results suggest that individualized ESA dosing decreases total hemoglobin variability compared with a population protocol-based approach. As hemoglobin levels are declining in hemodialysis patients, decreasing hemoglobin variability may help reduce the risk of transfusions in this population.

  9. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Navraj S; Van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture. Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored. There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative Day 5 Hb levels (pmeasurement, DHS patients had lower hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p=0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-hour postoperative period (D0 to Day 1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at Day 2. Relying on the Day 1 hemoglobin level could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring.

  10. Expression of fully functional tetrameric human hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, S.J.; Looker, D.L.; Roehrich, J.M.; Cozart, P.E.; Durfee, S.L.; Tedesco, J.L.; Stetler, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis genes encoding the human α- and β-globin polypeptides have been expressed from a single operon in Escherichia coli. The α- and β-globin polypeptides associate into soluble tetramers, incorporate heme, and accumulate to >5% of the total cellular protein. Purified recombinant hemoglobin has the correct stoichiometry of α- and β-globin chains and contains a full complement of heme. Each globin chain also contains an additional methionine as an extension to the amino terminus. The recombinant hemoglobin has a C 4 reversed-phase HPLC profile essentially identical to that of human hemoglobin A 0 and comigrates with hemoglobin A 0 on SDS/PAGE. The visible spectrum and oxygen affinity are similar to that of native human hemoglobin A 0 . The authors have also expressed the α- and β-globin genes separately and found that the expression of the α-globin gene alone results in a marked decrease in the accumulation of α-globin in the cell. Separate expression of the β-globin gene results in high levels of insoluble β-globin. These observations suggest that the presence of α- and β-globin in the same cell stabilizes α-globin and aids the correct folding of β-globin. This system provides a simple method for expressing large quantities of recombinant hemoglobin and allows facile manipulation of the genes encoding hemoglobin to produce functionally altered forms of this protein

  11. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative study of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzischek, D A; Tanseco, F V

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of variations in technique on measurements of hemoglobin level done at the bedside and to compare these results with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. In accordance with hospital policy, procedure, and protocol, various techniques were used to obtain samples of capillary and venous blood and of blood from arterial and central venous catheters. Levels of hemoglobin were measured at the bedside and in the laboratory, and the results were compared. The Johns Hopkins Hospital adult postanesthesia care unit. A total of 187 blood samples were obtained from 62 adults who had undergone general surgery. Group I comprised 20 subjects with capillary and venous blood samples. Group II comprised 21 subjects with arterial blood samples. Group III comprised 21 subjects with central venous blood samples. The results showed that the amount of blood to be discarded before obtaining samples of arterial and central venous blood need not be any larger than double the dead space of the catheter, and that shaking the blood sample for 10 seconds was sufficient to mix the sample before measurement of hemoglobin levels. Results of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin level were comparable. Bedside measurement of hemoglobin increases efficiency in patient care, decreases risk of blood-transmitted infection for staff, and decreases cost to the patient. However, the persons who perform the assay must be responsible in adhering to the standard of practice to minimize errors in the measurements.

  13. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography

  14. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  15. Induction of nano pore in Agrobacterial hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Tousheh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A variety of oxygen-transport and -binding proteins exist in organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins. In addition to dealing with transport and sensing of oxygen, they may also deal with NO2, CO2, sulfide compounds, and even O2 scavenging in environments. Also they detoxified chlorinated materials like P450 enzymes and peroxidases and use as a detector of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. Pore-forming bacterial globins are interested for filtration. Materials and methods: Although there are data for bacterial toxin as a filter, here we used Agrobacterial hem to induce nano pore in the heme structure using point mutation. Results: Investigations showed that three amino acids leucine 76, alanine 83 and histidine 80 are important for pore formation in Agrobacterium hemoglobin. A point mutation on leucine 76 to glycine, histidine 80 to asparagine and alanine 83 to lysine step by step led to create the nano pore 0.7- 0.8 nm in the globin. Discussion and conclusion: These mutations in bacterial hemoglobin increase the stability when mutation is with it’s at pH7. This mutation decreases the aliphatic index however increase the stability index.

  16. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly than others, resulting in chronic anemia. Hemoglobin C disease Hemoglobin C disease occurs mostly in blacks. ... a common complication of hemoglobin C disease. Hemoglobin S-C disease Hemoglobin S-C disease occurs in people who ...

  17. Increased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma/IL-2 and decreased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma production by central memory T cells are associated with protective responses against bovine tuberculosis following BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Fernanda Maggioli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Central memory T cells (Tcm and polyfunctional CD4 T cell responses contribute to vaccine-elicited protection with both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB; however, their combined role in protective immunity to TB is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated polyfunctional cytokine responses by CD4 T cell effector / memory populations from bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves prior to and after aerosol challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis. Polyfunctional cytokine expression patterns in the response by Tcm, effector memory, and effector T cell subsets were similar between BCG-vaccinated and M. bovis-infected calves; only differing in magnitude (i.e., infected > vaccinated. BCG vaccination, however, did alter the kinetics of the ensuing response to virulent M. bovis infection. Early after challenge (three weeks post-infection, non-vaccinates had greater antigen-specific IFN-γ/TNF-α and lesser IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 responses by Tcm cells than did vaccinated animals. Importantly, these differences were also associated with mycobacterial burden upon necropsy. Polyfunctional responses to ESAT-6:CFP10 (antigens not synthesized by BCG strains were detected in memory subsets, as well as in effector cells, as early as three weeks after challenge. These findings suggest that cell fate divergence may occur early after antigen priming in the response to bovine TB and that memory and effector T cells may expand concurrently during the initial phase of the immune response. In summary, robust IFN-γ/TNF-α response by Tcm cells is associated with greater mycobacterial burden while IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 response by Tcm cells are indicative of a protective response to bovine TB.

  18. A review of variant hemoglobins interfering with hemoglobin A1c measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Randie R; Roberts, William L

    2009-05-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used routinely to monitor long-term glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus, as HbA1c is related directly to risks for diabetic complications. The accuracy of HbA1c methods can be affected adversely by the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) variants or elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). The effect of each variant or elevated HbF must be examined with each specific method. The most common Hb variants worldwide are HbS, HbE, HbC, and HbD. All of these Hb variants have single amino acid substitutions in the Hb beta chain. HbF is the major hemoglobin during intrauterine life; by the end of the first year, HbF falls to values close to adult levels of approximately 1%. However, elevated HbF levels can occur in certain pathologic conditions or with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. In a series of publications over the past several years, the effects of these four most common Hb variants and elevated HbF have been described. There are clinically significant interferences with some methods for each of these variants. A summary is given showing which methods are affected by the presence of the heterozygous variants S, E, C, and D and elevated HbF. Methods are divided by type (immunoassay, ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity, other) with an indication of whether the result is artificially increased or decreased by the presence of a Hb variant. Laboratorians should be aware of the limitations of their method with respect to these interferences. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Hemichrome formation during hemoglobin Zurich denaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, M.A.; Costa, F.F.; Botura, C.; Baffa, O.

    1988-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)spectrum of hemoglobin Zurich, after oxidation, storage and heating, showed several absorption derives in the high field region (g ≅ 2) which are indicative of hemichrome formation. Characteristic visible spectra of hemichromes were observed for oxidized Hb Zurich and for its spontaneous precipitate. The proportional increase of EPR signals at g ≅ 2 and decrease at g = 6.37, the constant ratio of absorbance at 540 nm to 280 nm during heating, and the similarity of this ratio for spontaneously precipitated HbA and for Hb Zurich indicate that heme is not lost during the first steps of Hb Zurich denaturation. (author) [pt

  20. Molecular mechanisms of bio-catalysis of heme extraction from hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipov, Serzhan; Rafikova, Olga; Kurnikova, Maria G; Rafikov, Ruslan

    2017-04-01

    Red blood cell hemolysis in sickle cell disease (SCD) releases free hemoglobin. Extracellular hemoglobin and its degradation products, free heme and iron, are highly toxic due to oxidative stress induction and decrease in nitric oxide availability. We propose an approach that helps to eliminate extracellular hemoglobin toxicity in SCD by employing a bacterial protein system that evolved to extract heme from extracellular hemoglobin. NEAr heme Transporter (NEAT) domains from iron-regulated surface determinant proteins from Staphylococcus aureus specifically bind free heme as well as facilitate its extraction from hemoglobin. We demonstrate that a purified NEAT domain fused with human haptoglobin β-chain is able to remove heme from hemoglobin and reduce heme content and peroxidase activity of hemoglobin. We further use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to resolve molecular pathway of heme transfer from hemoglobin to NEAT, and to elucidate molecular mechanism of such heme transferring process. Our study is the first of its kind, in which simulations are employed to characterize the process of heme leaving hemoglobin and subsequent rebinding with a NEAT domain. Our MD results highlight important amino acid residues that facilitate heme transfer and will guide further studies for the selection of best NEAT candidate to attenuate free hemoglobin toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hemoglobin affinity in Andean rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRVOJ OSTOJIC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood hemoglobin oxygen affinity (P50 was measured in three Andean species and in the laboratory rat (control, all raised near sea level. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1792 has an altitudinal habitat range from low Andean slopes up to 3000 m., while Chinchilla brevicaudata (Waterhouse, 1848 has an altitudinal range from 3000 to 5000 m. The laboratory type guinea pig, wild type guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, (Waterhouse, 1748, and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus were also raised at sea level. The Andean species had high hemoglobin oxygen affinities (low P50 compared with the rat. Chinchilla brevicaudata had a higher affinity than Chinchilla lanigera. The wild type guinea pig had a higher affinity than the laboratory type. As has been shown in other species, this is another example of an inverse correlation between the altitude level and the P50 values. This is the first hemoglobin oxygen affinity study in Chinchilla brevicaudata.

  2. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, N.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  3. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...... and rhabdomyolysis), specific high capacity scavenging systems have evolved in the mammalian organism. Two major systems, which essentially function in a similar way by means of a circulating latent plasma carrier protein that upon ligand binding is recognized by a receptor, are represented by a) the hemoglobin...

  4. Effect of laser radiation on physicochemical and functional properties of human hemoglobin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irzhak, LI; Zotova, EA; Mamaeva, SA

    Exposure to laser radiation increases pH and isoelectric point of human hemoglobin solution, improves the acid-base properties, increases affinity for oxygen, and decreases the Bohr effect in comparison with intact hemoglobin. The mechanisms underlying these changes are discussed.

  5. Characteristic emission in glutaraldehyde polymerized hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Wang Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobin with different modifications has been investigated using spectroscopic techniques. A new emission at around 371 nm has been observed under excitation of 305 nm from glutaraldehyde polymerized human hemoglobin. Intensity and peak position of the emission are dependent on both oxidation state and ligand environment and the emission has been identified from the hemoglobin oligomer.

  6. An analysis of postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients with a fractured neck of femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Navraj S; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in hemoglobin level and to determine a suitable timeline for post-operative hemoglobin monitoring in patients undergoing fixation of femoral neck fracture. Patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n = 74, mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n = 104, mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture were included into the study. The hemoglobin level of the patients was monitored perioperatively. Analysis found a statistically and clinically significant mean drop in hemoglobin of 31.1 g/L over time from pre-operatively (D0) to day-5 post-operatively (p hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p = 0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-h post-operative period (D0 to day-1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at day-2. Relying on the day-1 hemoglobin could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused, and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring. Level IV Prognostic study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mountain Cycling Ultramarathon Effects on Inflammatory and Hemoglobin Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Isanete; Matos, Andreia; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Gil, Ângela; Cardoso, Carlos; Sardinha, Luís B; Bicho, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to analyze the cumulative physiological burden of repetitive, strenuous exercise held during mountain cycling ultramarathon on regulatory mechanisms of hemoglobin degradation. Fifty-five nonprofessional athletes (mean age, 44.8 ± 7.1 yr) participating in a 9-consecutive-day mountain cycling ultramarathon (TransPortugal) underwent anthropometric, hematological, and biochemical assessments before and immediately after the race. Participants were further stratified as completers (nine courses) or noncompleters and were divided according to the time they took to complete the race. The heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) functional genetic polymorphism and haptoglobin (HP) phenotypic variants were also analyzed. Total leukocytes, neutrophil count, and monocyte count increased, whereas decreases in erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin were found between pre- and postultramarathon. Circulating haptoglobin (Hp) was increased, whereas its soluble receptor (sCD163) decreased. Athletes who completed all nine courses presented with increased leukocyte, neutrophil, and erythrocyte counts, as well as hemoglobin, red cell distribution width, total bilirubin, and total cholesterol levels. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and Hp decreased in comparison with noncompleters. HMOX1 and HP genetic polymorphisms were associated with biochemical profile, notably with Hp levels. Analysis of covariance showed a significant effect of HP phenotype in Hp circulating levels at the end of race and on the magnitude of variation from pre- to postrace. Present findings support a comodulatory influence of genetic- and exercise-associated factors on resulting inflammatory and hemoglobin catabolic marker Hp after highly demanding endurance exercise.

  8. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  9. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  10. Simultaneous estimation of transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Abdul, Wares MD.; Ohtsu, Mizuki; Nakano, Kazuya; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    We propose a method to estimate transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In the proposed method, the Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for an absorbance spectrum in the visible wavelength region (460-590 nm) is used to specify the concentrations of bilirubin (Cbil), oxygenated hemoglobin (Coh), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Cdh), and melanin (Cm). Using the absorbance spectrum calculated from the measured diffuse reflectance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are numerically deduced in advance by the Monte Carlo simulations for light transport in skin. Total hemoglobin concentration (Cth) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) are simply calculated from the oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin. In vivo animal experiments with bile duct ligation in rats demonstrated that the estimated Cbil is increased after ligation of bile duct and reaches to around 20 mg/dl at 72 h after the onset of the ligation, which corresponds to the reference value of Cbil measured by a commercially available transcutaneous bilirubin meter. We also performed in vivo experiments with rats while varying the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). Coh and Cdh decreased and increased, respectively, as FiO2 decreased. Consequently, StO2 was dramatically decreased. The results in this study indicate potential of the method for simultaneous evaluation of multiple chromophores in skin tissue.

  11. Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells dying earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Anemia (various types) Bleeding from digestive tract or bladder, heavy menstrual periods Chronic kidney disease Bone marrow being unable to produce new red ...

  12. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  13. Decreased Libido

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes decreased libido? Decreased libido often accompanies other sexual disorders. Although most men with erectile dysfunction do not complain of decreased libido, after time, persistent failure with erections and sexual performance can lead to reduced sex drive in ...

  14. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  15. Prognostic value of hemoglobin concentration in radiotherapy for cancer of supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnawski, Rafal; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is the estimation of correlations between hemoglobin concentration either before or after radiotherapy and local tumor control probability for laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 847 cases of laryngeal supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiation alone was performed using maximum likelihood estimations, and step-wise logistic regression. All patients were in good initial performance status (Karnofsky index >70). The minimum follow-up time was 3 years. Results: Logistic regression showed that the hemoglobin concentration after radiotherapy is an important prognostic factor. There was a very strong correlation between hemoglobin concentration and tumor local control probability. Hemoglobin concentration at the beginning of radiotherapy does not correlate with treatment outcome, but any decrease of hemoglobin during therapy is a strong prognostic factor for treatment failure. Conclusions: Although regression models with many variables may be instable, the present results suggest that hemoglobin concentration after treatment is at least as important as overall treatment time. It was not possible to find out whether the low concentration of hemoglobin is an independent cause of low TCP or whether it reflects other mechanisms that may influence both hemoglobin level and the TCP

  16. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  17. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  18. Hemoglobin-oxygen-carbon monoxide equilibria with the MWC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senozan, N M; DeVore, J A; Lesniewski, E K

    1998-11-16

    Fractional saturation equations for the Monod, Wyman and Changeux model are derived for the case of two distinct ligands bonding to a host molecule with four ligand sites and two conformational states. A variety of useful graphical studies can be derived from these equations when applied to normal human hemoglobin with O2 and CO as ligands. For example, the oxygen transport capability of hemoglobin can be assessed at different environmental CO levels and the concentrations of various liganded species can be displayed as a function of fractional saturation with oxygen. In addition, the CO pressure in the tissue, PCOtissue, can be calculated as a function of the tissue oxygen pressure, PO2tissue, at different environmental levels of CO. In an environment of a given CO concentration, PCOtissue decreases with PO2tissue until a minimum is reached. Further decrease in PO2tissue results in a fairly steep rise in PCOtissue.

  19. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement in pediatric trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Mark Leo; Maxwell, Angela C; Manning, Lisa; Jacobs, Jonathan D; Bachier-Rodriguez, Marielena; Feliz, Alexander; Williams, Regan F

    2016-12-01

    Hemorrhage is a major cause of preventable death secondary to traumatic injury. Diagnosis often requires multiple blood draws, which are psychologically stressful in pediatric patients. The Pronto device is a pulse co-oximeter that measures the total hemoglobin level using multiple wavelengths of light. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the noninvasive hemoglobin measurements relative to current invasive and point of care testing methods in pediatric trauma patients. We performed a prospective observational trial involving patients younger than 17 years presenting to a Level I pediatric trauma center. Following admission, blood was sampled from each patient for testing using an i-Stat device (point-of-care hemoglobin) and a complete blood count within our core laboratory (invasive hemoglobin). Noninvasive hemoglobin analysis was performed within 15 minutes of phlebotomy. Data were evaluated using Spearman correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Over 2 years, 114 patients had attempted noninvasive hemoglobin measurements, with a success rate of 89%. Mean ± SD age was 9.2 ± 5.1 years. Ninety percent of admissions were for blunt injury, 3% penetrating, 5% near drowning, and 1% burns. Mean invasive hemoglobin was 12.6 ± 1.9 g/dL, mean point-of-care hemoglobin was 12.2 ± 2.0 g/dL, and mean noninvasive hemoglobin was 12.3 ± 1.6 g/dL. Noninvasive hemoglobin values were strongly correlated with both invasive and point of care measurements (R = 0.672 and R = 0.645, respectively; p venipuncture, noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring may be a valuable adjunct in the initial evaluation and monitoring of pediatric trauma patients. Diagnostic test study, level II.

  20. A coordination polymer based magnetic adsorbent material for hemoglobin isolation from human whole blood, highly selective and recoverable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Tan, Jipeng; Xu, Xinxin; Shi, Fanian; Li, Guanglu; Yang, Yiqiao

    2017-09-01

    A composite material has been obtained successfully through the loading of nanoscale coordination polymer on magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell particle. In this composite material, coordination polymer nanoparticles distribute uniformly on Fe3O4@SiO2 and these two components are "tied" together firmly with chemical bonds. Adsorption experiments suggest this composite material exhibits very excellent selectivity to hemoglobin. But under the same condition, its adsorption to bovine serum albumin can almost be ignored. This selectivity can be attributed to the existence of hydrophobic interactions between coordination polymer nanoparticle and hemoglobin. For composite material, the hemoglobin adsorption process follows Langmuir model perfectly with high speed. The adsorbed hemoglobin can be eluted easily by sodium dodecyl sulfate stripping reagent with structure and biological activity of hemoglobin keeps well. The composite material was also employed to separate hemoglobin from human whole blood, which receives a very satisfactory result. Furthermore, magnetic measurement reveals ferromagnetic character of this composite material with magnetization saturation 3.56 emu g-1 and this guarantees its excellent magnetic separation performance from the treated solution.

  1. Diode laser irradiation of rat blood and its effect on hemoglobin and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad-El-Din, A.A.; El-Ahdaal, M.A.; Omran, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Blood was exposed to diode laser irradiation of wavelength 830 nm and maximum powe of 31.4 MW, with exposure times 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. Hemoglobin IR spectra and X-ray crystallography, plasma Na + , K + , Ca + +. cholesterol concentrations and viscosity were measured. There were changes in hemoglobin amide groups as well as changes in the X-ray in hemoglobin structure. Decreases in both Na concentration and plasma viscosity occurred at 15 and 30 minutes of laser exposure. On increasing time to 45 and 60 minutes, the Na concentration and viscosity were increased. K, Ca and cholesterol concentration were decreased linearly with time. Na / K ratio was increased also with time of exposure. The results have been indicated that the diode laser affect the secondary structure of hemoglobin, membranes structures and plasma

  2. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chen MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin A1c (A1c is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants.

  3. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hemoglobin ... Análisis de sangre: hemoglobina A1c What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  4. Hemoglobin Values During Pregnancy | Leffler | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that the iron turnover in expectant mothers is up to three times that of an average adult. This is reflected in lower hemoglobin levels. The study showed that hemoglobin levels can be maintained by taking Bio-Strath®, provided that the patients' diet contains adequate fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean ...

  5. Determination of Human Hemoglobin Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Atef M M; Ibrahim, Fatma A A; Abd El-Latif, Noha A; Aziz, Samir W; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A; Elalfy, Mohsen S

    2015-01-01

    The levels of the inactive hemoglobin (Hb) pigments [such as methemoglobin (metHb), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) and sulfohemoglobin (SHb)] and the active Hb [in the oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) form] as well as the blood Hb concentration in healthy non pregnant female volunteers were determined using a newly developed multi-component spectrophotometric method. The results of this method revealed values of SHb% in the range (0.0727-0.370%), metHb% (0.43-1.0%), HbCO% (0.4-1.52%) and oxyHb% (97.06-98.62%). Furthermore, the results of this method revealed values of blood Hb concentration in the range (12.608-15.777 g/dL). The method is highly sensitive, accurate and reproducible.

  6. Biological variability of glycated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Federica; Dolci, Alberto; Mosca, Andrea; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-11-11

    The measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has a pivotal role in monitoring glycemic state in diabetic patients. Furthermore, the American Diabetes Association has recently recommended the use of HbA(1c) for diabetes diagnosis, but a clear definition of the clinically allowable measurement error is still lacking. Information on biological variability of the analyte can be used to achieve this goal. We systematically reviewed the published studies on the biological variation of HbA(1c) to check consistency of available data in order to accurately define analytical goals. The nine recruited studies were limited by choice of analytic methodology, population selection, protocol application and statistical analyses. There is an urgent need to determine biological variability of HbA(1c) using a specific and traceable assay, appropriate protocol and appropriate statistical evaluation of data. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Biochemistry of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Stark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin (VHb from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of “VHb technology” have generally been of the “black box” variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb’s functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with “partner proteins”. VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  8. THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF VITREOSCILLA HEMOGLOBIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Stark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin (VHb from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of “VHb technology” have generally been of the “black box” variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb's functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with “partner proteins”. VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  9. Blood hemoglobin level may affect radiosensitivity--preliminary results on acutely reacting normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, Michael; Bechtold, Christine; Momm, Felix; Doerr, Wolfgang; Guttenberger, Roland

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of blood hemoglobin concentration on the radiosensitivity of acutely reacting normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Weekly scores (EORTC/RTOG criteria) for acute reactions of skin and mucosa are available for 60 patients with cancer of the head and neck undergoing a standard conventional radiotherapy. The prognostic significance of blood hemoglobin levels on the development of acute reactions is studied by multivariate analysis (Cox Proportional Hazards Model). Further, the incidence and the time to development of these reactions is looked at in cohorts of patients with different mean blood hemoglobin concentrations during radiotherapy. Patients are therefore classified into a 'severely anemic group' (hemoglobin < 11.0 g/100 mL), and into a cohort with a blood hemoglobin value equal or above 11.0 g/100 mL. Results: Normal tissue scoring and monitoring of blood hemoglobin levels allows for a detailed analysis of possible correlations. A decrease in the mean blood hemoglobin value of 1 g/100 mL predicts a reduced risk to develop a skin reaction of Grade 2 or 3 (RR = 0.9; p = 0.08; RR = 0.8; p = 0.26, respectively) or a mucosa reaction of Grade 3 (RR = 0.8; p = 0.16), independent from the radiation dose, the treatment time and from previous surgery within the radiation volume (multivariate analysis). Likewise, patients with severe anemia develop grade 3 mucositis or dermatitis less often (0%; 13%) as compared to those with blood hemoglobin concentrations equal or above 11.0 g/100 mL (21%; 19%). Skin and mucosa reactions further tend to occur later in the course of radiation. The observations are not statistically significant and possible reasons will be discussed. Conclusions: A decreased blood hemoglobin concentration may - perhaps by an impaired tissue oxygenation - reduce the radiosensitivity of normal tissue such as skin and mucosa. However, the data is preliminary and needs further confirmation

  10. Degradation of human hemoglobin by Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su-Min; Nagata, Hideki; Shizukuishi, Satoshi; Wu, Jun-Zheng

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the ability of Prevotella intermedia, an obligate anaerobic rod, to degrade human hemoglobin was determined by SDS-PAGE and the degradation was quantified by scanning densitometry. Both bacterial cells and culture supernatants degraded hemoglobin. The hemoglobin degradation by P. intermedia was time-dependent, heat sensitive, pH related and was not influenced by iron restriction. Inhibition studies demonstrated that a cysteine protease might be involved in hemoglobin degradation and this protease might require metal ions for its activity and it might be thiol-requiring and trypsin-inducible. The results indicate that P. intermedia is capable to release heme from hemoglobin, hence provide a source of iron for its proliferation.

  11. Radioimmunochemical characterization of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya: unique antigenic determinants located on hybrid hemoglobins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garver, F.A.; Altay, G.; Baker, M.M.; Gravely, M.; Huisman, T.H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Antisera were produced in rabbits to the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins, which contain hybrid delta-β non-α-chains, and to hemoglobin Kenya, which has a hybrid γ-β non-α-chain. By using a sensitive radioimmunoassay technique, the absorbed antisera were shown to contain an antibody population that was specific for the hybrid hemoglobin and did not cross-react with normal hemoglobins. However, with the absorbed Lepore-specific antisera, the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins were antigenically indistinguishable from each other, suggesting that antibodies are not produced to the primary structural differences which define the three non-α-chains of the Lepore hemoglobins. These studies demonstrate that the non-α-subunits of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya possess unique antigenic determinant sites, evidently resulting from an altered polypeptide conformation

  12. Spin Label Studies of the Hemoglobin-Membrane Interaction During Sickle Hemoglobin Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon Dieguez, Jose E.; Rodi, Pablo; Lores Guevara, Manuel A.; Gennaro, Ana Maria

    2009-12-01

    An enhanced hemoglobin-membrane association has been previously documented in Sickle Cell Anemia. However, it is not known how this interaction is modified during the hemoglobin S polymerization process. In this work, we use a model of reconstituted erythrocytes from ghost membranes whose cytoskeleton proteins had been previously labeled with the 4-maleimido Tempo spin label, and that were subsequently resealed with hemoglobin S or A solutions. Using EPR spectroscopy, we studied the time dependence of the spectral W/S parameter, indicative of the conformational state of cytoskeleton proteins (mainly spectrin) under spontaneous deoxygenation, with the aim of detecting the eventual effects due to hemoglobin S polymerization. The differences observed in the temporal behaviour of W/S in erythrocytes reconstituted with both hemoglobins were considered as experimental evidence of an increment in hemoglobin S-membrane interaction, as a result of the polymerization process of hemoglobin S under spontaneous deoxygenation. (author)

  13. A novel liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin/silica nanoparticle as an oxygen carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxian; Gan, Lihua; Chen, Liuhua; Zhu, Dazhang; Xu, Zijie; Hao, Zhixian; Chen, Longwu

    2012-05-10

    A novel liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin/silica nanoparticle (LEHSN) was fabricated by a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsion approach. Bovine hemoglobin (Hb) was first adsorbed onto the surfaces of silica nanoparticles (SNs), and then the complex of Hb/SNs was encapsulated by liposome to form LEHSN which has a core-shell supramolecular structure. On the one hand, liposomes built a cell membrane-like environment for the controlled release of Hb. On the other hand, SNs which act as rigid core provide a supported framework for lecithin membrane, and enhance the stability of liposomes. In comparison with liposome-encapsulated Hb (LEH), LEHSN shows substantially enhanced stability and improved release property of Hb in vitro. This study highlights the potential of the novel LEHSN as an oxygen carrier for pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus-Hemoglobins and ligand-binding properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Russo

    Full Text Available A large amount of data is currently available on the adaptive mechanisms of polar bony fish hemoglobins, but structural information on those of cartilaginous species is scarce. This study presents the first characterisation of the hemoglobin system of one of the longest-living vertebrate species (392 ± 120 years, the Arctic shark Somniosus microcephalus. Three major hemoglobins are found in its red blood cells and are made of two copies of the same α globin combined with two copies of three very similar β subunits. The three hemoglobins show very similar oxygenation and carbonylation properties, which are unaffected by urea, a very important compound in marine elasmobranch physiology. They display identical electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra, indicating that their heme-pocket structures are identical or highly similar. The quaternary transition equilibrium between the relaxed (R and the tense (T states is more dependent on physiological allosteric effectors than in human hemoglobin, as also demonstrated in polar teleost hemoglobins. Similar to other cartilaginous fishes, we found no evidence for functional differentiation among the three isoforms. The very similar ligand-binding properties suggest that regulatory control of O2 transport may be at the cellular level and that it may involve changes in the cellular concentrations of allosteric effectors and/or variations of other systemic factors. The hemoglobins of this polar shark have evolved adaptive decreases in O2 affinity in comparison to temperate sharks.

  15. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr) in the detection of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrechaga Igartua, Eloísa; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Silvia; Escanero, Jesús F

    2017-09-01

    Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration within the reference interval does not exclude iron deficiency (ID): individuals with normal stores lose iron during a long period before their Hb falls below of the level that is defined as anemia. The process entails a decrease of storage iron, shown by serum ferritin below reference range, followed by iron depletion, eventually leading to iron restricted erythropoiesis; consequence of an imbalance between erythropoietic iron requirements and too low supply is a reduction of Hb synthesis in reticulocytes. We study the potential utility of mean reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr), reported by CELL-DYN Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics) analyzer, in the detection of ID in non-anemic adults. 207 patients with Hb within the reference range were enrolled. ID was defined as Hb>120g/L (women), >130g/L (men) and serum ferritin iron deficient adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  17. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study of pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene in distributive shock (PHOENIX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Privalle, Christopher T; Singer, Mervyn; Lorente, José A; Boehm, Erwin; Meier-Hellmann, Andreas; Darius, Harald; Ferrer, Ricard; Sirvent, Josep-Maria; Marx, Gernot; DeAngelo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    , administration of a pyridoxalated hemoglobin solution decreased the need for vasopressors but was associated with a trend to increased mortality.

  18. A study on the structures of hemoglobin of diabetic patients by EXAFS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yinsong; Tan Mingguang; Zhang Guilin

    2001-01-01

    Hemoglobin was the carrier of oxygen in blood circulation. For the patients with diabetes mellitus the enhancement of glycidate hemoglobin in blood causes the decrease of oxygen transmission function. The local atomic structures of iron in hemoglobin were determined by EXAFS techniques. The relationship between diabetes mellitus and hemoglobin structures was observed. The blood samples were taken from normal people, slight and serious diabetic patients. The results show that the coordination number of iron atoms and Fe-O bond length were almost the same for the three samples. However, for the samples of serious diabetic patients the Fe-N bond length increases by about 0.002 nm, the possible reasons were the increase of deoxyhemoglobin contents in their blood

  19. Effect of water and ethanol radicals on the protein part of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Puchala, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper studies the changes in the tryptophan fluorescence in human hemoglobin induced by ·OH, e aq - , H atoms and ethanol radicals. Measurements of irradiated hemoglobin performed in phosphate buffer, pH 7, indicate that the processes of unfolding a protein are induced with the highest efficiency by the ·OH radicals. A destructive action of e aq - is more evident in the absence of the ·OH radicals. Fluorescence measurements carried out after incubation of irradiated hemoglobin in Gdn·HCl solution reveal the tryptophan residues destruction, which is relatively small (at 2.5 kGy maximum fluorescence decrease was about 23%) and caused by the ·OH radicals. Within the dose range, the participation of the e aq - , H atoms and ethanol radicals in hemoglobin tryptophan residue destruction can be neglected. (author)

  20. Influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the result of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Beiwa; Zhang Guofen; Zhao Yutian; Wang Zhenwu; Xu Min; Hu Yulin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the radiotherapy result of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: From January 1989 to December 1998, 304 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC received radical radiation. There were 209 males and 95 females. The ages ranged from 16 to 77 years with a median of 42. All patients were irradiated by 60 Co or 6 MV external beam with a total dose of 64 - 76 Gy for the primary tumor and 46 - 77 Gy for the cervical lymph nodes. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration for all patients was measured before, during and after radiotherapy. These patients were divided into three groups according to the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration before radiotherapy: anemia ( 160 g/L), and into two groups according to the change in the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration during radiotherapy as increased and decreased groups. Results: All patients were followed with a follow-up rate of 90.5%. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration had a significant effect on the survival of NPC patients. Its decrease or increase during radiotherapy affected the survival and local control rates of NPC patients. Conclusions: The change of peripheral hemoglobin concentration affecting the oxygen content in the blood, can influence the local control and survival rates of NPC patients. Increase results in higher survival

  1. Site-selective glycosylation of hemoglobin on Cys beta93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yalong; Bhatt, Veer S; Sun, Guoyong; Wang, Peng G; Palmer, Andre F

    2008-11-19

    In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a novel glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) with high oxygen affinity as a potential Hb-based oxygen carrier. Site-selective glycosylation of bovine Hb was achieved by conjugating a lactose derivative to Cys 93 on the beta subunit of Hb. LC-MS analysis indicates that the reaction was quantitative, with no unmodified Hb present in the reaction product. The glycosylation site was identified by chymotrypsin digestion of the glycosylated bovine Hb followed with LC-MS/MS and from the X-ray crystal structure of the glycosylated Hb. The chemical conjugation of the lactose derivative at Cys beta93 yields an oxygen carrier with a high oxygen affinity (P(50) of 4.94 mmHg) and low cooperativity coefficient (n) of 1.20. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) coupled with multiangle static light scattering (MASLS) was used to measure the absolute molecular weight of the glycosylated Hb. AFFFF-MASLS analysis indicates that glycosylation of Hb significantly altered the alpha(2)beta(2)-alphabeta equilibrium compared to native Hb. Subsequent X-ray analysis of the glycosylated Hb crystal showed that the covalently linked lactose derivative is sandwiched between the beta(1) and alpha(2) (and hence by symmetry the beta(2) and alpha(1)) subunits of the tetramer, and the interaction between the saccharide and amino acid residues located at the interface is apparently stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions. The resultant structural analysis of the glycosylated Hb helps to explain the shift in the alpha(2)beta(2)-alphabeta equilibrium in terms of the hydrogen bonding interactions at the beta(1)alpha(2)/beta(2)alpha(1) interface. Taken together, all of these results indicate that it is feasible to site-specifically glycosylate Hb. This work has great potential in developing an oxygen carrier with defined chemistry that can target oxygen delivery to low pO(2) tissues and organs.

  2. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result is infection and malnutrition (22). On the other hand, there also consistent with previous reports (16,18) which .... formulation of livestock breeding policy. In proc. 5th. Britton S. Bovine tuberculosis: A cross-sectional and ... Ankara: Turkish-German Health. 1996: 343-349. Information Project, General Directorate of.

  3. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  4. Low affinity PEGylated hemoglobin from Trematomus bernacchii, a model for hemoglobin-based blood substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Conjugation of human and animal hemoglobins with polyethylene glycol has been widely explored as a means to develop blood substitutes, a novel pharmaceutical class to be used in surgery or emergency medicine. However, PEGylation of human hemoglobin led to products with significantly different oxygen binding properties with respect to the unmodified tetramer and high NO dioxygenase reactivity, known causes of toxicity. These recent findings call for the biotechnological development of stable, low-affinity PEGylated hemoglobins with low NO dioxygenase reactivity. Results To investigate the effects of PEGylation on protein structure and function, we compared the PEGylation products of human hemoglobin and Trematomus bernacchii hemoglobin, a natural variant endowed with a remarkably low oxygen affinity and high tetramer stability. We show that extension arm facilitated PEGylation chemistry based on the reaction of T. bernacchii hemoglobin with 2-iminothiolane and maleimido-functionalyzed polyethylene glycol (MW 5000 Da) leads to a tetraPEGylated product, more homogeneous than the corresponding derivative of human hemoglobin. PEGylated T. bernacchii hemoglobin largely retains the low affinity of the unmodified tetramer, with a p50 50 times higher than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Moreover, it is still sensitive to protons and the allosteric effector ATP, indicating the retention of allosteric regulation. It is also 10-fold less reactive towards nitrogen monoxide than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Conclusions These results indicate that PEGylated hemoglobins, provided that a suitable starting hemoglobin variant is chosen, can cover a wide range of oxygen-binding properties, potentially meeting the functional requirements of blood substitutes in terms of oxygen affinity, tetramer stability and NO dioxygenase reactivity. PMID:22185675

  5. Computational Electronic Structure of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachiyo, Teepanis; Rodriguez, Jorge H.

    2003-03-01

    Hemoglobin is an oxygen transporting protein whereby O2 binds reversibly to an iron-porphyrin active site. Upon binding of O2 the iron-porphyrin complex undergoes subtle structural rearrangements with a concomitant change from the ferrous (deoxyhemoglobin) to the ferric (oxyhemoglobin) oxidation states. We have studied the electronic structure of oxyhemoglobin within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). A geometrical model based on the X-ray crystallographic structure was fully optimized utilizing all-electron basis sets and gradient-corrected exchange correlation density functionals. As suggested by experiment, assuming that the molecular ground state was a singlet, the calculations showed an ``incipient" open-shell electronic structure. There was a very small but finite amount of spin density at the iron site and a spin density of equal magnitude but opposite sign localized on O_2. The bonding between Fe and O2 was dominated by two pairs of electrons nominally occupying d orbitals of Fe or π orbitals of O_2. However, strong electron delocalization was predicted between iron and dioxygen consistent with the incipient open-shell singlet configuration of the active site. Upon binding to iron, the bond length of O2 increased as compared to that of the free ligand due to weaker interaction among the two oxygens. Simulations of the binding process were carried out which show that the orientation of O2 with respect to the porphyrin plane follows a specific trend which minimizes the overall electronic energy. Finally, our calculations found a ``side-on" geometry, where both oxygens bind to Fe, as a stable but excited state configuration.

  6. Selection of aptamers specific for glycated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin using on-chip SELEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-I; Wu, Ching-Chu; Yang, Ching-Hsuan; Chang, Ko-Wei; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Shiesh, Shu-Chu

    2015-01-21

    Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels reflecting average glucose concentrations over the past three months are fundamental for the diagnosis, monitoring, and risk assessment of diabetes. It has been hypothesized that aptamers, which are single-stranded DNAs or RNAs that demonstrate high affinity to a large variety of molecules ranging from small drugs, metabolites, or proteins, could be used for the measurement of HbA1c. Aptamers are selected through an in vitro process called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and they can be chemically synthesized with high reproducibility at relatively low costs. This study therefore aimed to select HbA1c- and hemoglobin (Hb)-specific single-stranded DNA aptamers using an on-chip SELEX protocol. A microfluidic SELEX chip was developed to continuously and automatically carry out multiple rounds of SELEX to screen specific aptamers for HbA1c and Hb. HbA1c and Hb were first coated onto magnetic beads. Following several rounds of selection and enrichment with a randomized 40-mer DNA library, specific oligonucleotides were selected. The binding specificity and affinity were assessed by competitive and binding assays. Using the developed microfluidic system, the incubation and partitioning times were greatly decreased, and the entire process was shortened dramatically. Both HbA1c- and Hb-specific aptamers selected by the microfluidic system showed high specificity and affinity (dissociation constant, Kd = 7.6 ± 3.0 nM and 7.3 ± 2.2 nM for HbA1c and Hb, respectively). With further refinements in the assay, these aptamers may replace the conventional antibodies for in vitro diagnostics applications in the near future.

  7. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hemoglobin polypeptide chains). The hemoglobin determination may be made by methods such as electrophoresis... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal hemoglobin...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7440 - Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system. 864....7440 Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system. (a) Identification. An electrophoretic hemoglobin... hemoglobin types as an aid in the diagnosis of anemia or erythrocytosis (increased total red cell mass) due...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. 864.7470 Section... Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A glycosylated hemoglobin assay is a device used to measure the glycosylated hemoglobins (A1a, A1b, and A1c) in a patient's blood by a column chromatographic...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864... hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents... hemoglobin types. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60618, Sept. 12, 1980] ...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section... blood hemoglobin assays. (a) Identification. A whole blood hemoglobin assay is a device consisting or... hemoglobin content of whole blood for the detection of anemia. This generic device category does not include...

  13. 21 CFR 864.5620 - Automated hemoglobin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated hemoglobin system. 864.5620 Section 864....5620 Automated hemoglobin system. (a) Identification. An automated hemoglobin system is a fully... hemoglobin content of human blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60601, Sept...

  14. Evaluation of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma Patients with Low Hemoglobin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Medhat; Abdelhamid, Bassant; Zakaria, Dina; Dayem, Omnia Abd El; Rady, Ashraf; Fawzy, Maher; Hasanin, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Bleeding is a leading cause of death among trauma patients. Delayed assessment of blood hemoglobin level might result in either unnecessary blood transfusion in nonindicated patients or delayed blood transfusion in critically bleeding patients. In this study, we evaluate the precision of noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring in trauma patients with low hemoglobin levels. We included trauma patients with low hemoglobin levels (less than 8 g/dL) scheduled for surgical intervention. Blood samples were obtained on admission and after each blood unit with concomitant measurement of serum hemoglobin using radical-7 Masimo device. The change in blood hemoglobin after every transfused blood unit was also assessed by both methods (change in noninvasive Masimo hemoglobin [Delta-Sp-Hb] and change in laboratory hemoglobin [Delta-Lab-Hb]). The precision of Masimo hemoglobin level (Sp-Hb) compared with Laboratory hemoglobin level (Lab-Hb) was determined using both Bland-Altman and Pearson correlation analyses. One hundred eighty-four time-matched samples were available for final analysis. Bland-Altman analysis showed excellent accuracy of Sp-Hb compared with Lab-Hb with mean bias of 0.12 g/dL and limits of agreement between -0.56 g/dL and 0.79 g/dL. Excellent correlation was reported between both measures with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.872. Excellent agreement was also reported between both Delta-Sp-Hb and Delta-Lab-Hb with mean bias of -0.05 and limits of agreement from -0.62 to 0.51 CONCLUSIONS:: Sp-Hb showed accurate precision in both absolute values and trend values compared with Lab-Hb measurement in trauma patients with low hemoglobin levels.

  15. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human hemoglobin structural and functional alterations and heme degradation upon interaction with benzene: A spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-03-15

    Here, the effect of benzene on hemoglobin structure, stability and heme prosthetic group integrity was studied by different methods. These included UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry, normal and synchronous fluorescence techniques, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Our results indicated that benzene has high hemolytic potential even at low concentrations. The UV-vis spectroscopic results demonstrated that benzene altered both the globin chain and the heme prosthetic group of hemoglobin increasing met- and deoxy-Hb, while decreasing oxy-Hb. However, with increasing benzene the concentration of all species decreased due to heme destruction. The spectrophotometric results show that benzene has a high potential for penetrating the hydrophobic pocket of hemoglobin. These results were consistent with the molecular docking simulation results of benzene-hHb. Aggregation and thermal denaturation studies show that the increased benzene concentration induced hemoglobin aggregation with a decrease in stability, which is consistent with the DSC results. Conventional fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the heme degradation species were produced in the presence of benzene. The results of constant wavelength synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (CWSFS) indicated that at least five heme-degraded species were produced. Together, our results indicated that benzene has adverse effects on hemoglobin structure and function, and heme degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  18. Genetics of bovine vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Richard Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important issue for animal breeders, farmers and governments. Solutions to control infectious disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. The primary aim of this thesis is to discover regions of the bovine genome which influence the immune response post immunisation. To accomplish this two types of immunising agents, a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMD...

  19. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  20. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods: Euglycemic individuals with overt hypo- or hyper-thyroidism were selected. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Baseline HbA1c and reticulocyte counts (for estimation of RBC turnover were estimated in all the patients and compared. Thereafter, stable euthyroidism was achieved in a randomly selected subgroup and HbA1c and reticulocyte count was reassessed. HbA1c values and reticulocyte counts were compared with baseline in both the groups. Results: Hb A1c in patients initially selected was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid group. HbA1c values in hyperthyroid patients were not significantly different from controls. HbA1c reduction and rise in reticulocyte count were significant in hypothyroid group following treatment without significant change in glucose level. Hb A1c did not change significantly following treatment in hyperthyroid group. The reticulocyte count, however, decreased significantly. Conclusion: Baseline HbA1c levels were found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid patients, which reduced significantly after achievement of euthyroidism without any change in glucose levels. Significant baseline or posttreatment change was not observed in hyperthyroid patients. Our study suggests that we should be cautious while interpreting HbA1c data in patients with hypothyroidism.

  1. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon monoxide reduces near-infrared spectroscopy determined 'total' hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Mads J; Sørensen, Henrik; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    to normoxia (68.9 ± 6.9%; p determined ScO2 remained unchanged during CO/O2 and O2 inhalations but oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin decreased (by 19.7 μM (median; IQR 2.8-34.8; p = .016) and 37.3 μM (30.8-46.6; p = .004), respectively) during inhalation of CO/O2 compared...... to inhalation of O2. Therefore, NIRO-200NX determined 'total' hemoglobin (sum of O2Hb and HHb) decreased (by 62.1 μM; 44.5-78.2; p = .001). In conclusion, exposure to CO did not increase MCAVmean, and neither NIRO-200NX nor INVOS-5100 detected a change in ScO2 when CO was added to inhalation of oxygen......Carbon monoxide (CO) increases middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCAVmean), but the effect of CO on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) is not detailed. In our study, 11 non-smoking subjects breathed 100% O2 through a closed circuit. A CO2 scrubber...

  3. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  4. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotze, Sebastian Ranzi; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...... measurement as a method of risk assessment among blood donors....

  5. Rheological Variations among Nigerians with Different Hemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Hemorheological determinants such as whole blood viscosity (WBV) and plasma viscosity (PV) and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentration (PFC) were measured with standard methods. We recorded a relatively unchanged whole blood viscosities in subjects with various hemoglobin genotypes (AA, AS and SS; P>0.05, ...

  6. Comparative immunology of Galapagos iguana hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P J; Rand, C S

    1975-09-01

    The antigenic properties of the major hemoglobin component of the Galapgaos iguanas were studied using second-approximation qualitative and quantitative immunochemical techniques. Phylogenetic distances, relative to the Galapagos marine iguana. Amblyrhynchus cristatus, were established on the basis of immunological cross-reactions.

  7. Hemoglobin and atherosclerosis in patients with manifest arterial disease. The SMART-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J. M.; Wangge, G.; Graaf, Y. van der; Bots, M. L.; Grobbee, D. E.; Algra, A.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased hemoglobin levels are known to be associated with an increased risk of coronary mortality and morbidity. This is largely thought to result from the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Similar remodeling mechanisms of the vessel wall that may result in atherosclerosis are likely to

  8. Kadar Hemoglobin dan Kecerdasan Intelektual Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Kusmiyati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas sumber daya manusia dipengaruhi oleh inteligensi anak. Skor kecerdasan intelektual yang tidak menetap pada usia tertentu dapat berubah karena faktor genetik, gizi, dan lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui hubungan kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual anak. Penelitian observasional dengan desain potong lintang ini dilakukan pada populasi siswa kelas VI Sekolah Dasar Negeri Giwangan Yogyakarta, tahun 2013. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dengan metode simple random sampling terhadap 37 sampel siswa. Instrumen untuk mengukur kecerdasan intelektual dengan Cultural Fair Intelligence Quotient Test yang dirancang untuk meminimalkan pengaruh kultural dengan memperhatikan prosedur evaluasi, instruksi, konten isi, dan respons peserta. Tes dilakukan oleh Biro Psikologi Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta, kadar hemoglobin diukur menggunakan Portable Hemoglobin Digital Analyzer Easy Touch secara digital.Variabel luar indeks massa tubuh diukur langsung menggunakan parameter tinggi badan dan berat badan. Analisis menggunakan uji regresi linier. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan indeks massa tubuh tidak berhubungan dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,052. Anemia berhubungan cukup dengan kecerdasan anak (r = 0,491 dan berpola positif, semakin tinggi kadar hemoglobin semakin tinggi kecerdasan intelektual anak. Nilai koefisien determinasi 0,241 menerangkan bahwa 24,1% variasi anemia cukup baik untuk menjelaskan variabel kecerdasan intelektual. Ada hubungan antara kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,002. Quality of human resources is influenced by the child’s intelligent. Intelligence Quotient (IQ score will not settle at a certain age and can change due to genetic factors, nutrition, and the environment. The objective is known relationship of anemia with IQ to child. Method of observational study with cross sectional design. Population are students of class VI elementary school of Giwangan Yogyakarta in

  9. Non-symbiotic hemoglobin and its relation with hypoxic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Riquelme

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today we know that several types of hemoglobins exist in plants. The symbiotic hemoglobins were discovered in 1939 and are only found in nodules of plants capable of symbiotically fixing atmospheric N. Another class, called non-symbiotic hemoglobin, was discovered 32 yr ago and is now thought to exist throughout the plant kingdom, being expressed in different organs and tissues. Recently the existence of another type of hemoglobin, called truncated hemoglobin, was demonstrated in plants. Although the presence of hemoglobins is widespread in the plant kingdom, their role has not yet been fully elucidated. This review discusses recent findings regarding the role of plant hemoglobins, with special emphasis on their relationship to plants adaptation to hypoxia. It also discusses the role of nitric oxide in plant cells under hypoxic conditions, since one of the functions of hemoglobin appears to be modulating nitric oxide levels in the cells.

  10. A new hemoglobin gene from soybean: a role for hemoglobin in all plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, C R; Jensen, E O; LLewellyn, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a new hemoglobin gene from soybean. It is expressed in cotyledons, stems of seedlings, roots, young leaves, and in some cells in the nodules that are associated with the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium symbiont. This contrasts with the expression of the leghemoglobins, which...... are active only in the infected cells of the nodules. The deduced protein sequence of the new gene shows only 58% similarity to one of the soybean leghemoglobins, but 85-87% similarity to hemoglobins from the nonlegumes Parasponia, Casuarina, and barley. The pattern of expression and the gene sequence...... indicate that this new gene is a nonsymbiotic legume hemoglobin. The finding of this gene in legumes and similar genes in other species strengthens our previous suggestion that genomes of all plants contain hemoglobin genes. The specialized leghemoglobin gene family may have arisen from a preexisting...

  11. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene Rezende Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. METHODS: βS allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. RESULTS: The following alpha chain variants were found: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5 Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13 Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2 Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5 Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. CONCLUSION: Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  12. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcilene Rezende; Sendin, Shimene Mascarenhas; Araujo, Isabela Couto de Oliveira; Pimentel, Fernanda Silva; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. β(S) allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI) were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. THE FOLLOWING ALPHA CHAIN VARIANTS WERE FOUND: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5) Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13) Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2) Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5) Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  13. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  14. Correlation of low levels of nitrite and high levels of fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcielle Bruna Dias Elias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolytic anemia, increased susceptibility to infections and recurrent vaso-occlusive crises that reduces the quality of life of sufferers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation of the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, malonaldehyde and nitrite to fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease not under treatment with hydroxyurea in outpatients at a university hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-four patients diagnosed with sickle cell disease were enrolled at baseline. Diagnosis was confirmed by evaluating the beta globin gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The concentration of fetal hemoglobin was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum levels of nitrite, malonaldehyde and lactate dehydrogenase were measured by biochemical methods. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, nitrite and malonaldehyde were observed in patients with sickle cell disease compared to a control group. The study of the correlation between fetal hemoglobin levels and these variables showed a negative correlation with nitrite levels. No correlation was found between fetal hemoglobin and malonaldehyde or lactate dehydrogenase. When the study population was stratified according to fetal hemoglobin levels, a decrease in the levels of nitrite was observed with higher levels of fetal hemoglobin (p-value = 0.0415. CONCLUSION: The results show that, similar to fetal hemoglobin levels, the concentration of nitrite can predict the clinical course of the disease, but should not be used alone as a modulator of prognosis in patients with sickle cell disease.

  15. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  16. Comparative and quantitative determination of total hemoglobin concentration in normal and psoriatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, S.M.; Dahot, M.U.; Khuhawar, M.Y.; Mahesar, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    The cyanmethaemoglobin technique is now recommended as the standard method by International Committee for Standardization in Hematology and British Standards Institution 1966. The hemoglobin is treated with reagent containing potassium ferricyanide, Potassium cyanide and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The ferricyanide forms methamoglobin which is converted to cyanmethaemoglobin by the cyanide. The average values of hemoglobin, percent determined from the blood samples of normal and psoriatic (n=44) males and (n=35) females were 15.0, 12.7, 13.6 and 11.2 g/100ml. The decrease in hemoglobin concentration could be due to anemia resulting during the cell proliferation epidermis in inflammatory state and Keratolytic disorder which take place in psoriasis. (author)

  17. The effect of gamma-rays on the hemoglobin of whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, H.A.; Selim, N.S.; El-Behay, A.Z.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the UV-visible absorption spectrum of mouse hemoglobin as a result of whole body irradiation were studied. White albino adult mice were exposed to a Cs-137 γ-source at a dose rate of 47.5 Gy/h to different absorbed dose values ranging from 1 to 8 Gy. Blood specimens were taken 24 h after irradiation. The UV-visible absorption spectra of hemoglobin of irradiated and control mice were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The obtained results showed significant changes in the bands measured at 340 nm, in the Soret band measured at 410 nm, also, the α- and β-bands measured at 537 and 572 nm showed significant decrease in intensity with the absorbed dose increase. The absorbance measured at 630 nm showed no significant changes. The radiation effect on the animal hemoglobin was discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (Author)

  18. Effects of Bovine Polymerized Hemoglobin in Coagulation in Controlled Hemorrhagic Shock in Swine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnaud, Francxoise; Hammett, Mike; Asher, Ludmila; Philbin, Nora; Rice, Jennifer; Dong, Feng; Pearce, Bruce; Flournoy, William S; Nicholson, Carol; McCarron, Richard

    2005-01-01

    ...), and partial thromboplastin time (PTT). Serum lactate was measured and lung sections were evaluated for microthrombi by electron microscopy. During the prehospital phase, BT remained unchanged in the HBOC group.

  19. Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair in Mitral Regurgitation Reduces Cell-Free Hemoglobin and Improves Endothelial Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Rammos

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is predictive for cardiovascular events and may be caused by decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO. NO is scavenged by cell-free hemoglobin with reduction of bioavailable NO up to 70% subsequently deteriorating vascular function. While patients with mitral regurgitation (MR suffer from an impaired prognosis, mechanisms relating to coexistent vascular dysfunctions have not been described yet. Therapy of MR using a percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR approach has been shown to lead to significant clinical benefits. We here sought to investigate the role of endothelial function in MR and the potential impact of PMVR.Twenty-seven patients with moderate-to-severe MR treated with the MitraClip® device were enrolled in an open-label single-center observational study. Patients underwent clinical assessment, conventional echocardiography, and determination of endothelial function by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasound at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Patients with MR demonstrated decompartmentalized hemoglobin and reduced endothelial function (cell-free plasma hemoglobin in heme 28.9±3.8 μM, FMD 3.9±0.9%. Three months post-procedure, PMVR improved ejection fraction (from 41±3% to 46±3%, p = 0.03 and NYHA functional class (from 3.0±0.1 to 1.9±1.7, p<0.001. PMVR was associated with a decrease in cell free plasma hemoglobin (22.3±2.4 μM, p = 0.02 and improved endothelial functions (FMD 4.8±1.0%, p<0.0001.We demonstrate here that plasma from patients with MR contains significant amounts of cell-free hemoglobin, which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. PMVR therapy is associated with an improved hemoglobin decompartmentalization and vascular function.

  20. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hematological indices of SCD patients with decreased levels of HDL.c were compared with those with normal HDL.c levels. Results: The SCD patients with decreased levels of HDL.c presented with lower levels of hemoglobin (P < 0.01), hematocrit (P < 0.001), total leukocyte count (P = 0.02), red blood cell count (P < 0.01), ...

  1. The impact of hemoglobin on the efficacy of phototherapy in hyperbilirubinemic infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donneborg, Mette L; Vandborg, Pernille K; Hansen, Bo M

    2017-01-01

    of total serum bilirubin concentration (TsB).MethodsA trial was conducted on 93 infants, gestational age ≥33 weeks, with uncomplicated hyperbilirubinemia. The infants were treated with conventional phototherapy using LED light for 24 h. The median light irradiance was 66.8 μW/cm(2)/nm.ResultsThe median...... initial TsB and postnatal age, for each mmol/l increase in hemoglobin, the decrease in TsB was 3.61 μmol/l smaller. In our hemoglobin range, the decrease in TsB is reduced by 28 μmol/l (23%).ConclusionIncreasing hemoglobin levels led to a decrease in the efficacy of phototherapy. Our data provide......BackgroundPhototherapy is the routine treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Absorption of light in the skin transforms the native Z,Z-bilirubin to photobilirubins. This study investigates whether the hemoglobin concentration has an impact on efficacy of phototherapy, expressed by the decline...

  2. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Sarpong, Nimako; Dekker, Denise; Idriss, Ali; May, Juergen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2011-04-21

    In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin). Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p < 0.001). The Bland and Altman's limit of agreement was -0.389 - 0.644 g/dl with the mean difference being 0.127 (95% CI: 0.102-0.153) and a non-significant difference in variability between the two measurements (p = 0.843). After adjusting to assess the effect of other possible confounders such as sex, age and category of person, there was no

  3. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  4. Radio-ligand immunoassay for human hemoglobin variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, J.; Pettis, P.K.; Miller, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative method is described for the individual assay of human hemoglobin variants occurring singly or in mixture. The hemoglobin to be assayed is bound to specific antibody; the immune complex is attached to protein A-containing S. aureus and removed from the mixture. The hemoglobin thus isolated is quantified by its ability to bind radiolabeled haptoglobin. The technique is accurate and distinguishes among the 4 hemoglobins tested, namely Hb A, S, C and F. It has the advantage over conventional radioimmunoassay that a single probe, radiolabeled haptoglobin, is needed for the specific assay of any hemoglobin. (Auth.)

  5. Valores de referência e influência da idade no eritrograma de fêmeas bovinas da raça Aquitânica Reference values and age effect on the erythrogram of bovine females of the Aquitanian breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Dias Junior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os valores de referência e estudou-se a influência da idade sobre o eritrograma em fêmeas bovinas da raça Aquitânica. Amostras de sangue de 80 fêmeas bovinas, acima de 12 meses de idade, e não reagentes ao antígeno do vírus da leucose dos bovinos, foram colhidas utilizando-se EDTA como anticoagulante para realização das seguintes provas: contagem global das hemácias, determinação do volume globular, concentração de hemoglobina, cálculo dos índices hematimétricos absolutos - volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM. A idade exerceu influência significativa (PThe reference values and the influence of the age factor on the erytrogram in bovine females of the Aquitanian breed were evaluated. Blood samples of 80 healthy females, all tested negative for bovine leucose virus, were utilized for the analysis. Erythrocyte counts, determination of the packed cell volume, concentration of hemoglobin, calculation of hematimetric absolute rates of mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were evaluated. Significant influence (P<0.05 of age was observed for most of the hematological characteristics, with decreased of the number of erythrocytes and increase of packed cell volume, quantity of hemoglobin, MCV, MCH. The reference values were: erythrocytes counting 6.68±0.58×10(6/mm³, packed cell volume 41.2±4.5%, hemoglobin 12.8±1.31g/dl, VCM 61.83±6.54fl, HCM 19.28±2.25pg, CHCM 31.4±2.3%.

  6. [Antiviral activity of different drugs in vitro against viruses of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and bovine diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Sergeev, A A; Belkina, T V; Sergeev, A N

    2004-01-01

    In vitro experiments studied the antiviral activity of 11 different drugs against viruses of bovine infective rhinotracheitis (BIRT) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). The 50% inhibiting concentrations of the test agents were determined in the monolayers of MDBK and KCT cell cultures. Only did phosprenyl show a virucidal activity against BIRT virus. All the tested drugs significantly inhibited the reproduction of BIRT virus in the sensitive MDBK cell cultures. Thus, bromuridin, acyclovir, ribavirin and methisazonum inhibited the virus by > or = 100,000 times; liposomal ribavirin, gossypolum, anandinum, polyprenolum, phosprenyl, by 1000-10,000 times; eracond and argovit, by 100 times. In experiments on BVD virus, the cultured KCT cells displayed the antiviral activity of bromuridin, phosprenil, polyprenolum, methisazonum, acyclovir, gossypolum, argovit, and ribavirin (in two variants), which caused a statistically significant (100-10,000-fold) decrease in the productive activity of this virus. Eracond and anandid proved to be ineffective.

  7. Free heme and sickle hemoglobin polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunova, Veselina V.

    This work investigates further the mechanism of one of the most interesting of the protein self-assembly systems---the polymerization of sickle hemoglobin and the role of free heme in it. Polymerization of sickle hemoglobin is the primary event in the pathology of a chronic hemolytic condition called sickle cell anemia with complex pathogenesis, unexplained variability and symptomatic treatment. Auto-oxidation develops in hemoglobin solutions exposed to room temperature and causes release of ferriheme. The composition of such solutions is investigated by mass spectrometry. Heme dimers whose amount corresponds to the initial amounts of heme released from the protein are followed. Differences in the dimer peak height are established for hemoglobin variants A, S and C and depending on the exposure duration. The effects of free heme on polymerization kinetics are studied. Growth rates and two characteristic parameters of nucleation are measured for stored Hb S. After dialysis of polymerizing solutions, no spherulites are detected at moderately high supersaturation and prolonged exposure times. The addition of 0.16-0.26 mM amounts of heme to dialyzed solutions leads to restoration of polymerization. The measured kinetic parameters have higher values compared to the ones before dialysis. The amount of heme in non-dialyzed aged solution is characterized using spectrophotometry. Three methods are used: difference in absorbance of dialyzed and non-dialyzed solutions, characteristic absorbance of heme-albumin complex and absorbance of non-dialyzed solutions with added potassium cyanide. The various approaches suggest the presence of 0.12 to 0.18 mM of free ferriheme in such solutions. Open questions are whether the same amounts of free heme are present in vivo and whether the same mechanism operates intracellulary. If the answer to those questions is positive, then removal of free heme from erythrocytes can influence their readiness to sickle.

  8. Facile Interfacial Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein describe a method of depositing hemoglobin (Hb and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN on GC electrodes that facilitate interfacial protein electron transfer. Well-defined, reproducible, chemically reversible peaks of Hb and SPAN can be obtained in our experiments. We also observed enhanced peroxidase activity of Hb in SPAN films. These results clearly showed that SPAN worked as molecular wires and effectively exchanged electrons between Hb and electrodes.Mediated by Conjugated Polymers

  9. Effect of pH and ATP on lipid oxidation in unwashed and washed seabass mince (Lates calcarifer mediated by hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakree Tongraung

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation was studied by using washed and unwashed seabass mince with and without added hemoglobin. Three pH values of postmortem fish were examined (physiological pH (6.5, 6.2, and 7.0. The lag time prior to thiobarbituric acid reactive substance development in the unwashed mince without added hemoglobin decreased greatly as the pH was reduced (p<0.05. Addition of hemoglobin decreased the lag time especially at the pH 6.2. In addition, the level of deoxyhemoglobin was found sharply increase with pH reduction in the range of pH 7.0 to 5.0. This suggested a potential role for deoxyhemoglobin as a catalyst. ATP lowered hemoglobin oxygenation at all pHs studied. Washing effectively prevented lipid oxidation in the washed mince without added hemoglobin. However, by addition of hemoglobin significant development of TBARS at low pH values except at pH 7.0. The results proved that ATP and low pH values increased oxidative activity of seabass hemoglobin. This investigation suggests that deoxyhemoglobin was a potent pro-oxidant.

  10. Imidazolidinone adducts of peptides and hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San George, R.C.; Hoberman, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acetaldehyde reacts selectively with the terminal amino groups of the α and β chains of hemoglobin to form stable adducts, the structures of which, based on 13 C NMR studies, are proposed to be diastereomeric 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-ones. In this scheme, acetaldelhyde forms a reversible Schiff base with the α-amino groups of the polypeptide chains which cyclize with the amide nitrogen of the first peptide bond to form the stable imidazolidinone adducts. In support of this mechanism, the authors found that in following the reaction of the peptide val-gly-gly with [1,2- 13 C] acetaldehyde, 13 C NMR resonances attributed to a Schiff base (δ = 170 ppm) were observed which slowly disappeared prior to appearance of resonances from a pair of stable adducts (δ = 70 and 71 ppm) believed to be the diastereomeric imidazolidinones. Schiff base formation appeared to limit the overall rate. Tetraglycine reacted in a similar manner but with a resonance from a single stable adduct observed representing the enantiomeric imidazolidinone adducts of this peptide. Peptides with proline in position 2 should be incapable of forming imidazolidinones, and the authors found that ala-pro-gly did in fact fail to form a stable adduct with acetaldehyde. The 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-one adducts of hemoglobin may be useful in determining the contribution of the amino terminal groups to the structure and functional properties of hemoglobins

  11. Small angle X-ray scattering on concentrated hemoglobin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinke, M.; Damaschun, G.; Mueller, J.J.; Ruckpaul, K.

    1978-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to determine the intermolecular structure and interaction potentials in oxi-and deoxi-hemoglobin solutions. The pair correlation function obtained by the ZERNICKE-PRINS equation characterizes the intermolecular structure of the hemoglobin molecules. The intermolecular structure is concentration dependent. The hemoglobin molecules have a 'short range order structure' with a range of about 4 molecule diameters at 324 g/l. The potential functions of the hemoglobin-hemoglobin interaction have been determined on the basis of fluid theories. Except for the deoxi-hemoglobin solution having the concentration 370 g/l, the pair interaction consists in a short repulsion and a weak short-range attraction against kT. The potential minimum is between 1.2 - 1.5 nm above the greatest hemoglobin diameter. (author)

  12. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idriss Ali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. Method EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Results Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p Conclusion Hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method is comparable to that determined by the other methods. The HemoCue photometer is therefore recommended for use as on-the-spot device for determining hemoglobin in resource poor setting.

  13. Homeothermic fish and hemoglobin: primary structure of the hemoglobin from bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, Scromboidei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, K; Oberthür, W; Braunitzer, G

    1987-07-01

    Some fish are warm-bodied, e.g. the bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), which has a muscle temperature 12-17 degrees C higher than its environment. This endothermy is achieved by aerobic metabolism and conserved by means of a heat-exchanger system. The hemoglobins of bluefin tuna are adapted to these conditions by their endothermic oxygenation, thus contributing to the preservation of the body energy. This is a new and so far unique property of tuna hemoglobin. The primary structure of the alpha and beta chains of bluefin tuna hemoglobins is presented. The sequence was determined after enzymatic and chemical cleavages of the chains and sequencing of the peptides in gas- and liquid-phase sequencers. The alpha chains consists of 143 residues and are N-terminally acetylated. The beta chains have 146 amino acids and show two ambiguities at positions 140 and 142. The alpha chains differ from the human alpha chains in 65 amino-acid residues, the beta chains in 76. The hemoglobins of bluefin tuna, carp and man are compared and their different physiological properties are discussed in relation to the sequence data. From the primary structure of tuna hemoglobins, it is possible to propose a molecular basis for their peculiar endothermic transition from the T to the R structure.

  14. Bovine serum albumin bioconjugated graphene oxide: Red blood cell adhesion and hemolysis studied by QCM-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bing; Hu, Kebang; Li, Chunming; Jin, Jing; Hu, Yuexin

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) had great potential in various applications especial biomedical materials. In this study, we improved the hemocompatibility especial hemolysis properties of GO nanosheets by grafting bovine serum albumin (BSA). The hemocompatibility of GO-g-BSA was improved. The hemolysis ratio of GO-g-BSA was lower than 0.2% and no visible hemoglobin release was observed. In a flowed condition, the interaction between GO and RBC was monitored real time by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and the hemolysis rates of eluted RBC solution was determined. The balance between the adsorption and degradation of RBC on the surface of GO was a linear process. The GO-g-BSA surface decreased the adhesion of RBC in a flowed condition, maintained the morphology of RBC and reduced the hemolysis rate in the most effective manner. The inert of BSA resisted GO interacting with the lipid bilayers of RBC and the negative charge on the surface of BSA repelled the approach of negative charged RBC. The excellent hemocompatibility of the BSA modified GO might confer its great potentials for various biomedical applications.

  15. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimia Roghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  16. Laboratory and Genetic Biomarkers Associated with Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity in Hemoglobin SC Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayra Pereira Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV in hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC have not been established. We aimed to investigate associations between laboratory and genetic biomarkers associated with CBFV in HbSC children. Sixty-eight HbSC children were included; CBFV was analyzed by transcranial Doppler, and the time-averaged maximum mean velocity (TAMMV was estimated. Hematological, biochemical, immunological, and genetic analyses were performed. TAMMV was negatively correlated with red blood cell count (RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and direct bilirubin (DB, yet positively correlated with monocytes and ferritin. We found that children with TAMMV ≥ 128 cm/s had decreased red blood cell distribution width (RDW and nitric oxide metabolite (NOx concentration. Children with TAMMV ≥ 143.50 cm/s had decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, as well as increased ferritin levels. Decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, RDW, and NOx and increased ferritin were detected in children with TAMMV ≥ 125.75 cm/s. The CAR haplotype was associated with higher TAMMV. In association analyses, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, RDW, monocyte, DB, NOx, and ferritin, as well as the CAR haplotype, were found to be associated with higher TAMMV in HbSC children. Multivariate analysis suggested that high TAMMV was independently associated with hematocrit, RDW, and NOx. Additional studies are warranted to validate the establishment of a cutoff value of 125.75 cm/s associated with elevated TAMMV in HbSC children.

  17. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Len, E-mail: len@ksc.kwansei.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Toyoaki [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins.

  18. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Kobayashi, Toyoaki; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins

  19. Molecular Design Properties of OxyVita Hemoglobin, a New Generation Therapeutic Oxygen Carrier: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Wollocko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OxyVita Hb is a new generation hemoglobin based oxygen carrier (HBOC produced through modification of a zero-linked polymerization mechanism using activators which incorporate cross-linked bovine tetramer hemoglobin into “super-polymeric” macromolecules (Average molecular weight = 17 MDa for the purpose of oxygen delivery when whole blood or packed red cells are not available. This molecular design approach was generated in order to address several fundamental biochemical and physiological weaknesses of previous generations of HBOCs. Observation during pre-clinical and clinical studies provided evidence that these early generation acellular HBOCs were directly associated with loss of retention within the circulatory system, extravasation across endothelial tissue membranes due to their small molecular size leading to arterial and venous vasoconstriction with coupled increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP. The inherent increase in molecular size and structural stability of the OxyVita Hb is a direct response to addressing these serious weaknesses that have occurred during the evolution of HBOC development within the past two decades. The nature of the zero-linked synthetic route eliminates any chemical linkers remaining in the product, eliminating side reaction concerns, such as reversibility and decomposition due to weak chemical bonds, dependency on temperature and pressure, and residual toxicity.

  20. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MIXED JUICE MUNG BEAN AND GUAVA FOR INCREASING HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL IN CANCER PATIENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Huda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality rate in a year. One of therapy in curing cancer is chemotherapy. But unfortunately chemotherapy has some negative effects such as decreasing the level of hemoglobin (Hb. Mung bean that contain a lot of iron and Guava which is rich of vitamin C for iron absorption are useful in cancer patient with chemotherapy. Therefore, a mixture of both is believed in increasing hemoglobin level significantly. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mixed juice mung bean and guava for increasing hemoglobin level in experiment and control group of cancer patient with chemotherapy.This research used Quasi Experiment design with pretest-posttest design control group approach. The total number of respondent was 30 chosen by purposive sampling method. Results of this study showed hemoglobin level in experiment group 14.07 and 10.42 in control group with p value (0,000 < α (0,05. It can be concluded that a mixture juice mung beans and guava effective for increasing hemoglobin level in cancer patient with chemotherapy. This research suggests that this mixture can be an option for nursing intervention in increasing hemoglobin level for cancer patient after receiving chemotherapy.

  1. FTIR spectroscopy studies on the bioprotective effectiveness of trehalose on human hemoglobin aqueous solutions under 50 Hz electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magazù, Salvatore; Calabrò, Emanuele; Campo, Salvatore

    2010-09-23

    The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on the protein structure of hemoglobin were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Three samples of different hemoglobin aqueous solutions (also in the presence of sucrose and trehalose) were exposed to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field at 1 mT, and FTIR measurements were performed after 3 h of exposure. Quantitative spectral analysis revealed an evident decrease in amide A band intensity for hemoglobin in bidistilled water and sucrose aqueous solutions, but not for hemoglobin in trehalose aqueous solution. In addition a low relative increase of β-sheet in amide I region was detected for hemoglobin in both bidistilled water and sucrose aqueous solutions, whereas no appreciable changes were evidenced in the infrared spectra of hemoglobin in trehalose aqueous solutions. These results led us to conclude that a 50 Hz electromagnetic field can affect the N-H plane bending and C-N stretching vibrations of peptide linkages, suggesting compensatory mechanisms by means of environmental biochemical agents, such as evidenced by a protective effect of trehalose toward a low-frequency electromagnetic field.

  2. Hemoglobin allostery: new views on old players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Adriana Erica; Bellelli, Andrea; Brunori, Maurizio

    2013-05-13

    Proteins are dynamic molecular machines whose structure and function are modulated by environmental perturbations and natural selection. Allosteric regulation, discovered in 1963 as a novel molecular mechanism of enzymatic adaptation [Monod, Changeux & Jacob (1963). J. Mol. Biol.6, 306-329], seems to be the leit motiv of enzymes and metabolic pathways, enabling fine and quick responses toward external perturbations. Hemoglobin (Hb), the oxygen transporter of all vertebrates, has been for decades the paradigmatic system to test the validity of the conformational selection mechanism, the conceptual innovation introduced by Monod, Wyman and Changeux. We present hereby the results of a comparative analysis of structure, function and thermodynamics of two extensively investigated hemoglobins: human HbA and trout HbI. They represent a unique and challenging comparison to test the general validity of the stereochemical model proposed by Perutz. Indeed both proteins are ideal for the purpose being very similar yet very different. In fact, T-HbI is a low-ligand-affinity cooperative tetrameric Hb, insensitive to all allosteric effectors. This remarkable feature, besides being physiologically sound, supports the stereochemical model, given that the six residues identified in HbA as responsible for the Bohr and the 2,3-di-phosphoglycerate effects are all mutated. Comparison of the three-dimensional structures of HbA and T-HbI allows unveiling the molecular mechanism whereby the latter has a lower O2 affinity. Moreover, the energetic balance sheet shows that the salt bridges breaking upon allosteric quaternary transition are important yet insufficient to account for the free energy of heme-heme interactions in both hemoglobins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interaction of thyroid hormone and hemoglobin: nature of the interaction and effect of hemoglobin on thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.J.; Yoshida, K.; Schoenl, M.

    1980-01-01

    Gel filtration of human erythrocyte (RBC) lysate incubated with labeled thyroxine (Tu) or triiodothyronine (Tt) revealed co-elution of a major iodothyronine-binding fraction (R-2) and hemoglobin. Solutions of purified human hemoglobin and Tt also showed co-elution of hormone and hemoglobin. Because hematin and protoporphyrin were shown to bind labeled Tt, the oxygen-binding site on hemoglobin was excluded as the site of iodothyronine-hemoglobin interaction. Analysis of hormone binding by heme and globin moieties showed Tt binding to be limited to the heme fraction. Addition of excess unlabeled Tt to hemoglobin or heme incubated with labeled Tt indicated 75% to 90% of hormone binding was poorly dissociable. These observations suggested that the presence of hemoglobin in RBC lysate or in serum could influence the measurement of Tu and Tt by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Subsequent studies of the addition to serum of human hemoglobin revealed a significant reduction in Tt and Tu detectable by RIA in the presence of this protein. The effect was influenced by the concentration of hemoglobin and by duration and temperature of incubations of hemoglobin and serum prior to RIA

  4. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Rana; Thukral, Anubhav; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC) turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods...

  5. Constraints on mutational pathways of hemoglobin evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Amit; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    , if the functional effects of mutations depend on the sequential order in which they occur, then evolution may be more likely to follow some pathways (those involving onotonic increases in fitness) rather than others (those involving low-fitness intermediates). Here we report an experimental analysis of multiple...... amino acid substitutions that occurred during an evolutionary reduction in hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity in nightjars (nocturnal birds in the family Caprimulgidae).We selected nightjar Hbs for experimental study because ancestral sequence reconstructions indicated that the evolved reduction in Hb-O2...

  6. Assessment of Microcirculatory Hemoglobin Levels in Normal and Diabetic Subjects using Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Visible Region — a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, N.; Anand, B. S. Suresh; Nivetha, K. Bala; Narayanamurthy, V. B.; Seshadri, V.; Poddar, R.

    2015-07-01

    Light-based diagnostic techniques provide a minimally invasive way for selective biomarker estimation when tissues transform from a normal to a malignant state. Spectroscopic techniques based on diffuse reflectance characterize the changes in tissue hemoglobin/oxygenation levels during the tissue transformation process. Recent clinical investigations have shown that changes in tissue oxygenation and microcirculation are observed in diabetic subjects in the initial and progressive stages. In this pilot study, we discuss the potential of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the visible (Vis) range to differentiate the skin microcirculatory hemoglobin levels between normal and advanced diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy. Average concentration of hemoglobin as well as hemoglobin oxygen saturation within the probed tissue volume is estimated for a total of four different sites in the foot sole. The results indicate a statistically significant decrease in average total hemoglobin and increase in hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels for diabetic foot compared with a normal foot. The present study demonstrates the ability of reflectance spectroscopy in the Vis range to determine and differentiate the changes in tissue hemoglobin and hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels in normal and diabetic subjects.

  7. Thermoglobin, oxygen-avid hemoglobin in a bacterial hyperthermophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J J L; Maillett, David H; Soman, Jayashree; Olson, John S

    2005-11-04

    The hemoglobin family of proteins, ubiquitous in all domains of life, evolved from an ancestral protein of primordial function to extant hemoglobins that perform a myriad of functions with diverged biochemical properties. Study of homologs in bacterial hyperthermophiles may shed light on both mechanisms of adaptation to extreme conditions and the nature of the ancestral protein. A hemoglobin was identified in Aquifex aeolicus, cloned, recombinantly expressed, purified, and characterized. This hemoglobin is monomeric, resistant to thermal and chemical denaturation, pentacoordinate in the ferrous deoxygenated state, and oxygen-avid. The oxygen equilibrium dissociation constant is approximately 1 nm at room temperature, due in part to a hydrogen bond between the bound ligand and a tyrosine residue in the distal pocket. These biochemical properties of A. aeolicus thermoglobin, AaTgb, may have been shared by the ancestral hemoglobin, thus suggesting possible primordial functions and providing a starting point for consequent evolution of the hemoglobin family.

  8. Characterization of hemoglobin-benzo[a]pyrene adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, D.A.; Myers, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cultures of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were supplemented with human Hb (0.2 mM heme) and [ 3 H]BP (1 μM). After a 24-h incubation, the medium was removed and subjected to cation-exchange liquid chromatography (CM-Sepharose) to resolve hemoglobins from serum proteins in the medium. The BP-treated Hb was subjected to analysis in each of three column chromatographic systems established for isolation and characterization of human hemoglobin and its genetic and post-translationally modified variants. Results demonstrate that hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts can be resolved from native hemoglobin by established conventional and high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures, suggesting the basis for development of general approaches for isolating and characterizing hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts. The results also suggest the basis for a model system in which adducts between carcinogens and human hemoglobin are formed in cultures of mammalian cells or tissues

  9. Hemoglobin J Guantanamo [alpha 2 beta 2 128 (H6) Ala----Asp] in association with hemoglobin C and alpha-thalassemia in a family from Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajcman, H; Baudin-Chich, V; Kister, J; Feo, C; Gombaud-Saintonge, G; Bohn, B; Marden, M; Pagnier, J; Poyart, C; Dodé, C

    1988-07-01

    Hemoglobin J (HbJ), Guantanamo, which had been described but once in the literature, was found in a family originating from Benin; this second case was found to be in association with hemoglobin C (HbC) and alpha-thalassemia. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedures and microsequencing were used for characterization of the aminoacid substitution. The main hematological disorder, in relation with the instability of Hb J Guantanamo, seems to be a worsening of the rheological properties of the red blood cells (RBC), as demonstrated by ektacytometric studies. Oxygen-binding properties of the RBC were almost normal, but a slight decrease in cooperativity and lowered Bohr and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) effects were observed for pure stripped Hb J Guantanamo. The expression of the electrophoretic charge difference was partly masked, as is often observed when the structural abnormality is situated in or near a contact area.

  10. Separation of myoglobin and hemoglobin in isolated perfused pig heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Robert; Hiller, Michael; Trinks, Tobias; Kessler, Manfred D.

    2001-10-01

    For the quantitative determination of hemoglobin concentration in heart muscle it is important to distinguish between myoglobin and hemoglobin, two dyes with very similar optical absorption properties. With an isolated perfused pig heart model and EMPHO II SSK we measured tissue spectra in the visible range before and after adding erythrocytes to the perfusate. By calculating light intensity differences we were able to show spatial hemoglobin distribution in heart muscle.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  13. Arctic life adaptation--III. The function of whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, O; Condò, S G; Lazzarino, G; Clementi, M E; Scatena, R; Giardina, B

    1989-01-01

    1. The oxygen binding properties of the hemoglobin from the Lesser Rorqual, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, has been investigated with respect to the possible effects of organic phosphates on gas transport in arctic environments. 2. The intrinsic oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin is high and strongly modulated by the effects of organic phosphates. 3. In the absence of organic phosphates, the temperature sensitivity of oxygen binding expressed by the heat of oxygenation, delta H, is -16.2 kcal/mol when corrected for the heat of oxygen in solution. 4. In the presence of organic phosphates there is a marked decrease in the temperature sensitivity delta H approximately -5 kcal/mol). 5. This feature is of great importance for oxygen unloading in the flippers and the tail, where the temperature is lower than the trunk of the whale. 6. Furthermore the organic phosphates strongly increase the Bohr coefficient, delta log P50/delta pH, from less than -0.3 in stripped hemoglobin to about -1.5 when the hemoglobin is saturated with P6-inositol. 7. This feature may be of great physiological importance by reducing the CO2 tension and acidosis after a prolonged dive.

  14. A mathematical model relating cortical oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin flows and volumes to neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Nathan R.; Nishimura, Nozomi; Suh, Minah; Schwartz, Theodore H.; Doerschuk, Peter C.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. To describe a toolkit of components for mathematical models of the relationship between cortical neural activity and space-resolved and time-resolved flows and volumes of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin motivated by optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI). Approach. Both blood flow and blood volume and both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and their interconversion are accounted for. Flow and volume are described by including analogies to both resistive and capacitive electrical circuit elements. Oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and their interconversion are described by generalization of Kirchhoff's laws based on well-mixed compartments. Main results. Mathematical models built from this toolkit are able to reproduce experimental single-stimulus OISI results that are described in papers from other research groups and are able to describe the response to multiple-stimuli experiments as a sublinear superposition of responses to the individual stimuli. Significance. The same assembly of tools from the toolkit but with different parameter values is able to describe effects that are considered distinctive, such as the presence or absence of an initial decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration, indicating that the differences might be due to unique parameter values in a subject rather than different fundamental mechanisms.

  15. Effects of pregnancy on hemoglobin AIc in normal, gestational diabetic, and diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H C; King, K C; Schwartz, A L; Edmunds, D; Schwartz, R

    1976-12-01

    Hemoglobin AIc, a normal minor hemoglobin, has glucose linked by a Schiff base to the N-terminal end of the beta chain. The glucose interferes with the binding of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate, probably resulting in an increased affinity of that hemoglobin for oxygen. Hb AIc is increased to twice normal levels in juvenile-onset (insulin-dependent) diabetes. In the present studies, the Hb AIc, when expressed as per cent of total hemoglobin, was found to be elevated slightly in pregnany normal (m = 6.97 per cent), pregnant nondiabetic obese (m = 6.89 per cent), and gestationally diabetic subjects (m = 8.77 per cent) above that of normal females (m = 5.68 per cent). A remarkable difference was observed between the nonpregnant diabetics (m = 12.77 per cent) and the pregnant diabetics (m = 8.46 per cent). This decrease in the level of Hb AIc in diabetics who are pregnant more than 30 weeks may reflect either a better state of diabetic control and/or a compensatory mechanism to protect the fetus by facilitating oxygen exchange from mother to fetus.

  16. Structure and ligand selection of hemoglobin II from Lucina pectinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavira, José A; Camara-Artigas, Ana; De Jesús-Bonilla, Walleska; López-Garriga, Juan; Lewis, Ariel; Pietri, Ruth; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Cadilla, Carmen L; García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2008-04-04

    Lucina pectinata ctenidia harbor three heme proteins: sulfide-reactive hemoglobin I (HbI(Lp)) and the oxygen transporting hemoglobins II and III (HbII(Lp) and HbIII(Lp)) that remain unaffected by the presence of H(2)S. The mechanisms used by these three proteins for their function, including ligand control, remain unknown. The crystal structure of oxygen-bound HbII(Lp) shows a dimeric oxyHbII(Lp) where oxygen is tightly anchored to the heme through hydrogen bonds with Tyr(30)(B10) and Gln(65)(E7). The heme group is buried farther within HbII(Lp) than in HbI(Lp). The proximal His(97)(F8) is hydrogen bonded to a water molecule, which interacts electrostatically with a propionate group, resulting in a Fe-His vibration at 211 cm(-1). The combined effects of the HbII(Lp) small heme pocket, the hydrogen bonding network, the His(97) trans-effect, and the orientation of the oxygen molecule confer stability to the oxy-HbII(Lp) complex. Oxidation of HbI(Lp) Phe(B10) --> Tyr and HbII(Lp) only occurs when the pH is decreased from pH 7.5 to 5.0. Structural and resonance Raman spectroscopy studies suggest that HbII(Lp) oxygen binding and transport to the host bacteria may be regulated by the dynamic displacements of the Gln(65)(E7) and Tyr(30)(B10) pair toward the heme to protect it from changes in the heme oxidation state from Fe(II) to Fe(III).

  17. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y.L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G.L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ε bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases

  18. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  19. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  20. Determinants of hemoglobin level in adolescence students at Gaza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Hemoglobin (Hb) level could be affected by different interfering factors that include nutritional, socio-demographical, economical, and habitual determinant factors. The present study was designed to identify possible factors that could affect the hemoglobin level in adolescence students (14-22 years) at Gaza Strip, ...

  1. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; de Joode, Maarten; Buma, Wybren Jan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2)) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions of

  2. Haptoglobin radioassay based on binding to solid-phase hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, D.C.; Reed, R.A.; Peacock, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    A specific and sensitive assay for haptoglobin based on binding to an easily prepred Sepharose-bound hemoglobin reagent is described. The assay is suitable for directly determining radiolabeled amino acid incorporation into haptoglobin in several liver cell systems in vitro and can be adapted to measure unlabeled free haptoglobin in plasma samples regardlss of the presence of the haptoglobin--hemoglobin complex

  3. Biphasic Oxidation of Oxy-Hemoglobin in Bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, R.H.; de Bruin, D.M.; de Joode, M.; Buma, W.J.; van Leeuwen, T.G.; Aalders, M.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions

  4. Fetal hemoglobin during infancy and in sickle cell adults | Edoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fetal hemoglobin has been implicated in the modulation of sickle cell crisis though it is functional during infancy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the waning time of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and its persistence in later life. Method: Ninety infants aged 0-12 months, admitted at hospital, were ...

  5. Relationship of Hemoglobin to Arterial Oxygen Desaturation during Aeromedical Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-02

    pulse rate, and non-invasive hemoglobin were measured every 5 seconds and recorded to electronic memory . Patient demographics and physiologic data...Figure Page 1 Hypoxia levels...rate, and non-invasive hemoglobin were measured every 5 seconds and recorded to electronic memory . Patient demographics and physiologic data were

  6. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  7. Molecular evolution of hemoglobins of Antarctic fishes (Notothenioidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, W.T.; Beintema, J.J; D Avino, R.; Tamburrini, M.; di Prisco, G.

    1997-01-01

    Amino acid sequences of alpha- and beta-chains of human hemoglobin and of hemoglobins of coelacanth and 24 teleost fish species, including 11 antarctic and two temperate Notothenioidei, were analyzed using maximum parsimony. Trees were derived for the alpha- and beta-chains separately and for

  8. state hybrid hemoglobins as revealed by optical, EPR and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ion environment: Species 1, a five-coordinated Cu2+ complex with strong proximal histidine bond and spe- cies 2, a four-coordinated complex without any covalent linkage with Nε F8-histidine. Keywords. Hybrid hemoglobin; –SH reactivity study; EPR; subunit heterogeneity. 1. Introduction. Hemoglobin (Hb) is one of the ...

  9. A thermodynamical measure of cooperativity: application to hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacchieri, S.G.; Ferreira, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the heat requirements for dioxygen exchange is made for hemoglobin and myoglobin, the latter taken as the prototype of the vertebrate hemoglobin's ancestor. it is shown that cooperativity manifests itself also in terms of energy utilization. (Author) [pt

  10. Conformational changes in hemoglobin triggered by changing the iron charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, S.; Achterhold, K.; Ortalli, I.; Parak, F. G.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the hemoglobin conformational changes induced by changing the iron charge have been studied and compared with Myoglobin. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to follow the change of the iron conformation. In order to compare the conformational relaxation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, and to study a possible influence of the quaternary structure, an intermediate metastable state of hemoglobin has been created by low temperature X-ray irradiation of methemoglobin. The irradiation reduces the Fe(III) of the heme groups to Fe(II) Low Spin, where the water is still bound on the sixth coordination. Heating cycles performed at temperatures from 140 K to 200 K allow the molecules to overcome an activation energy barrier and to relax into a stable conformation such as deoxy-hemoglobin or carboxy-hemoglobin, if CO is present. Slightly different structures (conformational substates) reveal themselves as a distribution of energy barriers (ΔG). The distribution of the activation energy, for the decay of the Fe(II) Low Spin intermediate, has been fitted with a Gaussian. For comparison, published myoglobin data were re-analysed in the same way. The average energy value at characteristic temperature is very similar in case of myoglobin and hemoglobin. The larger Gaussian energy distribution for myoglobin with respect to hemoglobin shows that more conformational substates are available. This may be caused by a larger area exposed to water. In hemoglobin, part of the surface of the chains is not water accessible due to the quaternary structure.

  11. Diagnosis of mycobacteria in bovine milk: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Carmen Alicia Daza; Paula, Carolina Lechinski de; Guerra, Simony Trevizan; Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia

    2017-06-05

    Tuberculosis remains as the world's biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%), the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs) and secretions (sputum, milk). In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.

  12. GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN AND FRUCTOSAMINE IN DOGS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olair Carlos Beltrame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM commonly occurs in dogs, and the laboratorial confirmation is carried out by glycemia test. The diagnosis and monitoring in humans is made by glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. The objective of this study was to diagnose DM in 19 dogs, by evaluating seric glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. Six dogs with DM and treated with insulin were assisted during a twelve-month period, by means of the same blood analysis, until the death (three dogs or glycemic control (three dogs. Glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine increased in all dogs with DM, and dogs that did not survive presented higher glycated hemoglobin and seric glucose values than those that survived at the last evaluation. The results showed the importance of evaluating glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine in dogs with DM to diagnose and control treatment effectiveness.

  13. Effects of therapeutic touch on blood hemoglobin and hematocrit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movaffaghi, Zahra; Hasanpoor, Morteza; Farsi, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Poory; Abrishami, Fatemeh

    2006-03-01

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is a widely used complementary therapy. This study investigated the effects of TT on hemoglobin and hematocrit level in students who were basically healthy. The volunteers with a hemoglobin level less than 12 grams per deciliter (g/dl) were randomly assigned to three groups of TT, mimic therapeutic touch (MT), and control. Blood samples were collected before the first treatment and again a week after the last one and measurements were taken. TT increased the level of hemoglobin (.99 .13 g/dl) and hematocrit (2.82 .43%) significantly. MT also increased the level of hemoglobin (.55 .11 g/dl) and hematocrit (2.75 .44%) significantly. No significant changes were found in the control group. TT increased hemoglobin more effectively than MT (p< .05). Significant changes of both variables in TT and MTgroups suggest that more careful precision might be needed while selecting individuals as sham therapists in further experiments.

  14. Radiation - induced changes in the optical properties of hemoglobin molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S; El-Marakby, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adult male albino rats were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation from Cs-137 source. Hemoglobin samples were analyzed 24 hrs after irradiation. The UV-visible spectrum of hemoglobin molecule was measured in the range 200 to 700 nm. The overall spectrum of the hemoglobin molecule showed hypochromicity that increased with dose increase. To investigate the effect of radiation on the hemoglobin molecule, different parameters of the spectrum were calculated: molar absorption coefficient, absorption cross section, transition dipole moment , dipole length, the optical energy gap and activation energy for each characteristic peak. The obtained results revealed that the radiation effect can induce rearrangement of the transition dipole moments and change molecular energy levels of the hemoglobin molecule

  15. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  16. Effect of Multiple Mutations in the Hemoglobin- and Hemoglobin-Haptoglobin-Binding Proteins, HgpA, HgpB, and HgpC, of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Daniel J.; Whitby, Paul W.; Jin, Hongfan; Ren, Zhen; Stull, Terrence L.

    1999-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for growth and can utilize hemoglobin and hemoglobin-haptoglobin as heme sources. We previously identified two hemoglobin- and hemoglobin-haptoglobin-binding proteins, HgpA and HgpB, in H. influenzae HI689. Insertional mutation of hgpA and hgpB, either singly or together, did not abrogate the ability to utilize or bind either hemoglobin or the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. A hemoglobin affinity purification method was used to isolate a protein of approxi...

  17. A study of membrane protein defects and alpha hemoglobin chains of red blood cells in human beta thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer-Fessard, P.; Garel, M.C.; Domenget, C.; Guetarni, D.; Bachir, D.; Colonna, P.; Beuzard, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The soluble pool of alpha hemoglobin chains present in blood or bone marrow cells was measured with a new affinity method using a specific probe, beta A hemoglobin chain labeled with [ 3 H]N-ethylmaleimide. This pool of soluble alpha chains was 0.067 ± 0.017% of hemoglobin in blood of normal adult, 0.11 ± 0.03% in heterozygous beta thalassemia and ranged from 0.26 to 1.30% in homozygous beta thalassemia intermedia. This elevated pool of soluble alpha chains observed in human beta thalassemia intermedia decreased 33-fold from a value of 10% of total hemoglobin in bone marrow cells to 0.3% in the most dense red blood cells. The amount of insoluble alpha chains was measured by using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in urea and Triton X-100. In beta thalassemia intermedia the amount of insoluble alpha chains was correlated with the decreased spectrin content of red cell membrane and was associated with a decrease in ankyrin and with other abnormalities of the electrophoretic pattern of membrane proteins. The loss and topology of the reactive thiol groups of membrane proteins was determined by using [ 3 H]N-ethylmaleimide added to membrane ghosts prior to urea and Triton X-100 electrophoresis. Spectrin and ankyrin were the major proteins with the most important decrease of thiol groups

  18. Inactivation of pectin methylesterase by immobilized trypsins from cunner fish and bovine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Matos, Madyu; Simpson, Benjamin K

    2013-01-01

    Immobilized cunner fish trypsin was used to inactivate pectin methylesterase (PME). The effects of different reaction conditions (e.g., incubation time, PME concentration, and temperature) on PME inactivation and kinetics of inactivation were investigated. Temperature, incubation time, and PME concentration significantly affected the extent of PME inactivation. Generally, higher temperature, longer incubation time, and low PME concentration caused more PME inactivation. The immobilized fish trypsin had higher capacity to inactivate PME than immobilized bovine trypsin. The inactivation efficiency of the immobilized fish trypsin was about 20% higher than that of its bovine counterpart. However, PME inactivated by both trypsins regained partial activity during storage at 4°C, with immobilized fish trypsin-treated PME regaining more of its original activity than the immobilized bovine trypsin-treated PME. Heat-denatured PME was hydrolyzed more extensively by immobilized fish trypsin than by its bovine counterpart. The rate constants increased, whereas the D-values decreased with temperature for both immobilized fish and bovine trypsins. The inactivation rate constants of immobilized fish trypsin at all the temperatures investigated (i.e., 15-35°C) were higher than those of immobilized bovine trypsin. Furthermore, the activation energy (Ea ) of PME inactivation by immobilized fish trypsin was lower than that of immobilized bovine trypsin. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Hemoglobin of mice with radiation-induced mutations at the hemoglobin loci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, R.A.; Stratton, L.P.; Hawley, D.K.; Effron, K.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analyses were done on the abnormal hemoglobins of the five (101 x SEC)F 1 offspring of X- irradiated adult SEC mice to determine which hemoglobin genes were expressed in each hemoglobin variant. Three offspring of irradiated SEC males did not express either of the two kinds of α-chains normally found in all SEC mice. The deficient α-chain synthesis caused these mice to exhibit an α-thalassemia similar to human α-thalassemia. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that many erythrocytes of mice with α-thalassemia have bizarre shapes; e.g. many erythrocytes appeared flattened or had thorny projections (acanthocytes). One mutant with a tandem duplication of a segment of chromosome 7 (site of locus determining β-chain structure) produced twice as much SEC as 101 β-chain polypeptides. One mutant that probably arose by non-disjunction of chromosome 7's in its unirradiated 101 mother and loss of chromosome 7 from the gamete of its irradiated SEC father did not express the SEC β-chain gene. (author)

  20. Propofol Enhances Hemoglobin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Cui, Guiyun; Li, Wenlu; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaoying; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Xiang, Shuanglin; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-04-01

    It has been increasingly suggested that propofol protects against hypoxic-/ischemic-induced neuronal injury. As evidenced by hemorrhage-induced stroke, hemorrhage into the brain may also cause brain damage. Whether propofol protects against hemorrhage-induced brain damage remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of propofol on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity in cultured mouse cortical neurons. Neurons were prepared from the cortex of embryonic 15-day-old mice. Hemoglobin was used to induce cytotoxicity in the neurons. The neurons were then treated with propofol for 4 hours. Cytotoxicity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Caspase-3 activation was examined by Western blot analysis. Finally, the free radical scavenger U83836E was used to examine the potential involvement of oxidative stress in propofol's effects on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. We found that treatment with hemoglobin induced cytotoxicity in the neurons. Propofol enhanced hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. Specifically, there was a significant difference in the amount of lactate dehydrogenase release between hemoglobin plus saline (19.84% ± 5.38%) and hemoglobin plus propofol (35.79% ± 4.41%) in mouse cortical neurons (P = 0.00058, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U test, n = 8 in the control group or the treatment group). U83836E did not attenuate the enhancing effects of propofol on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity in the neurons, and propofol did not significantly affect caspase-3 activation induced by hemoglobin. These data suggested that caspase-3 activation and oxidative stress might not be the underlying mechanisms by which propofol enhanced hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, these data suggested that the neuroprotective effects of propofol would be dependent on the condition of the brain injury, which will need to be confirmed in future studies. These results from our current proof-of-concept study should promote more research in vitro and in

  1. Diffusion coefficients of oxygen and hemoglobin as obtained simultaneously from photometric determination of the oxygenation of layers of hemoglobin solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J. A.; Kreuzer, F.; van Wely, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygenation of layers of deoxygenated hemoglobin solutions after a sudden exposure to a gas containing oxygen at a partial pressure P1 has been studied by a photometric method. Layer thicknesses varied between 50 and 250 micron, hemoglobin concentrations between 0.1 and 0.34kg/l, and oxygen

  2. Effects of Short-Term Exenatide Treatment on Regional Fat Distribution, Glycated Hemoglobin Levels, and Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity of Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMost type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are obese and have obesity related vascular complications. Exenatide treatment is well known for both decreasing glycated hemoglobin levels and reduction in body weight. So, this study aimed to determine the effects of exenatide on body composition, glycated hemoglobin levels, and vascular stiffness in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsFor 1 month, 32 obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were administered 5 µg of exenatide twice daily. The dosage was then increased to 10 µg. Patients' height, body weight, glycated hemoglobin levels, lipid profile, pulse wave velocity (PWV, body mass index, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured by using Inbody at baseline and after 3 months of treatment.ResultsAfter 3 months of treatment, glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly (P=0.007. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein levels decreased, while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were no change. Body weight, and fat mass decreased significantly (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively, while interestingly, muscle mass did not decrease (P=0.289. In addition to, Waist-to-hip ratio and aortic PWV decreased significantly (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively.ConclusionEffects of short term exenatide use in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus with cardiometabolic high risk patients not only reduced body weight without muscle mass loss, body fat mass, and glycated hemoglobin levels but also improved aortic PWV in accordance with waist to hip ratio.

  3. Effects of Short-Term Exenatide Treatment on Regional Fat Distribution, Glycated Hemoglobin Levels, and Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity of Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ju Young; Park, Keun Young; Kim, Byung Joon; Hwang, Won Min; Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Dong Mee

    2016-03-01

    Most type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are obese and have obesity related vascular complications. Exenatide treatment is well known for both decreasing glycated hemoglobin levels and reduction in body weight. So, this study aimed to determine the effects of exenatide on body composition, glycated hemoglobin levels, and vascular stiffness in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. For 1 month, 32 obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were administered 5 μg of exenatide twice daily. The dosage was then increased to 10 μg. Patients' height, body weight, glycated hemoglobin levels, lipid profile, pulse wave velocity (PWV), body mass index, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured by using Inbody at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. After 3 months of treatment, glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly (P=0.007). Triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein levels decreased, while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were no change. Body weight, and fat mass decreased significantly (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively), while interestingly, muscle mass did not decrease (P=0.289). In addition to, Waist-to-hip ratio and aortic PWV decreased significantly (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively). Effects of short term exenatide use in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus with cardiometabolic high risk patients not only reduced body weight without muscle mass loss, body fat mass, and glycated hemoglobin levels but also improved aortic PWV in accordance with waist to hip ratio.

  4. Hot topic: Ceramide inhibits insulin sensitivity in primary bovine adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Myers, W A; Laub, D J; Davis, A N; Zeng, Q; McFadden, J W

    2018-04-01

    In nonruminants, the sphingolipid ceramide inhibits insulin sensitivity by inactivating protein kinase B (AKT) within the insulin-signaling pathway. We have established that ceramide accrual develops with impaired systemic insulin action in ruminants during the transition from gestation to lactation, dietary palmitic acid supplementation, or controlled nutrient restriction. We hypothesized that ceramide promotes AKT inactivation and antagonizes insulin sensitivity in primary bovine adipocytes. Stromal-vascular cells were grown from bovine adipose tissue explants and cultured in differentiation media. To modify ceramide supply, we treated differentiated adipocytes with (1) myriocin, an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, or (2) cell-permeable C2:0-ceramide. Insulin-stimulated AKT activation (i.e., phosphorylation) and 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]-glucose (2DOG) uptake were measured. Treatment of adipocytes with myriocin consistently decreased concentrations of ceramide, monohexosylceramide, and lactosylceramide. The insulin-stimulated ratio of phosphorylated AKT to total AKT was increased with myriocin but decreased with C2:0-ceramide. Moreover, adipocyte insulin-stimulated 2DOG uptake was decreased with C2:0-ceramide and increased with myriocin. We conclude that ceramide inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by downregulating AKT activation in primary bovine adipocytes. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antirotaviral Activity of Bovine and Ovine Dairy Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrón, José Antonio; Ripollés, Daniel; Pérez, María Dolores; Calvo, Miguel; Rasmussen, Jan Trige; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2017-05-31

    Rotaviral gastroenteritis is associated with significant morbidity in developed countries and a high rate of infant mortality in developing countries. Diverse studies have demonstrated that a wide range of milk-derived fractions exhibit antirotaviral activity. The present study shows the antirotaviral activity of some bovine and ovine dairy byproducts, buttermilk, butter serum, and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), and evaluates the effect of cream washing and heat treatment on that activity. Furthermore, the rotavirus-neutralizing activity was evaluated for some MFGM proteins, such as xanthine oxidase and lactophorin. Ovine and bovine buttermilk reached rotavirus-neutralizing values of 51.3 and 32.2%, at 1 mg/mL, respectively. The cream washing process led to a significant decrease in the antirotaviral activity of fractions. This activity was also influenced by heat treatment. Treatment at 75 °C for 20 s caused 24.6 and 36.1% decreases of activity in bovine and ovine buttermilk, respectively, and 85 °C for 10 min caused decreases of 80.9 and 79.0% in both fractions, respectively.

  6. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ruth B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon

  7. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin genes involves

  8. Modifiers of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity as sensitizers of tumors to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, D.G.; Wood, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A powerful mechanism in the control of oxygen delivery to tissues is the allosteric modification of hemoglobin. Increased or decreased release of oxygen can be achieved by altering the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. Several studies have shown that tumor radiosensitivity is dependent on this relationship. The authors studied affinity changes produced in two distinctly different ways. Tumor bearing mice were given isovolemic exchange blood transfusions with the blood from donor mice which had been exposed to abnormal oxygen tensions, leading to increased or slightly decreased levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) in their blood. When the recipient mice were irradiated, those receiving the blood with higher 2,3 DPG levels showed greater tumor sensitivity to radiation. An alternative strategy is the use of drugs which directly alter hemoglobin/oxygen affinity. The authors studied three antihyperlipoproteinemia drugs, all of which have produced markedly reduced affinities in vivo. Preliminary data indicate that the radiosensitization produced by at least one of these compounds is less than would have been expected from the 2,3 DPG experiments

  9. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and changes in cerebral blood flow: the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Pieternella H; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L; Westerink, Jan; Mali, Willem P T M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2015-03-01

    Hemoglobin and hematocrit are important determinants of blood viscosity and arterial oxygen content and may therefore influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of hemoglobin and hematocrit with CBF in 569 patients with manifest arterial disease (mean age 57 ± 10 years) with available data on magnetic resonance angiography to measure parenchymal CBF. Mean (SD) parenchymal CBF at baseline was 52.3 (9.8) mL/min/100 mL and decreased with 1.5 (11.0) mL/min/100 mL after on average 3.9 years of follow-up. Linear regression analyses showed that greater hemoglobin and hematocrit values were associated with lower baseline parenchymal CBF and more decline in parenchymal CBF over time, independent of cardiovascular risk factors, use of antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, or diuretics, and brain measures: adjusted mean differences (95% confidence interval [CI]) in decline in parenchymal CBF between patients in the lower and upper quartiles of hemoglobin and hematocrit were -2.48 (95% CI -3.70 to -1.25) and -3.69 (95% CI -5.45 to -1.94) mL/min/100 mL. Higher hemoglobin and hematocrit were associated with lower baseline parenchymal CBF and a greater decline in parenchymal CBF over time, possibly as a result of physiological compensating mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of 2-Mercaptopropionyl-Glycine on the hemoglobin of rats exposed to low doses of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S.; Ashry, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    Adult male rats weighing 150± 10 gm, were divided into six groups: one group was kept untreated as normal control, one group received single administration of 20 mg/kg body weight 2-mercapto-propionyl glycine, commercially called thiola, the remaining four groups were injected with thiola and exposed to different doses of fast neutrons (4.32, 36, 70 and 140 mSv) 30 minutes after injection. The analysis of the hemoglobin molecule was performed 24 hours after irradiation. The UV-visible spectrum of the hemoglobin was recorded from 200 to nm using CECIL-3041 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The following parameters were calculated for the evaluation of the hemoglobin spectrum: 1- The maximum absorbance at 271, 340, 410, 540 and 574 nm, 2- The full width at half maximum of each peak (FWHM), 3-evaluation of the ratio between different peaks as follows: a) A 41 0/A 271 (iron to globin ratio) c) A 574 / A 271 : (heme to globin ratio), d)- A 574 /A 540 (spin state of the iron) and 4- recording the appearance of new peaks or the disappearance of normally occurring peaks. The injection of thiola, only, was found to affect the spatial distribution of the hemoglobin molecule. Also, it was shown to minimize the damaging effects of fast neutrons on the hemoglobin and decreased environmental perturbations

  11. Changes in the Conformational State of Hemoglobin in Hemodialysed Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniazek, Anna; Gwozdzinski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the properties of internal components of erythrocytes in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) in comparison to control subjects. For investigation of conformational state of hemoglobin and nonheme proteins (NHP) the maleimide spin label (MSL) in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was applied. The studies were performed using MSL in whole cells and hemolysate as well as proteins separated by ion exchange chromatography and checked by electrophoresis. Additionally the level of –SH groups in hemolysate and isolated internal proteins of CRF erythrocytes was determined using 4,4′-dithiodipyridine. All measurements were performed before and after hemodialysis. Oxidative stress accompanying CRF/hemodialysed patients caused a significant decrease in the mobility of internal components inside erythrocytes indicated by MSL (P hemoglobins and internal nonheme proteins in erythrocytes of CRF patients. PMID:25866600

  12. Acidogenic potential of soy and bovine milk beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashper, S G; Saion, B N; Stacey, M A; Manton, D J; Cochrane, N J; Stanton, D P; Yuan, Y; Reynolds, E C

    2012-09-01

    Soy beverages are water extracts of whole soybeans and are often promoted as a healthy alternative to bovine milk. Little analysis has been carried out to determine the effects of soy beverages on oral health, especially their potential acidogenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the potential acidogenicity of a range of soy and bovine milk beverages. In vitro acid production by Streptococcus mutans was measured in soy and milk beverages at a constant pH of 6.5 or 5.5, as was the fall in pH over a 10 min period. The acid buffering capacity and calcium and phosphate concentrations (total and soluble) of the beverages were also determined. The rate of acid production by S. mutans in the milk beverages was five to six times lower at pH 6.5 than in the soy beverages and three to five times lower at pH 5.5. Whilst the pH fall in the presence of S. mutans over 10 min was negligible in the milk beverages there was a significant decrease in pH in the soy beverages. This was also reflected in the lower buffering capacity of the soy beverages. The levels of soluble calcium in the soy beverages were lower than those in the milk beverages although total calcium contents were similar. Soy beverages have a higher potential acidogenicity than bovine milk beverages. Patients consider soy beverages to be a healthy, low cariogenic alternative to other beverages, including bovine milk. This study shows that soy beverages have a higher potential acidogenicity than bovine milk and therefore may have a greater potential cariogenicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using the MWC model to describe heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin is a classical model allosteric protein. Research on hemoglobin parallels the development of key cooperativity and allostery concepts, such as the ‘all-or-none’ Hill formalism, the stepwise Adair binding formulation and the concerted Monod-Wymann-Changuex (MWC) allosteric model. While it is clear that the MWC model adequately describes the cooperative binding of oxygen to hemoglobin, rationalizing the effects of H+, CO2 or organophosphate ligands on hemoglobin-oxygen saturation using the same model remains controversial. According to the MWC model, allosteric ligands exert their effect on protein function by modulating the quaternary conformational transition of the protein. However, data fitting analysis of hemoglobin oxygen saturation curves in the presence or absence of inhibitory ligands persistently revealed effects on both relative oxygen affinity (c) and conformational changes (L), elementary MWC parameters. The recent realization that data fitting analysis using the traditional MWC model equation may not provide reliable estimates for L and c thus calls for a re-examination of previous data using alternative fitting strategies. In the current manuscript, we present two simple strategies for obtaining reliable estimates for MWC mechanistic parameters of hemoglobin steady-state saturation curves in cases of both evolutionary and physiological variations. Our results suggest that the simple MWC model provides a reasonable description that can also account for heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin. The results, moreover, offer a general roadmap for successful data fitting analysis using the MWC model. PMID:28793329

  14. Radioimmunoassay of bovine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Becka, S.; Krejci, P.; Chrpova, M.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunological method for quantitative determination of bovine growth hormone in blood plasma or serum for routine use was worked out. The antibody is also suitable for radioimmunoassay of bovine growth hormone. The chloramin T and lactoperoxidase methods were used. Standard b-STH isolated by one of the authors was labelled with I-125(Na 125 I, carrier free, Amersham). The I-125-hormone was separated on Sephadex G-50 or G-100 and stored in 0.05M phosphate pH 7.5 with 1% of human serum albumine at 25 deg C. The method was checked on 2500 samples. Rabbit antiserum to b-STH was prepared in sufficient amount to serve also for other laboratories interested in the method. (author)

  15. Potentiality of Melatonin as a Radiation Protector against Hemoglobin Damage in the Experimental Animals Due to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; Hassan, R. A.; Mohamed, Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes serious damage in biological system. Some drugs and antioxidants are used to prevent such damage. In the present study two doses of melatonin (10 mg⁄kg and 30 mg⁄kg) were selected to be used for such purpose. The radioprotective effects of melatonin on hemoglobin of red blood cells from female mice was studied through UV absorption spectrum, ESR spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and relative viscosity .The results of Hemoglobin absorption indicate that a pronounced increase in the average value of peak position and width at half maximum W hmax followed by a decrease in the absorbance of sort band, decrease in absorption ratio A 578 / A 540 in addition to disappearance of globin band at 275 nm. The free radicals which are expected to be formed after exposing to γ-irradiation are detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The results indicate that the intensity of ESR signal for hemoglobin extracted from animals exposed to γ- irradiation is greater as compared with normal hemoglobin. Dielectric measurements indicate that there is an increase in dielectric permittivity (ε‵), the dielectric loss (ε‶) and the a.c conductivity (σ ac ) while some decrease is noticed in the viscosity measurements after exposing to irradiation. The data obtained from the whole studied parameters after treating animals with melatonin become closer to those for unirradiated samples.

  16. Temperature-dependent enthalpy of oxygenation in Antarctic fish hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, A.; Wells, R.M.G.; Weber, Roy E.

    1997-01-01

    literature data for the enthalpy of oxygenation in Antarctic fish hemoglobins derives from the use of the nonintegrated (linearized) form of the van't Hoff equation over different temperature ranges. The general assumption that a low heat of oxygenation in hemoglobins from polar animals represents......The effect of temperature on the oxygen-binding properties of the hemoglobins of three cold-adapted Antarctic fish species, Dissostichus mawsoni, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus, sp., has been investigated under different pH values and buffer conditions. A clear non linear van't Hoff plot...

  17. The Manufacture and Study of Hemoglobin-Saline Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-25

    hemoglobin solution to maintain oxygen transport is dependent upon hemoglobin concentration ([ HbJ ) and hemoglobin-oxygen affinity (P50). We previously...PO2. The purpose of this report is to study the ! . 15 quantitative relationships between [ HbJ , P50 1 and PO 2 during exchange transfusion (ET) with...consumption (V02), cardiac output (C.O.). [ HbJ , P501 Pa02’ and PO2 were obtained from baseline to 0 hematocrit. Since PO 2 is a function of C.O., [ HbJ

  18. Biophysical basis of hypoxic radioprotection by deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.T.; Hill, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Perfusion with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin provides an effective method for inducing hypoxic radioprotection of normal tissues during radiation treatment of tumors. In this study, the dependence of P50, the half-saturation pressure of oxygen binding to dextran-hemoglobin, was analyzed as a function of solution temperature and pH. The variation of attainable radioprotection with P50, and with the amount of collateral blood entering into the perfused region, was calculated. Upon perfusion of canine gracilis muscle with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin, a rapid onset of extensive venous hypoxia was observed

  19. Symbiotic and nonsymbiotic hemoglobin genes of Casuarina glauca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen-Lyon, K; Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo

    1995-01-01

    Casuarina glauca has a gene encoding hemoglobin (cashb-nonsym). This gene is expressed in a number of plant tissues. Casuarina also has a second family of hemoglobin genes (cashb-sym) expressed at a high level in the nodules that Casuarina forms in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the actinomycete...... of the Casuarina gene. The finding that the nonsymbiotic Casuarina gene is also correctly expressed in L. corniculatus suggests to us that a comparable non-symbiotic hemoglobin gene will be found in legume species. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Feb...

  20. A Hemoglobin-based Oxygen Carrier, Bovine Polymerized Hemoglobin (HBOC-201) Versus Hetastarch (HEX) in a Moderate Severity Hemorrhagic Shock Swine Model with Delayed Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-23

    were administered 13 mg/kg cep- hazolin (antibiotic) and 0.01 mg/kg buprenorphine (anal- gesic), as well as 10 ml/kg autologous shed blood for ane...approved veterinary HBOC) has been completed in large animal models of controlled hemorrhage (Table 5). In the present model of controlled hemorrhage with

  1. A Hemoglobin-based Oxygen Carrier, Bovine Polymerized Hemoglobin (HBOC-201) Versus Hetastarch (HEX) in a Moderate Severity Hemorrhagic Shock Swine Model with Delayed Evacuation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philbin, Nora; Rice, Jennifer; Gurney, Jennifer; McGwin, Gerald; Arnaud, Francoise; Dong, Feng; Johnson, Todd; Flourncy, W. S; Ahlers, Stephen; Pearce, L. B; McCarron, Richard; Freilich, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    ...) and subsequent fluid infusions were administered for severe hypotension or tachycardia. Animals were recovered from anesthesia and monitored non-invasively to 72 h (hospital phase). Results: 100% (8/8) of HBOC-201-, 88% (7/8) of HEX-, and 63% (5/8...

  2. Relationship between maternal hemoglobin and perinatal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiar, U.J.; Khan, Y.; Nisar, R.

    2007-01-01

    To Study the Relationship between Maternal Hemoglobin and Perinatal outcome in a cohort of 860 pregnant women and to highlight the importance of antenatal care regarding maternal health and fetal outcome. All Singleton pregnancies delivering at Pakistan Railway Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2004 to December 2005 that fulfilled the required criteria were included. Out of the 860 patients, 402 were anemic (<11gm/dl) and 458 were non anemic. Perinatal outcome included preterm delivery, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, low apgr scores and intrauterine fetal deaths. Risk of preterm and Low birth weight among anemic women was 3.4 and 1.8 times more than non anaemic women. The neonates of anemic woman also had 1.7 times increased risk of having low apgr scores at 1 min. Among anemic women there was 2.2 times greater risk of intrauterine fetal death than the non-anemic women. Regular antenatal care from first trimester has a vital role in assessing and managing maternal anemia timely and it directly affects the perinatal outcome. The patients with anemia have also higher risk of having low birth weight, preterm births and intra uterine fetal death. (author)

  3. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q

  4. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  5. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Harboe, Marianne Kirsten [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Simonsen, Jens Bæk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Lorentzen, Andrea Maria; Hjernø, Karin [University of Southern Denmark, (Denmark); Brink, Johannes M. van den; Qvist, Karsten Bruun [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Larsen, Sine, E-mail: sine@chem.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  6. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian; Harboe, Marianne Kirsten; Simonsen, Jens Bæk; Lorentzen, Andrea Maria; Hjernø, Karin; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Larsen, Sine

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  7. Korelasi Kadar Hemoglobin dengan Kadar Nitric Oxide pada Preeklamsia dan Kehamilan Normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Helina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Aktivasi sel endotel atau disfungsi endotel menjadi faktor utama patogenesis preeklamsia. Mekanisme ini ditandai dengan penurunan ketersedian Nitric Oxide (NO. Disfungsi endotel pada hipertensi diperkirakan berkaitan dengan konsentrasi hemoglobin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan korelasi kadar hemoglobin dengan kadarNO pada preeklamsia dan kehamilan normal. Desain penelitian ini adalah analitik cross sectional, dilaksanakan di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang dan RST Reksodiwiryo Padang dari 13 Mei sampai13 Juli 2014. Pemeriksaan kadar hemoglobin dilakukan di laboratorium Patologi Klinik RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang dan kadar NO di laboratorium Biomedik Fakultas Kedokteran UNAND Padang. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh ibu hamil yang datang ke RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang dan RST Reksodiwiryo Padang. Sampel dipilih secara consecutive sampling jumlah sampel 17 orang kehamilan preeklamsia dan 18 kehamilan normal. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada preeklamsia kadar hemoglobin 12,39 ± 2,10gr/dl dan NO 29,88 ± 9,47µmol, sedangkan pada kehamilan normal 11,18 ± 0,98gr/dl dan NO 84,22 ± 54,26 µmol. Uji statistik menunjukkan ada korelasi positif yang bermakna (p = 0,02 antara kadar hemoglobin dan kadar NO pada preeklamsia. Tidah ada korelasi antara kadar hemoglobin dengan kadar NO pada kehamilan normal (p = 0,52. Kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini adalah peningkatan kadar hemoglobin cenderung meningkatkan kadar NO pada preeklamsia dan peningkatan kadar hemoglobin tidak mempengaruhi kadar NO pada kehamilan normal.Kata kunci:  hemoglobin, nitric oxide, preeklamsia, kehamilan normal Abstract Endothelial cell activation or dysfunction becomes a major factor pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This mechanism is characterized by the decrease of Nitric Oxide (NO level. Endothelial dysfunction in hypertension is related to haemoglobin concentration, especially its role in vascular function. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation

  8. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  9. EFEK PROGRAM PEMBERIAN "TABURIA" TERHADAP KADAR HEMOGLOBIN BALITA PADA KELUARGA MISKIN DI JAKARTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Basuni Jahari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of "Taburia" Intervention Program on Hemoglobin Concentration Among Children Under-Five Years of Poor Families In North Jakarta.Background: Anemia is one of the main nutritional problems in Indonesia. Anemia in children under fives years will have an impact on growth and mental development. In an effort to improve the nutritional status of infants, especially in poor families, the Japan Funds for Poverty Reduction (JFPR in collaboration with the Center for Nutrition and Food, Ministry of Health, Bogor, making multi-vitamin ingredients and micro nutrients called as TABURIA.Objectives: To study the influence of hemoglobin levels on child under fives years of poor families.Methods: Design of the study was Evaluation Before and After Treatment (Pre-Post Evaluation. This research was conducted in 9 urban villages in 3 Public health centers in North Jakarta City. The numbers of samples were 540 children aged 6-59 months from poor families. Tabuaria was distributed by a cadre posyandu to all children under fives years (5000 children in the research area. The data analyzed included: hemoglobin levels, economic social family, compliance and child morbidity. Data were analyzed by descriptive to determine changes in status of anemia and haemoglobin levels before and after intervention.Results: Most of children under fives years (87.8% to receive and consume Taburia. The average Hb levels increased from 10.5 mg/dl in baseline data to 12.0 mg/dl at endline evaluation. The proportion of anemia (Hb <11 mg/dl decreased significantly from 62.3% (baseline to 24.7%(endline-evaluation.Conclusion: Taburia be accepted by the majority of children under fives and can increase hemoglobin levels of children under fives.Recommendation: Taburia can increase the hemoglobin levels of children under fives years, but if would be implemented as national program, it should be study in others regions (pilot areas to explore the appropriateness Taburia distribution model in

  10. Status gizi, kadar hemoglobin, ureum, dan kreatinin pasien konseling gizi hemodialisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiawan P. A. Nugroho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground : Patients who are undergoing hemodialysis therapy must know which foods that may be consumed including foods containing animal protein, low potassium, and low salt. The role of nutritionists is needed to provide nutritional counseling related to dietary adjustment. Studies that have been conducted by previous researchers are about diet from hemodialysis patients and the various factors that affect dietary compliance of patients, but no one has been studying the relation related to nutritional status, hemoglobin, ureum, and creatinine levels before and after doing a counseling that also has a relationship with diet and dietary compliance for hemodialysis patients.Objectives : To analyze the relationship of nutritional status, hemoglobin, ureum, and creatinine levels of hemodialysis patients before and after doing nutritional counseling in RSUD Ungaran. Methods : The study used a descriptive quantitaive method with one group pretest posttest design with cross sectional approach. The research was conducted in Hemodialysis Unit of RSUD Ungaran with a total sampling of 30 hemodialysis patient. Primary data were obtained from respondent’s data entry and FFQ, observation, and interviews. Secondary data were obtained from respondent’s medical records include the level of hemoglobin, urea, and cretinine. Data were analyzed using SPSS programme with Paired t Test. Results : The results of SPSS analysis showed that probability value from urea men 0,016 < 0,05 and urea women – hemoglobin men and women – creatinin men and women overall 0,000 < 0,05, which means that the average levels of those components before and after doing a nutritional counseling is different.Conclusions : A nutritional counseling indicate any change in the nutritional status of the entire hemodialysis patients, based on hemoglobin levels increased, while urea and creatinine levels decreased; but all those components are not in the normal category. Levels of

  11. IR Spectra of Different O2-Content Hemoglobin from Computational Study: Promising Detector of Hemoglobin Variant in Medical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Su-Qin; Chen, Tu-Nan; Ji, Guang-Fu; Wang, En-Ren

    2017-06-01

    IR spectra of heme and different O 2 -content hemoglobin were studied by the quantum computation method at the molecule level. IR spectra of heme and different O 2 -content hemoglobin were quantificationally characterized from 0 to 100 THz. The IR spectra of oxy-heme and de-oxy-heme are obviously different at the frequency regions of 9.08-9.48, 38.38-39.78, 50.46-50.82, and 89.04-91.00 THz. At 24.72 THz, there exists the absorption peak for oxy-heme, whereas there is not the absorption peak for de-oxy-heme. Whether the heme contains Fe-O-O bond or not has the great influence on its IR spectra and vibration intensities of functional groups in the mid-infrared area. The IR adsorption peak shape changes hardly for different O 2 -content hemoglobin. However, there exist three frequency regions corresponding to the large change of IR adsorption intensities for containing-O 2 hemoglobin in comparison with de-oxy-hemoglobin, which are 11.08-15.93, 44.70-50.22, and 88.00-96.68 THz regions, respectively. The most differential values with IR intensity of different O 2 -content hemoglobin all exceed 1.0 × 10 4  L mol -1  cm -1 . With the increase of oxygen content, the absorption peak appears in the high-frequency region for the containing-O 2 hemoglobin in comparison with de-oxy-hemoglobin. The more the O 2 -content is, the greater the absorption peak is at the high-frequency region. The IR spectra of different O 2 -content hemoglobin are so obviously different in the mid-infrared region that it is very easy to distinguish the hemoglobin variant by means of IR spectra detector. IR spectra of hemoglobin from quantum computation can provide scientific basis and specific identification of hemoglobin variant resulting from different O 2 contents in medical diagnosis.

  12. DC and AC conductivity properties of bovine dentine hydroxyapatite (BDHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumludag, F.; Gunduz, O.; Kılıc, O.; Ekren, N.; Kalkandelen, C.; Ozbek, B.; Oktar, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Bovine dentine bio-waste may be used as a potential natural source of hydroxyapatite (BDHA), thus extraction of bovine dentin hydroxyapatite (BDHA) from bio-waste is significantly important to fabricate in a simple, economically and environmentally preferable. DC and AC conductivity properties of BDHA were investigated depending on sintering temperature (1000ºC - 1300°C) in air and vacuum (<10-2 mbar) ambient at room temperature. DC conductivity measurements performed between -1 and 1 V. AC conductivity measurements performed in the frequency range of 40 Hz – 100 kHz. DC conductivity results showed that dc conductivity values of the BDHA decrease with increasing sintering temperature in air ambient. It is not observed remarkable/systematic behavior for ac conductivity depending on sintering temperature.

  13. Novel subunit structure observed for noncooperative hemoglobin from Urechis caupo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolatkar, P R; Meador, W E; Stanfield, R L; Hackert, M L

    1988-03-05

    Tetrameric hemoglobin from the "fat innkeeper" worm Urechis caupo possesses a novel subunit arrangement having an "inside out" quaternary structure in that the G/H helices are located on the outer surface of the tetramer. A 5-A resolution crystal structure reveals that although the individual subunits are beta-like, having a distinct D helix and the general myoglobin fold, the subunit contacts are very different from those previously observed for hemoglobins. Furthermore, the hemoglobin from U. caupo is also quite different from the unusual hemoglobin tetramer from clam which also has its G/H helices on the outer surface but with the hemes in close proximity through E-F helical contacts (Royer, W. E., Jr., Love, W. E., and Fenderson, F. F. (1985) Nature 316, 277-280).

  14. 21 CFR 866.5470 - Hemoglobin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Measurements of free hemoglobin aid in the diagnosis of various hematologic disorders, such as sickle cell anemia, Fanconi's anemia (a rare inherited disease), aplastic anemia (bone marrow does not produce enough...

  15. Hemoglobin as a factor in the control of tumor oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of hemoglobin in the blood has been shown to have a market effect on the radiosensitivity of human and animal tumors. Experimental studies in mice indicate that radiosensitivity is influenced by a change in the hemoglobin level rather than by the absolute concentration. This dependence may be exploited to therapeutic advantage. Recent studies of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity have shown that the concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) affects tumor sensitivity to X-rays. Increased 2,3 DPG levels increase radiosensitivity in several mouse tumors. The time dependence of this effect remains to be established. The effective application of these effects in man may depend on the development of drugs which produce changes in hemoglobin affinity without the need for blood transfusions. Several drugs are currently being investigated

  16. Hemoglobin Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topics/anemia/atrisk Scherber RM, Mesa R. Elevated Hemoglobin or Hematocrit Level. JAMA [Internet]. 2016 May [cited 2017 Feb 1]; 315(20):2225-26. Available from: ... Health Topics Anemia Blood Count Tests ...

  17. Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2009-01-01

    Haptoglobin, the haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor CD163, and the heme oxygenase-1 are proteins with a well-established function in the clearance and metabolism of "free" hemoglobin released during intravascular hemolysis. This scavenging system counteracts the potentially harmful oxidative and NO......-scavenging effects associated with "free" hemoglobin, and, furthermore, elicits an anti-inflammatory response. In the late primate evolution, haptoglobin variants with distinct functions have arisen, including haptoglobin polymers and the haptoglobin-related protein. The latter associates with a subspecies of high......-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles playing a crucial role in the innate immunity against certain trypanosome parasites. Recent studies have elucidated this fairly sophisticated immune defense mechanism that takes advantage of a trypanosomal haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor evolved to supply the parasite with heme...

  18. Isolation, purification and studies on radiation induced biochemical and physiological changes of bovine growth hormone in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Salam, H.M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Growth hormone has a great importance in the field of animal physiology. Bovine growth hormone was extracted by alteration of the hydrogen ion concentration of phosphate buffer extract of frozen pituitary glands. The extracted bovine growth hormone has similar absorption peaks at UV and infrared spectra, bands of the same location on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plate and had a molecular weight exactly as the standard bovine growth hormone and equal to 20.9 KD. Labelling of bovine growth hormone with 131 I was carried out with fast and least expensive method. The biological and physiological effects of labelled and non labelled bovine growth hormone were studied on rabbits. The labelled bovine growth hormone decreased the biological and physiological effects of the hormone. Bovine growth hormone (unlabelled) and different effects on growth performance traits, body chemical composition (water, fat,protein and ash), and also on the serum biochemical parameters. We conclude that the bovine growth hormone affects on the biological and physiological properties but this depends on the dose, type of delivery of hormone, time of treatment, and the diet content of the animal. 6 tabs., 13.2 figs., 110 refs

  19. Individualized Anemia Management Reduces Hemoglobin Variability in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gaweda, Adam E.; Aronoff, George R.; Jacobs, Alfred A.; Rai, Shesh N.; Brier, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA ...

  20. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  1. GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN AND FRUCTOSAMINE IN DOGS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Olair Carlos Beltrame; Rosangela Locatelli-Dittrich; Luciane Maria Laskoski; Lia Fordiani Lenati Patricio; Nina da Cunha Medeiros; Marília Oliveira Koch

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) commonly occurs in dogs, and the laboratorial confirmation is carried out by glycemia test. The diagnosis and monitoring in humans is made by glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. The objective of this study was to diagnose DM in 19 dogs, by evaluating seric glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. Six dogs with DM and treated with insulin were assisted during a twelve-month period, by means of the same blood analysis, until the death...

  2. EPR studies of cooperative binding of Cu (II) to hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louro, S.R.W.; Tabak, M.

    1983-07-01

    The investigation of the relative affinities of the two pairs of hemoglobin copper sites by monitoring the EPR spectra of the complexes formed by the reaction of copper with deoxyhemoglobin is reported. A model in which two sites are assumed to accept copper ions in a noncooperative way is not able to predict the experimental results. Thus it is conclude that the binding of these ions to hemoglobin is a cooperative phenomenon. (Author) [pt

  3. Effects of spermine NONOate and ATP on the thermal stability of hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Rasha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minor changes in protein structure induced by small organic and inorganic molecules can result in significant metabolic effects. The effects can be even more profound if the molecular players are chemically active and present in the cell in considerable amounts. The aim of our study was to investigate effects of a nitric oxide donor (spermine NONOate, ATP and sodium/potassium environment on the dynamics of thermal unfolding of human hemoglobin (Hb. The effect of these molecules was examined by means of circular dichroism spectrometry (CD in the temperature range between 25°C and 70°C. The alpha-helical content of buffered hemoglobin samples (0.1 mg/ml was estimated via ellipticity change measurements at a heating rate of 1°C/min. Results Major results were: 1 spermine NONOate persistently decreased the hemoglobin unfolding temperature Tuirrespectively of the Na + /K + environment, 2 ATP instead increased the unfolding temperature by 3°C in both sodium-based and potassium-based buffers and 3 mutual effects of ATP and NO were strongly influenced by particular buffer ionic compositions. Moreover, the presence of potassium facilitated a partial unfolding of alpha-helical structures even at room temperature. Conclusion The obtained data might shed more light on molecular mechanisms and biophysics involved in the regulation of protein activity by small solutes in the cell.

  4. Imaging the effect of hemoglobin on properties of RBCs using common-path digital holographic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, M.; Shah, H.; Trivedi, V.; Mahajan, S.; Chhaniwal, V.; Leitgeb, R.; Javidi, B.; Anand, A.

    2017-07-01

    Adequate supply of oxygen to the body is the most essential requirement. In vertebrate species this function is performed by Hemoglobin contained in red blood cells. The mass concentration of the Hb determines the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Thus it becomes necessary to determine its concentration in the blood, which helps in monitoring the health of a person. If the amount of Hb crosses certain range, then it is considered critical. As the Hb constitutes upto 96% of red blood cells dry content, it would be interesting to examine various physical and mechanical parameters of RBCs which depends upon its concentration. Various diseases bring about significant variation in the amount of hemoglobin which may alter certain parameters of the RBC such as surface area, volume, membrane fluctuation etc. The study of the variations of these parameters may be helpful in determining Hb content which will reflect the state of health of a human body leading to disease diagnosis. Any increase or decrease in the amount of Hb will change the density and hence the optical thickness of the RBCs, which affects the cell membrane and thereby changing its mechanical and physical properties. Here we describe the use of lateral shearing digital holographic microscope for quantifying the cell parameters for studying the change in biophysical properties of cells due to variation in hemoglobin concentration.

  5. Study Of Blood Lead Levels, Hemoglobin & Plasma AscorbicAcid In ACarCompanyWelders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Dorosti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Background and aim: About 30-40% of lead entered the respiratorysystem, is absorbed to the bloodstream. Some studies have demonstrated that cigarette smokingresults in blood-lead levels elevation as well as decreased blood ascorbic acid. This study hasperformed on this issue in lead exposed welder workers.Method:Adescriptive cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate associations of smokinghabit with blood lead, hemoglobin and plasma ascorbic acid levels in 32 welders. All the casesused to work in a car factory in Tehran suburb as welders 8 hours a day. They were divided intothree groups based on blood lead level quartiles.The blood lead levels were determined by 8003 NAIOSH method and blood ascorbic acid levelwas determined by Lowery method. Results were compared (based on mean values usingindependent sample t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA methods.Results: Results indicated that the blood lead levels in those who smoke 7+ cigarettes per day wassignificantly higher than those who smoke <7 cigarettes per day (p<0.05 or no smoking group(p<0.001. The hemoglobin concentrations in 7+ group was significantly lower than of the <7(p<0.01 and no smoking (p<0.05 groups.Conclusion :Smoking hait in population, who occupationally exposed to lead, causes an increaseexposure to lead and, hence, elevation of blood-lead levels as well as inhibition of hemoglobinsynthesis and therefore reduces hemoglobin concentration.

  6. Erythrocyte enrichment in hematopoietic progenitor cell cultures based on magnetic susceptibility of the hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Jin

    Full Text Available Using novel media formulations, it has been demonstrated that human placenta and umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells can be expanded and differentiated into erythroid cells with high efficiency. However, obtaining mature and functional erythrocytes from the immature cell cultures with high purity and in an efficient manner remains a significant challenge. A distinguishing feature of a reticulocyte and maturing erythrocyte is the increasing concentration of hemoglobin and decreasing cell volume that results in increased cell magnetophoretic mobility (MM when exposed to high magnetic fields and gradients, under anoxic conditions. Taking advantage of these initial observations, we studied a noninvasive (label-free magnetic separation and analysis process to enrich and identify cultured functional erythrocytes. In addition to the magnetic cell separation and cell motion analysis in the magnetic field, the cell cultures were characterized for cell sedimentation rate, cell volume distributions using differential interference microscopy, immunophenotyping (glycophorin A, hemoglobin concentration and shear-induced deformability (elongation index, EI, by ektacytometry to test for mature erythrocyte attributes. A commercial, packed column high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS was used for magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched fraction comprised 80% of the maturing cells (predominantly reticulocytes that showed near 70% overlap of EI with the reference cord blood-derived RBC and over 50% overlap with the adult donor RBCs. The results demonstrate feasibility of label-free magnetic enrichment of erythrocyte fraction of CD34+ progenitor-derived cultures based on the presence of paramagnetic hemoglobin in the maturing erythrocytes.

  7. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  8. Two distinct heme distal site states define Cerebratulus lacteus mini-hemoglobin oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Marcelo A; Bikiel, Damían E; Crespo, Alejandro; Nardini, Marco; Bolognesi, Martino; Estrin, Dario A

    2006-03-15

    The nerve tissue hemoglobin of Cerebratulus lacteus (CerHb) is the smallest naturally occurring known hemoglobin. Stabilization of the diatomic bound species (e.g., O(2)) is achieved through a network of hydrogen bonds based on three key residues TyrB10, GlnE7, and ThrE11. The first two residues are typically associated in hemoglobins with enhanced O(2) affinity, related to hydrogen bond stabilization of the heme-bound O(2) resulting in a decrease of the ligand dissociation rates. In contrast to the above observations, the affinity of CerHb for O(2) is only moderate, and the rate of O(2) dissociation is unexpectedly high. To gain insight on the diverse molecular mechanisms controlling ligand affinities, we have analyzed w.t. CerHb and its ThrE11-->Val mutant by means of joint molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics simulation techniques, complementing recent site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Our results suggest that the observed O(2) dissociation rates can only be explained through a dynamic equilibrium between high and low affinity states of the w.t. CerHb heme distal site. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Structural and functional characterization of Delphinus delphis hemoglobin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Barbara; Messana, Irene; Maggiani, Federica; Olianas, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Crnjar, Roberto; Castagnola, Massimo; Giardina, Bruno; Sanna, Maria Teresa

    2009-11-01

    Structural analysis of the hemoglobin (Hb) system of Delphinus delphis revealed a high globin multiplicity: HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis evidenced three major beta (beta1 16,022 Da, beta2 16,036 Da, beta3 16,036 Da, labeled according to their progressive elution times) and two major alpha globins (alpha1 15,345 Da, alpha2 15,329 Da). ESI-tandem mass and nucleotide sequence analyses showed that beta2 globin differs from beta1 for the substitution Val126 --> Leu, while beta3 globin differs from beta2 for the isobaric substitution Lys65 --> Gln. The alpha2 globin differs from the alpha1 for the substitution Ser15 --> Ala. Anion-exchange chromatography allowed the separation of two Hb fractions and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the fraction with higher pI (HbI) contained beta1, beta2 and both the alpha globins, and the fraction with lower pI (HbII) contained beta3 and both the alpha globins. Both D. delphis Hb fractions displayed a lower intrinsic oxygen affinity, a decreased effect of 2,3-BPG and a reduced cooperativity with respect to human HbA(0), with HbII showing the more pronounced differences. With respect to HbA(0), either the substitution Probeta5 --> Gly or the Probeta5 --> Ala is present in all the cetacean beta globins sequenced so far, and it has been hypothesized that position 5 of beta globins may have a role in the interaction with 2,3-BPG. Regarding the particularly lowered cooperativity of HbII, it is interesting to observe that the variant human HbA, characterized by the substitution Lysbeta65 --> Gln (HbJ-Cairo) has a decreased cooperativity with respect to HbA(0).

  10. Cell volume regulation in hemoglobin CC and AA erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, L.R.; Orringer, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Swelling hemoglobin CC erythrocytes stimulates a ouabain-insensitive K flux that restores original cell volume. Studies were performed with the K analog, 86 Rb. This volume regulatory pathway was characterized for its anion dependence, sensitivity to loop diuretics, and requirement for Na. The swelling-induced K flux was eliminated if intracellular chloride was replaced by nitrate and both swelling-activated K influx and efflux were partially inhibited by 1 mM furosemide or bumetanide. K influx in swollen hemoglobin CC cells was not diminished when Na in the incubation medium was replaced with choline, indicating Na independence of the swelling-induced flux. Identical experiments with hemoglobin AA cells also demonstrated a swelling-induced increase in K flux, but the magnitude and duration of this increase were considerably less than that seen with hemoglobin CC cells. The increased K flux in hemoglobin AA cells was likewise sensitive to anion replacement and to loop diuretics and did not require the presence of Na. These data indicate that a volume-activated K pathway with similar transport characteristics exists in both hemoglobin CC and AA red cells

  11. Concordance between Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Equivalent and Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content in CKD Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadi Wirawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the correlation and the concordance between reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (RET-He and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr as well as to obtain the cut-off value of RET-He as the target of iron supplementation in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: a cross-sectional study was performed using K3EDTA-anticoagulated peripheral blood samples collected from 106 CKD patients undergoing routine hemodialysis. The samples were then analyzed using both Sysmex XN-2000 and Siemens ADVIA 2120i for RET-He and CHr analysis. Results: a very strong correlation (r=0.91; p<0.0001 and a good concordance were found between RET-He and CHr with mean bias of 0.5 pg. The diagnostic concordance was 96.23%. The cut-off value of RET-He 29.2 pg was obtained from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve with CHr as the gold standard. At this cut-off point, the sensitivity and specificity to assess the target of iron supplementation in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis were 95.5% and 94%, respectively. Conclusion: the study shows a good correlation and concordance between RET-He and CHr in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Bone Grafting Using Xenograft Freeze-Dried Cortical Bovine, Allograft Freeze-Dried Cortical New Zealand White Rabbit, Xenograft Hydroxyapatite Bovine, and Xenograft Demineralized Bone Matrix Bovine in Bone Defect of Femoral Diaphysis of White Rabbit: Experimental Study In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdiansyah Mahyudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autogenous bone graft is gold standard in treating bone defects, but it might have difficulty in corporation and rejection reaction. This study is to compare the effectiveness among freeze-dried xenograft, freeze-dried allograft, hydroxyapatite xenograft, and demineralized bone matrix xenograft as bone graft to fill bone defect in femoral diaphysis of white rabbit. Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were distributed into five groups. Bone defect was filled correspondingly with xenograft freeze-dried cortical bovine, allograft freeze-dried cortical New Zealand white rabbit, xenograft hydroxyapatite bovine, and xenograft demineralized bone matrix bovine. No graft was used in control group. VEGF, osteoblast, and woven bone were higher in allograft freeze-dried cortical New Zealand white rabbit (mean 5.6625 (p<0.05 and xenograft demineralized bone matrix bovine (mean 5.2475 (p<0.05 with calcification of woven bone was already seen in week 2 in the latter group. There was a decrease of woven bone (mean 4.685 (p<0.05 fibrous tissue (mean 41.07 (p<0.05 in xenograft demineralized bone matrix bovine. The Immunoglobulin-G was elevated in control and all study groups but not significantly (p=0.07855. Bone healing process in xenograft demineralized bone matrix bovine is more effective than in xenograft hydroxyapatite bovine, allograft freeze-dried New Zealand white rabbit, xenograft freeze-dried cortical bovine, and control.

  13. Mutations induced in the NS5B gene of bovine viral diarrhea virus by antiviral treatment convey resistance to the compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a widespread bovine pathogen for which there is no specific therapeutic agent. A previous study using 2-(2-benzimidazolyl)-5-[4-(2-imidazolino)phenyl]furan dihydrochloride (DB772) to treat calves persistently infected with BVDV resulted in a decrease in the vira...

  14. Comparison of Hemoglobin Levels Before and After Hemodialysis and Their Effects on Erythropoietin Dosing and Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Sagheb; Fallahzadeh; Moaref; Fallahzadeh; Dormanesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin levels measured after hemodialysis, as compared to hemoglobin levels measured before hemodialysis, are suggested to be a more accurate reflection of the hemoglobin levels between hemodialysis sessions, and to be a better reference point for adjusting erythropoietin dosing. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the hemoglobin levels before and after hemodialysis, to calculate the required erythropoie...

  15. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, P.J.; Sun, J.D.; MacGregor, J.T.; Wehr, C.M.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Lucier, G.; Henderson, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of benzene is thought to be necessary to produce the toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, associated with benzene exposure. To extrapolate from the results of rodent studies to potential health risks in man, one must know how benzene metabolism is affected by species, dose, dose rate, and repeated versus single exposures. The purpose of our studies was to determine the effect of repeated inhalation exposures on the metabolism of [14C]benzene by rodents. Benzene metabolism was assessed by characterizing and quantitating urinary metabolites, and by quantitating 14C bound to hemoglobin and micronuclei induction. F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed, nose-only, to 600 ppm benzene or to air (control) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. On the last day, both benzene-pretreated and control animals were exposed to 600 ppm, 14C-labeled benzene for 6 hr. Individual benzene metabolites in urine collected for 24 hr after the exposure were analyzed. There was a significant decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (but not rats) pretreated with benzene which resulted in lower levels of urinary [14C]benzene metabolites. The analyses indicated that the only effects of benzene pretreatment on the metabolite profile in rat or mouse urine were a slight shift from glucuronidation to sulfation in mice and a shift from sulfation to glucuronidation in rats. Benzene pretreatment also had no effect, in either species, on formation of [14C]benzene-derived hemoglobin adducts. Mice and rats had similar levels of hemoglobin adduct binding, despite the higher metabolism of benzene by mice. This indicates that hemoglobin adduct formation occurs with higher efficiency in rats. After 1 week of exposure to 600 ppm benzene, the frequency of micronucleated, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in mice was significantly increased

  16. [Violations of oxygen transport function of hemoglobin in surgical endointoxication and their correction using remaxol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, A P; Trofimov, V A; Shibitov, V A; Vlasov, P A; Bolotskikh, V A; Meleshkin, A V; Chamatkina, E M

    2016-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of remaxol in erythrocytes oxygen transport function correction in patients with surgical endotoxicosis. Two groups of patients (main (n = 25) and comparison (n = 27) groups) with acute appendicitis complicated by peritonitis were compared. All patients underwent standard postoperative treatment including infusion therapy 1600--2000 ml/day, antibiotics as combination of semi-synthetic penicillins and aminoglycosides, anesthetic and desensitizing therapy. In the main group daily intravenous infusion of remaxol 400 ml for 5 days was used. The first dose was administered intraoperatively or immediately after surgery. Patients underwent emergency surgery and destructive forms of acute appendicitis accompanied by diffuse purulent or purulent-fibrinous peritonitis were diagnosed. Removal of appendix, debridement and drainage of the abdominal cavity were performed. Observation of clinical and laboratory tests were carried out at admission and in 1, 3, 5 days after surgery. Acute peritonitis leads to changes of hemoglobin conformation and its oxygen-binding capacity according to spectroscopy that is an important factor in the development of general hypoxia. The greatest changes in the hemoglobin molecule were found in the 1st day after surgery as a result of surgical aggression. It is proved that modified conformational state of hemoglobin is associated with processes of lipid peroxidation and endogenous intoxication. Combined therapy with remaxol is effective to correct oxygen transport function of hemoglobin in acute peritonitis. Pronounced positive effect of the drug weakening manifestations of surgical aggression is noted after the first administration. Therapeutic efficacy of the drug is explained by its ability to reduce lipid peroxidation. Rapid recovery of homeostasis including decrease of general hypoxia using remaxol resulted in a clinical benefit.

  17. Inhibition mechanisms of hemoglobin, immunoglobulin G, and whole blood in digital and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidstedt, Maja; Hedman, Johannes; Romsos, Erica L; Waitara, Leticia; Wadsö, Lars; Steffen, Carolyn R; Vallone, Peter M; Rådström, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Blood samples are widely used for PCR-based DNA analysis in fields such as diagnosis of infectious diseases, cancer diagnostics, and forensic genetics. In this study, the mechanisms behind blood-induced PCR inhibition were evaluated by use of whole blood as well as known PCR-inhibitory molecules in both digital PCR and real-time PCR. Also, electrophoretic mobility shift assay was applied to investigate interactions between inhibitory proteins and DNA, and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to directly measure effects on DNA polymerase activity. Whole blood caused a decrease in the number of positive digital PCR reactions, lowered amplification efficiency, and caused severe quenching of the fluorescence of the passive reference dye 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine as well as the double-stranded DNA binding dye EvaGreen. Immunoglobulin G was found to bind to single-stranded genomic DNA, leading to increased quantification cycle values. Hemoglobin affected the DNA polymerase activity and thus lowered the amplification efficiency. Hemoglobin and hematin were shown to be the molecules in blood responsible for the fluorescence quenching. In conclusion, hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G are the two major PCR inhibitors in blood, where the first affects amplification through a direct effect on the DNA polymerase activity and quenches the fluorescence of free dye molecules, and the latter binds to single-stranded genomic DNA, hindering DNA polymerization in the first few PCR cycles. Graphical abstract PCR inhibition mechanisms of hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Cq quantification cycle, dsDNA double-stranded DNA, ssDNA single-stranded DNA.

  18. The primary structure of the hemoglobin of Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus, Carnivora) and structural comparison to other hemoglobin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, O; Braunitzer, G; Göltenboth, R

    1987-05-01

    The complete primary structure of the alpha- and beta-chains of the hemoglobin of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) is presented. After cleavage of the heme-protein link and chain separation by RP-HPLC, amino-acid sequences were determined by Edman degradation in liquid- and gas-phase sequenators. An interesting result of this work is the demonstration that the hemoglobin of Malayan Sun Bear is identical to the hemoglobins of Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) and Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus tibetanus). The paper gives an updated table of identical hemoglobin chains from different species. This paper may be considered as a compilation of work on the genetic relationship of Pandas.

  19. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN ASAM FOLAT TERHADAP KADAR HEMOGLOBIN PASIEN PENYAKIT GINJAL KRONIK YANG MENJALANI HEMODIALISIS DI RSUD ABDUL WAHAB SJAHRANIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvionita Alvionita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit ginjal kronik merupakan suatu proses patofisiologis dengan etiologi yang beragam, mengakibatkan penurunan fungsi ginjal yang progresif, dan pada umumnya berakhir dengan gagal ginjal1. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari penggunaan asam folat terhadap kadar hemoglobin pada pasien penyakit ginjal kronik yang menjalani hemodialisis di RSUD Abdul Wahab Sjahranie Samarinda. Desain penelitian yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah pra-eksperimental berupa one group pretest-posttest design. Subjek penelitian terdiri dari 30 orang yang sesuai dengan kriteria inklusi. Analisis data mencakup analisis univariat dengan mencari distribusi frekuensi dan analisis bivariat dengan uji paired t test. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan antara kadar hemoglobin sebelum dan setelah hemodialisis yang menunjukkan adanya pengaruh (pValue 0,001. Kata Kunci: Asam folat, hemoglobin, ginjal kronik, hemodialisis ABSTRACT Chronic kidney disease is a pathophysiological process with diverse etiology, resulting in a progressive decrease in renal function, and generally end up kidney failure.1 The aim of this research was to determine the effect of use folic acid on hemoglobin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease with hemodialysis in the hospital Abdul Wahab Sjahranie Samarinda. The research design used in this study are pre-experimental form one group pretest-posttest design. Subjects consisted of 30 people who fit in inclusion criteria. The analysis includes univariate analysis by finding frequency distribution and bivariate analysis with paired t test. The result showed that there is a difference between hemoglobin levels before and after hemodialysis (pValue 0,001. Key Words: Folic Acid, Hemoglobin, Chronic Kidney Disease, Hemodialysis

  20. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  1. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  2. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  3. Shear bond strength and fracture analysis of human vs. bovine teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rüttermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate if bovine enamel and dentin are appropriate substitutes for the respective human hard tooth tissues to test shear bond strength (SBS and fracture analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 sound and caries-free human erupted third molars and 80 freshly extracted bovine permanent central incisors (10 specimens for each group were used to investigate enamel and dentine adhesion of one 2-step self-etch (SE and one 3-step etch and rinse (E&R product. To test SBS the buccal or labial areas were ground plane to obtain appropriate enamel or dentine areas. SE and E&R were applied and SBS was measured prior to and after 500 thermocycles between +5 and +55°C. Fracture analysis was performed for all debonded areas. RESULTS: ANOVA revealed significant differences of enamel and dentin SBS prior to and after thermocycling for both of the adhesives. SBS- of E&R-bonded human enamel increased after thermocycling but SE-bonded did not. Bovine enamel SE-bonded showed higher SBS after TC but E&R-bonded had lower SBS. No differences were found for human dentin SE- or E&R-bonded prior to or after thermocycling but bovine dentin SE-bonded increased whereas bovine dentine E&R-bonded decreased. Considering the totalized and adhesive failures, fracture analysis did not show significances between the adhesives or the respective tooth tissues prior to or after thermocycling. CONCLUSION: Although SBS was different on human and bovine teeth, no differences were found for fracture analysis. This indicates that solely conducted SBS on bovine substrate are not sufficient to judge the perfomance of adhesives, thus bovine teeth are questionnable as a substrate for shear bond testing.

  4. Lipid peroxidation in bovine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawra, R K; Sharma, O P; Makkar, H P

    1983-01-01

    Bovine whole semen, spermatozoa, and seminal plasma did not undergo lipid peroxidation when aerobically incubated. However, lipid peroxidation was induced in washed spermatozoa in the presence of iron or iron plus sodium ascorbate, whereas heating, sonication, or treatment with proteolytic enzymes did not have any effect. The time required for formation of optimum concentration of lipid peroxides in washed spermatozoa is very short as compared to other systems. Lipid peroxides are entirely contributed by the lipid fraction of spermatozoa. Formation of lipid peroxides is completely inhibited by the presence of seminal plasma in incubation mixture.

  5. Site-specific PEGylation of hemoglobin at Cys-93(beta): correlation between the colligative properties of the PEGylated protein and the length of the conjugated PEG chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, B N; Tsai, A; Upadhya, R; Perumalsamy, K; Smith, P K; Malavalli, A; Vandegriff, K; Winslow, R M; Intaglietta, M; Prabhakaran, M; Friedman, J M; Acharya, A S

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the molecular size of acellular hemoglobin (Hb) has been proposed as an approach to reduce its undesirable vasoactive properties. The finding that bovine Hb surface decorated with about 10 copies of PEG5K per tetramer is vasoactive provides support for this concept. The PEGylated bovine Hb has a strikingly larger molecular radius than HbA (1). The colligative properties of the PEGylated bovine Hb are distinct from those of HbA and even polymerized Hb, suggesting a role for the colligative properties of PEGylated Hb in neutralizing the vasoactivity of acellular Hb. To correlate the colligative properties of surface-decorated Hb with the mass of the PEG attached and also its vasoactivity, we have developed a new maleimide-based protocol for the site-specific conjugation of PEG to Hb, taking advantage of the unusually high reactivity of Cys-93(beta) of oxy HbA and the high reactivity of the maleimide to protein thiols. PEG chains of 5, 10, and 20 kDa have been functionalized at one of their hydroxyl groups with a maleidophenyl moiety through a carbamate linkage and used to conjugate the PEG chains at the beta-93 Cys of HbA to generate PEGylated Hbs carrying two copies of PEG (of varying chain length) per tetramer. Homogeneous preparations of (SP-PEG5K)(2)-HbA, (SP-PEG10K)(2)-HbA, and (SP-PEG20K)(2)-HbA have been isolated by ion exchange chromatography. The oxygen affinity of Hb is increased slightly on PEGylation, but the length of the PEG-chain had very little additional influence on the O(2) affinity. Both the hydrodynamic volume and the molecular radius of the Hb increased on surface decoration with PEG and exhibited a linear correlation with the mass of the PEG chain attached. On the other hand, both the viscosity and the colloidal osmotic pressure (COP) of the PEGylated Hbs exhibited an exponential increase with the increase in PEG chain length. In contrast to the molecular volume, viscosity, and COP, the vasoactivity of the PEGylated Hbs was not a

  6. Plant hemoglobins: Important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins ha...... at high O2 concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses....

  7. Structural transition temperature of hemoglobins correlates with species' body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerlin, Kay Frank Thorsten; Kasischke, Nicole; Digel, Ilya; Maggakis-Kelemen, Christina; Temiz Artmann, Aysegül; Porst, Dariusz; Kayser, Peter; Linder, Peter; Artmann, Gerhard Michael

    2007-12-01

    Human red blood cells (RBCs) exhibit sudden changes in their biophysical properties at body temperature (T (B)). RBCs were seen to undergo a spontaneous transition from blockage to passage at T (C) = 36.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C, when the temperature dependency of RBC-passages through 1.3 mum narrow micropipettes was observed. Moreover, concentrated hemoglobin solutions (45 g/dl) showed a viscosity breakdown between 36 and 37 degrees C. With human hemoglobin, a structural transition was observed at T (B) as circular dichroism (CD) experiments revealed. This leads to the assumption that a species' body temperature occupies a unique position on the temperature scale and may even be imprinted in the structure of certain proteins. In this study, it was investigated whether hemoglobins of species with a T (B) different from those of human show temperature transitions and whether those were also linked to the species' T (B). The main conclusion was drawn from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and CD experiments. It was observed that such structural temperature transitions did occur in hemoglobins from all studied species and were correlated linearly (slope 0.81, r = 0.95) with the species' body temperature. We presumed that alpha-helices of hemoglobin were able to unfold more readily around T (B). alpha-helical unfolding would initiate molecular aggregation causing RBC passage and viscosity breakdown as mentioned above. Thus, structural molecular changes of hemoglobin could determine biophysical effects visible on a macroscopic scale. It is hypothesized that the species' body temperature was imprinted into the structure of hemoglobins.

  8. Prototheca zopfii isolated from bovine mastitis induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yanan; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Deng, Youtian; Sabir, Naveed; Su, Jingliang; Han, Bo

    2017-05-09

    Bovine protothecal mastitis results in considerable economic losses worldwide. However, Prototheca zopfii induced morphological alterations and oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is not comprehensively studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this current study was to investigate the P. zopfii induced pathomorphological changes, oxidative stress and apoptosis in bMECs. Oxidative stress was assessed by evaluating catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, while ROS generation and apoptosis was measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results revealed that infection of P. zopfii genotype II (GTII) significantly changed bMECs morphology, increased apoptotic rate and MDA contents at 12 h (p < 0.05) and 24 h (p < 0.01) in comparison with control group, in time-dependent manner. LDH activity and ROS generation was also increased (p < 0.01) at 12 h and 24 h. However, SOD and CAT contents in bMECs infected with GTII were decreased (p < 0.05) at 12 h, while GPx (p < 0.01), SOD (p < 0.05) and CAT (p < 0.01) levels were reduced at 24 h. In case of GTI, only CAT and GPx activities were significantly decreased when the duration prolonged to 24 h but lesser than GTII. This suggested that GTII has more devastating pathogenic effects in bMECs, and the findings of this study concluded that GTII induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in bMECs via the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant defenses as well as the production of intracellular ROS.

  9. ABC- and SLC-Transporters in Murine and Bovine Mammary Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Oskarsson, Agneta; Knight, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    and SLC transporters in murine mammary tissue of different gestation and lactation stages, in murine mammary cells (HC11) featuring resting and secreting phenotypes and in bovine mammary tissue and cells (BME-UV). Effects on transporter expression and function of the imidazole fungicide prochloraz...... and lactation, whereas MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5 and OCTN1 were decreased, compared to expressions in virgins. All transporters measured inmammary glands of mice were detected in bovine mammary tissue and in HC11 cells, while only MDR1 and MRP1 were detected in BME-UV cells. Prochloraz treatment induced MDR1 gene...... and protein expression in both differentiated HC11 and BME-UV cells and increased protein function in HC11 cells, resulting in decreased accumulation of the MDR1substrate digoxin. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that murine (HC11) and bovine (BME-UV) mammary epithelial cells can be applied...

  10. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunochemical, biomolecular and biochemical characterization of bovine epithelial intestinal primocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainil Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultures of enterocytes and colonocytes represent valuable tools to study growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. In vitro models may be used to evaluate passage or toxicity of drugs, interactions of enteropathogenes bacteria strains with intestinal epithelium and other physiologic or pathologic phenomenon involving the digestive tract. Results Cultures of bovine colonocytes and jejunocytes were obtained from organoid-enriched preparations, using a combination of enzymatic and mechanical disruption of the intestine epithelium, followed by an isopicnic centrifugation discarding most single cells. Confluent cell monolayers arising from plated organoids exhibited epithelium typical features, such as the pavement-like structure, the presence of apical microvilli and tight junctions. Accordingly, cells expressed several markers of enterocyte brush border (i.e. maltase, alkaline phosphatase and fatty acid binding protein as well as an epithelial cytoskeleton component (cytokeratin 18. However, enterocyte primocultures were also positive for the vimentin immunostaining (mesenchyme marker. Vimentin expression studies showed that this gene is constitutively expressed in bovine enterocytes. Comparison of the vimentin expression profile with the pattern of brush border enzymes activities, suggested that the decrease of cell differentiation level observed during the enterocyte isolation procedure and early passages of the primoculture could result from a post-transcriptional de-repression of vimentin synthesis. The low differentiation level of bovine enterocytes in vitro could partly be counteracted adding butyrate (1–2 mM or using a glucose-deprived culture medium. Conclusion The present study describes several complementary approaches to characterize bovine primary cultures of intestinal cells. Cultured cells kept their morphologic and functional characteristics during several generations.

  12. Diagnosis of mycobacteria in bovine milk: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alicia Daza Bolaños

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tuberculosis remains as the world’s biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%, the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs and secretions (sputum, milk. In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.

  13. Status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, K; Hussein, D; Asseged, B; Wondwossen, T; Gebeyehu, M

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, by a comparative intradermal tuberculin test of 1,869 animals in 106 farms. Epidemiological information was also collected, taking into account factors chosen for their epidemiological significance and local livestock husbandry characteristics. In addition, milk samples were collected from tuberculin reactors for mycobacterial isolation and characterisation. Chi-square statistic, simple regression and multiple stepwise logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Of the 106 farms examined, 46 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.8% to 53.4%) contained comparative skin test reactors. Of the 1,869 animals, 443 (95% CI: 21.8% to 25.7%) were comparative skin test reactors. Furthermore, about 8.5% of tuberculin sensitive cows (12 of a sample of 141) secreted acid-fast bacteria in their milk. The microbes are described in more detail in the paper. Factors identified as possibly increasing the risk of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa were herd size (large herd), farming (housing) condition (poor), and age (older animals). Similarly, as body condition scores improved from poor to medium and then to good, the likelihood of positive results significantly decreased (OR = 0.54; p < 0.01). Other factors including breed, sex, and physiological status of animals did not seem to significantly contribute to tuberculin sensitivity. The finding that large-size and intensively (often poorly) managed herds were at greater risk of bovine tuberculosis suggests that the significance of bovine tuberculosis is increasing in Addis Ababa parallel to an increasing dairy operation. If measures are not taken promptly, the impact on the economy and public health could be enormous.

  14. Unfolding of hemoglobin variants--insights from urea gradient gel electrophoresis photon correlation spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Jaydeep; GhoshMoulick, Ranjita; Choudhuri, Utpal; Chakrabarty, Prantar; Bhattacharya, Pranab K.; Lahiri, Prabir; Chakraborti, Bikas; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr.

    2004-01-01

    The unfolding pattern of crystal human hemoglobin and variants of hemoglobin obtained from hemolysate were studied using transverse urea gradient gel electrophoresis (TUGGE). A smooth sigmoid like increase of electrophoretic mobility was observed with increasing urea concentrations. A decrease in electrophoretic mobility resulted, if the protein was unfolded with guanidium hydrochloride (GdnHCl). The anomaly was resolved after the Stoke's radii (obtained using the photon correlation spectroscopy) and zeta potential (measured using laser Doppler velocimetry) measurements were made at different denaturant concentrations. Addition of denaturant led to formation of extended structure, irrespective of the nature of the denaturant, as indicated by increase in Stoke's radii in both cases (urea and GdnHCl). The unexpected increase in electrophoretic mobility in case of urea could be explained in terms of a critical redistribution of negative charge at intermediate stages of the unfolding process. In case of GdnHCl, the higher ionic strength masked the charge effect. The mobility, being solely dependent on size, decreased at higher denaturant concentration. Incidentally, folding loci of other hemoglobin variants (e.g. HbE) or that of post-translationally modified hemoglobin (e.g. HbA1c) could be determined by studying the charge distribution and hydrodynamic radius at varying denaturing stress and in each case the gel migration profile could be approximately scaled by the ratio of charge and hydrodynamic diameter of the protein. While unfolding induced charge effect was most pronounced in HbA0 (and crystal ferrous hemoglobin), the unfolding induced aggregation (manifested by the increase in Stoke's radii) was predominantly observed in the variant forms HbE and HbA1c. Representing the proteins by a plot, in which charge and hydrodynamic diameter are on independent axes, may be a useful way of characterizing protein variants having similar migration profiles on native gels

  15. The Pathophysiology of Extracellular Hemoglobin Associated with Enhanced Oxidative Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Rifkind

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb continuously undergoes autoxidation producing superoxide which dismutates into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and is a potential source for subsequent oxidative reactions. Autoxidation is most pronounced under hypoxic conditions in the microcirculation and for unstable dimers formed at reduced Hb concentrations. In the red blood cell (RBC, oxidative reactions are inhibited by an extensive antioxidant system. For extracellular Hb, whether from hemolysis of RBCs and/or the infusion of Hb-based blood substitutes, the oxidative reactions are not completely neutralized by the available antioxidant system. Un-neutralized H2O2 oxidizes ferrous and ferric Hbs to Fe(IV-ferrylHb and oxyferrylHb, respectively. FerrylHb further reacts with H2O2 producing heme degradation products and free iron. OxyferrylHb, in addition to Fe(IV contains a free radical that can undergo additional oxidative reactions. Fe(IIIHb produced during Hb autoxidation also readily releases heme, an additional source for oxidative stress. These oxidation products are a potential source for oxidative reactions in the plasma, but to a greater extent when the lower molecular weight Hb dimers enter cells and tissues. Heme and oxyferryl have been shown to have a proinflammatory effect further increasing their potential for oxidative stress. These oxidative reactions contribute to a number of pathological situations including atherosclerosis, kidney malfunction, sickle cell disease and malaria. The toxic effects of extracellular Hb are of particular concern for increased hemolysis due to hemolytic anemia. Hemolysis is further exacerbated in various diseases and their treatments. Blood transfusions are required whenever there is an appreciable decrease in RBCs due to hemolysis or blood loss. It is, therefore, essential that transfused blood, whether stored RBCs or blood obtained by an Autologous Blood Recovery System from the patient, does not further increase extracellular Hb.

  16. Changes in the Conformational State of Hemoglobin in Hemodialysed Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pieniazek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the properties of internal components of erythrocytes in chronic renal failure (CRF patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD in comparison to control subjects. For investigation of conformational state of hemoglobin and nonheme proteins (NHP the maleimide spin label (MSL in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR was applied. The studies were performed using MSL in whole cells and hemolysate as well as proteins separated by ion exchange chromatography and checked by electrophoresis. Additionally the level of –SH groups in hemolysate and isolated internal proteins of CRF erythrocytes was determined using 4,4′-dithiodipyridine. All measurements were performed before and after hemodialysis. Oxidative stress accompanying CRF/hemodialysed patients caused a significant decrease in the mobility of internal components inside erythrocytes indicated by MSL (P < 0.02. The significant decrease in mobility of spin labeled HbA1c and HbA both before and after HD (P < 0.0002 as well as in nonheme proteins before hemodialysis (P < 0.05 versus control was indicated. Decrease in mobility of internal components of erythrocytes was accompanied by loss of thiols before and after hemodialysis versus control in NHP (P < 0.05, HbA1c (P < 0.0002, and HbA (P < 0.0005. These findings showed oxidative influence of hemodialysis on hemoglobins and internal nonheme proteins in erythrocytes of CRF patients.

  17. Blood hemoglobin level and treatment outcome of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, M.; Sindlinger, F.; Ikenberg, H.; Gerds, T.; Schumacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: to determine whether the blood hemoglobin concentration correlates with the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer and, if so, whether this is restricted to treatment modality. Patients and methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients with early breast cancer (T1,2 NO-2 MO) who underwent either breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (BCS-RT; n = 96) or a modified radical mastectomy (MRM; n = 194). The effect of preoperative blood hemoglobin level, nodal status, histological grading and hormone receptor status on disease-free survival was determined for both treatment modalities using a cox regression model and visualized by kaplan-meier plots. Results: the blood hemoglobin concentration significantly correlated with disease-free survival of patients receiving BCS-RT (relative risk [RR]: 0.67 per g/dl; p = 0.007). This was independent of other known risk factors for breast cancer patients, as determined by multivariate analysis. By contrast, the blood hemoglobin level had no prognostic significance when patients were treated with MRM. Conclusion: blood hemoglobin concentration seems to affect the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer when a treatment schedule that includes radiotherapy is applied. Reduced radiosensitivity due to diminished tumor oxygenation may be the underlying cause. Confirmative trials and studies intended to elucidate the underlying mechanism are warranted. (orig.)

  18. The refractive index of human hemoglobin in the visible range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhernovaya, O; Tuchin, V; Sydoruk, O; Douplik, A

    2011-01-01

    Because the refractive index of hemoglobin in the visible range is sensitive to the hemoglobin concentration, optical investigations of hemoglobin are important for medical diagnostics and treatment. Direct measurements of the refractive index are, however, challenging; few such measurements have previously been reported, especially in a wide wavelength range. We directly measured the refractive index of human deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin for nine wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm for the hemoglobin concentrations up to 140 g l -1 . This paper analyzes the results and suggests a set of model functions to calculate the refractive index depending on the concentration. At all wavelengths, the measured values of the refractive index depended on the concentration linearly. Analyzing the slope of the lines, we determined the specific refraction increments, derived a set of model functions for the refractive index depending on the concentration, and compared our results with those available in the literature. Based on the model functions, we further calculated the refractive index at the physiological concentration within the erythrocytes of 320 g l -1 . The results can be used to calculate the refractive index in the visible range for arbitrary concentrations provided that the refractive indices depend on the concentration linearly.

  19. [Hemoglobin variants in Colombian patients referred to discard hemoglobinopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Gómez Gutiérrez, Alberto; Duarte, Yurani; Amazo, Constanza; Manosalva, Clara; Chila M, Lorena; Casas-Gómez, María Consuelo; Briceño Balcázar, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen transport is altered in hemoglobinopathies. To study the distribution of hemoglobinopathies in Andean subjects without African ancestry. We analyzed blood samples of 1,407 subjects aged 18 to 59 years (58% females), living in the central Andean region of Colombia, referred to discard hemoglobinopathies. The frequency and type of hemoglobinopathy was established by capillary and agarose gel electrophoresis. The frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 34.5% and higher among females. The structural variants found were: AS-heterozygous hemoglobin (8.1%), homozygous SS (3.7%), heterozygous SC (2.2%), AC heterozygotes (0.5%) and heterozygous AE (0.3%). Quantitative variants found were Hb A-Beta thalassemia (13.91%) and Hb H (0.06%), Beta-thalassemia heterozygotes C (0.88%), S-Beta thalassemia heterozygotes (6.07%) and compound heterozygous SC/Beta thalassemia (0.25%), with a persistence of fetal hemoglobin 0. Composite thalassemia was also found in 31%. All techniques showed good correlation and capillary electrophoresis demonstrated a greater detection of hemoglobin variants. The frequency of hemoglobin variants in the analyzed population was high, which is an important public health indicator. The most common hemoglobin variant was HbA/Increased structural Hb A2 and the mos frequent structural hemoglobinopathy was sickle cell trait. Capillary electrophoresis can discern any Hb variants present in the population.

  20. Pattern of cavities in globins: the case of human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Carmelinda; Miele, Adriana E; Draghi, Federica; Johnson, Kenneth A; Sciara, Giuliano; Brunori, Maurizio; Vallone, Beatrice

    2009-12-01

    Our aim is to shed light on the conservation of potential ligand docking sites that play an important role in ligand dynamics of globins by using the technique of filling internal cavities naturally present in hemoglobin and myoglobin with xenon atoms. In particular, we present the high resolution structures of the Xe-adduct of deoxygenated wild type human hemoglobin and a quadruple mutant (L(B10)Y and H(E7)Q in alpha and beta chains). For the sake of comparison we also determined under the same experimental conditions the xenon complex of wild type sperm whale myoglobin. The analysis revealed that the number and position of Xe binding cavities are different in the alpha and beta subunits, the latter being more similar to myoglobin. Notably, no proximal Xe docking site was detected in hemoglobin, at variance with myoglobin. The pattern of internal cavities accessibility and affinity for xenon suggests a different role for the dynamics of ligand migration in the two types of hemoglobin chains as compared to myoglobin. The number and position of hydrophobic cavities in hemoglobin are briefly discussed also in comparison with the data available for other members of the globin superfamily.

  1. Study of LAXS Profile of Hemoglobin from Irradiated Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.S.; Elshemey, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS) and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were exposed to gamma rays, at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV-visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of 2 peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1st peak, recorded at 4.65O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 0.526 nm-1), is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 1.189 nm-1), appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  2. Biophysical Monitoring and dose response characteristics of irradiated hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshemey, W.M; Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using LAXS and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were irradiated at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV- visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of two peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1 s t peak, recorded at 4.65 o , is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5 o , appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  3. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparia, Nikita; Platten, Kimsey C.; Anderson, Kristin B.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  4. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. This... proposed revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United...

  5. Pyridoxine supplementation during oocyte maturation improves the development and quality of bovine preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelenain, Mansour; Balboula, Ahmed Zaky; Kawahara, Manabu; El-Monem Montaser, Abd; Zaabel, Samy Moawad; Kim, Sung-Woo; Nagano, Masashi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2017-03-15

    Recently, inhibition of cathepsin B (CTSB) activity during in vitro maturation (IVM) and culture (IVC) improved the developmental competence and quality of bovine oocytes and embryos. E-64 is a widely used inhibitor to inhibit CTSB activity, however, E-64 inhibits not only CTSB activity but also the activities of other proteases including cathepsin L (CTSL), papain, calpain, and trypsin. Pyridoxine, the catalytically active form of vitamin B6, plays a crucial role in several cellular processes and has the ability to inhibit CTSB activity. However, whether pyridoxine has an improving effect during IVM of bovine oocytes is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of pyridoxine supplementation during IVM on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes and the quality of the produced blastocysts. Supplementation of pyridoxine to the maturation medium significantly decreased the activity of CTSB in both bovine cumulus cells and oocytes. Moreover, pyridoxine improved both the blastocyst and hatched blastocyst rates. In addition, the presence of pyridoxine during IVM also significantly improved the quality of the produced embryos by increasing the total cell number as well as decreasing the CTSB mRNA expression and apoptotic rate. These results indicate that pyridoxine is a promising tool to improve the developmental competence of bovine oocytes and subsequent embryo quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A retrospective study on fourteen year hemoglobin genotype variants recorded at five government hospitals in Akure, Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Akinboro

    2016-10-01

    Results and conclusion: Six hemoglobin genotypes were identified as HbAA, HbAS, HbAC, HbSS, HbSC and HbCC. The overall average values of their prevalence in decreasing order were HbAA (88.11% > HbAS (10.23% > HbAC (0.78% > HbSS (0.72%, HbSC (0.15% and HbCC (0.01%. There was a steady increase in the number of people who visited the hospitals for hemoglobin genotype determination throughout the years covered in this investigation, as the proportion of abnormal hemoglobin genotypes to the normal HbAA tremendously increased in the last four years (2010–2013. This suggests the possibility of many other residents in the capital city of Ondo state carrying the abnormal forms of hemoglobin genotype, and calling for more efforts in the area of genetic counseling. The gene frequencies of A, S, and C were 0.91, 0.08 and 0.01, respectively. The prevalence of HbAA in this study has been the highest reported in the Southwest and Nigeria as a whole.

  7. [Effect of high-intensity interval training on the reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin in type-2 diabetic adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Eguía, Raúl Alberto; Russell Guzmán, Javier Antonio; Soto Muñoz, Marcelo Enrique; Villegas González, Bastián Eduardo; Poblete Aro, Carlos Emilio; Ibacache Palma, Alejandro

    2015-03-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the major non-communicable chronic diseases in the world. Its prevalence in Chile is significant, and complications associated with this disease involve great costs, which is why prevention and treatment of this condition are essential. Physical exercise is an effective means for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The emergence of new forms of physical training, such as "high intensity interval training", presents novel therapeutic alternatives for patients and health care professionals. To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of high intensity interval training in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and answer the following question: In subjects with type 2 diabetes, can the method of high intensity interval training compared to moderate intensity exercise decrease glycosylated hemoglobin? We performed a critical analysis of the article "Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of high intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes". We found no significant differences in the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin between groups of high intensity interval training and moderate-intensity exercise upon completion of the study (p>0.05). In adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, high intensity interval training does not significantly improve glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Despite this, the high intensity interval training method shows as much improvement in body composition and physical condition as the moderate intensity exercise program.

  8. The conserved Phe GH5 of importance for hemoglobin intersubunit contact is mutated in gadoid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Functionality of the tetrameric hemoglobin molecule seems to be determined by a few amino acids located in key positions. Oxygen binding encompasses structural changes at the interfaces between the α1β2 and α2β1 dimers, but also subunit interactions are important for the oxygen binding affinity and stability. The latter packing contacts include the conserved Arg B12 interacting with Phe GH5, which is replaced by Leu and Tyr in the αA and αD chains, respectively, of birds and reptiles. Results Searching all known hemoglobins from a variety of gnathostome species (jawed vertebrates) revealed the almost invariant Arg B12 coded by the AGG triplet positioned at an exon-intron boundary. Rare substitutions of Arg B12 in the gnathostome β globins were found in pig, tree shrew and scaled reptiles. Phe GH5 is also highly conserved in the β globins, except for the Leu replacement in the β1 globin of five marine gadoid species, gilthead seabream and the Comoran coelacanth, while Cys and Ile were found in burbot and yellow croaker, respectively. Atlantic cod β1 globin showed a Leu/Met polymorphism at position GH5 dominated by the Met variant in northwest-Atlantic populations that was rarely found in northeast-Atlantic cod. Site-specific analyses identified six consensus codons under positive selection, including 122β(GH5), indicating that the amino acid changes identified at this position may offer an adaptive advantage. In fact, computational mutation analysis showed that the replacement of Phe GH5 with Leu or Cys decreased the number of van der Waals contacts essentially in the deoxy form that probably causes a slight increase in the oxygen binding affinity. Conclusions The almost invariant Arg B12 and the AGG codon seem to be important for the packing contacts and pre-mRNA processing, respectively, but the rare mutations identified might be beneficial. The Leu122β1(GH5)Met and Met55β1(D6)Val polymorphisms in Atlantic cod hemoglobin modify the

  9. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Radio-irnmunologiese bepalingsmetode vir luteihiserende hormoon (LH) in bloed van die bees is ontwikkel duer die gebruik van buisies bestryk met teeliggame. .... proportion (%) of labelled LH bound by unadsorb- ed antisera in a double ... the location of the "protein" (elution volume 10-20 rnI) and "free iodine" (elution ...

  10. Preliminary surface analysis of etched, bleached, and normal bovine enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruse, N.D.; Smith, D.C.; Torneck, C.D.; Titley, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopic (SIMS) analyses were performed on unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground labial enamel surfaces of young bovine incisors exposed to four different treatments: (1) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min; (2) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (3) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min, in distilled water for two min, and in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (4) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s, in distilled water for two min, and in 35% H2O2 for 60 min. Untreated unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground enamel surfaces, as well as synthetic hydroxyapatite surfaces, served as controls for intra-tooth evaluations of the effects of different treatments. The analyses indicated that exposure to 35% H2O2 alone, besides increasing the nitrogen content, produced no other significant change in the elemental composition of any of the enamel surfaces investigated. Exposure to 37% H3PO4, however, produced a marked decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and an increase in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in unground un-pumiced specimens only, and a decrease in C concentration in ground specimens. These results suggest that the reported decrease in the adhesive bond strength of resin to 35% H2O2-treated enamel is not caused by a change in the elemental composition of treated enamel surfaces. They also suggest that an organic-rich layer, unaffected by acid-etching, may be present on the unground un-pumiced surface of young bovine incisors. This layer can be removed by thorough pumicing or by grinding. An awareness of its presence is important when young bovine teeth are used in a model system for evaluation of resin adhesiveness

  11. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...... lines develop normally. However, when AHb2 knockout is combined with AHb1 silencing, seedlings die at an early vegetative stage suggesting that the two 3-on-3 hemoglobins, AHb1 and AHb2, together play an essential role for normal development of Arabidopsis seedlings. In conclusion, these results...

  12. Mastomys (rodentia: muridae) species distinguished by hemoglobin pattern differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C B; Krebs, J W; Johnson, K M

    1983-05-01

    Hemoglobin electrophoresis patterns were found to be reliable markers for distinguishing two species of Mastomys in Sierra Leone having 32 and 38 chromosomes. All 32-chromosome animals exhibited a single hemoglobin pattern, whereas those with 38-chromosomes had four distinguishable patterns. Both karyotypes were present throughout Sierra Leone. The 38-chromosome species was more prevalent in the Guinea savanna zone to the north, while the 32-chromosome species was most dominant in human-modified high forest areas of the eastern and southern parts of the country. In almost all situations the 32-chromosome species was more common in houses than in bush habitats; the reverse was true for Mastomys having 38 chromosomes. Analysis of hemoglobin patterns thus becomes useful for species identification, and is necessary to understand the roles of the different Mastomys forms as reservoirs of human diseases, such as Lassa fever in West Africa.

  13. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzinhani, Melissa; Yamaguti, Maurício; Oliveira, Rosângela C; Cortez, Beatriz A; Marques, Lucas Miranda; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia M; Assumpção, Mayra Eo; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2011-10-27

    Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay. U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min of infection. The gentamicin resistance assay confirmed the intracellularity and survival of U. diversum in bovine spermatozoids. The intracellular nature of bovine ureaplasma identifies a new difficulty to control the reproductive of these animals.

  14. Nitric oxide in plants: the roles of ascorbate and hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Wang

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia.

  15. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  16. Bovine CCL28 Mediates Chemotaxis via CCR10 and Demonstrates Direct Antimicrobial Activity against Mastitis Causing Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyler B Pallister

    Full Text Available In addition to the well characterized function of chemokines in mediating the homing and accumulation of leukocytes to tissues, some chemokines also exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. Little is known of the potential role of chemokines in bovine mammary gland health and disease. The chemokine CCL28 has previously been shown to play a key role in the homing and accumulation of IgA antibody secreting cells to the lactating murine mammary gland. CCL28 has also been shown to act as an antimicrobial peptide with activity demonstrated against a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Here we describe the cloning and function of bovine CCL28 and document the concentration of this chemokine in bovine milk. Bovine CCL28 was shown to mediate cellular chemotaxis via the CCR10 chemokine receptor and exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bovine mastitis causing organisms. The concentration of bovine CCL28 in milk was found to be highly correlated with the lactation cycle. Highest concentrations of CCL28 were observed soon after parturition, with levels decreasing over time. These results suggest a potential role for CCL28 in the prevention/resolution of bovine mastitis.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    OpenAIRE

    Dassanayake, Rohana P.; Falkenberg, Shollie M.; Briggs, Robert E.; Tatum, Fred M.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2017-01-01

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activi...

  18. Bovine bone for white ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.L. de; Harima, E.; Leite, J.I.P.; Monteiro, F.M.; Bezerra, M.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    The porcelain is composed of feldspar, kaolin and about 50% for bovine bone ashes. This work aims to analyze the properties acquired by the substitution of kaolin by its waste. For characterization of raw materials chemical analyzes were made by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and mineralogical analysis by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Four formulations were produced varying the percentage of waste materials of kaolin and bone ashes of 25 and 55% by weight. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1150, 1200 and 1250 deg C. The technological tests realized were: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), apparent density (AD) and linear retraction (LR). Improvement in the physical-mechanical properties of the samples with increasing temperature were observed, and 1250 deg C obtained 0.69% of WA, 1.22% AP, 2.26 g / cm3 AD, and 0.52% LR

  19. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Nagra, Navraj; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture.Methods: Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored.Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative D...

  20. Is Routine Ordering of Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Justifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, David J.

    1966-01-01

    In order to assess the value of routine simultaneous hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, paired determinations in the following groups were studied: (1) 360 consecutive pairs from the hematology laboratory, (2) 95 pairs on general medical patients, (3) 43 pairs on 10 patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and (4) 62 pairs on 10 patients with burns. These values were plotted on scatter diagrams. In the 560 pairs only three disparate determinations were found. It is concluded that, in most clinical situations, determination of the hemoglobin or the hematocrit as a screening procedure provides as much useful information as the simultaneous determination of both. PMID:5296947

  1. Respiratory properties of blood and hemoglobin solutions from the piranha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, S.C.; Weber, Roy E.; Powers, D.

    1979-01-01

    1. Respiratory properties of piranha blood are distinguished from those of other fish primarily by the high CO2 buffering capacity (?HCO3/-?pH= 19.6mmol/l for oxygenated blood and 39.1 mmol/l for deoxygenated blood). 2. The concentration of nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) and the half-saturation t......) lowered the oxygen affinity of purified hemoglobin solutions, accounting for the size-dependent correlation ofP50 and NTP concentration in whole blood. 5. While similar in concentration in red cells, GTP is more potent than ATP as an allosteric modifier of hemoglobin function....

  2. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  3. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  4. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is ...

  5. Oxidative stress and hemoglobin-cholesterol adduct in renal patients with different LDL phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, Milica; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Gojkovic, Tamara; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Nikolic, Milan; Simic-Ogrizovic, Sanja; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2016-10-01

    Unfavorable lipid profile is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in renal pathology. In this study, we compared chronic renal patients and healthy controls with different LDL phenotypes (A or B) in respect of various biochemical parameters related to cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defense parameters [thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), total oxidative status (TOS), total anti-oxidative status (TAS), total protein sulfhydryl (-SH) groups], as well as red blood cell cholesterol distribution were assessed in 40 renal patients and 40 control subjects by standardized assays. LDL particle diameters were determined by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. LDL particles are subdivided according to their size into large LDL A phenotype (diameter >25.5 nm) and small LDL B phenotype (diameter ≤25.5 nm). Renal patients with LDL A phenotype had increased oxidative stress (TOS: p LDL phenotype. A notable decrease in hemoglobin-cholesterol adduct was detected in patients with LDL A phenotype (p LDL B phenotype (p LDL B phenotype was characterized with increased TBARS (p LDL A phenotype in control group. Increased oxidative stress, decreased anti-oxidative defense followed with unfavorable changes in hemoglobin-cholesterol binding capacity, could have important influence on cardiovascular disease risk in renal patients regardless of LDL phenotype.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on the structure and function of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Puchala, M.; Leyko, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper physicochemical and functional properties of irradiated aqueous hemoglobin solutions are presented. HbO 2 solutions (5 percent) were irradiated in air with doses ranging from 0.5 to 5 Mrad at the efficiency of 1 Mrad/hr. At doses exceeding 1 Mrad, coagulation of small amounts of protein was observed. Hemoglobin which remained in the solution consisted of a mixture of HbO 2 and MetHb. At doses of 4 and 5 Mrad the presence of hemochromogen was established. The appropriate hydrodynamic parameters--molecular weight, sedimentation constant, and limiting viscosity value--do not differ from the control values up to a dose of 1 Mrad. At greater doses sedimentation constants and the limiting viscosity number increase. The decrease in the values of the second virial coefficient and the electrophoretic behavior in polyacrylamide gel suggest some changes in the electric charge of the molecules. Simultaneously, a considerable part of the molecules exhibits an increased affinity for oxygen and a decreased heme--heme interaction

  7. Anemia prevalence and hemoglobin levels are associated with long-term exposure to air pollution in an older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Trenton; Pun, Vivian C; Manjourides, Justin; Suh, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Anemia, a highly prevalent disorder in elderly populations, is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased mortality, impaired functional status and cognitive disorders. Approximately two-thirds of anemia in American elderly is caused by chronic inflammation or is unexplained. A potential contributing factor may include air pollution exposures, which have been shown to increase systemic inflammation and affect erythropoiesis. Few studies, however, have investigated the associations of air pollution on hemoglobin levels and anemia. We used linear regression models and modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to examine the associations of particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) on hemoglobin concentrations and prevalence of anemia, respectively, among 4121 older Americans enrolled in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. We estimated participant-specific exposures to PM 2.5 using spatio-temporal models, and to NO 2 using nearest measurements from Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System. Hemoglobin levels were measured for participants in each of two data collection waves from dried blood spots. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization hemoglobin-based criteria of pollutants. Mediation of the effect of PM 2.5 by CRP was also identified (p=0.007). Air pollution exposures were significantly associated with increased prevalence of anemia and decreased hemoglobin levels in a cohort of older Americans. If causal, these associations could indicate that chronic air pollution exposure is an important risk factor for anemia in older adults. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantification of extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations during physical exercise using time-domain near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Héloïse; Bherer, Louis; Boucher, Étienne; Hoge, Richard; Lesage, Frédéric; Dehaes, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    Fitness is known to have beneficial effects on brain anatomy and function. However, the understanding of mechanisms underlying immediate and long-term neurophysiological changes due to exercise is currently incomplete due to the lack of tools to investigate brain function during physical activity. In this study, we used time-domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) to quantify and discriminate extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation ( SO 2 ) in young adults at rest and during incremental intensity exercise. In extra-cerebral tissue, an increase in deoxy-hemoglobin ( HbR ) and a decrease in SO 2 were observed while only cerebral HbR increased at high intensity exercise. Results in extra-cerebral tissue are consistent with thermoregulatory mechanisms to dissipate excess heat through skin blood flow, while cerebral changes are in agreement with cerebral blood flow ( CBF ) redistribution mechanisms to meet oxygen demand in activated regions during exercise. No significant difference was observed in oxy- ( HbO 2 ) and total hemoglobin ( HbT ). In addition HbO 2 , HbR and HbT increased with subject's peak power output (equivalent to the maximum oxygen volume consumption; VO 2 peak) supporting previous observations of increased total mass of red blood cells in trained individuals. Our results also revealed known gender differences with higher hemoglobin in men. Our approach in quantifying both extra-cerebral and cerebral absolute hemoglobin during exercise may help to better interpret past and future continuous-wave NIRS studies that are prone to extra-cerebral contamination and allow a better understanding of acute cerebral changes due to physical exercise.

  9. Controllable synthesis of protein-conjugated lead sulfide nanocubes by using bovine hemoglobin as a capping agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangrui; Qin, Dezhi; Zhang, Li

    2014-06-01

    A simple, convenient, and controllable strategy was reported in this contribution for protein-assisted synthesis BHb-conjugated PbS nanocubes. Powder X-ray diffraction, energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and selected-area electron diffraction characterizations were used to determine the structure and morphology of BHb-conjugated PbS nanocubes. The prepared PbS nanocrystals with cubic rock salt structure were uniform and monodispersed with homogeneous size around 12 nm. The results of Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism assay proved that Pb2+/PbS had coordination interaction with functional groups of BHb besides physical-binding effect, and the secondary structure of protein significantly changed with this interaction. Thermogravimetric analysis results confirmed the existence of BHb in PbS nanocrystals and indicated that the conjugate bonds existed between PbS and BHb. A clear perspective was shown here that special nanostructure could be created by using proteins as a mediating template at the inorganic-organic interface.

  10. Multiple T state conformations in a fish hemoglobin. Carbon monoxide binding to hemoglobin of Thunnus thynnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R J; Neckameyer, W S; Gibson, Q H

    1981-05-10

    The blood of the Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) contains four hemoglobin components separable by chromatography on diethylaminoethylcellulose. These components are stable and functionally identical in their reactions with carbon monoxide. At low pH they remain in the T state even when liganded, and show two kinetic components in binding and in dissociation, with rates of 1) 1.2 microM-1 s-1 and 0.095 s-1 and 2) 0.013 microM-1 s-1 and 0.195 s-1, respectively, at pH 6, 20 degrees C, 0.1 m KPi. These components have difference spectra separated by more than 2 nm and are present in equal amounts. After CO has bound, there is a conformation change to an altered T state, in terms of the model of Monod et al. (Monod, J., Wyman, J., and Changeux, J. P. (1965) J. Mol. Biol. 12, 88-118), with a half-time of 65 s. At equilibrium, one-third of the slow kinetic component is changed into the new conformer, which binds CO at a rate of 0.14 microM-1 s-1.

  11. Trema and parasponia hemoglobins reveal convergent evolution of oxygen transport in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturms, Ryan; Kakar, Smita; Trent, James; Hargrove, Mark S

    2010-05-18

    All plants contain hemoglobins that fall into distinct phylogenetic classes. The subset of plants that carry out symbiotic nitrogen fixation expresses hemoglobins that scavenge and transport oxygen to bacterial symbiotes within root nodules. These "symbiotic" oxygen transport hemoglobins are distinct in structure and function from the nonoxygen transport ("nonsymbiotic") Hbs found in all plants. Hemoglobins found in two closely related plants present a paradox concerning hemoglobin structure and function. Parasponia andersonii is a nitrogen-fixing plant that expresses a symbiotic hemoglobin (ParaHb) characteristic of oxygen transport hemoglobins in having a pentacoordinate ferrous heme iron, moderate oxygen affinity, and a relatively rapid oxygen dissociation rate constant. A close relative that does not fix nitrogen, Trema tomentosa, expresses hemoglobin (TremaHb) sharing 93% amino acid identity to ParaHb, but its phylogeny predicts a typical nonsymbiotic hemoglobin with a hexacoordinate heme iron, high oxygen affinity, and slow oxygen dissociation rate constant. Here we characterize heme coordination and oxygen binding in TremaHb and ParaHb to investigate whether or not two hemoglobins with such high sequence similarity are actually so different in functional behavior. Our results indicate that the two proteins resemble nonsymbiotic hemoglobins in the ferric oxidation state and symbiotic hemoglobins in the ferrous oxidation state. They differ from each other only in oxygen affinity and oxygen dissociation rate constants, two factors key to their different functions. These results demonstrate distinct mechanisms for convergent evolution of oxygen transport in different phylogenetic classes of plant hemoglobins.

  12. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Site-specific semisynthetic variant of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefta, S.A.; Lyle, S.B.; Busch, M.R.; Harris, D.E.; Matthew, J.B.; Gurd, F.R.N.

    1988-01-01

    A single round of Edman degradation was employed to remove the NH 2 -terminal valine from isolated α chains of human hemoglobin. Reconstitution of normal β chains with truncated or substituted α chains was used to form truncated (des-Val 1 -α1) and substituted ([[1- 13 C]Gly 1 ]α1) tetrameric hemoglobin analogs. Structural homology of the analogs with untreated native hemoglobin was established by using several spectroscopic and physical methods. Functional studies indicate that the reconstituted tetrameric protein containing des-Val 1 -α chains has a higher affinity for oxygen, is less influenced by chloride ions or 2,3-biphosphoglycerate, and shows lower cooperativity than native hemoglobin. These results confirm the key functional role of the α-chain NH 2 terminus in mediating cooperative oxygen binding across the dimer interface. The NH 2 -terminal pK/sub 1/2/ value was determined for the [ 13 C]glycine-substituted analog to be 7.46 +/- 0.09 at 15 0 C in the carbon monoxide-liganded form. This value, measured directly by 13 C NMR, agrees with the determination made by the less-direct 13 CO 2 method and confirms the role of this residue as a contributor to the alkaline Bohr effect; however, it is consistent with the presence of an NH 2 -terminal salt bridge to the carboxylate of Arg-141 of the α chain in the liganded form

  14. A Review on hematology and hemoglobin of fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru YILMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of hematological parameters of fish living in natüre helps to recognize population and to determinate of pollutants in the aquatic environment. In this review, hematological parameters of fish, fish hemoglobin and the Bohr effect were given information.

  15. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native ...

  16. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of /sup 59/Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of /sup 59/Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in /sup 59/Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models.

  17. A Microplate Assay for the Determination of Hemoglobin Concentration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frenchik, Michael D; McFaul, Steve J; Tsonev, Latchezar I

    2004-01-01

    ... (NaOH), and converts all hemoglobin species, including COHb, to AHD within 5 min. Both protocols are carried out in cuvettes, and are, therefore, time intensive and difficult to manage when many samples are quantified. This impedes acquisition of triplicate values for each sample necessary to improve accuracy and determine statistical significance.

  18. Myth or reality : Hematocrit and hemoglobin differ in trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Hendriks, Herman G. D.; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Background: Estimating blood loss in trauma patients usually involves the determination of hematocrit (Ht) or hemoglobin (Hb). However, in trauma patients, a poorly substantiated habit exists to determine both Ht and Hb in assessing acute blood loss. This suggests that Ht and Hb provide different

  19. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of human hemoglobin at multiple sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, R.; McManus, M.; Garrick, L.; McDonald, M.J.; Bunn, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    The most abundant minor hemoglobin component of human hemolysate is Hb A1c, which has glucose bound to the N-terminus of the beta chain by a ketoamine linkage. Hb A1c is formed slowly and continuously throughout the 120 day lifespan of the red cell. It can be synthesized in vitro by incubating purified hemoglobin with 14C-glucose. Other minor components, Hb A1a1 and Hb A1a2 are adducts of sugar phosphates at the N-terminus of the beta chain. Hb A1b contains an unidentified nonphosphorylated sugar at the beta N-terminus. In addition, a significant portion of the major hemoglobin component (Hb Ao) is also glycosylated by a glucose ketoamine linkage at other sites on the molecule, including the N-terminus of the alpha chain and the epsilon-amino group of several lysine residues on both the alpha and the beta chains. The results indicate that the interaction of glucose and hemoglobin is rather nonspecific and suggests that other proteins are modified in a similar fashion

  20. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  1. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) has multisystemic manifestations and is associated with severe morbidity and high mortality. It commonly ... Key words: Hemoglobin level, sickle cell anemia, socioeconomic class. Date of Acceptance: ..... prominent in the presence of a chronic disease such as SCA. The study revealed ...

  2. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 children with SCA and 100 age-, sex-, and social class-matched controls that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Social class was assessed using educational attainment and occupation of parents. Hemoglobin concentration was determined using the ...

  3. Relationships between hemoglobin A1c and spot glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1c is the most acceptable measure of chronic glycemia. It is not widely available and/or affordable in Nigeria. The mean of the monthly fasting plasma glucose (MFPG) of the preceding 3 months is often used as surrogate for assessing chronic glycemia. Objective: To determine the ...

  4. Routine hemoglobin electrophoresis for pediatric surgery day case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hemoglobin electrophoresis (HBE) is a part of the preoperative routine requested by anesthetists. However, the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy in the population is low. This study aims to determine the clinical risk factors for hemoglobinopathies and propose clinical guidelines for preoperative screening of ...

  5. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  6. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...

  7. The Relationship Between Hemoglobin Level and Intellectual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Nancy

    In a study to learn whether or not poor nutrition, as indicated by low hemoglobin levels, affects intelligence and behavior, 113 Head Start children in Missoula, Montana took part. Group testing with the Lorge Thorndike Intelligence Test and individual testing with the Wechsler and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  8. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of 59 Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of 59 Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in 59 Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models

  9. Aspects of the regulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Factors involved in regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation were examined using liver slices. Fatty acid oxidation was measured as the conversion of l-[ 14 C] palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C] acid-soluble metabolites. Extended (5 to 7 d) fasting of Holstein cows had relatively little effect on palmitate oxidation to acid-soluble metabolites by liver slices, although oxidation to CO 2 was decreased. Feeding a restricted roughage, high concentrate ration to lactating cows resulted in inhibition of palmitate oxidation. Insulin, glucose, and acetate inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. The authors suggest the regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation may be less dependent on hormonally induced alterations in enzyme activity as observed in rat liver and more dependent upon action of rumen fermentation products or their metabolites on enzyme systems involved in fatty acid oxidation

  10. Eradication of bovine brucellosis in the 10th Region de Los Lagos, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S Alejandro; Ramírez, M Cristina; Lopetegui, I Patricia

    2002-12-20

    The process of Bovine Brucellosis Eradication that began in 1996 in the 10th Region de Los Lagos of Chile will be reviewed. The region comprises the most important dairy area of the country and it has the largest concentration of brucellosis infected herds. Based on the information gathered by an epidemiological surveillance system, the results of the eradication process for the years 1996 till 2001 are presented as rates of Milk Ring Test (MRT) positive dairies, rates of brucellosis reactors (bovines) in livestock markets and slaughterhouses, and the annual incidence and prevalence of brucellosis infected herds. During the period the rates of positive dairies, bovine reactors in livestock markets and slaughterhouses, and the annual incidence and prevalence of infected herds have experienced a decrease, while the rate of bovine reactors in slaughterhouses has remained stable. Data on the preventive measures taken, such as vaccination of female bovines and Certification of Brucellosis Free Herds, are also shown. The surveillance system has allowed the detection of infected herds, while the measures of prevention and cleaning of infected herds have allowed a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of the infection by Brucella abortus. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Genetic hemoglobin disorders rather than iron deficiency are a major predictor of hemoglobin concentration in women of reproductive age in rural prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne; Devlin, Angela M; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is common in Cambodian women. Potential causes include micronutrient deficiencies, genetic hemoglobin disorders, inflammation, and disease. We aimed to investigate factors associated with anemia (low hemoglobin concentration) in rural Cambodian women (18-45 y) and to investigate the relations between hemoglobin disorders and other iron biomarkers. Blood samples were obtained from 450 women. A complete blood count was conducted, and serum and plasma were analyzed for ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), folate, vitamin B-12, retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1 acid glycoprotein (AGP). Hemoglobin electrophoresis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence and type of genetic hemoglobin disorders. Overall, 54% of women had a genetic hemoglobin disorder, which included 25 different genotypes (most commonly, hemoglobin E variants and α(3.7)-thalassemia). Of the 420 nonpregnant women, 29.5% had anemia (hemoglobin 8.3 mg/L), hemoglobin disorders, respectively. There was no biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency (RBP 5 mg/L) and 26% (AGP >1 g/L) of nonpregnant women, respectively. By using an adjusted linear regression model, the strongest predictors of hemoglobin concentration were hemoglobin E homozygous disorder and pregnancy status. Other predictors were 2 other heterozygous traits (hemoglobin E and Constant Spring), parity, RBP, log ferritin, and vitamin B-12. Multiple biomarkers for anemia and iron deficiency were significantly influenced by the presence of hemoglobin disorders, hence reducing their diagnostic sensitivity. Further investigation of the unexpectedly low prevalence of IDA in Cambodian women is warranted. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Isolation of antibodies specific to sickle hemoglobin by affinity chromatography using a synthetic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.S.; Curd, J.G.; Eastlake, A.; Furie, B.; Schechter, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    Antibodies to hemoglobin have been studied with a radioimmunoassay which employs [ 14 C]carbamylated (= carbamoylated) hemoglobin S. An antiserum raised against hemoglobin S, which initially discriminated poorly between hemoglobins S and A, was fractionated by absorption to a column of Sepharose to which a synthetic peptide corresponding to the first 13 amino-acid residues of the β chain of sickle hemoglobin had been covalently bound. A subpopulation of the antiserum was eluted from this column with 4 M guanidine . HCl. These antibodies showed binding to hemoglobin S but not to hemoglobin A and this interaction could be inhibited by the synthetic peptide. These antibodies, of demonstrated fine structural specificity, may be useful in the detection of sickle hemoglobin and in the study of its structure in solution

  13. The subunit structure of the extracellular hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, Marcio H.L.; Naves, Cristiani F.; Xavier, Luciana P.; Santoro, Marcelo M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata was purified to homogeneity by a two step purification protocol using a gel filtration column (Superose 6 HR/Pharmacia ) followed by an anion exchange chromatography (MONO-Q Sepharose/Pharmacia). The dissociation products were analysed by a 5 - 15 % Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-PAGE) giving a band of 270 K Daltons and a band of 180 K Daltons after reduction with β-mercaptoethanol. The same profile was obtained in a 3.5 % Agarose gel electrophoresis containing SDS (SDS-AGE) showing additional bands of higher molecular weight. These bands were proposed to be monomers, dimers and trimers and, after reduction in a Bidimensional SDS-AGE, the proposed monomers and dimers were decomposed in two and four bands that were interpreted as 1 - 4 chains. The hemoglobin was digested by four different proteases ( Thrombin, Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Subtilisin ) showing several equivalent fragments with molecular weights multiples of its minimum molecular weight ( 17.7 K Daltons). The circular dichroism spectrum of the protein showed a characteristic high α-helix content. We proposed that this hemoglobin is a pentamer of approx. 360 K Daltons subunits each formed by two 180 K Daltons chains linked in pairs by disulfide bridges and each of these chains comprises ten Heme binding domains. These data were compared to other Planorbidae extracellular hemoglobins. Up to now, the quaternary structure of this hemoglobin (shape and disposition of the subunits) is unknown. It is intended to elucidate its structure by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering in Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (LNLS). (author)

  14. [Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of human exposure to selected xenobiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Bożena

    2015-06-12

    In the living and working environments more and more new substances of anthropogenic origin exerting toxic properties appear. Simultaneously, the evaluation of human exposure is assessed. For many years adducts of hemoglobin (Hb) have been useful markers of the exposure of humans to various xenobiotics. These adducts are also termed biologically effective dose biomarkers. This paper focuses on a review of literature, mainly from the years 2010-2014, which refers to the hemoglobin adducts of toxic compounds with electrophilic properties. In the interactions of xenobiotics with hemoglobin, groups such as thiol, amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl of this hemoprotein are involved. These combinations occur most often in the reaction of xenobiotics with an N-terminal amino group of valine in Hb, imidazole nitrogen of histidine and cysteine sulfhydryl β93. Hb adducts are characterized by high availability, a long period of occurrence (up to 120 days) in the circulatory system, and high durability, and they have contact with all cells of the body. The measurement of hemoglobin adducts can be potentially used in the assessment of exposure to many xenobiotics such as acrylamide; substances present in tobacco smoke, e.g. benzo(α)pyrene and benzanthracene, ethylene oxide, aryl amines; and substances used on a large scale in industry such as glycidol and naphthalene and its derivatives. Recently the possibility of determination of hemoglobin adducts with estrogen metabolites has been postulated as indicators informing about heightened risk of breast cancer. Protein adducts are used as an alternative to DNA adducts for different classes of electrophilic substances.

  15. Hemoglobin Kinetics and Long-term Prognosis in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-López, Carles; Lupón, Josep; de Antonio, Marta; Zamora, Elisabet; Domingo, Mar; Santesmases, Javier; Troya, Maria-Isabel; Boldó, Maria; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    The influence of hemoglobin kinetics on outcomes in heart failure has been incompletely established. Hemoglobin was determined at the first visit and at 6 months. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization criteria (hemoglobin < 13g/dL for men and hemoglobin < 12g/dL for women). Patients were classified relative to their hemoglobin values as nonanemic (both measurements normal), transiently anemic (anemic at the first visit but not at 6 months), newly anemic (nonanemic initially but anemic at 6 months), or permanently anemic (anemic in both measurements). A total of 1173 consecutive patients (71.9% men, mean age 66.8±12.2 years) were included in the study. In all, 476 patients (40.6%) were considered nonanemic, 170 (14.5%) had transient anemia, 147 (12.5%) developed new-onset anemia, and 380 (32.4%) were persistently anemic. During a follow-up of 3.7±2.8 years after the 6-month visit, 494 patients died. On comprehensive multivariable analyses, anemia (P < .001) and the type of anemia (P < .001) remained as independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Compared with patients without anemia, patients with persistent anemia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.62; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.30-2.03; P < .001) and new-onset anemia (HR = 1.39; 95%CI, 1.04-1.87, P = .03) had higher mortality, and even transient anemia showed a similar trend, although without reaching statistical significance (HR = 1.31; 95%CI, 0.97-1.77, P = .075). Anemia, especially persistent and of new-onset, and to a lesser degree, transient anemia, is deleterious in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of host hemoglobin binding by the Staphylococcus aureus Clp proteolytic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Allison J; Reniere, Michelle L; Ingmer, Hanne; Frees, Dorte; Skaar, Eric P

    2013-11-01

    Protein turnover is a key process for bacterial survival mediated by intracellular proteases. Proteolytic degradation reduces the levels of unfolded and misfolded peptides that accumulate in the cell during stress conditions. Three intracellular proteases, ClpP, HslV, and FtsH, have been identified in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consistent with their crucial role in protein turnover, ClpP, HslV, and FtsH affect a number of cellular processes, including metabolism, stress responses, and virulence. The ClpP protease is believed to be the principal degradation machinery in S. aureus. This study sought to identify the effect of the Clp protease on the iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system, which extracts heme-iron from host hemoglobin during infection and is critical to S. aureus pathogenesis. Inactivation of components of the Clp protease alters abundance of several Isd proteins, including the hemoglobin receptor IsdB. Furthermore, the observed changes in IsdB abundance are the result of transcriptional regulation, since transcription of isdB is decreased by clpP or clpX inactivation. In contrast, inactivation of clpC enhances isdB transcription and protein abundance. Loss of clpP or clpX impairs host hemoglobin binding and utilization and results in severe virulence defects in a systemic mouse model of infection. These findings suggest that the Clp proteolytic system is important for regulating nutrient iron acquisition in S. aureus. The Clp protease and Isd complex are widely conserved in bacteria; therefore, these data reveal a novel Clp-dependent regulation pathway that may be present in other bacterial pathogens.

  17. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  18. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  19. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  20. Lidocaine decreases the xylazine-evoked contractility in pregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, M; Rizzo, A; Mutinati, M; D'Onghia, G; Sciorsci, R L

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effects of xylazine on basal uterine contractility of bovine pregnant uterine strips and that of lidocaine on xylazine-sensitized bovine pregnant uterine strips, at different stages of pregnancy. Basal contractility was evaluated in an isolated organ bath and the functionality of the strips throughout the experiment was evaluated using a dose of carbachol (10(-5)M). Uterine motility, expressed with amplitude, frequency of contractions as well as the area under the curve, was recorded in different stages of pregnancy and data were collected at 15-min intervals (5-min before and 5-min after xylazine administration and 5-min after lidocaine addition on the plateau contraction induced by xylazine). Uterine motility increased in all the stages of pregnancy after xylazine addition and gradually decreased after treatment with lidocaine. These data suggest that lidocaine might decrease the tonic effect induced by xylazine on bovine pregnant uteri. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curves and Fetal-Placental Oxygen-Hemoglobin Affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Reut; Golani, Ofra; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Cohen, Yonni; Biton, Inbal; Garbow, Joel R; Neeman, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To generate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and to map fetal-placental oxygen-hemoglobin affinity in pregnant mice noninvasively by combining blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) T2* and oxygen-weighted T1 contrast mechanisms under different respiration challenges. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the Weizmann Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Pregnant mice were analyzed with MR imaging at 9.4 T on embryonic days 14.5 (eight dams and 58 fetuses; imprinting control region ICR strain) and 17.5 (21 dams and 158 fetuses) under respiration challenges ranging from hyperoxia to hypoxia (10 levels of oxygenation, 100%-10%; total imaging time, 100 minutes). A shorter protocol with normoxia to hyperoxia was also performed (five levels of oxygenation, 20%-100%; total imaging time, 60 minutes). Fast spin-echo anatomic images were obtained, followed by sequential acquisition of three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*- and T1-weighted images. Automated registration was applied to align regions of interest of the entire placenta, fetal liver, and maternal liver. Results were compared by using a two-tailed unpaired Student t test. R1 and R2* values were derived for each tissue. MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves were constructed by nonlinear least square fitting of 1 minus the change in R2*divided by R2*at baseline as a function of R1 to a sigmoid-shaped curve. The apparent P50 (oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) value was derived from the curves, calculated as the R1 scaled value (x) at which the change in R2* divided by R2*at baseline scaled (y) equals 0.5. Results The apparent P50 values were significantly lower in fetal liver than in maternal liver for both gestation stages (day 14.5: 21% ± 5 [P = .04] and day 17.5: 41% ± 7 [P hemoglobin dissociation curves with a shorter protocol that excluded the hypoxic periods was demonstrated. Conclusion MR imaging

  2. Fetal hemoglobin and hydroxycarbamide moduate both plasma concentration and cellular origin of circulating microparticles in sickle cell anemia children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nébor, Danitza; Romana, Marc; Santiago, Raoul; Vachiery, Nathalie; Picot, Julien; Broquere, Cédric; Chaar, Vicky; Doumdo, Lydia; Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Benkerrou, Malika; Elion, Jacques

    2013-06-01

    Microparticles are cell membrane-derived microvesicles released during cell apoptosis and activation processes. They have been described as bio-markers in various vascular diseases, including sickle cell anemia, and associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. We investigated the effects of fetal hemoglobin level, a factor known to modulate the clinical expression of sickle cell anemia, and that of hydroxycarbamide treatment which reduces the frequency of vasoocclusive crises, the canonical clinical manifestation of the disease, on both the plasma concentration and the cellular origin of circulating microparticles. Flow cytometry was used to characterize microparticles in 62 sickle cell anemia children at steady state aged 2 months-16 years; 13 of them were treated with hydroxycarbamide. In untreated children, we observed negative correlations between fetal hemoglobin levels and the absolute plasma concentration of microparticles as well as that of microparticles specifically derived from platelets, erythrocytes, and monocytes. Compared to untreated children, those treated with hydroxyurea showed lower concentrations of total microparticles as a consequence of decreased microparticles shed by platelets and erythrocytes. In conclusion, in our sickle cell patients, neonatal decline of fetal hemoglobin coincided with an increase in circulating microparticles derived from erythrocytes, platelets, and monocytes. Hydroxyurea treatment was associated with a decrease in microparticles derived from erythrocytes and platelets.

  3. Combined characterization of bovine polyhemoglobin microcapsules by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knirsch, Marcos Camargo; Dell'Anno, Filippo; Salerno, Marco; Larosa, Claudio; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw; Eggenhöffner, Roberto; Converti, Attilio

    2017-03-01

    Polyhemoglobin produced from pure bovine hemoglobin by reaction with PEG bis(N-succynimidil succinate) as a cross-linking agent was encapsulated in gelatin and dehydrated by freeze-drying. Free carboxyhemoglobin and polyhemoglobin microcapsules were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy in the absorption range 450-650 nm and cyclic voltammetry in the voltage range from -0.8 to 0.6 mV to evaluate the ability to break the bond with carbon monoxide and to study the carrier's affinity for oxygen, respectively. SEM used to observe the shape of cross-linked gelatin-polyhemoglobin microparticles showed a regular distribution of globular shapes, with mean size of ~750 nm, which was ascribed to gelatin. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was also performed to detect iron presence in microparticles. Cyclic voltammetry using an Ag-AgCl electrode highlighted characteristic peaks at around -0.6 mV that were attributed to reversible oxygen bonding with iron in oxy-polyhemoglobin structure. These results suggest this technique as a powerful, direct and alternative method to evaluate the extent of hemoglobin oxygenation.

  4. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Lopez, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  5. Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, R; Berg, S; Argaw, K; Gadisa, E; Habtamu, M; Schelling, E; Young, D; Aseffa, A; Zinsstag, J

    2010-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. However, the status of the disease in wildlife populations that often share habitat with livestock is unknown. We screened for BTB in wildlife in five regions in Ethiopia. Blood and tissue samples from 133 mammals of 28 species were collected from 2006 to 2008. We used a rapid serology test (RT) based on lateral flow technology, and performed culture of lymph node specimens inoculated onto Lowenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 media. Acid-fast colonies were further analyzed by molecular typing. Sera from 20 of 87 animals (23%) were positive for BTB by RT; acid-fast bacilli were cultured from 29 of 89 animals (32.5%). None of the positive cultures yielded mycobacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but many environmental mycobacteria were isolated. Among these, Mycobacterium terrae was the most common. We demonstrated a high prevalence of environmental mycobacteria in wildlife, the role of which is unknown. Flagship rare endemic species such as the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) and the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) may be at risk for BTB. We also assessed the utility of RT for field purposes.

  6. Megalin and cubilin are endocytic receptors involved in renal clearance of hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gburek, Jakub; Verroust, Pierre J; Willnow, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    The kidney is the main site of hemoglobin clearance and degradation in conditions of severe hemolysis. Herein it is reported that megalin and cubilin, two epithelial endocytic receptors, mediate the uptake of hemoglobin in renal proximal tubules. Both receptors were purified by use of hemoglobin...

  7. 21 CFR 864.8165 - Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit....8165 Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement. (a) Identification. A calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement is a device that approximates whole blood, red blood cells, or a...

  8. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially

  9. [Effect of hydroxyurea on hemoglobin S].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Aurora Felíu; Eberle, Silvia Eandi; Sciuccati, Gabriela; Bonduel, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have determined the laboratory alterations, clinical efficacy and toxicity profile associated with hydroxyurea (HU) therapy in patients with severe sickle cell anemia. We report the efficacy of HU treatment in the prevention of vaso-occlusive crises in an 11-years-old boy with severe sickle cell disease. The number of vaso-occlusive crises, hospital days and blood transfusions in the year before HU treatment were compared with the same parameters at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 72 months of treatment. A decrease in the frequency of vaso-occlusive crises, blood transfusions and days spent in hospital were demonstrated during the HU treatment period compared to the same period before hand. The clinical and laboratory response to HU was dramatic in this severely affected patient, allowing him a normal schooling and social life. The adverse effects observed were not serious and reversed after transient discontinuation of HU. We conclude that long-term chronic treatment with HU for seriously ill sickle cell patients appears feasible, and devoid of any major toxicity.

  10. Effect of aracnotoxin from Latrodectus mactans on bovine sperm function: modulatory action of bovine oviduct cells and their secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, P N; Alvarez, J G; Parodi, J; Romero, F; Sánchez, R

    2012-05-01

    Latrodectus mactans' aracnotoxin (Atx) induces changes in sperm function that could be used as a co-adjuvant in male contraceptive barrier methods. This effect includes the suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), an event necessary for capacitation, chemotaxis and acrosome reaction (AR). The sperm that are not trapped by the barrier method can reach the oviduct before fertilisation and be exposed to the secretions of the oviducts. This study evaluated the effect of bovine tubal explants (TU) and conditioned media (CM) from the ampullar and isthmal regions on spermatozoa exposed to Atx. Thawed bovine sperm were incubated with Atx, TU and CM from the ampullar and isthmal regions for 4 h and then DNA integrity, intracellular ROS and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced AR were determined. Spermatozoa exposed to Atx and co-incubated with TU and CM for 4 h produced an increase in sperm DNA damage, a decrease in ROS production and a decrease in %AR, compared with the control. A similar result was obtained from the co-incubation of spermatozoa with Atx. In conclusion, the effect of Atx is not modified by tubal cells or their secretions and this opens the door to future studies to evaluate the application of synthetic peptides obtained from Atx as a co-adjuvant of contraceptive barrier methods. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Characterization and Expression of the Lucina pectinata Oxygen and Sulfide Binding Hemoglobin Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Garriga, Juan; Cadilla, Carmen L.

    2016-01-01

    The clam Lucina pectinata lives in sulfide-rich muds and houses intracellular symbiotic bacteria that need to be supplied with hydrogen sulfide and oxygen. This clam possesses three hemoglobins: hemoglobin I (HbI), a sulfide-reactive protein, and hemoglobin II (HbII) and III (HbIII), which are oxygen-reactive. We characterized the complete gene sequence and promoter regions for the oxygen reactive hemoglobins and the partial structure and promoters of the HbI gene from Lucina pectinata. We show that HbI has two mRNA variants, where the 5’end had either a sequence of 96 bp (long variant) or 37 bp (short variant). The gene structure of the oxygen reactive Hbs is defined by having 4-exons/3-introns with conservation of intron location at B12.2 and G7.0 and the presence of pre-coding introns, while the partial gene structure of HbI has the same intron conservation but appears to have a 5-exon/ 4-intron structure. A search for putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) was done with the promoters for HbII, HbIII, HbI short and HbI long. The HbII, HbIII and HbI long promoters showed similar predicted TFBSs. We also characterized MITE-like elements in the HbI and HbII gene promoters and intronic regions that are similar to sequences found in other mollusk genomes. The gene expression levels of the clam Hbs, from sulfide-rich and sulfide-poor environments showed a significant decrease of expression in the symbiont-containing tissue for those clams in a sulfide-poor environment, suggesting that the sulfide concentration may be involved in the regulation of these proteins. Gene expression evaluation of the two HbI mRNA variants indicated that the longer variant is expressed at higher levels than the shorter variant in both environments. PMID:26824233

  12. Nitric oxide formation from the reaction of nitrite with carp and rabbit hemoglobin at intermediate oxygen saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2008-01-01

    . In carp, NO formation remains substantial even at high oxygen saturations. When oxygen affinity is decreased by T-state stabilization of carp hemoglobin with ATP, the reaction rates decrease and NO production is lowered, but the deoxyhemoglobin reaction continues to dominate. The data show...... NO generation from nitrite. The reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin leads to a 1 : 1 formation of nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin in both species. At intermediate oxygen saturations, the reaction with deoxyhemoglobin is clearly favored over that with oxyhemoglobin, and the oxyhemoglobin reaction...

  13. Molten globule of hemoglobin proceeds into aggregates and advanced glycated end products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Iram

    Full Text Available Conformational alterations of bovine hemoglobin (Hb upon sequential addition of glyoxal over a range of 0-90% v/v were investigated. At 20% v/v glyoxal, molten globule (MG state of Hb was observed by altered tryptophan fluorescence, high ANS binding, existence of intact heme, native-like secondary structure as depicted by far-UV circular dichroism (CD and ATR-FTIR spectra as well as loss in tertiary structure as confirmed by near-UV CD spectra. In addition, size exclusion chromatography analysis depicted that MG state at 20% v/v glyoxal corresponded to expanded pre-dissociated dimers. Aggregates of Hb were detected at 70% v/v glyoxal. These aggregates of Hb had altered tryptophan environment, low ANS binding, exposed heme, increased β-sheet secondary structure, loss in tertiary structure, enhanced thioflavin T (ThT fluorescence and red shifted Congo Red (CR absorbance. On incubating Hb with 30% v/v glyoxal for 0-20 days, advanced glycation end products (AGEs were detected on day 20. These AGEs were characterised by enhanced tryptophan fluorescence at 450 nm, exposure of heme, increase in intermolecular β-sheets, enhanced ThT fluorescence and red shift in CR absorbance. Comet assay revealed aggregates and AGEs to be genotoxic in nature. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the amorphous structure of aggregates and branched fibrils of AGEs. The transformation of α-helix to β-sheet usually alters the normal protein to amyloidogenic resulting in a variety of protein conformational disorders such as diabetes, prion and Huntington's.

  14. Evaluation of non cyanide methods for hemoglobin estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya B Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemoglobincyanide method (HiCN method for measuring hemoglobin is used extensively worldwide; its advantages are the ready availability of a stable and internationally accepted reference standard calibrator. However, its use may create a problem, as the waste disposal of large volumes of reagent containing cyanide constitutes a potential toxic hazard. Aims and Objective: As an alternative to drabkin`s method of Hb estimation, we attempted to estimate hemoglobin by other non-cyanide methods: alkaline hematin detergent (AHD-575 using Triton X-100 as lyser and alkaline- borax method using quarternary ammonium detergents as lyser. Materials and Methods: The hemoglobin (Hb results on 200 samples of varying Hb concentrations obtained by these two cyanide free methods were compared with a cyanmethemoglobin method on a colorimeter which is light emitting diode (LED based. Hemoglobin was also estimated in one hundred blood donors and 25 blood samples of infants and compared by these methods. Statistical analysis used was Pearson`s correlation coefficient. Results: The response of the non cyanide method is linear for serially diluted blood samples over the Hb concentration range from 3gm/dl -20 gm/dl. The non cyanide methods has a precision of + 0.25g/dl (coefficient of variation= (2.34% and is suitable for use with fixed wavelength or with colorimeters at wavelength- 530 nm and 580 nm. Correlation of these two methods was excellent (r=0.98. The evaluation has shown it to be as reliable and reproducible as HiCN for measuring hemoglobin at all concentrations. The reagents used in non cyanide methods are non-biohazardous and did not affect the reliability of data determination and also the cost was less than HiCN method. Conclusions: Thus, non cyanide methods of Hb estimation offer possibility of safe and quality Hb estimation and should prove useful for routine laboratory use. Non cyanide methods is easily incorporated in hemobloginometers

  15. TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION OF HEMOGLOBIN OXYGEN SATURATION IN CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen content in body fluids and tissues is an important indicator of life support functions. A number of ocular pathologies, e.g. glaucoma, are of presumable vascular origin which means altered blood supply and oxygen circulation. Most oxygen is transported in the blood in the association with hemoglobin. When passing through the capillaries, hemoglobin releases oxygen, converting from oxygenated form to deoxygenated form. This process is accompanied by the changes in spectral characteristics of hemoglobin which result in different colors of arterial and venous blood. Photometric technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in blood is based on the differences in light absorption by different forms of hemoglobin. The measurement of saturation is called oximetry. Pulse oximetry with assessment of tissue oxygenation is the most commonly used method in medicine. The degree of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the eye blood vessels is the most accessible for noninvasive studies during ophthalmoscopy and informative. Numerous studies showed the importance of this parameter for the diagnosis of retinopathy of various genesis, metabolic status analysis in hyperglycemia, diagnosis and control of treatment of glaucoma and other diseases involving alterations in eye blood supply. The specific method for evaluation of oxygen concentration is the measurement of pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood, i.e. partial pressure of oxygen. In ophthalmological practice, this parameter is measured in anterior chamber fluid evaluating oxygen level for several ophthalmopathies including different forms of glaucoma, for instillations of hypotensive eye drops as well as in vitreous body near to the optic disc under various levels of intraocular pressure. Currently, monitoring of oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels, i.e. retinal oximetry, is well developed. This technique is based on the assessment of light absorption by blood depending on

  16. Correlation between Hemoglobin Level, Attention and Working Memory Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatin Aliya Indrina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention and working memory functions have important roles in daily activities. Normal level of hemoglobin is required for optimum attention and working memory functions. This study aims to analyze the correlation between hemoglobin level, attention, and working memory scores in medical students who attended Atlas Medical Pioneer (AMP Basic Program XXI. Methods: The total population sample for this cross-sectional study included 27 males and 19 females. The hemoglobin level was meassured by using cyanmethemoglobin method. Digit Symbol Test, Digit Span Forward and Backward Test, Trail Making Test A and B, and Stroop Test were used to assess attention and working memory scores. The study was conducted from September to November 2012 in Jatinangor campus of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran and Clinical Pathology Laboratory of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. The correlation analysis was performed using computer. Results: The correlation between hemoglobin level in males and attention on Trail Making Test A score was (r=0.144 (p=0.474. While the correlations with theTrail-Making Test B and Stroop Test scores were (r=0.332 (0.091, and (r=-0.320 (p=-0.103, respectively. For females, the correlations with the Trail Making Test A, Trail Making Test B, and Stroop Test scores were (r=0.121 (p=0.622, (r=-0.232 (p=0.338, and (r=0.137 (p=0.576, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation between hemoglobin level and the working memory on Digit Symbol Test, Digit Span Forward Test, and Digit Span Backward Test scores for-males were (r=0.256 (p=0.197, (r=0.419 (p=0.029, and (r=0.113 (p=0.576, respectively. For-females, the same correlations were (r=0.412 (p=0.080, (r=-0.299 (p=0.213, and (r=-0.028 (p=0.909, respectively. The only test that showed statistically significant result was Digit Span Forward Test in males. Conclusions: There is evident of weak correlation between hemoglobin level, attention, and working memory scores in

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of reptilian hemoglobins: trees, rates, and divergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorr, T A; Mable, B K; Kleinschmidt, T

    1998-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among reptiles were examined using previously published and newly determined hemoglobin sequences. Trees reconstructed from these sequences using maximum-parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum-likelihood algorithms were compared with a phylogenetic tree of Amniota, which was assembled on the basis of published morphological data. All analyses differentiated alpha chains into alphaA and alphaD types, which are present in all reptiles except crocodiles, where only alphaA chains are expressed. The occurrence of the alphaD chain in squamates (lizards and snakes only in this study) appears to be a general characteristic of these species. Lizards and snakes also express two types of beta chains (betaI and betaII), while only one type of beta chain is present in birds and crocodiles. Reconstructed hemoglobin trees for both alpha and beta sequences did not yield the monophyletic Archosauria (i.e., crocodilians + birds) and Lepidosauria (i.e., Sphenodon + squamates) groups defined by the morphology tree. This discrepancy, as well as some other poorly resolved nodes, might be due to substantial heterogeneity in evolutionary rates among single hemoglobin lineages. Estimation of branch lengths based on uncorrected amino acid substitutions and on distances corrected for multiple substitutions (PAM distances) revealed that relative rates for squamate alphaA and alphaD chains and crocodilian beta chains are at least twice as high as those of the rest of the chains considered. In contrast to these rate inequalities between reptilian orders, little variation was found within squamates, which allowed determination of absolute evolutionary rates for this subset of hemoglobins. Rate estimates for hemoglobins of lizards and snakes yielded 1.7 (alphaA) and 3.3 (beta) million years/PAM when calibrated with published divergence time vs. PAM distance correlates for several speciation events within snakes and for the squamate left and right arrow sphenodontid

  18. A sol-gel derived pH-responsive bovine serum albumin molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Pi, Jiangyan; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Rong; Du, Yamei; Yu, Xiaoyang; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan; Shea, Kenneth J

    2016-08-17

    A pH-responsive surface molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) (MIPILs) was prepared on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a sol-gel technique. The material was synthesized using a 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane modified multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT-APTES) as the substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template molecule, an alkoxy-functionalized IL 1-(3-trimethoxysilyl propyl)-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([TMSPMIM]Cl) as both the functional monomer and the sol-gel catalyst, and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent. The molecular interaction between BSA and [TMSPMIM]Cl was quantitatively evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy prior to polymerization so as to identify an optimal template/monomer ratio and the most suitable pH value for the preparation of the MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs. This strategy was found to be effective to overcome the problems of trial-and-error protocol in molecular imprinting. The optimum synthesis conditions were as follows: template/monomer ratio 7:20, crosslinking agent content 2.0-2.5 mL, temperature 4 °C and pH 8.9 Tris-HCl buffer. The influence of incubation pH on adsorption was also studied. The result showed that the imprinting effect and selectivity improved significantly with increasing incubation pH from 7.7 to 9.9. This is mainly because the non-specific binding from electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions decreased greatly with the increase of pH value, which made the specific binding affinity from shape selectivity strengthened instead. The polymers synthesized under the optimal conditions were then characterized by BET surface area measurement, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption capacity, imprinting effect, selective recognition and reusability were also evaluated. The as-prepared MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs were also found to have a number of advantages including high surface area (134.2 m(2) g(-1)), high adsorption capacity (55.52

  19. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  20. HPLC in characterization of hemoglobin profile in thalassemia syndromes and hemoglobinopathies: a clinicohematological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Rachna; Singh, Tejinder; Khuana, Nita; Gupta, Naresh; Dubey, A P

    2015-03-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a technique introduced for the accurate diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias. The advantage of the HPLC system is the excellent resolution, reproducibility & quantification of several normal & abnormal hemoglobin resulting in accurate diagnosis of thalassemia syndromes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the HPLC technique in diagnosis of thalassemia syndromes and also correlate it with clinicohematological profile in these cases. A total of 110 cases were diagnosed as thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies by Bio- Rad variant II HPLC system by β-thal short program. The retention times, proportion of the haemoglobin (%), and peak characteristics for all hemoglobin (Hb) fractions were recorded. Alkaline Hb electrophoresis was performed in each case. Other tests performed were HbF estimation by Betke's method, brilliant cresyl blue preparation for HbH inclusion bodies, sickling tests using 2 % metabisulphite and serum Ferritin estimation. Family studies were carried out wherever necessary. Of 110 cases included in the study, 87 cases were of thalassemic disorders and 23 cases were of hemoglobinopathies. Four Hb variants were identified including HbD, HbE, HbS, HbJ Oxford. There was a significant decrease in the level of HbA2 associated with iron deficiency anemia. The mean HbA2 levels in both iron deplete and iron replete groups were clearly >4 %, suggesting that HPLC identified nearly all high HbA2 β-thalassemia trait even in spite of iron deficiency.

  1. Inhibition of glycation of albumin and hemoglobin by acetylation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, M; Nierenberg, J; Brannan, C; Valentine, J L; Stephen, P M; Dodds, S; Mercer, P; Smith, P K; Walder, J

    1986-10-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA) is known to inhibit glycosylation (glycation) of albumin in vitro. The mechanism has been presumed to be acetylation, but this has never been validated. The new affinity aminophenylboronic acid procedure for determination of glycosylated albumin was used to demonstrate inhibition of glycosylation by aspirin. ASA, but not salicylic acid, inhibited glycation. The inhibition of glycation by equimolar acetic anhydride was greater than that by ASA. Pretreatment of albumin with ASA in the absence of glucose demonstrated that inhibition was extremely rapid, occurring in a matter of minutes. However, the inhibition by ASA could not be prevented by massive acceleration of glycation induced by borohydride reduction. Glycation of hemoglobin was also inhibited by ASA, but the dose requirement was considerably higher. Various analogues of ASA were evaluated for inhibition of glycation. Only acetyl-5-ethylsalicylic acid was more effective than ASA in inhibiting albumin glycation. None of these agents was more potent than ASA in inhibiting glycation of hemoglobin. ASA was fed to diabetic rats in a long-term experiment. Glycohemoglobin and glycoalbumin levels were decreased by ASA administration. We conclude that ASA inhibits glycation by a very rapid acetylation process. This process is apparently quite selective in terms of the protein involved, presumably because of the local environment of affected lysine groups. The phenomenon can be produced in vivo by administration of ASA.

  2. Pathway and mechanism of pH dependent human hemoglobin tetramer-dimer-monomer dissociations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Xiong Huang

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin dissociation is of great interest in protein process and clinical medicine as well as in artificial blood research. However, the pathway and mechanisms of pH-dependent human Hb dissociation are not clear, whether Hb would really dissociate into monomers is still a question. Therefore, we have conducted a multi-technique investigation on the structure and function of human Hb versus pH. Here we demonstrate that tetramer hemoglobin can easily dissociate into dimer in abnormal pH and the tetramer → dimer dissociation is reversible if pH returns to normal physiological value. When the environmental pH becomes more acidic (8.0, Hb can further dissociate from dimer to monomer. The proportion of monomers increases while the fraction of dimers decreases as pH declines from 6.2 to 5.4. The dimer → monomer dissociation is accompanied with series changes of protein structure thus it is an irreversible process. The structural changes in the dissociated Hbs result in some loss of their functions. Both the Hb dimer and monomer cannot adequately carry and release oxygen to the tissues in circulation. These findings provide a comprehensive understanding on the pH-dependent protein transitions of human Hb, give guideline to explain complex protein processes and the means to control protein dissociation or re-association reaction. They are also of practical value in clinical medicine, blood preservation and blood substitute development.

  3. A theoretical model for the effects of reduced hemoglobin-oxygen affinity on tumor oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, Brian D.; Secomb, Timothy W.; Hsu, Richard; Lin, P.-S.; Venitz, Jurgen; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a theoretical model for oxygen delivery to tumors, and to use the model to simulate the effects of changing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen on tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Hemoglobin affinity is expressed in terms of P 50 , the partial pressure of oxygen (Po 2 ) at half saturation. Effects of changing P 50 on arterial Po 2 are predicted using an effective vessel approach to describe diffusive oxygen transport in the lungs, assuming fixed systemic oxygen demand and fixed blood flow rate. The decline in oxygen content of blood as it flows through normal tissue before entering the tumor region is assumed fixed. The hypoxic fraction of the tumor region is predicted using a three-dimensional simulation of diffusion from a network of vessels whose geometry is derived from observations of tumor microvasculature in the rat. Results: In air-breathing rats, predicted hypoxic fraction decreases with moderate increases in P 50 , but increases with further increases of P 50 , in agreement with previous experimental results. In rats breathing hyperoxic gases, and in humans breathing either normoxic or hyperoxic gases, increased P 50 is predicted to improve tumor oxygenation. Conclusions: The results support the administration of synthetic agents to increase P 50 during radiation treatment of tumors

  4. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  5. Proteome analysis of early lineage specification in bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demant, Myriam; Deutsch, Daniela R; Fröhlich, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J

    2015-02-01

    During mammalian embryo development, the zygote undergoes embryonic cleavage in the oviduct and reaches the uterus at the morula stage, when compaction and early lineage specification take place. To increase knowledge about the associated changes of the embryonic protein repertoire, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of in vitro produced bovine morulae and blastocysts (six biological replicates), using an iTRAQ-based approach. A total of 560 proteins were identified of which 502 were quantified. The abundance of 140 proteins was significantly different between morulae and blastocysts, among them nucleophosmin (NPM1), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (EIF5A), receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (GNB2L1/RACK1), and annexin A6 (ANXA6) with increased, and glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (GSTM3), peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), and aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1) with decreased abundance in blastocysts. Seventy-three percent of abundance altered proteins increased, reflecting an increase of translation activity in this period. This is further supported by an increase in the abundance of proteins involved in the translation machinery and the synthesis of ATP. Additionally, a complementary 2D saturation DIGE analysis led to the detection of protein isoforms, e.g. of GSTM3 and PRDX2, relevant for this period of mammalian development, and exemplarily verified the results of the iTRAQ approach. In summary, our systematic differential proteome analysis of bovine morulae and blastocysts revealed new molecular correlates of early lineage specification and differentiation events during bovine embryogenesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Development of a Radioimmunoassay for Bovine Chymosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borceux, JP.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to develop and validate a specific radioimmunoassay system for measurement of bovine chymosin B (bChyB concentrations in plasma samples. Bovine ChyB was used for immunization of rabbits and as standard and tracer. Chymosin B concentrations were measured in plasma samples from two groups of calves (Group 1: calves sampled from birth to 24 hours; Group 2: calves sampled from Day 1 to 21 after birth and from one cow during the peri-partum period. Detection limit of the assay was 9.0 ng/ml. Recovery was higher than 89.3%. Repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 1.52% to 5.23% and from 1.52% to 12.57% respectively. No cross-reaction was found with pepsinogen A from bovine, porcine or human origins. In Group 1, bChyB concentrations increased from 47.3 ± 45.1 ng/ml (5 min after birth to 325.5 ± 161.2 ng/ml (12 hours after birth, then no significant change was observed till 24 hours after birth (293.0 ± 161.5 ng/ml. In Group 2, concentrations decreased from Day 1 (455.3 ± 191.1 ng/ml to Day 21 (117.9 ± 85.1 ng/ml. In adult cow, mean concentration was 136.0 ± 32.3 ng/ml. In conclusion, bChyB is able to cross the stomach basal membrane and to reach the blood circulation at detectable levels in both young calves and adult cows.

  7. Unraveling the genetic background of bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of genomic regions, and preferably individual genes, responsible for genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition enhances the understanding of biological pathways involved in fatty acid synthesis and is expected to increase opportunities for changing bovine milk fat

  8. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  9. Analytical interference of HBOC-201 (Hemopure, a synthetic hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier) on four common clinical chemistry platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Erik A; Pozzi, Nicole; Wardrip, Nina; Ayyoubi, M Tayyeb; Jortani, Saeed A

    2018-03-23

    There are 13 million blood transfusions each year in the US. Limitations in the donor pool, storage capabilities, mass casualties, access in remote locations and reactivity of donors all limit the availability of transfusable blood products to patients. HBOC-201 (Hemopure®) is a second-generation glutaraldehyde-polymer of bovine hemoglobin, which can serve as an "oxygen bridge" to maintain oxygen carrying capacity while transfusion products are unavailable. Hemopure presents the advantages of extended shelf life, ambient storage, and limited reactive potential, but its extracellular location can also cause significant interference in modern laboratory analyzers similar to severe hemolysis. Observed error in 26 commonly measured analytes was determined on 4 different analytical platforms in plasma from a patient therapeutically transfused Hemopure as well as donor blood spiked with Hemopure at a level equivalent to the therapeutic loading dose (10% v/v). Significant negative error ratios >50% of the total allowable error (>0.5tAE) were reported in 23/104 assays (22.1%), positive bias of >0.5tAE in 26/104 assays (25.0%), and acceptable bias between -0.5tAE and 0.5tAE error ratio was reported in 44/104 (42.3%). Analysis failed in the presence of Hemopure in 11/104 (10.6%). Observed error is further subdivided by platform, wavelength, dilution and reaction method. Administration of Hemopure (or other hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers) presents a challenge to laboratorians tasked with analyzing patient specimens. We provide laboratorians with a reference to evaluate patient samples, select optimal analytical platforms for specific analytes, and predict possible bias beyond the 4 analytical platforms included in this study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Improvements in or relating to antibodies active against human hemoglobin Asub(1C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, J.; Cerami, A.; Koenig, R.J.; Pettis, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for preparing an antibody against human hemoglobin Asub(1c) which is substantially free of cross-reactivity against the human hemoglobins A 0 , Asub(1a) and Asub(1b). The antibodies are collected from cats, goats or sheep following injections of purified hemoglobin Asub(1c) antigen since these animals do not naturally produce hemoglobin Asub(1c). A radioimmunoassay method is also described whereby these antibodies are used to determine the quantity of hemoglobin Asub(1c) in blood samples. This is a useful technique in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. (U.K.)

  11. Concurrent measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellik, Yuva; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, a multitude of analytical methods for measuring antioxidant activity of plant extracts has been developed. However, when using methods to determine hemoglobin released from human erythrocytes treated with ginger extracts, we found hemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher than in untreated control samples. This suggests in the presence of antioxidants that measuring hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to determine hemolysis. We show concurrent measurement of erythrocyte concentration and hemoglobin is essential in such assays, and describe a new protocol based on simultaneous measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Investigation on transmission factors of schistosomiasis after replacement of bovine with machine in Jinxian County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Ying; Hong, Xian-Lin; Fan, Yun-Long; Hu, Shen-Zhu

    2012-12-01

    To understand the changes of transmission factors of schistosomiasis after the control strategy of replacing bovine with machine was implemented in the lake region, so as to provide the evidence for long-effective management in marshlands. Two villages, which had carried out the control measure of replacing bovine with machine, were selected as observed villages. The data of endemic situation before and after the replacement were collected and analyzed. The species, activities, and stool distributions of infectious resources were surveyed. After the replacement was implemented in 2005, the densities of infected Oncomelania snails gradually decreased in the marshlands from 2006 to 2008; in 2009 and 2010, the densities of infected snails were both zero. The positive rates of stool examinations of residents in the villages decreased from 11.35% in 2004 to 0 in 2009 and 2010. There was still bovine and pig grazing on most of the marshlands, and 41 wild stools were examined with the negative results. After replacing bovine with machine is implemented, the marshlands are cleaned continuously, but there are still a few livestock on the marshlands which need to be managed.

  13. Reticulocyte dynamic and hemoglobin variability in hemodialysis patients treated with Darbepoetin alfa and C.E.R.A.: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Valentina; Bianchi, Giorgia; Ogna, Adam; Salvadé, Igor; Vuistiner, Philippe; Burnier, Michel; Gabutti, Luca

    2013-07-22

    In a simulation based on a pharmacokinetic model we demonstrated that increasing the erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) half-life or shortening their administration interval decreases hemoglobin variability. The benefit of reducing the administration interval was however lessened by the variability induced by more frequent dosage adjustments. The purpose of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte and hemoglobin kinetics and variability under different ESAs and administration intervals in a collective of chronic hemodialysis patients. The study was designed as an open-label, randomized, four-period cross-over investigation, including 30 patients under chronic hemodialysis at the regional hospital of Locarno (Switzerland) in February 2010 and lasting 2 years. Four subcutaneous treatment strategies (C.E.R.A. every 4 weeks Q4W and every 2 weeks Q2W, Darbepoetin alfa Q4W and Q2W) were compared with each other. The mean square successive difference of hemoglobin, reticulocyte count and ESAs dose was used to quantify variability. We distinguished a short- and a long-term variability based respectively on the weekly and monthly successive difference. No difference was found in the mean values of biological parameters (hemoglobin, reticulocytes, and ferritin) between the 4 strategies. ESAs type did not affect hemoglobin and reticulocyte variability, but C.E.R.A induced a more sustained reticulocytes response over time and increased the risk of hemoglobin overshooting (OR 2.7, p = 0.01). Shortening the administration interval lessened the amplitude of reticulocyte count fluctuations but resulted in more frequent ESAs dose adjustments and in amplified reticulocyte and hemoglobin variability. Q2W administration interval was however more favorable in terms of ESAs dose, allowing a 38% C.E.R.A. dose reduction, and no increase of Darbepoetin alfa. The reticulocyte dynamic was a more sensitive marker of time instability of the hemoglobin response under ESAs therapy

  14. Characterization of novel bovine gastrointestinal tract Treponema isolates and comparison with bovine digital dermatitis treponemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas J; Brown, Jennifer M; Murray, Richard D; Getty, Brian; Birtles, Richard J; Hart, C Anthony; Carter, Stuart D

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and characterize treponemes present in the bovine gastrointestinal (GI) tract and compare them with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) treponemes. Seven spirochete isolates were obtained from the bovine GI tract, which, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparisons, clustered within the genus Treponema as four novel phylotypes. One phylotype was isolated from several different GI tract regions, including the omasum, colon, rumen, and rectum. These four phylotypes could be divided into two phylotype pairs that clustered closest with each other and then with different, previously reported rumen treponemes. The treponemes displayed great genotypic and phenotypic diversity between phylotypes and differed considerably from named treponeme species and those recently reported by metagenomic studies of the bovine GI tract. Phylogenetic inference, based on comparisons of 16S rRNA sequences from only bovine treponemes, suggested a marked divergence between two important groups. The dendrogram formed two major clusters, with one cluster containing GI tract treponemes and the other containing BDD treponemes. This division among the bovine treponemes is likely the result of adaptation to different niches. To further differentiate the bovine GI and BDD strains, we designed a degenerate PCR for a gene encoding a putative virulence factor, tlyC, which gave a positive reaction only for treponemes from the BDD cluster.

  15. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin promotes Salecan production by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-mei; Xu, Hai-yang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-fa; Wang, Shi-ming

    2014-11-01

    Salecan is a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, and it is composed of only glucose monomers. The unique chemical composition and excellent physicochemical properties make Salecan a promising material for applications in coagulation, lubrication, protection against acute liver injury, and alleviating constipation. In this study, we cloned the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene into a broad-host-range plasmid pCM158. Without antibiotic selection, there was negligible loss of the plasmid in the host Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 after one passage of cultivation. The expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was demonstrated by carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. The engineered strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 increased Salecan yield by 30%. The other physiological changes included its elevated respiration rate and cellular invertase activity.

  16. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion....... The primary outcome measure was death by 90 days after randomization. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 998 of 1005 patients (99.3%) who underwent randomization. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. In the ICU, the lower-threshold group received a median of 1 unit of blood...

  17. Hemoglobin concentrations and associated factors in adolescentes from Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in adolescents from the city of Recife in Pernambuco state. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving a random sample of 256 adolescents of both genders, aged 13 to 18, whose hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated, along with their nutritional status and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hemoglobin concentrations was 10.2% [CI95%=6.7-14.5], reaching levels considered as mild anemia (9 g/dL 0.05, nor with socioeconomic or demographic characteristics (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of anemia was low and classified as a mild health problem, preventive nutrition education involving the dissemination of healthy eating habits in schools and encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods are strongly recommended.

  18. Effects of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and oxidative stress variables in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Han, Cong; Hu, Shan; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Trehalose is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. Until now, the effect of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of varying doses of trehalose in cryomedia on cell viability and key antioxidant enzymes activities in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Bovine calf testicular tissue samples were collected and cryopreserved in the cryomedias containing varying doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%; v/v) of trehalose, respectively. Cell viability, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analyzed. The results showed that cell viability, T-AOC activity, SOD activity, CAT activity and GSH content of frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was decreased compared with that of fresh group (Pcell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT) among frozen-thawed groups (P0.05). In conclusion, the cryomedia added 15% trehalose reduced the oxidative stress and improved the cryoprotective effect of bovine calf testicular tissue. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacity of trehalose in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined effect of arsenic trioxide and radiation on physical properties of hemoglobin biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha A. Saad-El-Din

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic trioxide (As2O3 has been recently established as one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, it was widely used in therapeutic of many kinds of cancer by combining it with ionizing radiation. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to explain the combined effect of As2O3 and gamma irradiation on hemoglobin (Hb structure. Measurements using fourier transform infrared (FTIR and UV-visible spectra were done. This study included five groups: control, irradiation with single dose of gamma irradiation of 5 Gy, intraperitonial injection with single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of As2O3, As2O3+5 Gy and 5 Gy+As2O3. The results reported that the absorbance of secondary amide, amide I and amide II of all groups were lowerd than control, whereas the absorbance of amide III and amide IV for As2O3 and 5 Gy followed by As2O3 injection has been increased. For UV-visible spectra, As2O3 injection decreased the absorbance of globin-heme and soret bands and increased β, α and 630 bands compared with control. On injection with As2O3 followed by 5 Gy showed a decrease in globin-heme, soret, β and α bands and increase in 630 band. Moreover, 5 Gy followed by As2O3 demonestrated a decrease in globin-heme, β, α and 630 bands and an increase in soret band, also the ratio of α/β showed an increase in absorbance compared with control. The results concluded that 5 Gy followed by As2O3 showed some sort of repair in the structure of rats hemoglobin rather than injection with As2O3 and 5 Gy both individually.

  20. Chain heterogeneity as demonstrated by the ferricyanide oxidation of the one-site reduced bovine methemoglobin. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilan, Y.A.; Czapski, G.

    1978-01-01

    With the pulse radiolysis technique, a single chain of tetrameric bovine methemoglobin (α 2 /sup III/β 2 /sup III/) is reduced, producing a mixture of valence hybrids consisting of α/sup III/α/sup II/β 2 /sup III/ and α 2 /sup III/β/sup III/β/sup II/. The oxidation of these partially reduced hemoglobins with ferricyanide was studied. It was found that the rate of oxidation of one of them proceeds 6 to 11 times faster than the other. It is suggested that the fast reacting valence hybrid contains reduced alpha chains

  1. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wernerman, Jan; Guttormsen, Anne B; Karlsson, Sari; Johansson, Pär I; Aneman, Anders; Vang, Marianne L; Winding, Robert; Nebrich, Lars; Nibro, Helle L; Rasmussen, Bodil S; Lauridsen, Johnny R M; Nielsen, Jane S; Oldner, Anders; Pettilä, Ville; Cronhjort, Maria B; Andersen, Lasse H; Pedersen, Ulf G; Reiter, Nanna; Wiis, Jørgen; White, Jonathan O; Russell, Lene; Thornberg, Klaus J; Hjortrup, Peter B; Müller, Rasmus G; Møller, Morten H; Steensen, Morten; Tjäder, Inga; Kilsand, Kristina; Odeberg-Wernerman, Suzanne; Sjøbø, Brit; Bundgaard, Helle; Thyø, Maria A; Lodahl, David; Mærkedahl, Rikke; Albeck, Carsten; Illum, Dorte; Kruse, Mary; Winkel, Per; Perner, Anders

    2014-10-09

    Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay. The primary outcome measure was death by 90 days after randomization. We analyzed data from 998 of 1005 patients (99.3%) who underwent randomization. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. In the ICU, the lower-threshold group received a median of 1 unit of blood (interquartile range, 0 to 3) and the higher-threshold group received a median of 4 units (interquartile range, 2 to 7). At 90 days after randomization, 216 of 502 patients (43.0%) assigned to the lower-threshold group, as compared with 223 of 496 (45.0%) assigned to the higher-threshold group, had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.09; P=0.44). The results were similar in analyses adjusted for risk factors at baseline and in analyses of the per-protocol populations. The numbers of patients who had ischemic events, who had severe adverse reactions, and who required life support were similar in the two intervention groups. Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion at a lower threshold; the latter group received fewer transfusions. (Funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council and others; TRISS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01485315.).

  2. A retrospective study on fourteen year hemoglobin genotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This suggests the possibility of many other residents in the capital city of Ondo state carrying the abnormal forms of hemoglobin genotype, and calling for more efforts in the area of genetic counseling. The gene frequencies of A, S, and C were 0.91, 0.08 and 0.01, respectively. The prevalence of HbAA in this study has been ...

  3. Hemoglobin Status and Externalizing Behavioral Problems in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Still considered one of the most prevalent nutritional problems in the world, anemia has been shown in many studies to have deleterious effects on neurobehavioral development. While most research efforts have focused on investigating the effects of anemia on social and emotional development of infants by using a cross-sectional design, research is still needed to investigate whether early childhood anemia, beyond infantile years, is linked with behavioral problems. Objective: This study assessed whether (1 hemoglobin (Hb levels in early childhood are associated with externalizing behavior; and (2 this relationship is confounded by social adversity. Methods: Hemoglobin levels were taken from children (N = 98 of the China Jintan Cohort Study at age 4 years, and externalizing behaviors (attention and aggression were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (ASEBA-CBCL at age 6 years (mean age 5.77 ± 0.39 years old. Results: Compared with other children in the sample, children with relatively lower Hb levels at age 4 had more behavioral problems in both attention and aggression at age 6, independent of social adversity. For boys, this association was significant for attention problems, which did not interact with social adversity. For girls, the association was significant for aggression, which interacted with social adversity. While girls on average exhibited higher social adversity than boys, the main effect of Hb was only significant in girls with low social adversity. Conclusions: These results indicate that there is an inverse association between hemoglobin levels and later behavioral problems. Findings of this study suggest that regular monitoring of children’s hemoglobin levels and appropriate intervention may help with early identification of behavioral problems.

  4. Energetics of subunit assembly and ligand binding in human hemoglobin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ackers, G K

    1980-01-01

    An extensive and self-consistent set of thermodynamic properties has recently been established for the coupled processes of subunit assembly and ligand binding (oxygen and protons) in human hemoglobin. The resulting thermodynamic values permit a consideration of the possible sources of energetic terms accounting for stability of the tetrameric quaternary structures at different stages of ligation, and of the possible sources of cooperative energy. The analysis indicates that: (a) The change i...

  5. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timenetsky Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay. Findings U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min of infection. The gentamicin resistance assay confirmed the intracellularity and survival of U. diversum in bovine spermatozoids. Conclusions The intracellular nature of bovine ureaplasma identifies a new difficulty to control the reproductive of these animals.

  6. Importance of bovine mastitis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, Thabiso E; Petrovski, Kiro R; Petzer, Inge-Marie; Thekisoe, Oriel; Tsilo, Toi J

    2017-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide economic impacts and advance careful monitoring of disease prevalence and epidemiology. Here, published cases supporting the occurrence and importance of bovine mastitis in certain regions of Africa are outlined.

  7. The hemoglobin system of the serpent eel Ophisurus serpens: structural and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Barbara; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Messana, Irene; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Castagnola, Massimo; Iavarone, Federica; Coluccia, Elisabetta; Giardina, Bruno; Olianas, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    The hemoglobin system of the serpent eel Ophisurus serpens was structurally and functionally characterized with the aim of comparing it to the hemoglobin system of other fish species, as oxygen loading under the severe habitat conditions experienced by O. serpens could have necessitated specific adaptation mechanisms during evolution. The hemoglobin system of O. serpens includes one cathodic and four anodic components. The molecular mass of the α and β chains of the cathodic component as well as the 2 α and 4 β of the anodic components were determined. Analysis of the intact α and β chains from cathodic hemoglobin and their proteolytic digestion products by high-resolution MS and MS/MS experiments resulted in 92 and 95 % sequence coverage of the α and β globins, respectively. The oxygen binding properties of both hemoglobin components were analyzed with respect to their interactions with their physiological effectors. Stripped cathodic hemoglobin displayed the highest oxygen affinity among Anguilliformes with no significant effect of pH on O2-affinity. In the presence of both chloride and organic phosphates, O2-affinity was strongly reduced, and cooperativity was enhanced; moreover, cathodic hemoglobin contains two indistinguishable GTP-binding sites. Stripped anodic hemoglobins exhibited both low O2-affinity and low cooperativity and a larger Bohr effect than cathodic hemoglobin. The cathodic hemoglobin of O. serpens and the corresponding component of Conger conger share the greatest structural and functional similarity among hemoglobin systems of Anguilliformes studied to date, consistent with their phylogenetic relationship.

  8. Can noninvasive hemoglobin measurement reduce the need for preoperative venipuncture in pediatric outpatient surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ruifeng; Svensen, Christer H; Li, Husong; Xu, Ximou; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Liu, Huacheng; Li, Yanrong; Shangguan, Wangning; Lian, Qingquan

    2017-11-01

    Noninvasive measurements of hemoglobin in the pediatric perioperative setting could be helpful to avoid venipunctures in children. The present study aims to evaluate this by using a noninvasive device for hemoglobin determination. We compared noninvasively obtained hemoglobin with laboratory hemoglobin concentrations in children during their preoperative assessment. In an observational study, 122 nonanemic children (age 4.2 ± 1.6 years) who were scheduled to undergo different surgical procedures under general anesthesia were included. In their preoperative preparations, single invasive blood samples for laboratory hemoglobin concentrations were routinely taken following hospital policy and compared to simultaneous noninvasive determinations of hemoglobin. A preoperative invasive value ≤9 g/dL would have caused cancelation of surgery and implied further investigations. A Bland-Altman plot showed that the average difference between noninvasively obtained hemoglobin and laboratory hemoglobin concentration was -0.44 g/dL (bias) with a standard deviation of the mean bias of 1.04 g/dL. A hemoglobin error grid showed that the noninvasive device could identify almost all invasive hemoglobin values >9 g/dL. In total, there were 4 false-positive values where noninvasively obtained hemoglobin observations were below while the paired invasive values were above 9 g/dL. The data in this pediatric setting suggest that the device may eliminate the need for venipuncture in nonanemic children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of ethanol of the radiation sensitivity of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Puchala, M.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of oxy-, deoxy-, and methemoglobin (HbOs, Hbbj, and MetHb) in water solutions containing 0.2 M ethanol and in ethanol-free solutions was compared. Radiation sensitivity was estimated on the basis of changes in absorbance at the Soret band (a = 430 nm for deoxyhemoglobin), changes in the absorbance ration Avqv/Avwt determined after conversion of irradiated preparations to methemoglobin, and changes in the value of parameters describing the reaction of hemoglobin oxygenation. The protection coefficient p of hemoglobin by ethanol (ratio of a change in the absence of ethanol to that in its presence) calculated from changes in absorbance at the Soret band equaled about 1.5 at a 4-Mrad dose in all bases except MetHb irradiated in air for which p was much higher (about 3.2). The protection coefficient p' calculated from Dtx values for changes in Avchemically bondv/Avwt equaled 2.2 for HbOs, and 2.8 for MetHb for preparations irradiated in air; p' = 1.7 for Hbbj and 1.8 for MetHb for preparations irradiated under argon. On the basis of these results, the role of /sup ./OH radicals and oxygen in the radiation damage of hemoglobin is discussed

  10. Chronic mountain sickness, optimal hemoglobin, and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Enrique; Spielvogel, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    For the male inhabitants of La Paz, Bolivia (3200-4100 m), and other high altitude regions in America and Asia, chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a major health problem. Since CMS was first described by Carlos Monge in the Peruvian Andes in 1925, numerous research papers have been devoted to this topic, but many unanswered questions still exist with respect to the beginning of the disease and its cause(s). The experience with CMS has shown that an excessively high hemoglobin concentration is not favorable for high altitude acclimatization, and the hypothesis of theoretically "optimal" hematocrit and "optimal" hemoglobin has been made. The calculated optimal hemoglobin concentration of 14.7 g/dL for resting men in the Andes is discussed as theoretical and not applicable in real life. The most frequent congenital and acquired heart diseases are discussed, such as patent ductus, atrial septum defect, ventricle septum defect among congenital heart diseases and the still very frequent rheumatic valve cardiopathies and Chagas disease as acquired cardiopathies. Among the typical acquired heart diseases of the high altitude dweller, special attention is given to chronic cor pulmonale as a consequence of severe CMS with pulmonary hypertension.

  11. [Anemia and hemoglobin diseases in patients with migration background].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, S; Dickerhoff, R

    2014-02-01

    Among the German population with migration background there are probably 150 000-200 000 carriers of thalassemia (α und β) and sickle cell disease, respectively, who have no or little symptoms. Compared to neighboring countries the number of sickle cell (1000-1500) and thalassemia patients (500-600) in Germany is rather low. This may explain the fact that hemoglobin diseases are not yet considered a public health problem in Germany. With optimal care 85-90 % of children with sickle cell disease and 100 % of children with thalassemia reach adulthood. In order to increase awareness for patients with hemoglobin diseases we discuss the most pertinent disease manifestations of adult patients and point out possibilities to obtain information. Specialists in regional centers should be addressed for acute management problems. Up to now it is difficult for many adult sickle cell and thalassemia patients to find a physician well enough informed and experienced to take over the care of their complex disease. Many adult patients are still taken care of by pediatricians. Urgently needed are reference centers with experience in management of hemoglobin diseases who are qualified for training hematologists and who can assure the transition of these patients from pediatrics to adult medical care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Modifier genes in Mendelian disorders: the example of hemoglobin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Vijay G; Lettre, Guillaume; Orkin, Stuart H; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2010-12-01

    The disorders of hemoglobin, including sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia, are the most common "Mendelian" genetic diseases in the world. Numerous studies have demonstrated the complexity in making genotype-phenotype correlations in both SCD and β-thalassemia. Indeed, patients with exactly the same set of pathogenic globin mutations can have dramatically variable clinical courses. We discuss natural history studies that have attempted to delineate the factors responsible for the variability among the numerous clinical complications noted in these diseases. We then discuss, in depth, two well characterized ameliorating factors in the β-hemoglobin disorders, concomitant α-thalassemia, and elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). We use the study of HbF regulation to illustrate how important insights into the genetic modifiers in Mendelian diseases can be achieved through the study of such factors. We finally go on to discuss future avenues of research that may allow us to gain further insight into the poorly understood clinical heterogeneity of this fascinating set of common genetic diseases. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosome-.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine... a partially purified liquid or powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is catalase (EC 1.11.1.6...

  15. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  16. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  17. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  18. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0044] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings AGENCY... bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The meetings are being organized by... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  19. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products decreases collagen turnover by bovine chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J. de; Verzijl, N.; Budde, M.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The integrity of the collagen network is essential for articular cartilage to fulfill its function in load support and distribution. Damage to the collagen network is one of the first characteristics of osteoarthritis. Since extensive collagen damage is considered irreversible, it is crucial that

  20. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  1. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo...... in order to confirm their sensitivity and cost-effectiveness. Additionally, new methods that can be routinely used should be developed. Preferably, these measures would be validated and in place prior to implementation of the new meat safety assurance system, in a move towards effective, risk-based control...

  2. Model of nutritional balance for bovine in pasturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas Ramirez, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    The shepherding is nevertheless the most economic alimentary system for the bovine, the pastures of the warm tropic, it has high fiber and low nitrogen (protein) and they restrict the production of the animal. The investigations suggest that small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. The bovines (Brachiaria spp) presented deficit of ammonia ruminal (4-10 mgs/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mgs the animal answer, was favorable since in young bulls was supplemented with 60 gr. of urea and 300 of molasses during 350 days won 210 kgs of weight, against 145 kgs of molasses and 130 kgs in single Brachiaria. Other investigations indicate that the supplement of urea, molasses is more effective in dry time than rainy, but if there is not enough biomass it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and not, quantity and it also stimulates the consumption. They also suggest that the supplement urea-molasses should be strategic according to nutritional quality of the pasture, in periods of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentrations of ruminal ammonia indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  3. Vesicular transfer of membrane components to bovine epididymal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, A; Wennemuth, G; Post, H; Brandenburger, T; Aumüller, G; Wilhelm, B

    2013-09-01

    Epididymosomes (apocrine secreted epididymal vesicles) are assumed to play a crucial role in sperm maturation. Our aim has been to analyze the fusogenic properties of bovine epididymosomes and their involvement in the transfer of membrane components (lipids, proteins, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase 4 [PMCA4]) into bovine sperm. The fusogenic properties of epididymosomes with spermatozoa were investigated in vitro by using octadecyl rhodamine-B (R18)-labeled epididymosomes. Spermatozoa isolated from the epididymal caput showed a higher fusion rate than those taken from the cauda. The fusion rate was dependent on pH and time. Furthermore, the lipid and protein content in spermatozoa changed during epididymal transit and after in vitro fusion with epididymosomes. Following the in vitro fusion of caput spermatozoa with epididymosomes, the cholesterol/total phospholipid ratio of the sperm plasma membrane decreased. The effect was comparable with the cholesterol/total phospholipid ratio of native cauda spermatozoa. Co-incubation experiments of spermatozoa with biotinylated epididymosomes additionally revealed that proteins were transferred from epididymosomes to sperm. To examine the potential transfer of epididymis-derived PMCA4 to spermatozoa, immunofluorescence analysis and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity assays were performed. In caput spermatozoa, the PMCA4 fluorescence signal was slightly raised and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity increased after in vitro fusion. Thus, our experiments indicate significant changes in the lipid and protein composition of epididymal sperm following interaction with epididymosomes. Moreover, our results substantiate the presumption that PMCA4 is transferred to spermatozoa via epididymosomes.

  4. Minimization of bovine tuberculosis control costs in US dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Tauer, Loren W.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Lu, Zhao; Grohn, Yrjo T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to minimize the cost of controlling an isolated bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreak in a US dairy herd, using a stochastic simulation model of bTB with economic and biological layers. A model optimizer produced a control program that required 2-month testing intervals (TI) with 2 negative whole-herd tests to leave quarantine. This control program minimized both farm and government costs. In all cases, test-and-removal costs were lower than depopulation costs, although the variability in costs increased for farms with high holding costs or small herd sizes. Increasing herd size significantly increased costs for both the farm and the government, while increasing indemnity payments significantly decreased farm costs and increasing testing costs significantly increased government costs. Based on the results of this model, we recommend 2-month testing intervals for herds after an outbreak of bovine tuberculosis, with 2 negative whole herd tests being sufficient to lift quarantine. A prolonged test and cull program may cause a state to lose its bTB-free status during the testing period. When the cost of losing the bTB-free status is greater than $1.4 million then depopulation of farms could be preferred over a test and cull program. PMID:23953679

  5. Modeling hemoglobin and hemoglobin:haptoglobin complex clearance in a non-rodent species–pharmacokinetic and therapeutic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Boretti, Felicitas S.; Baek, Jin Hyen; Palmer, Andre F.; Schaer, Dominik J.; Buehler, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Haptoglobin (Hp) prevents hemoglobin (Hb) extravasation and attenuates Hb induced tissue oxidation and vasoconstriction. Small animal models such as mouse, rat and guinea pig appear to demonstrate proof-of-concept for Hb neutralization by Hp in diverse pre-clinical conditions. However, these species differ significantly from humans in the clearance of Hb:Hp and demonstrate long persistence of circulating Hb:Hp complexes. Objective: The focus of this study is to understand Hb:Hp...

  6. Recombinant hemoglobin II from Lucina pectinata: a large-scale method for hemeprotein expression in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cacimar; Pietri, Ruth; Lorenzo, Wilmarie; Roman, Elddie; Granell, Laura B; Cadilla, Carmen L; López-Garriga, Juan

    2010-02-01

    Hemoglobin II from the clam L. pectinata is an O(2) reactive protein that remains oxygenated in the presence of other molecules. To determine the mechanism of ligand selection in this hemoglobin, rHbII was expressed in large quantities using an improved fermentation process. The highest protein yield was obtained by: transforming HbII into the BLi5 cells, inducing and supplementing the culture during the mid-log phase with 1 mM IPTG, 30 microg/mL hemin chloride and 1% glucose, and decreasing the temperature to 30 degrees C after induction. In addition, cell culture density was greatly enhanced by using glycerol, adding MgSO(4), supplementing the media with glucose after the glycerol was consumed and maintaining the dissolved oxygen at 35%. Under these conditions the maximum protein yield obtained was approximately 2,300 mg/L. The results indicate that rHbII is similar to the native protein. The protocol was validated with other hemoglobins, indicating that it can be extended to other hemeproteins.

  7. The unique hemoglobin system of Pleuragramma antarcticum, an antarctic migratory teleost. Structure and function of the three components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; D'Avino, R; Fago, A; Carratore, V; Kunzmann, A; Prisco, G

    1996-09-27

    Pleuragramma antarcticum (suborder Notothenioidei, family Nototheniidae) is the most abundant fish in the antarctic shelf. This pelagic species has a circum-antarctic distribution and is characterized by spawning migration. This species displays the highest multiplicity of major hemoglobins (three); the other notothenioids have a single one (except one species, having two) with relatively low oxygen affinity regulated by pH and organophosphates. The hemoglobins of P. antarcticum display strong Bohr and Root effects; however, they reveal important functional differences in subunit cooperativity and organophosphate regulation and, above all, in the response of oxygenation to temperature. Despite the substitution ValbetaE11 --> Ile found in Hb 2, which decreases the affinity in human mutants, the hemoglobins have similar oxygen affinity, higher than that of the other notothenioids. Hb 1 has the alpha chain in common with Hb 2 and the beta in common with Hb 3. The amino acid sequence of all four chains has been established. Thus the hematological features of P. antarcticum differ remarkably from those of antarctic notothenioids. This unique and sophisticated oxygen transport system may adequately meet the requirements of the unusual mode of life of this fish.

  8. Hemoglobin redux: combining neutron and X-ray diffraction with mass spectrometry to analyse the quaternary state of oxidized hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Timothy C; Griffith, Wendell P; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y; Guo, Jingshu; Seaver, Sean; Langan, Paul; Hanson, B Leif

    2010-11-01

    Improvements in neutron diffraction instrumentation are affording the opportunity to re-examine the structures of vertebrate hemoglobins and to interrogate proton and solvent position changes between the different quaternary states of the protein. For hemoglobins of unknown primary sequence, structural studies of cyanomethemoglobin (CNmetHb) are being used to help to resolve sequence ambiguity in the mass spectra. These studies have also provided additional structural evidence for the involvement of oxidized hemoglobin in the process of erythrocyte senescence. X-ray crystal studies of Tibetan snow leopard CNmetHb have shown that this protein crystallizes in the B state, a structure with a more open dyad, which possibly has relevance to RBC band 3 protein binding and erythrocyte senescence. R-state equine CNmetHb crystal studies elaborate the solvent differences in the switch and hinge region compared with a human deoxyhemoglobin T-state neutron structure. Lastly, comparison of histidine protonation between the T and R state should enumerate the Bohr-effect protons.

  9. Hemoglobin redux: combining neutron and X-ray diffraction with mass spectrometry to analyse the quaternary state of oxidized hemoglobins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueser, Timothy C.; Griffith, Wendell P.; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Guo, Jingshu; Seaver, Sean; Langan, Paul; Hanson, B. Leif

    2010-01-01

    X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of cyanomethemoglobin are being used to evaluate the structural waters within the dimer–dimer interface involved in quaternary-state transitions. Improvements in neutron diffraction instrumentation are affording the opportunity to re-examine the structures of vertebrate hemoglobins and to interrogate proton and solvent position changes between the different quaternary states of the protein. For hemoglobins of unknown primary sequence, structural studies of cyanomethemoglobin (CNmetHb) are being used to help to resolve sequence ambiguity in the mass spectra. These studies have also provided additional structural evidence for the involvement of oxidized hemoglobin in the process of erythrocyte senescence. X-ray crystal studies of Tibetan snow leopard CNmetHb have shown that this protein crystallizes in the B state, a structure with a more open dyad, which possibly has relevance to RBC band 3 protein binding and erythrocyte senescence. R-state equine CNmetHb crystal studies elaborate the solvent differences in the switch and hinge region compared with a human deoxyhemoglobin T-state neutron structure. Lastly, comparison of histidine protonation between the T and R state should enumerate the Bohr-effect protons

  10. Hemoglobin redux: combining neutron and X-ray diffraction with mass spectrometry to analyse the quaternary state of oxidized hemoglobins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueser, Timothy C., E-mail: timothy.mueser@utoledo.edu; Griffith, Wendell P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kovalevsky, Andrey Y. [Bioscience Division, MS M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Guo, Jingshu; Seaver, Sean [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Langan, Paul [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bioscience Division, MS M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hanson, B. Leif [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of cyanomethemoglobin are being used to evaluate the structural waters within the dimer–dimer interface involved in quaternary-state transitions. Improvements in neutron diffraction instrumentation are affording the opportunity to re-examine the structures of vertebrate hemoglobins and to interrogate proton and solvent position changes between the different quaternary states of the protein. For hemoglobins of unknown primary sequence, structural studies of cyanomethemoglobin (CNmetHb) are being used to help to resolve sequence ambiguity in the mass spectra. These studies have also provided additional structural evidence for the involvement of oxidized hemoglobin in the process of erythrocyte senescence. X-ray crystal studies of Tibetan snow leopard CNmetHb have shown that this protein crystallizes in the B state, a structure with a more open dyad, which possibly has relevance to RBC band 3 protein binding and erythrocyte senescence. R-state equine CNmetHb crystal studies elaborate the solvent differences in the switch and hinge region compared with a human deoxyhemoglobin T-state neutron structure. Lastly, comparison of histidine protonation between the T and R state should enumerate the Bohr-effect protons.

  11. Current hemoglobin levels are more predictive of disease progression than hemoglobin measured at baseline in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment for HIV type 1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Blaxhult, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The role of hemoglobin levels as an independent prognostic marker of progression to AIDS and/or death in HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was investigated. A total of 2,579 patients from the EuroSIDA cohort with hemoglobin, CD4 cell count, and HIV RNA viral...

  12. Soft X-ray microscopy analysis of cell volume and hemoglobin content in erythrocytes infected with asexual and sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Eric; Knoechel, Christian; Dearnley, Megan; Dixon, Matthew W A; Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn; Tilley, Leann

    2012-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent agent of human malaria, undergoes both asexual cycling and sexual differentiation inside erythrocytes. As the intraerythrocytic parasite develops it increases in size and alters the permeability of the host cell plasma membrane. An intriguing question is: how is the integrity of the host erythrocyte maintained during the intraerythrocytic cycle? We have used water window cryo X-ray tomography to determine cell morphology and hemoglobin content at different stages of asexual and sexual differentiation. The cryo stabilization preserves native structure permitting accurate analyses of parasite and host cell volumes. Absorption of soft X-rays by protein adheres to Beer-Lambert's law permitting quantitation of the concentration of hemoglobin in the host cell compartment. During asexual development the volume of the parasite reaches about 50% of the uninfected erythrocyte volume but the infected erythrocyte volume remains relatively constant. The total hemoglobin content gradually decreases during the 48h cycle but its concentration remains constant until early trophozoite stage, decreases by 25%, then remains constant again until just prior to rupture. During early sexual development the gametocyte has a similar morphology to a trophozoite but then undergoes a dramatic shape change. Our cryo X-ray tomography analysis reveals that about 70% of the host cell hemoglobin is taken up and digested during gametocyte development and the parasite eventually occupies about 50% of the uninfected erythrocyte volume. The total volume of the infected erythrocyte remains constant, apart from some reversible shrinkage at stage IV, while the concentration of hemoglobin decreases to about 70% of that in an uninfected erythrocyte. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohana P Dassanayake

    Full Text Available Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni. Four, 30-mer peptides corresponding to the functional region of NK-lysin helices 2 and 3 were synthesized and assessed for antibacterial activity on four bovine pneumonic H. somni isolates. Although there were some differences in the efficiency of bactericidal activity among the NK-lysin peptides at lower concentrations (2-5 μM, all four peptides effectively killed most H. somni isolates at higher concentrations (10-30 μM as determined by a bacterial killing assay. Confocal microscopic and flow cytometric analysis of Live/Dead Baclight stained H. somni (which were preincubated with NK-lysin peptides were consistent with the killing assay findings and suggest NK-lysin peptides are bactericidal for H. somni. Among the four peptides, NK2A-derived peptide consistently showed the highest antimicrobial activity against all four H. somni isolates. Electron microscopic examination of H. somni following incubation with NK-lysin revealed extensive cell membrane damage, protrusions of outer membranes, and cytoplasmic content leakage. Taken together, the findings from this study clearly demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of all four bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides against bovine H. somni isolates.

  14. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in reproductive tract and gametes of slaughtered bovine females

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Claudemir de; Freitas,Antonio Carlos de; Brunner,Olga; Góes,Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Cavalcante,Andréa Yaguiu; Beçak,Willy; Santos,Rita de Cassia Stocco dos

    2003-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are described selectively infecting epithelial tissues and are associated with many forms of cancer in different species. Considering the widespread dissemination of papillomatosis in livestock, interest is being centred on possible forms of viral transmission and respective mechanisms. In the present study, we report the detection of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA sequences in female reproductive tract tissues, fluids and oocytes from slaughtered bovines not afflicted by cu...

  15. Clinical, hematological and genetic data of a cohort of children with hemoglobin SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo do Val Rezende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The hemoglobin FSD is very uncommon in newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease. In the program of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the clinical course of children with hemoglobin SD was observed to be heterogeneous. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence (1999-2012 and to describe the natural history of a cohort of newborns with hemoglobin SD. METHODS: Isoelectric focusing was the primary method used in newborn screening. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing were used to identify mutant alleles and for haplotyping. Gap-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect alpha-thalassemia. RESULTS: Eleven cases of hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and eight of Hb S-Korle Bu were detected. Other variants with hemoglobin D mobility were not identified. All hemoglobin D-Punjab and hemoglobin Korle Bu alleles were associated with haplotype I. Among the children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab, there were four with the ßS CAR haplotype, six with the Benin haplotype, and one atypical. Results of laboratory tests for hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and hemoglobin S-Korle Bu were: hemoglobin 8.0 and 12.3 g/dL (p-value <0.001, leukocyte count 13.9 × 109/L and 10.5 × 109/L (p-value = 0.003, reticulocytes 7.5% and 1.0% (p-value <0.001, hemoglobin F concentration 16.1% and 6.9% (p-value = 0.001 and oxygen saturation 91.9% and 97% (p-value = 0.002, respectively. Only hemoglobin S/D-Punjab children had acute pain crises and needed blood transfusions or hydroxyurea. Those with the Benin ßS haplotype had higher total hemoglobin and hemoglobin F concentrations compared to the CAR haplotype. Transcranial Doppler was normal in all children. CONCLUSION: The clinical course and blood cell counts of children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab were very similar to those of hemoglobin SS children. In contrast, children with hemoglobin S-Korle Bu had clinical course and blood cell counts like children with the sickle

  16. Novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory peptides from the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) hemoglobin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Phosri, Santi; Theansungnoen, Tinnakorn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Temsiripong, Theeranan; Mckendrick, John E; Khunkitti, Watcharee; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2017-11-22

    Novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory peptides were isolated from hydrolysates of Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) hemoglobin. C. siamensis hemoglobin hydrolysates (CHHs) were obtained by pepsin digestion at different incubation times (2, 4, 6, and 8 H) at 37 °C and subjected to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity assessment. CHH obtained by 2-H hydrolysis (2H-CHH) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity with respect to decreasing nitric oxide (NO) production, whereas the strongest antioxidant activity was found for 6-H hydrolysis (6H-CHH) against nitric oxide radicals. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of individual peptide components, 2H-CHH and 6H-CHH were purified by semipreparative HPLC. Peptide fraction P57 isolated from 6H-CHH was found to exhibit the highest nitric oxide radical inhibition activity (32.0%). Moreover, purification of 2H-CHH yielded peptide fraction P16, which displayed a high efficacy in decreasing NO production of macrophage RAW 264.7 cells (83.2%) and significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE 2 ) production to about 2.0, 0.3, and 1.9 ng/mL, respectively. Using LTQ orbitrap XL mass spectrometry, active peptide sequences were identified as antioxidant KIYFPHF (KF7), anti-inflammatory SAFNPHEKQ (SQ9), and IIHNEKVQAHGKKVL (IL15). Additionally, CHHs simulated gastric and intestinal in vitro digestion positively contributed to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Taken collectively, the results of this work demonstrate that CHHs contain several peptides with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which may prove valuable as treatment or supplement against diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress defense mechanisms of bovine granulosa cells exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Teshome Wondie; Pandey, Hari Om; Salilew Wondim, Dessie; Gebremedhn, Samuel; Neuhof, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Holker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2018-04-01

    In most mammalian species including cattle, heat stress has detrimental effects on ovarian function through disturbing estradiol production and viability of granulosa cells. However, effect of heat stress and underlying cellular defense mechanisms of bovine granulosa cells is not fully understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress on granulosa cells function and the associated defense mechanism. For this an in vitro granulosa cell model was used to investigate the role of elevated temperature (41 °C) on granulosa cell functions at 24 h and 48 h exposure compared to the control cultured at 37 °C. The results showed that reactive oxygen species level was higher in cells under 41 °C at 24 h compared to control. In response to increased reactive oxygen species level, the expression of NRF2 and its antioxidant genes, CAT and PRDX1 were higher in bovine granulosa cells exposed to heat stress. Interestingly, heat stress markedly increased expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress marker genes; GRP78 and GRP94, in cultured bovine granulosa cells at 24 h, and higher protein accumulation of GRP78 accompanied by increased expression of apoptotic genes, BAX and CASPASE-3. Moreover, heat stress significantly decreased the bovine granulosa cells proliferation, which was supported by decreased in the expression of proliferation marker gene PCNA. All in all heat stress induce reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis and reduced proliferation, which trigger the NRF2 mediated oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress response by bovine granulosa cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seroprevalence Study Of Bovine Brucellosis In Extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of bovine brucellosis was measured in cross sectional study in Jimma zone, Western Ethiopia using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBT) and CFT from October 2003 to April 2004. The study animals consisted of 1305 local breed found in extensive system in five districts of in the zone. The overall individual animal ...

  19. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  20. Mad Cow Disease-Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mad Cow Disease - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. Ashutosh ... HP Agricultural University, Palampur 176 662, India. DES (Vety. Sei.) KVK (P A U) Old Gurunanak College Building Hardochhani Road Gurdaspur Punjab 143 521 India.

  1. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  2. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in Sokoto Metropolitan Abattoir in Nigeria. JE Onu. Abstract. No Abstract. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol.

  3. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) research has provided significant understanding of the disease over the past 26 years. Modern research tools that have been used include monoclonal antibodies, genomics, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA vaccines and viral vectors coding for immunogens. Emerging/reemerging viruses and new antigenic strains of viruses and bacteria have been identified. Methods of detection and the role for cattle persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were identified; viral subunits, cellular components and bacterial products have been characterized. Product advances have included vaccines for bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida; the addition of BVDV2 to the existing vaccines and new antibiotics. The role of Mycoplasma spp., particularly Mycoplasma bovis in BRD, has been more extensively studied. Bovine immunology research has provided more specific information on immune responses, T cell subsets and cytokines. The molecular and genetic basis for viral-bacterial synergy in BRD has been described. Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs.

  4. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  5. mediated RNA interference in bovine fibroblast cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... Melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a key element in the mechanisms used to regulate both aspects of keeping the balance between energy uptake and energy expenditure. MC4R was knocked down by lentivirus-mediated shRNA expressing plasmids, which were controlled by the U6 promoter in bovine.

  6. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk
    Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research

  7. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  9. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative

  10. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  11. Radiographic anatomy of juvenile bovine limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, S E; Biedrzycki, A H; Livesey, M J; Drees, R

    2016-11-26

    Juvenile bovine patients who present with clinical signs of lameness are commonly evaluated using radiographic techniques both within a hospital setting and in a farm environment. The radiographic development of the juvenile bovine skeleton is currently poorly documented. In this study, the limbs of four heifer calves were sequentially radiographed to assess development of the juvenile bovine appendicular skeleton in the first 12 months of life. Images were acquired at three weeks, three months, six months, nine months and one year of age. The normal radiographic anatomy of the fore limbs and hindlimbs and the changes over the first 12 months are described. The majority of physes remain open throughout this period, with the exception of the proximal physes of the proximal and middle phalanges, the proximal radial physis, and the proximal humeral physis which close radiographically between 9 months and 12 months of age, and fusion of the fourth and central tarsal bones occurs between 9 months and 12 months of age. The results of this study may aid in differentiating normal and abnormal anatomy in the juvenile bovine limb. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  13. diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total dissection method was used as a gold standard to indicate the absence or prйsence of bovine cysticercosis infection in cattle. The level of agreement between the two methods was, on average, lower in naturally infected animals than in expйrimental calves. This was because in natural infections, there were more li ...

  14. ADSORPTION OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN ONTO ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin was studied using the activated carbon prepared from Elaeagnus stone with chemical activation. Elaeagnus stone activated carbon was characterized using the point of zero charge, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method, ...

  15. Developing a vaccine for eradicating contagious bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) — also known as lung plague — is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP kills up to 50% of infected animals, when newly introduced into a population, and many cattle.

  16. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  17. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformation......) is found to be important for stabilizing the binding pose. The catalytic site (including the catalytic water molecule) is stable in the starting conformation of the previously proposed general acid/base catalytic mechanism for 18 ns of molecular dynamics simulations......Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...... search algorithms, and molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with limited experimental evidence, the model suggests that the substrate binds in an extended conformation with charged residues on either side of the scissile bond playing an important role in stabilizing the binding pose. Lys111...

  18. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  19. Detection and identification of the atypical bovine pestiviruses in commercial foetal bovine serum batches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xia

    Full Text Available The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5'UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses.

  20. Rotavirus-specific antibodies in fetal bovine serum and commercial preparations of serum albumin.

    OpenAIRE

    Offit, P A; Clark, H F; Taylor, A H; Hess, R G; Bachmann, P A; Plotkin, S A

    1984-01-01

    Rotavirus-specific antibodies were detected in fetal bovine serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum albumin by radioimmunoprecipitation with the NCDV strain of bovine rotavirus as the detecting antigen. Fetal bovine sera neutralized bovine rotavirus in a plaque reduction neutralization test to titers of 1:20 or greater. Immunoglobulins purified from fetal bovine serum by protein A-agarose affinity chromatography precipitated rotavirus antigens but did not neutralize bovine rotavirus. Rot...

  1. Relationship of hemoglobin and hematocrit to systolic function in advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglin, Maya; Darbinyan, Nellie

    2012-01-01

    The dataset from the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE) trial provides a rare opportunity to evaluate the whole spectrum of associations of hemoglobin (HB) and hematocrit (HCT) in heart failure (HF). In that trial, subjective and objective data were recorded at multiple time points when HB and HCT were also measured. We investigated the relationship between anemia and ventricular systolic function. A limited access dataset from the ESCAPE trial, provided by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, was analyzed. Linear regression analysis, correlation coefficients and Student's t test were utilized. Besides the known association of anemia with poor prognosis, more severe symptoms, decreased functional capacity and impaired kidney function, we found a significant and very consistent inverse correlation between HB and HCT and ventricular contractility. Both left ventricular ejection fraction and right ventricular fractional area change improved with a decrease in HB and vice versa. We hypothesize that this effect can result from a change in viscosity, which decreases with a decrease in HCT, and may facilitate adaptation of the heart to a volume overload state accompanied by hemodilution. In HF, anemia is associated with poor prognosis and functional impairment, but also with mildly improved systolic function. It may represent an adaptive reaction to congestion. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Alum Activates the Bovine NLRP3 Inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Harte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a move away from vaccines composed of whole or inactivated antigens toward subunit-based vaccines, which although safe, provide less immunological protection. As a result, the use of adjuvants to enhance and direct adaptive immune responses has become the focus of much targeted bovine vaccine research. However, the mechanisms by which adjuvants work to enhance immunological protection in many cases remains unclear, although this knowledge is critical to the rational design of effective next generation vaccines. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which alum, a commonly used adjuvant in bovine vaccines, enhances IL-1β secretion in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Unlike the case with human PBMCs, alum promoted IL-1β secretion in a subset of bovine PBMCs without priming with a toll-like receptor agonist. This suggests that PBMCs from some cattle are primed to produce this potent inflammatory cytokine and western blotting confirmed the presence of preexisting pro-IL-1β in PBMCs from a subset of 8-month-old cattle. To address the mechanism underlying alum-induced IL-1β secretion, specific inhibitors identified that alum mediates lysosomal disruption which subsequently activates the assembly of an NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and potentially caspase-8 containing complex. These components form an inflammasome, which mediates alum-induced IL-1β secretion in bovine PBMCs. Given the demonstrated role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in regulating adaptive immunity in murine systems, these results will inform further targeted research into the potential of inflammasome activation for rational vaccine design in cattle.

  3. Dietary hemoglobin rescues young piglets from severe iron deficiency anemia: Duodenal expression profile of genes involved in heme iron absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Heme is an efficient source of iron in the diet, and heme preparations are used to prevent and cure iron deficiency anemia in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for heme absorption remain only partially characterized. Here, we employed young iron-deficient piglets as a convenient animal model to determine the efficacy of oral heme iron supplementation and investigate the pathways of heme iron absorption. The use of bovine hemoglobin as a dietary source of heme iron was found to efficiently counteract the development of iron deficiency anemia in piglets, although it did not fully rebalance their iron status. Our results revealed a concerted increase in the expression of genes responsible for apical and basolateral heme transport in the duodenum of piglets fed a heme-enriched diet. In these animals the catalytic activity of heme oxygenase 1 contributed to the release of elemental iron from the protoporphyrin ring of heme within enterocytes, which may then be transported by the strongly expressed ferroportin across the basolateral membrane to the circulation. We hypothesize that the well-recognized high bioavailability of heme iron may depend on a split pathway mediating the transport of heme-derived elemental iron and intact heme from the interior of duodenal enterocytes to the bloodstream.

  4. Clinical, haematobiochemical, radiographic and ultrasonographic features of traumatic reticuloperitonitis in bovines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohindroo, J.; Singh, Kiranjeet; Kumar, Ashwani; Randhawa, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Study was conducted to compare the clinical, haematobiochemical, radiographic and ultrasonographic features of traumatic reticuloperitonitis in bovines. Clinical cases (4 cows and 17 buffaloes) presented with a history of anorexia, fever, decreased milk yield and loss of defecation/scant faeces, were used. Haematological picture revealed neutrophilic leucocytosis with left shift and blood biochemical status showed elevated levels of total protein, albumin, and fibrinogen. Decreased plasma concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride was observed in majority of the cases. Radiographic examination revealed presence of multiple metallic foreign densities in the reticulum of the bovines. Ultrasonographically, morphological changes of reticular wall and reticulophrenic adhesions in cases of localised peritonitis were visualized. The presence of anechoic fluid without echogenic margins, not restricted to reticulum and sometimes with floating fibrinous shreds was observed in cases of diffuse peritonitis. Ultrasonography in B mode and B+ mode found helpful for the diagnosis of traumatic reticuloperitonitis and differentiation of localised peritonitis from diffuse peritonitis

  5. Differential Effect of Glycosylated Hemoglobin Value and Antidiabetic Treatment on the Risk of 30-day Readmission Following a Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Julio; Bonanad, Clara; Navarro, Juan Paulo; Bondanza, Lourdes; Artero, Ana; Ventura, Silvia; Núñez, Eduardo; Miñana, Gema; Sanchis, Juan; Real, José

    2015-10-01

    In patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes, low glycosylated hemoglobin has been related with higher risk of mortality but information regarding morbidity is scarce. We sought to evaluate the association between glycosylated hemoglobin and 30-day readmission in patients with type 2 diabetes and acute heart failure. Glycosylated hemoglobin was measured before discharge in 835 consecutive patients with acute heart failure and type 2 diabetes. Cox regression analysis adapted for competing events was used. Mean (standard deviation) age was 72.9 (9.6) years and median glycosylated hemoglobin was 7.2% (6.5%-8.0%). Patients treated with insulin or insulin/sulfonylurea/meglitinides were 41.1% and 63.2% of the cohort, respectively. At 30 days post-discharge, 109 (13.1%) patients were readmitted. A multivariate analysis revealed that the effect of glycosylated hemoglobin on the risk of 30-day readmission was differentially affected by the type of treatment (P for interaction<.01). Glycosylated hemoglobin (per 1% decrease) was inversely associated with higher risk in those receiving insulin (hazard ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.86; P=.003) or insulin/sulfonylurea/meglitinides (hazard ratio = 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.80; P=.001). Conversely, glycosylated hemoglobin (per 1% increase) had no effect in non-insulin dependent diabetes (hazard ratio = 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.17; P=.897) or even a positive effect in patients not receiving insulin/sulfonylurea/meglitinides (hazard ratio = 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.22; P=.011). In acute heart failure, glycosylated hemoglobin showed to be inversely associated to higher risk of 30-day readmission in insulin-dependent or those treated with insulin/sulfonylurea/meglitinides. A marginal effect was found in the rest. Whether this association reflects a treatment-related effect or a surrogate of more advanced disease should be clarified in further studies. Copyright © 2014

  6. Spectroscopic markers of the TR quaternary transition in human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirò, Giorgio; Cammarata, Marco; Levantino, Matteo; Cupane, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    In this work, we use a sol-gel protocol to trap and compare the R and T quaternary states of both the deoxygenated (deoxyHb) and carbonmonoxide (HbCO) derivatives of human hemoglobin. The near infrared optical absorption band III and the infrared CO stretching band are used to detect the effect of quaternary structure on the spectral properties of deoxyHb and HbCO; comparison with myoglobin allows for an assessment of tertiary and quaternary contributions to the measured band shifts. The RT transition is shown to cause a blue shift of the band III by approximately 35 cm(-1) for deoxyHb and a red shift of the CO stretching band by only approximately 0.3 cm(-1) for HbCO. This clearly shows that quaternary structure changes are transmitted to the heme pocket and that effects on deoxyHb are much larger than on HbCO, at least as far as the band energies are concerned. Experiments performed in the ample temperature interval of 300-10K show that the above quaternary structure effects are "static" and do not influence the dynamic properties of the heme pocket, at least as probed by the temperature dependence of band III and of the CO stretching band. The availability of quaternary structure sensitive spectroscopic markers and the quantitative measurement of the quaternary structure contribution to band shifts will be of considerable help in the analysis of flash-photolysis experiments on hemoglobin. Moreover, it will enable one to characterize the dynamic properties of functionally relevant hemoglobin intermediates and to study the kinetics of both the T-->R and R-->T quaternary transitions through time-resolved spectroscopy.

  7. Bovine plasma protein fractionation by ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, F; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M

    2004-12-01

    An ion exchange chromatography process was developed to separate the main protein fractions of bovine blood plasma using a composite material, Q-HyperD resin, and a gel material, DEAE-Sepharose. The experiments were carried out at semipreparative scale. It was necessary to establish analytical methods of electrophoresis and HPLC to identify the fractionated proteins. Results show that these materials are able to adequately fractionate different protein groups from the raw blood plasma. This method may be used to avoid chemical fractionation using agents such as ethanol or PEG and, thus, decrease protein denaturation of the different fractions to be used for research or pharmaceutical purposes. The Q-HyperD resin presents a better retention capacity for plasma protein than DEAE-Sepharose under the experimental conditions employed.

  8. Optoacoustic monitoring of blood hemoglobin concentration: a pilot clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Irina Y.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Yuriy Y.; Brecht, Hans-Peter F.; Svensen, Christer H.; Olsson, Joel; Deyo, Donald J.; Prough, Donald S.

    2005-07-01

    The optoacoustic technique is noninvasive, has high spatial resolution, and potentially can be used to measure the total hemoglobin concentration ([THb]) continuously and accurately. We performed in vitro measurements in blood and in vivo tests in healthy volunteers. Our clinical protocol included rapid infusion of intravenous saline to simulate rapid change in the [THb] during fluid therapy or surgery. Optoacoustic measurements were made from the wrist area overlying the radial artery for more than 1 h. The amplitude of the optoacoustic signal generated in the radial artery closely followed the [THb] measured directly in concurrently collected blood samples.

  9. Biochemical and Physiological Characterization of Nonsymbiotic Plant Hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva, Nélida

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hb) are usually associated with blood in humans. However, these proteins are widely distributed among living organisms. In plants the most known group are the leghemoglobins. Still, other Hbs that not participate in symbiosis are also found. They are known as nonsymbiotic Hbs (nsHbs). NsHbs are divided into class-1 and class-2. In this thesis three nsHbs from sugar beet (BvHb1-1, BvHb1-2, and BvHb2) and one class-1 nsHb from poplar (PttHb1) have been studied. Additionally, the po...

  10. Molecular and cellular pathogenesis of hemoglobin SC disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, H F; Noguchi, C T; Hofrichter, J; Schechter, G P; Schechter, A N; Eaton, W A

    1982-01-01

    Solution and cell studies were performed to ascertain why individuals with hemoglobin (Hb) SC have disease whereas those with Hb AS do not. The polymerization of deoxygenated mixtures containing sickle cell Hb (Hb S; alpha 2 beta 2(6)Glu leads to Val) and Hb C (alpha 2 beta 2(6)Glu leads to Lys) was investigated by measurements of delay times and solubilities. In mixtures containing more than 40% Hb S, polymerization takes place by the same mechanism as in solutions of Hb S alone, with no evi...

  11. Effects of cryoprotectant treatments on bovine sperm function and osmolyte content

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawan, Erif E. M.; Cooper, Trevor G.; Widiasih, Dyah A.; Junaidi, Aris; Yeung, Ching-Hei

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that addition and removal of cryoprotectants to and from spermatozoa would initiate regulatory volume decrease, and lead to osmolyte loss and reduced sperm function, was tested. Common cryoprotectants, in the absence of freezing and thawing, affected bovine ejaculated spermatozoa by lowering their total and progressive motility in medium, reducing their migration through surrogate cervical mucus, damaging sperm head membranes and inducing sperm tail coiling. Sperm function was ...

  12. Studies on Characterization of Bovine Hydroxyapatite/CaTiO3 Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Ozturk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintering effects and mechanical properties of bovine hydroxyapatite/CaTiO3 composites are investigated for different CaTiO3 ratios. Results indicate that densities of the biocomposites increase while total porosities of those decrease with increasing sintering temperature. Moreover, modulus of elasticity and microhardness increase with increasing sintering temperature. However, values of both toughness and fracture toughness of the biocomposites generally rise with increasing sintering temperature except for 1300°C.

  13. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of bovine leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfakh, Rihab; Mihoubi, Daoued; Kechaou, Nabil

    2018-04-01

    This study was aimed at the determination of bovine leather moisture sorption characteristics using a static gravimetric method at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. The curves exhibit type II behaviour according to the BET classification. The sorption isotherms fitting by seven equations shows that GAB model is able to reproduce the equilibrium moisture content evolution with water activity for moisture range varying from 0.02 to 0.83 kg/kg d.b (0.9898 thermodynamic properties such as isosteric heat of sorption, sorption entropy, spreading pressure, net integral enthalpy and entropy. Net isosteric heat of sorption and differential entropy were evaluated through direct use of moisture isotherms by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and used to investigate the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. Both sorption enthalpy and entropy for desorption increase to a maximum with increasing moisture content, and then decrease sharply with rising moisture content. Adsorption enthalpy decreases with increasing moisture content. Whereas, adsorption entropy increases smoothly with increasing moisture content to a maximum of 6.29 J/K.mol. Spreading pressure increases with rising water activity. The net integral enthalpy seemed to decrease and then increase to become asymptotic. The net integral entropy decreased with moisture content increase.

  14. Sickle Retinopathy in a Person with Hemoglobin S/New York Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Calder, Donovan; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc; Watkins, Naomi; Knight-Madden, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    A patient who presented with sickle retinopathy and hemoglobin electrophoresis results compatible with sickle cell trait was found, on further investigation, to be a compound heterozygote with hemoglobin S and hemoglobin New York disease. This recently reported form of sickle cell disease was not previously known to cause retinopathy and surprisingly was observed in a non-Asian individual. The ophthalmological findings, the laboratory diagnosis, and possible pathophysiology of this disorder a...

  15. Quantitative analysis of composition, structure and features of hemoglobin under the influence of radiation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbanov, F.F.; Mamedov, T.G.; Abdullaev, Kh.D.; Akhmedov, N.A.; Manojlov, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The literature data on the changes in composition, structure and properties of hemoglobin under the influence of ionizing radiation in vivo are reviewed. The algorithm of calculation of damaged hemoglobin molecule percentage is proposed. Four main realizations of radiation-chemical damage are considered. By the algorithm the estimation of the damaged molecules percentage resulted from the exposure to 10 Gy is given. Hemoglobin radiation damage is considered as one of the most important mechanisms triggering radiation sickness. 11 refs

  16. Bovine trophectoderm cells induced from bovine fibroblasts with induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Neil C; Sparks, Wendy O; Phillips, Caitlin E; Ealy, Alan D; Powell, Anne M; Caperna, Thomas J; Garrett, Wesley M; Donovan, David M; Blomberg, Le Ann

    2017-06-01

    Thirteen independent induced bovine trophectroderm (iBT) cell lines were established by reprogramming bovine fetal liver-derived fibroblasts after viral-vector transduction with either six or eight factors, including POU5F1 (OCT4), KLF4, SOX2, MYC, NANOG, LIN28, SV40 large T antigen, and hTERT. Light- and electron-microscopy analysis showed that the iBT cells had epithelial cell morphology typical of bovine trophectoderm cells. Reverse-transcription-PCR assays indicated that all of the cell lines expressed interferon-tau (IFNT) at passages 1 or 2. At later passages (≥ passage 8), however, immunoblot and antiviral activity assays revealed that more than half of the iBT cell lines had stopped expressing IFNT. Messenger RNAs specific to trophectoderm differentiation and function were found in the iBT cell lines, and 2-dimensional-gel analysis for cellular proteins showed an expression pattern similar to that of trophectoderm cell lines derived from bovine blastocysts. Integration of some of the human reprogramming factors, including POU5F1, KLF4, SOX2, MYC, NANOG, and LIN28, were detected by PCR, but their transcription was mostly absent in the iBT cell lines. Gene expression assessment of endogenous bovine reprogramming factor orthologs revealed endogenous bLIN28 and bMYC transcripts in all; bSOX2 and bNANOG in none; and bKLF4 and bPOU5F1 in less than half of the iBT cell lines. These results demonstrate that bovine trophectoderm can be induced via reprogramming factor expression from bovine liver-derived fibroblasts, although other fibroblast populations-e.g., derived from fetal thigh tissue-may produce similar results, albeit at lower frequencies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for bovine papillomavirus detection using polymeric film on screen-printed electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Gustavo A; Souza, Elaine V M; Campos-Ferreira, Danielly S; Arruda, Mariana S; Castelletti, Carlos H M; Wanderley, Marcela S O; Ekert, Marek H F; Bruneska, Danyelly; Lima-Filho, José L

    2012-01-01

    A new electrochemical DNA biosensor for bovine papillomavirus (BPV) detection that was based on screen-printed electrodes was comprehensively studied by electrochemical methods of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A BPV probe was immobilised on a working electrode (gold) modified with a polymeric film of poly-L-lysine (PLL) and chitosan. The experimental design was carried out to evaluate the influence of polymers, probe concentration (BPV probe) and immobilisation time on the electrochemical reduction of methylene blue (MB). The polymer poly-L-lysine (PLL), a probe concentration of 1 μM and an immobilisation time of 60 min showed the best result for the BPV probe immobilisation. With the hybridisation of a complementary target sequence (BPV target), the electrochemical signal decreased compared to a BPV probe immobilised on the modified PLL-gold electrode. Viral DNA that was extracted from cattle with papillomatosis also showed a decrease in the MB electrochemical reduction, which suggested that the decreased electrochemical signal corresponded to a bovine papillomavirus infection. The hybridisation specificity experiments further indicated that the biosensor could discriminate the complementary sequence from the non-complementary sequence. Thus, the results showed that the development of analytical devices, such as a biosensor, could assist in the rapid and efficient detection of bovine papillomavirus DNA and help in the prevention and treatment of papillomatosis in cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A proposal to standardize reporting units for fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Callum G; Allison, James E; Halloran, Stephen P; Young, Graeme P

    2012-06-06

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin are replacing traditional guaiac fecal occult blood tests in population screening programs for many reasons. However, the many available fecal immunochemical test devices use a range of sampling methods, differ with regard to hemoglobin stability, and report hemoglobin concentrations in different ways. The methods for sampling, the mass of feces collected, and the volume and characteristics of the buffer used in the sampling device also vary among fecal immunochemical tests, making comparisons of test performance characteristics difficult. Fecal immunochemical test results may be expressed as the hemoglobin concentration in the sampling device buffer and, sometimes, albeit rarely, as the hemoglobin concentration per mass of feces. The current lack of consistency in units for reporting hemoglobin concentration is particularly problematic because apparently similar hemoglobin concentrations obtained with different devices can lead to very different clinical interpretations. Consistent adoption of an internationally accepted method for reporting results would facilitate comparisons of outcomes from these tests. We propose a simple strategy for reporting fecal hemoglobin concentration that will facilitate the comparison of results between fecal immunochemical test devices and across clinical studies. Such reporting is readily achieved by defining the mass of feces sampled and the volume of sample buffer (with confidence intervals) and expressing results as micrograms of hemoglobin per gram of feces. We propose that manufacturers of fecal immunochemical tests provide this information and that the authors of research articles, guidelines, and policy articles, as well as pathology services and regulatory bodies, adopt this metric when reporting fecal immunochemical test results.

  19. Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and the role of free fetal hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rocco Hansson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a leading cause of pregnancy complications and affects 3–7 % of pregnant women. This review summarizes the current knowledge of a new potential etiology of the disease, with a special focus on hemoglobin-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, we also suggest hemoglobin as a potential target for therapy. Gene and protein profiling studies have shown increased expression and accumulation of free fetal hemoglobin in the preeclamptic placenta. Predominantly due to oxidative damage to the placental barrier, fetal hemoglobin leaks over to the maternal circulation. Free hemoglobin and its metabolites are toxic in several ways; a ferrous hemoglobin (Fe2+ binds strongly to the vasodilator nitric oxide and reduces the availability of free nitric oxide, which results in vasoconstriction, b hemoglobin (Fe2+ with bound oxygen spontaneously generates free oxygen radicals and c the heme groups create an inflammatory response by inducing activation of neutrophils and cytokine production. The endogenous protein α1-microglobulin, with radical and heme binding properties, has shown both ex vivo and in vivo to have the ability to counteract free hemoglobin-induced placental and kidney damage. Oxidative stress in general, and more specifically fetal hemoglobin-induced oxidative stress, could play a key role in the pathology of preeclampsia seen both in the placenta and ultimately in the maternal endothelium.

  20. Preoperative Hemoglobin and Outcomes in Patients with CKD Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Sharbel; Silberman, Shuli; Tauber, Rachel; Merin, Ofer; Lifschitz, Meyer; Slotki, Itzchak; Bitran, Daniel; Fink, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Preoperative anemia adversely affects outcomes of cardiothoracic surgery. However, in patients with CKD, treating anemia to a target of normal hemoglobin has been associated with increased risk of adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. We investigated the association between preoperative hemoglobin and outcomes of cardiac surgery in patients with CKD and assessed whether there was a level of preoperative hemoglobin below which the incidence of adverse surgical outcomes increases. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This prospective observational study included adult patients with CKD stages 3–5 (eGFRpreoperative hemoglobin level: preoperative hemoglobin within the normal range (men: 14–18 g/dl; women: 12–16 g/dl). Univariate analysis revealed an inverse relationship between the incidence of all adverse postoperative outcomes and hemoglobin level. Using hemoglobin as a continuous variable, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a proportionally greater frequency of all adverse postoperative outcomes per 1-g/dl decrement of preoperative hemoglobin (mortality: odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.57; Ppreoperative hemoglobinpreoperative anemia is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes in patients with CKD. Whether outcomes could be improved by therapeutically targeting higher preoperative hemoglobin levels before cardiac surgery in patients with underlying CKD remains to be determined. PMID:24993450